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Sample records for accumulating organisms paos

  1. Impact of salinity on the anaerobic metabolism of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO).

    Welles, L; Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Hooijmans, C M; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Brdjanovic, D

    2014-09-01

    The use of saline water as secondary quality water in urban environments for sanitation is a promising alternative towards mitigating fresh water scarcity. However, this alternative will increase the salinity in the wastewater generated that may affect the biological wastewater treatment processes, such as biological phosphorus removal. In addition to the production of saline wastewater by the direct use of saline water in urban environments, saline wastewater is also generated by some industries. Intrusion of saline water into the sewers is another source of salinity entering the wastewater treatment plant. In this study, the short-term effects of salinity on the anaerobic metabolism of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO) were investigated to assess the impact of salinity on enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Hereto, PAO and GAO cultures enriched at a relatively low salinity level (0.02 % W/V) were exposed to salinity concentrations of up to 6 % (as NaCl) in anaerobic batch tests. It was demonstrated that both PAO and GAO are affected by higher salinity levels, with PAO being the more sensitive organisms to the increasing salinity. The maximum acetate uptake rate of PAO decreased by 71 % when the salinity increased from 0 to 1 %, while that of GAO decreased by 41 % for the same salinity increase. Regarding the stoichiometry of PAO, a decrease in the P-release/HAc uptake ratio accompanied with an increase in the glycogen consumption/HAc uptake ratio was observed for PAO when the salinity increased from 0 to 2 % salinity, indicating a metabolic shift from a poly-P-dependent to a glycogen-dependent metabolism. The anaerobic maintenance requirements of PAO and GAO increased as the salinity concentrations risen up to 4 % salinity. PMID:24831025

  2. The effect of substrate competition on the metabolism of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs).

    Carvalheira, Mónica; Oehmen, Adrian; Carvalho, Gilda; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-11-01

    The type of carbon source present in the wastewater is one factor that affects the competition between polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAO) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAO) and therefore, the efficiency of the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process. This study investigated the impact of the carbon source composition on the anaerobic and aerobic kinetics of PAOs and the EBPR performance of an 85% PAO enrichment. When both acetate (HAc) and propionate (HPr) were present, propionate was depleted more quickly, with a constant uptake rate of 0.18 ± 0.02 C-mol/(C-mol biomass·h), while the acetate uptake rate decreased with an increase in propionate concentration, due to the substrate competition between acetate and propionate. The metabolic model for PAOs was modified to incorporate the anaerobic substrate competition effect. The aerobic rates for phosphorus (P) uptake, glycogen production and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) degradation were within the same range for all tests, indicating that these rates are essentially independent of the acetate and propionate concentration, simplifying the calibration procedure for metabolic models. The metabolic model applied to describe the anaerobic and aerobic activity agreed well with the experimental data of HAc, HPr, P, PHA and biomass growth. The low glycogen consumption observed suggest that some reducing equivalents were generated anaerobically through the TCA cycle. The results of this work suggest that the propionate uptake kinetics by PAOs can provide them an advantage over GAOs in EBPR systems, even when the propionate fraction of the influent is relatively low. PMID:25051162

  3. Survival strategies of polyphosphate accumulating organisms and glycogen accumulating organisms under conditions of low organic loading.

    Carvalheira, Mónica; Oehmen, Adrian; Carvalho, Gilda; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-11-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is usually limited by organic carbon availability in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) were operated under extended periods with low organic carbon loading in order to examine its impact on their activity and survival. The decrease in organic carbon load affected PAOs and GAOs in different ways, where the biomass decay rate of GAOs was approximately 4times higher than PAOs. PAOs tended to conserve a relatively high residual concentration of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under aerobic conditions, while GAOs tended to deplete their available PHA more rapidly. This slower oxidation rate of PHA by PAOs at residual concentration levels enabled them to maintain an energy source for aerobic maintenance processes for longer than GAOs. This may provide PAOs with an advantage over GAOs in surviving the low organic loading conditions commonly found in full-scale wastewater treatment plants. PMID:25270044

  4. The Competition between Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms and Glycogen-Accumulating Organisms: Temperature Effects and Modelling

    López Vázquez, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Due to relatively high phosphorus removal efficiency and economy, the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems is a widely applied process to control and prevent eutrophication in surface water bodies. However, the EBPR process can be prone to suffer of upsets and deterioration. Since glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO) compete with polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO), which are the microorganisms that perform the biological phosp...

  5. TIME DEPENDENT ACCUMULATION OF NICOTINE DERIVATIVES IN THE CULTURE MEDIUM OF ARTHROBACTER NICOTINOVORANS pAO1

    Răzvan Ștefan Boiangiu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the metabolic intermediate 6-hidroxy-D-nicotine (6HNic found in the Arthrobacter nicotinovorans pAO1+ nicotine catabolic pathway has the ability to bind nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and to sustain spatial memory in rats. These properties make 6HNic a valuable compound with some potential for medical applications, thereby a suitable, simple and efficient method for producing 6-hidroxy-D-nicotine is necessary. Here, we focus on identifying the best moment for harvesting A. nicotinovorans cells in order to directly convert nicotine to 6HNic with the best yield.  The growth of  A. nicotinovorans pAO1+ was monitored and the correlation between the growth phases and nicotine metabolism was established. After about 5 hours of lag,the strain entered the log phase and was fully grown after 10 hours. The nicotine concentration began to drop dramatically as the pAO1+ culture reached saturation and was depleted in 5 hours. As the nicotine concentration dropped, 6HNic began to accumulate, reaching the maximum levels after about 11 hours of growth. Two other products could be detected by HPLC, one which was identified as the nicotine-blue (NB pigment and a second a still unknown end-product. 

  6. Modelling the metabolic shift of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms.

    Acevedo, B; Borrás, L; Oehmen, A; Barat, R

    2014-11-15

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is one of the most important methods of phosphorus removal in municipal wastewater treatment plants, having been described by different modelling approaches. In this process, the PAOs (polyphosphate accumulating organisms) and GAOs (glycogen accumulating organisms) compete for volatile fatty acids uptake under anaerobic conditions. Recent studies have revealed that the metabolic pathways used by PAOs in order to obtain the energy and the reducing power needed for polyhydroxyalkanoates synthesis could change depending on the amount of polyphosphate stored in the cells. The model presented in this paper extends beyond previously developed metabolic models by including the ability of PAO to change their metabolic pathways according to the content of poly-P available. The processes of the PAO metabolic model were adapted to new formulations enabling the change from P-driven VFA uptake to glycogen-driven VFA uptake using the same process equations. The stoichiometric parameters were changed from a typical PAO coefficient to a typical GAO coefficient depending on the internal poly-P with Monod-type expressions. The model was calibrated and validated with seven experiments under different internal poly-P concentrations, showing the ability to correctly represent the PAO metabolic shift at low poly-P concentrations. The sensitivity and error analysis showed that the model is robust and has the ability to describe satisfactorily the change from one metabolic pathway to the other one, thereby encompassing a wider range of process conditions found in EBPR plants. PMID:25123437

  7. Accumulibacter clades Type I and II performing kinetically different glycogen-accumulating organisms metabolisms for anaerobic substrate uptake.

    Welles, L; Tian, W D; Saad, S; Abbas, B; Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Hooijmans, C M; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Brdjanovic, D

    2015-10-15

    The anaerobic acetate (HAc) uptake stoichiometry of phosphorus-accumulating organisms (PAO) in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems has been an extensive subject of study due to the highly variable reported stoichiometric values (e.g. anaerobic P-release/HAc-uptake ratios ranging from 0.01 up to 0.93 P-mol/C-mol). Often, such differences have been explained by the different applied operating conditions (e.g. pH) or occurrence of glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO). The present study investigated the ability of biomass highly enriched with specific PAO clades ('Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis' Clade I and II, hereafter PAO I and PAO II) to adopt a GAO metabolism. Based on long-term experiments, when Poly-P is not stoichiometrically limiting for the anaerobic VFA uptake, PAO I performed the typical PAO metabolism (with a P/HAc ratio of 0.64 P-mol/C-mol); whereas PAO II performed a mixed PAO-GAO metabolism (showing a P/HAc ratio of 0.22 P-mol/C-mol). In short-term batch tests, both PAO I and II gradually shifted their metabolism to a GAO metabolism when the Poly-P content decreased, but the HAc-uptake rate of PAO I was 4 times lower than that of PAO II, indicating that PAO II has a strong competitive advantage over PAO I when Poly-P is stoichiometrically limiting the VFA uptake. Thus, metabolic flexibility of PAO clades as well as their intrinsic differences are additional factors leading to the controversial anaerobic stoichiometry and kinetic rates observed in previous studies. From a practical perspective, the dominant type of PAO prevailing in full-scale EBPR systems may affect the P-release processes for biological or combined biological and chemical P-removal and recovery and consequently the process performance. PMID:26189167

  8. Isolation and Identification of Phosphate-accumulating Strain PAO3-1 and Its Phosphorus Removal Characteristics

    LIU Ya-nan; XUE Gang; SHI Feng-hua; YU Shui-li

    2007-01-01

    A phosphate-accumulating bacteria strain PAO3-1 was isolated from biological phosphorus removal sludge supplied with sodium acetate as carbon source under stable performance. This strain has good enhanced biological phosphorus removal effect on normal activated sludge system. Phosphorus removal ratio was raised form 44%with no added strain to more than 82% with strain strengthening biological phosphorus removal. It is identified to be AlcaUgenes sp. according to its morphology,biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The cell of strain PAO3-1 is straight bacilli form, 0.4×1.1 μm, no flagellum, gram negative and special aerobiotic. The optimal temperature and pH for growth are 32℃-37℃ and 5.5-9.5, respectively. The shape of slant clone is feathery. The phosphate situation, which was 76. 5% higher than that in non-starving situation. Its phosphate release rate of log course in anaerobic phase and in culture without phosphorus was lower than that in log course.

  9. Metabolic characteristics of a glycogen-accumulating organism in Defluviicoccus cluster II revealed by comparative genomics.

    Wang, Zhiping; Guo, Feng; Mao, Yanping; Xia, Yu; Zhang, Tong

    2014-11-01

    Glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) may compete with phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) for short-chain fatty acids (VFAs) in anaerobic polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) synthesis, but no consequently aerobic polyphosphate accumulation in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process, thus deteriorating the EBPR process. They are detected frequently in the deteriorated EBPR process, but their metabolisms are still far from our comprehensions for there is seldom pure culture. In this study, a nearly complete draft genome of a GAOs in Defluviicoccus cluster II, GAO-HK, is recruited from the metagenome of activated sludge in a full-scale industrial anoxic/aerobic wastewater plant. Comparative genomics reveal similar metabolisms of PHA and glycogen in GAOs of GAO-HK, Defluviicoccus tetraformis TFO71 (TFO71) and Competibacter phosphatis clade IIA (CPIIA), and PAOs of Accumulibacter clade IIA UW-1 (UW-1) and Tetrasphaera elongata Lp2 (Lp2). Although there are similar gene cassettes related with polyphosphate metabolism in these GAOs and PAOs, especially for Defluviicoccus-relative bacteria and UW-1, ppk1 in GAOs are diverse from those in the identified PAOs, implying the difference of polyphosphate metabolism in GAOs and PAOs. Additionally, genes related to the dissimilatory denitrification are absent in TFO71 and GAO-HK, implying that additional nitrate or nitrite may favor PAOs over Defluviicoccus-relative GAOs. Therefore, PAOs suffering from competition of Defluviicoccus-relative GAOs might be rescued with the additional nitrate/nitrite, which is important to improve the stability of EBPR processes. PMID:24889288

  10. Calcium effect on the metabolic pathway of phosphorus accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.

    Zhang, Hai-Ling; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Fang, Wei; Wang, Yong-Peng; Fang, Cai-Yun; Shao, Li-Min; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) have been found to act as glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) under certain conditions, thus, the deterioration in the performance of enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems is not always attributed to the proliferation of GAOs. In this work, the effects of calcium on the metabolic pathway of PAOs were explored. It was found that when the influent Ca(2+) concentration was elevated, the tendency and extent of extracellular calcium phosphate precipitation increased, and the intracellular inert Ca-bound polyphosphate was synthesized, while the microbial population remained almost unchanged. The changes in the ratios of phosphorus released/acetate uptaken, the glycogen degraded/acetate uptaken and the poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates synthesized/acetate uptaken during the anaerobic period confirm that, as the influent Ca(2+) concentration was increased, the polyphosphate-accumulating metabolism was partially shifted to the glycogen-accumulating metabolism. At an influent Ca(2+) around 50 mg/L, in addition to the extracellular calcium phosphate precipitation, the intracellular inert Ca-bound polyphosphate synthesis might also be involved in the metabolic change of PAOs. The results of the present work would be beneficial to better understand the biochemical metabolism of PAOs in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems. PMID:26233656

  11. Impact of nitrite on aerobic phosphorus uptake by poly-phosphate accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal sludges.

    Zeng, Wei; Li, Boxiao; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Xiangdong; Li, Lei; Peng, Yongzhen

    2014-02-01

    Impact of nitrite on aerobic phosphorus (P) uptake of poly-phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in three different enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems was investigated, i.e., the enriched PAOs culture fed with synthetic wastewater, the two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating domestic wastewater for nutrient removal through nitrite-pathway nitritation and nitrate-pathway nitrification, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization results showed that PAOs in the three sludges accounted for 72, 7.6 and 6.5% of bacteria, respectively. In the enriched PAOs culture, at free nitrous acid (FNA) concentration of 0.47 × 10(-3) mg HNO₂-N/L, aerobic P-uptake and oxidation of intercellular poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates were both inhibited. Denitrifying phosphorus removal under the aerobic conditions was observed, indicating the existence of PAOs using nitrite as electron acceptor in this culture. When the FNA concentration reached 2.25 × 10(-3) mg HNO2-N/L, denitrifying phosphorus removal was also inhibited. And the inhibition ceased once nitrite was exhausted. Corresponding to both SBRs treating domestic wastewater with nitritation and nitrification pathway, nitrite inhibition on aerobic P-uptake by PAOs did not occur even though FNA concentration reached 3 × 10(-3) and 2.13 × 10(-3) mg HNO₂-N/L, respectively. Therefore, PAOs taken from different EBPR activated sludges had different tolerance to nitrite. PMID:23771179

  12. “Candidatus Propionivibrio aalborgensis”: A Novel Glycogen Accumulating Organism Abundant in Full-Scale Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Plants

    Albertsen, Mads; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel;

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used to remove phosphorus from wastewater. The process relies on polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) that are able to take up phosphorus in excess of what is needed for growth, whereby phosphorus can be removed from the wastewater...

  13. Characterisation of Phosphate Accumulating Organisms and Techniques for Polyphosphate Detection: A Review

    Cédric Tarayre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate minerals have long been used for the production of phosphorus-based chemicals used in many economic sectors. However, these resources are not renewable and the natural phosphate stocks are decreasing. In this context, the research of new phosphate sources has become necessary. Many types of wastes contain non-negligible phosphate concentrations, such as wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, phosphorus is eliminated by physicochemical and/or biological techniques. In this latter case, a specific microbiota, phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs, accumulates phosphate as polyphosphate. This molecule can be considered as an alternative phosphate source, and is directly extracted from wastewater generated by human activities. This review focuses on the techniques which can be applied to enrich and try to isolate these PAOs, and to detect the presence of polyphosphate in microbial cells.

  14. Characterisation of Phosphate Accumulating Organisms and Techniques for Polyphosphate Detection: A Review

    Tarayre, Cédric; Nguyen, Huu-Thanh; Brognaux, Alison; Delepierre, Anissa; De Clercq, Lies; Charlier, Raphaëlle; Michels, Evi; Meers, Erik; Delvigne, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate minerals have long been used for the production of phosphorus-based chemicals used in many economic sectors. However, these resources are not renewable and the natural phosphate stocks are decreasing. In this context, the research of new phosphate sources has become necessary. Many types of wastes contain non-negligible phosphate concentrations, such as wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, phosphorus is eliminated by physicochemical and/or biological techniques. In this latter case, a specific microbiota, phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs), accumulates phosphate as polyphosphate. This molecule can be considered as an alternative phosphate source, and is directly extracted from wastewater generated by human activities. This review focuses on the techniques which can be applied to enrich and try to isolate these PAOs, and to detect the presence of polyphosphate in microbial cells. PMID:27258275

  15. Polyphosphate- and glycogen-accumulating organisms in one EBPR system for liquid dairy manure.

    Liu, Ze-Hua; Pruden, Amy; Ogejo, Jactone Arogo; Knowlton, Katharine F

    2014-07-01

    Two enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) sequencing batch reactors (SBR1, SBR2) treating liquid dairy manure were operated with the same hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solids retention time (SRT), but with different aeration cycles. During eight months of operation, both SBRs achieved good removal of total phosphorus (P) (TP; 56.8 and 73.5% for SBR1 and SBR2 respectively) and of orthophosphate (OP; 76.2 vs. 82.7%, P < 0.05). Growth dynamics of presumptive phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) were examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). SBR1 was enriched with a greater abundance of PAOs while SBR2 was characterized by a greater abundance of GAOs. These results demonstrate the capability of EBPR of dairy manure and challenge conventional wisdom, since greater abundance of PAOs in EBPR system was not associated with improved OP removal and greater abundance of GAOs did not indicate deterioration of the EBPR system. PMID:25112034

  16. "Candidatus Propionivibrio aalborgensis": A Novel Glycogen Accumulating Organism Abundant in Full-Scale Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Plants.

    Albertsen, Mads; McIlroy, Simon J; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Karst, Søren M; Nielsen, Per H

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used to remove phosphorus from wastewater. The process relies on polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) that are able to take up phosphorus in excess of what is needed for growth, whereby phosphorus can be removed from the wastewater by wasting the biomass. However, glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) may reduce the EBPR efficiency as they compete for substrates with PAOs, but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate. PAOs and GAOs are thought to be phylogenetically unrelated, with the model PAO being the betaproteobacterial "Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis" (Accumulibacter) and the model GAO being the gammaproteobacterial "Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis". Here, we report the discovery of a GAO from the genus Propionivibrio, which is closely related to Accumulibacter. Propionivibrio sp. are targeted by the canonical fluorescence in situ hybridization probes used to target Accumulibacter (PAOmix), but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate in situ. A laboratory scale reactor, operated to enrich for PAOs, surprisingly contained co-dominant populations of Propionivibrio and Accumulibacter. Metagenomic sequencing of multiple time-points enabled recovery of near complete population genomes from both genera. Annotation of the Propionivibrio genome confirmed their potential for the GAO phenotype and a basic metabolic model is proposed for their metabolism in the EBPR environment. Using newly designed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes, analyses of full-scale EBPR plants revealed that Propionivibrio is a common member of the community, constituting up to 3% of the biovolume. To avoid overestimation of Accumulibacter abundance in situ, we recommend the use of the FISH probe PAO651 instead of the commonly applied PAOmix probe set. PMID:27458436

  17. “Candidatus Propionivibrio aalborgensis”: A Novel Glycogen Accumulating Organism Abundant in Full-Scale Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Plants

    Albertsen, Mads; McIlroy, Simon J.; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Karst, Søren M.; Nielsen, Per H.

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used to remove phosphorus from wastewater. The process relies on polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) that are able to take up phosphorus in excess of what is needed for growth, whereby phosphorus can be removed from the wastewater by wasting the biomass. However, glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) may reduce the EBPR efficiency as they compete for substrates with PAOs, but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate. PAOs and GAOs are thought to be phylogenetically unrelated, with the model PAO being the betaproteobacterial “Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis” (Accumulibacter) and the model GAO being the gammaproteobacterial “Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis”. Here, we report the discovery of a GAO from the genus Propionivibrio, which is closely related to Accumulibacter. Propionivibrio sp. are targeted by the canonical fluorescence in situ hybridization probes used to target Accumulibacter (PAOmix), but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate in situ. A laboratory scale reactor, operated to enrich for PAOs, surprisingly contained co-dominant populations of Propionivibrio and Accumulibacter. Metagenomic sequencing of multiple time-points enabled recovery of near complete population genomes from both genera. Annotation of the Propionivibrio genome confirmed their potential for the GAO phenotype and a basic metabolic model is proposed for their metabolism in the EBPR environment. Using newly designed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes, analyses of full-scale EBPR plants revealed that Propionivibrio is a common member of the community, constituting up to 3% of the biovolume. To avoid overestimation of Accumulibacter abundance in situ, we recommend the use of the FISH probe PAO651 instead of the commonly applied PAOmix probe set. PMID:27458436

  18. A GAO hiding among the PAO: The role of the Propionivibrio spp. in biological phosphorus removal

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Albertsen, Mads; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel;

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used to remove phosphorus from wastewater. The process relies on polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) that are able to take up phosphorus in excess of what is needed for growth, whereby phosphorus can be removed from the wastewater...

  19. Naturally Ocurring Polyphosphate-accumulating Bacteria in Benthic Biofilms

    Locke, N. A.; Saia, S. M.; Walter, M. T.; Carrick, H. J.; Buda, A. R.; Regan, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs), known to store excess phosphorus (P) as polyphosphate (poly-P), influence P transport in the environment. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater has long served as a basis to study bacterial PAOs, yet little research has genetically identified similar organisms in natural settings. Aerobic/anaerobic cycles, used to select for PAOs in EBPR, can result from changing environmental conditions such as night/day cycles for benthic biofilms. Benthic biofilms from eight Pennsylvanian streams were studied for naturally-occurring bacterial PAOs similar to those typically found in EBPR systems. PAOs were confirmed in the benthic biofilms by a characteristic yellow fluorescent emission from DAPI staining. Cells containing yellow fluorescence were separated from the rest of the sample using a flow cytometer, resulting in a physically enriched culture of PAOs from the benthic biofilms. Amplicon-based metagenomic sequencing will reveal the phylogeny of bacteria responsible for poly-P accumulation in these benthic biofilms. Sequencing data will be used to develop fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) probes, and hybridizations will be performed on DAPI-stained cells to confirm poly-P accumulation by targeted phylotypes. Identifying PAOs in natural settings is a critical step towards studying environments that support high concentrations of PAOs, serving as significant factors in the P cycle. PAOs can then be connected to P transport models to help understand and mitigate P pollution in agricultural watersheds.

  20. Impact of salinity on the aerobic metabolism of phosphate-accumulating organisms.

    Welles, L; Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Hooijmans, C M; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Brdjanovic, D

    2015-04-01

    The use of saline water in urban areas for non-potable purposes to cope with fresh water scarcity, intrusion of saline water, and disposal of industrial saline wastewater into the sewerage lead to elevated salinity levels in wastewaters. Consequently, saline wastewater is generated, which needs to be treated before its discharge into surface water bodies. The objective of this research was to study the effects of salinity on the aerobic metabolism of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO), which belong to the microbial populations responsible for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in activated sludge systems. In this study, the short-term impact (hours) of salinity (as NaCl) was assessed on the aerobic metabolism of a PAO culture, enriched in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). All aerobic PAO metabolic processes were drastically affected by elevated salinity concentrations. The aerobic maintenance energy requirement increased, when the salinity concentration rose up to a threshold concentration of 2 % salinity (on a W/V basis as NaCl), while above this concentration, the maintenance energy requirements seemed to decrease. All initial rates were affected by salinity, with the NH4- and PO4-uptake rates being the most sensitive. A salinity increase from 0 to 0.18 % caused a 25, 46, and 63 % inhibition of the O2, PO4, and NH4-uptake rates. The stoichiometric ratios of the aerobic conversions confirmed that growth was the process with the highest inhibition, followed by poly-P and glycogen formation. The study indicates that shock loads of 0.18 % salt, which corresponds to the use or intrusion of about 5 % seawater may severely affect the EBPR process already in wastewater treatment plants not exposed regularly to high salinity concentrations. PMID:25524698

  1. Research progrss of competition and control between PAOs and GAOs for different cabon sources%聚磷菌和聚糖菌对碳源竞争及调控的研究进展

    冯翠杰; 王淑梅; 陈少华

    2011-01-01

    Principles for enhanced biological phosphorus removal and metabolism mechanism of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) & glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) are introduced in this paper. The effects of different carbon sources on competitions between GAOs and PAOs are discussed, and changes of phosphate removal efficiency and the microbial community are analyzed based on the recent researches. Furthermore, some measures are put forward to resolve the problem of PAOs-GAOs competition.%介绍了生物强化除磷原理以及聚磷菌(PAOs)和聚糖菌(GAOs)的代谢机理,阐述了不同碳源对GAOs与PAOs的影响,不同碳源下的除磷效果和微生物群落结构变化,提出了抑制生物强化除磷系统中GAOs竟争的措施.

  2. Comparison of biochemical characteristics between PAO and DPAO sludges.

    Lee, Hansaem; Yun, Zuwhan

    2014-06-01

    A successful enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) was observed in both anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-Ox SBR) to induce growth of phosphorus accumulating organism (PAO) and anaerobic-anoxic (An-Ax) SBR to induce growth of denitrifying PAO (DPAO). Although the EBPR performance of An-Ox SBR was higher by 11.3% than that of An-Ax SBR, specific phosphorus release rates in the An-Ax SBR (22.8 ± 3.5 mg P/(g VSS·hr)) and the An-Ox SBR (22.4 ± 4.8 mg P/(g VSS·hr)) were similar. Specific phosphorus uptake rates under anoxic and aerobic conditions were 26.3 ± 4.8 mg P/(g VSS·hr) (An-Ax SBR) and 25.6 ± 2.8 mg P/(g VSS·hr) (An-Ox SBR), respectively, which were also similar. In addition, an analysis of relationship of poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) synthesized under anaerobic conditions with phosphorous release (Preleased/PHA synthesized) and of PHA utilized under anoxic and aerobic conditions with phosphorous uptake (Puptaked/PHAutilized) verified that biological activities of EBPR per unit biomass between DPAO and PAO were similar. An analysis of the specific denitrification rate of DPAO showed that NO(-)3-N can be denitrified at a rate that does not substantially differ from that of an ordinary denitrifier without additional consumption of organic carbon when the PHA stored inside the cell under anaerobic conditions is sufficiently secured. PMID:25079846

  3. Elucidating further phylogenetic diversity among the Defluviicoccus-related glycogen-accumulating organisms in activated sludge.

    McIlroy, Simon; Seviour, Robert J

    2009-12-01

    Glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO) are thought to out-compete the polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) in activated sludge communities removing phosphate (P). Two GAO groups are currently recognized, the gammaproteobacterial Candidatus'Competibacter phosphatis', and the alphaproteobacterial Defluviicoccus vanus-related tetrad forming organisms (TFOs). Both are phylogenetically diverse based on their 16S rRNA sequences, with the latter currently considered to contain members falling into three distinct clusters. This paper identifies members of an additional fourth Defluviicoccus cluster from 16S rRNA gene clone library data obtained from a laboratory-scale activated sludge plant community removing P, and details FISH probes designed against them. Probe DF181A was designed to target a single sequence and DF181B designed against the remaining sequences in the cluster. Cells hybridizing with these probes in the biomass samples tested always appeared as either TFOs or in large clusters of small cocci. Members of the Defluviicoccus-related organisms were commonly found in full-scale wastewater treatments plants, sometimes as a dominant population. PMID:23765935

  4. Experimental evaluation of decrease in the activities of polyphosphate/glycogen-accumulating organisms due to cell death and activity decay in activated sludge.

    Hao, Xiaodi; Wang, Qilin; Cao, Yali; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2010-06-15

    Decrease in bacterial activity (biomass decay) in activated sludge can result from cell death (reduction in the amount of active bacteria) and activity decay (reduction in the specific activity of active bacteria). The goal of this study was to experimentally differentiate between cell death and activity decay as the cause of decrease in bacterial activity. By means of measuring maximal anaerobic phosphate release rates, verifying membrane integrity by live/dead staining and verifying presence of 16S rRNA with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the decay rates and death rates of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in a biological nutrient removal (BNR) system and a laboratory phosphate removing sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system were determined, respectively, under famine conditions. In addition, the decay rate and death rate of glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) in a SBR system with an enrichment culture of GAOs were also measured under famine conditions. Hereto the maximal anaerobic volatile fatty acid uptake rates, live/dead staining, and FISH were used. The experiments revealed that in the BNR and enriched PAO-SBR systems, activity decay contributed 58% and 80% to the decreased activities of PAOs, and that cell death was responsible for 42% and 20% of decreases in their respective activities. In the enriched GAOs system, activity decay constituted a proportion of 74% of the decreased activity of GAOs, and cell death only accounted for 26% of the decrease of their activity. PMID:20178124

  5. Experimental and model-based evaluation of the role of denitrifying polyphosphate accumulating organisms at two large scale WWTPs in northern Poland.

    Makinia, J; Rosenwinkel, K H; Swinarski, M; Dobiegala, E

    2006-01-01

    The capabilities of denitrifying Polyphosphate Accumulating Organisms (DPAOs) in two large-scale plants in northern Poland performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) were evaluated in this study. A series of batch tests with the process biomass aimed at the measurements of phosphate release (with artificial substrate and real wastewater) and subsequent phosphate uptake under anoxic/aerobic conditions. The process kinetics were predicted using ASM2d implemented in the GPS-X ver. 4.0.2 simulation package. The results from one experimental series (summer) were used for the model calibration, whereas the results from another series (spring) were used for the model validation. The model parameters were also accurately confirmed by predictions of the accompanying field measurements in the full-scale bioreactors. The experimental and simulation results revealed that a relatively small fraction of PAO could denitrify (eta(NO3,PAO) = 0.32). The denitrification rates associated with the anoxic storage of PP and the anoxic growth of PAO only constituted 16.0-21.0% of the denitrification rates associated with the anoxic activity of "ordinary" heterotrophs. PMID:17163015

  6. HM-PAO-SPECT in complicated migraine

    Three HM-PAO-SPECT investigations have been performed in a female patient with a complicated migraine. 2.5 hours after an attack with right-sided numbness and atonic hemiparesis, at the left side a reduced blood flow was seen parietotemporally and in the subcortical structures. The cerebellum showed crossed diaschisis. During a symptom-free interval the SPECT showed a slightly increased parietotemporal blood blow and a reduced right temporooccipital blood flow. During a seizure with left-sided facial spasm, unsystematic clonic movements in all extremities and a following left-sided hemiparesis, the uptake in the visual cortex was increased by 60%. In the right frontotemporal and left temporal region a slightly increased accumulation was found. (orig.)

  7. Phosphorus Accumulating Organisms and Biogeochemical Hotspots

    Archibald, J.; Walter, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    Despite extensive research, many of the processes that control phosphorus (P) movement from agricultural fields to streams and lakes are not well understood. This limits our ability to develop management strategies that will mediate P contamination of freshwater ecosystems and subsequent eutrophication. Recent advances in molecular microbiology have prompted a paradigm shift in wastewater treatment that recognizes and exploits the ways specific microbial processes influence P solubility. Central to this enhanced biological phosphorus removal in wastewater treatment plants is a relatively recently discovered microorganism, Candidatus accumulibacter, which takes-up P and stores it internally as polyphosphate under alternating aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Within the past few months we have discovered this organism in the natural environment and its role in P biogeochemistry is unclear. We speculate that it may function similarly in variable source areas, which experience cycles of saturation and desaturation, as it does in the anaerobic- aerobic cycles in a wastewater treatment plant. If so, there may be potential opportunities to realize similarly new perspectives and advancements in the watershed context as have been seen in wastewater technologies. Here we present some of our preliminary findings.

  8. Accumulation of organic C components in soil and aggregates

    Yu, Hongyan; Ding, Weixin; Chen, Zengming; Zhang, Huanjun; Luo, Jiafa; Bolan, Nanthi

    2015-09-01

    To explore soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation mechanisms, the dynamics of C functional groups and macroaggregation were studied synchronously through aggregate fractionation and 13C NMR spectroscopy in sandy loam soil following an 18-year application of compost and fertilizer in China. Compared with no fertilizer control, both compost and fertilizer improved SOC content, while the application of compost increased macroaggregation. Fertilizer application mainly increased the levels of recalcitrant organic C components characterized by methoxyl/N-alkyl C and alkyl C, whereas compost application mainly promoted the accumulation of methoxyl/N-alkyl C, phenolic C, carboxyl C, O-alkyl C and di-O-alkyl C in bulk soil. The preferential accumulation of organic C functional groups in aggregates depended on aggregate size rather than nutrient amendments. These groups were characterized by phenolic C and di-O-alkyl C in the silt + clay fraction, carboxyl C in microaggregates and phenolic C, carboxyl C and methoxyl/N-alkyl C in macroaggregates. Thus, the differences in accumulated organic C components in compost- and fertilizer-amended soils were primarily attributable to macroaggregation. The accumulation of methoxyl/N-alkyl C in microaggregates effectively promoted macroaggregation. Our results suggest that organic amendment rich in methoxyl/N-alkyl C effectively improved SOC content and accelerated macroaggregation in the test soil.

  9. Dynamics of Intracellular Polymers in Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Processes under Different Organic Carbon Concentrations

    Lizhen Xing; Li Ren; Bo Tang,; Guangxue Wu; Yuntao Guan

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) may deteriorate or fail during low organic carbon loading periods. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in EBPR were acclimated under both high and low organic carbon conditions, and then dynamics of polymers in typical cycles, anaerobic conditions with excess organic carbons, and endogenous respiration conditions were examined. After long-term acclimation, it was found that organic loading rates did not affect the yield of PAOs and the app...

  10. Accumulation and distribution 137Сs in predators’ organism

    A. V. Gulakov

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Data of the long-term research of accumulation and distribution 137Cs radionuclide in organisms of predatory wild animals from the alienation zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power station are presented. Essential fluctuations of the 137Cs contents in muscular tissue are noted. The results have large practical value for management of the hunting facilities on the radioactively polluted territories.

  11. Denitrifying capability and community dynamics of glycogen accumulating organisms during sludge granulation in an anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor

    Bin, Zhang; Bin, Xue; Zhigang, Qiu; Zhiqiang, Chen; Junwen, Li; Taishi, Gong; Wenci, Zou; Jingfeng, Wang

    2015-08-01

    Denitrifying capability of glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) has received great attention in environmental science and microbial ecology. Combining this ability with granule processes would be an interesting attempt. Here, a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated to enrich GAOs and enable sludge granulation. The results showed that the GAO granules were cultivated successfully and the granules had denitrifying capability. The batch experiments demonstrated that all NO3--N could be removed or reduced, some amount of NO2--N were accumulated in the reactor, and N2 was the main gaseous product. SEM analysis suggested that the granules were tightly packed with a large amount of tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs); filamentous bacteria served as the supporting structures for the granules. The microbial community structure of GAO granules was differed substantially from the inoculant conventional activated sludge. Most of the bacteria in the seed sludge grouped with members of Proteobacterium. FISH analysis confirmed that GAOs were the predominant members in the granules and were distributed evenly throughout the granular space. In contrast, PAOs were severely inhibited. Overall, cultivation of the GAO granules and utilizing their denitrifying capability can provide us with a new approach of nitrogen removal and saving more energy.

  12. Accumulation and excretion of 60Co by marine organisms

    The biological half-life of 60Co accumulated from seawater by marine fish was 20-50 days. It was slightly longer in the liver and muscles than in the whole body. Feed including natural feed organisms contributed more to the total body burden of 60Co than environmental waters. The total body burden of 60Co via feed varied according to the organism species, kinds of feed and the root of incorporation. Transfer ratio of 60Co from the water into the organisms was higher than that from the marine sediments having high affinity of Co into the organisms. The elevated water temperature promoted the biological activity, resulting in the increased bioaccumulation of radioactive Co. Concentration coefficients of 60Co by mollusca and seaweeds were generally high. In particular, organic 60Co was more likely to be accumulated than inorganic 60Co. The biological half-life of organic 60Co was longer than inorganic 60Co in mollusca, while it was the same as or shorter than inorganic 60Co in the other organisms. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Study on accumulation of 137Cs in aquatic organisms

    FengDing-Hua; CheungT

    1998-01-01

    The organisms were cultivated for 7d in well water contaminated with 137Cs,The experimental results show that the accumulation level of tissues of carassius auratus had the order of gill>viscera>epidermis(including scales)>bone(including head and tail)>flesh.The concentration capability of them had the order of shrimp>carassius auratus>ophiocephalus argus,The concentration factors(CF) of shrimp was 12.6 times of that of ophiocephalus argus.

  14. Organic Illness and Psychic Puberty: An Accumulation of Trauma.

    de Kernier, Nathalie

    2015-08-01

    When an adolescent faces serious organic illness, two traumatic events coincide and reinforce each other. The Oedipus fantasy and its murderous component are exacerbated. Starting psychotherapy in these circumstances is a challenge. Teens suffering from serious organic illness rarely request psychological help. They accumulate aggressive impulses that remain unspoken but are self-directed. We will use excerpts from cases to comment upon the problems and psychical processes experienced by such teens. We will show how expressing murder fantasies can be a motor in psychotherapy. Such expression not only supports therapy but also relieves the patient and contributes to a new psychosomatic equilibrium. PMID:26290946

  15. Extreme accumulations of natural polonium-210 in certain marine organisms

    Concentration levels of polonium-210 reported for sea water are reviewed, and activities accumulated by various marine plant and animal species are discussed. Special mention is made of detailed studies of one giant algae upon whose outer surfaces intense accumulations of polonium have been discovered recently. Some concentrations found in two organisms intimate with algae, the abalones and the sea hares, are reported. Concentrations are listed pertaining to organisms selected from the open ocean in order to show that intense polonium concentrations are not restricted to organisms living near the continents where precursors of polonium originate. A brief discussion of conditions on one of the marine mammals, the dolphin, next is made. Then comments are made upon a benthic species (the sable fish) that prefers to live close to the deep sea floor, presumably so as to eat detritus. They also eat many of the smaller organisms that compete for the natural deep sea fallout of food, and many of these live in close contact with the muds and clays of the sea floor that are rich in radium. Some of the behavior and anatomical features and polonium-210 distribution in one of the most interesting and valuable of fishes, the North Pacific albacore (Thunnus alalunga) is described. This species has been used previously to tell us something about nuclear fallout distributions in the North Pacific Ocean during the past decade and repeatedly has directed attention to features of this ocean that might hardly be detected otherwise. (U.S.)

  16. Retention mechanism of technetium-99m-HM-PAO: intracellular reaction with glutathione

    Preparations of d,l- and meso-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) labeled with technetium-99m were added to rat brain homogenates diluted with phosphate buffer (1:10). The conversion of d,l-HM-PAO to hydrophilic forms took place with an initial rate constant of 0.12 min-1. Incubation of the brain homogenate with 2% diethyl maleate for 5 h decreased the homogenate's measured glutathione (GSH) concentration from 160 to 16 microM and decreased the conversion rate to 0.012 min-1. Buffered aqueous solutions of glutathione rapidly converted the HM-PAO tracers to hydrophilic forms having the same chromatographic characteristics as found in the brain homogenates. The rate constant for the conversion reaction of d,l-HM-PAO in GSH aqueous solution was 208 and 317 L/mol/min in two different assay systems and for meso-HM-PAO the values were 14.7 and 23.2 L/mol/min, respectively. Rat brain has a GSH concentration of about 2.3 mM and the conversion of the d,l-HM-PAO due to GSH alone should proceed with a rate constant of 0.48 to 0.73 min-1 and be correspondingly 14-fold slower for meso-HM-PAO. In human brain, the in vivo data of Lassen et al. show a conversion rate constant of 0.80 min-1. This correspondence of values supports the notion that GSH may be important for the in vivo conversion of 99mTc-labeled HM-PAO to hydrophilic forms and may be the mechanism of trapping in brain and other cells. A kinetic model for the trapping of d,l- and meso-HM-PAO in tissue is developed that is based on data of GSH concentration in various organs

  17. Dynamics of Intracellular Polymers in Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Processes under Different Organic Carbon Concentrations

    Lizhen Xing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR may deteriorate or fail during low organic carbon loading periods. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs in EBPR were acclimated under both high and low organic carbon conditions, and then dynamics of polymers in typical cycles, anaerobic conditions with excess organic carbons, and endogenous respiration conditions were examined. After long-term acclimation, it was found that organic loading rates did not affect the yield of PAOs and the applied low organic carbon concentrations were advantageous for the enrichment of PAOs. A low influent organic carbon concentration induced a high production of extracellular carbohydrate. During both anaerobic and aerobic endogenous respirations, when glycogen decreased to around 80 ± 10 mg C per gram of volatile suspended solids, PAOs began to utilize polyphosphate significantly. Regressed by the first-order reaction model, glycogen possessed the highest degradation rate and then was followed by polyphosphate, while biomass decay had the lowest degradation rate.

  18. Characterization of the denitrifying fraction of phosphate accumulating organisms in biological phosphate removal

    Meinhold, Jens; Filipe, Carlos D.M.; Daigger, Glen T.;

    1999-01-01

    Results of experimental investigations are presented that strongly support the hypothesis that PAO from activated sludge systems consist of two groups: a) denitrifying PAO (DNPAO) capable of using oxygen and nitrate and b) non-denitrifying PAO (non-DNPAO) only able to use oxygen. Batch experiment...

  19. 生物除磷系统中聚磷菌检测常用技术%Commonly Used Technologies for Detecting Phosphate Accumulating Organisms in Biological Phosphorus Removal System

    潘丹华; 李勇; 张娜

    2013-01-01

    As the main functional bacteria in biological phosphorus removal system, it was an inevitable trend to have a qualitative and quantitative analysis for phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in order to deeply understand the biological phosphorus removal system and improve phosphorus removal efficiency. Mainly used methods for detecting PAOs include chemical and molecular biological technologies. Characteristics and applications of technologies such as fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), degeneration gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) and combined technologies used in detecting PAOs were reviewed. Some improvement measures and future direction for PAOs detecting technologies were also offered.%作为生物除磷系统中的主要功能菌,对聚磷菌菌群进行定性、定量分析是深入理解生物除磷系统、提高除磷效率的必然趋势.目前常用于检测聚磷菌的方法主要有生物化学法和分子生物学法,文章主要阐述了荧光原位杂交技术、聚合酶链反应技术、变性梯度凝胶电泳技术以及多技术结合使用的特点及应用情况,并在此基础上提出了改进措施以及聚磷菌检测技术的发展方向.

  20. Higher lung accumulation of intravenously injected organic nanotubes

    Maitani Y

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoshie Maitani,1 Yuri Nakamura,1 Masao Kon,1 Emi Sanada,1 Kae Sumiyoshi,1 Natsuki Fujine,1 Masumi Asakawa,2 Masaki Kogiso,2 Toshimi Shimizu21Institute of Medicinal Chemistry, Hoshi University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Nanotube Research Center (NTRC, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST, Tsukuba, JapanAbstract: The size and shape of intravenously injected particles can affect their biodistribution and is of importance for the development of particulated drug carrier systems. In this study, organic nanotubes (ONTs with a carboxyl group at the surface, a length of approximately 2 µm and outer diameter of 70–90 nm, were injected intravenously into tumor-bearing mice. To use ONTs as drug carriers, the biodistribution in selected organs of ONTs postinjection was examined using irinotecan, as an entrapped water-soluble marker inside ONTs, and gadolinium-chelated ONT, as an ONT marker, and compared with that of a 3 µm fluorescently labeled spherical microparticle which was similar size to the length of ONTs. It was found that for irinotecan, its active metabolite and gadolinium-chelated ONTs were highly accumulated in the lung, but to a lower level in the liver and spleen. On the other hand, microparticles deposited less in the lung and more highly in the liver. Moreover, histologic examination showed ONTs distributed more in lung tissues in part, whereas microparticles were present in blood vessels postinjection. These preliminary results support the notion of using negatively charged ONTs as intravascular carriers to maximize accumulation in the lung whilst reducing sequestration by the liver and spleen. This finding suggested that ONTs are potential carriers for lung-targeting drug delivery.Keywords: organic nanotube, lung, biodistribution, microparticle, particle shape

  1. Accumulation of motile elongated micro-organisms in turbulence

    Zhan, Caijuan; Sardina, Gaetano; Lushi, Enkeleida; Brandt, Luca

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of turbulence on marine life by performing numerical simulations of motile microorganisms, modelled as prolate spheroids, in isotropic homogeneous turbulence. We show that the clustering and patchiness observed in laminar flows, linear shear and vortex flows, are significantly reduced in a three-dimensional turbulent flow mainly because of the complex topology; elongated micro-orgamisms show some level of clustering in the case of swimmers without any preferential alignment whereas spherical swimmers remain uniformly distributed. Micro-organisms with one preferential swimming direction (e.g. gyrotaxis) still show significant clustering if spherical in shape, whereas prolate swimmers remain more uniformly distributed. Due to their large sensitivity to the local shear, these elongated swimmers react slower to the action of vorticity and gravity and therefore do not have time to accumulate in a turbulent flow. These results show how purely hydrodynamic effects can alter the ecology of microorganisms that can vary their shape and their preferential orientation.

  2. Accumulation of motile elongated micro-organisms in turbulence

    Zhan, Caijuan; Lushi, Enkeleida; Brandt, Luca

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of turbulence on marine life by performing numerical simulations of motile microorganisms, modelled as prolate spheroids, in isotropic homogeneous turbulence. We show that the clustering and patchiness observed in laminar flows, linear shear and vortex flows, are significantly reduced in a three-dimensional turbulent flow mainly because of the complex topology; elongated micro-orgamisms show some level of clustering in the case of swimmers without any preferential alignment whereas spherical swimmers remain uniformly distributed. Micro-organisms with one preferential swimming direction (e.g. gyrotaxis) still show significant clustering if spherical in shape, whereas prolate swimmers remain more uniformly distributed. Due to their large sensitivity to the local shear, these elongated swimmers react slower to the action of vorticity and gravity and therefore do not have time to accumulate in a turbulent flow. These results show how purely hydrodynamic effects can alter the ecology of microor...

  3. Organization and transcription of the principal sigma gene (rpoDA) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1: involvement of a sigma 32-like RNA polymerase in rpoDA gene expression.

    Fujita, M.; Tanaka, K; Takahashi, H; Amemura, A

    1993-01-01

    S1 nuclease mapping and Northern (RNA) hybridization revealed that the rpoDA gene encoding the principal sigma subunit of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 is transcribed as a monocistronic mRNA of 2 kb and that the transcription from the rpoDA promoter (PC) starts 32 bases upstream from the first nucleotide of the initiation codon during the steady-state growth condition at a low temperature (30 degrees C). The transcript terminates 31 bases downstream from the last nucleotide of the termination c...

  4. ACCUMULATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN AQUATIC ORGANISMS AND ENVIRONMENT

    ÇAKIROĞULLARI, Gül

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were discovered in the late of the 19th century and their usefulness for industry, because of their physical properties, was recognized early. The PCBs have been used commercially, since 1930, as dielectric and heat-exchange fluids and in a variety of other applications. They have become widely distributed in the environment throughout the world, and are persistent and accumulate in food webs. PCBs accumulate in the fatty tissues of humans and other animals an...

  5. Quinolone accumulation in Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus.

    McCaffrey, C; Bertasso, A; Pace, J.; Georgopapadakou, N H

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of quinolones by Escherichia coli JF568, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 was measured by a modified fluorometric assay (J. S. Chapman and N. H. Georgopapadakou, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:27-29, 1989). The quinolones examined were fleroxacin, pefloxacin, norfloxacin, difloxacin, A56620, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and Ro 09-1168. In all three organisms, uptake was complete in less than 5 min and was proportional to extracellular quinolone...

  6. Multidrug Efflux Transporters Limit Accumulation of Inorganic, but Not Organic, Mercury in Sea Urchin Embryos

    BOŠNJAK, IVANA; Uhlinger, Kevin R.; Heim, Wesley; Smital, Tvrtko; Franekić-Čolić, Jasna; Coale, Kenneth; Epel, David; Hamdoun, Amro

    2009-01-01

    Mercuric compounds are persistent global pollutants that accumulate in marine organisms and in humans who consume them. While the chemical cycles and speciation of mercury in the oceans are relatively well described, the cellular mechanisms that govern which forms of mercury accumulate in cells and why they persist are less understood. In this study we examined the role of multidrug efflux transport in the differential accumulation of inorganic (HgCl2) and organic (CH3HgCl) mercury in sea urc...

  7. Accumulation of trace metals in coastal marine organisms

    ECN at Petten carries out a survey on the occurrence of trace metals in coastal marine organisms. The survey is aimed to provide an estimate of concentration factors in local marine organisms for neutron activation products released as low-level liquid radioactive waste into the North Sea. The organisms studied are red and brown seaweed, edible mussels ans shrimp. A summary of the results of analyses of iron, cobalt, zinc, silver and antimony in these organisms is presented. Concentration factors derived from mean stable-element concentrations range from about 50 for Sb in red seaweed and shrimp to about 104 for Fe in red seaweed and mussels. The largest variation is shown for zinc in seaweed, which variation is seasonal and most pronounced in brown seaweed. A discussion of the data is presented in relation to data from other West-European coastal areas and to data used for the radiological assessment of deep sea disposal of radioactive waste

  8. Transference and accumulative peculiarity of enriched uranium in organism

    Studies show that 235UO2F2 was chiefly localized in kidneys, then in skeleton and liver. Its radioactivity in skeleton rose steadily while the concentration in kidneys and liver dropped. 235UO2F2 was difficult to pass through the blood-testes barrier. With 1 to 6 h contact period, only 1.4-1.6% 235UO2F2 was found in the intact skin, but 41-54% in the abrasive skin. The dynamic retention of 235UO2F2 through intact or abrasive skins was also dominantly localized in kidneys, skeleton and liver. Accumulation of insoluble 235U3O8 in gastrointestinal tract was well described by a double-exponential-term expression. Values of retention were estimated for fast component T1 = 0.34 d, and for relatively long term component T2 = 4.05 d

  9. 99mTc-HM-PAO SPECT of epileptic patients showing focal paroxysm on electroencephalography

    The usefulness of 99mTc-HM-PAO SPECT in diagnosing epilepsy was studied. The subjects were 33 epileptic patients, ranging in age from 5 years and 5 months to 28 years and 3 months, who showed focal paroxysm on electroencephalograms. Lowered accumulation site was found on SPECT in 19 patients. Four patients with abnormal findings on X-ray CT or MRI showed lowered accumulation and focal paroxysm at the same site. Of 29 patients with normal X-ray CT or MRI findings, 15 (52%) showed lowered accumulation. Five patients showed a focal paroxysm at the site of lowered accumulation. In 8 patients the focal paroxysm site was partly coincided with the accumulation site. In some patients the focal site predicted by the findings of clinical symptoms and the lowered accumulation site coincided. SPECT is therefore a useful method in diagnosing a focal site in epilepsy and considered to reflect the severity of disease. (Y.S.)

  10. Determining Multiple Responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to an Antimicrobial Agent, Free Nitrous Acid.

    Gao, Shu-Hong; Fan, Lu; Peng, Lai; Guo, Jianhua; Agulló-Barceló, Míriam; Yuan, Zhiguo; Bond, Philip L

    2016-05-17

    Free nitrous acid (FNA) has recently been demonstrated as an antimicrobial agent on a range of micro-organisms, especially in wastewater-treatment systems. However, the antimicrobial mechanism of FNA is largely unknown. Here, we report that the antimicrobial effects of FNA are multitargeted. The response of a model denitrifier, Pseudomnas aeruginosa PAO1 (PAO1), common in wastewater treatment, was investigated in the absence and presence of inhibitory level of FNA (0.1 mg N/L) under anaerobic denitrifying conditions. This was achieved through coupling gene expression analysis, by RNA sequencing, and with a suite of physiological analyses. Various transcripts exhibited significant changes in abundance in the presence of FNA. Respiration was likely inhibited because denitrification activity was severely depleted, and decreased transcript levels of most denitrification genes occurred. As a consequence, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was inhibited due to the lowered cellular redox state in the FNA-exposed cultures. Meanwhile, during FNA exposure, PAO1 rerouted its carbon metabolic pathway from the TCA cycle to pyruvate fermentation with acetate as the end product as a possible survival mechanism. Additionally, protein synthesis was significantly decreased, and ribosome preservation was evident. These findings improve our understanding of PAO1 in response to FNA and contribute toward the potential application for use of FNA as an antimicrobial agent. PMID:27116299

  11. Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in Tasmanian platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)

    Munday, B.L.; Stewart, N.J.; Soedergren, A

    2002-12-01

    Elevated levels of persistent organic pollutants were found in both male and female platypus in Tasmania. - Tailfat samples were collected from 56 platypuses, 38 male and 18 female in Tasmania. No statistically significant, nor apparent, differences between the sexes were found for tailfat lipid levels and DDT and its metabolites, Lindane and PCB concentrations in tailfat lipid. Apparently - but not statistically - significantly different levels of DDT and its metabolites, Lindane and PCB concentrations were found in animals from different geographic regions of the State. Higher concentrations of DDT and its metabolites and Lindane were related to the intensity of agricultural activity and elevated PCB levels were mainly found in animals from zones with industrial and hydroelectric developments.

  12. Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in Tasmanian platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)

    Elevated levels of persistent organic pollutants were found in both male and female platypus in Tasmania. - Tailfat samples were collected from 56 platypuses, 38 male and 18 female in Tasmania. No statistically significant, nor apparent, differences between the sexes were found for tailfat lipid levels and DDT and its metabolites, Lindane and PCB concentrations in tailfat lipid. Apparently - but not statistically - significantly different levels of DDT and its metabolites, Lindane and PCB concentrations were found in animals from different geographic regions of the State. Higher concentrations of DDT and its metabolites and Lindane were related to the intensity of agricultural activity and elevated PCB levels were mainly found in animals from zones with industrial and hydroelectric developments

  13. Organ- and species-specific accumulation of metals in two land snail species (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    In order to evaluate the usefulness of terrestrial gastropods as bioindicators there is a need for studies that simultaneously compare (1) concentrations of metals in reference and polluted plots, (2) species within the same polluted habitat, (3) metal accumulation patterns in different organs and (4) metal accumulation patterns in relation to soil physicochemical properties. This study aims to assess metal accumulation patterns in two land snail species. Instead of analyzing an organism as a whole, investigating the partitioning of metals in different organs can provide information on the actual toxicological relevant fractions. Therefore, concentrations of Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn were examined in five different organs of Cepaea nemoralis, as well as in the foot and the body of Succinea putris. Snails were sampled at four polluted dredged sediment disposal localities and three adjacent less polluted reference plots situated along waterways in Flanders, Belgium. Due to the small size and problematic dissection of S. putris only the concentrations in the foot of both species could be compared. For this reason only, C. nemoralis can be described as a better bioindicator species that allows a far more detailed analysis of organ metal accumulation. This study showed that organs other than the digestive gland may be involved in the immobilization and detoxification of metals. Furthermore, pH, soil fractionation (clay %, silt %, sand %) and organic matter, correlate with metal accumulation in organs. However, most often the soil metal concentrations did not correlate with the concentrations found in snail organs. Metal concentrations in organs of both species (1) differed among polluted plots but rarely between polluted and reference plots within a locality, (2) were organ-specific (digestive gland > foot > albumen gland = spermoviduct = ovotestis), (3) were species-specific and (4) depended on the metal type (high Cd and Cu concentrations were observed in the

  14. Organic Carbon Accumulation in Topsoil Following Afforestation with Willow: Emphasis on Leaf Litter Decomposition and Soil Organic Matter Quality

    Benoit Lafleur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Short-rotation intensive cultures (SRICs of willows can potentially sequester carbon (C in soil. However, there is limited information regarding the factors governing soil organic C (Corg accumulation following afforestation. The objectives of this study were to: (i determine whether willow leads to Corg accumulation in the topsoil (0–10 cm two to six years after establishment in five SRICs located along a large climatic/productivity gradient in southern Quebec, and (ii assess the influence of leaf litter decomposition and soil organic matter (OM quality on Corg accumulation in the topsoil. Topsoil Corg concentrations and pools under SRICs were, on average, 25% greater than reference fields, and alkyls concentrations were higher under SRICs. On an annualized basis, Corg accumulation rates in the topsoil varied between 0.4 and 4.5 Mg ha−1 yr−1. Estimated annual litterfall C fluxes were in the same order of magnitude, suggesting that SRICs can accumulate Corg in the topsoil during early years due to high growth rates. Leaf litter decomposition was also related to Corg accumulation rates in the topsoil. It was positively correlated to growing season length, degree-days, and growing season average air and topsoil temperature (r > 0.70, and negatively correlated to topsoil volumetric water content (r = −0.55. Leaf litter decomposition likely occurred more quickly than that of plants in reference fields, and as it progressed, OM became more decay resistant, more stable and accumulated as Corg in the topsoil.

  15. Accumulation of tritium in aquatic organisms through a food chain with three trophic levels

    Accumulation of tritium in aquatic organisms was estimated through a model food chain such as; tritiated water (THO) → diatoms → brine shrimps → Japanese killifish. Tritium accumulations in each organism as organic bound form are expressed as the R value which is defined as the ratio of tritium specific activity in lyophilized organisms (μCi/gH) to that in water (μCi/gH). The maximum R values were 0.5 in diatoms, Chaetoceros gracilis, 0.5 in brine shrimps, Artamia salina, and 0.32 in Japanese killifish, Oryzias latipes under the growing condition where tritium accumulation took place from tritiated water without tritiated diets. Brine shrimps and Japanese killifish, which grew from larvae to adult in tritiated sea water with feeding on tritiated diets (model food chain), had the R value at 0.70 and 0.67 respectively, indicating that more tritium accumulation in consumer populations with tritiated diets than those without tritiated diets. In addition, the R values of each organ of Japanese killifish, of DNA and the nucleotides purified from brine shrimps growing under the condition with or without our model food chain were measured to estimate the tritium distribution in the body or various components of the organism. These results did not indicate the seeking characteristic of tritium to some specific organs of compounds. (author)

  16. Macronutrient composition determines accumulation of persistent organic pollutants from dietary exposure in adipose tissue of mice

    Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even; Midtbø, Lisa Kolden;

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been linked to adipose tissue expansion. As different nutrients modulate adipose tissue development, we investigated the influence of dietary composition on POP accumulation, obesity development and related disorders. Lifespan was determined...... in mice fed fish-oil-based high fat diets during a long-term feeding trial and accumulation of POPs was measured after 3, 6 and 18months of feeding. Further, we performed dose-response experiments using four abundant POPs found in marine sources, PCB-153, PCB-138, PCB-118 and pp'-DDE as single...

  17. Accumulation of different metals in apple trees organs from an unfertilized orchard

    Working in an unfertilized apple orchard, planted on brown-reddish soil in Baneasa - Bucuresti, the accumulation of different metals in trees organs was studied: leaves, vegetative branches, fruit branches and fruits. The samples were taken from 'Golden delicious' variety, planted at 10 meters, 'Idared' variety, planted at 100 meters and 'Akane' variety, planted at 200 meters from the Bucuresti-Ploiesti motorway. Lead accumulation depended on the distance to the pollution source and organ type. In leaves, lead was found even at 100 m from the road border (11.7 ppm in 'Idared' variety). At 10 m the leaves content was much higher (306 ppm, 'Golden delicious'). Because of the specific metabolism selectivity apple trees didn't accumulate lead into fruit branches and fruits. Copper leaves content varied between 5.85 ppm ('Golden delicious') and 16.2 ppm ('Akane') being lower than the fruits content (8.36 ppm 'Idared' - 23.0 ppm 'Golden delicious'). In apple tree fruit branches the Cu accumulation was 2-3 times higher than in the vegetative branches. The same fruit branches accumulated the highest quantity of zinc (between 67.5 and 83.9 ppm). Fruit contents in zinc (10.0-16.9 ppm) were close to the normal value: 15 ppm, but leave contents (43.3-48.7 ppm) were more than doubled compared to the normal range: 15-20 ppm. The 'Idared' variety accumulated the lowest quantity of nickel in all analyzed organs. Iron accumulation was different in function of the analyzed organ, variety and ion type (Fe2+, Fe3+). The highest Fe3+ content was found in 'Golden delicious' leaves: 547 ppm and the highest Fe2+ content in 'Idared' leaves: 96.0 ppm. The lowest iron content was found in fruits. The manganese content of the analyzed organs varied from 8.32 to 130 ppm. Refs. 4 (author)

  18. The retention mechanism of technetium-99m-HM-PAO

    Neirinckx, R D; Burke, J F; Harrison, R C; Forster, A M; Andersen, A R; Lassen, N A

    1988-01-01

    Preparations of d,l- and meso-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) labeled with technetium-99m were added to rat brain homogenates diluted with phosphate buffer (1:10). The conversion of d,l-HM-PAO to hydrophilic forms took place with an initial rate constant of 0.12 min-1. Incubation of the...... chromatographic characteristics as found in the brain homogenates. The rate constant for the conversion reaction of d,l-HM-PAO in GSH aqueous solution was 208 and 317 L/mol/min in two different assay systems and for meso-HM-PAO the values were 14.7 and 23.2 L/mol/min, respectively. Rat brain has a GSH...... correspondence of values supports the notion that GSH may be important for the in vivo conversion of 99mTc-labeled HM-PAO to hydrophilic forms and may be the mechanism of trapping in brain and other cells. A kinetic model for the trapping of d,l- and meso-HM-PAO in tissue is developed that is based on data of...

  19. Experimental evidence of a xylose-catabolic pathway on the pAO1 megaplasmid of Arthrobacter nicotinovorans

    Marius Mihasan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The pAO1 megaplasmid of A. nicotinovorans consists of 165 ORF's related mainly to nicotine degradation, uptake and utilization of carbohydrates, amino acids and sarcosine. A putative sugar catabolic pathway consisting of 11 ORF's organized as a single operon were previously described. The current work brings experimental data supporting the existence of a D-Xylose catabolic pathway on the pAO1 megaplasmid. When grown on D-xylose containing media, the cells harboring the pAO1 megaplasmid grow to higher cell densities and also express the OxRe protein coded by the megaplasmid. A putative pathway similar to Weimberg pentose pathway is postulated, in which D-xylose is transported in the cell by the ABC-type transport system and then transformed using the putative sugar-dehidrogenase OxRe to D-xylonate, which is further degrated to 2-ketoglutarate and integrated into the general metabolism of the cell

  20. Global metabolic profiling of Arabidopsis Polyamine Oxidase 4 (AtPAO4 loss-of-function mutants exhibiting delayed dark-induced senescence

    Miren Iranzu Sequera-Mutiozabal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Early and more recent studies have suggested that some polyamines (PAs, and particularly spermine (Spm, exhibit anti-senescence properties in plants. In this work, we have investigated the role of Arabidopsis Polyamine Oxidase 4 (PAO4, encoding a PA back-conversion oxidase, during dark-induced senescence. Two independent PAO4 (pao4-1 and pao4-2 loss-of-function mutants have been found that accumulate 10-fold higher Spm, and this associated with delayed entry into senescence under dark conditions. Mechanisms underlying pao4 delayed senescence have been studied using global metabolic profiling by GC-TOF/MS. pao4 mutants exhibit constitutively higher levels of important metabolites involved in redox regulation, central metabolism and signaling that support a priming status against oxidative stress. During senescence, interactions between PAs and oxidative, sugar and nitrogen metabolism have been detected that additively contribute to delayed entry into senescence. Our results indicate the occurrence of metabolic interactions between PAs, particularly Spm, with cell oxidative balance and transport/biosynthesis of amino acids as a strategy to cope with oxidative damage produced during senescence.

  1. High accumulation of cobalt-60 by the particular organ or part of some species in mollusca

    A large amounts of samples in marine Cephalopoda and Tridacna were sampled in north west pacific ocean, near Japan. The samples were separated into organs or parts for determination of Co-60 concentration. A peculiar accumulation of Co-60 by the branchial heart of Octopus was also recognized in field condition, but it had become apparent that branchial heart of squid had not same ability. Liver of Cephalopoda had the ability to highly accumulate the Co-60 and specific activity of squid was one order highter than Octopus. The concentration of Cobalt-60 in visceral muss kidney of Tridacna maxima lineally increased with increasing shell length but that in other soft parts was kept constant. After examination of the other papers it was assumed that Co-60 highly accumulated in these organs was transfered by the food chain. (author)

  2. Protective Effect of Melatonin on Aluminum Accumulation in Some Organs of Rats

    Florin MUSELIN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study emphasizes the protective effect of melatonin against the aluminum accumulation in some organs of rats. Twenty eight male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=7 animals for each, one control and three experimental, and aluminum sulphate and melatonin were applied in drinking water for three months as follows: group I: aluminum sulphate (1000 ppb in water, group II: aluminum sulphate (1000 ppb in water and melatonin (10 mg in 100 mL water and group III: melatonin (10 mg in100 mL water. Control group: water. Aluminum was accumulated in liver, kidney, heart, spleen and brain of exposed rats in significantly higher amounts compared to the control group. The findings showed that melatonin administration reduced the aluminum level in studied organs and melatonin had a protective effect against aluminum accumulation.

  3. The effect of soil macrofauna on organic matter accumulation and soil formation in post mining landscape

    Frouz, Jan

    Cottbus : Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus, 2002. s. 53. [International Conference - Disturbed Landscapes. 24.09.2002-27.09.2002, Cottbus] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : soil macrofauna * organic matter accumulation * post mining landscape Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  4. Organic carbon accumulation capability of two typical tidal wetland soils in Chongming Dongtan, China.

    Zhang, Shiping; Wang, Lei; Hu, Jiajun; Zhang, Wenquan; Fu, Xiaohua; Le, Yiquan; Jin, Fangming

    2011-01-01

    We measured organic carbon input and content of soil in two wetland areas of Chongming Dongtan (Yangtze River Estuary) to evaluate variability in organic carbon accumulation capability in different wetland soils. Observed differences were investigated based on the microbial activity and environmental factors of the soil at the two sites. Results showed that the organic carbon content of wetland soil vegetated with Phragmites australis (site A) was markedly lower than that with P. australis and Spartina alterniflora (site B). Sites differences were due to higher microbial activity at site A, which led to higher soil respiration intensity and greater carbon outputs. This indicated that the capability of organic carbon accumulation of the site B soils was greater than at site A. In addition, petroleum pollution and soil salinity were different in the two wetland soils. After bio-remediation, the soil petroleum pollution at site B was reduced to a similar level of site A. However, the culturable microbial biomass and enzyme activity in the remediated soils were also lower than at site A. These results indicated that greater petroleum pollution at site B did not markedly inhibit soil microbial activity. Therefore, differences in vegetation type and soil salinity were the primary factors responsible for the variation in microbial activity, organic carbon output and organic carbon accumulation capability between site A and site B. PMID:21476345

  5. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by glycogen accumulating organisms treating a paper mill wastewater.

    Bengtsson, Simon; Werker, Alan; Welander, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A process for production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by activated sludge treating a paper mill wastewater was investigated. The applied strategy was to select for glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) by alternating anaerobic/aerobic conditions. Acidogenic fermentation was used as pretreatment to convert various organic compounds to volatile fatty acids which are preferable substrates for PHA production. Enrichment resulted in a culture dominated by GAOs related to Defluviicoccus vanus (56%) and Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis (22%). Optimization of PHA accumulation by the enriched GAO culture was performed through batch experiments. Accumulation of PHA under anaerobic conditions was limited by the intracellular glycogen stored. Under aerobic conditions significant glycogen production (to 25% of sludge dry weight) was observed alongside PHA accumulation (to 22% of sludge dry weight). By applying a subsequent anaerobic period after an initial aerobic, the produced glycogen could be utilized for further PHA accumulation and by this strategy PHA content was increased to 42% of sludge dry weight. The PHA yield over the entire process was 0.10 kg per kg of influent COD treated which is similar to what has been achieved with a process applying feast/famine enrichment strategy with the same wastewater. PMID:18701781

  6. Cell aggregation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 as an energy-dependent stress response during growth sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Klebensberger, Janosch; Rui, Oliver; Fritz, Eva; Schink, Bernhard; Philipp, Bodo

    2006-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 grew with the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The growth started with the formation of macroscopic cell aggregates which consisted of respiring cells embedded in an extracellular matrix composed of acidic polysaccharides and DNA. Damaged and uncultivable cells accumulated in these aggregates compared to those cells that remained suspended. We investigated the response of suspended cells to SDS under different conditions. At high energy supply, the ce...

  7. Organic Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Accumulation Rates in the Soils of the Everglades Mangrove Ecotone

    Smoak, J. M.; Breithaupt, J. L.; Sanders, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    One of the fundamental questions with regard to coastal ecotones relates to their role in the transformation, transport and storage of biogeochemically important constituents and how that role may be altered by climate change. Coastal wetlands provide a range of valuable ecosystem services including sequestering organic carbon (OC) and nutrients in their soils at rates greater than terrestrial ecosystems on a per area basis. As such the Everglades mangrove ecotone, the largest contiguous mangrove forest in North America, is a biogeochemical "hotspot" at the interface of freshwater marsh and the Gulf of Mexico. Over the last one hundred years this region has been impacted by a reduction in freshwater flow and a sea-level rise (SLR) of 2.3 mm/yr which combined to cause a landward shift in the ecotone. This creates an ideal setting to examine climate induced alterations in the mangrove-ecotone biogeochemical cycle. The ability of the Everglades mangrove forest to keep pace with SLR depends largely on the rate of organic matter accumulation as that accumulation is a key contributor to accretion. However, the basic threat from SLR can be exacerbated in some areas by accelerating organic matter mineralization due to increasing salinity. The increase in salinity supplies sulfate which functions as a terminal electron acceptor that soil microbes can utilize to enhance mineralization in the brackish ecotone regions of coastal wetlands. To investigate these processes, we measured mangrove forest soil accretion, OC, N and P accumulation rates over the most recent 10, 50 and 100 year periods (via 210Pb dating) from the Gulf of Mexico to the upper freshwater reaches of the mangrove forest within Everglades National Park. Lower organic carbon accumulation rates compared to the rest of the system were found in the ecotone region most susceptible to enhanced organic matter mineralization.

  8. Study of the influence of different organic pollutants on Cu accumulation by Halimione portulacoides

    Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Claúdia Dias, A.; Mucha, Ana P.; Bordalo, A. A.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2009-12-01

    The influence of each of four organic pollutants selected from among those commonly found in coastal areas, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE), monobutyltin (MBT), Triton X-100 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), on Cu accumulation by Halimione portulacoides was investigated. Experiments were carried out in a laboratory setting, either in hydroponics (sediment elutriate) or in a salt marsh sediment ( Cávado River, NW Portugal) soaked in elutriate. Groups of H. portulacoides were exposed to media for 6 days spiked with 10 mg/L Cu(II) and with one of the selected pollutants, at an environmentally realistic concentration. DDE and MBT did not cause any major change on Cu accumulation by H. portulacoides, whereas PAHs slightly increased accumulation only in hydroponics i.e. in the absence of sediment. On the other hand, the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 markedly favoured Cu accumulation on plant roots both in the presence and absence of sediment. The addition of DDE, MBT and Triton X-100 also favoured Cu solubility from sediments. Therefore, the simultaneous presence of pollutants from different nature (inorganic and organic) in the estuarine environment may result in a composition of water column, pore water, sediment or biota different of that expected considering the effect of each individual pollutant.

  9. Community Structure Evolution and Enrichment of Glycogen-Accumulating Organisms Producing Polyhydroxyalkanoates from Fermented Molasses▿

    Pisco, Ana R.; Bengtsson, Simon; Werker, Alan; Reis, Maria A. M.; Lemos, Paulo C.

    2009-01-01

    An open mixed culture was enriched with glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) by using a sequencing batch reactor and treating an agroindustrial waste (sugar cane molasses) under cyclic anaerobic-aerobic conditions. Over a 1-year operating period, the culture exhibited a very stable GAO phenotype with an average polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) content of 17% total suspended solids. However, the GAO microbial community evolved over the course of operation to a culture exhibiting unusual characteri...

  10. Enrichment of denitrifying glycogen-accumulating organisms in anaerobic/anoxic activated sludge system.

    Zeng, Raymond J; Yuan, Zhiguo; Keller, Jürg

    2003-02-20

    Denitrifying glycogen-accumulating organisms (DGAO) were successfully enriched in a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) running with anaerobic/anoxic cycles and acetate feeding during the anaerobic period. Acetate was completely taken up anaerobically, which was accompanied by the consumption of glycogen and the production of poly-beta-hydroxy-alkanoates (PHA). In the subsequent anoxic stage, nitrate or nitrite was utilized as electron acceptor for the oxidation of PHA, resulting in glycogen replenishment and cell growth. The above phenotype showed by the enrichment culture demonstrates the existence of DGAO. Further, it was found that the anaerobic behavior of DGAO could be predicted well by the anaerobic GAO model of Filipe et al. (2001) and Zeng et al. (2002a). The final product of denitrification during anoxic stage was mainly nitrous oxide (N(2)O) rather than N(2). The data strongly suggests that N(2)O production may be caused by the inhibition of nitrous oxide reductase by an elevated level of nitrite accumulated during denitrification. The existence of these organisms is a concern in biological nutrient removal systems that typically have an anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic reactor sequence since they are potential competitors to the polyphosphate-accumulating organisms. PMID:12491525

  11. Deposition and accumulation of airborne organic contaminants in Yosemite National Park, California.

    Mast, M Alisa; Alvarez, David A; Zaugg, Steven D

    2012-03-01

    Deposition and accumulation of airborne organic contaminants in Yosemite National Park were examined by sampling atmospheric deposition, lichen, zooplankton, and lake sediment at different elevations. Passive samplers were deployed in high-elevation lakes to estimate surface-water concentrations. Detected compounds included current-use pesticides chlorpyrifos, dacthal, and endosulfans and legacy compounds chlordane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane-related compounds, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Concentrations in snow were similar among sites and showed little variation with elevation. Endosulfan concentrations in summer rain appeared to coincide with application rates in the San Joaquin Valley. More than 70% of annual pesticide inputs from atmospheric deposition occurred during the winter, largely because most precipitation falls as snow. Endosulfan and chlordane concentrations in lichen increased with elevation, indicating that mountain cold-trapping might be an important control on accumulation of these compounds. By contrast, chlorpyrifos concentrations were inversely correlated with elevation, indicating that distance from source areas was the dominant control. Sediment concentrations were inversely correlated with elevation, possibly because of the organic carbon content of sediments but also perhaps the greater mobility of organic contaminants at lower elevations. Surface-water concentrations inferred from passive samplers were at sub-parts-per-trillion concentrations, indicating minimal exposure to aquatic organisms from the water column. Concentrations in sediment generally were low, except for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane in Tenaya Lake, which exceeded sediment guidelines for protection of benthic organisms. PMID:22189687

  12. Process optimization by decoupled control of key microbial populations: distribution of activity and abundance of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms and nitrifying populations in a full-scale IFAS-EBPR plant

    Onnis-Hayden, Annalisa; Majed, Nehreen; Schramm, Andreas;

    2011-01-01

    ammonia concentration becomes limiting. Our results showthat IFAS-EBPR systems enable decoupling of solid residence time (SRT) control for nitrifiers and PAOs that require or prefer conflicting SRT values (e.g. >15 days required for nitrifiers and <5 days preferred for PAOs). Allowing the slow......-growing nitrifiers to attach to the carrier media and the faster-growing phosphorus (P)-removing organisms (and other heterotrophs, e.g. denitrifiers) to be in the suspended mixed liquor (ML), the EBPR-IFAS system facilitates separate SRT controls and overall optimization for both N and P removal processes....

  13. Integrated network modelling for identifying microbial mechanisms of particulate organic carbon accumulation in coastal marine systems

    McDonald, Karlie; Turk, Valentina; Mozetič, Patricija; Tinta, Tinkara; Malfatti, Francesca; Hannah, David; Krause, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Accumulation of particulate organic carbon (POC) has the potential to change the structure and function of marine ecosystems. High abidance of POC can develop into aggregates, known as marine snow or mucus aggregates that can impair essential marine ecosystem functioning and services. Currently marine POC formation, accumulation and sedimentation processes are being explored as potential pathways to remove CO2 from the atmosphere by CO2 sequestration via fixation into biomass by phytoplankton. However, the current ability of scientists, environmental managers and regulators to analyse and predict high POC concentrations is restricted by the limited understanding of the dynamic nature of the microbial mechanisms regulating POC accumulation events in marine environments. We present a proof of concept study that applies a novel Bayesian Networks (BN) approach to integrate relevant biological and physical-chemical variables across spatial and temporal scales in order to identify the interactions of the main contributing microbial mechanisms regulating POC accumulation in the northern Adriatic Sea. Where previous models have characterised only the POC formed, the BN approach provides a probabilistic framework for predicting the occurrence of POC accumulation by linking biotic factors with prevailing environmental conditions. In this paper the BN was used to test three scenarios (diatom, nanoflagellate, and dinoflagellate blooms). The scenarios predicted diatom blooms to produce high chlorophyll a at the water surface while nanoflagellate blooms were predicted to occur at lower depths (> 6m) in the water column and produce lower chlorophyll a concentrations. A sensitivity analysis identified the variables with the greatest influence on POC accumulation being the enzymes protease and alkaline phosphatase, which highlights the importance of microbial community interactions. The developed proof of concept BN model allows for the first time to quantify the impacts of

  14. Clogging processes caused by biofilms growth and organic particles accumulation in lab-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands

    ZHAO Lianfang; ZHU Wei; TONG Wei

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of organic matter in substratum pores is regarded as an important factor causing clogging in the subsurface flow constructed wetlands.In this study,the developing process of clogging separately caused by biofilm growth and organic particles accumulation instead of total organic matter accumulation was investigated in two groups of lab-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) fed with glucose (dissolved organic matter) and starch (particulate organic matter) influent.Results showed that the growth of biofilms within the substratum pores certainly caused remarkable reduction of effective porosity,especially for the strong organic wastewater,whereas its influence on infiltration rate was negligible.It was implied that the most important contribution of biofilm growth to clogging is accelerating the occurrence of clogging.In comparison with biofilm growth,particles accumulation within pores could rapidly reduce infiltration rate besides effective porosity and the clogging occurred in the upper 0-15 cm layer.With approximately equal amount of accumulated organic matter,the effective porosity of the clogged layer in starch-fed systems was far less than that of glucose-fed systems,which indicated that composition and accumulation mode of the accumulated organic matter played an important role in causing clogging besides the amount.According to the results,some related methods to prevent and recover the clogging phenomenon were suggested.

  15. Prolonged acid rain facilitates soil organic carbon accumulation in a mature forest in Southern China.

    Wu, Jianping; Liang, Guohua; Hui, Dafeng; Deng, Qi; Xiong, Xin; Qiu, Qingyan; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2016-02-15

    With the continuing increase in anthropogenic activities, acid rain remains a serious environmental threat, especially in the fast developing areas such as southern China. To detect how prolonged deposition of acid rain would influence soil organic carbon accumulation in mature subtropical forests, we conducted a field experiment with simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments in a monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest at Dinghushan National Nature Reserve in southern China. Four levels of SAR treatments were set by irrigating plants with water of different pH values: CK (the control, local lake water, pH ≈ 4.5), T1 (water pH=4.0), T2 (water pH=3.5), and T3 (water pH=3.0). Results showed reduced pH measurements in the topsoil exposed to simulated acid rains due to soil acidification. Soil respiration, soil microbial biomass and litter decomposition rates were significantly decreased by the SAR treatments. As a result, T3 treatment significantly increased the total organic carbon by 24.5% in the topsoil compared to the control. Furthermore, surface soil became more stable as more recalcitrant organic matter was generated under the SAR treatments. Our results suggest that prolonged acid rain exposure may have the potential to facilitate soil organic carbon accumulation in the subtropical forest in southern China. PMID:26657252

  16. Carbon accumulation in arid croplands of northwest China: pedogenic carbonate exceeding organic carbon

    Wang, Xiujun; Wang, Jiaping; Xu, Minggang; Zhang, Wenju; Fan, Tinglu; Zhang, Juan

    2015-06-01

    Soil carbonate (SIC) exceeds organic carbon (SOC) greatly in arid lands, thus may be important for carbon sequestration. However, field data for quantifying carbonate accumulation have been lacking. This study aims to improve our understanding of SIC dynamics and its role in carbon sequestration. We analyzed two datasets of SOC and SIC and their 13C compositions , one with over 100 soil samples collected recently from various land uses in the Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang, and the other with 18 archived soil samples from a long-term experiment (LTE) in Pingliang, Gansu. The data from the Yanqi Basin showed that SOC had a significant relationship with SIC and pedogenic carbonate (PIC); converting shrub land to cropland increased PIC stock by 5.2 kg C m-2, which was 3.6 times of that in SOC stock. The data from the LTE showed greater accumulation of PIC (21-49 g C m-2 year-1) than SOC (10-39 g C m-2 year-1) over 0-20 cm. Our study points out that intensive cropping in the arid and semi-arid regions leads to an increase in both SOC and PIC. Increasing SOC through straw organic amendments enhances PIC accumulation in the arid cropland of northwestern China.

  17. Accumulation patterns of Cr in Callitriche organs--qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    Augustynowicz, Joanna; Gajewski, Zbigniew; Kostecka-Gugała, Anna; Wróbel, Paweł; Kołton, Anna

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were both the qualitative and quantitative analysis of chromium accumulation in the shoots of Callitriche cophocarpa. This globally distributed, submersed macrophyte exhibits outstanding Cr phytoremediation capacity in an aquatic environment. Cr was applied separately for 7 days at two stable forms as Cr(VI) and Cr(III), known from their diverse physicochemical properties and toxicities. The maps of Cr depositions in young leaves, mature leaves, and stems were obtained by micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (μXRF). The detailed analysis of XRF maps was done based on Image-Pro PLUS (Media Cybernetics) software. Cr was accumulated either in trichomes or vascular bundles in respect to the element speciation and the plant organ. The concentration of Cr significantly increased in the following order: Cr(VI) mature leaves < Cr(VI) young leaves = Cr(VI) stems < Cr(III) young leaves ≤ Cr(III) mature leaves ≤ Cr(III) stems. The observed differences in distribution and accumulation of Cr were correlated with the different reduction potential of Cr(VI) by particular plant organs. The reduction of Cr(VI) is considered the main detoxification mechanism of the highly toxic Cr(VI) form. The unique L-band electron resonance spectrometer (L-band EPR) was applied to follow the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in the studied material. PMID:26438365

  18. Correlation of resource plays and biodiversity patterns: accumulation of organic-rich shale tracks taxonomic turnover

    Eoff, Jennifer D.

    2012-01-01

    Similar paleogeographic and paleotectonic settings characterize most self-sourced shale hydrocarbon plays. Their deposition occurred within similar orders of magnitude of eustatic events and during geologic periods characterized by “warm” (or transitional) climates and calcitic seas. In addition, the stratigraphic occurrence of shale plays parallels certain historical patterns of marine metazoan biodiversity. Such strong agreement among several correlation tools elucidates why these resources may be limited to discrete intervals of geological time. Correlation of self-sourced shale with biodiversity trends indicates that the factors controlling the deposition of marine organic matter may not be independent of those that induced taxonomic turnover. Paleoecological changes promoted accumulation and preservation of Type II kerogen. Deposition of self-sourced shale appears to correspond to reductions in absolute biodiversity and declining percentages of bioturbating taxa, with concomitant increases in proportions of pelagic taxa relative to infaunal and epifaunal organisms. Whereas upwelling and anoxia may have contributed to the deposition of kerogen in source rocks throughout much of the sedimentary record, diminished consumption of biomass by benthic metazoans likely augmented the preservation of organic carbon during deposition of this shale type. Rapid tectonic-plate reconfiguration induced coeval events, creating basins with sufficiently high rates of accommodation creation necessary to preserve additional organic material accumulating as the heterotrophic benthos suffered in response to rapidly changing environments. Combining sea-level curves, paleogeography, climate, and seawater chemistry provides a first-order approximation of the distribution of potential self-sourced shale in the geologic record. A model that predicts the stratigraphic distribution of self-sourced-shale deposition can aid in exploration of continuous hydrocarbon accumulations in self

  19. Charge injection and accumulation in organic light-emitting diode with PEDOT:PSS anode

    Weis, Martin, E-mail: martin.weis@stuba.sk [Institute of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, Bratislava 81219 (Slovakia); Otsuka, Takako; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@ome.pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2015-04-21

    Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays using flexible substrates have many attractive features. Since transparent conductive oxides do not fit the requirements of flexible devices, conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been proposed as an alternative. The charge injection and accumulation in OLED devices with PEDOT:PSS anodes are investigated and compared with indium tin oxide anode devices. Higher current density and electroluminescence light intensity are achieved for the OLED device with a PEDOT:PSS anode. The electric field induced second-harmonic generation technique is used for direct observation of temporal evolution of electric fields. It is clearly demonstrated that the improvement in the device performance of the OLED device with a PEDOT:PSS anode is associated with the smooth charge injection and accumulation.

  20. Oil and fatty acid accumulation during coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. fruit ripening under organic cultivation

    Quang-Hung Nguyen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the accumulation of oil and fatty acids in coriander during fruit ripening, a field experiment was conducted under organic cultivation conditions in Auch (near Toulouse, southwestern France during the 2009 cropping season. The percentage and composition of the fatty acids of coriander were determined by gas chromatography. Our results showed that rapid oil accumulation started in early stages (two days after flowering, DAF. Twelve fatty acids were identified. Saturated and polyunsaturated acids were the dominant fatty acids at earlier stages (2–12 DAF, but decreased after this date. After this stage, petroselinic acid increased to its highest amount at 18 DAF. In contrast, palmitic acid followed the opposite trend. Saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased markedly and monounsaturated fatty acids increased during fruit maturation. It appears that the fruit of coriander may be harvested before full maturity.

  1. The accumulation of organic carbon in mineral soils by afforestation of abandoned farmland.

    Xiaorong Wei

    Full Text Available The afforestation of abandoned farmland significantly influences soil organic carbon (OC. However, the dynamics between OC inputs after afforestation and the original OC are not well understood. To learn more about soil OC dynamics after afforestation of farmland, we measured the soil OC content in paired forest and farmland plots in Shaanxi Province, China. The forest plots had been established on farmland 18, 24, 48, 100, and 200 yr previously. The natural (13C abundance of soil organic matter was also analyzed to distinguish between crop- and forest-derived C in the afforested soils. We observed a nonlinear accumulation of total OC in the 0-80 cm depth of the mineral soil across time. Total soil OC accumulated more rapidly under forest stands aged 18 to 48 yr than under forest stands aged 100 or 200 yrs. The rate of OC accumulation was also greater in the 0-10 cm depth than in the 10-80 cm depth. Forest-derived OC in afforested soils also accumulated nonlinearly across time, with the greatest increase in the 0-20 cm depth. Forest-derived OC in afforest soils accounted for 52-86% of the total OC in the 0-10 cm depth, 36-61% of the total OC in the 10-20 cm depth, and 11-50% of the total OC in the 20-80 cm depth. Crop-derived OC concentrations in the 0-20 cm depth decreased slightly after afforestation, but there was no change in crop-derived OC concentrations in the 20-80 cm depth. The results of our study support the claim that afforestation of farmland can sequester atmospheric CO(2 by increasing soil OC stocks. Changes in the OC stocks of mineral soils after afforestation appear to be influenced mainly by the input of forest-derived C rather than by the loss of original OC.

  2. PBDE and PCB accumulation in benthos near marine wastewater outfalls: The role of sediment organic carbon

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in sediments and benthic invertebrates near submarine municipal outfalls in Victoria and Vancouver, B.C., Canada, two areas with contrasting receiving environments. PBDE concentrations in wastewater exceeded those of the legacy PCBs by eight times at Vancouver and 35 times at Victoria. Total PBDE concentrations in benthic invertebrates were higher near Vancouver than Victoria, despite lower concentrations in sediments, and correlated with organic carbon-normalized concentrations in sediment. Principal Components Analysis indicated uptake of individual PBDE congeners was determined by sediment properties (organic carbon, grain size), while PCB congener uptake was governed by physico-chemical properties (octanol-water partitioning coefficient). Results suggest the utility of sediment quality guidelines for PBDEs and likely PCBs benefit if based on organic carbon-normalized concentrations. Also, where enhanced wastewater treatment increases the PBDEs to particulate organic carbon ratio in effluent, nearfield benthic invertebrates may face increased PBDE accumulation. - Highlights: ► Physical receiving environment affects PBDE bioaccumulation by benthic invertebrates. ► PBDE uptake is correlated with organic-carbon normalized sediment concentrations. ► PBDE and PCB congener uptake are governed by different properties. ► PBDE sediment quality guidelines may benefit by using organic carbon-normalized data. ► Enhanced wastewater treatment may mean increased benthic invertebrate PBDE bioaccumulation. - The physical receiving environment affects the accumulation of PBDEs by benthic invertebrates near submarine municipal outfalls, and uptake of PBDE congeners is governed by different properties than for PCB congeners.

  3. Accumulation of Organic Matter in Infertile Red Soils and Its Ecological Importance

    2000-01-01

    Field experiments on the decomposition of organic materials and the accumulation of organic carbon in infertile red soils were conducted at the Ecological Experimental Station of Red Soil, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the potential of CO2 sequestration by reclamation and improving the fertility of these soils was estimated. Results showed that in infertile red soils, the humification coefficients of organic materials were rather high, ranging from 0.28 to 0.63 with an average of 0.43, which was 41% higher than those in corresponding red soils with medium fertility. This was mainly attributed to the high clay content, high acidity and low native organic matter content of infertile red soils. Compared to those in corresponding normal red soils, the decomposition rates of organic materials were significantly lower in infertile red soils in the first 2 years, thereafter no significant difference was observed between those in the two kinds of soils. Depending on the kind and amount of organic manure applied, the soil properties and the rotation systems, annual application of organic manure with a rate of 4 500 to 9 000 kg ha-1 increased the organic carbon content in surface 20 cm of infertile red soils by 2.1~7.5 g kg-1 with an average of 4.7 g kg-1 within the first 5 years. The organic carbon content in infertile red soils which received organic manure annually increased linearly in the first 10 years, thereafter it slowed down, implying that the fertility of the infertile red soils could reach middle or high level in 10 years if the soil was managed properly. It was estimated that through exploitation of wastelands, re-establishment of fuel forests and improvement of soil fertility, soils in red soil region of China could sequester an extra 1.50×1015 g of atmospheric CO2.

  4. Tetrodotoxin--distribution and accumulation in aquatic organisms, and cases of human intoxication.

    Noguchi, Tamao; Arakawa, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    Many pufferfish of the family Tetraodontidae possess a potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX). In marine pufferfish species, toxicity is generally high in the liver and ovary, whereas in brackish water and freshwater species, toxicity is higher in the skin. In 1964, the toxin of the California newt was identified as TTX as well, and since then TTX has been detected in a variety of other organisms. TTX is produced primarily by marine bacteria, and pufferfish accumulate TTX via the food chain that begins with these bacteria. Consequently, pufferfish become non-toxic when they are fed TTX-free diets in an environment in which the invasion of TTX-bearing organisms is completely shut off. Although some researchers claim that the TTX of amphibians is endogenous, we believe that it also has an exogenous origin, i.e., from organisms consumed as food. TTX-bearing animals are equipped with a high tolerance to TTX, and thus retain or accumulate TTX possibly as a biologic defense substance. There have been many cases of human intoxication due to the ingestion of TTX-bearing pufferfish, mainly in Japan, China, and Taiwan, and several victims have died. Several cases of TTX intoxication due to the ingestion of small gastropods, including some lethal cases, were recently reported in China and Taiwan, revealing a serious public health issue. PMID:18728726

  5. Effects of COD to Phosphorus Ratios on the Metabolism of PAOs in Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal with Different Carbon Sources

    Tao Jiang; Junguo He; Xiaonan Yang; Jianzheng Li

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the phosphorus removal and metabolism under various COD/P ratio, a sludge highly enriched in PAOs was used to investigate the impacts of COD/P in batch tests under different carbon supply conditions. Acetate, propionate and a mixture of acetate and propionate at a ratio of 3 ∶ 1 ( COD basis) was used as carbon sources with the COD/P of 20, 15,10 and 5�0 gCOD/gP, respectively. The minimum COD/P ratios for complete P removal were found to be 8�24 gCOD/gP for acetate, 11�40 gCOD/gP for propionate and 9�10 gCOD/gP for the 3 ∶ 1 mixture of acetate and propionate. Converted to a mass basis, all three cases had a very similar ratio of 7�7 gVFA/gP, which represented a useful guide for operation of EBPR plants to identify possible shortages inVFAs. The trend in PHV accumulation during the anaerobic period along with the decrease of COD/P ratios suggested that, PAOs may use the TCA pathway for anaerobic VFA uptake to maintain the required NADH production with reduced glycogen degradation. During the aerobic phase, the glycogen pool was reduced but remained enough compared to the requirement for anaerobic VFA uptake, and the synthesis and degradation of glycogen was not the inhibition factor of PAOs.

  6. Chemical Form Matters: Differential Accumulation of Mercury Following Inorganic and Organic Mercury Exposures in Zebrafish Larvae

    Korbas, Malgorzata; MacDonald, Tracy C.; Pickering, Ingrid J.; George, Graham N.; Krone, Patrick H. (Saskatchewan)

    2013-04-08

    Mercury, one of the most toxic elements, exists in various chemical forms each with different toxicities and health implications. Some methylated mercury forms, one of which exists in fish and other seafood products, pose a potential threat, especially during embryonic and early postnatal development. Despite global concerns, little is known about the mechanisms underlying transport and toxicity of different mercury species. To investigate the impact of different mercury chemical forms on vertebrate development, we have successfully combined the zebrafish, a well-established developmental biology model system, with synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging. Our work revealed substantial differences in tissue-specific accumulation patterns of mercury in zebrafish larvae exposed to four different mercury formulations in water. Methylmercury species not only resulted in overall higher mercury burdens but also targeted different cells and tissues than their inorganic counterparts, thus revealing a significant role of speciation in cellular and molecular targeting and mercury sequestration. For methylmercury species, the highest mercury concentrations were in the eye lens epithelial cells, independent of the formulation ligand (chloride versus L-cysteine). For inorganic mercury species, in absence of L-cysteine, the olfactory epithelium and kidney accumulated the greatest amounts of mercury. However, with L-cysteine present in the treatment solution, mercuric bis-L-cysteineate species dominated the treatment, significantly decreasing uptake. Our results clearly demonstrate that the common differentiation between organic and inorganic mercury is not sufficient to determine the toxicity of various mercury species.

  7. Peculiarities of radionuclides' accumulation in benthic organisms and fish in the Barents and Kara Seas

    This work contributes to the joint research programme between the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety and the Murmansk Marine Biological Institute in the Arctic. Attention has been focussed to measuring amounts and locating possible sources of artificial radionuclides in the Russian Arctic Sea area. Sediments, algae, bottom fauna and fish samples were collected during several scientific expeditions in 1993 and 1994. The results on radionuclide accumulation in benthic organisms and fish are presented in this paper. It is concluded that the concentration of 137Cs in benthic fauna and commercial fish and algae of the Barents and Kara Seas is generally low and originates from the global fallout. The highest levels of 137Cs are determined in the animals inhabiting the silty bottom 6 refs., 3 figs

  8. Intracellular Accumulation of Glycine in Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms in Activated Sludge, a Novel Storage Mechanism under Dynamic Anaerobic-Aerobic Conditions.

    Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Kristiansen, Rikke; Vestergaard, Mette; Wimmer, Reinhard; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-07-01

    Dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions are applied to wastewater treatment plants to select polyphosphate-accumulating organisms to carry out enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Acetate is a well-known substrate to stimulate this process, and here we show that different amino acids also are suitable substrates, with glycine as the most promising. (13)C-labeled glycine and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were applied to investigate uptake and potential storage products when activated sludge was fed with glycine under anaerobic conditions. Glycine was consumed by the biomass, and the majority was stored intracellularly as free glycine and fermentation products. Subsequently, in the aerobic phase without addition of external substrate, the stored glycine was consumed. The uptake of glycine and oxidation of intracellular metabolites took place along with a release and uptake of orthophosphate, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography using (3)H-labeled glycine revealed uncultured actinobacterial Tetrasphaera as a dominant glycine consumer. Experiments with Tetrasphaera elongata as representative of uncultured Tetrasphaera showed that under anaerobic conditions it was able to take up labeled glycine and accumulate this and other labeled metabolites to an intracellular concentration of approximately 4 mM. All components were consumed under subsequent aerobic conditions. Intracellular accumulation of amino acids seems to be a novel storage strategy for polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria under dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions. PMID:25956769

  9. Initial cerebral HM-PAO distribution compared to LCBF: use of a model which considers cerebral HM-PAO trapping kinetics

    The cerebral uptake of [99mTc]-d,l-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime complex (HM-PAO) was compared to LCBF determined simultaneously with [14C]iodoantipyrine (IAP) using double radionuclide quantitative digital autoradiography. Awake male rats were given intravenous injections of a mixture of 50 microCi IAP and 15 mCi of HM-PAO and killed 20 s after tracer activity had first reached the brain. Two separate autoradiograms were produced from each 20 microns brain section. The autoradiograms were digitized, corrected for cross-contamination, and then converted into images of individual tracer concentration. The diffusible tracer model was used to convert the IAP concentration images into LCBF images. Regional HM-PAO concentration was found not to be linearly related to LCBF as determined with the IAP, and therefore a simple microsphere type model was inadequate in relating HM-PAO uptake to LCBF. A better HM-PAO uptake--LCBF correlation was obtained when the HM-PAO arterial input function was corrected for very rapidly produced, non-cerebrally extracted, metabolites and a kinetic model was used that considered the rate of intracerebral metabolism of HM-PAO to a retained metabolite. Even using this model, however, some differences between HM-PAO uptake and LCBF occurred in certain brain regions. Because these differences were small and the HM-PAO uptake pattern has been shown to be constant for many minutes, HM-PAO can probably be used to estimate LCBF in patients with single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging

  10. Organ-specific accumulation, transportation, and elimination of methylmercury and inorganic mercury in a low Hg accumulating fish.

    Peng, Xiaoyan; Liu, Fengjie; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2016-08-01

    Low mercury (Hg) concentrations down to several nanograms Hg per gram of wet tissue are documented in certain fish species such as herbivorous fish, and the underlying mechanisms remain speculative. In the present study, bioaccumulation and depuration patterns of inorganic Hg(II) and methylmercury (MeHg) in a herbivorous rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus were investigated at organ and subcellular levels following waterborne or dietary exposures. The results showed that the efflux rate constants of Hg(II) and MeHg were 0.104 d(-1) and 0.024 d(-1) , respectively, and are probably the highest rate constants recorded in fish thus far. The dietary MeHg assimilation efficiency (68%) was much lower than those in other fish species (∼90%). The predominant distribution of MeHg in fish muscle was attributable to negligible elimination of MeHg from muscle (< 0) and efficient elimination of MeHg from gills (0.12 d(-1) ), liver (0.17 d(-1) ), and intestine (0.20 d(-1) ), as well as efficient transportation of MeHg from other organs into muscle. In contrast, Hg(II) was much more slowly distributed into muscle but was efficiently eliminated by the intestine (0.13 d(-1) ). Subcellular distribution indicated that some specific membrane proteins in muscle were the primary binding pools for MeHg, and both metallothionein-like proteins and Hg-rich granules were the important components in eliminating both MeHg and Hg(II). Overall, the present study's results suggest that the low tissue Hg concentration in the rabbitfish was partly explained by its unique biokinetics. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2074-2083. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26756981

  11. An alternative approach to reconstructing organic matter accumulation with contrasting watershed disturbance histories from lake sediments

    A number of proxies, including carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N) and stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N), have been used to reconstruct organic matter (OM) profiles from lake sediments and these proxies individually or in combination cannot clearly discriminate different sources. Here we present an alternative approach to elucidate this problem from lake sediments as a function of watershed scale land use changes. Stable isotope signatures of defined OM sources from the study watersheds, Shawnigan Lake (SHL) and Elk Lake (ELL), were compared with sedimentary proxy records. Results from this study reveal that terrestrial inputs and catchment soil coinciding with the watershed disturbances histories probably contributed in recent trophic enrichment in SHL. In contrast, cultural eutrophication in ELL was partially a result of input from catchment soil (agricultural activities) with significant input from lake primary production as well. Results were consistent in both IsoSource (IsoSource version 1.2 is a Visual Basic program used for source separation, ( (http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/models/isosource/isosource.htm)) and discriminant analysis (statistical classification technique). - The study shows an alternative approach to reconstruct organic matter accumulation using stable isotopes from lake sediments

  12. Community structure evolution and enrichment of glycogen-accumulating organisms producing polyhydroxyalkanoates from fermented molasses.

    Pisco, Ana R; Bengtsson, Simon; Werker, Alan; Reis, Maria A M; Lemos, Paulo C

    2009-07-01

    An open mixed culture was enriched with glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) by using a sequencing batch reactor and treating an agroindustrial waste (sugar cane molasses) under cyclic anaerobic-aerobic conditions. Over a 1-year operating period, the culture exhibited a very stable GAO phenotype with an average polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) content of 17% total suspended solids. However, the GAO microbial community evolved over the course of operation to a culture exhibiting unusual characteristics in producing PHAs comprised of short-chain-length monomers, namely, 3-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutyrate, 3-hydroxyvalerate, and 3-hydroxy-2-methylvalerate, and also, up to 31 mol% of the medium-chain-length (MCL) monomer 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx). Microbial community analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed a concurrent long-term drift in the GAO community balance, from mainly "Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis" to mainly Defluviicoccus vanus-related organisms. The production of 3HHx was confirmed by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and appeared to be related to the increased presence of D. vanus-related GAOs. These results suggest a broadened spectrum of material, chemical, and mechanical properties that can be achieved for biopolymers produced by open mixed cultures from fermented waste. The increased spectrum of polymer properties brings a wider scope of potential applications. PMID:19465533

  13. Silver nanoparticle accumulation by aquatic organisms – neutron activation as a tool for the environmental fate of nanoparticles tracing

    Asztemborska Monika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Water environments are noted as being some of the most exposed to the influence of toxic nanoparticles (NPs. Therefore, there is a growing need for the investigation of the accumulation and toxicity of NPs to aquatic organisms. In our studies neutron activation followed by gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting were used for studying the accumulation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs by freshwater larvae of Chironomus and fish Danio rerio. The influence of exposition time, concentration and the source of nanoparticles on the efficiency of AgNP accumulation were studied. It was found that AgNPs are efficiently accumulated by Chironomid larvae for the first 30 hours of exposition; then, the amount of silver nanoparticles decreases. The silver content in larvae increases together with the NP concentration in water. Larvae which have accumulated AgNPs can be a source of nanoparticles for fish and certainly higher levels of Ag in the trophic chain. In comparison with water contamination, silver nanoparticles are more efficiently accumulated if fish are fed with AgNP-contaminated food. Finally, it was concluded that the applied study strategy, including neutron activation of nanoparticles, is very useful technique for tracing the uptake and accumulation of NPs in organisms

  14. Spatial variation of salt-marsh organic and inorganic deposition and organic carbon accumulation: Inferences from the Venice lagoon, Italy

    Roner, M.; D'Alpaos, A.; Ghinassi, M.; Marani, M.; Silvestri, S.; Franceschinis, E.; Realdon, N.

    2016-07-01

    inorganic soil content near the edge is due to the preferential deposition of inorganic sediment from the adjacent creek, and to the rapid decomposition of the relatively large biomass production. The higher organic matter content in the inner part of the marsh results from the small amounts of suspended sediment that makes it to the inner marsh, and to the low decomposition rate which more than compensates for the lower biomass productivity in the low-lying inner zones. Finally, the average soil organic carbon density from the LOI measurements is estimated to be 0.044 g C cm-3. The corresponding average carbon accumulation rate for the San Felice and Rigà salt marshes, 132 g C m-2 yr-1, highlights the considerable carbon stock and sequestration rate associated with coastal salt marshes.

  15. [Relationships between cadmium accumulation and organic acids in leaves of Solanum nigrum L. as a cadmium-hyperaccumulator].

    Sun, Rui-lian; Zhou, Qi-xing; Wang, Xin

    2006-04-01

    The influence of different cadmium concentrations on the organic acid level in leaves of the Cd hyperaccumulator, Solanum nigrum L., in particular, the relationship of organic acids with Cd accumulation in S. nigrum was investigated based on the pot-culture experiment. The results showed that the Cd concentration in S. nigrum leaves exceeded 100 microg x g(-1), the threshold value used to define Cd-hyperaccumulators, and the bioaccumulation coefficient of cadmium in shoots of S. nigrum was higher than 1 when Cd concentration in soil was 25 microg x g(-1). The level of organic acids in leaves of S. nigrum had significant differences between the seedling stage and the mature stage. At the seedling stage, the sequence of organic acids in leaves of S. nigrum was acetic acid> tartaric acid> malic acid> citric acid. On the contrary, the accumulation of organic acids in S. nigrum at the mature stage was approximately in the following sequence malic acid> tartaric acid, acetic acid> citric acid. The significant positive correlation between Cd accumulation in leaves of S. nigrum and the concentration of tartaric acid in leaves of S. nigrum was observed at the seedling stage, whereas there was a significant positive correlation between Cd accumulation in leaves of S. nigrum and both acetic and citric acid concentrations at the mature stage. These results indicated that tartaric, acetic and citric acids in leaves of S. nigrum might act as the indication of Cd hyperaccumulation. PMID:16768003

  16. Effect of organic carbon and metal accumulation on the bacterial communities in sulphidogenic sediments.

    Bueche, Matthieu; Junier, Pilar

    2016-06-01

    A unique geochemical setting in Lake Cadagno, Switzerland, has led to the accumulation of insoluble metal sulphides in the sedimentary record as the result of past airborne pollution. This offers an exceptional opportunity to study the effect of these metals on the bacterial communities in sediments, and in particular to investigate further the link between metal contamination and an increase in the populations of endospore-forming bacteria observed previously in other metal-contaminated sediments. A decrease in organic carbon and total bacterial counts was correlated with an increase in the numbers of endospores in the oldest sediment samples, showing the first environmental evidence of a decrease in nutrient availability as a trigger of sporulation. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the two dominant bacterial phyla throughout the sediment, the former in an area with high sulphidogenic activity, and the latter in the oldest samples. Even though the dominant Firmicutes taxa were stable along the sediment core and did not vary with changes in metal contamination, the prevalence of some molecular species like Clostridium sp. was positively correlated with metal sulphide concentration. However, this cannot be generalized to all endospore-forming species. Overall, the community composition supports the hypothesis of sporulation as the main mechanism explaining the dominance of endospore formers in the deepest part of the sediment core, while metal contamination in the form of insoluble metal sulphide deposits appears not to be linked with sporulation as a mechanism of metal tolerance in this sulphidogenic ecosystem. PMID:26780045

  17. Accumulation kinetics and equilibrium partitioning coefficients for semivolatile organic pollutants in forest litter.

    Nizzetto, Luca; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Gan; Komprdova, Klara; Komprda, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Soils are important stores of environmentally cycling semivolatile organic contaminants (SVOCs) and represent relevant atmospheric secondary sources whenever environmental conditions favor re-emission. The exchange between air and soil is controlled by resistances posed by interfacial matrices such as the ubiquitously distributed vegetation litter. For the first time, this study focused on the experimental characterization of accumulation parameters for SVOCs in litter under real field conditions. The logarithm of the litter-air equilibrium partitioning coefficient ranged 6.8-8.9 and had a similar dependence on logKOA as that of plant foliage and soil data. Uptake and release rates were also KOA dependent with values (relevant for real environmental conditions) ranging 30,000-150,000 d(-1) and 0.0004-0.0134 d(-1), respectively. The overall mass transfer coefficient v controlling litter-air exchange (0.03-1.4 cm s(-1)) was consistent with previously reported data of v for foliage in forest canopies after normalization on leaf area index. Obtained data suggest that litter holds the potential for influencing atmospheric fugacity in proximity to soil, likely affecting overall exchange of SVOCs between the soil reservoir and the atmosphere. PMID:24320106

  18. Anaerobic biodegradability and digestion in accumulation systems for concentrated black water and kitchen organic-wastes.

    Elmitwalli, T A; van Leeuwen, M; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Sanders, W; Zeeman, G

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of two accumulation-systems (AC) for anaerobic digestion and storage of concentrated black water with (AC1) or without (AC2) urine + kitchen organic-wastes was investigated. The waste(water) was collected by two vacuum toilet/transport systems. The influent-total COD of the AC2 (53,000 mg/L) was more concentrated by four times than that of the AC1. The suspended COD represented the major part (71-73%) of influent total COD of the two systems. The batch-experiments results showed a high anaerobic biodegradability of the waste(water) (> 85%). The AC systems demonstrated stable performance. There was no inhibition effect of NH4 and VFA concentration decreased in time. Total COD removal of 58% was achieved in both systems, after 105 days at 20 degrees C. Moreover, if only the supernatant in AC1 is withdrawn and the settled sludge stays for the next runs, only 20% of the influent total COD will be in the supernatant. In AC2, 74% of influent ortho-P was removed by precipitation. Therefore, the settled sludge in the AC2 had a high total-P concentration of 1,300 mg/L. The C:N:P ratios of the supernatant and the sludge were 26:13:1 and 35:4.5:1, respectively, in the AC1, and were 28:14:1 and 32:2.4:1, respectively, in AC2. PMID:16784201

  19. Building Bridges to the Middle Class: The Role of Community-Based Organizations in Asian American Wealth Accumulation

    R. Varisa Patraporn; Deirdre Pfeiffer; Paul Ong

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increasing provision of social and financial services by community-based organizations (CBOs), few studies focus on the roles that Asian American-serving CBOs play in helping their economically and culturally diverse communities accumulate wealth. The authors explore this overlooked sector by interviewing key informants in 30 mostly Asian American asset-building organizations nationwide. Participating CBOs respond to the financial needs of their diverse communities primarily in th...

  20. Impact of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation, feed channel pressure drop increase and permeate flux decline in membrane systems

    Bucs, Szilard

    2014-12-01

    The influence of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation (biofouling) and pressure drop development in membrane filtration systems was investigated. Nutrient load is the product of nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity. Biofouling - excessive growth of microbial biomass in membrane systems - hampers membrane performance. The influence of biodegradable organic nutrient load on biofouling was investigated at varying (i) crossflow velocity, (ii) nutrient concentration, (iii) shear, and (iv) feed spacer thickness. Experimental studies were performed with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) containing a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and a 31 mil thick feed spacer, commonly applied in practice in RO and nanofiltration (NF) spiral-wound membrane modules. Numerical modeling studies were done with identical feed spacer geometry differing in thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil). Additionally, experiments were done applying a forward osmosis (FO) membrane with varying spacer thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil), addressing the permeate flux decline and biofilm development. Assessed were the development of feed channel pressure drop (MFS studies), permeate flux (FO studies) and accumulated biomass amount measured by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC).Our studies showed that the organic nutrient load determined the accumulated amount of biomass. The same amount of accumulated biomass was found at constant nutrient load irrespective of linear flow velocity, shear, and/or feed spacer thickness. The impact of the same amount of accumulated biomass on feed channel pressure drop and permeate flux was influenced by membrane process design and operational conditions. Reducing the nutrient load by pretreatment slowed-down the biofilm formation. The impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance was reduced by applying a lower crossflow velocity and/or a thicker and/or a modified geometry feed spacer. The results indicate that cleanings can be delayed

  1. The effect of soil macrofauna on organic matter accumulation and soil formation in post-mining landscape

    Frouz, Jan

    Budapest : Institute of Ecology and Botany HAS, 2002. s. 85-86. [European Conference on Restoration Ecology /3./. 25.08.2002-31.08.2002, Budapest] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : soil macrofauna * organic matter accumulation * post-mining landscape Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. Differences in technetium-99 accumulation and distribution between organs in male and female lobsters collected from Norwegian coastal waters

    In this report, 99Tc results for lobsters caught along the Norwegian coast between 2001 and 2005 are presented. The high accumulation of 99Tc in lobsters compared to other crustecea is confirmed in this report, as well as the clear differences between males and females. Concentration factors have been estimated for each gender and also for different organs. (author)

  3. Weed management practices for organic production of trailing blackberry. II. Accumulation and loss of plant biomass and nutrients

    A study was conducted to assess the impact of cultivar and weed management on accumulation and loss of plant biomass and nutrients during the first 3 years of establishment when using organic fertilizer in trailing blackberry. Treatments included two cultivars, Marion and Black Diamond, each with ei...

  4. Conversion from cropland to short rotation coppice willow and poplar: Accumulation of soil organic carbon

    Georgiadis, Petros; Stupak, Inge; Vesterdal, Lars; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    it was not significant. The increasing soil carbon stocks in SRC stands on former cropland can be attributed to the increased leaf and litter input from the perennial SRC plantations as well as less stimulation of organic matter decomposition after cessation of annual. Initial losses of soil carbon after the land use change have also been reported by other studies, but the soil carbon accumulation high rates suggest that SRC can act as sinks at least for some decades. Our results indicate that a steady state has not yet been reached after 29 years. Key words: Bioenergy,Land Use Change, poplar, Short Rotation Coppice, Soil Organic Carbon, willow,

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Pyocin Production Affects Population Dynamics within Mixed-Culture Biofilms▿ †

    Waite, Richard D.; Curtis, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    Transcriptomic and phenotypic studies showed that pyocins are produced in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 aerobic and anaerobic biofilms. Pyocin activity was found to be high in slow-growing anaerobic biofilms but transient in aerobic biofilms. Biofilm coculture of strain PAO1 and a pyocin-sensitive isolate showed that pyocin production had a significant impact on bacterial population dynamics, particularly under anaerobic conditions.

  6. Factors controlling accumulation of soil organic carbon along vegetation succession in a typical karst region in Southwest China.

    Liu, Shujuan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Kelin; Pan, Fujing; Yang, Shan; Shu, Shiyan

    2015-07-15

    Vegetation succession enhances the accumulation of carbon in the soil. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation in different vegetation types in the karst region of Southwest China. The goal of this study was to identify and prioritize the effects of environmental parameters, including soil physico-chemical properties, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, and litter characteristics, on SOC accumulation along a vegetation succession sere (grassland, shrubland, secondary forest, and primary forest) in the karst landscape of Southwest China. Relationships between these parameters and SOC were evaluated by redundancy analysis. The results showed that SOC accumulation was significantly different among vegetation types (Pforest). Soil biochemistry and physical characteristics significantly affected the accumulation of SOC. Soil microbial biomass showed a predominant effect on SOC in each of the four vegetation types. In addition, the soil physical property (especially the silt content) was another controlling factor in the early stages (grassland), and urease activity and saccharase activity were important controlling factors in the early-middle and middle-late stages, respectively. Litter characteristics only showed mild effects on SOC accumulation. Variation partitioning analysis showed that the contribution of sole main factors to SOC variation decreased, while the interaction effect among parameters increased along the succession gradient. PMID:25828412

  7. Radiopharmacokinetics and incorporation dosimetry from 99mTc-HM-PAO

    After intravenous injection of 185 MBq 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime (HM-PAO) long-time retention measurements were made on four healthy voluntary subjects up to 72 hours. Whole body profiles as a function of time were measured with a whole body counter. From the whole body profiles in man only the total body retention and the retention in the brain could be calculated. For this reason, biokinetic animal data were collected from quantitative organ measurements in mice. The biokinetic animal data were transferred to man as the cumulative activity for the various organs. The mean absorbed dose for selected organs was calculated using the concept of absorbed fractions (MIRD method). Except the thyroid gland the absorbed dose for all selected organs is within the range from 2.8 μGy/MBq for the testes to 10.4 μGy/MBq for the upper large intestinal wall. The thyroid gland receives the highest dose of all organs considered (24.3 μGy/MBq). The absorbed dose to the brain derived from human data (10.3 μGy/MBq) exceeds that derived from animal data by a factor of about 2. (orig.)

  8. ACCUMULATION OF POLYCHLORINATED ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS FROM SEDIMENT BY THREE BENTHIC MARINE SPECIES

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to measure the accumulation of selected polychlorinated compounds by marine benthos exposed to environmentally contaminated sediment. andworms (Nereis virens), clams (Macoma nasuta), and grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were exposed to sedim...

  9. A Study on Organic Inclusions in Clastic Reservoir Rocks and Their Application to the Assessment of Oil and Gas Accumulations

    张文淮; 张志坚; 等

    1996-01-01

    Terrigenous clastic reservoir rocks are widespread in China,and nearly all the industrial oil and gas accumulations in eastern China occur in the clastic rocks.The study shows that organic inclusions are mostly distributed in the secondary fissures and pores which were ormed in the process of oil-rock interaction,rather than in the cements or secondary enlargements. The organic inclusions are dominantly organic gas-rich or are composed of pure hydrocarbons.Homogenization temperatures range mainly from 120℃ to 130℃,which shows a relatively high maturity of organic matter.Vertical and horizontal temperature changes provide the grounds for the investigation of basin evolution and thermal fluid-kinetics-model.Fluorescence spectral characteristics o the organic inclusions indicate that oils and gases in the area studied probably have experienced two-stage or two-time migration.Micro-fluorescence rescearch is one of the effective approaches to oil/source correlation and oil migration-stage determination.The abundance and occurrence of organic inclusions is one of the indicators of oil and gas abundance and accumulation in rock layers.With the help of other informatio,organic inclusions can provide the basis for the prospective assessment of oil and gas in clastic reservoir rocks.

  10. Factors controlling accumulation of soil organic carbon along vegetation succession in a typical karst region in Southwest China

    Vegetation succession enhances the accumulation of carbon in the soil. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation in different vegetation types in the karst region of Southwest China. The goal of this study was to identify and prioritize the effects of environmental parameters, including soil physico-chemical properties, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, and litter characteristics, on SOC accumulation along a vegetation succession sere (grassland, shrubland, secondary forest, and primary forest) in the karst landscape of Southwest China. Relationships between these parameters and SOC were evaluated by redundancy analysis. The results showed that SOC accumulation was significantly different among vegetation types (P < 0.01) and increased with vegetation succession (from 29.10 g·kg−1 in grassland to 73.92 g·kg−1 in primary forest). Soil biochemistry and physical characteristics significantly affected the accumulation of SOC. Soil microbial biomass showed a predominant effect on SOC in each of the four vegetation types. In addition, the soil physical property (especially the silt content) was another controlling factor in the early stages (grassland), and urease activity and saccharase activity were important controlling factors in the early-middle and middle-late stages, respectively. Litter characteristics only showed mild effects on SOC accumulation. Variation partitioning analysis showed that the contribution of sole main factors to SOC variation decreased, while the interaction effect among parameters increased along the succession gradient. - Highlights: • Vegetation restoration is conducive to soil carbon sequestration in karst areas. • The factors controlling SOC accumulation differed along vegetation succession. • The interaction effect among significant factors became more and more prominent along succession

  11. Factors controlling accumulation of soil organic carbon along vegetation succession in a typical karst region in Southwest China

    Liu, Shujuan [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station of Karst Ecosystem, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huanjiang, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 547100 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Wei [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station of Karst Ecosystem, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huanjiang, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 547100 (China); Wang, Kelin, E-mail: kelin@isa.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station of Karst Ecosystem, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huanjiang, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 547100 (China); Pan, Fujing [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station of Karst Ecosystem, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huanjiang, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 547100 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Shan [Changsha university, Changsha 410003 (China); Shu, Shiyan [Changjiang Project Supervision & Consultancy Co. Ltd, Wuhan 430010 (China); Changjiang Ecology (Hubei) Technology Development LLC, Wuhan 430010 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Vegetation succession enhances the accumulation of carbon in the soil. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation in different vegetation types in the karst region of Southwest China. The goal of this study was to identify and prioritize the effects of environmental parameters, including soil physico-chemical properties, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, and litter characteristics, on SOC accumulation along a vegetation succession sere (grassland, shrubland, secondary forest, and primary forest) in the karst landscape of Southwest China. Relationships between these parameters and SOC were evaluated by redundancy analysis. The results showed that SOC accumulation was significantly different among vegetation types (P < 0.01) and increased with vegetation succession (from 29.10 g·kg{sup −1} in grassland to 73.92 g·kg{sup −1} in primary forest). Soil biochemistry and physical characteristics significantly affected the accumulation of SOC. Soil microbial biomass showed a predominant effect on SOC in each of the four vegetation types. In addition, the soil physical property (especially the silt content) was another controlling factor in the early stages (grassland), and urease activity and saccharase activity were important controlling factors in the early-middle and middle-late stages, respectively. Litter characteristics only showed mild effects on SOC accumulation. Variation partitioning analysis showed that the contribution of sole main factors to SOC variation decreased, while the interaction effect among parameters increased along the succession gradient. - Highlights: • Vegetation restoration is conducive to soil carbon sequestration in karst areas. • The factors controlling SOC accumulation differed along vegetation succession. • The interaction effect among significant factors became more and more prominent along succession.

  12. Soil organic carbon accumulation in afforested/abandoned arable fields in Taiwan

    Lin, Yi-Han; Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    Afforestation or abandonment of arable fields has been proposed as a way to increase terrestrial carbon storage and mitigate anthropogenic carbon emissions. When the arable fields are afforested or abandoned, the accumulation in soil organic carbon (SOC) is a key pool to sequestrate carbon. However, high uncertainties still exist in the tropics and subtropics because of fast SOC turnover rates and variable land use managements in these areas. In this study, a total of eleven sites with afforested/abandoned age over 15 years and elevation ranging from 16 to 2,056 m were investigated. We examined the increments of SOC by comparing with the adjacent tilled (e.g. croplands) and non-tilled (e.g. tea plantation or orchards) fields in two sampling layers, 0 - 10 and 10 - 20 cm in depth. In addition, density fractionation of SOC was also conducted in order to differentiate SOC into light fraction, intra-aggregate fraction, and heavy fraction to gain more information about the mechanism of SOC sequestration. Our results indicated that the increments of SOC concentration and stock varied with elevation, land use management, and soil depth. For the sites with elevation below 500 m, the SOC concentration and stock in the abandoned fields were 14.3 ± 0.9 mg C g‑1 and 14.6 ± 4.6 Mg C ha‑1 higher than the adjacent tilled fields, and 10.2 ± 6.3 mg C g‑1and 6.4 ± 6.2 Mg C ha‑1 higher than the adjacent non-tilled fields for surface 0-10 cm. For the sites with elevation above 500 m, the SOC concentration in the abandoned arable fields were 22.8 ± 12.8 mg C g‑1 higher than the adjacent tilled fields, but the SOC stock might not be different due to high stone content in abandoned field. Moreover, the SOC concentration and stock in abandoned field were not different or even less than non-tilled fields where organic amendments were frequently applied. The increments of SOC for 10-20 cm soils were less evident than those for surface 0-10 cm soils, and the differences were

  13. Safety evaluation of pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS): Genotoxicity and sub-chronic studies

    Garthoff, J.A.; Heemskerk, S.; Hempenius, R.A.; Lina, B.A.R.; Krul, C.A.M.; Koeman, J.H.; Speijers, G.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS) are non-digestible carbohydrates to be used in infant formulae and medical nutrition. To support its safety, the genotoxic potential of pAOS was evaluated. pAOS was not mutagenic in the Ames test. Positive results were obtained in the chromosome aberrati

  14. Naturally evolved enhanced Cd tolerance of Dianthus carthusianorum L. is not related to accumulation of thiol peptides and organic acids.

    Wójcik, Małgorzata; Dresler, Sławomir; Plak, Andrzej; Tukiendorf, Anna

    2015-05-01

    Two contrasting ecotypes of Dianthus carthusianorum L., metallicolous (M) and nonmetallicolous (NM), were cultivated in hydroponics at 0-50 μM Cd for 14 days to compare their Cd accumulation, sensitivity and tolerance mechanisms. While both ecotypes contained similar concentrations of Cd in the shoots and roots, the M ecotype was more Cd-tolerant (as measured by fresh weight production and root and leaf viability). Both ecotypes accumulated phytochelatins (PCs) in response to Cd with a higher amount thereof found in the NM ecotype. Concentrations of PCs remained unchanged with increasing Cd concentrations in the root tissues, but their content in the shoots increased. The addition of L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) diminished glutathione (GSH) accumulation and arrested PC production, which increased the sensitivity to Cd of the NM, but not M ecotype. Organic acids (malate and citrate) as well as proline accumulation did not change significantly after Cd exposition and was at the same level in both ecotypes. The enhanced Cd tolerance of the M ecotype of D. carthusianorum cannot be explained in terms of restricted Cd uptake and differential production of PCs, organic acids or proline; some other mechanisms must be involved in its adaptation to the high Cd content in the environment. PMID:25510617

  15. ACCUMULATION OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOIC ACIDS BY AZOTOBACTER CHROOCOCCUM MAL-201 FROM ORGANIC WASTE

    Soma Pal Saha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Azotobacter chroococcum MAL-201 (MTCC 3853, a free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium accumulated intracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid [P(3HB] accounting 69% of cell dry weight (CDW when grown in nitrogrn-free Stockdale medium containing 2% (w/v glucose. It also produced copolymer of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate co-3-hydroxyvalerate [P(3HB-co-3HV] using glucose as primary carbon source and valerate cas cosubstrate. To make the polymer production cost effective four types of waste material of different origin were tested for growth and polymer production. Stockdale medium supplemented with 1% (w/v waste materials failed to yield good growth and polymer accumulation. Two–step cultivation was adopted for better growth and enhanced polymer accumulation. The candy factory waste was most suitable for synthesis of P(3HB accounting 17.8 and 40.58% using single and two-step cultivation conditions respectively. Wastes of domestic and poultry origin produced P(3HB-co-3HV with 3HV content 28.8 and 21.5 mol% respectively in two-step cultivation. Increase concentration of these wastes resulted in further upliftment of 3HV content of polymer with reduced growth and polymer accumulation. However, at optimum incubation the strain MAL-201 cells accumulated P(3HB 48.5% of CDW (at 40h from candy factory waste and P(3HB-co-3HV 24.75 % of CDW with 3HV 34.65 mol % from domestic waste. Intrinsic viscosity, molecular weight and thermal degradation of the polymers accumulated in the cells grown in glucose, glucose with valerate and glucose with waste were compared.

  16. Denitrifying capability and community dynamics of glycogen accumulating organisms during sludge granulation in an anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor

    Zhang Bin; Xue Bin; Qiu Zhigang; Chen Zhiqiang; Li Junwen; Gong Taishi; Zou Wenci; Wang Jingfeng

    2015-01-01

    Denitrifying capability of glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) has received great attention in environmental science and microbial ecology. Combining this ability with granule processes would be an interesting attempt. Here, a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated to enrich GAOs and enable sludge granulation. The results showed that the GAO granules were cultivated successfully and the granules had denitrifying capability. The batch experiments demonstrated that all ...

  17. Synthesis of the d,I-HM-PAO and formulation of nucleo-equipment for the obtention of 99m Tc-(d,I)-HM-PAO

    Most brain imaging radiopharmaceuticals are conventional hydrophilic compounds that are excluded from entering the normal brain by an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB). Under pathologic conditions, the barrier is disrupted and radiotracer concentrates in the leisure for positive identification. 99m Tc- hexa methyl propylene amine oxime (99m Tc-HM-PAO) is a newer-type lipophilic agent that enter the normal brain through an intact BBB. Studies with this agent offer the promise of measuring cerebral perfusion in the normal and diseased brain. In this paper we present the synthesis and Tc-99m labelling of d,I-HM-PAO. The synthesis of the ligand was carried out by condensation of two molecular equivalents of butanedione monoxime with one molecular equivalent of 1,3 propanediamine provided a bis imine intermediate, which was reduced with sodium borohydride to get the meso and d,I diastereoisomers of HM-PAO. Separation of these was achieved by fractional crystallization. 99m Tc-(d,I)HM-PAO was obtained by stannous ion reduction of Mo-99/Tc-99m generator eluate in the presence of the ligand. Complex radiochemical purity was determined by instant thin layer chromatography and paper chromatography. Finally, we obtained 99m Tc-(d,I)HM-PAO with a high radiochemical yield, in excess of 90%. However, for subsequent clinical studies the preparation has to be done a few minutes before application because our product has a low stability. (Author)

  18. Modern accumulation rates and sources of organic carbon in the NE Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberian Peninsula)

    Organic carbon (OC) content, elemental (C/N) and isotopic (δ 13C) composition of organic matter (OM) constrain relative contributions from both marine and terrestrial sources to modern sediments in the NE Gulf of Cadiz (GoC) shelf. C/N and (δ 13C) indicate a transition from a dominantly marine to a terrestrial input of OM deposited in Bay of Cadiz and the Guadalquivir prodelta. OC and mass accumulation rates (MARs, based on bulk density and 210Pb-derived sediment MAR) suggest that labile OM from primary productivity accounts for the low OC content and burial rates in sediments in the NE GoC shelf. (author)

  19. Evolution and accumulation of organic foulants on hydrophobic and hydrophilic membrane surfaces in a submerged membrane bioreactor

    Matar, Gerald

    2015-09-07

    Membrane surface modification is attracting more attention to mitigate biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Five membranes differing in chemistry and hydrophobic/hydrophilic potential were run in parallel in a lab-scale MBR under the same conditions. Membranes were sampled after 1, 10, 20 and 30 days of MBR operation with synthetic wastewater. Subsequently, accumulated organic foulants were characterised using several chemical analytical tools. Results showed similar development of organic foulants with time, illustrating that membrane surface chemistry did not affect the selection of specific organic foulants. Multivariate analysis showed that biofilm samples clustered according to the day of sampling. The composition of organic foulants shifted from protein-like substances towards humics and polysaccharides-like substances. We propose that to control biofouling in MBRs, one should focus less on the membrane surface chemistry.

  20. Geographic variability in organic carbon stock and accumulation rate in sediments of East and Southeast Asian seagrass meadows

    Miyajima, Toshihiro; Hori, Masakazu; Hamaguchi, Masami; Shimabukuro, Hiromori; Adachi, Hiroshi; Yamano, Hiroya; Nakaoka, Masahiro

    2015-04-01

    Organic carbon (OC) stored in the sediments of seagrass meadows has been considered a globally significant OC reservoir. However, the sparsity and regional bias of studies on long-term OC accumulation in coastal sediments have limited reliable estimation of the capacity of seagrass meadows as a global OC sink. We evaluated the amount and accumulation rate of OC in sediment of seagrass meadows and adjacent areas in East and Southeast Asia. In temperate sites, the average OC concentration in the top 30 cm of sediment was higher in seagrass meadows (780-1080 mmol g-1) than in sediments without seagrass cover (52-430 mmol g-1). The average OC in the top 30 cm of subtropical and tropical seagrass meadow sediments ranged from 140 to 440 mmol g-1. Carbon isotope mass balancing suggested that the contribution of seagrass-derived carbon to OC stored in sediments was often relatively minor (temperate: 10-40%; subtropical: 35-82%; tropical: 4-34%) and correlated to the habitat type, being particularly low in estuarine habitats. Stock of OC in the top meter of sediment of all the studied meadows ranged from 38 to 120 Mg ha-1. The sediment accumulation rates were estimated by radiocarbon dating of six selected cores (0.32-1.34 mm yr-1). The long-term OC accumulation rates calculated from the sediment accumulation rate and the top 30 cm average OC concentration for the seagrass meadows (24-101 kg ha-1 yr-1) were considerably lower than the OC accumulation rates previously reported for Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica meadows (580 kg ha-1 yr-1 on average). Current estimates for the global carbon sink capacity of seagrass meadows, which rely largely on Mediterranean studies, may be considerable overestimations.

  1. Accumulation of polychlorinated organic contaminants from sediment by three benthic marine species

    Pruell, R.J.; Rubinstein, N.I.; Taplin, B.K.; LiVolsi, J.A.; Bowen, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to measure the accumulation of selected polychlorinated compounds by marine benthos exposed to environmentally contaminated sediment. Sandworms (Nereis virens), clams (Macoma nasuta), and grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were exposed to sediment collected from the Passaic River, New Jersey. All three species accumulated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the sediment. In addition, a recently identified sulfur containing analog of tetrachlorinated dibenzofurans. The objectives of the study were to determine the relative bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) and selected PCB congeners from bottom sediments as well as to examine the relationship between contaminant concentrations in sediments and biota.

  2. Molecular Characterization of PauR and Its Role in Control of Putrescine and Cadaverine Catabolism through the γ-Glutamylation Pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    Chou, Han Ting; Li, Jeng-Yi; Peng, Yu-Chih; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 grows on a variety of polyamines as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Catabolism of polyamines is mediated by the γ-glutamylation pathway, which is complicated by the existence of multiple homologous enzymes with redundant specificities toward different polyamines for a more diverse metabolic capacity in this organism. Through a series of markerless gene knockout mutants and complementation tests, specific combinations of pauABCD (polyamine utilization) genes...

  3. ACCUMULATION OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS BY ORGANS OF SPARGANIUM ERECTUM L. AND THEIR POTENTIAL USE IN PHYTOREMEDIATION PROCESS

    Agnieszka Edyta Parzych

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of bottom sediments and organs of Sparganium erectum carried out in the summer of 2014 in the city of Lębork, located in Northern Poland. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of macroelements and heavy metals in the leaves, rhizomes and roots S. erectum and in bottom sediments of the Łeba River as well as comparison of accumulation and translocation factors of N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Ni, Cu, Mn, Fe, Cd and Cr in researched organs of aquatic plant. The use of S. erectum for biomonitoring and phytoremediation has also been considered. The results of Mann Whitney U test showed a number of statistically significant differences in the content of chemical elements in the leaves, rhizomes, roots and in bottom sediments. The macroelements are mainly accumulated in leaves and heavy metals are accumulated in roots and rhizomes of S. erectum. Increased Mn and Fe content in roots and rhizomes of S. erectum, in relation this physiological needs, refers to the beneficial effects of this species in the water treatment and sludge from the bottom sediment of manganese and iron compounds. The obtained bioconcentration and translocation factors values allowed to state that S. erectum can be used for phytoremediation of contaminated bottom sediments because retains metals in their roots and limit Mn and Fe mobility from roots and rhizomes to leaves once absorbed by roots of plant.

  4. 99mTc HM-PAO brain perfusion SPECT in brain death

    We have easily carried out and interpreted 99mTc HM-PAO SPECT in a consecutive series of 40 comatose patients with brain damage, without discontinuing therapy. Brain death was diagnosed in 7 patients, by recognising absence of brain perfusion, as shown by no intracranial radionuclide uptake. In patients in whom perfusion was seen on brain scans, HM-PAO SPECT improved assessment of the extent of injury, which in general was larger than suggested by CT. (orig.)

  5. Hydrocortisone and Vitamin D3 stimulation of 32Psub(i)-phosphate accumulation by organ-cultured chick embryo duodenum

    Either vitamin D3 (or 1 α,25-(OH)2-D3) or hydrocortisone (HC) stimulated phosphate accumulation by organ-cultured embryonic chick duodenum. In combination, these two steroids stimulated phosphate uptake synergistically. Phosphate accumulation appeared to be independent of other vitamin D3-stimulated processes: CaBP concentration, cAMP concentration, or alkaline phosphataseactivity. L-phenylalanine, a reported alkaline phosphate inhibitor, when added to the culture medium progressively inhibited either D3- or HC-stimulated phosphate uptake subsequent to culture, but did not inhibit the synergistic action under these conditions L-phenylalanine had no consistent effect on alkaline phosphotase activity but unexpectedly, greatly inhibited vitamin D3 - stimulated CaBP concentration, but only in the absence of HC. Some limited suggestion of an intestinal phosphoprotein sensitve to either vitamin D3 or HC was observed. (orig.)

  6. Fructooligosacharides reduce Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 pathogenicity through distinct mechanisms.

    Mercedes Ortega-González

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is ubiquitously present in the environment and acts as an opportunistic pathogen on humans, animals and plants. We report here the effects of the prebiotic polysaccharide inulin and its hydrolysed form FOS on this bacterium. FOS was found to inhibit bacterial growth of strain PAO1, while inulin did not affect growth rate or yield in a significant manner. Inulin stimulated biofilm formation, whereas a dramatic reduction of the biofilm formation was observed in the presence of FOS. Similar opposing effects were observed for bacterial motility, where FOS inhibited the swarming and twitching behaviour whereas inulin caused its stimulation. In co-cultures with eukaryotic cells (macrophages FOS and, to a lesser extent, inulin reduced the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α. Western blot experiments indicated that the effects mediated by FOS in macrophages are associated with a decreased activation of the NF-κB pathway. Since FOS and inulin stimulate pathway activation in the absence of bacteria, the FOS mediated effect is likely to be of indirect nature, such as via a reduction of bacterial virulence. Further, this modulatory effect is observed also with the highly virulent ptxS mutated strain. Co-culture experiments of P. aeruginosa with IEC18 eukaryotic cells showed that FOS reduces the concentration of the major virulence factor, exotoxin A, suggesting that this is a possible mechanism for the reduction of pathogenicity. The potential of these compounds as components of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory cocktails is discussed.

  7. Fructooligosacharides reduce Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 pathogenicity through distinct mechanisms.

    Ortega-González, Mercedes; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín; Molina-Santiago, Carlos; López-Posadas, Rocío; Pacheco, Daniel; Krell, Tino; Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Abdelali, Daddaoua

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is ubiquitously present in the environment and acts as an opportunistic pathogen on humans, animals and plants. We report here the effects of the prebiotic polysaccharide inulin and its hydrolysed form FOS on this bacterium. FOS was found to inhibit bacterial growth of strain PAO1, while inulin did not affect growth rate or yield in a significant manner. Inulin stimulated biofilm formation, whereas a dramatic reduction of the biofilm formation was observed in the presence of FOS. Similar opposing effects were observed for bacterial motility, where FOS inhibited the swarming and twitching behaviour whereas inulin caused its stimulation. In co-cultures with eukaryotic cells (macrophages) FOS and, to a lesser extent, inulin reduced the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α. Western blot experiments indicated that the effects mediated by FOS in macrophages are associated with a decreased activation of the NF-κB pathway. Since FOS and inulin stimulate pathway activation in the absence of bacteria, the FOS mediated effect is likely to be of indirect nature, such as via a reduction of bacterial virulence. Further, this modulatory effect is observed also with the highly virulent ptxS mutated strain. Co-culture experiments of P. aeruginosa with IEC18 eukaryotic cells showed that FOS reduces the concentration of the major virulence factor, exotoxin A, suggesting that this is a possible mechanism for the reduction of pathogenicity. The potential of these compounds as components of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory cocktails is discussed. PMID:24465697

  8. ACCUMULATION OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOIC ACIDS BY AZOTOBACTER CHROOCOCCUM MAL-201 FROM ORGANIC WASTE

    Soma Pal Saha; A. Patra; P. B. Ghosh; A.K. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Azotobacter chroococcum MAL-201 (MTCC 3853), a free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium accumulated intracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(3HB)] accounting 69% of cell dry weight (CDW) when grown in nitrogrn-free Stockdale medium containing 2% (w/v) glucose. It also produced copolymer of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] using glucose as primary carbon source and valerate cas cosubstrate. To make the polymer production cost effective four types of waste material ...

  9. Methods for detection and visualization of intracellular polymers stored by polyphosphate-accumulating microorganisms.

    Serafim, Luísa S; Lemos, Paulo C; Levantesi, Caterina; Tandoi, Valter; Santos, Helena; Reis, Maria A M

    2002-09-01

    Polyphosphate-accumulating microorganisms (PAOs) are important in enhanced biological phosphorus (P) removal. Considerable effort has been devoted to understanding the biochemical nature of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) and it has been shown that intracellular polymer storage plays an important role in PAO's metabolism. The storage capacity of PAOs gives them a competitive advantage over other microorganisms present that are not able to accumulate internal reserves. Intracellular polymers stored by PAOs include polyphosphate (poly-P), polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and glycogen. Staining procedures for qualitative visualization of polymers by optical microscopy and combinations of these procedures with molecular tools for in situ identification are described here. The strengths and weaknesses of widely used polymer quantification methods that require destruction of samples, are also discussed. Finally, the potential of in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for on-line measurement of intracellular reserves is reported. PMID:12069885

  10. Influence of different fertilization on the dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation in acid and limed soils

    Ieva Jokubauskaite

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil quality has become an important issue in soil science. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC is believed to play an important role in soil processes and in the C, N and P balances, their supplies to plants in all types of soils. It is much more sensitive to soil management than is soil organic matter as a whole, and can be used as a key indicator of soil natural functions. This study aimed to assess the influence of different organic fertilizers on DOC and N, P accumulation. The study was carried out on a moraine loam soil at the Vezaiciai Branch of Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry in 2012. Farmyard manure (FYM (60 t ha -1 and alternative organic fertilizers (wheat straw, rape residues, roots, stubble, perennial grasses were applied on two soil backgrounds - acid and limed. DOC was analysed using an ion chromatograph SKALAR. Application of organic amendments resulted in a significant increase of soil organic carbon (SOC content, which demonstrates a positive role of organic fertilizers in SOC conservation. The combination of different organic fertilizers and liming had a significant positive effect on DOC concentration in the soil. The highest DOC content (0.241 g kg-1 was established in the limed soil fertilized with farmyard manure. The most unfavourable status of DOC was determined in the unlimed, unfertilized soil. The limed and FYM-applied soil had the highest nitrogen (1.47 g kg-1 and phosphorus (0.84 g kg-1 content compared to the other treatments. Organic fertilizers gave a significant positive effect on SOC and DOC content increase in the topsoil. This immediate increase is generally attributed to the presence of soluble materials in the amendments. Application of organic fertilizers in acid and limed soil increased the nutrient stocks and ensured soil chemical indicators at the optimal level for plant growth and thus may provide a mechanism as well as prediction opportunities for soil fertility, conservation

  11. Tetrodotoxin – Distribution and Accumulation in Aquatic Organisms, and Cases of Human Intoxication

    Osamu Arakawa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Many pufferfish of the family Tetraodontidae possess a potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX. In marine pufferfish species, toxicity is generally high in the liver and ovary, whereas in brackish water and freshwater species, toxicity is higher in the skin. In 1964, the toxin of the California newt was identified as TTX as well, and since then TTX has been detected in a variety of other organisms. TTX is produced primarily by marine bacteria, and pufferfish accumulate TTX via the food chain that begins with these bacteria. Consequently, pufferfish become non-toxic when they are fed TTX-free diets in an environment in which the invasion of TTX-bearing organisms is completely shut off. Although some researchers claim that the TTX of amphibians is endogenous, we believe that it also has an exogenous origin, i.e., from organisms consumed as food. TTX-bearing animals are equipped with a high tolerance to TTX, and thus retain or accumulate TTX possibly as a biologic defense substance. There have been many cases of human intoxication due to the ingestion of TTX-bearing pufferfish, mainly in Japan, China, and Taiwan, and several victims have died. Several cases of TTX intoxication due to the ingestion of small gastropods, including some lethal cases, were recently reported in China and Taiwan, revealing a serious public health issue.

  12. The Accumulation of Organic Carbon in Mineral Soils by Afforestation of Abandoned Farmland

    Wei, Xiaorong; Qiu, Liping; Shao, Mingan; Zhang, Xingchang; Gale, William J.

    2012-01-01

    The afforestation of abandoned farmland significantly influences soil organic carbon (OC). However, the dynamics between OC inputs after afforestation and the original OC are not well understood. To learn more about soil OC dynamics after afforestation of farmland, we measured the soil OC content in paired forest and farmland plots in Shaanxi Province, China. The forest plots had been established on farmland 18, 24, 48, 100, and 200 yr previously. The natural 13C abundance of soil organic mat...

  13. Endocrine activity of persistent organic pollutants accumulated in human silicone implants — Dosing in vitro assays by partitioning from silicone

    Gilbert, Dorothea; Mayer, Philipp; Pedersen, Mikael; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulated in human tissues may pose a risk for human health by interfering with the endocrine system. This study establishes a new link between actual human internal POP levels and the endocrine active dose in vitro, applying partitioning-controlled dosing...... increases in progestagen and corticosteroid levels at Cfree of individual POPs in or below the femtomolar range. Silicone acted not only as source of the POPs but also as a sorption sink for lipophilic hormones, stimulating the cellular hormone production. Methodologically, the study showed that silicone...

  14. Organochlorine pesticides accumulated by SPMD-based virtual organisms and feral fish in Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) accumulated by semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) -based virtual organisms (VOs) and local feral fish were studied in Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), China. VOs were deployed at seven sites in TGR for two periods in 2009 and 5 species of fish with different living habitats and feeding habits collected in the same periods from two counties in TGR. 28 OCPs were analyzed and the concentration and profile of OCPs in fish were quite different from those in VOs. The lipid-based concentrations of OCPs in fish ranged from 225.7 ng/g lw to 1996.4 ng/g lw which were much higher than those in VOs which ranged from 17.3 to 112.4 ng/g lw. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the prevalent OCPs in the investigated fish, while hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was the dominant compound in VOs. DDT in the few fish sample analyzed was not of concern based on chemical contaminant limits of non-carcinogenic effect. - Highlights: • OCPs contamination in fish was investigated in Three Gorges Reservoir, China. • Comparison of OCPs accumulation was conducted in feral fish and VOs in TGR. • Composition of OCPs in feral fish was significantly different from that in VOs. • DDTs were the prevalent OCPs in fish and were mainly originated from historical usage. - Comparison of OCPs accumulation was conducted in feral fish and VOs in TGR

  15. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from fermented sugar cane molasses by a mixed culture enriched in glycogen accumulating organisms.

    Bengtsson, Simon; Pisco, Ana R; Reis, Maria A M; Lemos, Paulo C

    2010-02-01

    Batch production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under aerobic conditions by an open mixed culture enriched in glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) with fermented sugar cane molasses as substrate was studied. The produced polymers contained five types of monomers, namely 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV), 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutyrate (3H2MB), 3-hydroxy-2-methylvalerate (3H2MV) and the medium chain length monomer 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx). With fermented molasses as substrate, PHA was produced under concurrent consumption of stored glycogen with yields of 0.47-0.66 C-mol PHA per C-mol of total carbon substrate and with rates up to 0.65 C-mol/C-molX h. In order to investigate the role of glycogen during aerobic PHA accumulation in GAOs, synthetic single volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were used as substrates and it was found that the fate of glycogen was dependent on the type of VFA being consumed. Aerobic PHA accumulation occurred under concurrent glycogen consumption with acetate as substrate and under minor concurrent glycogen production with propionate as substrate. With butyrate and valerate as substrates, PHA accumulation occurred with the glycogen pool unaffected. The composition of the PHA was dependent on the VFA composition of the fermented molasses and was 56-70 mol-% 3HB, 13-43 mol-% 3HV, 1-23 mol-% 3HHx and 0-2 mol-% 3H2MB and 3H2MV. The high polymer yields and production rates suggest that enrichment of GAOs can be a fruitful strategy for mixed culture production of PHA from waste substrates. PMID:19958801

  16. Accumulation of heavy metals in edible organs of different meat products available in the markets of lahore, pakistan

    The present study assessed the accumulation of selected heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Pb and Cu) indifferent organs including brain, heart, lungs, liver, stomach, kidney and flesh (muscles) of several animals commercially available in the market of Lahore, Pakistan. The concentrations found in different organs of chicken, goat and cow ranged between 0.132-2.165 mg/g for Cd, 0.768-2.335 mg/g for Cr, 0.260-1.411 mg/g for Pb and 0.092-1.195 mg/g for Cu. In the absence of national safety standards in respect to the content of heavy metals in foodstuffs, the results obtained were compared with international guidelines and found concentrations considerably higher than the prescribed safe limits. Therefore, immediate attention must be paid to prevent public health risks associated with the presence of toxic heavy metals in the commercially available meat products. (author)

  17. Renal accumulation of [{sup 111}In]DOTATOC in rats: influence of inhibitors of the organic ion transport and diuretics

    Stahl, A.R. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Department of Radiology, Essen (Germany); Wagner, B.; Heemann, U.; Lutz, J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nephrology, Munich (Germany); Poethko, T.; Perutka, M.; Wester, H.J.; Essler, M.; Schwaiger, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Radiation exposure to the kidney limits therapy with radiometal labelled DOTATOC. This study evaluates the organic anion and cation transport (inhibitors: probenecid and cimetidine/dexamethason) as well as diuresis (furosemide and mannitol) regarding renal uptake of [{sup 111}In]DOTATOC. One hundred eight male Fisher rats were injected with [{sup 111}In]DOTATOC via the tail vein. Prior to activity injection a total of 84 rats underwent injection with probenecid vs. sodium chloride 0.9% (48 rats), cimetidine vs. dexamethasone vs. sodium chloride 0.9% (18 rats), and furosemide vs. mannitol vs. sodium chloride 0.9% (18 rats). Rats were sacrificed at predetermined time points up to 48 h after activity injection. Kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, spleen, blood, liver, and muscle were harvested and injected activity per gram tissue was determined. Autoradiographic images of the kidneys were acquired in a total of 24 rats. Probenecid led to a reduction in renal uptake by up to 30% while not significantly changing the activity accumulation in the other organs investigated. This reduction was attributable to the renal cortex (ratio cortex/medulla 1.72 vs. 1.99; p = 0.006). Cimetidine and dexamethasone had no effect in any of the organs. Furosemide led to a 44% increase in renal activity accumulation attributable to enhanced renal medullary uptake (ratio cortex/medulla 1.44 versus 1.69; p = 0.006). Mannitol had no effect on renal activity uptake. Inhibition of the organic anion transport by probenecid may help reduce renal uptake regarding therapy with radiometal labelled DOTATOC. The enhancing effect of furosemide may be unfavourable for therapy. The results must be confirmed by human studies. (orig.)

  18. Synthesis of the d,I-HM-PAO and formulation of nucleo-equipment for the obtention of {sup 99m} Tc-(d,I)-HM-PAO; Sintesis del d,I-HM-PAO y formulacion de nucleo-equipos para la obtencion de {sup 99m} Tc-(d,I)-HM-PAO

    Lezama C, J.; Ferro F, G.; Alcazar A, P

    1991-09-15

    Most brain imaging radiopharmaceuticals are conventional hydrophilic compounds that are excluded from entering the normal brain by an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB). Under pathologic conditions, the barrier is disrupted and radiotracer concentrates in the leisure for positive identification. {sup 99m} Tc- hexa methyl propylene amine oxime ({sup 99} {sup m} Tc-HM-PAO) is a newer-type lipophilic agent that enter the normal brain through an intact BBB. Studies with this agent offer the promise of measuring cerebral perfusion in the normal and diseased brain. In this paper we present the synthesis and Tc-99m labelling of d,I-HM-PAO. The synthesis of the ligand was carried out by condensation of two molecular equivalents of butanedione monoxime with one molecular equivalent of 1,3 propanediamine provided a bis imine intermediate, which was reduced with sodium borohydride to get the meso and d,I diastereoisomers of HM-PAO. Separation of these was achieved by fractional crystallization. {sup 99m} Tc-(d,I)HM-PAO was obtained by stannous ion reduction of Mo-99/Tc-99m generator eluate in the presence of the ligand. Complex radiochemical purity was determined by instant thin layer chromatography and paper chromatography. Finally, we obtained {sup 99m} Tc-(d,I)HM-PAO with a high radiochemical yield, in excess of 90%. However, for subsequent clinical studies the preparation has to be done a few minutes before application because our product has a low stability. (Author)

  19. Characteristics of radionuclide accumulation in benthic organisms and fish of the Barents and Kara Seas

    Artificial radionuclides play a specific role in the hydrochemical, geochemical, and hydrobiological processes that are currently occurring in the western Arctic. The existing data on radioactive contamination of different plant and animal species inhabiting the sea shelf are fragmentary. Hence, it was difficult to follow the transformation of radionuclides during their transmission along food chains, from phyto- and zoo-plankton to benthos, fish, birds, and marine mammals. In 1990-1994, the Murmansk Institute of Marine Biology organized expeditions to collect samples of residues on the sea floor and also of benthos, benthic fish, macrophytes, and other organisms inhabiting the shelf of the Barents and Kara Seas. These samples were tested for cesium-137, cesium-134, strontium-90, plutonium-239, plutonium-240, americium-241, and cobalt-60 in Rovaniemi (Finland) by the regional radiation administration of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. Over 1000 tests were made. Their results provided new data on the content and distribution of these radionuclides among different components of marine ecosystems. 7 refs

  20. Emulsion and accumulation at aqueous/organic interface of mixer-settlers

    The emulsion which results from Di-n-butylphosphoric acid (HDBP) and zirconium (HDBP-Zr emulsion) was studied on the formation ratio to the emulsion of nonsoluble fission product residues (nonsoluble residues emulsion) in the codecontamination cycle without solvent washing. HDBP-Zr emulsion was found three times of nonsoluble residues emulsion by one week's operation of the codecontamination cycle with the spent nuclear fuel burnt to 28,000 MWd/MTU and cooled 1,000 days. In this codecontamination cycle, 1% HDBP was salted out at the aqueous/organic interface as HDBP-Zr emulsion, and 10% HDBP dissolved in the recycling solvent stream as HDBP-U complex. It was found that HDBP-Zr emulsion accelerates the volume growth of nonsoluble residues emulsion by the emulsifying effect. (author)

  1. Accumulated organic matter, litterfall production, and decomposition tell us the status of litter dynamics in forests

    Jae Geun Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Litterfall dynamics in forests are assessed by estimating biomass production and decomposition. However, there havebeen few studies on how litter dynamics impact the health and management of ecosystems. Here, a new approach tomeasure and assess ecosystem function is presented based on conventional methods using littertraps, litterbags, andthe mass on the forest floor. To assess the status of litter dynamics, the decay rate (k was estimated from a litterbag experiment,and removal rates (ki were determined from mass balance on the forest floor at 21 sites on three mountainsin South Korea. The k3 (organic mass ratio of Oi and Oe + Oa + A horizons in November values in an equilibrium state inSouth Korea were within the range of k ± 0.174 when considering the annual variation of litterfall production. This studyalso suggests that sampling sites for these types of studies should be in the middle, not at the ends, of steady slopes onthe forest floor.

  2. Cd and Ni transport and accumulation in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum: implication of organic acids in these processes.

    Mnasri, Mejda; Ghabriche, Rim; Fourati, Emna; Zaier, Hanen; Sabally, Kebba; Barrington, Suzelle; Lutts, Stanley; Abdelly, Chedly; Ghnaya, Tahar

    2015-01-01

    The implication of organic acids in Cd and Ni translocation was studied in the halophyte species Sesuvium portulacastrum. Citric, fumaric, malic, and ascorbic acids were separated and quantified by HPLC technique in shoots, roots and xylem saps of plants grown on nutrient solutions added with 50 μM Cd, 100 μM Ni and the combination of 50 μM Cd + 100 μM Ni. Results showed that Cd had no significant impact on biomass production while Ni and the combination of both metals drastically affected plant development. Cadmium and Ni concentrations in tissues and xylem sap were higher in plants subjected to individual metal application than those subjected to the combined effect of Cd and Ni suggesting a possible competition between these metals for absorption. Both metals applied separately or in combination induced an increase in citrate concentration in shoots and xylem sap but a decrease of this concentration in the roots. However, a minor relationship was observed between metal application and fumaric, malic, and ascorbic acids. Both observations suggest the implication of citric acid in Cd, Ni translocation and shoot accumulation in S. portulacastrum. The relatively high accumulation of citric acid in xylem sap and shoot of S. portulacastrum could be involved in metal chelation and thus contributes to heavy metal tolerance in this species. PMID:25821455

  3. Cd and Ni transport and accumulation in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum: implication of organic acids in these processes

    Tahar eGhnaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The implication of organic acids in Cd and Ni translocation was studied in the halophyte species Sesuvium portulacastrum. Citric, fumaric, malic and ascorbic acids were separated and quantified by HPLC technique in shoots, roots and xylem saps of plants grown on nutrient solutions added with 50 µM Cd, 100 µM Ni and the combination of 50 µM Cd + 100 µM Ni. Results showed that Cd had no significant impact on biomass production while Ni and the combination of both metals drastically affected plant development. Cadmium and Ni concentrations in tissues and xylem sap were higher in plants individually exposed to heavy metal application than in those subjected to the combined treatment Cd + Ni, suggesting a possible competition between these metals for absorption. Both metals applied separately or in combination induced an increase in citrate concentration in shoots and xylem sap but a decrease of this concentration in the roots. However a minor relationship was observed between metal application and fumaric, malic and ascorbic acids. Both observations suggest the implication of citric acid in Cd, Ni translocation and shoot accumulation in S. portulacastrum. The relatively high accumulation of citric acid in xylem sap and shoot of S. portulacastrum could be involved in metal chelation and thus contributes to heavy metal tolerance in this species.

  4. Identifying nitrogen limitations to organic sediments accumulation in various vegetation types of arctic tundra (Hornsund, Svalbard)

    Skrzypek, G.; Wojtuń, B.; Hua, Q.; Richter, D.; Jakubas, D.; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, K.; Samecka-Cymerman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic and subarctic regions play important roles in the global carbon balance. However, nitrogen (N) deficiency is a major constraint for organic carbon sequestration in the High Arctic. Hence, the identification of the relative contributions from different N-sources is critical for understanding the constraints that limit tundra growth. The stable nitrogen composition of the three main N-sources and numerous plants were analyzed in ten tundra types in the Fuglebekken catchment (Hornsund Fjord, Svalbard, 77°N 15°E). The percentage of the total tundra N-pool provided by seabirds' feces (colonially breeding, planktivorous Alle alle), ranged from 0-21% in Patterned-ground tundra to 100% in Ornithocoprophilous tundra. The total N-pool utilized by tundra plants in the studied catchment was built in 36% by birds, 38% by atmospheric deposition, and 26% by N2-fixation. The results clearly show that N-pool in the tundra is significantly supplemented by nesting seabirds. Thus, if they experienced substantial negative environmental pressure associated with climate change, it would adversely influence the tundra N-budget [1]. The growth rates and the sediment thickness (climatic conditions but also by birds' contribution to the tundra N-pool. [1] Skrzypek G, Wojtuń B, Richter D, Jakubas D, Wojczulanis-Jakubas K, Samecka-Cymerman A, 2015. Diversification of nitrogen sources in various tundra vegetation types in the high Arctic. PLoS ONE (in review).

  5. Denitrification characteristics and community distribution of glycogen accumulating organism granules%聚糖菌颗粒污泥的反硝化特性与微生物群落分布

    张斌; 邱志刚; 薛斌; 谌志强; 龚泰石; 王雪; 智维佳; 王景峰

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the denitrification ability and microbial ecological characteristic of glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) during sludge granulation.A combined method of reactor process,batch test,microscale techniques and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was employed to evaluate the denitrification ability of GAOs,to reveal the microstructure of microbial communities and to characterize the distribution of GAOs and polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in different size granules.The results indicated that the adsorption rate of organic compound by sludge was over 92%.The SVI10 of granules stabilized at 30-50 mL g-1,a very low value compared to those measured for inoculating sludge (108.2 mL g-1).The nitrogen removal rate of nitrate and nitrite by GAOs granules reached 65% and 70% respectively,with N2 as the main gaseous product.The granules were tightly packed with a large amount of tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs),with filamentous bacteria serving as the supporting structures for the granules.FISH demonstrated that GAOs were distributed evenly throughout the granular space,whereas PAOs were severely inhibited and presented only in the edge of granules.A labscale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) could be successfully operated for cultivating GAOs granules in alternating anaerobic stirring-discharge-aerobic modes,with the GAOs granules showing excellent denitrifying capability.Therefore GAOs are the predominant member of the microbial population in granules.%为了解聚糖菌在污泥颗粒化中的脱氮能力及其微生物生态特性,采用反应器工艺、批式试验、显微技术和荧光原位杂交技术来评估其反硝化能力,揭示其微生物群落的微观结构,探索聚糖菌和聚磷菌在不同粒径污泥中的分布特征.结果表明,污泥对有机物的吸收率稳定在90%以上.颗粒污泥的沉降指数(SVI10)稳定在30-50 mL g-1,远低于接种污泥的108.2 mL g-1.聚醣菌颗粒污泥对

  6. Effect of soil moisture on sulphur accumulation in overground plant organs and their harm in emmission conditions

    Navara, J.; Horvath, I.; Hauskrecht, I.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of different soil moisture on sulphur accumulation in the overground organs of Fagopyrum esculentum, moench in immission conditions is dealt with in this paper. The results obtained have shown that even under equal soil conditions, equal nutrient supply and age evenness of the analyzed material the total sulphur content of leaves grown in immission conditions (sulphur oxides, hydrogen sulphide, carbon disulphide, etc.) at equal soil moisture was essentially higher when compared with unirrigated plants and corresponded also to the degree of harm and crop reduction of the experimental plants. Therefore it is necessary when utilizing sulphur content of indicating plants, which serves for a large-area diagnosis of vegetation harm with immissions, to take into consideration, in addition to other factors (soil, nutrition, age of plants), the soil moisture as well.

  7. Sedimentological Records of Organic Matter Accumulation in the Inshore Region of the Fly River Clinoform (Papua New Guinea)

    Gisewhite, R.; Goni, M. A.; Clinton, R.; Monacci, N.; McKay, M.; Crockett, J.; Nittrouer, C.

    2004-12-01

    Thirteen kasten cores collected from the northeast and southwest regions of the clinoform topset off the Fly River Delta and from the Umuda Channel were selected for elemental (organic carbon, nitrogen), mineral surface area (SA), stable isotope (d13C and d15N) and biomarker (lignin phenols) analyses. The depth of the cores ranged from 30 to over 250 cm and represent variable periods of depositional history. The average organic carbon content (OC) of sediments ranged from 0.6 to 2 wt. percent, depending on the site location. The highest OC levels were observed in the northeast region off the Fly River Delta, while the lowest levels were found in cores located in the southern offshore region. Average molar organic carbon:nitrogen ratios ranged from 10 to 18, with the lowest C/N ratios found in the sites located to the south of the delta. Average d13C and nitrogen d15N signatures ranged from -26 to -25 per mil and from 1.4 to 2.5 per mil, respectively. Average OC/SA ratios for the sediments in these cores ranged from 0.4 to 1.7 mg C/m2, with the lowest values measured in samples from the Umuda Channel and the most distal site in the northeast region of the topset. Overall, these compositions indicate organic matter accumulation in all these sites is dominated by the burial of terrigenous derived soil organic matter. Down core peaks in C/N and OC/SA ratios indicate the presence of discrete layers enriched in vascular plant detritus. Low OC/SA ratios indicative of extensive decay were only measured in selected sites and in specific horizons. In contrast, most samples were characterized by "normal" organic carbon loadings that are consistent with the active burial and effective preservation of terrigenous organic matter in this region of the Fly River Delta and clinoform. There is little evidence for the preservation of marine-derived organic matter in these deposits. These data will be further interpreted in the context of additional sedimentological data (X

  8. Trace element accumulation and trophic relationships in aquatic organisms of the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem (Bangladesh).

    Borrell, Asunción; Tornero, Victoria; Bhattacharjee, Dola; Aguilar, Alex

    2016-03-01

    The Sundarbans forest is the largest and one of the most diverse and productive mangrove ecosystems in the world. Located at the northern shoreline of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean and straddling India and Bangladesh, the mangrove forest is the result of three primary river systems that originate further north and northwest. During recent decades, the Sundarbans have been subject to increasing pollution by trace elements caused by the progressive industrialization and urbanization of the basins of these three rivers. As a consequence, animals and plants dwelling downstream in the mangroves are exposed to these pollutants in varying degrees, and may potentially affect human health when consumed. The aim of the present study was to analyse the concentrations of seven trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cd and As) in 14 different animal and plant species collected in the Sundarbans in Bangladesh to study their transfer through the food web and to determine whether their levels in edible species are acceptable for human consumption. δ(15)N values were used as a proxy of the trophic level. A decrease in Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd levels was observed with increasing trophic position. Trace element concentrations measured in all organisms were, in general, lower than the concentrations obtained in other field studies conducted in the same region. When examined with respect to accepted international standards, the concentrations observed in fish and crustaceans were generally found to be safe for human consumption. However, the levels of Zn in Scylla serrata and Cr and Cd in Harpadon nehereus exceeded the proposed health advisory levels and may be of concern for human health. PMID:26748006

  9. Drainage, liming and fertilization of organic soils. 2. Distribution of macro elements and heavy-metal accumulation

    Mobility, exchangeability and accumulation of macro elements and heavy metals after liming and fertilization of organic soils were studied on three sites, two oligotrophic and one mesotrophic. These were drained, fertilized and/or limed in 1953-1956 and sampled in 1991-1992. Fertilization and liming caused marginal changes in bulk density, N stores and C/N ratios, while percentage ash content increased significantly to 40 cm depth at the two oligotrophic sites and to 10 cm at the mesotrophic site. Applied P was relatively immobile and liming caused more P to accumulate in the surface layer, whereas applied K and Mg were mobile with elevated concentrations being measured to 60 cm depth at the oligotrophic sites. Even if liming reduced the relative exchangeable pools of Fe and Al these elements moved to this depth after combined fertilization and liming, but mobility was less after liming alone. Relative exchangeable pools of K, Ca and Mg were high, of Fe and Al intermediate to low and of S and P low. The relative exchangeable P pools were site and treatment specific. The 'old P pool' of organic soils seemed quite stable and strongly fixed, while the 'new P pool' from fertilizer P probably had higher exchange ratio. Increased stores of Cr, Ni, Sr and Ti resulted from impurities in both fertilizer and lime, Cu from the compound fertilizer, and V and Y probably from the P fertilizer. Stores of Pb were not significantly changed by the treatments; those of Zn was unchanged after liming or even reduced after combined fertilization and liming. The Cu and Pb concentrations were sometimes above the suggested critical levels of toxicity 24 refs, 3 figs, 11 tabs

  10. Carbon storage in Organic Soils (COrS): Quantifying past variations in carbon accumulation in peatlands of South Wales, UK.

    Carless, Donna; Kulessa, Bernd; Street-Perrott, Alayne; Davies, Siwan; Sinnadurai, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Globally, peatlands comprise a vital terrestrial carbon sink, currently estimated to be around 500 PgC (Yu et al., 2011, Gorham, 1991). Within the UK, peatlands represent the single most important terrestrial carbon store (IUCN, 2011). In particular, blanket and raised bogs account for around 23,000 square kilometres or 9.5 percent of the UK land area, with current estimates indicating that they store approximately 3.2 PgC (IUCN, 2011). Recent studies suggest that carbon-sequestration rates have been highly variable during the Holocene (Frolking & Roulet, 2007). Reconstructing these past fluctuations is essential to assess how peatlands will respond to future climate change, particularly the possibility that large amounts of respired below-ground carbon will be released as a result of enhanced rates of decomposition, causing positive climate feedback. Quantitative estimates of past variations in carbon accumulation provide valuable insights into the factors controlling carbon budgets. Recent developments have illustrated how ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can improve constraints on peat thickness (Holden et al., 2002, Warner et al., 1990), facilitating site-specific peat-volume estimates for carbon quantification. We shall present initial results from the COrS project, which brings together a novel combination of geophysical and proxy techniques to reconstruct variations in long-term carbon accumulation in 6 ombrotrophic peat bogs, located across the Brecon Beacons National Park (BBNP), South Wales, UK (51°55'30" N, 3°29'18" W). Detailed GPR surveys are being used to provide comprehensive estimates of total peat extent and thickness at these sites. Combined with surface-elevation data from LiDAR imagery, 3D models are being created, from which total peat-volume estimates will be extracted. Carbon-accumulation rates will be inferred from these bog-volume estimates, coupled with total organic carbon (TOC) measurements and high-resolution radiocarbon dating. In

  11. Distribution of inorganic and organic nutrients in the South Pacific Ocean – evidence for long-term accumulation of organic matter in nitrogen-depleted waters

    F. Cerutti

    2007-08-01

    were two fold higher. Extensive comparison has shown that glass fiber GF/F filters efficiency collected particulate chlorophyll, while a significant fraction of POM (up to 50% passed trough this filter and was retained by 0.2 μm Teflon membrane. The most striking feature was the large accumulation of dissolved organic matter (DOM in the SPG relative to surrounding waters, especially dissolved organic carbon (DOC where concentrations were at levels rarely measured in oceanic waters (>100 μmoles l−1. Due to this large pool of DOM over the whole photic layer of the SPG, integrated values followed an opposite geographical pattern than this of inorganic nutrients with a large accumulation within the centre of the SPG. While suspended particulate matter in the mixed layer had C/N ratio largely conform to Redfield stoichiometry (C/N≈6.6, marked deviations were observed in this excess DOM (C/N≈16 to 23. The existence of C-rich dissolved organic matter is recognized as a feature typical of oligotrophic waters, requiring the over consumption of carbon. Thus, in spite of strong nitrate-depletion leading to low chlorophyll biomass, the closed ecosystem of the SPG can produce a large amount of carbon. The implications of this finding are discussed, the conclusion being that, due to the lack of seasonal vertical mixing and weak lateral advection, the dissolved organic carbon biologically produced can be accumulated and stored in the photic layer for a very long period.

  12. Study of the influence of ionizing radiation on the dynamics of accumulation of anthocyanins, flavonoids and carotenoids in individual organs of Alhagi Pseudalhagi

    Full text : It is known that the formation and accumulation of biologically active substances is a dynamic process. Their content varies in ontogeny plants and depending on environmental factors. In the present work it is studied the dynamics of accumulation of anthocyanins, flavonoids and carotenoids in certain organs of the plant in the budding phase. On the ability to accumulate flavonoids second place is occupied by the stem and flowers of the plant. In a certain amount of flavonoids are presented in plant seeds. In this case the roots of the plant show the least ability for accumulation of flavonoids. Regarding the role of radiation in the process, it should be noted that it plays a minor role in accumulation of flavonoids

  13. Implications of fire-mediated changes in larch forest structure on leaf litter inputs, organic layer accumulation, and permafrost dynamics

    Ganzlin, P.; Alexander, H. D.; Petronio, B.; Natali, S.; Davydov, S.

    2012-12-01

    and moss inhibition. These data suggest that if forest densities increase due to shifting fire regimes, leaf litter inputs would increase, reducing moss and organic layer development. In turn, belowground carbon accumulation would decline and promote greater availability of permafrost carbon to degradation. This degradation holds large potential as a positive feedback to global climate change.

  14. The retention of [99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO in the human brain after intracarotid bolus injection

    Lassen, N A; Andersen, A R; Friberg, L; Paulson, O B

    1988-01-01

    . Cerebral blood flow (F) was measured using the xenon-133 intracarotid injection method. The first-pass extraction E of HM-PAO was calculated from F using an empiric regression equation. The residue curves for the whole brain after intracarotid HM-PAO injection were analyzed to yield a retention fraction (R...

  15. Regulation of Amidase Formation in Mutants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO Lacking Glutamine Synthetase Activity

    Janssen, Dick B.; Herst, Patricia M.; Joosten, Han M.L.J.; Drift, Chris van der

    1982-01-01

    The formation of amidase was studied in mutants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO lacking glutamine synthetase activity. It appeared that catabolite repression of amidase synthesis by succinate was partially relieved when cellular growth was limited by glutamine. Under these conditions, a correlation

  16. Assessment of persistent organic pollutants accumulation and lipid peroxidation in two reproductive stages of wild silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis).

    Barni, María Florencia Silva; Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in streamwater can sometimes exceed the guidelines values reported for biota and human protection in watersheds with intensive agriculture. Oxidative stress and cytotoxicity are some of the markers of exposure to POPs in fish. Accumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) was assessed in wild silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis) from maturation and pre-spawning stages sampled in a typical soybean growing area. Pollutants were quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detection and LPO by the method of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Concentrations of POPs were in the following order: OCPs>PCBs>PBDEs in all organs and stages. Liver, gills and gonads had the highest OCP concentrations in both sexes and stages with a predominance of endosulfan in all samples. Matured individuals, sampled after endosulfan application period, showed higher endosulfan concentrations than pre-spawning individuals. The predominance of endosulfan sulfate could be due to direct uptake from diet and water column, as well as to the metabolism of the parent compounds in fish. The prevalence of p,p'-DDE in liver would also reflect both the direct uptake and the metabolic transformation of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE by fish. The highest levels of PBDEs and PCBs were found in gills and brain of both stages of growth. The pattern BDE-47>BDE-100 in all samples corresponds to pentaBDE exposure. In the case of PCBs, penta (#101 and 110) and hexa-CB congeners (#153 and 138) dominated in the maturation stages and tri (#18) and tetra-CB (#44 and 52) in pre-spawning stages, suggesting biotransformation or preferential accumulation of heavier congeners during gonadal development. Differences in LPO levels in ovaries were associated with growth dilution and reproductive stage. Differences in LPO levels in gills were related with pesticide

  17. Distribution of inorganic and organic nutrients in the South Pacific Ocean − evidence for long-term accumulation of organic matter in nitrogen-depleted waters

    F. Cerutti

    2008-03-01

    time of particulate carbon in the surface water was only 4–5 days in the upwelling, but up to 30 days in the SPG, where light isotopic δ15N signal noted in the suspended POM suggests that N2-fixation provides a dominant supply of nitrogen to phytoplankton. The most striking feature was the large accumulation of dissolved organic matter (DOM in the SPG compared to the surrounding waters, in particular dissolved organic carbon (DOC where concentrations were at levels rarely measured in oceanic waters (>100 μmoles l−1. Due to this large pool of DOM in the SPG photic layer, integrated values followed a converse geographical pattern to that of inorganic nutrients with a large accumulation in the centre of the SPG. Whereas suspended particulate matter in the mixed layer had a C/N ratio largely conforming to the Redfield stochiometry (C/N≈6.6, marked deviations were observed in this excess DOM (C/N≈16 to 23. The marked geographical trend suggests that a net in situ source exists, mainly due to biological processes. Thus, in spite of strong nitrate-depletion leading to low chlorophyll biomass, the closed ecosystem of the SPG can accumulate large amounts of C-rich dissolved organic matter. The implications of this finding are examined, the conclusion being that, due to weak lateral advection, the biologically produced dissolved organic carbon can be accumulated and stored in the photic layer for very long periods. In spite of the lack of seasonal vertical mixing, a significant part of new production (up to 34%, which was mainly supported by dinitrogen fixation, can be exported to deep waters by turbulent diffusion in terms of DOC. The diffusive rate estimated in the SPG (134 μmolesC m−2 d−1, was quite equivalent to the particles flux measured by sediments traps.

  18. Seasonal changes in metal accumulation and distribution in the organs of Phragmites australis (common reed from Lake Skadar, Montenegro

    Kastratović Vlatko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its ability to accumulate metals, availability throughout the year and its large biomass, Phragmites australis (common reed is suitable for biomonitoring studies for the evaluation of load level of water ecosystem with trace metals. The heavy metals concentration in P.australis tissue can be several ten to several thousand times higher than those in the surrounding water. In this study we examined the content of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Sr and V in sediment, water and different organs of Phragmites australis collected from Lake Skadar, Montenegro, during different seasons of the year 2011. The highest concentrations of Sr were found in the leaves, while the other studied metals showed their highest concentrations in the roots. Thus, P. australis is considered a root bioaccumulation species. For most metals the concentration in roots and stems increases over time until the end of the growing season, and then decreases, while the concentration in leaves increases even after the growing season of the plant. If P. australis is used for phytoremediation purposes, then it should be harvested after the growing season because then the concentration of metals in the aboveground parts is maximal.

  19. Effects of sub-lethal exposure of lead acetate on histopathology of gills, liver, kidney and muscle and its accumulation in these organs of Clarias gariepinus

    Hmoud Fares Alkahem Al-Balawi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effects of sub-lethal exposure of lead acetate on the histopathology of the gills, liver, kidney and muscle and its accumulation in these organs of Clarias gariepinus. Results showed that lead accumulation in the tissues of C. gariepinus was dependent on the exposure period and lead concentration. Gills and liver were the predominant storage tissue and the order of accumulation in tissues was gill > liver > kidney > muscle. Some structural changes were observed in different organs, especially in the gills of the fishes exposed to lead acetate. Epithelial hypertrophy and epithelial lifting were apparent in the gills of exposed fishes. The degeneration of cytoplasm and secondary lamellae was also observed. Necrosis of hepatocytes was apparent. Glomerular expansion and gaps between the muscular bundles were found in the fishes exposed to lead acetate.

  20. Contrasted accumulation patterns of persistent organic pollutants and mercury in sympatric tropical dolphins from the south-western Indian Ocean.

    Dirtu, Alin C; Malarvannan, Govindan; Das, Krishna; Dulau-Drouot, Violaine; Kiszka, Jeremy J; Lepoint, Gilles; Mongin, Philippe; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Due to their high trophic position and long life span, small cetaceans are considered as suitable bioindicators to monitor the presence of contaminants in marine ecosystems. Here, we document the contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and total mercury (T-Hg) of spinner (Stenella longirostris, n =21) and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus, n=32) sampled from the coastal waters of La Réunion (south-western Indian Ocean). In addition, seven co-occurring teleost fish species were sampled and analyzed as well. Blubber samples from living dolphins and muscle from teleosts were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and metabolites (DDTs), chlordanes (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), reported as having a natural origin, were also analyzed. T-Hg levels were measured in blubber and skin biopsies of the two dolphin species. Stable isotopes δ(13)C and δ(15)N values were determined in skin of the dolphins and in the muscle of teleosts. For PCBs, HCHs and T-Hg, concentrations were significantly higher in T. aduncus than in S. longirostris. For other POP levels, intra-species variability was high. MeO-PBDEs were the dominant compounds (55% of the total POPs) in S. longirostris, while PCBs dominated (50% contribution) in T. aduncus. Other contaminants showed similar profiles between the two species. Given the different patterns of POPs and T-Hg contamination and the δ(15)N values observed among analyzed teleosts, dietary and foraging habitat preferences most likely explain the contrasted contaminant profiles observed in the two dolphin species. Levels of each class of contaminants were significantly higher in males than females. Despite their spatial and temporal overlap in the waters of La Réunion, S. longirostris and T. aduncus are differently exposed to contaminant accumulation. PMID:26775007

  1. Cesium accumulation by aquatic organisms at different trophic levels following an experimental release into a small reservoir

    The rates of accumulation and subsequent loss of stable cesium (133Cs) by organisms at different trophic levels within plankton-based and periphyton-based food chains were measured following the addition of 133Cs into a small reservoir near Aiken, South Carolina, USA. An uptake parameter u (L kg-1 d-1 dry mass) and a loss rate parameter k (d-1) were estimated for each organism using time-series measurements of 133Cs concentrations in water and biota, and these parameters were used to estimate maximum concentrations, times to maximum concentrations, and concentration ratios (Cr). The maximum 133Cs concentrations for plankton, periphyton, the insect larva Chaoborus punctipennis, which feeds on plankton, and the snail Helisoma trivolvis, which feeds on periphyton, occurred within the first 14 days following the addition, whereas the maximum concentrations for the fish species Lepomis macrochirus and Micropterus salmoides occurred after 170 days. The Cr based on dry mass for plankton and C. punctipennis were 1220 L kg-1 and 5570 L kg-1, respectively, and were less than the Cr of 8630 L kg-1 for periphyton and 47,700 L kg-1 for H. trivolvis. Although the Cr differed between plankton-based and periphyton-based food chains, they displayed similar levels of biomagnification. Biomagnification was also indicated for fish where the Cr for the mostly nonpiscivorous L. macrochirus of 22,600 L kg-1 was three times less than that for mostly piscivorous M. salmoides of 71,500 L kg-1. Although the Cr for M. salmoides was greater than those for periphyton and H. trivolvis, the maximum 133Cs concentrations for periphyton and H. trivolvis were greater than that for M. salmoides. - Research highlights: → A simple uptake and loss model described the Cs dynamics in all the various biota. → Concentrations of Cs were greater in periphyton than in plankton. → Biota other than fish demonstrated the greatest maximum Cs concentrations. → Concentration ratios were generally consisted

  2. SPET with 99mTc-HM PAO in the study of classic migraine

    Five patients presenting with migraine attacks underwent Electroencephalography (EEC), Computed Tomography (CT) and Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPET) with 99mTc-HM PAO. EEG qand SPET were subsequently repeated in the intercritical period. We observed that two patients only showed non-specific abnormalities in EEG; scans were in all patients; all subjects exhibited diffuse cortical hypoperfusion. A strong correlation was always found between clinical presentation and hemispheric impairment. One patient exhibited asymmetrical perfusion between cerebellum hemispheres; intercritical SPET showed homogeneous distrubution of the radio-tracer in 4 patients. In the last one minimal residual hypoperfusion was observed, although less marked than in the acute phase. Therefore SPET with 99mTc-HM PAO can be reasonably employed as the examination of choice when a migrain attack is clinically suspected, because of its reproducibility and reliability. It can be easily performed in every nuclear medical center supplied with modern tomographic cameras

  3. Clinical applications of brain perfusion imaging with 99mTc-HM-PAO

    200 patients with central nervous system diseases were studied with 99mTc-HM-PAO and SPECT, including Parkinson's disease (PD) 47, Vascular headache 69, CVD 34, Epilepsy 26, Head truma 10, Brain tumor 5 and other 9 cases. Part of them have been compared with the results of MRI, X-CT and EEG. The positivity of SPECT in PD is 61.7% with decrease perfusion in local area of cerebram and basal ganglia and only 4 cases had lower perfusion in cerebellum; in headache is 46.4%, showing variable perfusion patterns; in CVD is 79.4% with decrease perfusion, luxury perfusion and the phenomenon of 'diaschsis'. In epilepsy, the abnormal foci mostly localize in temporal lobe and have close relation to the results of EEG. In brain tumor it also denotes decreased uptake of tracer. The clinicl singnificance of brain perfusion imaging with 99mTc-HM-PAO was discussed

  4. Analysis of Organic Acids Accumulated in Kochia Scoparia Shoots and Roots by Reverse-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography Under Salt and Alkali Stress

    2006-01-01

    Several organic acids accumulated in Kochia Scoparia shoots and roots were studied by means of reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography with a C18 column. Five types of binary organic acids were separated. The organic acid concentrations were determined in K. Scoparia seedlings stressed by saline (NaCl) and alkaline(NaHCO3) at the same Na + concentration. Concentrations of organic acids are stimulated by alkaline because the cells will adjust their pH values through the accumulation of organic acids, when the environment is basic. The concentrations of oxalic acid and succinic acid are higher than those of other organic acids, including tartaric acid and malic acid, and the concentration of citric acid is the lowest. The concentrations of the organic acids in the roots are higher than those in the shoots under salt(NaCl) stress, but the results are opposite while the roots are under alkali (NaHCO3) stress. This indicates that there are different adaptive strategies for K. Scoparia seedlings in organic acid metabolism under salt and alkali stress.

  5. The Influence of Maggot Excretions on PAO1 Biofilm Formation on Different Biomaterials

    Cazander, Gwendolyn; van Veen, Kiril E. B.; Bouwman, Lee H.; Bernards, Alexandra T.; Jukema, Gerrolt N.

    2008-01-01

    Biofilm formation in wounds and on biomaterials is increasingly recognized as a problem. It therefore is important to focus on new strategies for eradicating severe biofilm-associated infections. The beneficial effects of maggots (Lucilia sericata) in wounds have been known for centuries. We hypothesized sterile maggot excretions and secretions (ES) could prevent, inhibit, and break down biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) on different biomaterials. Therefore, we investigated biofilm fo...

  6. Group X Aldehyde Dehydrogenases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Degrade Hydrazones

    Taniyama, Kosuke; Itoh, Hideomi; Takuwa, Atsushi; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Yajima, Shunsuke; Toyofuku, Masanori; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Takaya, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Hydrazones are natural and synthetic compounds containing a C=N-N moiety. Here we found that the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 produced NAD+- or NADP+-dependent hydrazone dehydrogenase (HDH), which converts hydrazones to the corresponding hydrazides and acids rather than to the simple hydrolytic product aldehydes. Gene cloning indicated that the HDH is part of the group X aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) family, which is distributed among bacteria, although the physiological...

  7. Brain perfusion spect imaging with 99mTc-HM-PAO in Parkinson's disease

    Forty patients with Parkinson's disease were studied using 99mTc-HM-PAO brain perfusion SPECT. 62.5% (25 cases) showed abnormal blood perfusion. Among them 55% showed local decreased blood perfusion of cerebral cortex, 22% showed asymmetric decreased blood perfusion in basal gaglia, 10% showed decreased uptake of tracer in cerebellum. The pathophysiologic basis of the abnormality of brain blood perfusion were briefly discussed

  8. Naturally evolved enhanced Cd tolerance of Dianthus carthusianorum L. is not related to accumulation of thiol peptides and organic acids

    Wójcik, Małgorzata; DRESLER, Sławomir; Plak, Andrzej; Tukiendorf, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Two contrasting ecotypes of Dianthus carthusianorum L., metallicolous (M) and nonmetallicolous (NM), were cultivated in hydroponics at 0–50 μM Cd for 14 days to compare their Cd accumulation, sensitivity and tolerance mechanisms. While both ecotypes contained similar concentrations of Cd in the shoots and roots, the M ecotype was more Cd-tolerant (as measured by fresh weight production and root and leaf viability). Both ecotypes accumulated phytochelatins (PCs) in response to Cd with a higher...

  9. [Research on Zhang's collated edition of Lei gong pao zhi lun (Master Lei's Discourse on Processing of Chinese Materia Medica)].

    Cheng, Li

    2010-05-01

    Lei gong pao zhi lun (Master Lei's Discourse on Processing of Chinese Materia Medica) collated by Zhang Ji, and printed by Zhang's Yisheng Tang in Chengdu in 1932 was the first collated edition. Its original edition was not Jing shi zheng lei bei ji ben cao (Classified Materia Medica from Historical Classics for Emergency) of the Song Dynasty, but was Xiu shi zhi nan (Instruction for Drug Processing) and Lei gong pao zhi yao xing jie (Explanation on Master Lei's Properties of Drugs Processing) of the Qing Dynasty. The contents of this collated edition was far from Lei gong pao zhi lun with many mistakes, and was not the best edition to study Lei gong pao zhi lun. PMID:21029711

  10. Regulation of ornithine utilization in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) is mediated by a transcriptional regulator, OruR.

    Hebert, M.D.; Houghton, J E

    1997-01-01

    We have used transpositional mutagenesis of a proline auxotroph (PAO951) to isolate an ornithine utilization (oru) mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO951-4) that was unable to use ornithine efficiently as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. DNA sequence analysis of the inactivated locus confirmed that the transposon had inserted into a locus whose product demonstrated significant primary sequence homology to members of the AraC family of transcriptional activators. DNA mobility shift assay...

  11. Metagenomic characterization of 'Candidatus Defluviicoccus tetraformis strain TFO71', a tetrad-forming organism, predominant in an anaerobic-aerobic membrane bioreactor with deteriorated biological phosphorus removal.

    Nobu, Masaru K; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Kubota, Kengo; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-09-01

    In an acetate-fed anaerobic-aerobic membrane bioreactor with deteriorated enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), Defluviicoccus-related tetrad-forming organisms (DTFO) were observed to predominate in the microbial community. Using metagenomics, a partial genome of the predominant DTFO, 'Candidatus Defluviicoccus tetraformis strain TFO71', was successfully constructed and characterized. Examining the genome confirmed the presence of genes related to the synthesis and degradation of glycogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), which function as energy and carbon storage compounds. TFO71 and 'Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis' (CAP) UW-1 and CAP UW-2, representative polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO), have PHA metabolism-related genes with high homology, but TFO71 has unique genes for PHA synthesis, gene regulation and granule management. We further discovered genes encoding DTFO polyphosphate (polyP) synthesis, suggesting that TFO71 may synthesize polyP under untested conditions. However, TFO71 may not activate these genes under EBPR conditions because the retrieved genome does not contain all inorganic phosphate transporters that are characteristic of PAOs (CAP UW-1, CAP UW-2, Microlunatus phosphovorus NM-1 and Tetrasphaera species). As a first step in characterizing EBPR-associated DTFO metabolism, this study identifies important differences between DTFO and PAO that may contribute to EBPR community competition and deterioration. PMID:24428681

  12. Altering young tomato plant growth by nitrate and CO2 preserves the proportionate relation linking long-term organic-nitrogen accumulation to intercepted radiation.

    Adamowicz, Stéphane; Le Bot, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    * A previously published model of crop nitrogen (N) status based on intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (R(i), mol per plant) suggested that plant organic N accumulation is related to R(i) by a constant ratio, defined hereafter as the radiation use efficiency for N (NRUE). The aim of this paper was to compare the effects of N nutrition and CO2 enrichment on NRUE and RUE (radiation use efficiency for biomass accumulation). * In three unrelated glasshouse experiments, tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in hydroponics were fed for 28 d (exponential growth) with full solutions containing constant NO3(-) concentrations ([NO3(-)]) ranging from 0.05 to 15 mol m(-3), both under ambient or CO2-enriched (1000 microl l(-1)) air. * Each experiment comprised five harvests. Low [NO3(-)] (organic N acquisition (NRUE) did not depend on C or N nutrition for young plants grown under unstressed conditions. PMID:18761639

  13. The effect of soil macrofauna on litter decomposition and soil organic matter accumulation during soil formation in spoil heaps after brown coal mining: A preliminary results

    Frouz, J. [Academy of Science for Czech Republic, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2002-07-01

    The effect of macrofauna on removal of litter from the soil surface and accumulation of organic matter in the mineral soil layer were studied in two post mining sites planted by alder of different ages (4 and 38 years), using field microcosms, that were either accessible or not to soil macrofauna. The microcosms contained two layers: litter layer (autochthonous alder litter) and mineral layer (clay - spoil material early after mining with low organic matter content). After one year of exposure, no significant effect of macrofauna on total organic carbon loss in whole system (i.e. in both layers pooled) was found. Nevertheless, the distribution of carbon between layers was affected. Macrofauna enhanced C removal from the litter layer and its accumulation in the mineral layer. The accumulation of C in the mineral layer resulted in long term enhancement of microbial biomass and respiration. This indicates that effect of soil fauna on decomposition estimated using litter bags with various mesh size may indicate effect of fauna on litter fragmentation and removal from surface rather than effect on litter mineralization.

  14. Studies on the chemical behaviour of radioactive nuclides in fresh water and their accumulation by fresh water organisms

    It is of importance to do the basic investigation on the cycling of radioactive nuclides in terrestrial environments. Up to this time, accumulation, excretion and distribution of radioactive nuclides such as 131I, sup(115m)Cd, 85Sr, 203Hg, 131Ba, 22Na and 58Co in fresh water fish have been investigated. This paper concentrates in accumulation and excretion of 131I, and distribution and excretion of 203Hg-labelled methyl mercury chloride in fresh water fish. It was observed that, under co-existence of IO3-, the concentration factor of 131I concerning fresh water fish came near to that of marine fish as if the accumulation of 131I were stimulated by IO3- ions. Clear difference was recognized on the excretion patterns of 131I between fresh water fish and marine fish. In case of fresh water fish, 131I was excreted much more through kidney than through gills. Biological half-life of 131I from whole body of fresh water fish was about 15 days. Transfer of 203Hg labelled methyl mercury chloride to the brain of carp was investigated by means of abdominal administration of the nuclide. Not so much accumulation was obtained in the brain. Biological half-life of the nuclide from the brain was calculated as 198 days. (author)

  15. Seasonal fluxes and temperature-dependent accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in lakes: The role of internal biogeochemical cycling

    A dynamic flux model for lakes taking into account the interactions between atmospheric depositional and biogeochemical processes (BIODEP model) was used to assess the importance of internal cycling and biogeochemical processes with respect to accumulation of four different polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (congeners 28, 52, 101 and 153) in Lake Redo, a high-altitude lake in the Spanish Pyrenees. To investigate the effect of temperature on sediment accumulation, the model was run at different temperatures and corresponding sediment inventories were plotted vs. reciprocal temperature. In line with measurements from a previous study looking at sediment inventories of 19 European high-altitude lakes (MOLAR study), we found a stronger temperature dependence of lake sediment concentrations for the less volatile/less soluble PCBs. Seasonal and annual mass balances were investigated and highlighted the importance of internal lake processes controlling the differences in sediment accumulation for the different PCB congeners. For example, the higher temperature dependence of sediment inventories for the high chlorinated congeners is due to the fast dynamics of water-to-sediment transport in comparison to atmospheric deposition processes. - A dynamic flux model was used to assess the importance of internal lake processes in controlling sediment accumulation for different PCB congeners.

  16. Effects of feeding and organism loading rate on PCB accumulation by Lumbriculus variegatus in sediment bioaccumulation testing

    Sediment bioaccumulation test methods published by USEPA and ASTM in 2000 specify that the Lumbriculus variegatus, a freshwater oligochaete, should not be fed during the 28-day exposure and recommends an organism loading rate of total organic carbon in sediment to organism dry we...

  17. Regional cerebrocerebellar perfusion imaging in spinocerebellar degeneration using technetium-99m-HM-PAO

    Tanaka, Makoto; Inoue, Tomio; Kawarabayashi, Takeshi; Hirai, Shunsaku; Sasaki, Yasuhito

    1988-07-01

    A new rediopharmaceutical, technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (/sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO), has been reported to cross the blood-brain-barrier and to distribute in brain in proportion to regional blood flow. We report brain imaging with /sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in 14 patients of olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA), a subclass of spinocerebellar degeneration, and in 5 controls. In order to evaluate cerebellar blood flow semiquantitatively, the count ratio of cerebellar hemispheres to occipital cortex (C/O ratio) was compared to the regional blood flow ratio (PC/O ratio) obtained by quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) performed in 6 of the 14 patients. We also examined correlations between C/O ratio and clinical data such as duration of illness, clinical severity score, laterality of incoordination and atrophy score on X-ray CT. The results favored clinical usefulness of /sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO. The C/O ratio in OPCA was significantly lower than in controls (p < 0.001) and close to PC/O ratio. In 7 out of 9 patients who showed constant asymmetric neurologic signs, cerebellar radioactivities were more reduced in the side where limbincoodination was more prominent. The C/O ratio and atrophic score on X-ray CT correlated significantly (p < 0.05). In a few cases, however, visible cerebellar hypoperfusion was demonstrated in spite of minimal cerebellar atrophy. There were no correlations between the C/O ratio and the other clinical data. Qualitatively the reconstructed sagittal image easily revealed cerebellar hypoactivity or hypoperfusion in OPCA because the occipital lobe and cerebellum appeared ajacently in a plane. (J.P.N.).

  18. Differential modification of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 outer membrane under hydrogen peroxide and gamma ray

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 is causes opportunistic infections in humans. Studies with animals suggest that an adaptive mechanism is important for the ability of P. aeruginosa PAO1. The adaptive mechanism is protective mechanism against oxidative stress. This mechanism is aimed at preventing by reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species can induce and modulate a variety of biological responses including gene expression. Materials and Methods: Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1(a wild-type strain) was grown aerobically with vigorous shaking at 30 deg C in LB broth (Difco). When the optical cells density at 600 nm reached 0.4 that exposed to 0.5-50 mM H2O2 for 30 min and 30-100 Gy Gamma irradiation (60Co, ca.150 TBq of capacity, AECL) for 30 min. For the recovery, the cultures were immediately exchanged fresh media and incubation for 30 min. then, cells were prefixed with 2.5% glutaraldehyde for 30 min at 4 deg C. After two washes by centrifugation at 15,000 X g for 5 min each, the cells were postfixed with 1% osmium tetroxide for 16 h at 24 deg C. The sample was dehydrated with absolute ethanol, stained with 2% uracyl acetate, embedded in Epon resin. Thin sections were stained with lead citrate and uranyl acetate and observed with a electron microscope. Expression level of candidate genes were analyzed using real-time PCR. The amplification program was consist of one cycle at 94 deg C for 30 sec, followed 40 cycles of 94 deg C (5 sec) - 60 deg C (31 sec). Results and Conclusion: In the present study, we have observed differential membrane damage to P. aeruginosa PAO1 cells when exposed to different oxidative stresses such as hydrogen peroxide 0.5-50 mM for 30 min and gamma radiation 30-100 Gy for 30 min using TEM. In order to understand its behaviour, we isolated 3 genes which are related to membrane maintaining. Its transcription level was identified using Real-Time PCR. Each gene was differently expressed under

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of the recA gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO

    The recA gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO has been isolated and introduced into Escherichia coli K-12. Resistance to killing by UV irradiation was restored in several RecA-E. coli K-12 hosts by the P. aeruginosa gene, as was resistance to methyl methanesulfonate. Recombination proficiency was also restored, as measured by HfrH-mediated conjugation and by the ability to propagate Fec-phage lambda derivatives. The cloned P. aeruginosa recA gene restored both spontaneous and mitomycin C-stimulated induction of lambda prophage in lysogens of a recA strain of E. coli K-12

  20. A study of 99mTc-HM-PAO brain SPECT in the senile parkinson's disease

    Thirty-three cases of senile Parkinson's disease (PD) imaged by 99mTc-HM-PAO brain SPECT were reported. 66.7% of the patients had cortical hypoperfusion and 18.2% showed asymmetrical hypoperfusion in the basal ganglia. Such a finding was not related with the Hoehn-Yahr stage and the laterality of motor symptoms. If complicated with dementia, the SPECT brain imaging showed similar pattern in Alzheimer's disease with diffuse hypoperfusion in cortical area reflecting widespread pathological changes in tremor paralysis

  1. Quantitative Trait Loci and Inter-Organ Partitioning for Essential Metal and Toxic Analogue Accumulation in Barley

    Reuscher, Stefan; Kolter, Andreas; Hoffmann, Astrid; Pillen, Klaus; Krämer, Ute

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of both essential nutrients and chemically similar toxic analogues accumulated in cereal grains have a major impact on the nutritional quality and safety of crops. Naturally occurring genetic diversity can be exploited for the breeding of improved varieties through introgression lines (ILs). In this study, multi-element analysis was conducted on vegetative leaves, senesced flag leaves and mature grains of a set of 54 ILs of the wild ancestral Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum...

  2. Speciation of naturally-accumulated uranium in an organic-rich soil of an alpine region (Switzerland)

    Simona Regenspurg; Margot-Roquier, C.; Harfouche, M.; P. Froidevaux; Steinmann, P.; Junier, P.; Bernier-Latmani, R.

    2010-01-01

    Very high concentrations of uranium (up to 4000 ppm) were found in a natural soil in the Dischma valley, an alpine region in the Grisons canton in Switzerland. The goal of this study was to examine the redox state and the nature of uranium binding in the soil matrix in order to understand the accumulation mechanism. Pore water profiles collected from Dischma soil revealed the establishment of anoxic conditions with increasing soil depth. A combination of chemical extraction methods and spectr...

  3. Implication of organic acids in the long-distance transport and the accumulation of lead in Sesuvium portulacastrum and Brassica juncea.

    Ghnaya, Tahar; Zaier, Hanen; Baioui, Raoudha; Sghaier, Souhir; Lucchini, Giorgio; Sacchi, Gian Attilio; Lutts, Stanley; Abdelly, Chedly

    2013-01-01

    The implication of organic acids in Pb translocation was studied in two species varying in shoot lead accumulation, Sesuvium portulacastrum and Brassica juncea. Citric, fumaric, malic and α-cetoglutaric acids were separated and determined by HPLC technique in shoots, roots and xylem saps of the both species grown in nutrient solutions added with 200 and 400 μM of Pb(II). The lead content of the xylem saps was determined by ICP-MS. Results showed that S. portulacastrum is more tolerant to Pb than B. juncea. Lead concentration in xylem sap of the S. portulacastrum was significantly greater than in that of B. juncea. For both species, a positive correlation was established between lead and citrate concentrations in xylem sap. However minor relationship was observed for fumaric, malic and α-cetoglutaric acids. In the shoots lead treatment also induced a significant increase in citric acid concentration. Both observations suggest the implication of citric acid in lead translocation and shoot accumulation in S. portulacastrum and B. juncea. The relatively high accumulation of citric acid in xylem sap and shoot of S. portulacastrum could explain its high potential to translocate and accumulate this metal in shoot suggesting their possible use to remediate Pb polluted soils. PMID:23026160

  4. Cadmium, copper, and lead accumulation and bioconcentration in the vegetative and reproductive organs of Raphanus sativus: implications for plant performance and pollination.

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Trumble, John T

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have found high levels of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in honey bee hives located near urbanized or industrial areas. Insect herbivores and pollinators may come in contact with environmental contaminants in the leaves and flowers they forage upon in these areas. Our study quantified which of these metals are accumulated in the tissues of a common weedy plant that can serve as a route of exposure for insects. We grew Raphanus sativus (crop radish) in semi-hydroponic sand culture in the greenhouse. Plants were irrigated with nutrient solutions containing Cd, Cu, or Pb at four concentrations (control, low, medium, high). Plant performance, floral traits, and metal accumulation were measured in various vegetative and reproductive plant organs. Floral traits and flower number were unaffected by all metal treatments. Copper accumulated at the highest concentrations in flowers compared to the other two metals. Copper and Cd had the highest translocation indices, as well as higher bioconcentration factors compared to Pb, which was mostly immobile in the plant. Copper posed the highest risk due to its high mobility within the plant. In particular, accumulation of metals in leaves and flowers suggests that herbivores and pollinators visiting and foraging on these tissues may be exposed to these potentially toxic compounds. PMID:25845355

  5. Sources and accumulation of organic carbon in the Pearl River Estuary surface sediment as indicated by elemental, stable carbon isotopic, and carbohydrate compositions

    B. He

    2010-10-01

    /or transformation during transport. Sediment budget based on calculated regional accumulation rates showed that only ~50% of the influxes of terrestrial organic carbon were accumulated in the estuary. This relatively low accumulation efficiency of terrestrial organic matter as compared to the total suspended solids (accumulation efficiency ~73% suggested significant degradation of the terrestrial organic carbon within the estuarine system after its discharge from the river. This study demonstrated that the combination of the bulk organic matter properties together with the isotopic composition and molecular-level carbohydrate compositions can be an efficient way to track down the source and fate of organic matter in highly dynamic estuarine and coastal systems. The predominance of terrestrially originated organic matter in the sediment and its generally low accumulation efficiency within the estuary is not surprising, and yet it may have important implications in light of the heavy anthropogenic discharges into the Pearl River Estuary during the past thirty years.

  6. Sources and accumulation of organic carbon in the Pearl River Estuary surface sediment as indicated by elemental, stable carbon isotopic, and carbohydrate compositions

    He, B.; Dai, M.; Huang, W.; Liu, Q.; Chen, H.; Xu, L.

    2010-10-01

    Organic matter in surface sediments from the upper reach of the Pearl River Estuary and Lingdingyang Bay, as well as the adjacent northern South China Sea shelf was characterized using a variety of techniques, including elemental (C and N) ratio, bulk stable organic carbon isotopic composition (δ13C), and carbohydrate composition analyses. Total organic carbon (TOC) content was 1.21±0.45% in the upper reach, down to 1.00±0.22% in Lingdingyang Bay and to 0.80±0.10% on the inner shelf and 0.58±0.06% on the outer shelf. δ13C values ranged from -25.1‰ to -21.3‰ in Lingdingyang Bay and the South China Sea shelf, with a trend of enrichment seawards. The spatial trend in C/N ratios mirrored that of δ13C, with a substantial decrease in C/N ratio offshore. Total carbohydrate yields ranged from 22.1 to 26.7 mg (100 mg OC)-1, and typically followed TOC concentrations in the estuarine and shelf sediments. Total neutral sugars, as detected by the nine major monosaccharides (lyxose, rhamnose, ribose, arabinose, fucose, xylose, galactose, mannose, and glucose), were between 4.0 and 18.6 mg (100 mg OC)-1 in the same sediments, suggesting that significant amounts of carbohydrates were not neutral aldoses. Using a two end-member mixing model based on δ13C values and C/N ratios, we estimated that the terrestrial organic carbon contribution to the surface sediment TOC was ca. 78±11% for Lingdingyang Bay, 34±4% for the inner shelf, and 5.5±1% for the outer shelf. The molecular composition of the carbohydrate in the surface sediments also suggested that the inner estuary was rich in terrestrially derived carbohydrates but that their contribution decreased offshore. A relatively high abundance of deoxyhexoses in the estuary and shelf indicated a considerable bacterial source of these carbohydrates, implying that sediment organic matter had undergone extensive degradation and/or transformation during transport. Sediment budget based on calculated regional accumulation rates

  7. Influence of marginal highs on the accumulation of organic carbon along the continental slope off western India

    Rao, B; Veerayya, M.

    0.70 to 5.86%. Highest values of organic carbon are recorded on the marginal highs (5.12-5.86%), followed by shelf margin basin (3.53-4.22%) and the continental slope (1.80-3.84%). The organic carbon content is relatively low in the Arabian Basin (0...

  8. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) in organic and mineral soil horizons from four U.S. remote forests.

    Obrist, Daniel; Zielinska, Barbara; Perlinger, Judith A

    2015-09-01

    We characterized distributions of 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Σ23PAH) and nine oxygenated PAHs (Σ9OPAH) in four remote forests. We observed highest Σ23PAH and Σ9OPAH concentrations in a coniferous forest in Florida, particularly in organic layers which we attributed to frequent prescribed burning. Across sites, Σ23PAH and Σ9OPAH concentrations strongly increased from surface to humidified organic layers (+1626%) where concentrations reached up to 584 ng g(-1). Concentrations in mineral soils were lower (average 37 ± 8 ng g(-1)); but when standardized per unit organic carbon (OC), PAH/OC and OPAH/OC ratios were at or above levels observed in organic layers. Accumulation in litter and soils (i.e., enrichment factors with depth) negatively correlated with octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) and therefore was linked to water solubility of compounds. Concentrations of Σ9OPAHs ranged from 6 ± 6 ng g(-1) to 39 ± 25 ng g(-1) in organic layers, and from 3 ± 1 ng g(-1) to 11 ± 3 ng g(-1) in mineral soils, and were significantly and positively correlated to Σ23PAHs concentrations (r(2) of 0.90) across sites and horizons. While OPAH concentrations generally decreased from organic layers to mineral soil horizons, OPAH/OC ratios increased more strongly with depth compared to PAHs, in particular for anthrone, anthraquinone, fluorenone, and acenaphthenequinone. The strong vertical accumulation of OPAH relative to OC was exponentially and negatively correlated to C/N ratios (r(2)=0.67), a measure that often is used for tissue age. In fact, C/N ratios alone explained two-thirds of the variability in OPAH/OC ratios suggesting particularly high retention, sorption, and persistency of OPAHs in old, decomposed carbon fractions. PMID:25929871

  9. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF DISTRIBUTING AND ACCUMULATION Of HEAVY METALS ARE IN ORGANISMS Of THE FISHES BENTOPHAGES Of KREMENCHUG STORAGE POOL

    А. Melnik

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of heavy metals is investigational in organs and fabrics of the fishes bentophages - bream (Abramis brama L., roach (Rutilus rutilus L. and white bream (Blicca bjoerkna L. of the Kremenchug storage pool. It is set that after maintenance of heavy metals in organs and fabrics in the direction of increase of their concentration it is possible to present such row: bream < white bream < roach.

  10. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF DISTRIBUTING AND ACCUMULATION Of HEAVY METALS ARE IN ORGANISMS Of THE FISHES BENTOPHAGES Of KREMENCHUG STORAGE POOL

    А. Melnik; N. Vlasova; E. Kolos; A. Didenko

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance of heavy metals is investigational in organs and fabrics of the fishes bentophages - bream (Abramis brama L.), roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) and white bream (Blicca bjoerkna L.) of the Kremenchug storage pool. It is set that after maintenance of heavy metals in organs and fabrics in the direction of increase of their concentration it is possible to present such row: bream < white bream < roach.

  11. Effect of nitrofurans and NO generators on biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Burkholderia cenocepacia 370.

    Zaitseva, Julia; Granik, Vladimir; Belik, Alexandr; Koksharova, Olga; Khmel, Inessa

    2009-06-01

    Antibacterial drugs in the nitrofuran series, such as nitrofurazone, furazidin, nitrofurantoin and nifuroxazide, as well as the nitric oxide generators sodium nitroprusside and isosorbide mononitrate in concentrations that do not suppress bacterial growth, were shown to increase the capacity of pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Burkholderia cenocepacia 370 to form biofilms. At 25-100microg/ml, nitrofurans 2-2.5-fold enhanced biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa PAO1, and NO donors 3-6-fold. For B. cenocepacia 370, the enhancement was 2-5-fold (nitrofurans) and 4.5-fold (sodium nitroprusside), respectively. PMID:19460431

  12. Impact of mixed low-molecular-weight organic acids on uranium accumulation and distribution in a variant of mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida)

    The impact of a mixture of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) composed of CA/MA/OA/LA with a molar ratio of 2.5:2.31:1.15:0.044 on uranium (U) accumulation and distribution in mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida) was studied in this paper in order to understand the mechanism of rhizosphere-exudation assisted phytoremediation by hydroponic and pot culture experiments. The impact of the mixture of LWMOAs (Mix) on U accumulation showed that in hydroponic conditions Mix could enhance U translocation from root-to-shoot in mustard, but inhibit U uptake in root. In pot experiments, Mix enhanced both root and shoot U accumulation in mustard. The time-dependent kinetics of U uptake in mustard on Mix treatment showed that U content in plant shoots and roots increased with time increasing, and the steady state conditions were obtained at the 8th and 5th day with the U content of 1,528 and 2,300 mg/kg, respectively. Transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis for mustard roots showed that U was mainly observed on cell membrane of mustard roots on Mix treatment. This study would provide new insights for the mixture of LWMOAs-assisted phytoremediation of U-contaminated soil. (author)

  13. Application of deformable registration and empirical method to calculate the accumulated dose for normal tissues and organs at risks in lung cancer radiotherapy plans

    Objective: To evaluate the accumulated doses to normal tissues and organs at risks (OARs) of patients with lung cancer in radiotherapy plans by using the deformable registration method, and make comparison with the empirical calculation method. Methods: Ten patients with lung cancer were analyzed retrospectively. 3D-CRT or IMRT plans were designed before treatment. CT to simulator was rescanned and the same treatment plan was redesigned during radiotherapy. Based on the deformable registration method, the Mimvista software was used to calculate the accumulated doses to normal tissues and OARs in two CT images respectively. The empirical estimation algorithm was calculated by the linear relationship between the fractions and the total prescribed dose. Results: The target coverage of patients had no significant difference in two plans. There were no significant differences in all the dose volume parameters for normal tissues and OARs, except the mean dose to right lung (t=2.98, P<0.05) when the the same plan was conducted in position-setting and reposition CT images. Conclusions: The empirical estimation for the accumulated dose could be used to evaluate the dose and volume parameters for normal tissues and OARs in lung cancer by the same plan. (authors)

  14. Accumulation and distribution of 137Cs in the organic matter of soil during decomposition of forest dead leaves

    The samples of dead leaves, litter, and soil were taken in 1996 in the forest area located in the Ovruch district of the Zhytomyr region, Ukraine and where ground depositions of 137Cs range from 100 to 590 kBq/m2. Radiocaesium activity of all organic fractions of litter decreased in comparison with radioactivity of the same fractions of dead leaves. Only hydrochloric acid hydrolysate of hemicellulose had a very big radioactivity reached 12-32% of radioactivity of samples. Apparently, hydrochloric acid extracted exchangeable 137Cs (11-17%) and joined one with mineral substances. Organic matter content in the soil layer at a depth of 6-12 cm was 3,4%, the main organic fraction components were residues after hydrolysis and humus substances extracted by sodium pyrophosphate - 52.2 and 28.8%, respectively. In the same soil layer, radiocaesium activity was 0.63 kBg/kg

  15. Influence of organic supplements on production of shoot and callus biomass and accumulation of bacoside in Bacopa monniera (L.) Pennell.

    Parale, Anuradha; Barmukh, Rajkumar; Nikam, Tukaram

    2010-01-01

    Production of valuable secondary metabolites through plant cell or organ culture is the best suited alternative to extraction of whole plant material and to increase production of secondary metabolites in in-vitro systems, feeding precursor or intermediate metabolites is an obvious and popular approach. The present investigation was aimed to study the influence of feeding of organic supplements, glycine (0–125 μM), ferulic acid (0–200 μM), phenylalanine (0–200 μM), α-ketoglutaric acid (0–200 ...

  16. Accumulation of sediment, organic matter and trace metals with space and time, in a creek along Mumbai coast, India

    Fernandes, L.; Nayak, G.N.; Ilangovan, D.; Borole, D.V.

    the sediment deposition trend of the area. The data was further processed using factor and cluster analyses. The results indicate that the sediments from site ManI, had finer sediment composition, higher porosity, organic matter and metal contents but exhibited...

  17. [Effects of long-term application of organic fertilizer and superphosphate on accumulation and leaching of Olsen-P in Fluvo-aquic soil].

    Huang, Shao-Min; Guo, Dou-Dou; Zhang, Shui-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Based on a 20-year experiment of fertilization with organic and chemical fertilizers on a Fluvo-aquic soil under wheat-corn cropping system, this paper studied the relationships between Olsen-P concentration in plough layer and crop yields as well as the accumulation and vertical translocation of Olsen-P in soil profile. The results showed that when the Olsen-P concentration in plough layer maintained at 10-40 mg x kg(-1), the grain yields of wheat and corn were higher, whereas when the concentration of Olsen-P in plough layer was higher than 40 mg x kg(-1), it started to leach, which meant that in light loam Fluvo-aquic soil, the threshold value for P leaching might be 40 mg x kg(-1). In the treatments of chemical fertilization (NPK) and corn straw returning (SNPK) with the P application rate of 77-90 kg x hm(-2), the Olsen-P concentration in plough layer was increased by 0.63-0.72 mg x kg(-1) per 100 kg x hm(-2) of applied P, with an annual increment of 0.49-0.65 mg x kg(-1) and needed 45-60 years for reaching the threshold value for P leaching. In the treatments of chemical fertilization combined with manure application (MNPK, MNPK2, and 1.5MNPK), the formula of Olsen-P accumulation in 0-20 cm soil layer were Y(MNPK) = 3.1097x + 6.9615 (R2 = 0.8562), Y(MNPK2) = 2.4765x + 13.563 (R2 = 0.9307), and Y1.5MNPK = 4.506x + 6.4464 (R2 = 0.8862). It might take 8 years to reach the threshold value for Olsen-P leaching when the P application rate in treatment 1.5MNPK was 210 kg x hm(-2), 11 years when the P application rate in treatments MNPK2 and MNPK was 125 and 140 kg x hm(-2). Organic fertilization combined with chemical fertilization increased the Olsen-P accumulation rate being 2.5 times higher than chemical fertilization. Excessive application of organic fertilizer could increase the accumulation and leaching of Olsen-P in soil profile. PMID:21548294

  18. Ability of Agrogyron elongatum to accumulate the single metal of cadmium, copper, nickel and lead and root exudation of organic acids

    2001-01-01

    Agrogyron elongatum were grown in nutrient solution containing moderate to high amounts of separate heavy metal of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb in a greenhouse for a 9-day. Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb generally led to decrease in the elongation of roots although the length of seedlings exposed to Cd and Pb at 0,05 and 0.5 mg/L showed to be slightly greater than that of controls. Of the four metals in the experiment, Pb was absorbed and accumulated to the highest level, with the concentrations of 92754 mg/kg dry weight (DW) in roots and 11683 mg/kg DW in shoots. Cd was moderately accumulated in Agrogyron elongatum, but the maximum bioaccumulation coefficients (BCs) for rpots and shoots were observed. The patterns for Cu and Ni uptake and distribution in plants differed from those of Pb and Cd, as it was showed that the shoot accumulation of Cu and Ni was significantly higher than in roots. A. elongatum had the highest Ni concentration in shoots (30261 mg/kg DW)at the external concentration of 250 mg/L. Cu ranked second, with a shoot concentration of 12230 mg/kg DW when 50 mg/L Cu in solution was applied. For the four trace elements tested, the highest concentrations in shoots decreased by the order of Ni > Cu > Pb > Cd (mg/kg DW),and those in roots were Pb > Cd > Ni > Cu (mg/kg DW). Malic, oxalic and citric acids exuded by roots exposed to 1 and 50 mg/L of the metals were detected. Release of organic acids from plants significantly differed among the metal treatments. Cu was most effectively in inducing rpot exudation of the three types of organic acids. Cd, and Ni were also the inducers of secretion of malic and oxalic acids. With reference of Pb,a small amounts of malic and oxalic acids were detected in the root exudates, but few quantities of citric acid were found. However, no orrelation between alternations in root exudation of organic acids and metal accumulation could be established.

  19. Environmental monitoring of the area surrounding oil wells in Val d'Agri (Italy): element accumulation in bovine and ovine organs.

    Miedico, Oto; Iammarino, Marco; Paglia, Giuseppe; Tarallo, Marina; Mangiacotti, Michele; Chiaravalle, A Eugenio

    2016-06-01

    In this work, environmental heavy metal contamination in the Val d'Agri area of Southern Italy was monitored, measuring the accumulation of 18 heavy metals (U, Hg, Pb, Cd, As, Sr, Sn, V, Ni, Cr, Mo, Co, Cu, Zn, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Al) in the organs of animals raised in the surrounding area (kidney, lung, and liver of bovine and ovine species). Val d'Agri features various oil processing centers which are potentially a significant source of environmental pollution, making it essential to perform studies that will outline the state of the art on which any recovery plans and interventions may be developed. The analysis was carried out using official and accredited analytical methods based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and the measurements were statistically processed in order to give a contribution to risk assessment. Even though five samples showed Pb and Cd concentrations above the limits defined in the European Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006, the mean concentrations of most elements suggest that contamination in this area is low. Consequently, these results also suggest that there is no particular risk for human exposure to toxic trace elements. Nevertheless, the findings of this work confirm that element accumulation in ovine species is correlated with geographical livestock area. Therefore, ovine-specific organs might be used as bioindicators for monitoring contamination by specific toxic elements in exposed areas. PMID:27165602

  20. Cadmium and manganese accumulation in Phytolacca americana L. and the roles of non-protein thiols and organic acids.

    Gao, Lu; Peng, Kejian; Xia, Yan; Wang, Guiping; Niu, Liyuan; Lian, Chunlan; Shen, Zhenguo

    2013-01-01

    Phytolacca americana L. can accumulate large amounts of heavy metals in its aerial tissues, especially cadmium (Cd) and manganese (Mn). It has great potential for use in phytoextraction of metals from multi-metal-contaminated soils. This study was conducted to further investigate the Cd- and Mn-tolerance strategies of this plant. Concentrations of non-protein thiols (NPTs) and phytochelatins (PCs) in leaves and roots increased significantly as the concentration of Cd in solution increased. The molar ratios of PCs:soluble Cd ranged from 1.8 to 3.6 in roots and 8.1 to 31.6 in leaves, suggesting that the cellular response involving PC synthesis was sufficient to complex Cd ions in the cytosol, especially that of leaves. In contrast, excess Mn treatments did not result in a significant increase in NPT or PC concentrations in leaves or roots. Oxalic acid concentrations in leaves of plants exposed to 2 or 20 mM Mn reached 69.4 to 89.3 mg (0.771 to 0.992 mmol) g(-1) dry weight, respectively, which was approximately 3.7- to 8.6-fold higher than the Mn level in the 0.6 M HCl extract. Thus, oxalic acid may play an important role in the detoxification of Mn. PMID:23487997

  1. RothC simulation of carbon accumulation in soil after repeated application of widely different organic amendments

    Peltre, Clément; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Dragon, Sophine;

    2012-01-01

    Multi-compartment soil carbon (C) simulation models such as RothC are widely used for predicting changes in C stocks of arable soils. However, rigorous routines for establishing entry pools that account for the diversity of exogenous organic matter (EOM) applied to croplands are still lacking. We...... obtained data on changes in soil C stocks after repeated applications of EOM from four long-term experiments (LTEs): Askov K2 (Denmark, 31 yrs), Qualiagro (France, 11 yrs), SERAIL (France, 14 yrs) and Ultuna (Sweden, 52 yrs). The adjustment of the partition coefficients of total organic C in EOM (EOM......-TOC potentially retained in soil. IROC was derived from the C found in the soluble, lignin + cutin-like and cellulose-like Van Soest fractions and the proportion of EOM-TOC mineralized during 3 days of incubation. Using the EOM partition coefficients derived from these laboratory analyses resulted in Roth...

  2. Use of (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO in the diagnosis of primary degenerative dementia

    Testa, H.J.; Snowden, J.S.; Neary, D.; Shields, R.A.; Burjan, A.W.; Prescott, M.C.; Northen, B.; Goulding, P.

    1988-12-01

    The clinical value of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the differential diagnosis of dementia due to cerebral atrophy was evaluated by comparing the pattern of distribution (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO in three dementing conditions. Imaging was carried out in 26 patients with suspected Alzheimer's disease, 14 with dementia of the frontal-lobe type, and 13 with progressive supranuclear palsy. Images were evaluated and reported without knowledge of clinical diagnosis with respect to regions of reduced uptake of tracer. Reduced uptake in the posterior cerebral hemispheres was characteristic of Alzheimer's disease, while selective anterior hemisphere abnormalities characterized both dementia of the frontal-lobe type and progressive supranuclear palsy. The latter conditions could be distinguished on the basis of the appearance of integrity of the rim of the frontal cortex. The technique has an important role in the differentiation of degenerative dementias.

  3. Use of [/sup 99m/Tc]-HM-PAO in the diagnosis of primary degenerative dementia

    The clinical value of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the differential diagnosis of dementia due to cerebral atrophy was evaluated by comparing the pattern of distribution [/sup 99m/Tc]-HM-PAO in three dementing conditions. Imaging was carried out in 26 patients with suspected Alzheimer's disease, 14 with dementia of the frontal-lobe type, and 13 with progressive supranuclear palsy. Images were evaluated and reported without knowledge of clinical diagnosis with respect to regions of reduced uptake of tracer. Reduced uptake in the posterior cerebral hemispheres was characteristic of Alzheimer's disease, while selective anterior hemisphere abnormalities characterized both dementia of the frontal-lobe type and progressive supranuclear palsy. The latter conditions could be distinguished on the basis of the appearance of integrity of the rim of the frontal cortex. The technique has an important role in the differentiation of degenerative dementias

  4. Feeding behaviour of Caenorhabditis elegans is an indicator of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 virulence

    Shawn Lewenza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans is commonly used as an infection model for pathogenesis studies in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The standard virulence assays rely on the slow and fast killing or paralysis of nematodes but here we developed a behaviour assay to monitor the preferred bacterial food sources of C. elegans. We monitored the food preferences of nematodes fed the wild type PAO1 and mutants in the type III secretion (T3S system, which is a conserved mechanism to inject secreted effectors into the host cell cytosol. A ΔexsEΔpscD mutant defective for type III secretion served as a preferred food source, while an ΔexsE mutant that overexpresses the T3S effectors was avoided. Both food sources were ingested and observed in the gastrointestinal tract. Using the slow killing assay, we showed that the ΔexsEΔpscD had reduced virulence and thus confirmed that preferred food sources are less virulent than the wild type. Next we developed a high throughput feeding behaviour assay with 48 possible food colonies in order to screen a transposon mutant library and identify potential virulence genes. C. elegans identified and consumed preferred food colonies from a grid of 48 choices. The mutants identified as preferred food sources included known virulence genes, as well as novel genes not identified in previous C. elegans infection studies. Slow killing assays were performed and confirmed that several preferred food sources also showed reduced virulence. We propose that C. elegans feeding behaviour can be used as a sensitive indicator of virulence for P. aeruginosa PAO1.

  5. Using the natural abundance of 13C and 15N to examine soil organic matter accumulated during 100 years of cropping

    The 13C natural abundance technique was applied to soils of a long term experimental field in the study of organic matter turnover. The technique allowed evaluation of soil organic matter (SOM) originating from residues of different cropping systems that partially replaced the native prairie SOM mineralized during 100 years of cropping history. A large pool of the prairie SOM was highly resistant to decay, demonstrating a turnover time of 1000 years. Labile prairie SOM, lost when cultivation was initiated, had a half-life of 11 years. Accumulated SOM that originated from residues of a particular crop demonstrated a similar half-life as it decayed and was replaced by new SOM from residues of a different crop. Apparent turnover time for soil organic carbon calculated from annual input of crop residues to the soil for different cropping systems ranged from 2 years for corn to 6.4 years for timothy sod. The natural abundance of 15N showed significant change for soil treated with chemical fertilizer or manure relative to the control soil. Manure applied to timothy for 100 years contributed 24% of existing soil organic nitrogen. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Effect of sludge age on methanogenic and glycogen accumulating organisms in an aerobic granular sludge process fed with methanol and acetate.

    Pronk, M; Abbas, B; Kleerebezem, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-09-01

    The influence of sludge age on granular sludge formation and microbial population dynamics in a methanol- and acetate-fed aerobic granular sludge system operated at 35°C was investigated. During anaerobic feeding of the reactor, methanol was initially converted to methane by methylotrophic methanogens. These methanogens were able to withstand the relatively long aeration periods. Lowering the anaerobic solid retention time (SRT) from 17 to 8 days enabled selective removal of the methanogens and prevented unwanted methane formation. In absence of methanogens, methanol was converted aerobically, while granule formation remained stable. At high SRT values (51 days), γ-Proteobacteria were responsible for acetate removal through anaerobic uptake and subsequent aerobic growth on storage polymers formed [so called metabolism of glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO)]. When lowering the SRT (24 days), Defluviicoccus-related organisms (cluster II) belonging to the α-Proteobacteria outcompeted acetate consuming γ-Proteobacteria at 35°C. DNA from the Defluviicoccus-related organisms in cluster II was not extracted by the standard DNA extraction method but with liquid nitrogen, which showed to be more effective. Remarkably, the two GAO types of organisms grew separately in two clearly different types of granules. This work further highlights the potential of aerobic granular sludge systems to effectively influence the microbial communities through sludge age control in order to optimize the wastewater treatment processes. PMID:26059251

  7. Assessment of the arterial input curve for [99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO by rapid octanol extraction

    Andersen, A R; Friberg, H; Lassen, N A;

    1988-01-01

    The in vitro conversion of the lipophilic molecule [99mTc]-d,l-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime [( 99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO) to a hydrophilic form was studied in saline, plasma, and blood at 37 degrees C by paper chromatography and by octanol extraction. The octanol:saline ratio was 79.9. From this value...

  8. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of PA3885 (TpbA) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    Yang, Wen; Li, Kan; Bai, Yuwei; Zhou, Ruimin; Zhou, Weihong; Bartlam, Mark

    2010-01-01

    PA3885 (TpbA), a tyrosine phosphatase, may function as a balancing factor between biofilm formation and motility in the opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of PA3885 from P. aeruginosa PAO1 are reported.

  9. Expression of the recA gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO is inducible by DNA-damaging agents

    Miller, R.V.; Kokjohn, T.A.

    1988-05-01

    Western (immunoblot) analysis using Escherichia coli anti-RecA antiserum revealed that expression of the RecA protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO is induced upon exposure of the bacterium to UV irradiation or norfloxacin, a quinolone related to nalidixic acid.

  10. Cd and Ni transport and accumulation in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum: implication of organic acids in these processes

    Mnasri, Mejda; Ghabriche, Rim; Fourati, Emna; Zaier, Hanen; Sabally, Kebba; Barrington, Suzelle; Lutts, Stanley; Abdelly, Chedly; Ghnaya, Tahar

    2015-01-01

    The implication of organic acids in Cd and Ni translocation was studied in the halophyte species Sesuvium portulacastrum. Citric, fumaric, malic, and ascorbic acids were separated and quantified by HPLC technique in shoots, roots and xylem saps of plants grown on nutrient solutions added with 50 μM Cd, 100 μM Ni and the combination of 50 μM Cd + 100 μM Ni. Results showed that Cd had no significant impact on biomass production while Ni and the combination of both metals drastically affected pl...

  11. Cd and Ni transport and accumulation in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum: implication of organic acids in these processes

    Tahar eGhnaya

    2015-01-01

    The implication of organic acids in Cd and Ni translocation was studied in the halophyte species Sesuvium portulacastrum. Citric, fumaric, malic and ascorbic acids were separated and quantified by HPLC technique in shoots, roots and xylem saps of plants grown on nutrient solutions added with 50 µM Cd, 100 µM Ni and the combination of 50 µM Cd + 100 µM Ni. Results showed that Cd had no significant impact on biomass production while Ni and the combination of both metals drastically affected pla...

  12. The Accumulation and Histological Effects of The Organometallic Fungicide Propineb on The Organs of Fetuses and Female Rats During Pregnancy

    Güven, Kemal

    1999-01-01

    Dithiocarbamate propineb is an organometal fungicide, which is widely used for the control of diseases in plants. Female Wistar rats were exposed orally to propineb concentrations of 200 and 400 ppm, from the 6th day of gestation up to birth. At 400 ppm, propineb showed a variety of macroscopic (e.g. ptosis and paralysis) and microscopic symptoms in the organs of both fetuses and female rats. We found that the body weights of both one-day old litters and their propineb-treated mothers we...

  13. Evaluation of Long-Term Application of Organic Residues on Accumulation of Organic Matter and Improvement of Soil Chemical Properties in a Clay Terrace Soil of Bangladesh

    Egashira, Kazuhiko; Han, Jing-Long; Karim, A.J.M. Sirajul; Abu Zofar Md. Moslehuddin; Yamada, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    The field experiment on the long-term application of organic residues was started in 1988 at the farm of Bangabandhu Shekh Mujibur Rahamn Agricultural University (BSMRAU; named as Institute of Postgraduate Studies in Agriculture (ISPA)until 1998) and is continued until now. Five kinds of organic residues (no-application, rice straw green manure, compost and cowdung) were applied every June to cover soil surface uniformly as a thin layer and incorporated into soil to the depth of 10cm. Rice(Ju...

  14. Use of technetium-99m-HM-PAO in the assessment of patients with dementia and other neuropsychiatric conditions

    One hundred fourteen patients suffering from neuropsychiatric conditions have been studied using 99mTc-labeled hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Ninety-one patients had a firm clinical diagnosis while 23 were examined without knowledge of the clinical diagnosis. Of the 91 patients, 51 were suffering from dementia, 25 multi-infarct type and 26 Alzheimer's disease. In 19 of the Alzheimer's patients, a characteristic pattern of decreased perfusion in the parieto-occipital regions was demonstrated while those with multi-infarct type showed varying degrees of irregular uptake in the cerebral cortex. These appearances are similar to those shown with positron emission tomography (PET) and we believe that HM-PAO will provide a widely available method for identifying patients with Alzheimer's disease. Twenty-nine patients were suffering from diseases involving the basal ganglia. Fifteen patients with Parkinson's disease showed no significant abnormality in basal ganglia uptake, while 7 or 8 patients with Huntington's disease who had full examinations showed decreased uptake in the caudate nuclei. Similarly, four of six patients with other basal ganglia diseases showed impaired uptake by basal ganglia, and it is concluded that HM-PAO may be useful for the diagnosis and management of this type of patient. Twenty-three patients received HM-PAO imaging as part of their diagnostic work-up; in 19 of them, detailed follow-up was obtained, which indicated that in 7 cases the result of the HM-PAO scan altered the clinical diagnosis and in 9 cases resulted in a change in management. In the remaining 13 cases, the study was found to be helpful in confirming the diagnosis

  15. The evaluation of collateral cerebral circulation using 99mTc-HM-PAO SPECT during the balloon Matas test

    A balloon Matas test using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 99mTC-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (99mTc-HM-PAO) was performed to evaluate collateral cerebral circulation during temporary carotid occlusion in 14 patients (6 with internal carotid artery aneurysms, 2 with basilar skull tumors, 5 with neck tumors, and one with traumatic common carotid artery aneurysm). The occlusion sites were internal carotid artery in 12 patients and common carotid artery in 2 patients. The observation of the neurological state, the carotid stump pressure, cerebral angiography for assessing collateral circulation and electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring were also undertaken in all patients. In four patients, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by xenon-inhalation method and compared with the CBF image by 99mTc-HM-PAO SPECT. The 99mTC-HM-PAO (20 mCi) was injected intravenously 3 minutes before balloon deflation. In all patients, the neurological state and EEG showed no abnormality during the balloon Matas test. Eight patients were considered treatable by the permanent occlusion of the carotid artery. Permanent carotid ligation was carried out in five of these 8 patients, and no neurological deficit occurred. Permanent occlusion of the carotid artery was impossible in 5 patients because of marked reduction of CBF. 99mTc-HM-PAO SPECT should three-dimensional cerebral perfusion pattern. In conclusion, a balloon Matas test using 99mTC-HM-PAO SPECT is a reliable, simple and safe method of evaluating the collateral cerebral circulation. (J.P.N.)

  16. Accumulation of 137Cs after potassium fertilization in plant organs of Salix viminalis L. and in combusted ash

    The effect of potassium (K) application at a common rate on 137Cs uptake and distribution within basket willow (Salix viminalis L.) and 137Cs activity in willow ash was studied in a three-year field experiment on a sandy soil. Experimental plots fertilized with 60 kg N and 48 kg K per ha were compared with a control with similar N but no K fertilization. There was no significant difference in 137Cs activity concentrations in plants growing on plots with or without fertilizer K. Higher concentrations of 137Cs activity were found in roots and leaves of willow than in stems and cuttings. The highest 137Cs activity concentration was detected in the fine roots (size 0-1 mm). The transfer factor (TFg) of 137Cs in different plant organs varied between 0.1 x 10-3 and 2.6 x 10-3 m2 kg-1. After combustion, 137Cs activity concentrations in ash produced from wood chips from K-fertilized plots were significantly lower than those in ash originating from plots without K fertilization. Fly ash had higher 137Cs concentrations than bottom ash and all ash samples had 137Cs concentrations that were well below the 10 000 Bq kg-1 Swedish limit for spreading on land. -- Highlights: → We studied effect of potassium on 137Cs uptake by basket willow (Salix viminalis). → No significant difference in 137Cs activity in plants was found. → Higher 137Cs activity was found in roots and leaves than in stems and cuttings. → Highest 137Cs activity was detected in fine roots (size 0-1 mm). → Transfer factors of 137Cs in plant organs were 0.1 x 10-3 and 2.6 x 10-3 m2 kg-1.

  17. Sources and accumulation of organic carbon in the Pearl River Estuary surface sediment as indicated by elemental, stable carbon isotopic, and carbohydrate compositions

    B. He

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter in surface sediments from the upper reach of the Pearl River Estuary and Lingdingyang Bay, as well as the adjacent northern South China Sea shelf was characterized by a variety of techniques, including elemental (C and N, stable carbon isotopic (δ 13C composition, as well as molecular-level analyses. Total organic carbon (TOC content was 1.61±1.20% in the upper reach down to 1.00±0.22% in Lingdingyang Bay and to 0.80±0.10% on the inner shelf and 0.58±0.06% on the outer shelf. δ13C values ranged from −25.11‰ to −21.28‰ across the studied area, with a trend of enrichment seaward. The spatial trend in C/N ratios mirrored that of δ13C, with a substantial decrease in C/N ratio from 10.9±1.3 in the Lingdingyang Bay surface sediments to 6.5±0.09 in the outer shelf surface sediments. Total carbohydrate yields ranged from 22.1 to 26.7 mg (100 mg OC−1, and typically followed TOC concentrations in the estuarine and shelf sediments, suggesting that the relative abundance of total carbohydrate was fairly constant in TOC. Total neutral sugars as detected by the nine major monosaccharides (lyxose, rhamnose, ribose, arabinose, fucose, xylose, galactose, mannose, and glucose yielded between 4.0 and 18.6 mg (100 mg OC−1 in the same sediments, suggesting that a significant amount of carbohydrates were not neutral aldoses. The bulk organic matter properties, isotopic composition and C/N ratios, combined with molecular-level carbohydrate compositions were used to assess the sources and accumulation of terrestrial organic matter in the Pearl River Estuary and the adjacent northern South China Sea shelf. Results showed a mixture of terrestrial riverine organic carbon with in situ phytoplankton organic carbon in the areas studied. Using a two end-member mixing model based on δ13C values and C/N ratios, we estimated that the terrestrial organic carbon contribution to

  18. The SPECT imaging shows the accumulation of neural progenitor cells into internal organs after systemic administration in middle cerebral artery occlusion rats.

    Lappalainen, Riikka S; Narkilahti, Susanna; Huhtala, Tuulia; Liimatainen, Timo; Suuronen, Tiina; Närvänen, Ale; Suuronen, Riitta; Hovatta, Outi; Jolkkonen, Jukka

    2008-08-01

    The regenerative potential of stem cells from various sources has been under intense investigation in the experimental models of cerebral ischemia. To end up with a restorative therapeutic treatment, it is crucial to get the cell transplants to the site of injury. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of small animal SPECT/CT in assessing the definite accumulation of (111)In-oxine-labeled human embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived neural progenitors and rat hippocampal progenitors after intravenous or intra-arterial administration (femoral vein vs. common carotid artery) in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and sham-operated rats. Cell detection was carried out immediately and 24h after the infusion using a SPECT/CT device. The results showed that after intravenous injections both cell types accumulated primarily into internal organs, instead of brain. In contrast, after intra-arterial injection, a weak signal was detected in the ischemic hemisphere. Additional studies showed that the detection sensitivity of SPECT/CT device was approximately 1000 (111)In-oxine-labeled cells and labeling did not affect the cell viability. In conclusion, a small animal SPECT is powerful technique to study the whole body biodistribution of cell-based therapies. Our data showed that intravenous administration is not an optimal route to deliver neural progenitor cell-containing transplants into the brain after MCAO in rats. PMID:18572314

  19. Enhanced energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater by sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and algal lipid accumulation.

    Ren, Hong-Yu; Liu, Bing-Feng; Kong, Fanying; Zhao, Lei; Xing, Defeng; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2014-04-01

    A two-stage process of sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and microalgal cultivation was applied to enhance the energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater. Ethanol fermentation bacterium Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 was used as hydrogen producer, and the energy conversion efficiency and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency reached 18.6% and 28.3% in dark fermentation. Acetate was the main soluble product in dark fermentative effluent, which was further utilized by microalga Scenedesmus sp. R-16. The final algal biomass concentration reached 1.98gL(-1), and the algal biomass was rich in lipid (40.9%) and low in protein (23.3%) and carbohydrate (11.9%). Compared with single dark fermentation stage, the energy conversion efficiency and COD removal efficiency of two-stage system remarkably increased 101% and 131%, respectively. This research provides a new approach for efficient energy production and wastewater treatment using a two-stage process combining dark fermentation and algal cultivation. PMID:24582427

  20. Determination of mass accumulation rates for organic carbon, carbonate, metal and sediment on the eastern continental margin of the Black Sea sediments during Late Holocene

    Mass Accumulation Rates (MAR) in Black Sea samples for carbonate, organic carbon and some metal based on 210Pb dating are determined and their interpretation are presented. The samples are recovered from the international cruise 2000 organized by the IAEA as a part of the Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region Technical Cooperation Project RER/2/003. In this study only one core (BS-23) located on the eastern continental margin of the Black Sea in water depth of 2168 m is examined. The sediment in these core consist of two units which are from top to bottom: the laminated coccolith marl and micro laminated sapropel units reach in organic carbon. These units were formed after the flooding of the lacustrine Black Sea basin by the Mediterranean waters via the Istanbul strait at 7150 yr BP. The total average MAR for the last 125 years for these site is found as 40.15 g.m-2.yr-1 (26 cm.kyr-1). Considering that the corrected AMS 14C ages, the average linear sedimentation rate for core BS-23 over 2000 yr. are found to be about 1.5 times lower than those for the last 125 yr. determined from the 210Pb data. This suggests that the sediment accumulation rate have significantly increased probably in the last few hundred years as a result of man's impact. The average MARTOC and MARCaCO3 in the upper three cm. of the core (Unit I) representing the last 125 yr. are 1.84 and 15.82 g.m-2.yr-1, respectively, whereas MARTOC and MARCaCO3 values in Unit II are 2.79 and 3.74 g.m-2.yr-1. The high MARCaCO3 in the unit I is caused by the coccolithophore E. huxleyi which forms the white laminae. In the upper part of the sediment, the Ba enrichment indicate a sharp increase in organic productivity that causes eutrophication process over the last 50 yr. Similarly Pb, Zn and Cu exhibit very sharp increase in the top part of the core, reaching more than twice the background values and attesting high metal inputs into the Black Sea during the last half century

  1. Organic UV filters inhibit multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) activity in Tetrahymena thermophila: investigations by the Rhodamine 123 accumulation assay and molecular docking.

    Gao, Li; Yuan, Tao; Cheng, Peng; Zhou, Chuanqi; Ao, Junjie; Wang, Wenhua; Zhang, Haimou

    2016-09-01

    Multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) transporters, which belong to ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family proteins, are present in living organisms as a first line of defense system against xenobiotics and environmental contaminants. The effects of six organic UV filters (4-methyl -benzylidene camphor, 4-MBC; benzophenone-3, BP-3; butyl methoxydibenzoyl-methane, BM-DBM; ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate, EHMC; octocrylene, OC and homosalate, HMS) on multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) in Tetrahymena thermophila were investigated in this study. It was found that 4-MBC, BP-3 and BM-DBM could significantly inhibit activity of the MXR system, causing concentration dependent accumulation of rhodamine 123; while EHMC, OC and HMS had weak MXR inhibition. The IC50 (50 % inhibition concentration) values of 4-MBC, BP-3 and BM-DBM were 23.54, 40.59 and 26.37 μM, respectively, with inhibitory potentials of 23.1, 13.4 and 20.6 % relative to verapamil (VER, a model inhibitor of P-glycoprotein). Our results firstly provide the evidence for UV filters inhibition effect on MXR in aquatic organisms. In addition, it was revealed by molecular docking analysis that the selected six UV filters can occupy the same binding site on T. thermophila P-gp as VER does; and form H-bonds with residues Ser 328 and/or Asn 281. This study raises the awareness of aquatic ecological risk from the organic UV filters exposure, as they would be involved in potentiating toxic effects by chemosensitizing. PMID:27315091

  2. Sedimentary records of δ13C, δ15N and organic matter accumulation in lakes receiving nutrient-rich mine waters

    Organic C and total N concentrations, C/N ratios, δ15N and δ13C values in 210Pb-dated sediment cores were used to reconstruct historical changes in organic matter (OM) accumulation in three Swedish lakes receiving nutrient-rich mine waters. Ammonium-nitrate-based explosives and sodium cyanide (NaCN) used in gold extraction were the major N sources, while lesser amounts of P originated from apatite and flotation chemicals. The software IsoSource was used to model the relative contribution of soil, terrestrial and littoral vegetation, and phytoplankton detritus in the lake sediments. In one lake the IsoSource modelling failed, suggesting the presence of additional, unknown OM sources. In two of the lakes sedimentary detritus of littoral vegetation and phytoplankton had increased by 15–20% and 20–35%, respectively, since ∼ 1950, when N- and P-rich mine waters began to reach the lakes. Today, phytoplankton is the dominating OM component in these lake sediments, which appears to be a eutrophication effect related to mining operations. Changes in the N isotopic composition of biota, lake water, and sediments related to the use of ammonium-nitrate-based explosives and NaCN were evident in the two studied systems. However, N isotope signals in the receiving waters (δ15N ∼ + 9‰ to + 19‰) were clearly shifted from the primary signal in explosives (δ15N–NO3 = + 3.4 ± 0.3‰; δ15N–NH4 = − 8.0 ± 0.3‰) and NaCN (δ15N = + 1.1 ± 0.5‰), and direct tracing of the primary N isotope signals in mining chemicals was not possible in the receiving waters. Systems where mine waters with a well known discharge history are a major point source of N with well-defined isotopic composition should, however, be suitable for further studies of processes controlling N isotope signatures and their transformation in aquatic systems receiving mine waters. - Highlights: • Historical mining-related changes in organic matter accumulation were revealed. • Macrophyte and

  3. Sedimentary records of δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N and organic matter accumulation in lakes receiving nutrient-rich mine waters

    Widerlund, Anders, E-mail: Anders.Widerlund@ltu.se; Chlot, Sara; Öhlander, Björn

    2014-07-01

    Organic C and total N concentrations, C/N ratios, δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 13}C values in {sup 210}Pb-dated sediment cores were used to reconstruct historical changes in organic matter (OM) accumulation in three Swedish lakes receiving nutrient-rich mine waters. Ammonium-nitrate-based explosives and sodium cyanide (NaCN) used in gold extraction were the major N sources, while lesser amounts of P originated from apatite and flotation chemicals. The software IsoSource was used to model the relative contribution of soil, terrestrial and littoral vegetation, and phytoplankton detritus in the lake sediments. In one lake the IsoSource modelling failed, suggesting the presence of additional, unknown OM sources. In two of the lakes sedimentary detritus of littoral vegetation and phytoplankton had increased by 15–20% and 20–35%, respectively, since ∼ 1950, when N- and P-rich mine waters began to reach the lakes. Today, phytoplankton is the dominating OM component in these lake sediments, which appears to be a eutrophication effect related to mining operations. Changes in the N isotopic composition of biota, lake water, and sediments related to the use of ammonium-nitrate-based explosives and NaCN were evident in the two studied systems. However, N isotope signals in the receiving waters (δ{sup 15}N ∼ + 9‰ to + 19‰) were clearly shifted from the primary signal in explosives (δ{sup 15}N–NO{sub 3} = + 3.4 ± 0.3‰; δ{sup 15}N–NH{sub 4} = − 8.0 ± 0.3‰) and NaCN (δ{sup 15}N = + 1.1 ± 0.5‰), and direct tracing of the primary N isotope signals in mining chemicals was not possible in the receiving waters. Systems where mine waters with a well known discharge history are a major point source of N with well-defined isotopic composition should, however, be suitable for further studies of processes controlling N isotope signatures and their transformation in aquatic systems receiving mine waters. - Highlights: • Historical mining-related changes in organic

  4. Kuo Pao Kun’s Zheng He Legend and Multicultural Encounters in Singapore

    Rachel Leng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper will examine Kuo Pao Kun’s modern reiteration of the Zheng He theme in his 1995 Singaporean play titled Descendants of the Eunuch Admiral 郑和的后代. The memory of Zheng He and his legacy rooted in an anomalous series of sea expeditions makes him unique in Chinese history and speaks to contemporary issues of multiculturalism, ethnic hybridity, and the geopolitics of migration and diaspora. Kuo reappropriates the Zheng He theme to re-present the eunuch admiral as an ancient paradigm of the modern multicultural man in an increasingly transnational world. Scholars have noted the way Kuo uses storytelling to prompt people in Singapore to show a greater willingness to live together as a multiethnic, multicultural, and multilingual nation. However, I argue that the play’s text reveals more somber and personal undercurrents, where Kuo draws upon an intimate understanding of the classical Chinese Zheng He story to record shrewd observations and articulate concealed shafts of criticism about Singapore’s bureaucracy, intermingled with philosophical reflections addressing contemporary Sinophone lived reality.

  5. [/sup 99m/Tc]-HM-PAO SPECT in Parkinson's disease

    Thirty-six patients affected by Parkinson's disease were studied using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and [/sup 99m/Tc]-HM-PAO as a tracer. The scanning procedure was performed 16-24 h after discontinuation of specific therapy. Tracer activity ratios were determined in 10 pairs of cerebellar, cortical, and subcortical regions. Data were compared with those of 10 age-matched controls. Most of the regions examined did not show any relevant change between parkinsonian and control subjects. Notably, mean activity in striatal regions were similar in the two groups. Increased activity in caudate-putamen was found in patients who were on chronic DOPA therapy. Side-to-side asymmetries in the basal ganglia increased with the severity of the disease. Significant reductions of tracer uptake, from control values, were observed bilaterally in the parietal cortex. These deficits were more pronounced in patients with mental deterioration and in subjects who had been chronically treated with anticholinergic drugs. Parietal perfusion deficits in parkinsonian patients resemble those described in Alzheimer's dementia. These findings suggest that the heterogeneous alterations of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in parkinsonian patients reflect the multifactorial pathophysiology of the disease

  6. Intraoperative PaO2 is not related to the development of surgical site infections after major cardiac surgery

    Fierro Inma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The perioperative use of high inspired oxygen fraction (FIO2 for preventing surgical site infections (SSIs has demonstrated a reduction in their incidence in some types of surgery however there exist some discrepancies in this respect. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between PaO2 values and SSIs in cardiac patients. Methods We designed a prospective study in which 1,024 patients undergoing cardiac surgery were analyzed. Results SSIs were observed in 5.3% of patients. There was not significant difference in mortality at 30 days between patients with and without SSIs. In the uni and multivariate analysis no differences in function of the inspired oxygen fraction administrated were observed. Conclusions We observed that the PaO2 in adult cardiac surgery patients was not related to SSI rate.

  7. An examination of historic inorganic sedimentation and organic matter accumulation in several marsh types within the Mobile Bay and and Mobile-Tensaw River Delta region

    Smith, Christopher G.; Osterman, Lisa E.; Poore, Richard Z.

    2013-01-01

    Mass accumulation rates (MAR; g cm-2 y-1), linear sedimentation rates (LSR; cm y-1), and core geochronology derived from excess lead-210 (210Pb) profiles and inventories measured in six sediment cores collected from marsh sites from the MobileTensaw River Delta and Mobile Bay region record the importance of both continuous and event-driven inorganic sedimentation over the last 120 years. MAR in freshwater marshes varied considerably between sites and through time (0.24 and 1.31 g cm-2 y-1). The highest MARs occurred in the 1950s and 1960s and correspond to record discharge events along the Mobile and Tensaw Rivers. In comparison, MAR at salt marsh sites increased almost threefold over the last 120 years (0.05 to 0.18 g cm-2 y-1 or 0.23 to 0.48 cm y-1). From 1880 to 1960, organic accumulation remained fairly constant (20%), while intermittent pulses of high inorganic sedimentation were observed following 1960. The pulses in inorganic sedimentation coincide with several major hurricanes (e.g., Hurricanes Camille, Fredric, Georges, and Ivan). The nearly threefold increase in MAR in salt marshes during the last 120 years would thus appear to be partially dependent on inorganic sedimentation from storm events. This study shows that while hurricanes, floods, and other natural hazards are well-known threats to human infrastructure and coastal ecosystems, these events also transport sediment to marshes that help abate other pressures such as sea-level rise (SLR) and subsidence.

  8. Comparison of technetium-99m-HM-PAO leukocytes with indium-111-oxine leukocytes for localizing intraabdominal sepsis

    Technetium-99m-HM-PAO [(99mTc]HM-PAO) leukocyte and indium-111-oxine (111In-oxine) leukocyte scanning were carried out simultaneously in 41 patients at 4 hr and 24 hr after reinjection to determine whether the 4-hr 99mTc scan could replace the 24-hr 111In scan for detecting intraabdominal sepsis. Abdominal infection was confirmed in 12 cases. The 4-hr 99Tc-leukocyte scan, the 4-hr 111In-leukocyte scan, and the 24-hr 111In-leukocyte scan yielded a sensitivity of 100%, 67%, and 100%, respectively, and a specificity of 62%, 90%, and 86%, respectively. The 24-hr 99mTc-leukocyte scan also produced a sensitivity of 100%, but it was falsely positive in all 29 cases without infection due to physiologic bowel uptake. False-positive 4-hr 99mTc-leukocyte scans were also produced by physiologic bowel uptake in seven cases all of whom had true-negative 4-hr and 24-hr 111In-leukocyte scans. Because of the high incidence of false-positive 4-hr [99mTc]HM-PAO leukocyte scans, it was concluded that they could not replace 24-hr 111In-leukocyte scans for detecting intraabdominal sepsis, and that serial 99mTc leukocyte scans starting earlier than 4 hr after reinjection must be evaluated

  9. A Study on Replacement of HEPA Filter In-place Leak Test Challenge Agent from DOP to PAO in NPP

    Atmosphere cleanup system of nuclear power plants is a gas waste treatment system to minimize the leakage of radioactive materials produced during normal operation and accidents. The HEPA(High Efficiency Particulate Air) filter in this system has the major role to filter the particulate radioactive materials. The leak test method of HEPA filter conforms to the Reg. Guide 1.140 and Reg. Guide 1.52 of USNRC, which were both revised in 2001. The revisions include the permission of alternative challenging aerosol agents besides DOP (dioctyl phthalate) for HEPA filter in-place leak test. US DOE is demanding to stop using DOP since DOP was suspected as a carcinogen. Currently, industries other than nuclear power plants mostly use PAO (polyalpha olefin) as HEPA filter leak test challenge aerosol agent. Due to Reg. Guide 1.140(Rev.2) and 1.52(Rev.2), only DOP has been allowed to be used in nuclear power plants. As a result, nuclear power plant workers have been exposed to mental and physical risks whenever there is HEPA filter in-place leak test. In this paper, the leak test results using DOP and PAO are compared to verify that DOP can be replaced with non-carcinogenic PAO for HEPA filter leak test in nuclear power plants

  10. A Study on Replacement of HEPA Filter In-place Leak Test Challenge Agent from DOP to PAO in NPP

    Lee, S. K.; Kim, K.; Sohn, S. H. [KEPRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, J. C.; Park, J. S.; Cho, B. H. [KHNP, Yonggwang (Korea, Republic of); Yu, B. J. [KPS, Yonggwang (Korea, Republic of); Hong, S. J. [FNC Tech. Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, S. H. [KFTL, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Atmosphere cleanup system of nuclear power plants is a gas waste treatment system to minimize the leakage of radioactive materials produced during normal operation and accidents. The HEPA(High Efficiency Particulate Air) filter in this system has the major role to filter the particulate radioactive materials. The leak test method of HEPA filter conforms to the Reg. Guide 1.140 and Reg. Guide 1.52 of USNRC, which were both revised in 2001. The revisions include the permission of alternative challenging aerosol agents besides DOP (dioctyl phthalate) for HEPA filter in-place leak test. US DOE is demanding to stop using DOP since DOP was suspected as a carcinogen. Currently, industries other than nuclear power plants mostly use PAO (polyalpha olefin) as HEPA filter leak test challenge aerosol agent. Due to Reg. Guide 1.140(Rev.2) and 1.52(Rev.2), only DOP has been allowed to be used in nuclear power plants. As a result, nuclear power plant workers have been exposed to mental and physical risks whenever there is HEPA filter in-place leak test. In this paper, the leak test results using DOP and PAO are compared to verify that DOP can be replaced with non-carcinogenic PAO for HEPA filter leak test in nuclear power plants.

  11. Analysis of physiological (pao/sub 2/, pulse and blood pressure) changes during modified ect under general anaesthesia

    To study the changes in physiological parameters i e PAO2, pulse and blood pressure changes during ECT under GA. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Psychiatry and Department of Anaesthesiology, Combined Military Hospital Abbottabad from Sep 2009 to Feb 2010. Patients and Methods: A total of 50 patients with depression were given four separate ECT sessions each. All patients were anaesthetized using propofol 180-200 mg I/V and suxamethonium 50 mg i e 0.75-1 mg per kg I/V without atropine. They were stratified according to physiological changes including PAO2, pulse and blood pressure at 1, 2 and 5 min after ECT. Oxygen saturation was measured using a pulse oximeter, which measures saturations in the range of 65-100%. Results: Age range was 19-65 years; mean 46 years (SD+-13). Mean diastolic BP before ECT was 84.72 that decreased post ECT ie 78.02 and 77.46 and 74.44 at interval of 1, 2 and 5 minute respectively. Post-ECT pulse and PAO2 behaved similarly. Post ECT systolic BP decreased at 1 and 5 minutes. Pulse rate decreased after ECT. Conclusion: ECT under propofol is one of the most effective and safe modality of treatment for psychiatric patients under the supervision of qualified psychiatrists and anaesthesiologists and it gives more stable hemodynamic changes. (author)

  12. Dictyostelium transcriptional responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa: common and specific effects from PAO1 and PA14 strains

    Martinez José L

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most relevant human opportunistic bacterial pathogens. Two strains (PAO1 and PA14 have been mainly used as models for studying virulence of P. aeruginosa. The strain PA14 is more virulent than PAO1 in a wide range of hosts including insects, nematodes and plants. Whereas some of the differences might be attributable to concerted action of determinants encoded in pathogenicity islands present in the genome of PA14, a global analysis of the differential host responses to these P. aeruginosa strains has not been addressed. Little is known about the host response to infection with P. aeruginosa and whether or not the global host transcription is being affected as a defense mechanism or altered in the benefit of the pathogen. Since the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is a suitable host to study virulence of P. aeruginosa and other pathogens, we used available genomic tools in this model system to study the transcriptional host response to P. aeruginosa infection. Results We have compared the virulence of the P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PA14 using D. discoideum and studied the transcriptional response of the amoeba upon infection. Our results showed that PA14 is more virulent in Dictyostelium than PA01using different plating assays. For studying the differential response of the host to infection by these model strains, D. discoideum cells were exposed to either P. aeruginosa PAO1 or P. aeruginosa PA14 (mixed with an excess of the non-pathogenic bacterium Klebsiella aerogenes as food supply and after 4 hours, cellular RNA extracted. A three-way comparison was made using whole-genome D. discoideum microarrays between RNA samples from cells treated with the two different strains and control cells exposed only to K. aerogenes. The transcriptomic analyses have shown the existence of common and specific responses to infection. The expression of 364 genes changed in a similar way upon infection with

  13. Effects of chloride, sulfate and natural organic matter (NOM) on the accumulation and release of trace-level inorganic contaminants from corroding iron.

    Peng, Ching-Yu; Ferguson, John F; Korshin, Gregory V

    2013-09-15

    This study examined effects of varying levels of anions (chloride and sulfate) and natural organic matter (NOM) on iron release from and accumulation of inorganic contaminants in corrosion scales formed on iron coupons exposed to drinking water. Changes of concentrations of sulfate and chloride were observed to affect iron release and, in lesser extent, the retention of representative inorganic contaminants (vanadium, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, lead and uranium); but, effects of NOM were more pronounced. DOC concentration of 1 mg/L caused iron release to increase, with average soluble and total iron concentrations being four and two times, respectively, higher than those in the absence of NOM. In the presence of NOM, the retention of inorganic contaminants by corrosion scales was reduced. This was especially prominent for lead, vanadium, chromium and copper whose retention by the scales decreased from >80% in the absence of NOM to copper, chromium, zinc and nickel retained on the surface of iron coupons in the presence of DOC largely retained their mobility and were released readily when ambient water chemistry changed. Vanadium, arsenic, cadmium, lead and uranium retained by the scales were largely unsusceptible to changes of NOM and chloride levels. Modeling indicated that the observed effects were associated with the formation of metal-NOM complexes and effects of NOM on the sorption of the inorganic contaminants on solid phases that are typical for iron corrosion in drinking water. PMID:23863395

  14. Effect of Soil Moisture on Release of Low-MolecularWeight Organic Acids in Root Exudates and the Accumulation of Iron in Root Apoplasm of Peanut

    2000-01-01

    A three-compartments rhizobox was designed and used to study the low-molecular-weight organic acids in root exudates and the root apoplastic iron of "lime-induced chlorosis" peanut grown on a calcareous soil in relation to different soil moisture conditions. Results showed that chlorosis of peanuts developed under condition of high soil moisture level (250 g kg-1), while peanuts grew well and chlorosis did not develop when soil moisture was managed to a normal level (150 g kg-1). The malic acid, maleic acid and succinic acid contents of chlorotic peanut increased by 108.723, 0.029 and 22.446μg cm-2, respectively,compared with healthy peanuts. The content of citric acid and fumaric acid also increased in root exudates of chlorotic peanuts. On Days 28 and 42 of peanut growth, the accumulation of root apoplastic iron in chlorotic peanuts was higher than that of healthy peanuts. From Day 28 to Day 42, the mobilization percentages of chlorotic peanuts and healthy peanuts to root apoplastic iron were almost the same, being 52.4% and 52.8%,respectively, indicating that the chlorosis might be caused by the inactivation of iron within peanut plant grown on a calcareous soil under high soil moisture conditions.

  15. Enhanced Photosynthesis and Growth in atquac1 Knockout Mutants Are Due to Altered Organic Acid Accumulation and an Increase in Both Stomatal and Mesophyll Conductance.

    Medeiros, David B; Martins, Samuel C V; Cavalcanti, João Henrique F; Daloso, Danilo M; Martinoia, Enrico; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; DaMatta, Fábio M; Fernie, Alisdair R; Araújo, Wagner L

    2016-01-01

    Stomata control the exchange of CO2 and water vapor in land plants. Thus, whereas a constant supply of CO2 is required to maintain adequate rates of photosynthesis, the accompanying water losses must be tightly regulated to prevent dehydration and undesired metabolic changes. Accordingly, the uptake or release of ions and metabolites from guard cells is necessary to achieve normal stomatal function. The AtQUAC1, an R-type anion channel responsible for the release of malate from guard cells, is essential for efficient stomatal closure. Here, we demonstrate that mutant plants lacking AtQUAC1 accumulated higher levels of malate and fumarate. These mutant plants not only display slower stomatal closure in response to increased CO2 concentration and dark but are also characterized by improved mesophyll conductance. These responses were accompanied by increases in both photosynthesis and respiration rates, without affecting the activity of photosynthetic and respiratory enzymes and the expression of other transporter genes in guard cells, which ultimately led to improved growth. Collectively, our results highlight that the transport of organic acids plays a key role in plant cell metabolism and demonstrate that AtQUAC1 reduce diffusive limitations to photosynthesis, which, at least partially, explain the observed increments in growth under well-watered conditions. PMID:26542441

  16. Significant accumulation of persistent organic pollutants and dysregulation in multiple DNA damage repair pathways in the electronic-waste-exposed populations

    He, Xiaobo; Jing, Yaqing; Wang, Jianhai; Li, Keqiu [Basic Medical College, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Yang, Qiaoyun [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Zhao, Yuxia [Basic Medical College, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Li, Ran [State Key Joint Laboratory for Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering and Center for Environment and Health, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ge, Jie [Department of Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin 300060 (China); Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin 300060 (China); Qiu, Xinghua, E-mail: xhqiu@pku.edu.cn [State Key Joint Laboratory for Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering and Center for Environment and Health, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Guang, E-mail: lig@tijmu.edu.cn [Basic Medical College, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Electronic waste (e-waste) has created a worldwide environmental and health problem, by generating a diverse group of hazardous compounds such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Our previous studies demonstrated that populations from e-waste exposed region have a significantly higher level of chromosomal aberrancy and incidence of DNA damage. In this study, we further demonstrated that various POPs persisted at a significantly higher concentration in the exposed group than those in the unexposed group. The level of reactive oxygen species and micronucleus rate were also significantly elevated in the exposed group. RNA sequencing analysis revealed 31 genes in DNA damage responses and repair pathways that were differentially expressed between the two groups (Log 2 ratio >1 or <−1). Our data demonstrated that both females and males of the exposed group have activated a series of DNA damage response genes; however many important DNA repair pathways have been dysregulated. Expressions of NEIL1/3 and RPA3, which are critical in initiating base pair and nucleotide excision repairs respectively, have been downregulated in both females and males of the exposed group. In contrast, expression of RNF8, an E3 ligase involved in an error prone non-homologous end joining repair for DNA double strand break, was upregulated in both genders of the exposed group. The other genes appeared to be differentially expressed only when the males or females of the two groups were compared respectively. Importantly, the expression of cell cycle regulatory gene CDC25A that has been implicated in multiple kinds of malignant transformation was significantly upregulated among the exposed males while downregulated among the exposed females. In conclusion, our studies have demonstrated significant correlations between e-waste disposing and POPs accumulation, DNA lesions and dysregulation of multiple DNA damage repair mechanisms in the residents of the e-waste exposed region. - Highlights:

  17. Significant accumulation of persistent organic pollutants and dysregulation in multiple DNA damage repair pathways in the electronic-waste-exposed populations

    Electronic waste (e-waste) has created a worldwide environmental and health problem, by generating a diverse group of hazardous compounds such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Our previous studies demonstrated that populations from e-waste exposed region have a significantly higher level of chromosomal aberrancy and incidence of DNA damage. In this study, we further demonstrated that various POPs persisted at a significantly higher concentration in the exposed group than those in the unexposed group. The level of reactive oxygen species and micronucleus rate were also significantly elevated in the exposed group. RNA sequencing analysis revealed 31 genes in DNA damage responses and repair pathways that were differentially expressed between the two groups (Log 2 ratio >1 or <−1). Our data demonstrated that both females and males of the exposed group have activated a series of DNA damage response genes; however many important DNA repair pathways have been dysregulated. Expressions of NEIL1/3 and RPA3, which are critical in initiating base pair and nucleotide excision repairs respectively, have been downregulated in both females and males of the exposed group. In contrast, expression of RNF8, an E3 ligase involved in an error prone non-homologous end joining repair for DNA double strand break, was upregulated in both genders of the exposed group. The other genes appeared to be differentially expressed only when the males or females of the two groups were compared respectively. Importantly, the expression of cell cycle regulatory gene CDC25A that has been implicated in multiple kinds of malignant transformation was significantly upregulated among the exposed males while downregulated among the exposed females. In conclusion, our studies have demonstrated significant correlations between e-waste disposing and POPs accumulation, DNA lesions and dysregulation of multiple DNA damage repair mechanisms in the residents of the e-waste exposed region. - Highlights:

  18. Soil Organic Carbon Accumulation Increases Percentage of Soil Olsen-P to Total P at Two 15-Year Mono-Cropping Systems in Northern China

    SHEN Pu; XIAO Hou-jun; HE Xin-hua; XU Ming-gang; ZHANG Hui-min; PENG Chang; GAO Hong-jun; LIU Hua; XU Yong-mei; QIN Song

    2014-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil Olsen-P are key soil fertility indexes but information on their relationships is limited particularly under long-term fertilization. We investigated the relationships between SOC and the percentage of soil Olsen-P to total P (PSOPTP) under six different 15-yr (1990-2004) long-term fertilizations at two cropping systems in northern China. These fertilization treatments were (1) unfertilized control (control);(2) chemical nitrogen (N);(3) N plus chemical P (NP);(4) NP plus chemical potassium (NPK);(5) NPK plus animal manure (NPKM) and (6) high NPKM (hNPKM). Compared with their initial values in 1989 at both sites, during the 11th to 15th fertilization years annual mean SOC contents were signiifcantly increased by 39.4-47.0%and 58.9-93.9%at Gongzhuling, Jilin Province, and Urumqi, Xinjiang, China, under the two NPKM fertilizations, respectively, while no signiifcant changes under the no-P or chemical P fertilization. During the 11th to 15th fertilization years, annual mean PSOPTP was respectively increased by 2.6-4.2 and 5.8-14.1 times over the initial values under the two chemical P fertilizations and the two NPKM fertilizations, but was unchanged in their initial levels under the two no-P fertilizations at both sites. Over the 15-yr long-term fertilization SOC signiifcantly positively correlated with PSOPTP (r2=0.55-0.79, P<0.01). We concluded that the combination of chemical P plus manure is an effective way to promote SOC accumulation and the percentage of soil Olsen-P to total P at the two mono-cropping system sites in northern China.

  19. Single photon emission tomography using sup(99m)Tc-HM-PAO in the investigation of dementia

    Single photon emission tomographic imaging of the brain using sup(99m)Tc HM-PAO was carried out in patients with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, non-Alzheimer frontal-lobe dementia, and progressive supranuclear palsy. Independent assessment of reductions in uptake revealed posterior hemisphere abnormalities in the majority of the Alzheimer group, and selective anterior hemisphere abnormalities in both other groups. The findings were consistent with observed patterns of mental impairment. The imaging technique has potential value in the differential diagnosis of primary cerebral atrophy. (author)

  20. Single photon emission tomography using sup(99m)Tc-HM-PAO in the investigation of dementia

    Neary, D.; Snowden, J.S.; Shields, R.A.; Burjan, A.W.I.; Northen, B.; Macdermott, N.; Prescott, M.C.; Testa, H.J.

    1987-09-01

    Single photon emission tomographic imaging of the brain using sup(99m)Tc HM-PAO was carried out in patients with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, non-Alzheimer frontal-lobe dementia, and progressive supranuclear palsy. Independent assessment of reductions in uptake revealed posterior hemisphere abnormalities in the majority of the Alzheimer group, and selective anterior hemisphere abnormalities in both other groups. The findings were consistent with observed patterns of mental impairment. The imaging technique has potential value in the differential diagnosis of primary cerebral atrophy.

  1. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of PA3885 (TpbA) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PA3885 (TpbA), a tyrosine phosphatase, may function as a balancing factor between biofilm formation and motility in the opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of PA3885 from P. aeruginosa PAO1 are reported. Biofilms are important in cell communication and growth in most bacteria and are also responsible for most human clinical infections and diseases. Quorum-sensing systems have been identified to be crucial for biofilm formation and regulation. PA3885 (TpbA), a tyrosine phosphatase, is reported to convert extracellular quorum-sensing signals into internal gene-cascade reactions that result in reduced biofilm formation in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here, PA3885 from P. aeruginosa PAO1 was expressed, purified and crystallized. Single crystals were studied by X-ray crystallography and native diffraction data were collected to 2.8 Å resolution. These crystals were determined to belong to space group C2. It was not possible to conclusively determine the number of proteins in the asymmetric unit from the preliminary X-ray diffraction data analysis alone and attempts to determine the crystal structure of PA3885 are currently under way

  2. The Sinbad retrotransposon from the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, and the distribution of related Pao-like elements

    Morales Maria E

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the major families of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons, the Pao/BEL family is probably the least well studied. It is becoming apparent that numerous LTR retrotransposons and other mobile genetic elements have colonized the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni. Results A proviral form of Sinbad, a new LTR retrotransposon, was identified in the genome of S. mansoni. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Sinbad belongs to one of five discreet subfamilies of Pao/BEL like elements. BLAST searches of whole genomes and EST databases indicated that members of this clade occurred in species of the Insecta, Nematoda, Echinodermata and Chordata, as well as Platyhelminthes, but were absent from all plants, fungi and lower eukaryotes examined. Among the deuterostomes examined, only aquatic species harbored these types of elements. All four species of nematode examined were positive for Sinbad sequences, although among insect and vertebrate genomes, some were positive and some negative. The full length, consensus Sinbad retrotransposon was 6,287 bp long and was flanked at its 5'- and 3'-ends by identical LTRs of 386 bp. Sinbad displayed a triple Cys-His RNA binding motif characteristic of Gag of Pao/BEL-like elements, followed by the enzymatic domains of protease, reverse transcriptase (RT, RNAseH, and integrase, in that order. A phylogenetic tree of deduced RT sequences from 26 elements revealed that Sinbad was most closely related to an unnamed element from the zebrafish Danio rerio and to Saci-1, also from S. mansoni. It was also closely related to Pao from Bombyx mori and to Ninja of Drosophila simulans. Sinbad was only distantly related to the other schistosome LTR retrotransposons Boudicca, Gulliver, Saci-2, Saci-3, and Fugitive, which are gypsy-like. Southern hybridization and bioinformatics analyses indicated that there were about 50 copies of Sinbad in the S. mansoni genome. The presence of ESTs

  3. On the accumulation of organic matter on the southeastern Brazilian continental shelf: a case study based on a sediment core from the shelf off Rio de Janeiro

    Renato da Silva Carreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sterol and fatty acid biomarkers and isotopic composition (δ13C and δ15N of bulk organic matter (OM were quantified in a sediment core to characterize the accumulation of autochthonous OM in an area on the continental shelf adjacent to Rio de Janeiro State. In the sediment surface (0-1 cm the concentration of total sterols and fatty acids was at least one order of magnitude higher than that measured deeper down in the core and was dominated by labile and planktonic-derived biomarker compounds. These results suggest, as is confirmed by multivariate statistical analysis, the occurrence of an event of enhanced primary production in the water column and efficient export of particles to the bottom. Similar conditions have been observed at Cabo Frio, located 150 km to the north of our study site, during an upwelling event, suggesting that such events may exert a regional influence on primary production on the south-eastern Brazilian continental shelf. Beyond the signatures from this event, the presence of biomarker compounds from vascular plants suggests the additional influence of an outflow from Guanabara Bay at the study site. These results point to the need for further investigation of the relative influence of physical forcings and continental inputs on the biogeochemical processes on the section of the continental shelf considered in the present study.Marcadores moleculares na classe de lipídios (esterois, ácidos graxos e hidrocarbonetos e a composição isotópica (δ13C e δ15N da matéria orgânica bruta foram quantificados em amostras de um testemunho de sedimento para caracterizar o histórico recente de sedimentação da matéria orgânica na plataforma continental adjacente à Baía de Guanabara, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Na superfície do sedimento (0-1 cm, a concentração total de esterois e ácidos graxos foi cerca de uma ordem de grandeza maior do que observado nas camadas mais profundas do sedimento, com predominância de lip

  4. Influence of organic selenium supplementation on the accumulation of toxic and essential trace elements involved in the antioxidant system of chicken

    Pappas, Athanasios C; Zoidis, Evangelos; Georgiou, Constantinos A.; Demiris, Nikolaos; Surai, Peter F; Fegeros, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the interactions between selenium (Se) and some trace elements, both toxic and essential, which are all involved in the antioxidant system. A total of 128 day-old chickens (Gallus gallus, broilers) were used to investigate the effect of Se yeast supplementation on the accumulation of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). There were 4 replicates of 4 dietary treatments: T1 (basal diet with no added Se, analyzed to contain...

  5. Disentangling direct and indirect effects of water table drawdown on above and belowground plant litter decomposition: Consequences for accumulation of organic matter in boreal peatlands.

    Strakova, Petra; PenttilÀ, Timo; Laine, Jukka; Laiho, Raija

    2012-01-01

    Pristine peatlands are carbon (C) accumulating wetland ecosystems sustained by a high water table (WT) and consequent anoxia that slows down decomposition. Persistent WT drawdown as a response to climate and/or land-use change affects decomposition either directly through environmental factors such as increased oxygenation, or indirectly through changes in plant community composition. This study attempts to disentangle the direct and indirect effects of WT drawdown by measuring the relative i...

  6. The effect of drainage on organic matter accumulation and plant communities of high-altitude peatlands in the Colombian tropical Andes

    J.C. Benavides

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The tropical Andes store and regulate water outflow that serves nearly 60 million people. Most of the water is for un-managed agricultural irrigation. In this work I report how the drainage of peatlands has adversely affected the development of plant communities and recent carbon accumulation in a páramo massif at 2500 to 3800 m altitude in the northern Andes. I surveyed vegetation and water chemistry in 26 peatlands with differing intensities of drainage. Peat cores to 50 cm from two sites with contrasting drainage histories were dated using 210Pb, and used to compare historical vegetation changes and carbon accumulation rates. (A Species composition was much affected by drainage, which resulted in a reduction in cover of Sphagnum and other peat-forming species, and the encroachment of sedges and Juncus effusus. The ability of peat to store water and carbon was also reduced in drained peatlands. Vegetation records show a shift towards sedge-Juncus communities around 50 years ago when agricultural use of water increased. (B Peat and carbon accumulation rates were lower in drained sites, indicating either greater decomposition rates of the upper peat column or lower production by the changed plant communities. The ecological services offered by peatlands to agrarian communities downstream are important. Measures to prevent peatland destruction are needed urgently.

  7. Antipathogenic potential of marine Bacillus sp. SS4 on N-acyl-homoserine-lactone-mediated virulence factors production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1)

    K Syed Musthafa; V Saroja; S Karutha Pandian; A Veera Ravi

    2011-03-01

    Antipathogenic therapy is an outcome of the quorum-sensing inhibition (QSI) mechanism, which targets autoinducer-dependent virulent gene expression in bacterial pathogens. -acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) acts as a key regulator in the production of virulence factors and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and violacein pigment production in Chromobacterium violaceum. In the present study, the marine bacterial strain SS4 showed potential QSI activity in a concentration-dependent manner (0.5–2 mg/ml) against the AHL-mediated violacein production in C. violaceum (33–86%) and biofilm formation (33–88%), total protease (20–65%), LasA protease (59–68%), LasB elastase (36–68%), pyocyanin (17–86%) and pyoverdin productions in PAO1. The light and confocal laser scanning microscopic analyses confirmed the reduction of the biofilm-forming ability of PAO1 when treated with SS4 extract. Furthermore, the antibiofilm potential was confirmed through static biofilm ring assay, in which ethyl acetate extract of SS4 showed concentration-dependent reduction in the biofilm-forming ability of PAO1. Thus, the result of this study clearly reveals the antipathogenic and antibiofilm properties of the bacterial isolate SS4. Through 16S rDNA analysis, the strain SS4 was identified as Bacillus sp. (GenBank Accession Number: GU471751).

  8. Accumulation of dioxins and PCB in house fly larvae (musca domestica) reared in poultry manure and used in feed for organic laying hens

    Nordentoft, Steen; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Fischer, Christian Holst;

    2014-01-01

    A challenging aspect of organic egg and meat production is provision of a balanced nutrient supply. Some essential amino acids are difficult to provide in sufficient quantities in organic feed and undersupply may lead tolower egg production, slower growth and even cannibalism. Due to these problems...... it is accepted in EU regulations to balance the feed formula by use of synthetic amino acids in the organic production until improved organic sources of amino acids can be provided. In nature insects and insect larvae are important food sources for poultry and the larva of the common house fly (Musca...... domestica) have been shown to be especially rich in the required essential amino and fatty acids. In Northern Europe the larvae can easily be grown in poultry manure locally on the farm where it may be used as a new organic high value protein and fat source for poultry. Eggs from free range hens have...

  9. A software program for quantitative analysis of alveolar oxygen partial pressure (pAO2) with oxygen-sensitive 3He-MRI

    Purpose: To develop a software tool for quantitative analysis of alveolar oxygen partial pressure (pAO2) as well as its time course during apnea. Material and Methods: T1-relaxation times of hyperpolarized 3He are reduced by paramagnetic oxygen rendering 3He-MRI sensitive to oxygen and thus allowing the assessment of the local oxygen partial pressure in the pulmonary airspaces. Oxygen-related relaxation and loss of polarization by RF-excitation can be discriminated by acquiring two image series with varying interscan delay and/or flip angles. Software was developed to calculate the pAO2 and the decay rate in user-defined regions of interest (ROIs) automatically. Moreover, parameter maps can be calculated. In addition to the analysis of 2-dimensional data sets, the software allows the evaluation of 3-dimensional measurements for the first time. Artifacts due to lung motion were reduced by implementing a motion correction algorithm. Results: The software was successfully applied to data sets from healthy volunteers and from patients with various lung diseases. The parameter maps demonstrated a more homogeneous distribution of pAO2 for the volunteers than for the patients. A regional increase in pAO2 was found in a few patients. Conclusion: the described software allows the absolute quantification of pAO2 as well as its variation over time. In the future therefore, the software may gain importance for detecting mis-matches between ventilation and perfusion, e.g., in patients with pulmonary embolism or chronic obstructive lung diseases. (orig.)

  10. Biological significance of [14C]phenol accumulation in different organs of a murrel, Channa punctatus, and the common carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Phenol, a ubiquitous component of industrial effluents, is a common pollutant of water resources and a serious threat to fish. The present work demonstrates that a significant amount of phenol is retained by various tissues of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and the snake-headed murrel, Channa punctatus. The rate of [14C]phenol accumulation was higher carp than in the murrel. It is suggested that retention of phenol in the brain and ovary may seriously affect the reproductive potential of the fish

  11. Does a strong pycnocline impact organic-matter preservation and accumulation in an anoxic setting? The case of the Orca Basin, Gulf of Mexico

    Tribovillard, Nicolas; Bout-Roumazeilles, Viviane; Sionneau, Thomas; Serrano, Jean Carlos Montero; Riboulleau, Armelle; Baudin, François

    2009-01-01

    The Orca Basin (an intraslope depression located in the Gulf of Mexico) collects sedimentary particles of terrestrial origin (clastic and organic particles mainly supplied by the Mississippi River) and of marine origin (biogenic productivity). The basin is partly filled with dense brines leached from salt diapirs cropping out on the sea floor, and is permanently stratified. A strong pycnocline induces anoxic bottom conditions, expectedly favorable to organic matter (OM) preservation. Here, we report on OM in the upper 750 cm below sea floor of Core MD02-2552 (Holocene). The organic content is dominated by marine-derived amorphous OM. The organic assemblage is unexpectedly degraded to some extent, which may be accounted for by a relatively long residence time of organic particles at the halocline-pycnocline at ˜2240 m. Thus the organic particles are temporarily trapped and kept in contact with the dissolved oxygen-rich overlying water mass. Lastly, the land-derived organic fraction shows co-variations with the land-derived clay mineral supply.

  12. Antimicrobial and anti-biofilm effect of a novel BODIPY photosensitizer against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    Orlandi, Viviana Teresa; Rybtke, Morten; Caruso, Enrico;

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) combines the use of organic dyes (photosensitizers, PSs) and visible light in order to elicit a photo-oxidative stress which causes bacterial death. GD11, a recently synthesized PS belonging to the boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) class, was demonstrated to be efficient...... against planktonic cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, causing a 7 log unit reduction of viable cells when administered at 2.5 μM. The effectiveness of GD11 against P. aeruginosa biofilms grown in flow-cells and microtiter trays was also demonstrated. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of flow...

  13. Evaluating the use of PAO (4 cSt polyalphaoelfin) oil instead of DOP (di-octyl phthalate) oil for measuring the aerosol capture of nuclear canister filters

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-18

    This document details the distinction between using PAO (4 cSt polyalphaoelfin) oil instead of DOP (di-octyl phthalate) oil for measuring the aerosol capture of filters. This document is developed to justify the use of PAO rather than DOP for evaluating the performance of filters in the SAVY 4000 and Hagan containers. The design criteria (Anderson et al, 2012) for purchasing SAVY 4000 containers and the Safety Analysis Report for the SAVY 4000 Container Series specified that the filter must “capture greater than 99.97% of 0.45 μm mean diameter dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosol at the rated flow with a DOP concentration of 65±15 micrograms per liter.”This corresponds to a leakage percent of 0.03% (3.0x10-2). The density of DOP oil is 985 kg/m3 and the density of PAO oil is 819 kg/m3. ATI Test Inc measured the mass mean diameter of aerosol distributions produced by a single Laskin type III-A nozzle operating at a 20 psig air pressure as 0.563 μm for DOP oil and 0.549 μm for PAO oil. (See Appendix A.) For both types of oil in this document, the single fiber method calculated the leakage percent to be 4.4x10-5 for DOP oil and 4.7x10-5 for PAO oil. Although the percent error between these two quantities is 7.7%, these calculated leakage percent values are more than two orders of magnitude less than the criterion specified in the SAVY canister SAR. As a point of reference, the photometer used to measure the SAVY canister filter performance cannot resolve values for the leakage percent below 1.0x10-5. Additionally, over a range of particle sizes from 0.01 μm to 3.0 μm, there was less than 4.0x10-5 error between the calculated filter efficiency for the two types of oil at any particular particle size diameter. In conclusion, the difference between using DOP and PAO for testing SAVY canister filters is of inconsequential concern.

  14. Biomass production and nutrient accumulation in Sparganium emersum Rehm. after sediment treatment with mineral and organic fertilisers in three mesocosm experiments

    Ságová-Marečková, M.; Petrusek, A.; Květ, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 4 (2009), s. 903-913. ISSN 1386-2588 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : nutrient uptake * growth parameters * biomass * NPK fertiliser * organic waste Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.549, year: 2009

  15. Influence of elevated alkalinity and natural organic matter (NOM) on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproductive performance in fathead minnows during chronic, multi-trophic exposures to a metal mine effluent.

    Ouellet, Jacob D; Dubé, Monique G; Niyogi, Som

    2013-09-01

    Metal bioavailability in aquatic organisms is known to be influenced by various water chemistry parameters. The present study examined the influence of alkalinity and natural organic matter (NOM) on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproductive performance of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) during environmentally relevant chronic exposures to a metal mine effluent (MME). Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or NOM (as commercial humic acid) were added to a Canadian MME [45 percent process water effluent (PWE)] in order to evaluate whether increases in alkalinity (3-4 fold) or NOM (~1.5-3mg/L dissolved organic carbon) would reduce metal accumulation and mitigate reproductive toxicity in fathead minnows during a 21-day multi-trophic exposure. Eleven metals (barium, boron, cobalt, copper, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, rubidium, selenium, and strontium) were elevated in the 45 percent PWE relative to the reference water. Exposure to the unmodified 45 percent PWE resulted in a decrease of fathead minnow egg production (~300 fewer eggs/pair) relative to the unmodified reference water, over the 21-day exposure period. Water chemistry modifications produced a modest decrease in free ion activity of some metals (as shown by MINTEQ, Version 3) in the 45 percent PWE exposure water, but did not alter the metal burden in the treatment-matched larval Chironomus dilutus (the food source of fish during exposure). The tissue-specific metal accumulation increased in fish exposed to the 45 percent PWE relative to the reference water, irrespective of water chemistry modifications, and the tissue metal concentrations were found to be similar between fish in the unmodified and modified 45 percent PWE (higher alkalinity or NOM) treatments. Interestingly however, increased alkalinity and NOM markedly improved fish egg production both in the reference water (~500 and ~590 additional eggs/pair, respectively) and 45 percent PWE treatments (~570 and ~260 additional eggs

  16. The adaptation of mussels Crenomytilus grayanus to cadmium accumulation result in alterations in organization of microsomal enzyme-membrane complex (non-specific phosphatase).

    Zakhartsev; Chelomin; Belcheva

    2000-08-01

    The kinetic parameters (V(m), K(m) and slope) of membrane-bound microsomal non-specific phosphatase (NPase, with G6P as the substrate) from the digestive gland of unexposed and cadmium adapted (45 days for 100 µg Cd(2+)/l) mussels were investigated. In vivo and in vitro approaches were used. Adaptation of mussels (Crenomytilus grayanus) to cadmium resulted in a 1.6-fold increase in NPase activity. V(m) was increased by 1.6-fold, but K(m) was the same in terms of enzyme kinetics. This indicates that the total concentration of the enzymes in the digestive gland increased. Cd(2+) (1 mM) did not significantly alter the activity of the membrane-bound enzyme in vitro both for unexposed and for cadmium adapted mussels, meaning that cadmium ions are not a direct inhibitor of the membrane-bound enzyme in this concentration. The microsomal NPase activity in both unexposed and cadmium adapted mussels was inhibited by in vitro solubilization of microsomes with non-ionic detergent (Triton X100, 0.01%). This inhibition was uncompetitive for microsomes of unexposed mussels (K(m) decreased 3.1-fold). The most drastic events were observed in cadmium adapted mussels, where inhibition was mixed (K(m) decreased 7.2-fold). The simultaneous actions of detergent and cadmium ions did not alter NPase activity significantly in comparison with action of the detergent alone. The differences in the types and the extents of inhibition of the enzymes activity by membrane disordering agent (Triton X100) indicated that the enzyme-membrane complex (NPase) has been altered as a result of adaptation of mussels to cadmium accumulation. We conclude that the mussels produced a new enzyme-membrane complex, with the same K(m) as the previous complex, but with other detergent sensitivity and greater amounts. Thus, the adaptation capacity of this enzyme is reduced as result of adaptation of mussels to cadmium accumulation. PMID:10930649

  17. Influence of organic selenium supplementation on the accumulation of toxic and essential trace elements involved in the antioxidant system of chicken.

    Pappas, Athanasios C; Zoidis, Evangelos; Georgiou, Constantinos A; Demiris, Nikolaos; Surai, Peter F; Fegeros, Konstantinos

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the interactions between selenium (Se) and various trace elements, both toxic and essential, involved in the antioxidant system. A total of 128 day-old chicks (Gallus gallus, broilers) were used to investigate the effect of Se yeast supplementation on the accumulation of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). There were four replicates of four dietary treatments: T1 (basal diet with no added Se, analyzed to contain 0.21 mg kg(-1)), T2 (T1 with 0.15 mg kg(-1) Se added), T3 (T1 with 0.3 mg kg(-1) Se) and T4 (T1 with 3.0 mg kg(-1) Se). At week 4 and 6, two chickens per replicate pen were sacrificed for whole blood, breast muscle and liver sampling. Samples were analyzed by ICP-MS. Supplementation with Se-yeast, not only increased Se concentration but also reduced Cd concentration in the tissues. Selenium was negatively correlated with Cd and positively correlated with Zn, Cu and Fe. Cadmium was negatively correlated with Zn and Cu. Zinc was positively correlated with Cu. Iron was negatively correlated with Cu and uncorrelated with Zn and Cd. The balance between Se, Cu, Fe and Zn is important for proper antioxidant defense since they are an integral part of various antioxidant enzymes. PMID:21337231

  18. Comparison of Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion for the Measurement of Semi-Volatile Organic Compound Accumulation in Tadpoles

    Stanley, Kerri; Massey Simonich, Staci; Bradford, David; Davidson, Carlos; Tallent-Halsell, Nita

    2009-01-01

    Analytical methods capable of trace measurement of semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs) are necessary to assess the exposure of tadpoles to contaminants as a result of long-range and regional atmospheric transport and deposition. The following study compares the results of two analytical methods, one using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and the other using matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD), for the trace measurement of over 70 SOCs, including current-use pesticides, in tadpole tissu...

  19. Accumulation pattern of endogenous cytokinins and phenolics in different organs of 1-year-old cytokinin pre-incubated plants: implications for conservation

    Aremu, A.O.; Plačková, L. (Lenka); Grúz, J. (Jiří); Bíba, O. (Ondřej); Šubrtová, M. (Michaela); Novák, O. (Ondřej); Doležal, K. (Karel); van Staden, J.

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of phytohormone physiology can provide an essential basis to coherently achieve a conservation drive/strategy for valuable plant species. We evaluated the distribution pattern of cytokinins (CKs) and phenolic compounds in different organs of 1-year-old greenhouse-grown Tulbaghia simmleri pre-treated (during micropropagation) with three aromatic CKs (benzyladenine=BA, meta-topolin=mT, meta-topolin riboside=mTR). The test species is highly valuable due to its medicinal an...

  20. Dictyostelium discoideum as a surrogate host-microbe model for antivirulence screening in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Bravo-Toncio, Catalina; Álvarez, Javiera A; Campos, Francisca; Ortíz-Severín, Javiera; Varas, Macarena; Cabrera, Ricardo; Lagos, Carlos F; Chávez, Francisco P

    2016-05-01

    The interest of the pharmaceutical industry in developing new antibiotics is decreasing, as established screening systems which identify compounds that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria can no longer be used. Consequently, antimicrobial screening using classical minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurements is becoming obsolete. The discovery of antimicrobial agents that specifically target a bacterial pathogen without affecting the host and its beneficial bacteria is a promising strategy. However, few host-microbe models are available for in vivo screening of novel antivirulence molecules. Here we designed high-throughput developmental assays in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum to measure Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence and to screen for novel antivirulence molecules without side effects to the host and its beneficial bacteria Klebsiella aerogenes. Thirty compounds were evaluated that had been previously selected by virtual screening for inhibitors of P. aeruginosa PAO1 polyphosphate kinase 1 (PaPPK1) and diverse compounds with combined PPK1 inhibitory and antivirulence activities were identified. This approach demonstrates that D. discoideum is a suitable surrogate host for preliminary high-throughput screening of antivirulence agents and that PPK1 is a suitable target for developing novel antivirulence compounds that can be further validated in mammalian models. PMID:27066943

  1. Back to the future: evolving bacteriophages to increase their effectiveness against the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Betts, Alex; Vasse, Marie; Kaltz, Oliver; Hochberg, Michael E

    2013-11-01

    Antibiotic resistance is becoming increasingly problematic for the treatment of infectious disease in both humans and livestock. The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is often found to be resistant to multiple antibiotics and causes high patient mortality in hospitals. Bacteriophages represent a potential option to combat pathogenic bacteria through their application in phage therapy. Here, we capitalize on previous studies showing how evolution may increase phage infection capacity relative to ancestral genotypes. We passaged four different phage isolates (podoviridae, myoviridae) through six serial transfers on the ancestral strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. We first demonstrate that repeated serial passage on ancestral bacteria increases infection capacity of bacteriophage on ancestral hosts and on those evolved for one transfer. This result is confirmed when examining the ability of evolved phage to reduce ancestral host population sizes. Second, through interaction with a single bacteriophage for 24 h, P. aeruginosa can evolve resistance to the ancestor of that bacteriophage; this also provides these evolved bacteria with cross-resistance to the other three bacteriophages. We discuss how the evolutionary training of phages could be employed as effective means of combatting bacterial infections or disinfecting surfaces in hospital settings, with reduced risk of bacterial resistance compared with conventional methods. PMID:24187587

  2. Single photon emission computed tomography with [99Tc]-HM-PAO and [123I]-IBZM in Alzheimer's disease and dementia of frontal type

    Dementia of frontal type (DFT) is a fairly common degenerative disease distinct from Alzheimer's disease (AD), whose reportedly distinctive instrumental feature is frontal lobe hypoperfusion on SPECT. We evaluated the cortical dopaminergic system in 6AD, 5 DFT, and 6 control subjects with SPECT and both [99Tc]-HM-PAO, a perfusion tracer, and [123I]-IBZM, a D2 postsynaptic ligand. Both in AD and DFT patients, [99Tc]-HM-PAO SPECT showed a relative frontal hypoperfusion. On the contrary, [123I]-IBZM SPECT showed significantly reduced ligand uptake in superior frontal regions of DFT (0.89 ± 0.08 relative to control subjects) as compared to AD patients (0.97 ± 0.02; difference of means: 0.08, 95% confidence Interval 0.004 to 0.156; p = 0.041). Results suggest more marked involvement of the frontal cortical dopaminergic system in DFT than in AD patients. (au) (24 refs.)

  3. Particulate accumulations in the vital organs of wild Brevoortia patronus from the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Millemann, Daniel R; Portier, Ralph J; Olson, Gregory; Bentivegna, Carolyn S; Cooper, Keith R

    2015-11-01

    Histopathologic lesions were observed in the commercially important filter-feeding fish, Brevoortia patronus (Gulf menhaden), along the Louisiana Gulf Coast. Menhaden collected from Louisiana waters in 2011 and 2012, 1 and 2 years following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, showed varying severities of gill lesions as well as an unusual accumulation of black particulates visible at necropsy in the heart and stomach vasculature. The PAH derived particulates were typically 1-4 µm in diameter, but larger aggregates were observed in the coronary vessels on the ventricle surfaces and their location and size was confirmed by light microscopy. Composited particulate composition was consistent with weathered petrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures based on GC-MS analysis. Particulates were present in 63 and 80% of fish hearts and 70 and 89% of stomach muscularis collected in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Tissue embedded particulates can lead to localized cellular damage from bioavailable compounds, as well as chronic effects from occlusion of sensitive tissues' blood flow. The PAH derived particulates appeared to act as emboli in small capillaries, and could associated with localized inflammation, focal necrosis and inappropriate collagen and fibroblast tissue repair. We believe large volume filter feeding teleosts, such as menhaden (up to 3 million gallons per year/fish) with high lipid content, have a higher exposure risk and greater potential for toxicity from toxic particulates than other higher trophic level finfish. Suspended PAH derived particulates following an oil spill therefore, should be considered when assessing long-term ecological impacts and not be limited to physical contact (coating) or water soluble fractions for assessing toxicity (gill and neurologic). PMID:26209168

  4. Accumulation and distribution of organochlorines (PCBs and DDTs) in various organs of Stenella coeruleoalba and a Tursiops truncatus from Mediterranean littoral environment (France).

    Wafo, Emmanuel; Sarrazin, Luc; Diana, Catherine; Dhermain, Frank; Schembri, Thérèse; Lagadec, Véronique; Pecchia, Magali; Rebouillon, Pierre

    2005-09-15

    The objective of the present study is to determine the levels of contamination by PCBs, DDT and its metabolites in dolphins failed on the coasts of the Mediterranean sea. Samples are represented by six Stenella coeruleoalba and a Tursiops truncatus collected in 2000 and 2003. The studies are achieved on the blubber, the heart, the liver, the kidney, the muscle and the lung. The concentrations of PCBs and DDT are very high in all tissues and organs analyzed. For the PCBs, the concentrations vary between 43,838 and 110,343 microg/kg lipid basis in the blubber, 601 and 39444 microg/kg dried weight in the liver, 1375 and 34512 microg/kg dried weight in the muscle, 3151 and 17082 microg/kg dried weight in the heart, 674 and 12365 microg/kg dried weight in the kidney and finally between 648 and 4118 microg/kg dried weight in the lung. These values are comparable to those previously obtained in our laboratory and by other authors during the years 1990 on the Mediterranean environment. Significant differences in concentrations are noted in tissues and organs, neither according to the age, nor according to the gender. In all the analyzed samples, the contents in PCBs are higher than those of DDT. The average ratios of pp'-DDE/SigmaDDT are close to 0.6 which shows the metabolization of these compounds along the years. The examination of the profiles of congeners shows that the hexachlorinated molecules are dominating in all tissues and organs which supposes the different animals were especially exposed to Pyralen-type compounds of transformer (Dp6). PMID:16162318

  5. Productivity and accumulation of nutrients in plants of jambu, under mineral and organic fertilizationProdutividade e acúmulo de nutrientes em plantas de jambu, sob adubação orgânica e mineral

    Luciana da Silva Borges

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The organic production is a system that allows achieving good levels of productivity, while avoiding the risks of chemical contamination of farmers, consumers and the environment. Because jambu plant is widely used as alternative medicine and cosmetics industries, has been increasing interest in its cultivation. The aim of this study was to analyze the biomass, accumulation of nutrient, productivity and determine the pesticide residue in plant jambu when grown under organic and mineral fertilization. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm São Manuel, FCA / UNESP. The experiment was conducted at São Manuel Experimental Farm UNESP. The statistical was arranged in the randomized block design, in a 2 x 6 factorial scheme, two sources of fertilizers (organic and mineral and six doses of nitrogen, with four replications. The characteristics evaluated were plant height, fresh and dry weight, nutrients of accumulation in shoots and productivity. Mineral fertilizer gave higher biomass, productivity and accumulation of N and K in relation to organic fertilizer used. It is recommended the dose of 90g m-2 of urea as appropriate to obtain these results. However the organic fertilization favored the accumulation of phosphorus in plants jambu in relation the mineral fertilizer, and the dose of 10 kg m-2 of cattle manure recommended to achieve this result in plants jambu. We did not detect the presence of phosphorous and carbamate on leaves of jambu under organic and mineral fertilization. However, we observed the presence of chlorine in the leaves used for the two fertilizations.A produção orgânica é um sistema que permite alcançar bons níveis de produtividade, evitando ao mesmo tempo os riscos de contaminação química do agricultor, dos consumidores e do meio ambiente. Pelo fato da planta de jambu ser bastante utilizada como medicamento alternativo e por indústrias de cosméticos, vem aumentando o interesse pelo seu cultivo. Assim, o

  6. Identifizierung zweier Gencluster (atuABCDEFGH, liuRABCDE) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 und deren funktionelle Analyse im Metabolismus methylverzweigter Verbindungen

    Höschle, Birgit

    2006-01-01

    Azyklische Terpene wie Citronellol und Geraniol sind in der Natur weit verbreitete Geruchsstoffe, die aufgrund ihrer β-methylverzweigten Struktur von Mikroorganismen nur schwer metabolisiert werden können. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde der Abbau azyklischer Terpene in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 untersucht. 1. Durch Insertionsmutagenesen wurden zwei Gencluster identifiziert, die für die meisten der in früheren biochemischen Beiträgen postulierten Abbauschritte codieren. Das erste ...

  7. Structural and Biochemical Analysis of Tyrosine Phosphatase Related to Biofilm Formation A (TpbA) from the Opportunistic Pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    Kun Xu; Shanshan Li; Wen Yang; Kan Li; Yuwei Bai; Yueyang Xu; Jin Jin; Yingying Wang; Mark Bartlam

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms are important for cell communication and growth in most bacteria, and are responsible for a number of human clinical infections and diseases. TpbA (PA3885) is a dual specific tyrosine phosphatase (DUSP) that negatively regulates biofilm formation in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 by converting extracellular quorum sensing signals into internal gene cascade reactions that result in reduced biofilm formation. We have determined the three-dimensional crystal stru...

  8. Triclosan Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Is Due to FabV, a Triclosan-Resistant Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase ▿

    Zhu, Lei; Lin, Jinshui; Ma, Jincheng; Cronan, John E.; Wang, Haihong

    2009-01-01

    Triclosan, a very widely used biocide, specifically inhibits fatty acid synthesis by inhibition of enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase. Escherichia coli FabI is the prototypical triclosan-sensitive enoyl-ACP reductase, and E. coli is extremely sensitive to the biocide. However, other bacteria are resistant to triclosan, because they encode triclosan-resistant enoyl-ACP reductase isozymes. In contrast, the triclosan resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 has been attributed to active...

  9. Organic chelants-mediated enhanced lead (Pb) uptake and accumulation is associated with higher activity of enzymatic antioxidants in spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.).

    Khan, Imran; Iqbal, Muhammad; Ashraf, Muhammad Yasin; Ashraf, Muhammad Arslan; Ali, Shafaqat

    2016-11-01

    The spinach was tested in the present studies for its phytoextraction potential. Furthermore, the study assessed whether organic chelants could reduce oxidative stress, and thus enhance growth of spinach plants under 2.42 and 4.83mM Pb regimes. Different organic chelates viz. ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid, (EDTA), citric acid (CA), oxalic acid (OA), tartaric acid (TA) and malic acid (MA) were applied separately in addition to control (without chelating agents) under different Pb regimes. The low (2.42mM) Pb regime increased biological yield (kgha(-1)). All the chelates except OA increased biological yield under low Pb regime. In contrast, TA caused less decrease in biomass under high (4.83mM) Pb regime. The chelate-assisted rise in the antioxidant activities substantially contributed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) neutralization. Of the chelates, TA was the most effective in improving Pb uptake and its root to shoot translocation. Overall, the chelate-assisted buildup of Pb in the spinach did not exhibit inhibitory effects on the plant growth possibly due to their potential to decrease Pb-induced oxidative damage. The results elaborated the potential of TA in increasing root to shoot translocation of Pb, biomass, and thus suggested its use for phytoextraction of Pb using spinach in Pb contaminated environments. PMID:27318732

  10. Comparison of pressurized liquid extraction and matrix solid-phase dispersion for the measurement of semivolatile organic compound accumulation in tadpoles.

    Stanley, Kerri; Simonich, Staci Massey; Bradford, David; Davidson, Carlos; Tallent-Halsell, Nita

    2009-10-01

    Analytical methods capable of trace measurement of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) are necessary to assess the exposure of tadpoles to contaminants as a result of long-range and regional atmospheric transport and deposition. The present study compares the results of two analytical methods, one using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and the other using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), for the trace measurement of more than 70 SOCs in tadpole tissue, including current-use pesticides. The MSPD method resulted in improved SOC recoveries and precision compared to the PLE method. The MSPD method also required less time, consumed less solvent, and resulted in the measurement of a greater number of SOCs than the PLE method. PMID:19432502

  11. Effect of Different Organic Manures on Accumulation and Leaching of Olsen-P in Greenhouse Soil%不同有机肥对设施土壤有效磷累积与淋溶的影响

    肖辉; 潘洁; 程文娟; 王立艳; 高贤彪

    2012-01-01

    A field plot experiment was conducted to study the effect of different organic manures on accumulation, leaching and seasonal changes of Olsen-P in greenhouse soil. The results showed that phosphorus amount in the same conditions, chicken manure and pig manure were better than chemical fertilizer in increasing soil Olsen-P accumulation and leaching volume, and the greater the application amount, the more the obvious effect. Compared with the chemical fertilizer, the accumulations of Olsen-P in surface soil were increased by 50.60% and 70.29%, and the leaching amounts of Olsen-P were increased by 159.5% and 111.6% in treatments of chicken manure and swine manure with 22.5 t hm^-2. Commercial organic fertilizer compared with chemical fertilizer reduced Olsen-P content of the surface soil. Commercial organic fertilizer also reduced the leaching amount of Olsen-P, but increasing application amount. The leaching amount could be increased. The level of soil Olsen-P content was closely related to the fertilization period, and annual changes showed "M"-shaped. Different fertilizers had different effects on soil Olsen-P, the order from high to low was swine manure〉chicken manure〉chemical fertilizer〉commercial organic fertilizer. Therefore, in order to reduce the soil Olsen-P accumulation and leaching, the application amount of chicken manure and swine manure could be appropriate to reduce, commercial organic fertilizer may be increased.%采用田问试验,研究了不同有机肥对设施土壤有效磷累积、淋溶及季节性变化的影响。结果表明,等磷量条件下,鸡粪、猪粪处理与化肥处理相比,更能增加土壤Olsen—P的累积量和淋溶量,且施用量越大作用越明显。鸡粪TC3、猪粪TS3土壤表层Olsen—P累积量分别比化肥高出50.60%、70.29%;20cm以下淋溶量分别比化肥处理高出159.5%、111.6%。商品有机肥与化肥相比降低了表层Olsen—P含量,且用量越大作

  12. 有机-无机复合污染对扇贝积累石油烃的影响%Influence of the Combined Pollution of Organic and Inorganic Compounds on Petroleum Hydrocarbon Accumulation in Chlamys farreri

    梁爱萍; 姜雪梅; 柳瑞翠; 刘伟

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究有机-无机复合污染对扇贝积累石油烃的影响.[方法]在实验室模拟条件下研究石油烃与Cu、Pb复合污染对栉孔扇贝积累石油烃的影响.[结果]单一石油烃污染条件下,石油烃在栉孔扇贝体内的积累量随暴露时间的延长及石油烃浓度的增大都有明显增大趋势;复合污染条件下,石油烃在栉孔扇贝体内的积累量随暴露时间及污染物种类及浓度的变化发生着动态变化,且不同浓度处理组间差异很大,当石油烃浓度固定为0.6 mg/L时,不同处理浓度组的Cu、Pb及Cu与Pb组合都促进了栉孔扇贝对石油烃的积累,但低处理浓度组的Cu、高处理浓度组的Pb、低处理浓度组的Cu与Pb组合更有利于促进栉孔扇贝对石油烃的积累.[结论]石油烃与Cu、Pb复合污染条件下,石油烃在栉孔扇贝体内的积累状况比单一石油烃污染条件下要复杂得多.%[Objective] To study the influence of the combined pollution of organic and inorganic compounds on petroleum hydrocarbon accumulation in Chlamys farreri. [ Method ] The accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbon in the body of Chlamys farreri under the condition of combined pollution of petroleum hydrocarbon with copper, plumbum was experimentally studied. [ Result] Under pollution of single petroleum hydrocarbon , the accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbon in the body of Chlamys farreri presented an obvious trend of growth with the increase of exposure time and concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon as well; Under the condition of combined pollution, the accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbon in the body of Chlamys farreri had a dynamic trend with the increase of exposure time and the changes in the types and concentrations of pollutants. When the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon was fixed at 0.6 mg/L, Cu, Pb and the combination of Cu and Pb in different treatment groups with different concentrations all had positive contribution to the Chlamys

  13. The Cryptic dsdA Gene Encodes a Functional D-Serine Dehydratase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Li, Guoqing; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2016-06-01

    D-Serine, an important neurotransmitter, also contributes to bacterial adaptation and virulence in humans. It was reported that Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 can grow on D-serine as the sole nitrogen source, and growth was severely reduced in the dadA mutant devoid of the D-alanine dehydrogenase with broad substrate specificity. In this study, the dsdA gene (PA3357) encoding a putative D-serine dehydratase was subjected to further characterization. Growth on D-serine as the sole source of nitrogen was retained in the ∆dsdA mutant and was abolished completely in the ∆dadA and ∆dadA-∆dsdA mutants. However, when complemented by dsdA on a plasmid, the double mutant was able to grow on D-serine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, supporting the proposed biochemical function of DsdA in the conversion of D-serine into pyruvate and ammonia. Among D- and L-amino acids tested, only D-serine and D-threonine could serve as the substrates of DsdA, and the Km of DsdA with D-serine was calculated to be 330 μM. Comparative genomics revealed that this cryptic dsdA gene was highly conserved in strains of P. aeruginosa, and that most strains of Pseudomonas putida possess putative dsdCAX genes encoding a transcriptional regulator DsdC and a D-serine transporter DsdX as in enteric bacteria. In conclusion, this study supports the presence of a cryptic dsdA gene encoding a functional D-serine dehydratase in P. aeruginosa, and the absence of dsdA expression in response to exogenous D-serine might be due to the loss of regulatory elements for gene activation during evolution. PMID:26957519

  14. Assessing clogging processes caused by biofilm growth and organic particle accumulation in constructed wetlands using time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography method

    Mahjoub, Himi; Tapias, Josefina C.; Lovera, Raúl; Rivero, Lluís; Font, Xavier; Casas, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Constructed wetlands for removing pollutants from wastewater in small communities are growing rapidly in many regions of the world. The advantages over conventional mechanical sanitation systems, where land availability is not a limiting factor, are low energy requirements, easy operation and maintenance, low sludge production and cost-effectivity. Nevertheless, with time the cleaning process can result in gradual clogging of the porous layer by suspended solids, bacterial film, chemical precipitates and compaction. The clogging development causes decrease of hydraulic conductivity, reduced oxygen supply and further leads to a rapid decrease of the treatment performance. As the investment involved in reversing clogging can represent a substantial fraction of the cost of a new system it is essential to assess in advance the evolution of clogging process and detect potential failures in the system. Since there is a lack of experiences for monitoring the functionality of constructed wetlands time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography studies have been conducted at horizontal sub-surface flow municipal wastewater treatment wetlands of Catalonia (Spain). The results of this research show that electrical resistivity tomography can be a very useful technique for assessing the extent of silting up processes that clog the subsurface flow constructed wetlands through the gravel layer. In the unsaturated zone, the electrical resistivity is greater at the end of the filter, since the pores contains air which is dielectric, while at the beginning of the filter the resistivity is lower because the electrical conduction of organic matter around the mineral grains. Conversely, in the saturated zone, the electrical resistivity is lower at the end of the filter, since pores contain a higher proportion of high ionic conductivity wastewater, while at the beginning of the filter the electrical resistivity is higher because of the lower porosity due to the clogging process.

  15. Experience accumulated in the co-fermentation of organic waste with liquid manure. The Schradenbiogas company; Erfahrungen bei der Covergaerung mit Guelle. Das Beispiel Schradenbiogas

    Luedtke, H. [Opal-Reststoffverwertung GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-01-01

    The biogas plant which is in operation in a part of southern Brandenburg called the Schradenland is suitable for fermenting pig and cattle manure as well as other organic products such as residues from bio-bins and canteens, waste food, slaughterhouse waste, the contents of grease traps, sewage and faecal sludge, etc. Upon passage through the fermentation process, the biomass has acquired a largely neutral odour. The end-use product is a distinctly more efficient fertilizer than the initial manure material. The degasified biomass is applied by the local farms to farmland, in the quantities in which liquid manure is usually applied. The energy-rich biogas, which is high in methane content (some 65 per cent of methane), is thermally processed at Schradenbiogas`s own dual-purpose power station. The thermal energy produced is delivered all year round to a neighbouring trading company. This company also purchases the power produced. Any excess power is fed into the grid of the regional utility. (orig./ABI) [Deutsch] Die Schadenbiogasanlage ist fuer die Vergaerung von Schweine- und Rinderguelle sowie anderen organischen Stoffen wie Resten aus Biotonne und Kantinen, Lebensmittelreste, Schlachthofabfaelle, Fettabscheiderinhalte, Klaer- und Faekalschlaemme etc. geeignet. Die Biomasse ist nach Durchlaufen des Vergaerungsprozesses weitgehend geruchsneutral. Das Endprodukt weist gegenueber dem Ausgangsmaterial Guelle deutlich guenstigere Duengewirkungen auf. Die ausgegaste Biomasse wird in der Landwirtschaft mit dem ueblichen Mass der landwirtschaftlichen Duengung innerhalb der Guellewirtschaft der oertlichen Betriebe stofflich verwertet. Das stark methanhaltige, energiereiche Biogas (ca. 65% Methan) wird in einem angegliederten Blockheizkraftwerk thermisch verwertet. Als ganzjaehriger Abnehmer der thermischen Energie ist ein unmittelbar an die Biogasanlage angrenzender Gewerbebetrieb angeschlossen. Er nutzt auch den Strom. Ueberschussstrom gelangt in das Netz des

  16. Alveolar accumulation/concentration of nitrogen during apneic oxygenation with arteriovenous carbon dioxide removal.

    Nielsen, Niels D; Andersen, Gratien; Kjaergaard, Benedict; Staerkind, Mette E; Larsson, Anders

    2010-01-01

    In a model of acute lung injury (ALI), previously, we have shown that apneic oxygenation, using an inspiratory O2 fraction (FiO2) of 1.0 combined with extracorporeal arteriovenous CO2 removal (AO-AVCR) maintains adequate arterial O2 and CO2 levels for a prolonged period. However, it is important that FiO2 lower than 1.0 can be used to avoid possible pulmonary oxygen toxicity. In preliminary studies, arterial oxygenation decreased to extreme low levels, when FiO2 alveolar accumulation/concentration of N2 or by absorption atelectasis. In four anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs, mild lung injury was induced. After a lung recruitment maneuver, we initiated two 20-minute periods of AO-AVCR with FiO2 of 1 and 0.5, respectively. By using FiO2 = 1, PaO2 remained above 300 mm Hg. At the end of the period, the alveolar O2 fraction (FAO2) was 0.89 (0.88-0.89; median and ranges). With FiO2 = 0.5, PaO2 decreased 90% compared with baseline values and FAO2 decreased to 0.07 (0.06-0.07). No atelectasis was visible on computed tomography after either period, and we, therefore, conclude that the alveolar hypoxia was caused by the alveolar N2 accumulation/concentration and subsequently by the O2 depletion. PMID:20038832

  17. Biological phosphorus removal from abattoir wastewater at very short sludge ages mediated by novel PAO clade Comamonadaceae.

    Ge, Huoqing; Batstone, Damien J; Keller, Jürg

    2015-02-01

    Recent increases in global phosphorus costs, together with the need to remove phosphorus from wastewater to comply with water discharge regulations, make phosphorus recovery from wastewater economically and environmentally attractive. Biological phosphorus (Bio-P) removal process can effectively capture the phosphorus from wastewater and concentrate it in a form that is easily amendable for recovery in contrast to traditional (chemical) phosphorus removal processes. However, Bio-P removal processes have historically been operated at medium to long solids retention times (SRTs, 10-20 days typically), which inherently increases the energy consumption while reducing the recoverable carbon fraction and hence makes it incompatible with the drive towards energy self-sufficient wastewater treatment plants. In this study, a novel high-rate Bio-P removal process has been developed as an energy efficient alternative for phosphorus removal from wastewater through operation at an SRT of less than 4 days. The process was most effective at an SRT of 2-2.5 days, achieving >90% phosphate removal. Further reducing the SRT to 1.7 days resulted in a loss of Bio-P activity. 16S pyrotag sequencing showed the community changed considerably with changes in the SRT, but that Comamonadaceae was consistently abundant when the Bio-P activity was evident. FISH analysis combined with DAPI staining confirmed that bacterial cells of Comamonadaceae arranged in tetrads contained polyphosphate, identifying them as the key polyphosphate accumulating organisms at these low SRT conditions. Overall, this paper demonstrates a novel, high-rate phosphorus removal process that can be effectively integrated with short SRT, energy-efficient carbon removal and recovery processes. PMID:25481076

  18. Europaanika / Adele Pao

    Pao, Adele

    2011-01-01

    Finantskriisist eurotsoonis, kus probleemid ei alanud mitte siis, kui raskused avalikuks tulid, vaid headel aegadel, mil riigid eelarvepuudujäägiga ettenähtud norme ületama hakkasid. Tsiteeritud on ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilvest

  19. Organizations

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become in...... considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  20. Accumulation of cobalt by cephalopods

    Accumulation of cobalt by cephalopod mollusca was investigated by radiotracer experiments and elemental analysis. In the radiotracer experiments, Octopus vulgaris took up cobalt-60 from seawater fairly well and the concentration of the nuclide in whole body attained about 150 times the level of seawater at 25th day at 200C. Among the tissues and organs measured, branchial heart which is the specific organ of cephalopods showed the highest affinity for the nuclide. The organ accumulated about 50% of the radioactivity in whole body in spite of its little mass as 0.2% of total body weight. On the other hand, more than 90% of the radioactivity taken up from food (soft parts of Gomphina melanaegis labelled with cobalt-60 previously in an aquarium) was accumulated in liver at 3rd day after the single administration and then the radioactivity in the liver seemed to be distributed to other organs and tissues. The characteristic elution profiles of cobalt-60 was observed for each of the organs and tissues in Sephadex gel-filtration experiment. It was confirmed by the gel-filtration that most of cobalt-60 in the branchial heart was combined with the constituents of low molecular weights. The average concentration of stable cobalt in muscle of several species of cephalopods was 5.3 +- 3.0 μg/kg wet and it was almost comparable to the fish muscle. On the basis of soft parts, concentration of the nuclide closed association among bivalve, gastropod and cephalopod except squid that gave lower values than the others. (author)

  1. 有机酸与根表铁膜对茶树吸收和富集氟的影响%Effects of organic acids and iron plaque outside roots on absorption and accumulation of fluoride in tea plants

    刘腾腾; 赵强; 郜红建; 宛晓春; 张正竹

    2013-01-01

    The effects of Fe2+ concentration,Fe2+ incubation time,pH and organic acids including oxalic acid,malic acid and citric acid on iron plaque on root surfaces and fluoride absorption and accumulation in tea plants were investigated in the hydroponics condition. Results showed that most of the iron plaque induced on tea roots was concentrated between 0. 2 cm and 0. 5 cm from the root tip. As the Fe2+ concentration and incubation time increased, the amount of iron plaque increased, but negative relationships were found when pH as well as organic acids concentrations increased. When the amount of iron plaque was 2.40 to 13. 60 mg·g-1,there was a positive relationship between fluoride adsorption and accumulation in tea plants and the iron plaque. Compared with CK1 without iron plaque and organic acids treatment, the amount of fluoride accumulated in tea plants increased between 42. 3% and 103. 7% with only Fe2+ treated. And it increased from 101.7% to 243.0% as the organic acids and Fe2+were added into the hydroponics solution together.%采用溶液培养法,研究了Fe2+质量浓度、Fe2+诱导时间、pH值、外源有机酸(草酸、苹果酸、柠檬酸)对根表铁膜形成及茶树吸收、富集氟的影响.结果表明:茶树根表铁膜主要集中在离根尖0.2~0.5 cm区域;茶树根表铁膜含量随Fe2+诱导时间的延长呈现先升高后降低的趋势,随Fe2+质量浓度的增加显著升高,与溶液pH、有机酸浓度呈负相关.当铁膜含量为2.40 ~ 13.60 mg·g-1,根表铁膜含量与茶树吸收、富集氟的能力呈正相关.与根表无铁膜的茶树单加氟处理的对照(CK1)相比,加Fe2+诱导形成铁膜后,茶树体内氟的含量增加了42.3% ~ 103.7%;有机酸与Fe2+共同作用时,茶树体内氟含量显著增加了101.7% ~243.0%.

  2. Electrical Wiring of the Aldehyde Oxidoreductase PaoABC with a Polymer Containing Osmium Redox Centers: Biosensors for Benzaldehyde and GABA

    Artavazd Badalyan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors for the detection of benzaldehyde and g-aminobutyric acid (GABA are reported using aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC from Escherichia coli immobilized in a polymer containing bound low potential osmium redox complexes. The electrically connected enzyme already electrooxidizes benzaldehyde at potentials below −0.15 V (vs. Ag|AgCl, 1 M KCl. The pH-dependence of benzaldehyde oxidation can be strongly influenced by the ionic strength. The effect is similar with the soluble osmium redox complex and therefore indicates a clear electrostatic effect on the bioelectrocatalytic efficiency of PaoABC in the osmium containing redox polymer. At lower ionic strength, the pH-optimum is high and can be switched to low pH-values at high ionic strength. This offers biosensing at high and low pH-values. A “reagentless” biosensor has been formed with enzyme wired onto a screen-printed electrode in a flow cell device. The response time to addition of benzaldehyde is 30 s, and the measuring range is between 10–150 µM and the detection limit of 5 µM (signal to noise ratio 3:1 of benzaldehyde. The relative standard deviation in a series (n = 13 for 200 µM benzaldehyde is 1.9%. For the biosensor, a response to succinic semialdehyde was also identified. Based on this response and the ability to work at high pH a biosensor for GABA is proposed by coimmobilizing GABA-aminotransferase (GABA-T and PaoABC in the osmium containing redox polymer.

  3. CBF tomograms with (/sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO in patients with dementia (Alzheimer type and HIV) and Parkinson's disease--initial results

    Costa, D.C.; Ell, P.J.; Burns, A.; Philpot, M.; Levy, R.

    1988-12-01

    We present preliminary data on the utility of functional brain imaging with (99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the study of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), HIV-related dementia syndrome, and the on-off syndrome of Parkinson's disease. In comparison with a group of age-matched controls, the DAT patients revealed distinctive bilateral temporal and posterior parietal deficits, which correlate with detailed psychometric evaluation. Patients with amnesia as the main symptom (group A) showed bilateral mesial temporal lobe perfusion deficits (p less than 0.02). More severely affected patients (group B) with significant apraxia, aphasia, or agnosia exhibited patterns compatible with bilateral reduced perfusion in the posterior parietal cortex, as well as reduced perfusion to both temporal lobes, different from the patients of the control group (p less than 0.05). SPECT studies of HIV patients with no evidence of intracraneal space occupying pathology showed marked perfusion deficits. Patients with Parkinson's disease and the on-off syndrome studied during an on phase (under levodopa therapy) and on another occasion after withdrawal of levodopa (off) demonstrated a significant change in the uptake of (99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO in the caudate nucleus (lower on off) and thalamus (higher on off). These findings justify the present interest in the functional evaluation of the brain of patients with dementia. (99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF)/SPECT appear useful and highlight individual disorders of flow in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions.

  4. Cerebral tomo-scintigraphy with HmPAO Tc: Differential diagnosis between Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and the disease of diffuse Lewy's bodies

    The Lewy bodies disease (LBD) brings together a Parkinson syndrome and a cortical dementia. The clinical diagnosis is sometimes difficult, since there are numerous common points with Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (IPD) and the Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The goal of this work is to determine the place of SPECT with HmPAO-Tc in the differential diagnosis of these three entities. We have studied 19 patients with an IPD (Hughes' criterion), 19 patients with an AD (NINCDS-ADRDA), 14 patients with a LBD (criteria of Byrne and Mc Keith). The three groups do not differ either as age, duration of disease or MMS. The SPECT was achieved by using the Tomomatic 564 (555 MBq of HmPAO Tc). The fixation of HmPAO was measured in 10 pairs of regions of predetermined interest (OM + 5 cm), and the results were expressed by the fixation indices (reference: the mean cerebellar values). The statistical analysis was based on the Mann and Withney Test and a posteriori ad-hoc comparisons. A significant difference in the value of fixation indices was found between IPD and LBD: lower values for LBD at the level of occipital and temporo-parietal regions and at the level of left T.P.O. cortex. There exists a significant difference for the posterior cortical regions: AD < IPD. The differences between AD and LBD occur in the fronto-lateral and fronto-posterior regions in a bilateral way: LBD < AD. The aspect observed by SPECT may therefore contribute to diagnosis due to the loco-regional differences evidenced in this study

  5. CBF tomograms with [/sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO in patients with dementia (Alzheimer type and HIV) and Parkinson's disease--initial results

    We present preliminary data on the utility of functional brain imaging with [99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the study of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), HIV-related dementia syndrome, and the on-off syndrome of Parkinson's disease. In comparison with a group of age-matched controls, the DAT patients revealed distinctive bilateral temporal and posterior parietal deficits, which correlate with detailed psychometric evaluation. Patients with amnesia as the main symptom (group A) showed bilateral mesial temporal lobe perfusion deficits (p less than 0.02). More severely affected patients (group B) with significant apraxia, aphasia, or agnosia exhibited patterns compatible with bilateral reduced perfusion in the posterior parietal cortex, as well as reduced perfusion to both temporal lobes, different from the patients of the control group (p less than 0.05). SPECT studies of HIV patients with no evidence of intracraneal space occupying pathology showed marked perfusion deficits. Patients with Parkinson's disease and the on-off syndrome studied during an on phase (under levodopa therapy) and on another occasion after withdrawal of levodopa (off) demonstrated a significant change in the uptake of [99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO in the caudate nucleus (lower on off) and thalamus (higher on off). These findings justify the present interest in the functional evaluation of the brain of patients with dementia. [99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF)/SPECT appear useful and highlight individual disorders of flow in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions

  6. [Effects of 5023 SE on PaO2 at rest in elderly patients with cerebral impairment. A double-blind cross-over trial versus placebo].

    Memin, Y

    1983-03-24

    In a double-blind cross-over study, the effects of Duxil on blood gases at rest were compared to those of a placebo in 39 elderly patients (mean age: 74.8 years). The study lasted 6 months divided into two 3-month periods. A mean increase of 2.10 mmHg in PaO2 was observed in patients under Duxil, the difference with the results obtained under placebo being statistically significant (p less than 0.01). At that dosage level, Duxil may therefore be considered an active treatment of hypoxia associated with old age. PMID:6220335

  7. Cinco años de Código PAOS en España: un análisis DAFO

    Martín Llaguno, Marta; Fernández Poyatos, María Dolores; Ortiz Moncada, Rocío

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es valorar la aplicación de PAOS (código de autorregulación de la publicidad de alimentos dirigida a menores, prevención de la obesidad y salud) durante cinco años, en el marco de la renovación de los mecanismos reguladores de la publicidad de alimentos dirigida a público infantil que está teniendo lugar en España. Para ello se realiza un análisis DAFO (debilidades, amenazas, fortalezas y oportunidades) a partir de las evaluaciones de ocho autoridades en publicidad...

  8. Ellagic acid derivatives from Terminalia chebula Retz. downregulate the expression of quorum sensing genes to attenuate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 virulence.

    Sajal Sarabhai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Burgeoning antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has necessitated the development of anti pathogenic agents that can quench acylhomoserine lactone (AHL mediated QS with least risk of resistance. This study explores the anti quorum sensing potential of T. chebula Retz. and identification of probable compounds(s showing anti QS activity and the mechanism of attenuation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 virulence factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Methanol extract of T. chebula Retz. fruit showed anti QS activity using Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136. Bioactive fraction (F7, obtained by fractionation of methanol extract using Sephadex LH20, showed significant reduction (p<0.001 in QS regulated production of extracellular virulence factors in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Biofilm formation and alginate were significantly (p<0.05 reduced with enhanced (20% susceptibility to tobramycin. Real Time PCR of F7 treated P. aeruginosa showed down regulation of autoinducer synthase (lasI and rhlI and their cognate receptor (lasR and rhlR genes by 89, 90, 90 and 93%, respectively. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry also showed 90 and 64% reduction in the production of 3-oxo-C(12HSL and C(4HSL after treatment. Decrease in AHLs as one of the mechanisms of quorum quenching by F7 was supported by the reversal of inhibited swarming motility in F7-treated P. aeruginosa PAO1 on addition of C(4HSL. F7 also showed antagonistic activity against 3-oxo-C(12HSL-dependent QS in E. coli bioreporter. C. elegans fed on F7-treated P. aeruginosa showed enhanced survival with LT50 increasing from 24 to 72 h. LC-ESI-MS of F7 revealed the presence of ellagic acid derivatives responsible for anti QS activity in T. chebula extract. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on anti QS activity of T. chebula fruit linked to EADs which down regulate the expression of lasIR and rhlIR genes with concomitant decrease in AHLs in P. aeruginosa PAO1 causing attenuation of its virulence factors

  9. Metal accumulating plants: Medium's role

    Rabier, J.; Prudent, P.; Szymanska, B.; Mevy, J.-P.

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate phytoremediation potentialities by metal accumulation in tolerant plants, trials are carried out using in vitro cultures. Organie compounds influence on metal accumulation is studied with metals supplemented media. The tested compounds on zinc and lead absorption by Brassica juncea, are chelating agents (EDTA, citric acid) and soluble organic fractions of compost. EDTA seems to enhance the transfer of lead in plant but it is the opposite in the case of zinc. Citric acid stimulates root absorption for both zinc and lead. For the aqueous extracts of compost, variable effects are obtained according to the origin of compost (green wastes and food wastes). In'all tested conditions of cultures, zinc is mainly exported towards shoot while lead is stored in root.

  10. 枇杷果实糖酸积累的分子生理机制%Review of the studies on the accumulation mechanisms of sugar and organic acids in Eriobotryajaponica fruit

    秦巧平; 林飞凡; 张岚岚

    2012-01-01

    糖酸含量及糖酸比是果实品质的重要指标.糖不仅决定果实甜度,也是色素、氨基酸、维生素和芳香物质等其他营养成分合成的基础原料.果实有机酸与糖一起形成糖酸比,决定果实风味,同时,果实有机酸作为呼吸底物为合成其他物质提供基础.糖酸比是影响果实口感的最主要因子.对糖酸代谢机制的阐明可为果树栽培管理及高品质育种提供理论依据.文章综述了近年来国内外有关枇杷Eriobotrya japonica糖酸代谢的生理学、分子生物学及栽培措施对糖酸积累的影响等方面的研究进展,并结合笔者的研究经验提出未来在枇杷糖酸代谢机制与调控方面的主要研究重点:进一步明确栽培措施和环境因子对果实糖酸代谢的影响及分子机制;探明果实糖、酸运输的分子机制;应用遗传工程调控果实糖酸组成;探明糖积累与酸积累的相互作用机制.%Sugar and acid content and sugar/acid ratio are the important indexes for fruit quality. Sugars not only determine fruit sweetness, but also provide raw materials for synthesis of pigment, ammo acids, vitamins and other nutrients and aromatic substances. Fruit acids and sugar form sugar/acid ratio, which decides fruit flavor. Meanwhile, fruit organic acids provide respiratory substrates for the synthesis of other essential substances. Sugar/acid ratio is one of the most important determiner for fruit quality. Sugar and organic acid metabolism processes are extremely complicated, the two pathways are closely connected. Understanding towards sugar and acid accumulation mechanism would provide important theoretical basis for cultivation and breeding. This article reviews the recent research advances on loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) sugar acid metabolism, physiology, molecular biology, and cultivation, etc, which will be helpful for related areas. Combining the authors' research experience, the possible researching focuses on

  11. Regulation of Motility and Phenazine Pigment Production by FliA Is Cyclic-di-GMP Dependent in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    Lo, Yi-Ling; Shen, Lunda; Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Bhuwan, Manish; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Chang, Hwan-You

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor FliA, also called sigma 28, is a major regulator of bacterial flagellar biosynthesis genes. Growing evidence suggest that in addition to motility, FliA is involved in controlling numerous bacterial behaviors, even though the underlying regulatory mechanism remains unclear. By using a transcriptional fusion to gfp that responds to cyclic (c)-di-GMP, this study revealed a higher c-di-GMP concentration in the fliA deletion mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa than in its wild-type strain PAO1. A comparative analysis of transcriptome profiles of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and its fliA deletion mutant revealed an altered expression of several c-di-GMP-modulating enzyme-encoding genes in the fliA deletion mutant. Moreover, the downregulation of PA4367 (bifA), a Glu-Ala-Leu motif-containing phosphodiesterase, in the fliA deletion mutant was confirmed using the β-glucuronidase reporter gene assay. FliA also altered pyocyanin and pyorubin production by modulating the c-di-GMP concentration. Complementing the fliA mutant strain with bifA restored the motility defect and pigment overproduction of the fliA mutant. Our results indicate that in addition to regulating flagellar gene transcription, FliA can modulate the c-di-GMP concentration to regulate the swarming motility and phenazine pigment production in P. aeruginosa. PMID:27175902

  12. Reduction of the PaO2/FiO2 ratio in acute aortic dissection. Relationship between the extent of dissection and inflammation

    Acute aortic dissection (AAD) often accompanies acute respiratory failure. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between the incidence of oxygenation impairment and the extent of distal type AAD. A total of 49 patients with medically treated distal type AAD were retrospectively examined. AAD% was defined as the percentage of the volume of false lumen to that of aorta in the descending aorta. AAD% was measured by computed tomography. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, white blood cell (WBC) counts, body temperature and arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) ratio were measured serially. Oxygenation impairment was defined as a PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤200. This occurred in 19 patients (39%). In patients with oxygenation impairment, AAD% (50.8±10.9% vs 28.0±11.9%, P2/FiO2 ratio and AAD% (r=-0.604, P2/FiO2 ratio (r=-0.635, P<0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the only independent predictor of oxygenation impairment was AAD% (odds ratio, 1.323; 95% confidence interval, 1.035-1.691, P=0.026). Respiratory failure in AAD appears to be closely correlated with the amount of aortic injury, possibly mediated by the magnitude of the systemic inflammatory reaction to the aortic injury. (author)

  13. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested

  14. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants. PMID:27485226

  15. 不同有机物料育秧基质对水稻秧苗生长及养分积累的影响%Effect of different organic materials substrate on rice seedling growth and nutrients accumulation

    宋鹏慧; 方玉凤; 王晓燕; 庞荔丹; 戴建军

    2015-01-01

    Effects of different organic materials on rice seedling growth and nutrients accumulation were studied through rice seedling pot experiment. Results showed that: (1) The COC was the optimal substrate, which was mixed in different propor-tions by ground corn stalks, organic manure, peat, zeolite, vermiculite, fine river sand, carbon powder, etc. The quality of rice seedlings cultured on it was the best; (2) Effects of different materials on the growth of rice seedling were that ground corn stalk was better than rice shell powder and mushroom residue effect was poorer; (3) For the rice seeding growth, treat-ment of carbon powder added were better than all the other ones among the treatments of the same ratio. Results of this study would provide a theoretical basis for selecting material of the substrate production of rice seedling.%通过水稻育苗盆栽试验,研究了不同有机物料育秧基质对水稻秧苗生长及养分积累的影响。结果表明:(1) COC (玉米秸秆+碳粉)为最优基质处理,该处理的基质是由粉碎玉米秸秆、有机肥、草炭、沸石、蛭石、细河沙、碳粉等按不同配比混合而成,用这种基质的所育水稻苗生长状况最好;(2)不同有机物料育秧基质对水稻苗生长的影响,玉米秸秆好于水稻壳粉,菇渣的效果较差;(3)相同配比的处理间,加碳处理均优于不加碳处理。本研究结果对水稻育苗基质生产中的材料选择提供了理论依据。

  16. Phytolith-occluded organic carbon accumulation and distribution in a Dendrocalamopsis oldhami bamboo stand ecosystem%绿竹生态系统植硅体碳积累与分布特征

    杨杰; 项婷婷; 姜培坤; 吴家森; 柯和佳

    2016-01-01

    Phytolith-occluded organic carbon (PhytOC) has been shown to have an important role in carbon-silicon biogeochemical cycling. To understand the characteristics of PhytOC accumulation, different organs (leaf, branch, and culm), litter, and soil samples were collected in different age stands of 1-3 year old Den-drocalamopsis oldhami bamboo ecosystems from Cangnan County, Zhejiang Province in December 2014. Then, silicon, phytoliths, and PhytOC were analyzed with a correlation analysis. Results of silicon, phytoliths, and PhytOC mass fraction showed that PhytOC content (in g·kg-1) of aboveground litter was (4.28)>leaf (3.16)>branch (0.28)>stalk (0.04). The total accumulation of PhytOC was 22.64 kg·hm-2 with an order (in kg·hm-2) of leaf (13.22)>litter (5.74)>branch (2.71)>stalk (0.96). Also, reserve stocks of PhytOC were 1 302.60 kg·hm-2 in the 0-100 cm soil depth. A highly significant correlation (P<0.01, R2=0.96) was found between silicon and phytolith concentration;a significant correlation (P<0.05, R2=0.62) was revealed for phytolith and PhytOC concentration in plants; and a highly significant correlation (P<0.01, R2= 0.80) was shown with Phy-tOC and total organic carbon in soils. This results shows that the content of PhytOC depend on silicon and phytolith in plants, and related to total organic carbon in soils.%植硅体封存的有机碳(phytolith-occluded organic carbon, PhytOC)已被证明在生物地球化学碳硅循环中具有重要的作用。为了解绿竹Dendrocalamopsis oldhami生态系统中植硅体碳的分布与积累特征,于2014年12月在中心产区浙江省苍南县利用标准地调查方法,采集了不同年龄(1~3年生)、不同器官(叶、枝、秆)、凋落物和土壤样品,分析了硅、植硅体、植硅体碳质量分数。结果表明:绿竹地上部分硅、植硅体、植硅体碳质量分数大小表现均表现为凋落物>叶>枝>秆,其中植硅体碳的质量分数分别为4.28,3.16

  17. Wiring of the aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC to electrode surfaces via entrapment in low potential phenothiazine-modified redox polymers.

    Pinyou, Piyanut; Ruff, Adrian; Pöller, Sascha; Alsaoub, Sabine; Leimkühler, Silke; Wollenberger, Ulla; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Phenothiazine-modified redox hydrogels were synthesized and used for the wiring of the aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC to electrode surfaces. The effects of the pH value and electrode surface modification on the biocatalytic activity of the layers were studied in the presence of vanillin as the substrate. The enzyme electrodes were successfully employed as bioanodes in vanillin/O2 biofuel cells in combination with a high potential bilirubin oxidase biocathode. Open circuit voltages of around 700 mV could be obtained in a two compartment biofuel cell setup. Moreover, the use of a rather hydrophobic polymer with a high degree of crosslinking sites ensures the formation of stable polymer/enzyme films which were successfully used as bioanode in membrane-less biofuel cells. PMID:26775204

  18. Cranial MR imaging and cerebral 99mTc HM-PAO-SPECT in patients with subacute or chronic severe closed head injury and normal CT examinations

    Eighteen patients in the subacute or chronic state following severe closed head injury with normal cranial CT scans were examined by MR and 99mTc HM-PAO SPECT. Correlations were sought between these 2 imaging modalities and the clinical outcome, as defined by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOX) score. Both MR and SPECT revealed cerebral damage in all patients examined but structural and functional alterations did not coincide topographically in 64.9% of lesions. Nevertheless, complementary injury patterns suggesting poor recovery were found; cortical contusions and diffuse axonal injury (MR) in conjunction with cortical and thalamic hypoperfusion (SPECT) were noticed in 8 out of 12 patients with unfavorable outcome (GOS = III and IV). The synthesis of MR and SPECT information clearly enhanced the ability both to accurately assess posttraumatic brain damage and to improve patients' outcome prediction. (au) (18 refs.)

  19. Cranial MR imaging and cerebral 99mTc HM-PAO-SPECT in patients with subacute or chronic severe closed head injury and normal CT examinations

    Eighteen patients in the subacute or chronic state following severe closed head injury with normal cranial CT scans were examined by MR and 99mTc HM-PAO SPECT. Correlations were sought between these 2 imaging modalities and the clinical outcome, as defined by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score. Both MR and SPECT revealed cerebral damage in all patients examined but structural and functional alterations did not coincide topographically in 64.9% of lesions. Nevertheless, complementary injury patterns suggesting poor recovery were found; cortical contusions and diffuse axonal injury (MR) in conjunction with cortical and thalamic hypoperfusion (SPECT) were noticed in 8 out of 12 patients with unfavorable outcome (GOS=III and IV). The synthesis of MR and SPECT information clearly enhanced the ability both to accurately assess posttraumatic brain damage and to improve patients' outcome prediction. (orig.)

  20. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  1. Cerebral tomo-scintigraphy with HmPAO Tc: Differential diagnosis between Parkinson`s disease, Alzheimer`s disease and the disease of diffuse Lewy`s bodies; Tomoscintigraphie cerebrale au HmPAO Tc: diagnostic differenntiel entre Parkinson, Alzheimer et maladie a corps de Lewy diffus

    Leduc, V. [Departament de Neurologie, CHR and U 59037 Lille (France); Lecouffe, P. [Service Central de Medecine Nucleaire, CHR and U Lille (France); Defebvre, L.; Pasquier, F. [Departament de Neurologie, CHR and U 59037 Lille (France); Pham, T.; Lamy, C. [Service Central de Medecine Nucleaire, CHR and U Lille (France); Destee, A. [Departament de Neurologie, CHR and U 59037 Lille (France); Steinling, M. [Service Central de Medecine Nucleaire, CHR and U 59037 Lille (France)

    1997-12-31

    The Lewy bodies disease (LBD) brings together a Parkinson syndrome and a cortical dementia. The clinical diagnosis is sometimes difficult, since there are numerous common points with Idiopathic Parkinson`s Disease (IPD) and the Alzheimer`s Disease (AD). The goal of this work is to determine the place of SPECT with HmPAO-Tc in the differential diagnosis of these three entities. We have studied 19 patients with an IPD (Hughes` criterion), 19 patients with an AD (NINCDS-ADRDA), 14 patients with a LBD (criteria of Byrne and Mc Keith). The three groups do not differ either as age, duration of disease or MMS. The SPECT was achieved by using the Tomomatic 564 (555 MBq of HmPAO Tc). The fixation of HmPAO was measured in 10 pairs of regions of predetermined interest (OM + 5 cm), and the results were expressed by the fixation indices (reference: the mean cerebellar values). The statistical analysis was based on the Mann and Withney Test and a posteriori ad-hoc comparisons. A significant difference in the value of fixation indices was found between IPD and LBD: lower values for LBD at the level of occipital and temporo-parietal regions and at the level of left T.P.O. cortex. There exists a significant difference for the posterior cortical regions: AD < IPD. The differences between AD and LBD occur in the fronto-lateral and fronto-posterior regions in a bilateral way: LBD < AD. The aspect observed by SPECT may therefore contribute to diagnosis due to the loco-regional differences evidenced in this study

  2. Cross-Regulation between the phz1 and phz2 Operons Maintain a Balanced Level of Phenazine Biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Qinna Cui

    Full Text Available Gene duplication often provides selective advantages for the survival of microorganisms in adapting to varying environmental conditions. P. aeruginosa PAO1 possesses two seven-gene operons [phz1 (phzA1B1C1D1E1F1G1 and phz2 (phzA2B2C2D2E2F2G2] that are involved in the biosynthesis of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and its derivatives. Although the two operons are highly homologous and their functions are well known, it is unclear how the two phz operons coordinate their expressions to maintain the phenazine biosynthesis. By constructing single and double deletion mutants of the two phz operons, we found that the phz1-deletion mutant produced the same or less amount of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and pyocyanin in GA medium than the phz2-knockout mutant while the phz1-phz2 double knockout mutant did not produce any phenazines. By generating phzA1 and phzA2 translational and transcriptional fusions with a truncated lacZ reporter, we found that the expression of the phz1 operon increased significantly at the post-transcriptional level and did not alter at the transcriptional level in the absence of the phz2 operon. Surprisingly, the expression the phz2 operon increased significantly at the post-transcriptional level and only moderately at the transcriptional level in the absence of the phz1 operon. Our findings suggested that a complex cross-regulation existed between the phz1 and phz2 operons. By mediating the upregulation of one phz operon expression while the other was deleted, this crosstalk would maintain the homeostatic balance of phenazine biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa PAO1.

  3. The relationship between preoperative pulmonary blood flow measured by lung perfusion scanning with sup(99m)Tc-MAA and values of PaO2 during one-lung anaesthesia

    Occassionally one-lung anaesthesia may cause severe hypoxia. The author analyzed the relationship between preoperative pulmonary blood flow by means of lung perfusion scanning with sup(99m)Tc-MAA and values of PaO2 during one-lung anaesthesia in 30 adult patients undergoing elective thoracotomy. The ratio of perfusion partition between the dependent lung and the non-dependent one was 67.5+-3.6 percent (mean+-SE). Mean value of PaO2 of 30 minutes after one lung ventilation (FlO2 0.99) was 216.7+-21.5 mmHg. These values of PaO2 during one-lung anaesthesia were well correlated with the preoperative lung perfusion partition ratios (γ=0.893, p2 of 69.8+-3.5 mmHg was observed. These results indicated that preoperative evaluation of lung perfusion could predict the values of PaO2 during one-lung anaesthesia. (author)

  4. Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    Photographic Service

    1980-01-01

    The AA in its final stage of construction, before it disappeared from view under concrete shielding. Antiprotons were first injected, stochastically cooled and accumulated in July 1980. From 1981 on, the AA provided antiprotons for collisions with protons, first in the ISR, then in the SPS Collider. From 1983 on, it also sent antiprotons, via the PS, to the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). The AA was dismantled in 1997 and shipped to Japan.

  5. Accumulation of satellites

    Formation and evolution of circumplanetary satellite swarms are investigated. Characteristic times of various processes are estimated. The characteristic time for the accumulation of the bodies in the swarm was several orders of magnitude shorter than that of the planet, i.e. than the time of the replenishment of the material by the swarm (108 yr). The model of the accumulation of the swarm is constructed taking into account the increase of its mass due to trapping of heliocentrically moving particles and its decrease due to outfall of the inner part of the swarm onto the growing planet. The accumulation of circumplanetary bodies is also considered. The main features of the evolution of the swarm essentially depend on the size distribution of bodies in the swarm and in the zone of the planet and also on the degree of the concentration of the swarm mass toward the planet. If the sum of the exponents of the inverse power laws of these distributions is less than 7, the model of the transparent swarm developed in this paper should be preferred. When this sum is greater than 7, the model of opaque swarm suggested by A. Harris and W.M. Kaula is better. There is predominant trapping of small particles into the swarm due to their more frequent collisions. Optical thickness of the protoplanetary cloud in radial direction is estimated. It is shown that at the final stage of the planetary accumulation, the cloud was semitransparent in the region of terrestrial planets and volatile substances evaporated at collisions could be swept out from the outer parts of the satellite swarm by the solar wind

  6. Information Accumulation in Development

    Acemoglu, Daron; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    1998-01-01

    We propose a model in which economic relations and institutions in advanced and less developed countires differ as these societies have access to different amounts of information. The lack of information in less developped economies makes it hard to evaluate the performance of managers, and leads to high "agency costs". Differencies in the amount of information have a variety of sources. As well as factors related to the informational infrastructure, we emphasize that societies accumulate inf...

  7. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    Hjalmar S Kühl; Kalan, Ammie K.; Mimi Arandjelovic; Floris Aubert; Lucy D’Auvergne; Annemarie Goedmakers; Sorrel Jones; Laura Kehoe; Sebastien Regnaut; Alexander Tickle; Els Ton; Joost van Schijndel; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Samuel Angedakin; Anthony Agbor

    2016-01-01

    The authors would like to thank the Max Planck Society and Krekeler Foundation for generous funding of the Pan African Programme. The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behav...

  8. The Competition between Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms and Glycogen-Accumulating Organisms: Temperature Effects and Modelling

    López Vázquez, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Due to relatively high phosphorus removal efficiency and economy, the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems is a widely applied process to control and prevent eutrophication in surface water bodies. However, the EBPR process can be prone to su

  9. The competition between polyphosphate-accumulating organisms and glycogen-accumulating organisms: temperature effects and modelling

    López Vázquez, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Due to relatively high phosphorus removal efficiency and economy, the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems is a widely applied process to control and prevent eutrophication in surface water bodies. However, the EBPR process can be prone to su

  10. Radionuclides accumulation in the lake Drukshiai hydrophytes

    Investigations carried out in 1988-1993 in lake Drukshiai and by the model experiments allow to maintain that peculiarities of biological radionuclides migration in the lake ecosystem could be conditioned by following factors: the Ignalina NPP sewerage waste waters, containing chemical compounds increasing accumulation of radionuclides, of ionic form or inclined to hydrolysis (especially of corrosive origin), in the hydrophytes. Processes of eutrophication due to thermal and chemical contamination, because increasing volume of organic matter decrease the accumulation of inclined to hydrolysis radionuclides, especially of corrosive origin, in the hydrophytes. (author). 8 refs., 8 tabs

  11. Ice slurry accumulation

    Christensen, K.G.; Kauffeld, M.

    1998-06-01

    More and more refrigeration systems are designed with secondary loops, thus reducing the refrigerant charge of the primary refrigeration plant. In order not to increase energy consumption by introducing a secondary refrigerant, alternatives to the well established single phase coolants (brines) and different concepts of the cooling plant have to be evaluated. Combining the use of ice-slurry - mixture of water, a freezing point depressing agent (antifreeze) and ice particles - as melting secondary refrigerant and the use of a cool storage makes it possible to build plants with secondary loops without increasing the energy consumption and investment. At the same time the operating costs can be kept at a lower level. The accumulation of ice-slurry is compared with other and more traditional storage systems. The method is evaluated and the potential in different applications is estimated. Aspects of practically use of ice-slurry has been examined in the laboratory at the Danish Technological Institute (DTI). This paper will include the final conclusions from this work concerning tank construction, agitator system, inlet, outlet and control. The work at DTI indicates that in some applications systems with ice-slurry and accumulation tanks have a great future. These applications are described by a varying load profile and a process temperature suiting the temperature of ice-slurry (-3 - -8/deg. C). (au)

  12. An efficient process for wastewater treatment to mitigate free nitrous acid generation and its inhibition on biological phosphorus removal

    Zhao, Jianwei; Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Chen, Hongbo; Zhong, Yu; An, Hongxue; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Free nitrous acid (FNA), which is the protonated form of nitrite and inevitably produced during biological nitrogen removal, has been demonstrated to strongly inhibit the activity of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Herein we reported an efficient process for wastewater treatment, i.e., the oxic/anoxic/oxic/extended-idle process to mitigate the generation of FNA and its inhibition on PAOs. The results showed that this new process enriched more PAOs which thereby achieved higher ph...

  13. High-temperature EBPR process: the performance, analysis of PAOs and GAOs and the fine-scale population study of Candidatus "Accumulibacter phosphatis".

    Ong, Ying Hui; Chua, Adeline Seak May; Fukushima, Toshikazu; Ngoh, Gek Cheng; Shoji, Tadashi; Michinaka, Atsuko

    2014-11-01

    The applicability of the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process for the removal of phosphorus in warm climates is uncertain due to frequent reports of EBPR deterioration at temperature higher than 25 °C. Nevertheless, a recent report on a stable and efficient EBPR process at 28 °C has inspired the present study to examine the performance of EBPR at 24 °C-32 °C, as well as the PAOs and GAOs involved, in greater detail. Two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated for EBPR in parallel at different temperatures, i.e., SBR-1 at 28 °C and SBR-2 first at 24 °C and subsequently at 32 °C. Both SBRs exhibited high phosphorus removal efficiencies at all three temperatures and produced effluents with phosphorus concentrations less than 1.0 mg/L during the steady state of reactor operation. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed Accumulibacter-PAOs comprised 64% of the total bacterial population at 24 °C, 43% at 28 °C and 19% at 32 °C. Based on fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH), the abundance of Competibacter-GAOs at both 24 °C and 28 °C was rather low (<10%), while it accounted for 40% of the total bacterial population at 32 °C. However, the smaller Accumulibacter population and larger population of Competibacter at 32 °C did not deteriorate the phosphorus removal performance. A polyphosphate kinase 1 (ppk1)-based qPCR analysis on all studied EBPR processes detected only Accumulibacter clade IIF. The Accumulibacter population shown by 16S rRNA and ppk1 was not significantly different. This finding confirmed the existence of single clade IIF in the processes and the specificity of the clade IIF primer sets designed in this study. Habitat filtering related to temperature could have contributed to the presence of a unique clade. The clade IIF was hypothesised to be able to perform the EBPR activity at high temperatures. The clade's robustness most likely helps it to fit the high-temperature EBPR

  14. Structural Analysis of WbpE from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1: A Nucleotide Sugar Aminotransferase Involved in O-Antigen Assembly

    Larkin, A.; Olivier, N; Imperiali, B

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has emerged as a major source of hospital-acquired infections. Effective treatment has proven increasingly difficult due to the spread of multidrug resistant strains and thus requires a deeper understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of pathogenicity. The central carbohydrate of the P. aeruginosa PAO1 (O5) B-band O-antigen, ManNAc(3NAc)A, has been shown to be critical for virulence and is produced in a stepwise manner by five enzymes in the Wbp pathway (WbpA, WbpB, WbpE, WbpD, and WbpI). Herein, we present the crystal structure of the aminotransferase WbpE from P. aeruginosa PAO1 in complex with the cofactor pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate (PLP) and product UDP-GlcNAc(3NH{sub 2})A as the external aldimine at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. We also report the structures of WbpE in complex with PMP alone as well as the PLP internal aldimine and show that the dimeric structure of WbpE observed in the crystal structure is confirmed by analytical ultracentrifugation. Analysis of these structures reveals that the active site of the enzyme is composed of residues from both subunits. In particular, we show that a key residue (Arg229), which has previously been implicated in direct interactions with the {alpha}-carboxylate moiety of {alpha}-ketoglutarate, is also uniquely positioned to bestow specificity for the 6{double_prime}-carboxyl group of GlcNAc(3NH2)A through a salt bridge. This finding is intriguing because while an analogous basic residue is present in WbpE homologues that do not process 6{double_prime}-carboxyl-modified saccharides, recent structural studies reveal that this side chain is retracted to accommodate a neutral C6{double_prime} atom. This work represents the first structural analysis of a nucleotide sugar aminotransferase with a bound product modified at the C2{double_prime}, C3{double_prime}, and C6{double_prime} positions and provides insight into a novel target for treatment of P

  15. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    1980-01-01

    Section 06 - 08*) of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A vacuum-tank, two bending magnets (BST06 and BST07 in blue) with a quadrupole (QDN07, in red) in between, another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and a further tank . The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of BST06 contained the stack core pickup for stochastic cooling (see 7906193, 7906190, 8005051), the two other tanks served mainly as vacuum chambers in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on BST06. *) see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984)

  16. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  17. Stability and instability of the isoelectronic UO22+ and PaO2+ actinyl oxo-cations in aqueous solution from density functional theory based molecular dynamics

    In this work, Pa(V) mono-cations have been studied in liquid water by means of density functional theory (DFT) based molecular dynamic simulations (CPMD) and compared with their U(VI) isoelectronic counterparts to understand the peculiar chemical behavior of Pa(V) in aqueous solution. Four different Pa(V) monocationic isomers appear to be stable in liquid water from our simulations: [PaO2(H2O)5]+(aq), [Pa(OH)4(H2O)2]+(aq), [PaO(OH)2(H2O)4]+(aq), and [Pa(OH)4(H2O)3]+(aq). On the other hand, in the case of U(VI) only the uranyl, [UO2(H2O)5]2+(aq), is stable. The other species containing hydroxyl groups replacing one or two oxo bonds are readily converted to uranyl. The Pa-OH bond is stable, while it is suddenly broken in U-OH. This makes possible the formation of a broad variety of Pa(V) species in water and participates to its unique chemical behavior in aqueous solution. Further, the two actinyl oxo-cations in water are different in the ability of the oxygen atoms to form stable and extended H-bond networks for Pa(V) contrary to U(VI). In particular, prot-actinyl is found to have between 2 and 3 hydrogen bonds per oxygen atom while uranyl has between zero and one. (authors)

  18. Conserved-residue mutations in Wzy affect O-antigen polymerization and Wzz-mediated chain-length regulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    Islam, Salim T.; Huszczynski, Steven M.; Nugent, Timothy; Gold, Alexander C.; Lam, Joseph S.

    2013-12-01

    O antigen (O-Ag) in many bacteria is synthesized via the Wzx/Wzy-dependent pathway in which Wzy polymerizes lipid-linked O-Ag subunits to modal lengths regulated by Wzz. Characterization of 83 site-directed mutants of Wzy from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (WzyPa) in topologically-mapped periplasmic (PL) and cytoplasmic loops (CL) verified the functional importance of PL3 and PL5, with the former shown to require overall cationic properties. Essential Arg residues in the RX10G motifs of PL3 and PL5 were found to be conserved in putative homologues of WzyPa, as was the overall sequence homology between these two periplasmic loops in each protein. Amino acid substitutions in CL6 were found to alter Wzz-mediated O-antigen modality, with evidence suggesting that these changes may perturb the C-terminal WzyPa tertiary structure. Together, these data suggest that the catch-and-release mechanism of O-Ag polymerization is widespread among bacteria and that regulation of polymer length is affected by interaction of Wzz with Wzy.

  19. Autopsy findings of fatal cryptogenic organizing pneumonia

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Autopsy cases of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) have been rarely reported. A 73-year-old Japanese man consulted to a hospital because of flu-like sickness. He was diagnosed as pneumonia, and treated by antibiotics. He was referred to our hospital for further treatment. Chest X-P showed pneumonia involving the whole lungs. Blood laboratory test showed leukocytosis, increased CRP, and decreased PaO2. Despite of steroid therapy, he showed a downhill course and died one month after the fi...

  20. The Effect of Lactate, Albumin, C-reactive Protein, PaO2/FiO2 and Glucose Levels of Trauma Patients at the Time of Administration to Intensive Care

    Eren Yılmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Blood analyses are preferred in the observation of cases requiring intensive care unit (ICU following a trauma. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP, PaO2/FiO2 and glucose levels of trauma patients at time of admission with mortality. Material and Method: The patients who were admitted into ICU following a trauma between the years of 2010 and 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. 200 trauma cases were included in the study. Their demographic data, APACHE II scores, Glasgow Coma Scales (GCS, and arterial blood gas in the lactate and PaO2/FiO2 ratio, CRP, glucose and albumin levels in the first collected arterial blood gas, as well as, the presence of thoracic, cardiac, renal, abdominal and head trauma, length of ICU stay and mortality were recorded. Results: Of the patients included in the study 84% were male, with an average age of 38.3 and an average APACHE II score of 16.6. 64% suffered from head trauma and the average GCS was calculated to be 11.2. The patients were observed in the ICU for an average of 18.7 days and the rate of mortality was 33.5%. GCS, PaO2/FiO2, age and elevated lactate levels increased mortality as independent risk factors. Conclusion: It has been concluded that parameters like age and the first GCS, lactate, glucose, albumin and PaO2/FiO2 at time of acceptance into the ICU were found to be related with mortality.

  1. Influence of mercury accumulation on fish

    Dokholyan, V.K.; Akhmedov, A.M.; Akhmedova, T.P.; Shleyfer, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    Questions of the accumulation and distribution of mercury in the organs and tissues of different species of fish were examined in relation to the influence of mercury on survival, physiological and biochemical indices of the blood and brain. In the sturgeon and the roach, mercury accumulated primarily in the kidneys, liver, spleen and gills. The uneven distribution is evidently due to differentiation and differences in the degree of intensity of the metabolic processes of the cells in the organs and tissues, and the physico-chemical mechanism of the interaction of mercury with the biological structure is also important. There are substantial changes in the composition of the blood as a result of intoxication. In the sturgeon and roach a drop is noted in erythrocytes, hemoglobin and leukocytes and qualitative changes in the red blood cells also occur. Deviations were also noted in the correlation of individual forms of leukocytes. These changes are evidently provoked both by the direct presence of mercury in the blood stream and by its disruption of the functions of the hematopoetic organs. Mercury poisoning leads to disruption of the nitrogen metabolism of the brain of the fish. With the accumulation of mercury in fish to a certain critical level, the metabolic processes are inhibited or altered and the defense functions of the blood are weakened. 17 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  2. Quorum quenching activity in cell-free lysate of endophytic bacteria isolated from Pterocarpus santalinus Linn., and its effect on quorum sensing regulated biofilm in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Rajesh, P S; Ravishankar Rai, V

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing mechanism allows the microorganisms to resist the antibiotic treatment by forming biofilms. Quorum quenching is one of the mechanisms to control the development of drug resistance in microbes. Endophyte bacteria are beneficial to plant growth as they support the immune system against the pathogen attack. The endophytic bacteria present in Pterocarpus santalinus were screened for the presence of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) degrading bacteria using biosensor strains and further confirmed by quantifying the violacein production. Cell-free lysate of endophytic bacteria, Bacillus firmus PT18 and Enterobacter asburiae PT39 exhibited potent AHL degrading ability by inhibiting about 80% violacein production in biosensor strain. Furthermore, when the cell-free lysate was applied to Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PAO1-JP2 biofilm it resulted in significant (p<0.01) inhibition of biofilm formation. The biofilm inhibition was confirmed by visualization of biofilm slides under fluorescence microscopy, which showed decrease in total biomass formation in treated slides. Isolation and amplification of the gene (aiiA) indicated that the presence of AHL lactonase in cell-free lysate and sequence alignment indicated that AiiA contains a "HXHXDH" zinc-binding motif that is being conserved in several groups of metallohydrolases. Therefore, the study shows the potential of AHLs degradation by AHL lactonase present in cell-free lysate of isolated endophytic bacteria and inhibition of quorum sensing regulated biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa PAO1. PMID:24268182

  3. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    1980-01-01

    A section of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A large vacuum-tank, a quadrupole (QDN09*), a bending magnet (BST08), another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and (in the background) a further bending magnet (BST08). The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of QDN09 contained the kickers for stochastic pre-cooling (see 790621, 8002234, 8002637X), the other one served mainly as vacuum chamber in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on QFW08. * see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984) See under 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261 and 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  4. 浙西北茶园土壤固碳能力及其不同形态有机碳的积累特点%Carbon sequestration potential of tea garden soil in northwest Zhejiang and its accumulation characteristic on different fractions of organic carbon

    孔樟良

    2016-01-01

    structure and aggregate stability . As an important component in carbon pool of terrestrial ecosystem , soil organic carbon plays an important role in regulating greenhouse effect and global warming . Organic carbon contents in soils depended on the factors such as climate condition , soil type , mineralization process , and land use type and management . For a given soil , the maximum amount of organic carbon generally accumulated in the topsoil under long‐term undisturbed vegetation , typically grassland or forest . Loss of organic carbon is generally regarded as undesirable , though some reports pointed out that low soil carbon contents can reduce application rates of pesticides in soil due to lower sorption . It is well known that various kinds of soil management can cause changes in organic carbon concentrations , and the carbon contents of cropped and tilled soils are usually lower than those of undisturbed grassland or forest . The decline of organic carbon contents was often caused by top soil erosion and breakdown of stabilized soil . To understand the sequestering carbon potential of tea garden soil and its accumulation characteristic on different fractions of organic carbon , soil profile samples were collected from nine tea gardens and three uplands in northwest Zhejiang . Samples from nine tea gardens were divided into three groups ( quaternary red clay , yellow‐red soil and yellowish red soil) , each group corresponding to three tea plantation ages ( 5 10 years , 15 20 years , and > 30 years) . The contents of total organic carbon , light‐fraction organic carbon , particulate organic carbon , microbial biomass carbon and water soluble organic carbon in the soil samples were analyzed , and compared with those local upland soils with similar utilization time . The results showed that different fractions of organic carbon in the tea garden soils had surface accumulation pattern , and the proportion of the light‐fraction and particulate organic carbons in

  5. Batteries and accumulators in France

    The present report gives an overview of the batteries and accumulators market in France in 2011 based on the data reported through ADEME's Register of Batteries and accumulators. In 2001, the French Environmental Agency, known as ADEME, implemented a follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market, creating the Observatory of batteries and accumulators (B and A). In 2010, ADEME created the National Register of producers of Batteries and Accumulators in the context of the implementation of the order issued on November 18, 2009. This is one of the four enforcement orders for the decree 2009-1139 issued on September 22, 2009, concerning batteries and accumulators put on the market and the disposal of waste batteries and accumulators, and which transposes the EU-Directive 2006/66/CE into French law. This Register follows the former Observatory for batteries and accumulators. This Register aims to record the producers on French territory and to collect the B and A producers and recycling companies' annual reporting: the regulation indeed requires that all B and A producers and recycling companies report annually on the Register the quantities of batteries and accumulators they put on the market, collect and treat. Based on this data analysis, ADEME issues an annual report allowing both the follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market in France and communication regarding the achievement of the collection and recovery objectives set by EU regulation. This booklet presents the situation in France in 2011

  6. Bromine accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils

    Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Vázquez, Cruz Ferro; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Casais, Manuela Costa; Rodríguez, Teresa Taboada; Lado, Luis Rodríguez

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations showed that bromine is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated bromine content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. Bromine concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (area, and total estimated retention was low (6-16%). The degree of SOM bromination, expressed as the Br/C molar ratio, varied between 0.03 and 1.20 mmol Br/mol C. The ratio was highly correlated (n = 23, r2 0.88, p pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.

  7. Comparative molecular docking analysis of cytoplasmic dynein light chain DYNLL1 with pilin to explore the molecular mechanism of pathogenesis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO.

    Samina Kausar

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic dynein light chain 1 (DYNLL1 is a component of large protein complex, which is implicated in cargo transport processes, and is known to interact with many cellular and viral proteins through its short consensus motif (K/RXTQT. Still, it remains to be explored that bacterial proteins also exhibit similar recognition sequences to make them vulnerable to host defense mechanism. We employed multiple docking protocols including AUTODOCK, PatchDock, ZDOCK, DOCK/PIERR and CLUSPRO to explore the DYNLL1 and Pilin interaction followed by molecular dynamics simulation assays. Subsequent structural comparison of the predicted binding site for DYNLL1-Pilin complex against the experimentally verified DYNLL1 binding partners was performed to cross check the residual contributions and to determine the binding mode. On the basis of in silico analysis, here we describe a novel interaction of DYNLL1 and receptor binding domain of Pilin (the main protein constituent of bacterial type IV Pili of gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO, which is the third most common nosocomial pathogen associated with the life-threatening infections. Evidently, our results underscore that Pilin specific motif (KSTQD exhibits a close structural similarity to that of Vaccinia virus polymerase, P protein Rabies and P protein Mokola viruses. We speculate that binding of DYNLL1 to Pilin may trigger an uncontrolled inflammatory response of the host immune system during P. aeruginosa chronic infections thereby opening a new pioneering area to investigate the role of DYNLL1 in gram negative bacterial infections other than viral infections. Moreover, by manifesting a strict correspondence between sequence and function, our study anticipates a novel drug target site to control the complications caused by P. aeruginosa infections.

  8. ABA and GA3 increase carbon allocation in different organs of grapevine plants by inducing accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates in leaves, enhancement of phloem area and expression of sugar transporters.

    Murcia, Germán; Pontin, Mariela; Reinoso, Herminda; Baraldi, Rita; Bertazza, Gianpaolo; Gómez-Talquenca, Sebastián; Bottini, Rubén; Piccoli, Patricia N

    2016-03-01

    Grape quality for winemaking depends on sugar accumulation and metabolism in berries. Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs) have been reported to control sugar allocation in economically important crops, although the mechanisms involved are still unknown. The present study tested if ABA and gibberellin A3 (GA3 ) enhance carbon allocation in fruits of grapevines by modifying phloem loading, phloem area and expression of sugar transporters in leaves and berries. Pot-grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants were sprayed with ABA and GA3 solutions. The amount of soluble sugars in leaves and berries related to photosynthesis were examined at three points of berry growth: pre-veraison, full veraison and post-veraison. Starch levels and amylase activity in leaves, gene expression of sugar transporters in leaves and berries and phloem anatomy were examined at full veraison. Accumulation of glucose and fructose in berries was hastened in ABA-treated plants at the stage of full veraison, which was correlated with enhancement of Vitis vinifera HEXOSE TRANSPORTER 2 (VvHT2) and Vitis vinifera HEXOSE TRANSPORTER 6 (VvHT6) gene expression, increases of phloem area and sucrose content in leaves. On the other hand, GA3 increased the quantity of photoassimilates delivered to the stem thus increasing xylem growth. In conclusion, stimulation of sugar transport by ABA and GA3 to berries and stems, respectively, was due to build-up of non-structural carbohydrates in leaves, modifications in phloem tissue and modulation in gene expression of sugar transporters. PMID:26411544

  9. Sea level controls carbon accumulation in the Everglades

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-10-01

    How much carbon is stored in the organic soils of tropical wetlands is becoming an important question as erosion, agriculture, and global climate change slowly set into motion a series of processes that could potentially release carbon locked up in these wetlands. In a recent study, Glaser et al. reconstructed a complete, carbon-14 dated 4000-year history of both organic and inorganic matter accumulation in the Everglades of south Florida. The authors found that despite the fact that erosion, fires, and similar processes may have removed as much as 2 meters of soil from the Everglades, there is a remarkable consistency in the accumulation rates of both organic and inorganic matter in the Everglades over the past 4000 years. They speculate that processes such as sea level rise that operate on time scales of centuries or even millennia may be ultimately controlling the rates of formation and accumulation of organic matter in the Everglades.

  10. Accumulation of Co by abalone, 1

    The appearance of radioactive Co in the liver of abalone from sea water was examined to consider the effect of chemical forms of Co(CoCl2 and cyanocobalamin; vitamin B12) in sea water upon the metabolisms in marine organisms. Organic 57Co(cyanocobalamin) from sea water appeared in the liver of abalone combining with a constituent with a molecular weight of 4 x 104. The constituent had the activity of vitamin B12, while inorganic 60Co(CoCl2) appeared combining with three constituents with molecular weights more than or equal to 1.5 x 106, 7 x 103 and less than or equal to 1.5 x 103 which did not show the activities of vitamin B12. The effect of chemical forms of Co in sea water is significant in its accumulation by some species of marine organisms. (author)

  11. Role of taurine accumulation in keratinocyte hydration.

    Janeke, Guido; Siefken, Wilfried; Carstensen, Stefanie; Springmann, Gunja; Bleck, Oliver; Steinhart, Hans; Höger, Peter; Wittern, Klaus-Peter; Wenck, Horst; Stäb, Franz; Sauermann, Gerhard; Schreiner, Volker; Doering, Thomas

    2003-08-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes are exposed to a low water concentration at the stratum corneum-stratum granulosum interface. When epithelial tissues are osmotically perturbed, cellular protection and cell volume regulation is mediated by accumulation of organic osmolytes such as taurine. Previous studies reported the presence of taurine in the epidermis of several animal species. Therefore, we analyzed human skin for the presence of the taurine transporter (TAUT) and studied the accumulation of taurine as one potential mechanism protecting epidermal keratinocytes from dehydration. According to our results, TAUT is expressed as a 69 kDa protein in human epidermis but not in the dermis. For the epidermis a gradient was evident with maximal levels of TAUT in the outermost granular keratinocyte layer and lower levels in the stratum spinosum. No TAUT was found in the basal layer or in the stratum corneum. Keratinocyte accumulation of taurine was induced by experimental induction of skin dryness via application of silica gel to human skin. Cultured human keratinocytes accumulated taurine in a concentration- and osmolarity-dependent manner. TAUT mRNA levels were increased after exposure of human keratinocytes to hyperosmotic culture medium, indicating osmosensitive TAUT mRNA expression as part of the adaptation of keratinocytes to hyperosmotic stress. Keratinocyte uptake of taurine was inhibited by beta-alanine but not by other osmolytes such as betaine, inositol, or sorbitol. Accumulation of taurine protected cultured human keratinocytes from both osmotically induced and ultraviolet-induced apoptosis. Our data indicate that taurine is an important epidermal osmolyte required to maintain keratinocyte hydration in a dry environment. PMID:12880428

  12. Accumulation of carbon in northern mire ecosystems

    Tolonen, K.; Turunen, J.; Alm, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Korhola, A. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Physical Geography; Jungner, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dating Lab.; Vasander, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The basic feature in the functional ecology of any mire ecosystem is retardation of the effective decay of organic material resulting in a conspicuous accumulation of plant debris as peat overtime. The carbon accumulation process is slow, and climatic change may have an impact on the carbon cycle of peatlands, therefore, it has been of interest to study the rate of carbon accumulation by geological methods from dated peat strata. The approach is hampered by several facts. First, the mires vary enormously as to their vegetation and hydrology and hence their production and decay properties. It follows that a great number of study sites are needed. Second, the peat in mires expands both vertically and laterally, and this requires a spatial reconstruction of carbon accumulation within a mire basin. Third, simple geological methods cannot account for the actual rate of carbon accumulation in peat, and finally, an additional carbon sink in the mire ecosystems can be the mineral subsoil beneath peat. The proposed warming will perhaps shift northwards the existing climatic mire regimes and, thus, the northern aapa fens will change to Sphagnum bogs that are more effective in sequestering carbon, but distinctly less effective in their CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emanation. The role of mire fires in more remote northern areas may then become another important factor. The answer to the important question of future total sequestration of carbon to peatlands depends on the precipitation and its seasonal distribution pattern. Most climatic scenarios predict a decrease in the evaporation surplus during the summer at northern regions. Presumably, the consequent lowering of the water table would improve growth of forest on mires and simultaneously decrease the methane fluxes from peat. The combined net effect could be a clear restraining of the radiative forcing

  13. Organic spintronics

    We review the emerging field of organic spintronics, where organic materials are applied as a medium to transport and control spin-polarized signals. The contacts for injecting and detecting spins are formed by ferromagnetic metals, oxides, or inorganic semiconductors. First, the basic concepts of spintronics and organic electronics are addressed, and phenomena which are in particular relevant for organic spintronics are highlighted. Experiments using different organic materials, including carbon nanotubes, organic thin films, self-assembled monolayers and single molecules are then reviewed. Observed magnetoresistance points toward successful spin injection and detection, but spurious magnetoresistance effects can easily be confused with spin accumulation. A few studies report long spin relaxation times and lengths, which forms a promising basis for further research. We conclude with discussing outstanding questions and problems. (topical review)

  14. Characterization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa recA analog and its protein product: rec-102 is a mutant allele of the P. aeruginosa PAO recA gene

    We cloned a 2.3-kilobase-pair fragment of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO chromosome which is capable of complementing recA mutations of Escherichia coli. The recA-complementing activity was further localized to a 1.5-kilobase-pair PvuII-HindIII fragment. Southern blot analysis under conditions of high stringency indicated that DNA sequence homology is shared by the E. coli recA gene and the P. aeruginosa recA analog. The cloned recA analog was shown to restore resistance to methyl methanesulfonate, nitrofurantoin, and UV irradiation to E. coli recA mutants. Upon introduction of the cloned P. aeruginosa gene, these mutants regained recombination proficiency in HfrH-mediated conjugation and the ability to induce lambda prophages and SOS functions (din gene transcription) after exposure to DNA-damaging agents. Lambda prophage carrying a cI ind mutation was not inducible, suggesting that the mechanism of induction of these SOS functions by the P. aeruginosa RecA analog is similar to that by the activated E. coli RecA protein. The product of the recA analog was identified in minicells as a protein of approximately 47,000 daltons. Western blot analysis using anti-E. coli RecA antibody demonstrated that this protein is antigenically cross-reactive with the E. coli recA protein. The recA-containing fragment was cloned into the broad-host-range vector pCP13 and introduced into Rec- strains of P. aeruginosa containing the rec-102 allele. The plasmid was shown to restore recombination proficiency in FP5-mediated conjugations and to restore resistance to UV irradiation and methyl methanesulfonate to these Rec- mutants. It was shown that a wild-type allele of rec-102 is necessary for UV-mediated induction of D3 and F116 prophages. The cloned recA analog restored the UV inducibility of these prophages in rec-102 mutants

  15. The effect of key process operational conditions on enhanced biological phosphorus removal from wastewater

    Carvalheira, Mónica Isabel Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is the most economic and sustainable option used in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for phosphorus removal. In this process it is important to control the competition between polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs), since EBPR deterioration or failure can be related with the proliferation of GAOs over PAOs. This thesis is focused on the effect of operational conditions (volatile fatty acid (VFA) c...

  16. Evidence accumulation for spatial reasoning

    Matsuyama, T.; Hwang, V. S. S.; Davis, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    The evidence accumulation proces of an image understanding system is described enabling the system to perform top-down(goal-oriented) picture processing as well as bottom-up verification of consistent spatial relations among objects.

  17. Oligopoly banking and capital accumulation

    Nicola Cetorelli; Pietro F. Peretto

    2000-01-01

    We develop a dynamic general equilibrium model of capital accumulation where credit is intermediated by banks operating in a Cournot oligopoly. The number of banks affects capital accumulation through two channels. First, it affects the quantity of credit available to entrepreneurs. Second, it affects banks' decisions to collect costly information about entrepreneurs, and thus determines the efficiency of the credit market. We show that under plausible conditions, the market structure that ma...

  18. Cystathionine accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Ono, B; Suruga, T; Yamamoto, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Murata, K; Kimura, A; Shinoda, S; Ohmori, S.

    1984-01-01

    A cysteine-dependent strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its prototrophic revertants accumulated cystathionine in cells. The cystathionine accumulation was caused by a single mutation having a high incidence of gene conversion. The mutation was designated cys3 and was shown to cause loss of gamma-cystathionase activity. Cysteine dependence of the initial strain was determined by two linked and interacting mutations, cys3 and cys1 . Since cys1 mutations cause a loss of serine acetyltransfer...

  19. Biokinetics of a transuranic (238PU) and a rare earth element (152Eu) in the lobster (Homarus gammarus): transfer mechanisms (accumulation and detoxification) in organs and at the cellular level

    The work presented here is an experimental investigation of the biokinetics of transfer of a transuranic and a rare earth element (238Pu and 152Eu) in the lobster Homarus gammarus. The study of 238Pu biokinetics forms part of a wider framework of research concerning the transfer of transuranic elements in marine species, while the study of 152Eu is carried out with a view to supporting the analogy between the behaviour of transuranics and rare earths in living organisms. Exactly the same experimental protocol, based on techniques from various disciplines (biology, biochemistry and metrology), was used to Investigate the biokinetics of transfer of these two radionuclides. The Individual lobsters were radiolabelled by means of one-shot or chronic ingestion of spiked meals. As the first approach, the kinetics and transfer mechanisms were studied In whole animal samples and in different organs distinct series of pathways through the different organs were identified in the case of both radionuclides, being mainly linked to digestive processes induced by the meal as well as the transport function of hemo-lymph in this way, the Important role of the digestive gland was picked out, with two of four cellular types displaying a successive involvement In the fixation and then the retention of the studied radionuclides. As a corroborative approach, the digestive gland was subjected to a more detailed investigation with the aim of describing the mechanisms of Incorporation and elucidating transfer processes at the cellular and molecular levels. 238Pu is preferentially partitioned into the cytosol, where it is associated with various constituents such as ferritin (iron-storing protein). 152Eu is more diffusely distributed in the hepato-pancreatic cells, while the lysosomes appear to play a more important role during transfer. The results obtained in this study, both on the macroscopic scale (i.e. the whole animal and different organs) as well as the cellular and molecular levels

  20. El código PAOS a examen: una aproximación a su estudio a través de la comparación con otras normas autorreguladoras internacionales

    González Díaz, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    La publicidad del sector de alimentación y bebidas dirigida al target infantil se encuentra autorregulada en España desde Septiembre de 2005 por el Código de Autorregulación de la Publicidad de Alimentos dirigida a menores, prevención de la obesidad y salud (Código PAOS), cuyo objetivo es marcar unas pautas de conducta en la comunicación publicitaria tendentes a autorregularla y complementar la legislación vigente en este ámbito. A través del presente estudio se pretende analiz...

  1. Levels and distribution of dissolved hydrophobic organic contaminants in the Morava river in Zlín district, Czech Republic as derived from their accumulation in silicone rubber passive samplers

    Dissolved waterborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were assessed over a period of one year at five sampling sites in a model industrial region in the Czech Republic using silicone rubber passive samplers. The spatial variability of POPs in the studied region in water was small and diffusive pollution sources predominate. Concentrations of the most volatile PAHs decreased with increasing water temperature in the whole region, which reflects the seasonality in atmospheric deposition. The dissolved concentrations of more hydrophobic PAHs, PCBs and OCPs in and downstream the industrial zone are related to desorption from suspended particles. Upstream the industrial area, a positive correlation of dissolved and particle-bound contamination was observed only for DDT metabolites and hexachlorobenzene. Calculated fugacities in water and bottom sediment indicated a fair degree of equilibrium between these compartments for OCPs and PCBs, whereas sediment represented a potential source of PAHs. - Highlights: ► Annual dynamics of waterborne hydrophobic organic compounds was assessed in a model industrial region. ► Dissolved concentrations of contaminants in water column were measured using passive samplers. ► The small spatial and temporal contaminant variability is related to diffusive pollution sources. ► Seasonality of aqueous concentrations of volatile PAHs reflects the atmospheric deposition. - Dissolved waterborne hydrophobic organic contaminants were assessed over a period of one year in a model industrial region using silicone rubber passive samplers.

  2. A survey analysis of heavy metals bio-accumulation in internal organs of sea shell animals affected by the sustainable pollution of antifouling paints used for ships anchored at some domestic maritime spaces

    WANG JunLian; WANG FengQi; YU Jie; ZHUANG Yan; ZHOU XiangFeng; ZHANG XiaoBin; PENG BiXian

    2008-01-01

    Some samples of sea shell animals stuck and multiplied on the bottom (beneath the seawater) coated with antifouling paints were collected at some domestic maritime spaces,and the content of heavy metals was detected through Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy.Meanwhile,comparison with sea shell animals was made on market for edible use.It shows that the content of heavy metals in internal organs of these marine animals is very high due to the large amount of copper and zinc con-tained in the antifouling paints,and this also does severely harm to sea environment and ecology.To study and develop the novel antifouling paints without copper(I) oxide is an imperative task which brooks no delay.

  3. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated

  4. Accumulation of Rare Earth Elements in Various Microorganisms

    2007-01-01

    The removal of rare earth elements (REEs) from solution in various microorganisms was examined. Seventy-six strains from 69 species (22 bacteria, 20 actinomycetes, 18 fungi, and 16 yeasts) were tested. Initially, Sm was used to test the removal capabilities of the various organisms. Gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus licheniformis, B. subtilis, Brevibacterium helovolum, and Rhodococcus elythropolis, exhibited a particularly high capacity for accumulating Sm. In particular, the B. lichemiformis cells accumulated approximately 316 μmol Sm per gram dry wt. of microbial cells. A full suite of screenings was then conducted to compare the abilities of the organisms to remove Sc, Y, La, Er, and, Lu from solution. Tests were done with solutions containing one REE at a time. Accumulation was nearly identical for the various metals and organisms. However, when solutions with equimolar amounts of two REEs were used, preferential removal from solution was observed. When an Eu/Gd solution was used, gram-positive bacteria removed more Eu and Gd as compared to actinomycetes. When Eu/Sm combination was used, gram-positive bacteria removed equal mounts of both metals and some actinomycetes removed more Eu. The selective removal was quantified by calculating separation factors (S. F.), which indicated that Streptomyces levoris cells accumulated the greatest proportion of Eu. The removal of REEs from a solution containing five metals (Y, La, Sm, Er, and Lu) was then examined. Mucor javanicus preferentially accumulated Sm and S. flavoviridis preferentially accumulated Lu. The effects of pH and Sm concentration on the accumulation of Sm by B. licheniformis were also examined. Accumulation increased at higher pH and at greater solution concentrations.

  5. Biokinetics of a transuranic ({sup 238}PU) and a rare earth element ({sup 152}Eu) in the lobster (Homarus gammarus): transfer mechanisms (accumulation and detoxification) in organs and at the cellular level; Biocinetiques d'un element transuranien, le {sup 238}PU, et d'une terre rare, le {sup 152}EU, chez le homard homarus gammarus (organes et niveau cellulaire) modalites des transferts (accumulation et detoxication)

    Tocquet, N

    1995-07-01

    The work presented here is an experimental investigation of the biokinetics of transfer of a transuranic and a rare earth element ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 152}Eu) in the lobster Homarus gammarus. The study of {sup 238}Pu biokinetics forms part of a wider framework of research concerning the transfer of transuranic elements in marine species, while the study of {sup 152}Eu is carried out with a view to supporting the analogy between the behaviour of transuranics and rare earths in living organisms. Exactly the same experimental protocol, based on techniques from various disciplines (biology, biochemistry and metrology), was used to Investigate the biokinetics of transfer of these two radionuclides. The Individual lobsters were radiolabelled by means of one-shot or chronic ingestion of spiked meals. As the first approach, the kinetics and transfer mechanisms were studied In whole animal samples and in different organs distinct series of pathways through the different organs were identified in the case of both radionuclides, being mainly linked to digestive processes induced by the meal as well as the transport function of hemo-lymph in this way, the Important role of the digestive gland was picked out, with two of four cellular types displaying a successive involvement In the fixation and then the retention of the studied radionuclides. As a corroborative approach, the digestive gland was subjected to a more detailed investigation with the aim of describing the mechanisms of Incorporation and elucidating transfer processes at the cellular and molecular levels. {sup 238}Pu is preferentially partitioned into the cytosol, where it is associated with various constituents such as ferritin (iron-storing protein). {sup 152}Eu is more diffusely distributed in the hepato-pancreatic cells, while the lysosomes appear to play a more important role during transfer. The results obtained in this study, both on the macroscopic scale (i.e. the whole animal and different organs) as well

  6. Formation and preservation of liquid hydrocarbon accumulations at great depths

    Akramkhodzhaev, A.M.; Kirshin, A.V.; Kushnir, M.I.

    1980-01-01

    Based on an analysis and comparison of the change in the concentration of hydrocarbons in insoluble organic matter as depth is increased and of the change in the intensity of sapropel-based production of bitumens, it is demonstrated that the repeat accumulation of liquid hydrocarbon in the insoluble organic matter precedes the lower generation maximum. Structural changes in the kerogen at the end of the primary oil generation and emigration phase are favorable factors for the accumulation of these hydrocarbons. A hyphothesis on the mechanism for oil pool formation and preservation at great depths is expressed.

  7. Epochs of shale accumulation in the history of the earth

    Pelymskiy, G.A.; Bal' shin, I.G.; Okinshevich, A.Ye.

    1980-01-01

    The epochs of accumulation of fuel shales (FS) are characterized in the history of the earth. Accumulation of organic matter which served as the material for the formation of FS occurred in the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic. FS fields of the Proterozoic age practically were not preserved because of metamorphic transformations of organic matter into graphite or schungite. In the Phanerozoic, 6 epochs of shale accumulation are isolated (early-middle Cambrian, early-middle Ordovician, late Devonian--early Carboniferous, late Permian, late Jurassic and Paleogene) in which the most important basins and fields of FS in the world were formed. Brief characteristics of the basins and their dispersal on the earth are given according to the epochs of shale accumulation. Certain laws governing the FS accumulation are established. Analysis of the arrangement of the FS reserves on the earth and conditions for their formation indicates that their accumulation is mainly associated with transgressions accompanied or following the epochs of folding and mountain formation in the geosynclinal zones associated with platforms. In the majority of cases, the shale basins are located in the extreme parts of the platforms near the elevated folded structures or sheets.

  8. Accumulation of mercury in fish

    In model experiments the direct uptake (excluding the food chain) of different dissolved mercury compounds by female species of Poecilia reticulata was investigated using the radiochemical tracer method. Hg-203 labelled Hg(NO3)2 and CH3HgCl were dissolved in deionized water resulting in concentrations of 0.1/1/5/10 and 20 ng Hg/ml H2O. The fish were measured in vivo using a 3'' x 3'' NaI(Tl) well-type-detector. The experiments showed, that the accumulation rate (ng Hg/g/sub fi/. d) depends very much on the chemical form and the concentration of the dissolved Hg-compound. The accumulation in a CH3HgCl-solution is about four times as fast as in a Hg(NO3)2- solution. In the presence of complexing agents the accumulation rates decrease whereas the accumulation rates increase with increasing Hg-concentration in the water. The release of incorporated methylmercury has a half life of about 69 days. For inorganic mercury a two step mechanism has been found with half lives of 4 days and 68 days, respectively. The relative amount of mercury released in the second step increases with increasing time of incorporation. This indicates the methylation of inorganic mercury in the fish

  9. Pension funds and capital accumulation

    Belan, Pascal; Michel, Philippe; Wigniolle, Bertrand

    2001-01-01

    This note presents a model in which pension funds, by holding a signifiant share of capital assets, can exert a non competitive behavior on labor market. This leads to lower wages and higher capital returns, and can reduce capital accumulation and Long-run welfare.

  10. Metabolism and accumulation of 134Cs in chicken

    Metabolism and accumulation of 134Cs in chicken were studied by oral feeding 134Cs. The results showed that the radioactivity of 134Cs in various visceral organs and tissues reached the peak after 6h accumulation. The specific radioactivity of 134Cs in liver, intestine, pancreas and heart was in the range of 3210780 ± 1560-4568580 ± 1860 Bq; and 198480 ± 360-198480 ± 360 Bq in blood, meat, bone and feather. The radioactivity in all organs and tissues was declined with the time increasing. The radioactivity decreased to 30% after feed 24h compared with after feeding 6h and could only be detected in the samples of meat and feather after feeding 69 days. The accumulation of 134Cs could be reduced by oral feeding NaCl. 134Cs in chicken meat could be obviously removed by water washing also. (authors)

  11. Multilevel correlations in the biological phosphorus removal process: From bacterial enrichment to conductivity-based metabolic batch tests and polyphosphatase assays.

    Weissbrodt, David G; Maillard, Julien; Brovelli, Alessandro; Chabrelie, Alexandre; May, Jonathan; Holliger, Christof

    2014-12-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater relies on the preferential selection of active polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) in the underlying bacterial community continuum. Efficient management of the bacterial resource requires understanding of population dynamics as well as availability of bioanalytical methods for rapid and regular assessment of relative abundances of active PAOs and their glycogen-accumulating competitors (GAO). A systems approach was adopted here toward the investigation of multilevel correlations from the EBPR bioprocess to the bacterial community, metabolic, and enzymatic levels. Two anaerobic-aerobic sequencing-batch reactors were operated to enrich activated sludge in PAOs and GAOs affiliating with "Candidati Accumulibacter and Competibacter phosphates", respectively. Bacterial selection was optimized by dynamic control of the organic loading rate and the anaerobic contact time. The distinct core bacteriomes mainly comprised populations related to the classes Betaproteobacteria, Cytophagia, and Chloroflexi in the PAO enrichment and of Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Sphingobacteria in the GAO enrichment. An anaerobic metabolic batch test based on electrical conductivity evolution and a polyphosphatase enzymatic assay were developed for rapid and low-cost assessment of the active PAO fraction and dephosphatation potential of activated sludge. Linear correlations were obtained between the PAO fraction, biomass specific rate of conductivity increase under anaerobic conditions, and polyphosphate-hydrolyzing activity of PAO/GAO mixtures. The correlations between PAO/GAO ratios, metabolic activities, and conductivity profiles were confirmed by simulations with a mathematical model developed in the aqueous geochemistry software PHREEQC. PMID:24975745

  12. Effect of natural saline soil on organic acid accumulation in the stem and leaf of Chloris virgata and analysis of stress factors%天然盐碱土壤对虎尾草茎叶有机酸积累影响及胁迫因子分析

    吕家强; 李长有; 杨春武; 胡锐

    2015-01-01

    虎尾草是一种耐盐碱性很强的天然牧草,在吉林省长岭县盐碱化草地上随机选择45个虎尾草天然种群样点,测量每个样点的土壤电导率、pH、缓冲量3个因素作为反映土壤盐碱化程度的胁迫强度指标,在每个样点上测量虎尾草茎叶中有机酸含量作为反映植物生理响应的胁变指标,进行回归分析。结果表明:虎尾草茎叶大量积累柠檬酸、苹果酸、草酸以及总有机酸以响应强盐碱胁迫且与三胁迫因素呈显著正相关,仅积累量较低的琥珀酸相反。多元回归分析发现土壤电导率对除了琥珀酸之外的其他有机酸积累影响最大,电导率可以作为天然盐碱化土壤环境下考察虎尾草响应盐碱胁迫的主要胁迫因素。%Chloris virgata is a native forage grass with strong salt-alkali resistance.Samples of 45 natural popu-lations of C.virgata were randomly chosen from the saline meadows in Changling County,Jilin Province.Soil electrical conductivity,pH and buffering capacity were measured in each sample area to assess the degree of soil salinization and associated plant stress.Organic acid contents in C.virgata stems and leaves were measured as plant physiological response indexes.A regression analysis was conducted incorporating incorporating both plant and soil data.C.virgata accumulated large amounts of organic acids including citric acid,malic acid and oxalic acid in response to strong salt-alkali stress,and there was a significantly positive correlation between the accumulation of citric acid,malic acid,oxalic acid and total organic acids and the three soil indexes.By con-trast,the level of amber acid was less under saline stress and was negatively correlated with the three soil inde-xes.Further multiple regression analysis showed that soil electrical conductivity was more strongly correlated with the accumulation of the plant organic acids (except succinic acid)than pH and buffering capacity.In con

  13. A Systematic Analysis of Coal Accumulation Process

    CHENG Aiguo

    2008-01-01

    Formation of coal seam and coal-rich zone is an integrated result of a series of factors in coal accumulation process. The coal accumulation system is an architectural aggregation of coal accumulation factors. It can be classified into 4 levels: the global coal accumulation super-system, the coal accumulation domain mega.system, the coal accumulation basin system, and the coal seam or coal seam set sub-system. The coal accumulation process is an open, dynamic, and grey system, and is meanwhile a system with such natures as aggregation, relevance, entirety, purpose-orientated, hierarchy, and environment adaptability. In this paper, we take coal accumulation process as a system to study origin of coal seam and coal-rich zone; and we will discuss a methodology of the systematic analysis of coal accumulation process. As an example, the Ordos coal basin was investigated to elucidate the application of the method of the coal accumulation system analysis.

  14. Accumulation and metabolism of radioactive nuclides

    After the injection of RI into the mantle cavity of Iidako (Octopus ocellatus), changes of whole body radioactivity were examined. Both the inorganic and organic forms of cobalt were most heavily distributed in the branchial heart. Cyanocobalamin was distributed in an extremely small amount in the liver, but was more distributed in the arms, or gonad. Mn and Zn were almost equally distributed in most portions, but were scarcely accumulated in the branchial heart. Like Co, Fe was ubiquitous in the branchial heart. In relation to the gel filtration pattern of the branchial heart extract, Co-chloride mostly flowed out into the small molecular zone, and cyano-cobalamin into the heavy molecular zone. Mn, Zn and Fe flowed out into similar portions, and the outflux of protein in absorption spectrum was also similar. Only Co and Fe were concentrated in the branchial heart, suggesting not only that their forms of accumulation were similar, but also that Mn and Zn were present in similar forms. (Chiba, N.)

  15. Exercise bicycle for accumulator charging

    Nekvapil, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is about possible solution construction of exercise bicycle with electric part working as a electric source. The first part of document introduces readers to issues about lead acid accumulators and charging, electronically commutated motors and electric converters. The second part shows potential solving constitution of exercise bicycle and we choose components and devices. EC motor will be connected with exercise bicycle by chain transmission. Transfer energy is realized thro...

  16. Crises and human capital accumulation

    Freddy Heylen; Lorenzo Pozzi

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of crises on human capital formation. Theoretically, a crisis undermines total factor productivity, which reduces the return to working and to accumulating physical capital. If the crisis is temporary, young agents will study now and work later. Human capital rises. To test our model we rely on inflation crises as our main empirical proxy. Using GMM panel procedures, our analysis for 86 countries in 1970-2000 confirms the positive effects of crises on human capi...

  17. Debt Redemption and Reserve Accumulation

    Laura Alfaro; Fabio Kanczuk

    2013-01-01

    Foreign participation in local-currency bond markets in emerging countries has increased dramatically over the past decade. In light of this trend, we revisit sovereign debt sustainability and incentives to default when the sovereign is temporarily excluded from capital markets. Differently from previous analyses, we assume that in addition to accumulating international reserves, countries can borrow internationally using their own currency. As opposed to traditional sovereign debt models (al...

  18. Accumulation of motile elongated micro-organisms in turbulence

    Zhan, Caijuan; Sardina, Gaetano; Lushi, Enkeleida; Brandt, Luca

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of turbulence on marine life by performing numerical simulations of motile microorganisms, modelled as prolate spheroids, in isotropic homogeneous turbulence. We show that the clustering and patchiness observed in laminar flows, linear shear and vortex flows, are significantly reduced in a three-dimensional turbulent flow mainly because of the complex topology; elongated micro-orgamisms show some level of clustering in the case of swimmers without any preferential alignmen...

  19. Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in Tasmanian platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus).

    Munday, B L; Stewart, N J; Södergren, A

    2002-01-01

    Tailfat samples were collected from 56 platypuses, 38 male and 18 female in Tasmania. No statistically significant, nor apparent, differences between the sexes were found for tailfat lipid levels and DDT and its metabolites. Lindane and PCB concentrations in tailfat lipid. Apparently--but not statistically--significantly different levels of DDT and its metabolites. Lindane and PCB concentrations were found in animals from different geographic regions of the State. Higher concentrations of DDT and its metabolites and Lindane were related to the intensity of agricultural activity and elevated PCB levels were mainly found in animals from zones with industrial and hydroelectric developments. PMID:12395834

  20. Radiocesium accumulation properties of Chengiopanax sciadophylloides.

    Sugiura, Yuki; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Ogata, Yoshimune; Ozawa, Hajime; Takenaka, Chisato

    2016-01-01

    Through the assessments of radioactive contamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident, it has been reported that some sprouts of Chengiopanax sciadophylloides (Franch. et Sav.) at the site contained radiocesium (((134),)(137)Cs) at higher concentrations than the other plants. To assess the phytoremediation properties of C. sciadophylloides for (137)Cs decontamination, we aimed to quantify the (137)Cs accumulation in C. sciadophylloides. We measured the (137)Cs concentrations in various organs of C. sciadophylloides collected from the forest in the town of Kawamata, Fukushima prefecture, together with the concentrations of other elements [potassium (K), rubidium, (133)Cs, calcium, strontium, and manganese] present. In addition, we compared the foliar concentrations of these elements in C. sciadophylloides with those in four different deciduous tree species. The mean of foliar (137)Cs concentration in C. sciadophylloides was 28.1 kBq kg(-1) DW, one order of magnitude higher than that found in the other species. The (137)Cs concentrations were in the order of leaves > bark > wood. The wood of the treetop, leaf scars, and roots contained higher amounts of (137)Cs than that of the trunk. From the distribution of (137)Cs in C. sciadophylloides, we confirmed that (137)Cs tends to accumulate in the young growing parts. The difference in the distribution of (137)Cs and (133)Cs indicated that surface uptake of (137)Cs occurs. A significant correlation between K and (137)Cs concentrations in each organ was found, which suggested that (137)Cs in the plant body is transferred through the same pathway as K. On the other hand, there was no correlation between foliar K and (137)Cs concentrations, implying that the uptake ratio of K to (137)Cs was different for each individual. To determine the factors driving specific (137)Cs accumulation and/or the variability of the ratio between K and (137)Cs, the distribution of (137)Cs and the root in soil

  1. Acumulação de nitrogênio e carbono no solo pela adubação orgânica e mineral contínua na cultura do milho Nitrogen and carbon accumulation in soil through continuous organic and mineral fertilization of maize crop

    Celsemy E. Maia

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, avaliou-se o efeito do uso contínuo das adubações orgânica e mineral na cultura do milho e sobre a acumulação e a disponibilidade do nitrogênio em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. Estudou-se a produção de milho em função das doses de 0 e 40 m³ ha-1 ano-1 de composto orgânico (palhada de soja e feijão com esterco bovino, combinadas com 0, 250 e 500 kg ha-1 ano-1 da fórmula 4-14-8 aplicados no plantio, e 0, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de sulfato de amônio em cobertura. O uso contínuo da adubação orgânica aumentou a produtividade de milho com o efeito da adubação química sendo menos expressivo. Observou-se, ainda, aumento do C total. Com base nos resultados observados, pôde-se concluir que o uso contínuo da adubação orgânica proporcionou aumento na reserva (N total e na disponibilidade de N, sendo essas características pouco influenciadas pela adubação química.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of continuous use of the organic and mineral fertilization in maize crop and on the accumulation and availability of nitrogen in a Cambic Yellow Red Podzol. The maize yield was evaluated as a function of doses from 0 to 40 m³ ha-1 year-1 of the organic compost (beans and soybean straw with manure combined with 0, 250 and 500 kg ha-1 year-1 of the formula 4-14-8 applied at the planting time, and the application of 0, 100 and 200 kg ha-1 year-1 of ammonium sulphate. The plots consisted of eight furrows (8 m length 1.0 m apart from each other in a randomized experimental block design with four replications. The results showed that the continuous use of the organic fertilization increased maize productivity, whereas the chemical fertilization showed less expressive effects. Increases in both the total carbon and KMnO4- oxidized carbon were observed. The results also show that the continuous use of the organic fertilization provided an increase in total N reserve and availability of N, while the chemical

  2. Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor Data

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor contains approximately 20,000 biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) from 20 locations (mostly Superfund sites) for...

  3. Carbon allocation in underground storage organs

    Turesson, Helle

    2014-01-01

    By increasing knowledge of carbon allocation in underground storage organs and using the knowledge to improve such crops, the competitiveness of these types of storage organs can be strengthened. Starch is the most common storage compound in tubers and roots, but some crops accumulate compounds other than starch. This thesis examined representative underground storage organs accumulating starch, oil and sugars. These were: the oil-accumulating nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus), a half-grass whic...

  4. Susceptibility of riparian wetland plants to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) accumulation.

    Mudumbi, J B N; Ntwampe, S K O; Muganza, M; Okonkwo, J O

    2014-01-01

    As plants have been shown to accumulate organic compounds from contaminated sediments, there is a potential for long-lasting ecological impact as a result of contaminant accumulation in riparian areas of wetlands, particularly the accumulation of non-biodegradable contaminants such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In this study, commonly found riparian wetland plants including reeds, i.e., Xanthium strumarium, Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus corymbosus, Ruppia maritime; Populus canescens, Polygonum salicifolium, Cyperus congestus; Persicaria amphibian, Ficus carica, Artemisia schmidtiana, Eichhornia crassipes, were studied to determine their susceptibility to PFOA accumulation from PFOA contaminated riparian sediment with a known PFOA concentration, using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that the plants affinity to PFOA accumulation was; E. crassipes, > P. sali-cifolium, > C. congestus, > P. x canescens, > P. amphibian, > F. carica, > A. schmidtiana, > X. strumarium,> P. australis, > R. maritime, > S. corymbosus. The concentration of PFOA in the plants and/or reeds was in the range 11.7 to 38 ng/g, with a BCF range of 0.05 to 0.37. The highest BCF was observed in sediment for which its core water had a high salinity, total organic carbon and a pH which was near neutral. As the studied plants had a higher affinity for PFOA, the resultant effect is that riparian plants such as E. crassipes, X. strumarium, and P. salicifolium, typified by a fibrous rooting system, which grow closer to the water edge, exacerbate the accumulation of PFOA in riparian wetlands. PMID:24933893

  5. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation. 32.3100 Section 32... Accumulated depreciation. (a) This account shall include the accumulated depreciation associated with the... with depreciation amounts concurrently charged to Account 6561, Depreciation...

  6. Synergistic antioxidation of organic molybdenum complex with dithiocarbamate antioxidant evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and thin film micro oxidation test

    An oil-soluble sulfur- and phosphorus-free organic molybdenum complex (MC) was synthesized. The antioxidation properties of MC- and methylene bis(di-n-butyldithiocarbamate) (V 7723)-containing poly-α-olefin (PAO)-derived lubricants were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and modified penn state micro-oxidation test (PMOT). DSC test measures incipient oxidation temperature (OT) and oxidation induction time (IT) of the lubricant at high temperatures and the oxidation stability of oil weight loss is measured by PMOT test. DSC test shows that OT and IT of V 7723-containing PAO were improved significantly by MC addition. PMOT test indicates that when combining with V 7723 antioxidants, MC can also effectively reduce the increase in weight loss of PAO. These results suggest that the MC shows a good oxidative synergism with V 7723 antioxidant. In addition, FTIR results from PMOT test confirm that addition of MC can significantly enhance the oxidation induction time of oils and inhibit formation of oxidation products containing carbonyl bonds or hydroxyl group. The proposed mechanism of the inhibition involves a synergy between MC and V 7723

  7. Protein tyrosine phosphatase is possibly involved in cellular signal transduction and the regulation of ABA accumulation in response to water deficit in Maize L. coleoptile

    2003-01-01

    Water deficit-induced ABA accumulation is an ideal model or "stimulus-response" system to investigate cellular stress signaling in plant cells, using such a model the cellular stress signaling triggered by water deficit was investigated in Maize L. coleoptile. Water deficit-induced ABA accumulation was sensitively blocked by NaVO3, a potent inhibitor both to plasma membrane H+-ATPase (PM-H+- ATPase) and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase). However, while PM- H+-ATPase activity was unaffected under water deficit and PM- H+-ATPase activator did not induce an ABA accumulation instead of water deficit, water deficit induced an increase in the protein phosphatase activity, and furthermore, ABA accumulation was inhibited by PAO, a specific inhibitor of PTPase. These results indicate that protein phosphtases may be involved in the cellular signaling in response to water deficit. Further studies identified at least four species of protein phosphtase as assayed by using pNPP as substrate, among which one component was especially sensitive to NaVO3. The NaVO3-sensitive enzyme was purified and finally showed a protein band about 66 kD on SDS/PAGE. The purified enzyme showed a great activity to some specific PTPase substrates at pH 6.0. In addition to NaVO3, the enzyme was also sensitive to some other PTPase inhibitors such as Zn2+ and MO33+, but not to Ca2+ and Mg2+, indicating that it might be a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Interestingly, the purified enzyme could be deactivated by some reducing agent DTT, which was previously proved to be an inhibitor of water deficit-induced ABA accumulation. This result further proved that PTPase might be involved in the cellular signaling of ABA accumulation in response to water deficit.

  8. Markov models for accumulating mutations

    Beerenwinkel, Niko

    2007-01-01

    We introduce and analyze a waiting time model for the accumulation of genetic changes. The continuous time conjunctive Bayesian network is defined by a partially ordered set of mutations and by the rate of fixation of each mutation. The partial order encodes constraints on the order in which mutations can fixate in the population, shedding light on the mutational pathways underlying the evolutionary process. We study a censored version of the model and derive equations for an EM algorithm to perform maximum likelihood estimation of the model parameters. We also show how to select the maximum likelihood poset. The model is applied to genetic data from different cancers and from drug resistant HIV samples, indicating implications for diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Chip integrated fuel cell accumulator

    Frank, M.; Erdler, G.; Frerichs, H.-P.; Müller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    A unique new design of a chip integrated fuel cell accumulator is presented. The system combines an electrolyser and a self-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell with integrated palladium hydrogen storage on a silicon substrate. Outstanding advantages of this assembly are the fuel cell with integrated hydrogen storage, the possibility of refuelling it by electrolysis and the opportunity of simply refilling the electrolyte by adding water. By applying an electrical current, wiring the palladium hydrogen storage as cathode and the counter-electrode as anode, the electrolyser produces hydrogen at the palladium surface and oxygen at the electrolyser cell anode. The generated hydrogen is absorbed by the palladium electrode and the hydrogen storage is refilled consequently enabling the fuel cell to function.

  10. Chip integrated fuel cell accumulator

    Frank, M.; Mueller, C.; Reinecke, H. [Laboratory for Process Technology, IMTEK-Department of Microsystems Engineering, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Erdler, G.; Frerichs, H.-P. [Micronas GmbH, Hans-Bunte-Strasse 19, Freiburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    A unique new design of a chip integrated fuel cell accumulator is presented. The system combines an electrolyser and a self-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell with integrated palladium hydrogen storage on a silicon substrate. Outstanding advantages of this assembly are the fuel cell with integrated hydrogen storage, the possibility of refuelling it by electrolysis and the opportunity of simply refilling the electrolyte by adding water. By applying an electrical current, wiring the palladium hydrogen storage as cathode and the counter-electrode as anode, the electrolyser produces hydrogen at the palladium surface and oxygen at the electrolyser cell anode. The generated hydrogen is absorbed by the palladium electrode and the hydrogen storage is refilled consequently enabling the fuel cell to function. (author)

  11. Electron-Positron Accumulator (EPA)

    Photographic Service

    1986-01-01

    After acceleration in the low-current linac LIL-W, the electrons and positrons are accumulated in EPA to obtain a sufficient intensity and a suitable time-structure, before being passed on to the PS for further acceleration to 3.5 GeV. Electrons circulate from right to left, positrons in the other direction. Dipole bending magnets are red, focusing quadrupoles blue, sextupoles for chromaticity-control orange. The vertical tube at the left of the picture belongs to an optical transport system carrying the synchrotron radiation to detectors for beam size measurement. Construction of EPA was completed in spring 1986. LIL-W and EPA were conceived for an energy of 600 MeV, but operation was limited to 500 MeV.

  12. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs

  13. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  14. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  15. Acumulación de iones y solutos orgánicos en dos genotipos de caña de azúcar, estresados con sales simples o suplementadas con calcio Ion and organic solute accumulation in two sugarcane genotypes, salt stressed with or without calcium supply

    Marina García

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron dos genotipos de caña de azúcar que difieren en tolerancia salina (‘PR692176’, tolerante y ‘V78-1’, sensible, a fin de definir el papel de la exclusión de Na+ y/o de Cl-, de la selectividad K/Na, y de la acumulación de solutos orgánicos en su tolerancia salina diferencial. Las plantas crecieron en condiciones controladas durante cuatro meses y en los dos últimos meses se sometieron a estrés con sales simples de sodio, con o sin suplementación adicional de calcio. Se determinó la concentración de Na+, K+, Cl-, azúcares solubles y prolina en raíces y en hojas con edad distinta. En las plantas estresadas la concentración foliar de K+ se redujo y la de Na+ y/o Cl- se incrementó, pero los dos últimos iones se acumularon preferentemente en las hojas más maduras y en la vaina foliar. La concentración foliar de Na+ en las plantas estresadas con NaCl, fue mayor que en las estresadas con Na2SO4. La suplementación con calcio incrementó la concentración de K+ y redujo la de Na+ y/o de Cl-. El contenido de azúcares no reductores y de prolina se incrementó con la salinidad en ambos genotipos. Bajo estrés salino PR692176 mantuvo menor concentración foliar de Na+ y de Cl-, mayor relación K/Na en las hojas, y acumuló mayor contenido de azúcares no reductores que V78-1. Estos resultados indican que la tolerancia salina en caña de azúcar está relacionada con una mejor capacidad de exclusión, y una mayor habilidad para acumular azúcares no reductores para ajuste osmótico.Two sugar cane genotypes differing in salt tolerance (‘PR692176’, salt tolerant and ‘V78-1’, salt sensitive were evaluated to know the role of the Na+ and/or Cl- exclusion, the K/Na selectivity, and the accumulation of organic solutes in their differential salt tolerance. The plants grew four months under controlled conditions, and during the last two months, they were subjected to salt stress using simple sodium salts, with or without

  16. PAEs胁迫对高/低累积品种水稻根系形态及根系分泌低分子有机酸的影响%Effects of PAE Stress on Root Morphology andLow Molecular Weight Organic Acid (LMWOC) in Root Exudates of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars with High- and Low-PAE Accumulation

    陈桐; 蔡全英; 吴启堂; 吕辉雄; 曾巧云; 李慧

    2015-01-01

    systems contaminated with PAEs (0, 20, 40, and 80 mg·L-1). Plant samples were collected at tillering and jointing stage, root morphological properties were analyzed by root scanner, low molecular weight organic acids in root exudates were determined by HPLC, and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in roots, stems, and leaves of rice were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The responses of root morphological characteristics (including total root length, root surface area, and root volume) and low molecular weight organic acid (LMWOC) in root exudates were analyzed to investigate the variation factors of high- and low-PAE accumulation of rice cultivars. The results show that, with the increase of PAE concentrations in solution, total root length, root surface area, and root volume of two cultivars increased firstly and then decreased. In the same PAE concentration, root morphological parameters of cultivar Peizataifeng were generally higher than cultivar Fengyousimiao. Change of PAE concentrations in solution was a key factor affecting early growth differences in root morphology of the two rice cultivars. PAE concentrations in the plants of two cultivars increased with PAE concentrations in solution, and those of cultivar Peizataifeng were also higher than cultivar Fengyousimiao. The concentrations of DEHP and DBP in different tissues decrease in the order of roots>leaves≥stems. At tillering stage, PAE concentrations in the plants of two cultivars were significantly correlated with PAE concentrations in solution, but poorly correlated at jointing stage. LMWOC concentrations in root exudates of two cultivars displayed different change trends with PAE concentrations in solution, but concentrations of oxalic acid increased (ranging from 1.11 to 8.13 mg·L-1). Moreover, concentrations of oxalic acid were significantly positively correlated with the concentrations of DBP and DEHP in roots. These results

  17. Trace metal accumulation in carbonate biominerals of the Atlantic Ocean

    Demina, L. L.; Oskina, N. S.; Galkin, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    New data on trace metal (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb) distribution in carbonate biominerals formed in geochemically different oceanic environments are discussed. Calcite shells of shelf and deepwater hydrothermal vent mussels as well as planktic foraminifers and pteropods from the central Atlantic Ocean have been studied. The variability in concentrations of most trace elements between different groups of calcifying organisms are usually within one order of magnitude, except for Fe and Mn, the elevated contents of which in microfossils are caused by post-sedimentation interaction. Different groups of calcifying organisms demonstrate a biogeochemical uniformity in trace metal accumulation during the biomineralization processes.

  18. Quantum gravity and inventory accumulation

    Sheffield, Scott

    2011-01-01

    We begin by studying inventory accumulation at a LIFO (last-in-first-out) retailer with two products. In the simplest version, the following occur with equal probability at each time step: first product ordered, first product produced, second product ordered, second product produced. The inventory thus evolves as a simple random walk on Z^2. In more interesting versions, a p fraction of customers orders the "freshest available" product regardless of type. We show that the corresponding random walks scale to Brownian motions with diffusion matrices depending on p. We then turn our attention to the critical Fortuin-Kastelyn random planar map model, which gives, for each q>0, a probability measure on random (discretized) two-dimensional surfaces decorated by loops, related to the q-state Potts model. A longstanding open problem is to show that as the discretization gets finer, the surfaces converge in law to a limiting (loop-decorated) random surface. The limit is expected to be a Liouville quantum gravity surfa...

  19. Peat accretion and phosphorus accumulation along a eutrophication gradient in the northern Everglades

    Recent rates of peat accretion (as determined by Cs-137) and N, P, organic C, Ca and Na accumulation were measured along a 10 km eutrophication gradient in the northern Everglades area of Water Conservation Area 2A (WCA 2A) that has received agricultural drainage from the Hillsboro canal for the past 25-30 yrs. Rates of peat accretion were highest at sampling locations closest to the Hillsboro canal. Phosphorus and Na accumulation were a function of both peat accretion and soil P and Na concentrations. Although sodium enrichment of the peat was limited to 1.6 km downstream of the Hillsboro canal, increased rates of Na accumulation penetrated 5.2 km downstream of the Hillsboro canal, the extent of the area of enhanced peat accretion. In contrast to P and Na, there was no difference in the concentration of soil organic C, N and Ca along the eutrophication gradient. However, there was a gradient of organic C, N and Ca accumulation corresponding to the area of enhanced peat accretion. The areal extent of enhanced peat accretion and organic C, N, Ca and Na accumulation encompasses approximately 7700 ha of the northern part of WCA 2A. The area of enhanced P accumulation is larger, covering 11,500 ha or 26% of the total area of WCA 2A. The findings suggest that P accumulation is dependent on the P concentration in the water column and that decreasing P loadings per unit area result in less P storage per unit area

  20. Significant silicon accumulation by marine picocyanobacteria

    Baines, Stephen B.; Twining, Benjamin S.; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Krause, Jeffrey W.; Vogt, Stefan; Assael, Dylan; McDaniel, Hannah

    2012-12-01

    The marine silicon cycle is thought to be intimately tied to the carbon cycle through its effect on the growth of diatoms. These unicellular algae form substantial blooms in cold, nutrient-rich waters. Their dense, siliceous cell walls promote the sinking of particulate matter, and all the carbon and nutrients contained therein. As such, diatoms are thought to be the primary organisms responsible for the low levels of dissolved silicon observed in the surface ocean and the export of mineral silica to depth. Here, we use synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy to determine the elemental composition of individual diatoms and cyanobacterial cells from the eastern equatorial Pacific and the Sargasso Sea. We show that cells of Synechococcus, a small unicellular marine cyanobacterium that dominates in nutrient-depleted waters, can exhibit cellular ratios of silicon to sulphur, and silicon to phosphorus, approaching those detected in diatoms in the same location. Silicon accumulation was also observed in cultured Synechococcus strains. We estimate that the water column inventory of silicon in Synechococcus can exceed that of diatoms in some cases. We suggest that picocyanobacteria may exert a previously unrecognized influence on the oceanic silicon cycle, especially in nutrient-poor waters.

  1. Effect of high calcium concentration influents on enhanced biological phosphorus removal process

    In this work, the effect of calcium concentration in wastewater on the polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAO) is investigated as well as its influence in PAO metabolism, specifically in the YPO4 (ratio between phosphorus release and acetic acid uptake). For this study a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) anaerobic-aerobic was used, in which the PAO enriched biomass was exposed to different calcium concentrations in the influent wastewater. The results indicate that until a given calcium level in the influent wastewater (35 mg Ca/l) the metabolism is not affect, but higher calcium concentrations lead to significant YPO4 decline. (Author) 18 refs.

  2. Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal: Metabolic Insights and Salinity Effects

    Welles, L.

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is a biological process for efficient phosphate removal from wastewaters through intracellular storage of polyphosphate by polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) and subsequent removal of PAO from the system through wastage of sludge. In comparison to physical and chemical phosphorus removal processes, the biological process has several advantages such as high removal efficiency, low cost, and no chemical sludge production, but disturbances an...

  3. ACCUMULATION AND CONSUMPTION IN MICROECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Serghey A. Amelkin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Two main processes are common for an economic system. They are consumption and accumulation. The first one is described by utility function, either cardinal or ordinal one. The mathematical model for accumulation process can be constructed using wealth function introduced within the frame of irreversible microeconomics. Characteristics of utility and wealth functions are compared and a problem of extreme performance of resources exchange process is solved for a case when both the consumption and accumulation exist.

  4. Natural Resource Abundance and Human Capital Accumulation

    Jean-Philippe C. Stijns

    2001-01-01

    This study examines indicators of human capital accumulation together with data for natural resource abundance and rents in a panel of 102 countries running from 1970 to 1999. Mineral wealth makes a positive and marked difference on human capital accumulation. Matching on observables reveals that cross-country results are not driven by a third factor such as overall economic development. Political stability does seem to affect both human capital accumulation and subsoil wealth, but not enough...

  5. Disrupting the mixed-species biofilm of Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO using bacteriophages alone or in combination with xylitol.

    Chhibber, Sanjay; Bansal, Shruti; Kaur, Sukhmandir

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the potential of bacteriophages alone as well as in combination with xylitol for tackling mixed-species biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. When mixed-species biofilm was established on polycarbonate discs, P. aeruginosa formed the base layer which was physically shielded on the top by K. pneumoniae. Thereafter, mixed-species biofilm was treated with bacteriophages. K. pneumoniae-specific depolymerase-producing phage KPO1K2 caused significant reduction in the count of Klebsiella. In contrast, P. aeruginosa-specific non-depolymerase-producing phage Pa29 failed to cause any reduction in the count of Pseudomonas. However, application of both phages together resulted in significant reduction in the count of both organisms. This suggests that depolymerase produced by phage KPO1K2 hydrolysed the top layer of K. pneumoniae and guided the entry of Pa29 to reach P. aeruginosa lying underneath. This phenomenon was confirmed when K. pneumoniae-specific non-depolymerase-producing phage NDP was used along with Pa29. Pa29 could not penetrate and reach its host bacterium. Xylitol worked synergistically along with the phage, resulting in a significant decrease in counts of both organisms. Disruption of mixed species biofilm by phage and xylitol was confirmed on the basis of the amount of protein and DNA released. This phage-based approach to altering the structural pattern and disrupting the mixed species biofilm is the first of its kind. It can be used as a topical application, a coating for foreign bodies or for aerosol delivery to tackle infections where both pathogens coexist in a biofilm mode. PMID:25922418

  6. Accumulation rates of airborne heavy metals in wetlands

    Souch, C.J.; Filippelli, G.M.; Dollar, N.; Perkins, S.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Accumulation rates of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) retained in wetland sediments in northwest Indiana-downwind of the Chicago-Gary-Hammond industrial area-are quantified to assess anthropogenic influences on atmospheric fluxes. Metal concentrations for 22 sediment cores are determined by ICP-AES after ashing and strong acid extraction. Relations between organic content and metal concentrations at depth are used to separate natural and anthropogenic sources. Accumulation rates over the lifetime of the wetlands (???4500 years) have averaged 0.2 (Cd), 1.4 (Cu), 1.7 (Cr), 13.4 (Mn), 4.8 (Pb), and 18.7 (Zn) mg m-2 y-1. Rates for the last 100 years have increased on average by factors of 6 (Cd), 8 (Cu), 10 (Mn), 15 (Pb), and 30 (Zn), remaining effectively constant for Cr. Where the wetlands have been drained, metals have been lost from the sediments, owing to changes in organic content and local hydrochemistry (exposure to acidic rainfall). Sediment-based accumulation rates at the undrained sites are higher, though generally consistent, with measured and modeled atmospheric fluxes documented by short-term studies conducted over the last three decades. The fraction of the total metals in the wetlands estimated to be of anthropogenic origin ranges from approximately 3% for Cr, up to approximately 35% for Pb, and 70% for Zn. This historic legacy of contamination must be considered in land management decisions, particularly when wetlands are drained.

  7. On accumulation time of the Jupiter

    It is suggested that accumulation time of Mars is strongly influenced by the presence of proto-Jupiter. It is shown that accumulation time of the Mars constrains the growth time scale for Jupiter. This constraint has been roughly estimated to be ∼ 1.7x107 y nearly in agreement with the lifetime of T Tauri phase of the Sun

  8. Accumulation of zirconium by microalgae and cyanobacteria

    The accumulation of zirconium (Zr) as [Zr4-(OH)8(H2O)16]8+ by cyanobacteria and microalgae has been characterized. In all the cyanobacterial and microalgal species examined, accumulation consisted of a single rapid energy-independent phase (''biosorp-tion'') and no energy-dependent accumulation was observed. Biosorption of Zr was concentration-dependent, followed a Freundlich adsorption isotherm, and was dependent on pH, showing decreased accumulation with decreased pH. Prior treatment with Na+, K+, Cs+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Sr2+ (added as chlorides) also decreased Zr accumulation by cyanobacteria and microalgae, probably a result of competition between Zr ions and othecations, including H+, for available binding sites on the cell walls. Zr desorption from micoalgae and cyanobacteria was increased by increasing external cation concentrations or by decreasing the pH of the desorption agent. (orig.)

  9. Genetic and environmental controls on nitrous oxide accumulation in lakes.

    Jatta Saarenheimo

    Full Text Available We studied potential links between environmental factors, nitrous oxide (N2O accumulation, and genetic indicators of nitrite and N2O reducing bacteria in 12 boreal lakes. Denitrifying bacteria were investigated by quantifying genes encoding nitrite and N2O reductases (nirS/nirK and nosZ, respectively, including the two phylogenetically distinct clades nosZI and nosZII in lake sediments. Summertime N2O accumulation and hypolimnetic nitrate concentrations were positively correlated both at the inter-lake scale and within a depth transect of an individual lake (Lake Vanajavesi. The variability in the individual nirS, nirK, nosZI, and nosZII gene abundances was high (up to tenfold among the lakes, which allowed us to study the expected links between the ecosystem's nir-vs-nos gene inventories and N2O accumulation. Inter-lake variation in N2O accumulation was indeed connected to the relative abundance of nitrite versus N2O reductase genes, i.e. the (nirS+nirK/nosZI gene ratio. In addition, the ratios of (nirS+nirK/nosZI at the inter-lake scale and (nirS+nirK/nosZI+II within Lake Vanajavesi correlated positively with nitrate availability. The results suggest that ambient nitrate concentration can be an important modulator of the N2O accumulation in lake ecosystems, either directly by increasing the overall rate of denitrification or indirectly by controlling the balance of nitrite versus N2O reductase carrying organisms.

  10. Influence of variety variations of eastern galega on radionuclides accumulation

    The general characteristic of development of agricultural branch in conditions of radioactive pollution of territory of Belarus is analyzed. The urgency of problem of reception of corresponding to norm pure from radionuclides production of plant growing and animal industries is marked. The scientific substantiation of the factors influencing on behaviour of radionuclides in soil, their transition from soil into plants and an organism of the person through foodder and food biological circuits is given. Biological features of eastern galega, its value in feed production, plant growing, efficiency of cultivation in the polluted territories. Factors of transition of 137-caesium and 90-strontium are presented to plants at variety samples of eastern galega of the first and second years of life, in a crop of green weight from the first and second hay crops are presented. Distinctions in accumulation by green weight of eastern galega and trifolium pratense are shown. In comparison with trifolium pratense eastern galega in 2 times accumulates 90-strontium less than 2 times. Varieties distinctions influenced on accumulation of radionuclides from soil in plants by eastern galega. Authentically less than others variety sample BSAA-1 accumulates radionuclides in plants at which the factor of transition had the lowest parameter and has made on 137-caesium 0,109, on 90-strontium 2,29, or accordingly on 0,027 and 0,25 below, than at standard variety Nesterka. Studying of variety samples of eastern galega on a degree of accumulation of radionuclides at cultivation on a provocative background with radioactive soil pollution is the important factor of increase in efficiency of selection radiophobia varieties

  11. Comparative Study of the Accumulation of Ni in Different Tissues of Mussels and Soft Clams

    Chalkiadakis O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two bivalves, the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, and the soft clam Callista chione were exposed to various Ni concentrations for a total period of 20 days, and then a depuration period of 10 days followed. Nickel accumulation in gills, mantle and the remaining body of the animals was measured after 5, 10, 15 and 20 days of exposure to Ni-contaminated seawater. The two organisms showed different behavior regarding Ni accumulation in all three tissues examined. In all concentrations, Ni accumulation increased with time in all three tissues of Mytilus galloprovincialis with gills being the most effective accumulator per dry mass. On the other hand, Callista chione showed an initial response to Ni contamination the first 5 days, followed by stabilization or even a slight decrease of Ni accumulation.

  12. Potential source regions of dust accumulated in northern Africa

    Wasowska, S.; Woronko, B.

    2012-04-01

    Sahara is the largest source of the dust in the world. The material sampled from dust storms in Tunisia (Nefta Oasis, El Kantoui Harbor), north Egypt (Alexandria) and Morocco (Mhamid Oasis) (March 2001, March and April 2009) was taken to identify the potential sources of dust accumulation and transport paths in North Africa. The samples were analyzed on grain size, micromorphology of silt grain surfaces in Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), elemental composition of grains and their surface crusts, loss on ignition, mineralogical composition of samples and carbonate content. Additionally the meteorological situation was analyzed during the dust storm occurrences and preceding periods. The results of grain size analyses show that all studied sediments belong to the small dust type, and dust accumulated in Mhamid is the clay mineral agglomerated (CMA) dust. The source of the CMA are the old dry lake beds. Dust particles are mobilized as aggregates of clay minerals, what is controlled by structure (particle packing) of the original lake sediment, and accumulation is dry and wet as well. The results of the analysis of the quartz grain surface micromorphology, the elemental composition and loss on ignition indicate that dust accumulated in Morocco originated from a relatively homogenous sediment source and, on the other hand, dust found in Alexandria comes from a diversified source. Dust sampled in Tunisia is characterized by the highest content of carbonates and organic matter which suggests the intensive dispelling acting on the weathered material from carbonate rocks and local Mediterranean soil covers rich in CaCO3. The analyses of meteorological conditions during the dust storms and the analyses of the textural characteristics of deposits show that it is highly probable that analysed aeolian dust was transported both for shorter and longer distances. Hypothetic source areas of dust accumulated in Mhamid could be the old ergs, some located 300-500 km away like

  13. 附子保健品刨附片及炮天雄的急性毒性研究%Acute Toxicity Study of Health Products of Aconiti Lateralis Radix:Pao Tianxiong and Bao Fupian

    谢晓芳; 李梦婷; 代良萍; 张雪; 彭成; 饶朝龙

    2014-01-01

    目的:测定灌胃炮天雄和刨附片对小鼠的急性毒性。方法:待禁食不禁水12h 后,各组24h 内一次性给药,其中刨附片、炮天雄组均分别灌胃刨附片水煎液25.2g 生药/kg 或炮天雄水煎液27.2g 生药/kg,正常对照组灌胃蒸馏水,给药体积均为40ml /kg,给药后观察并记录小鼠一般行为活动、体重、饮食及死亡等情况,连续观察14d。结果:刨附片组小鼠和炮天雄组小鼠无死亡,一般状态正常,无明显异常行为或变化,体重和摄食量逐日增长,与正常对照组比较,差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。结论:刨附片、炮天雄水煎液灌胃小鼠均无明显急性毒性,最大给药量分别为25.2、27.2g 生药/kg,若按附子临床人用量为15g/日算,均大于人用量的100倍。%objective To observe the acute toxicity of Pao tianxiong (PTX)and Pao fupian (PFP)with administration by gavage.Methods After fasting for 12h,the mice were given different drugs for once in 24h.The doses of PFP and PTX are 25.2g crude drug/kg (bw)and 27.2g crude drug/kg (bw).Mice in the control group was given distilled water.The given volume was 40ml/kg.Then,all the animals were monitored closely for 14 days on their normal behaviors,body weight,food consumption,death et al.Re-sults No death happened in both PTX -treated group and PFP -treated group;meanwhile,the behaviors,body weight and food con-sumptions in the drug -treated groups had no difference with the controlled group.Conclusion PFP and PTX don’t induce acute tox-icities on mice by gavage and the maximum doses are 25.2,27.2g/kg in crude medicinal,which are more than 100 times dose of Ac-oniti Lateralis Radix on adult human in clinic.

  14. ACCUMULATION OF RADIOCESIUM BY MUSHROOMS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Duff, M

    2007-05-28

    During the last 50 years, a large amount of information on radionuclide accumulators or ''sentinel-type'' organisms in the environment has been published. Much of this work focused on the risks of food-chain transfer of radionuclides to higher organisms such as reindeer and man. However, until the 1980's and 1990's, there has been little published data on the radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) accumulation by mushrooms. This presentation will consist of a review of the published data for {sup 134,137}Cs accumulation by mushrooms in nature. This review will discuss the aspects that promote {sup 134,137}Cs uptake by mushrooms and focus on mushrooms that demonstrate a large propensity for use in the environmental biomonitoring of radiocesium contamination. It will also provide descriptions of habitats for many of these mushrooms and discuss on how growth media and other conditions relate to Cs accumulation.

  15. Uranium accumulation by aquatic macrophyte, Pistia stratiotes

    Uranium accumulation by aquatic macrophyte, Pistia stratiotes from aqueous solution was investigated in laboratory condition. The objective was to evaluate the uranium accumulation potential and adopt the plant in uranium containing medium to improve its uptake capacity. The plant was found to tolerate and grow in the pH range of 3-7. Accumulation of uranium improved with increasing pH and the plant could remove 70% uranium from the medium (20 mg/L) within 24 hours of incubation at pH 5-6. Uptake of uranium on either side of this pH range decreased

  16. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: External Accumulation Model

    The purpose of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) is to validate the External Accumulation Model that predicts accumulation of fissile materials in fractures and lithophysae in the rock beneath a degrading waste package (WP) in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. (Lithophysae are voids in the rock having concentric shells of finely crystalline alkali feldspar, quartz, and other materials that were formed due to entrapped gas that later escaped, DOE 1998, p. A-25.) The intended use of this model is to estimate the quantities of external accumulation of fissile material for use in external criticality risk assessments for different types of degrading WPs: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed with High Level Waste (HLW) glass, commercial SNF, and Immobilized Plutonium Ceramic (Pu-ceramic) codisposed with HLW glass. The scope of the model validation is to (1) describe the model and the parameters used to develop the model, (2) provide rationale for selection of the parameters by comparisons with measured values, and (3) demonstrate that the parameters chosen are the most conservative selection for external criticality risk calculations. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, a Pu-ceramic WP is used as an example. The model begins with a source term from separately documented EQ6 calculations; where the source term is defined as the composition versus time of the water flowing out of a breached waste package (WP). Next, PHREEQC, is used to simulate the transport and interaction of the source term with the resident water and fractured tuff below the repository. In these simulations the primary mechanism for accumulation is mixing of the high pH, actinide-laden source term with resident water; thus lowering the pH values sufficiently for fissile minerals to become insoluble and precipitate. In the final section of the model, the outputs from PHREEQC, are processed to produce mass of accumulation

  17. 基于J2ME的手机六子炮棋游戏的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of the Mobile Liu-zi-pao Game Based on the J2ME

    段艳明

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of mobile communication technology,the rising popularity of color screen mobile phone,as well as the arrival of the era of 3G,The mobile games with its advantages of portable and leisure into more people’s life. The Games J2ME development environment based on the technology of mobile equipment development, Using its MIDP1.0 and notepad ++ development environment,technology,and relying on the mobile platform,design mobile gun Liu-zi-pao Game. The game’s operation is simple,portability is strong,the interface is beautiful,generous,function perfect, the more different style,different depth of the engine.%随着移动通信技术的迅速发展,彩屏手机的日益普及,以及3G时代的到来,手机游戏以其便携、休闲等优点走进更多人的生活当中。游戏基于移动设备开发技术的J2ME开发环境,利用其MIDP1.0技术以及notepad++开发环境,依托手机平台,设计手机六子炮棋游戏。游戏操作简单,可移植性强,界面美观、大方,功能完善,更具不同风格、不同引擎深度的选择。

  18. Accumulation of contaminants in fish from wastewater treatment wetlands

    Barber, L.B.; Keefe, S.H.; Antweiler, R.C.; Taylor, H.E.; Wass, R.D.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing demands on water resources in arid environments make reclamation and reuse of municipal wastewater an important component of the water budget. Treatment wetlands can be an integral part of the water-reuse cycle providing both water-quality enhancement and habitat functions. When used for habitat, the bioaccumulation potential of contaminants in the wastewater is a critical consideration. Water and fish samples collected from the Tres Rios Demonstration Constructed Wetlands near Phoenix, Arizona, which uses secondary-treated wastewater to maintain an aquatic ecosystem in a desert environment, were analyzed for hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC) and trace elements. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) were deployed to investigate uptake of HOC. The wetlands effectively removed HOC, and concentrations of herbicides, pesticides, and organic wastewater contaminants decreased 40-99% between inlet and outlet. Analysis of Tilapia mossambica and Gambusia affinis indicated accumulation of HOC, including p,p???-DDE and trans-nonachlor. The SPMD accumulated the HOC detected in the fish tissue as well as additional compounds. Trace-element concentrations in whole-fish tissue were highly variable, but were similar between the two species. Concentrations of HOC and trace elements varied in different fish tissue compartments, and concentrations in Tilapia liver tissue were greater than those in the whole organism or filet tissue. Bioconcentration factors for the trace elements ranged from 5 to 58 000 and for the HOC ranged from 530 to 150 000. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  19. Geochemical controls on vanadium accumulation in fossil fuels

    Breit, G.N.; Wanty, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    High vanadium contents in petroleum and other fossil fuels have been attributed to organic-matter type, organisms, volcanic emanations, diffusion of sea water, and epigenetic enrichment. However, these factors are inadequate to account for the high abundance of vanadium in some fossil fuels and the paucity in others. By examining vanadium deposits in sedimentary rocks with sparse organic matter, constraints are placed on processes controlling vanadium accumulation in organic-rich sediments. Vanadium, as vanadate (V(V)), entered some depositional basins in oxidizing waters from dry, subaerial environments. Upon contact with organic matter in anoxic waters, V(V) is reduced to vanadyl (V(IV)), which can be removed from the water column by adsorption. H2S reduces V(IV) to V(III), which hydrolyzes and precipitates. The lack of V(III) in petroleum suggests that reduction of V(IV) to V(III) is inhibited by organic complexes. In the absence of strong complexing agents, V(III) forms and is incorporated in clay minerals.

  20. Geochemical controls of vanadium accumulation in fossil fuels

    Breit, G.N.; Wanty, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    High vanadium contents in petroleum and other fossil fuels have been attributed to organic-matter type, organisms, volcanic emanations, diffusion of sea water, and epigenetic enrichment. However, these factors are inadequate to account for the high abundance of vanadium in some fossil fuels and the paucity in others. By examining vanadium deposits in sedimentary rocks with sparse organic matter, constraints are placed on processes controlling vanadium accumulation in organic-rich sediments. Vanadium, as vanadate (V(V)), entered some depositional basins in oxidizing waters from dry, subaerial environments. Upon contact with organic matter in anoxic waters, V(V) is reduced to vanadyl (V(IV)), which can be removed from the water column by adsorption. H2S reduces V(IV) to V(III), which hydrolyzes and precipitates. The lack of V(III) in petroleum suggests that reduction of V(IV) to V(III) is inhibited by organic complexes. In the absence of strong complexing agents, V(III) forms and is incorporated in clay minerals.

  1. Nuclear accumulation and activation of p53 in embryonic stem cells after DNA damage

    Rolletschek Alexandra; Solozobova Valeriya; Blattner Christine

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background P53 is a key tumor suppressor protein. In response to DNA damage, p53 accumulates to high levels in differentiated cells and activates target genes that initiate cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Since stem cells provide the proliferative cell pool within organisms, an efficient DNA damage response is crucial. Results In proliferating embryonic stem cells, p53 is localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. DNA damage-induced nuclear accumulation of p53 in embryonic stem cells...

  2. The sequential development of abnormal prion protein accumulation in mice with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Muramoto, T; Kitamoto, T.; Tateishi, J.; Goto, I.

    1992-01-01

    The distribution and sequential development of prion protein (PrP) accumulation in the central nervous system (CNS) and non-neuronal organs of mice infected with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) were investigated immunohistochemically using a new pretreatment method that greatly enhanced the immunoreactivity of PrP. Prion protein accumulation in the CNS was first detected at 30 days after inoculation and then developed near the inoculation site or periventricular area, and later spread to the ...

  3. Enhanced decomposition offsets enhanced productivity and soil carbon accumulation in coastal wetlands responding to climate change

    Kirwan, M.L.; L. K. Blum

    2011-01-01

    Coastal wetlands are responsible for about half of all carbon burial in oceans, and their persistence as a valuable ecosystem depends largely on the ability to accumulate organic material at rates equivalent to relative sea level rise. Recent work suggests that elevated CO2 and temperature warming will increase organic matter productivity and the ability of marshes to survive sea level rise. However, we find in a series of preliminary experiments that organic decomposit...

  4. Sodium accumulation in rice and quinoa

    Full text: Sensitivity to salinity is often attributed to excessive accumulation of Na+ ions in leaf cells. This implies that screening for low Na+ accumulation should result in enhanced tolerance to salt. While this is generally true, there are a number of examples where Na+ accumulation is not the only factor. In rice (Oryza sativa) there is good evidence linking genetically-determined Na+ accumulation with tolerance to salinity, but there are other factors that should be considered, including Cl- accumulation and the inter- and intra-cellular distribution of solutes. In quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) There are large varietal differences in Na+ accumulation, but smaller differences in salt tolerance. We have studied the genetics of salinity responses in two cultivars of rice, Co39 and Moroberekan. The latter accumulates more Na+ than Co39 and many other rice varieties. Experiments at a range of salt concentrations and with varying Na: Ca ratios showed that Na+ accumulation was initially quite low, but increased with time of exposure to salt. Part of the increase in Na+, and all of the observed increase in K+ concentrations, could be attributed to dehydration of the leaves. Measurements of leaf solute and water potentials indicated that solutes accumulated in the leaf apoplast. This resulted in reduced turgor and increased leaf rolling. Concentrations of Cl- in the leaves were several times higher than those of Na+. QTL analysis of a hybrid population derived from these varieties revealed a major QTL for leaf Na+ accumulation on chromosome 1 at a position where QTL for salt tolerance and Na+ uptake have been identified by other groups. No QTL were identified for Cl- accumulation. Is rice relatively salt sensitive because it accumulates low concentrations of Na+ under genetic control, or is Cl- (present at much higher concentrations) responsible for salt damage. We are looking for rice accessions that differ in Cl- accumulation to find Cl- QTL. Perhaps it does not

  5. Rock bed heat accumulators. Final report

    Riaz, M.

    1977-12-01

    The principal objectives of the research program on rock bed heat accumulators (or RBHA) are: (1) to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of storing large amounts of thermal energy (in the tens of MWt range) at high temperature (up to 500/sup 0/C) over extended periods of time (up to 6 months) using native earth or rock materials; (2) to conduct studies to establish the performance characteristics of large rock bed heat accumulators at various power and temperature levels compatible with thermal conversion systems; and (3) to assess the materials and environmental problems associated with the operation of such large heat accumulators. Results of the study indicate that rock bed heat accumulators for seasonal storage are both technically and economically feasible, and hence could be exploited in various applications in which storage plays an essential role such as solar power and total energy systems, district and cogeneration heating systems.

  6. Factors influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation

    Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)

  7. Accumulation of nickel in transgenic tobacco

    Sidik, Nik Marzuki; Othman, Noor Farhan

    2013-11-01

    The accumulation of heavy metal Ni in the roots and leaves of four T1 transgenic lines of tobacco (T(1)20E, T(1)24C, T(1)18B1 and T(1)20B) expressing eiMT1 from E.indica was assessed. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of Ni accumulation in the leaves and roots of each transgenic lines and to evaluate the eligibility of the plants to be classified as a phytoremediation agent. All of the transgenic lines showed different ability in accumulating different metals and has translocation factor (TF) less than 1 (TFtransgenic lines, transgenic line T(1)24C showed the highest accumulation of Ni (251.9 ± 0.014 mg/kg) and the lowest TF value (TFT(1)24C=0.0875) at 60 ppm Ni.

  8. Accumulation of 210Po by benthic marine algae

    The accumulation of polonium 210Po by various species of benthic marine seaweeds collected from 4 different points on the coast of Rio de Janeiro, showed variations by species and algal groups. The highest value found was in red alga, Plocamium brasiliensis followed by other organisms of the same group. In the group of the brown alga, the specie Sargassum stenophylum was outstanding. The Chlorophyta presented the lowest content of 210Po. The algae collected in open sea, revealed greater concentration factors of 210Po than the same species living in bays. The siliceous residue remaining after mineralization of the algae did not interfere with the detection of polonium. (author)

  9. Accumulation of nanocarriers in the ovary

    Schädlich, Andreas; Hoffmann, Stefan; Mueller, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    Several nanocarrier systems are frequently used in modern pharmaceutical therapies. Within this study a potential toxicity risk of all nanoscaled drug delivery systems was found. An accumulation of several structurally different nanocarriers but not of soluble polymers was detected in rodent...... vivo multispectral fluorescence imaging and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The findings of this study emphasise the role of early and comprehensive in vivo studies in pharmaceutical research. Nanocarrier accumulation in the ovaries may also comprise an important toxicity issue in humans...

  10. Development of the flow controlled accumulator

    Mitsubishi is developing the new type accumulator incorporating the technology of Fluidics as one of seeds for the improved safety of the new generation PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) plants. This accumulator employs a vortex flow control device named a vortex damper as a Fluidic device for the simplification of the safety systems. We have done a basic experimental study to develop the vortex damper and gotten satisfactory results. This paper describes the results of the basic experiments of the vortex dampers. (author)

  11. Plastic accumulation in the mediterranean sea

    Andrés Cózar; Marina Sanz-Martín; Elisa Martí; Ignacio González-Gordillo, J; Bárbara Ubeda; José Á Gálvez; Xabier Irigoien; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Copyright: © 2015 Cózar et al. Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by ...

  12. Financial Literacy, Schooling, and Wealth Accumulation

    Behrman, Jere R.; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Cindy Soo; David Bravo

    2010-01-01

    Financial literacy and schooling attainment have been linked to household wealth accumulation. Yet prior findings may be biased due to noisy measures of financial literacy and schooling, as well as unobserved factors such as ability, intelligence, and motivation that could enhance financial literacy and schooling but also directly affect wealth accumulation. We use a new household dataset and an instrumental variables approach to isolate the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling ...

  13. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but...

  14. Accumulation of artificial radionuclides in agricultural plants in the area used for surface nuclear tests

    The paper reports on the study of artificial radionuclide accumulation in agricultural crops grown at the territory with high concentration of radionuclides, and first of all – with high concentration of transuranium elements. As a result of this work, peculiarities of accumulation and distribution of artificial radionuclides in the vegetative and generative organs of the studied plants have been revealed. Basic accumulation factors have been found for 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, and 241Am in agricultural products. Accumulation factor dependence on type of planting was found for the investigated types of plants. It has been found that the vegetative organs accumulate radionuclides most of all. - Highlights: • The experiment with plants was performed under natural conditions in the area of ground nuclear explosions at “Experimental field” site of the Semipalatinsk test site. • Nature of radionuclides distribution in different plant organs has been revealed. • Main accumulation factors for 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu and 241Am have been obtained for the crop products. • Obtained results are of particular importance in the issues related to assessments of radiological environmental contamination and its consequences

  15. Relative proportions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons differ between accumulation bioassays and chemical methods to predict bioavailability

    Chemical methods to predict the bioavailable fraction of organic contaminants are usually validated in the literature by comparison with established bioassays. A soil spiked with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was aged over six months and subjected to butanol, cyclodextrin and tenax extractions as well as an exhaustive extraction to determine total PAH concentrations at several time points. Earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and rye grass root (Lolium multiflorum) accumulation bioassays were conducted in parallel. Butanol extractions gave the best relationship with earthworm accumulation (r2 ≤ 0.54, p ≤ 0.01); cyclodextrin, butanol and acetone-hexane extractions all gave good predictions of accumulation in rye grass roots (r2 ≤ 0.86, p ≤ 0.01). However, the profile of the PAHs extracted by the different chemical methods was significantly different (p < 0.01) to that accumulated in the organisms. Biota accumulated a higher proportion of the heavier 4-ringed PAHs. It is concluded that bioaccumulation is a complex process that cannot be predicted by measuring the bioavailable fraction alone. - The ability of chemical methods to predict PAH accumulation in Eisenia fetida and Lolium multiflorum was hindered by the varied metabolic fate of the different PAHs within the organisms.

  16. Field controlled experiments of mercury accumulation in crops from air and soil

    Niu Zhenchuan [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Xiaoshan, E-mail: zhangxsh@rcees.ac.cn [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Wang Zhangwei, E-mail: wangzhw@rcees.ac.cn [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Ci Zhijia [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Field open top chambers (OTCs) and soil mercury (Hg) enriched experiments were employed to study the influence of Hg concentrations in air and soil on the Hg accumulation in the organs of maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Results showed that Hg concentrations in foliages were correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with air Hg concentrations but insignificantly correlated with soil Hg concentrations, indicating that Hg in crop foliages was mainly from air. Hg concentrations in roots were generally correlated with soil Hg concentrations (p < 0.05) but insignificantly correlated with air Hg concentrations, indicating that Hg in crop roots was mainly from soil. No significant correlations were found between Hg concentrations in stems and those in air and soil. However, Hg concentrations in upper stems were usually higher than those in bottom stems, implying air Hg might have stronger influence than soil Hg on stem Hg accumulation. - Highlights: > Hg accumulation in crop organs was studied by OTCs and soil Hg enriched experiments. > Hg accumulation in foliages and roots was mainly from air and soil, respectively. > Air Hg had stronger influence than soil Hg on stem Hg accumulation. > Foliar Hg concentrations showed the trend of increase over growth stages. - Capsule Mercury accumulated in the aboveground organs of crop was mainly from the air.

  17. The Competence Accumulation Process in the Technology Transference Strategy

    André Silva de Souza

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article evaluates and measures the technological competence accumulation in an automation area enterprise to distribution centers, Knapp Sudamérica Logistic and Automation Ltd, in the interval of the technology transference process previous period (1998-2001 and during the technology transference process(2002-2005. Therefore, based on an individual case study, the study identified the technology transference strategy and mechanism accorded between the head office and the branch office, the technological functions and activities developed by the receiver and, at last, the critical factors present in this process. The echnological competences accumulation exam was accomplished based on an analytical structure existent in the literature that was adapted to the researched segment analysis. The obtained results showed that the planed, organized, controlled and continuous effort to generating and disseminating knowledge allowed the enterprise to speed up the accumulation process of technological competences promoting the converting of this process from individual level to the organizational one: besides, it also allowed the identification of barriers and facilitators involved in this process.

  18. Accumulation of Radiocesium in Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides

    1. Introduction: After Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiocesium (137Cs) had deposited on forests in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to comprehend radiocesium circulation in forest ecosystem, it is important to understand about properties of 137Cs accumulation of each plant species. In addition, 137Cs accumulator plants would be candidates of phyto-remediation, which is a remediation method using plants to remove pollutants from environment. We aimed to find 137Cs accumulator plants and to clarify the accumulate mechanisms. 2. Materials and Methods: We collected soil and plant samples at 22 points in Fukushima Prefecture more than once a year from May 2011 to October 2013. Surface (0-5 cm) soils were collected at the same site as the plant sampling. The soil samples were air-dried for 2-3 weeks and then passed through a 2 mm sieve. Foliar samples were washed with tap water to remove soil particles and rinsed with deionized water for 137Cs and other elements analysis. The samples were dried at 80 deg. C for 48 hr and ground with a mill mixer. 137Cs activities in soil and plant samples were determined by means of high-purity Ge detector (HPGe). The elements concentrations of the plant samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after wet digestion with HNO3. 3. Results and Discussion: As a whole trend, evergreen tree species such as Camellia japonica and Cryptomeria japonica contained 137Cs at high concentration due to the deposited 137Cs on old leaves and foliar absorption. The activities in leaves of deciduous tree species were lower than those in evergreen trees. However, we confirmed that a deciduous tree species, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides, collected in 2012 and 2013 accumulated 137Cs, whereas that collected in 2011 did not accumulate 137Cs. The 137Cs concentration of E. sciadophylloides in 2012 and 2013 were higher than those of other woody plant species taken at the same sites. Therefore, it is

  19. O pao nosso de cada dia

    Reinhardt, Juliana Cristina

    2011-01-01

    A pesquisa sobre a Padaria América veio a ser realizada pelo fato desta padaria ser a mais antiga de Curitiba em atividade. Fundada em 1913 por Eduardo Engelhardt, esta sempre pertenceu e foi administrada por um membro da família do fundador e suas receitas foram repassadas aos seus descendentes, estando um deles à frente da produção. Hoje o membro da família que detém os conhecimentos da panifícação e as receitas da padaria é o bisneto do fundador, Eduardo Henrique. Ainda hoje existem receit...

  20. Environmental parasitology: Parasites as accumulation bioindicators in the marine environment

    Nachev, Milen; Sures, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    Parasites can be used as effective monitoring tools in environmental impact studies as they are able to accumulate certain pollutants (e.g. metals) at levels much higher than those of their ambient environment and of free-living sentinels. Thus, they provide valuable information not only about the chemical conditions of their and their hosts' environment but also deliver insights into the biological availability of allochthonous substances. While a large number of different freshwater parasites (mainly acanthocephalans and cestodes) were investigated in terms of pollutant bioaccumulation, studies based on marine host-parasites systems remain scarce. However, available data show that different marine parasite taxa such as nematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalans exhibit also an excellent metal accumulation capacity. The biological availability of metals and their uptake routes in marine biota and parasites differ from those of freshwater organisms. We assume that a large part of metals and other pollutants are also taken up via the digestive system of the host. Therefore, in addition to environmental conditions the physiology of the host also plays an important role for the accumulation process. Additionally, we highlight some advantages in using parasites as accumulation indicators in marine ecosystems. As parasites occur ubiquitously in marine food webs, the monitoring of metals in their tissues can deliver information about the spatial and trophic distribution of pollutants. Accordingly, parasites as indicators offer an ecological assessment on a broader scale, in contrast to established free-living marine indicators, which are mostly benthic invertebrates and therefore limited in habitat distribution. Globally distributed parasite taxa, which are highly abundant in a large number of host species, are suggested as worldwide applicable sentinels.

  1. Iron accumulation with age, oxidative stress and functional decline.

    Jinze Xu

    Full Text Available Identification of biological mediators in sarcopenia is pertinent to the development of targeted interventions to alleviate this condition. Iron is recognized as a potent pro-oxidant and a catalyst for the formation of reactive oxygen species in biological systems. It is well accepted that iron accumulates with senescence in several organs, but little is known about iron accumulation in muscle and how it may affect muscle function. In addition, it is unclear if interventions which reduced age-related loss of muscle quality, such as calorie restriction, impact iron accumulation. We investigated non-heme iron concentration, oxidative stress to nucleic acids in gastrocnemius muscle and key indices of sarcopenia (muscle mass and grip strength in male Fischer 344 X Brown Norway rats fed ad libitum (AL or a calorie restricted diet (60% of ad libitum food intake starting at 4 months of age at 8, 18, 29 and 37 months of age. Total non-heme iron levels in the gastrocnemius muscle of AL rats increased progressively with age. Between 29 and 37 months of age, the non-heme iron concentration increased by approximately 200% in AL-fed rats. Most importantly, the levels of oxidized RNA in gastrocnemius muscle of AL rats were significantly increased as well. The striking age-associated increase in non-heme iron and oxidized RNA levels and decrease in sarcopenia indices were all attenuated in the calorie restriction (CR rats. These findings strongly suggest that the age-related iron accumulation in muscle contributes to increased oxidative damage and sarcopenia, and that CR effectively attenuates these negative effects.

  2. Toxicity, distribution, and accumulation of silver nanoparticles in Wistar rats

    Espinosa-Cristobal, L. F.; Martinez-Castanon, G. A., E-mail: mtzcastanon@fciencias.uaslp.mx; Loyola-Rodriguez, J. P.; Patino-Marin, N. [UASLP, Doctorado Institucional en Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales (Mexico); Reyes-Macias, J. F. [Facultad de Estomatologia de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Maestria y Doctorado en Ciencias Odontologicas en el Area de Odontologia Integral Avanzada (Mexico); Vargas-Morales, J. M. [Av. Salvador Nava s/n, Zona Universitaria, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Ruiz, Facundo [Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2013-06-15

    The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles (SNP) has lead to their application in several products mainly in the medicine field. This study analyzed the distribution, accumulation, and toxicity in principal organs of Wistar rats exposed to SNP suspensions by oral administration. Two sizes of washed SNP (14 and 36 nm) were prepared, characterized, and redispersed in deionized water. Each suspension was administrated to Wistar rats by oral way for 55 days; after finishing this treatment time, rats were sacrificed by anesthesia overdose. Organs were collected, processed, and prepared; then, accumulation and concentrations of SNP were obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Toxicity was determined by clinical chemistry and hematology from blood samples in three different periods; light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to evaluate histopathology in tissues. Silver concentrations were higher in small intestine, followed by kidney, liver, and brain. Clinical chemistry and hematology showed altered values in blood urea nitrogen, total proteins, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration values had statistical difference in both groups (14 and 36 nm) (p < 0.05). LM, SEM, ICP-MS, clinical chemistry, and hematology tests suggest that the administration way, concentration, shape, size, presentation, administration time of SNP used in this study, do not change significantly these values.

  3. Grain Accumulation of Selenium Species in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Newville, Matt; Choi, Yongseong; Norton, Gareth J.; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A. (EPA); (U. South Australia); (Aberdeen); (UC)

    2012-09-05

    Efficient Se biofortification programs require a thorough understanding of the accumulation and distribution of Se species within the rice grain. Therefore, the translocation of Se species to the filling grain and their spatial unloading were investigated. Se species were supplied via cut flag leaves of intact plants and excised panicle stems subjected to a {+-} stem-girdling treatment during grain fill. Total Se concentrations in the flag leaves and grain were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Spatial accumulation was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microtomography. Selenomethionine (SeMet) and selenomethylcysteine (SeMeSeCys) were transported to the grain more efficiently than selenite and selenate. SeMet and SeMeSeCys were translocated exclusively via the phloem, while inorganic Se was transported via both the phloem and xylem. For SeMet- and SeMeSeCys-fed grain, Se dispersed throughout the external grain layers and into the endosperm and, for SeMeSeCys, into the embryo. Selenite was retained at the point of grain entry. These results demonstrate that the organic Se species SeMet and SeMeSeCys are rapidly loaded into the phloem and transported to the grain far more efficiently than inorganic species. Organic Se species are distributed more readily, and extensively, throughout the grain than selenite.

  4. Toxicity, distribution, and accumulation of silver nanoparticles in Wistar rats

    The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles (SNP) has lead to their application in several products mainly in the medicine field. This study analyzed the distribution, accumulation, and toxicity in principal organs of Wistar rats exposed to SNP suspensions by oral administration. Two sizes of washed SNP (14 and 36 nm) were prepared, characterized, and redispersed in deionized water. Each suspension was administrated to Wistar rats by oral way for 55 days; after finishing this treatment time, rats were sacrificed by anesthesia overdose. Organs were collected, processed, and prepared; then, accumulation and concentrations of SNP were obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Toxicity was determined by clinical chemistry and hematology from blood samples in three different periods; light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to evaluate histopathology in tissues. Silver concentrations were higher in small intestine, followed by kidney, liver, and brain. Clinical chemistry and hematology showed altered values in blood urea nitrogen, total proteins, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration values had statistical difference in both groups (14 and 36 nm) (p < 0.05). LM, SEM, ICP-MS, clinical chemistry, and hematology tests suggest that the administration way, concentration, shape, size, presentation, administration time of SNP used in this study, do not change significantly these values.

  5. [Review on the main microorganisms and their metabolic mechanisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems].

    Sun, Xue; Zhu, Wei-Jing; Wang, Liang; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2014-03-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is applied widely for removing phosphorus from wastewater. Studies on functional microorganisms and their metabolic mechanisms are fundamental to effective regulation for stable operation and performance improvement of EBPR process. Two main types of microorganisms in EBPR systems, polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) were selected to summarize their metabolic mechanisms such as substrate uptake mechanisms, glycogen degradation pathways, extent of TCA cycle involvement and metabolic similarity between PAOs and GAOs. Application of molecular biology techniques in microbiology and metabolic mechanisms involved in the EBPR system was evaluated. Potential future research areas for the EBPR system and process optimization were also proposed. PMID:24984512

  6. Changes in blood hemoglobin and blood gases PaO2 and PaCO2 in severe COPD overa three-year telemonitored program of long-term oxygen treatment

    Dal Negro Roberto W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the effects of long-term oxygen treatment (LTOT on blood hemoglobin (Hb in severe COPD are limited. The aim was to assess blood Hb values in severe COPD, and investigate the time-course of both Hb and blood gas changes during a 3-year telemetric LTOT. Methods A cohort of 132 severe COPD patients (94 males; 71.4 years ± 8.8 sd, newly admitted to the tele-LTOT program, was investigated. Subjects were divided according to their original blood Hb: group A: 2 and PaCO2 (mmHg, SaO2 (%, and BMI were measured at LTOT admission (t0, and at least quarterly over three years (t1-t3. Wilcoxon test was used to compare t0 vs. t1 values; linear regression to assess a possible Hb-BMI relationship; ANOVA to compare changes in Hb time-courses over the 3 years. Results LTOT induced a systematic increase of PaO2, and changes were significant since the first year (from 52.1 mmHg ± 6.6sd to 65.1 mmHg ± 8.7 sd, p 2 were quite similar. Comparable and equally significant trends were seen in all subgroups (p 2 dropped within the first year of LTOT (from 49.4 mmHg ± 9.1sd to 45.9 mmHg ±7.5 sd, p 0-t1 comparison proved significant (p 2 decline over the remaining two years (p  15 g/dl (ANOVA p 2, PaCO2 and SaO2 dramatically improved. In anemic subjects effects were smaller and slower, oxygenation being equally ameliorated by LTOT. Conclusions LTOT effects on Hb and PaCO2 are regulated by an Hb-dependent gradient which seems independent of the original impairment of blood gases and of effects on oxygenation.

  7. Temporal accumulation of oriented visual features

    Pugeault, Nicolas; Krüger, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for accumulating on-line a model of a moving object (e.g., when manipulated by a robot). The proposed scheme is based on Bayesian filtering of local features, filtering jointly position, orientation and appearance information. The work presented here is novel ......, while making use of the available uncertainty model. The accumulated representations have been used in three different contexts: pose estimation, robotic grasping, and driver assistance scenario.......In this paper we present a framework for accumulating on-line a model of a moving object (e.g., when manipulated by a robot). The proposed scheme is based on Bayesian filtering of local features, filtering jointly position, orientation and appearance information. The work presented here is novel in...

  8. Organization within Organization Studies

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    This paper explores how prevalent contemporary problematizations of organizations coincide with a widespread assessment that Organization Studies (OS) has run out of steam. This impasse, the paper argues, is largely due to the emergence of an organization-phobia that has come to seize several...... strands of theorizing. By attending to the wide-ranging and far-reaching history of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OS has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming...... associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OS. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OS intellectual...

  9. Uranium accumulation by Pseudomonas sp. EPS-5028

    Pseudomonas sp. EPS-5028 was examined for the ability to accumulate uranium from solutions. The uptake of uranium by this microorganism is very rapid and is affected by pH but not by temperature, metabolic inhibitors, culture time and the presence of various cations and anions. The amount of uranium absorbed by the cells increased as the uranium concentration of the solution increased up to 55 mg uranium/g cell dry weight. Electron microscopy indicated that uranium accumulated intracellularly as needle-like fibrils. Uranium could be removed chemically from the cells, which could then be reused a a biosorbent. (orig.)

  10. Deciphering the relationship among phosphate dynamics, electron-dense body and lipid accumulation in the green alga Parachlorella kessleri.

    Ota, Shuhei; Yoshihara, Mai; Yamazaki, Tomokazu; Takeshita, Tsuyoshi; Hirata, Aiko; Konomi, Mami; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Bišová, Kateřina; Zachleder, Vilém; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element for life on earth and is also important for modern agriculture, which is dependent on inorganic fertilizers from phosphate rock. Polyphosphate is a biological polymer of phosphate residues, which is accumulated in organisms during the biological wastewater treatment process to enhance biological phosphorus removal. Here, we investigated the relationship between polyphosphate accumulation and electron-dense bodies in the green alga Parachlorella kessleri. Under sulfur-depleted conditions, in which some symporter genes were upregulated, while others were downregulated, total phosphate accumulation increased in the early stage of culture compared to that under sulfur-replete conditions. The P signal was detected only in dense bodies by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Transmission electron microscopy revealed marked ultrastructural variations in dense bodies with and without polyphosphate. Our findings suggest that the dense body is a site of polyphosphate accumulation, and P. kessleri has potential as a phosphate-accumulating organism. PMID:27180903

  11. Avoiding propionic acid accumulation in the anaerobic process for biohydrogen production

    The accumulation of propionic acid in the anaerobic process will result in low efficiency of the methanogenic phase due to the low acetogenic rate of propionic acid, and hence low wastewater treatment efficiency. The reasons for propionic acid accumulation in the acidogenic phase and the relationship between the accumulation and biohydrogen generation were studied and a strategy for avoiding propionic acid accumulation in the anaerobic process for biohydrogen generation is also introduced. The experimental results indicate that changing pH and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) can result in the variation of fermentation type, and maintaining lower ORP and avoiding pH of 5.5 will reduce the accumulation of propionic acid in the anaerobic process. Higher biohydrogen generation rate is not always accompanied with the accumulation of propionic acid. In the acidogenic reactor of two-phase separated anaerobic process, ethanol type fermentation, in which pH at 4.5 below, can produce much more biohydrogen but without accumulation of propionic acid. Thus, ethanol-type fermentation is a better selection when using an acidogenic reactor of a two-phase separated anaerobic process to efficiently produce biohydrogen with simultaneous organic wastewater pre-treatment

  12. Accumulation in murine amniotic fluid of halothane and its metabolites.

    Danielsson, B R; Ghantous, H; Dencker, L

    1984-11-01

    The distribution of radioactivity in pregnant mice was registered at 0, 4, and 24 hrs after a 10 min. period of inhalation of 14C-halothane. Autoradiographic methods were used to allow to distinguish between the distribution of volatile (non-metabolize) halothane, water-soluble metabolites, and firmly tissue-bound metabolites. While volatile radioactivity was seen predominantly at short survival intervals, e.g. in body fat, blood, brain and liver, metabolites accumulated with time. Peak values occurred at 4 hrs in most organs (measured with liquid scintillation as well). The most remarkable findings were the high concentrations of radioactivity in amniotic fluid (and the ocular fluids of adults) with peak values at 4 hrs and rather high concentrations still prevailing at 24 hrs after inhalation. It is assumed that this activity represents only partly volaile halothane and mostly non-volatile metabolites. High activity of metabolites was seen in the neuroepithelium of the embryo in early gestation. Firmly tissue-bound metabolites, still remaining after washing the tissues with trichloroacetic acid and organic solvents, were found in the nasal mucosa, trachea and bronchial tree and in (presumably centrilobular) zones of the liver of adults after inhalation and 5-day old mice after intraperitoneal injection, indicating the formation of reactive metabolites in these organs. Firmly tissue-bound activity was not observed in the corresponding foetal organs. PMID:6528811

  13. Accumulation of radionuclides by common mussel mytilus edulis and purplish bifurcate mussel septifer virgatus

    The accumulation of 60Co, 59Fe, 54Mn and 65Zn by common mussed Mytilus edulis and purplish bifurcate mussel Septifer virgatus from seawater was investigated. High accumulation of 59Fe in Mytilus and 54Mn in Septifer was observed in the uptake experiments. Differences in biological half-lives between the two species was observed for 54Mn and 59Fe. The organ-specific concentration of radionuclides observed in the mussels was high accumulation of 60Co in kidney and viscera, 59Fe in kidney and viscera, 65Zn in kidney but was not observed for 54Mn although the accumulation of 54Mn in mantle was different between the species. Autoradiography was applied to examine the details of the distribution of 59Fe in the soft parts of the mussels. (author)

  14. DIAGNOSIS OF ORGANIC ACIDEMIA

    Marjan SHAKIBA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic acid occur as physiologic intermediates in variety of intracellular metabolic pathways, such as catabolism of aminoacid, mitochondrial β oxidation of fatty acids, tricarboxilic acid cycle, and cholestrol and fatty acid biosynthesis. The classical organic aciduria represent the pursuit of abnormalities of aminoacid degradation beyond deamination Their diagnostic hallmark is an accumulation of characteristic organic acids.The clinical features result from toxicity of the accumulating methabolites.Treatment involved 1. protein restriction 2. supplementation of aminoacids with unimpaired metabolism as well as trace elements and 3. specific measures for detoxification if indicated. Diagnostic tests consist of CBC, FBS, Bun, Cr, uric organic acid, TG, Cholestrol Ca, P, ALP, VBG, Na, K, Cl, U/A(PH, SG, Ketone, Ammonia, lactate, pyrovate, Ketone body CPK, Aldolase, SGOT, SGPT, BIL, PT, PTT, Plasma aminoacid HPLC, Homocysteine, Urine aminoacid and carbohydrate chromatography, Acyl carnitine profile, urine organic acids and for next steps tissue specimen and enzyme activity and gene study.clinical chemical indices of organid aciduria is Metabolic acidosis, Increased anion gap, Hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, Ketosis and Ketonuria, Lactic acidosis, Hyperammonemia, Hyperuricemia, Hypertriglyceridemia, increase of transaminase Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia and Anemia. Acylcarnitine profile and urine organic acids are two for important tests for differentiation of types oforganic academia.

  15. Knowledge Organization = Information Organization?

    Hjørland, Birger

    Are the terms ―information organization‖ (IO), ―organization of information‖ (OI) and ―information architecture‖ (IA) synonyms for knowledge organization (KO)? This study uses bibliometric methods, among others, to determine some relations between these terms and their meanings. Apparently the data...

  16. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    Cózar, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  17. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  18. Selective accumulation of heavy metals by microorganisms

    An investigation of the removal and recovery of uranium from aqueous systems using microbial biomass has been described previously (Nakajima et al. 1982). To establish which microorganisms accumulate the most uranium, we extended our investigation of uranium uptake to 83 species of microorganisms, 32 bacteria, 15 yeasts, 16 fungi and 20 actinomycetes. Of these 83 species of microorganisms tested, extremely high uranium-absorbing ability was found in Pseudomonas stutzeri, Neurospora sitophila, Streptomyces albus and Streptomyces viridochromogenes. The selective accumulation of heavy metal ions by various microorganisms has also been examined. Uranyl, mercury and lead ions were readily accumulated by almost all the species of microorganisms tested. Actinomycetes and fungi differ from many bacteria and most yeasts in their selective accumulation of uranium and mercury. In addition to this fundamental research, uranium recovery was investigated in immobilized Streptomyces albus, a microorganism with high uranium-uptake ability. These immobilized cells adsorbed uranium readily and selectively. The immobilized cells recovered uranium almost quantitatively and almost all uranium absorbed was desorbed with 0.1 M Na2CO3. The dry weight of the free cells decreased by 50% during 5 adsorption-desorption cycles. However, the dry weight of the immobilized cells decreased by only 2% during 5 cycles. These results showed that microbial cells are more stable after immobilization and can be used repeatedly for the process of uranium adsorption-desorption. (orig.)

  19. Arsenic accumulation in some higher fungi

    Stijve, T.; Vellinga, Else C.; Herrmann, A.

    1990-01-01

    The high arsenic concentrations reported in literature for Laccaria amethystina were amply confirmed. In addition, it was demonstrated that Laccaria fraterna also accumulates the element, whereas in other species of Laccaria the phenomenon was far less outspoken. Few other basidiomycetes proved to h

  20. 19 CFR 10.458 - Accumulation.

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.458 Accumulation. (a) Originating goods or materials of Chile or the United States... of Chile, the United States, or both, by one or more producers, will be considered as an...

  1. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Andrés Cózar

    Full Text Available Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2, as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled, are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  2. Reduced collagen accumulation after major surgery

    Jorgensen, L N; Kallehave, F; Karlsmark, T;

    1996-01-01

    .01)). This decline was significantly higher in the six patients who had a postoperative infection (median 3.02 (range -0.06 to 6.14) versus 0.36 (range -1.56 to 12.60) micrograms/cm, P = 0.02). This study shows that major surgery is associated with impairment of subcutaneous collagen accumulation in a test...

  3. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  4. Accumulation of Radiocesium in Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides

    Sugiura, Y.; Takenaka, C.; Kanasashi, T. [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, 464-8601, Nagoya City, Aichi Prefecture (Japan); Deguchi, S. [School of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya City, Aichi Prefecture, 464-8601 (Japan); Matsuda, Y. [Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu City, Mie Prefecture, 514-0102 (Japan); Ozawa, H. [Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Koriyama City Fukushima Prefecture, 963-0112 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    1. Introduction: After Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) had deposited on forests in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to comprehend radiocesium circulation in forest ecosystem, it is important to understand about properties of {sup 137}Cs accumulation of each plant species. In addition, {sup 137}Cs accumulator plants would be candidates of phyto-remediation, which is a remediation method using plants to remove pollutants from environment. We aimed to find {sup 137}Cs accumulator plants and to clarify the accumulate mechanisms. 2. Materials and Methods: We collected soil and plant samples at 22 points in Fukushima Prefecture more than once a year from May 2011 to October 2013. Surface (0-5 cm) soils were collected at the same site as the plant sampling. The soil samples were air-dried for 2-3 weeks and then passed through a 2 mm sieve. Foliar samples were washed with tap water to remove soil particles and rinsed with deionized water for {sup 137}Cs and other elements analysis. The samples were dried at 80 deg. C for 48 hr and ground with a mill mixer. {sup 137}Cs activities in soil and plant samples were determined by means of high-purity Ge detector (HPGe). The elements concentrations of the plant samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after wet digestion with HNO{sub 3}. 3. Results and Discussion: As a whole trend, evergreen tree species such as Camellia japonica and Cryptomeria japonica contained {sup 137}Cs at high concentration due to the deposited {sup 137}Cs on old leaves and foliar absorption. The activities in leaves of deciduous tree species were lower than those in evergreen trees. However, we confirmed that a deciduous tree species, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides, collected in 2012 and 2013 accumulated {sup 137}Cs, whereas that collected in 2011 did not accumulate {sup 137}Cs. The {sup 137}Cs concentration of E. sciadophylloides in 2012 and 2013 were higher than those of

  5. Radionuclide accumulation and dose burden in small mammals in Chernobyl zone

    By results of complex research in the Chernobyl zone, peculiarities of radionuclide accumulation in small mammal organisms have been studied and radiation doses have been assessed. It is shown, that radionuclide intake is defined by trophic specialization of the animals, and how that depends on season and local changes of the animals diet. A detailed description of 90Sr and 137Cs distribution in organism of bank vole has been presented. Radiation dose burden has been assessed for 4 small mammal species, and for conditions of the last 7 years. As a rule, the major contributor into total dose - external beta irradiation, some less - external gamma irradiation. Internal dose depends on species radionuclide accumulation and it is mainly determined by 90Sr, with the exception of the bank vole, for which an internal irradiation is more important than external, due to extremely high 137Cs accumulation. (author)

  6. Molecular Evolution and Mutation Accumulation Lines in the Nematode Pristionchus pacificus

    Molnar, Ruxandra

    2012-01-01

    The nematode Pristionchus pacificus has been established as a model system for modern evolutionary studies. Evolutionary reconstruction of the natural history of organisms requires knowledge about the development, ecology, and phylogeny of species. Mutations are the source of natural variation, hence studies of mutational processes improve the understanding of the natural history of an organism. Mutation accumulation (MA) lines experiments facilitate the study of spontaneous mutation rates ov...

  7. Laboratory-scale bioaugmentation relieves acetate accumulation and stimulates methane production in stalled anaerobic digesters

    Town, Jennifer R.; Dumonceaux, Tim J.

    2015-01-01

    An imbalance between acidogenic and methanogenic organisms during anaerobic digestion can result in increased accumulation of volatile fatty acids, decreased reactor pH, and inhibition of methane-producing Archaea. Most commonly the result of organic input overload or poor inoculum selection, these microbiological and biochemical changes severely hamper reactor performance, and there are a few tools available to facilitate reactor recovery. A small, stable consortium capable of catabolizing a...

  8. Accumulation of Deleterious Mutations Near Sexually Antagonistic Genes.

    Connallon, Tim; Jordan, Crispin Y

    2016-01-01

    Mutation generates a steady supply of genetic variation that, while occasionally useful for adaptation, is more often deleterious for fitness. Recent research has emphasized that the fitness effects of mutations often differ between the sexes, leading to important evolutionary consequences for the maintenance of genetic variation and long-term population viability. Some forms of sex-specific selection-i.e., stronger purifying selection in males than females-can help purge a population's load of female-harming mutations and promote population growth. Other scenarios-e.g., sexually antagonistic selection, in which mutations that harm females are beneficial for males-inflate genetic loads and potentially dampen population viability. Evolutionary processes of sexual antagonism and purifying selection are likely to impact the evolutionary dynamics of different loci within a genome, yet theory has mostly ignored the potential for interactions between such loci to jointly shape the evolutionary genetic basis of female and male fitness variation. Here, we show that sexually antagonistic selection at a locus tends to elevate the frequencies of deleterious alleles at tightly linked loci that evolve under purifying selection. Moreover, haplotypes that segregate for different sexually antagonistic alleles accumulate different types of deleterious mutations. Haplotypes that carry female-benefit sexually antagonistic alleles preferentially accumulate mutations that are primarily male harming, whereas male-benefit haplotypes accumulate mutations that are primarily female harming. The theory predicts that sexually antagonistic selection should shape the genomic organization of genetic variation that differentially impacts female and male fitness, and contribute to sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fitness variation. PMID:27226163

  9. 26 CFR 1.535-3 - Accumulated earnings credit.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Accumulated earnings credit. 1.535-3 Section 1... Accumulated earnings credit. (a) In general. As provided in section 535(a) and § 1.535-1, the accumulated earnings credit, provided by section 535(c), reduces taxable income in computing accumulated taxable...

  10. Energy Balance and Operating Features of the Heat Accumulator

    Pavel Fiala

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are described design and realization of a heat accumulator in the article which joins advantages and eliminates disadvantages of water and gravel accumulators. Inside the accumulator there are suppressed heat convection and conduction between layers of storage matter, so there is the temperature stratification along a height of such accumulator. The article deals with operating features as well.

  11. Experimental study of Americium-241 biokinetics in Homarus Gammarus lobster. Analysis of the accumulation and detoxication mechanisms at the sub-cellular level

    The Americium 241 radioelement accumulation and elimination rate and mechanisms in the lobster organism have been experimentally studied; incorporation and detoxification capacities of each organ are evaluated. The existence of various biological compartments is shown; the major role of the digestive gland in accumulation of the radioelement, its distribution towards the various organs, and its resorption is comprehensively described, with an analysis at the subcellular and molecular levels. 401 p., 65 fig., 43 tab., 428 ref

  12. A positron accumulator for antihydrogen synthesis

    Jørgensen, L V; Fine, K S; Watson, T L; Van der Werf, D P; Charlton, M

    2001-01-01

    A positron accumulator based on the modified Penning-Malmberg design of Surko and co-workers at UCSD has been constructed and undergone testing in preparation for the ATHENA experiment now under way at CERN. This experiment aims to produce and characterize atomic anti- hydrogen. The positron accumulator utilises nitrogen buffer gas to cool and trap a continuous beam of positrons emanating from a /sup 22 /Na radioactive source. A solid neon moderator slows the positrons from the source down to epithermal energies of a few eV before being injected into the trap. It is estimated that around 10/sup 7/ positrons can be trapped and cooled to ambient temperature within a couple of minutes in this scheme using a 6 mCi source. Preliminary tests have so far demonstrated trapping of approximately 3*10/sup 6/ positrons and an efficiency of the Ne moderator of nearly 1%. (8 refs).

  13. Characteristics of the flow-controlled accumulator

    Mitsubishi is developing a new type of accumulator incorporating the technology of fluidics as one of the seeds for the improved safety of the newly constructed pressurized water reactor plants. This accumulator employs a vortex flow control device, called a vortex damper, as a fluidic device to simplify the safety systems. A fundamental experimental study with a one-fifth scale model and confirmation tests with a one-third scale model to develop the vortex damper have been carried out, and satisfactory results have been achieved. The results of the confirmation tests under the prototype pressure conditions agree well with the basic tests. The flow rate ratio can be 5 to 6. The pressure loss coefficient in the large flow rate period is 8. A cavitation factor is the main parameter of the flow rate coefficient

  14. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels. This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  15. Spin accumulation in triplet Josephson junction

    We employ a Hamiltonian method to study the equal-spin pairing triplet Josephson junction with different orbital symmetries of pair potentials. Both the spin/charge supercurrent and possible spin accumulation at the interface of the junction are analyzed by means of the Keldysh Green's function. It is found that a spontaneous angle-resolved spin accumulation can form at the junction's interface when the orbital symmetries of Cooper pairs in two triplet superconductors are different, the physical origin is the combined effect of the different orbital symmetries and different spin states of Cooper pairs due to the misalignment of two d vectors in triplet leads. An abrupt current reversal effect induced by misalignment of d vectors is observed and can survive in a strong interface barrier scattering because the zero-energy state appears at the interface of the junction. These properties of the p-wave Josephson junction may be helpful for identifying the order parameter symmetry.

  16. Heat accumulation during pulsed laser materials processing.

    Weber, Rudolf; Graf, Thomas; Berger, Peter; Onuseit, Volkher; Wiedenmann, Margit; Freitag, Christian; Feuer, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Laser materials processing with ultra-short pulses allows very precise and high quality results with a minimum extent of the thermally affected zone. However, with increasing average laser power and repetition rates the so-called heat accumulation effect becomes a considerable issue. The following discussion presents a comprehensive analytical treatment of multi-pulse processing and reveals the basic mechanisms of heat accumulation and its consequence for the resulting processing quality. The theoretical findings can explain the experimental results achieved when drilling microholes in CrNi-steel and for cutting of CFRP. As a consequence of the presented considerations, an estimate for the maximum applicable average power for ultra-shorts pulsed laser materials processing for a given pulse repetition rate is derived. PMID:24921828

  17. Sucrose accumulation in mature sweet melon fruits

    Mesocarp tissue from sucrose-accumulating sweet melon (Cucumis melo cv. Galia) showed sucrose synthase activity (ca 1 nkat/gfw) while soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were not observed. Sucrose uptake into mesocarp discs was linear with sucrose concentration (1-500 mM) and unaffected by PCMBS and CCCP. Sucrose compartmentation into the vacuole also increased linearly with sucrose concentration as indicated by compartmental efflux kinetics. Mesocarp discs incubated in 14C-fructose + UDP-glu synthesized 14C-sucrose and efflux kinetics indicated that the 14C-sucrose was compartmentalized. These data support the hypothesis that two mechanisms are involved in sucrose accumulation in sweet melon: (1) compartmentation of intact sucrose and (2) synthesis of sucrose via sucrose synthase and subsequent compartmentation in the vacuole

  18. Accumulation and metabolism of selenium by yeast cells.

    Kieliszek, Marek; Błażejak, Stanisław; Gientka, Iwona; Bzducha-Wróbel, Anna

    2015-07-01

    This paper examines the process of selenium bioaccumulation and selenium metabolism in yeast cells. Yeast cells can bind elements in ionic from the environment and permanently integrate them into their cellular structure. Up to now, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida utilis, and Yarrowia lipolytica yeasts have been used primarily in biotechnological studies to evaluate binding of minerals. Yeast cells are able to bind selenium in the form of both organic and inorganic compounds. The process of bioaccumulation of selenium by microorganisms occurs through two mechanisms: extracellular binding by ligands of membrane assembly and intracellular accumulation associated with the transport of ions across the cytoplasmic membrane into the cell interior. During intracellular metabolism of selenium, oxidation, reduction, methylation, and selenoprotein synthesis processes are involved, as exemplified by detoxification processes that allow yeasts to survive under culture conditions involving the elevated selenium concentrations which were observed. Selenium yeasts represent probably the best absorbed form of this element. In turn, in terms of wide application, the inclusion of yeast with accumulated selenium may aid in lessening selenium deficiency in a diet. PMID:26003453

  19. Mercury accumulation in bats near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Syaripuddin, Khairunnisa; Kumar, Anjali; Sing, Kong-Wah; Halim, Muhammad-Rasul Abdullah; Nursyereen, Muhammad-Nasir; Wilson, John-James

    2014-09-01

    In large man-made reservoirs such as those resulting from hydroelectric dam construction, bacteria transform the relatively harmless inorganic mercury naturally present in soil and the submerged plant matter into toxic methylmercury. Methylmercury then enters food webs and can accumulate in organisms at higher trophic levels. Bats feeding on insects emerging from aquatic systems can show accumulation of mercury consumed through their insect prey. In this study, we investigated whether the concentration of mercury in the fur of insectivorous bat species was significantly higher than that in the fur of frugivorous bat species, sampled near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia. Bats were sampled at Temenggor Lake and Kenyir Lake and fur samples from the most abundant genera of the two feeding guilds-insectivorous (Hipposideros and Rhinolophus) and frugivorous (Cynopterus and Megaerops) were collected for mercury analysis. We found significantly higher concentrations of total mercury in the fur of insectivorous bats. Mercury concentrations also differed significantly between insectivorous bats sampled at the two sites, with bats from Kenyir Lake, the younger reservoir, showing higher mercury concentrations, and between the insectivorous genera, with Hipposideros bats showing higher mercury concentrations. Ten bats (H. cf. larvatus) sampled at Kenyir Lake had mercury concentrations approaching or exceeding 10 mg/kg, which is the threshold at which detrimental effects occur in humans, bats and mice. PMID:24840106

  20. Systems of Accumulation and the Evolving MEC

    Ashman, Sam; Fine, Ben; Newman, Susan

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe limitations of the Developmental State Paradigm were discussed in the introductory chapter to this volume. This chapter offers an alternative approach to the DSP through use of the notion of systems of (capital) accumulation and its specific application to South Africa’s evolving political economy, which we characterise as the ‘Minerals-Energy Complex’ (MEC) following Fine and Rustomjee (1996).

  1. The Antiproton Accumulator becomes Antiproton Decelerator

    1980-01-01

    The photos show the Antiproton Accumulator (AA) transformed into Antiproton Decelerator. The AA was used at CERN between 1981 and 1999 before being replaced by the Antiproton Decelerator (AD). The AA was used to collect and stochastically cool antiprotons used in proton-antiproton collisions in the SPS collider. This lead to the discovery of the W and Z bosons in 1983 and the Nobel Prize for Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer in 1984.

  2. Innovation, Capital Accumulation and Economic Transition

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Kohler, Wilhelm

    1996-01-01

    Abstract: This paper explores some links between trade, human capital investment and innovation-based growth in the context of Eastern European economies in transition. Specifically, we calibrate a two region model with trade in differentiated high-tech products and a homogeneous traditional commodity. Human capital, or the quality of the skilled labour force, as well as physical capital are accumulated. Human capital remains finite in the long-run but depends endegenously on education and is...

  3. Corruption, Public Expenditure, and Human Capital Accumulation

    Spyridon Boikos

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect of corruption on human capital accumulation through two channels. The first channel is through the effect of corruption on the public expenditure on education and the second channel is through the effect of corruption on the physical capital investment. Public expenditure on education affects positively human capital, while physical capital can obsolete human capital. Initially, we construct an endogenous two-sector growth model with human capital accum...

  4. Accumulation of non-coherent signal

    Halámek, Josef; Jurák, Pavel; Chládek, Jan; Roman, R.; Sochůrková, D.; Kasal, Miroslav

    Bratislava: FEI SUT, 2002, s. -. ISBN 80-227-1700-2. [RADIOELEKTRONIKA 2002. Bratislava (SK), 14.05.2002-16.05.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/1262; GA ČR GA102/02/1339 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : accumulation * non-coherent signals * neurology Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  5. Arsenic accumulation in some higher fungi

    Stijve, T.; Vellinga, Else C.; Herrmann, A.

    1990-01-01

    The high arsenic concentrations reported in literature for Laccaria amethystina were amply confirmed. In addition, it was demonstrated that Laccaria fraterna also accumulates the element, whereas in other species of Laccaria the phenomenon was far less outspoken. Few other basidiomycetes proved to have an affinity for the toxic element. The arsenic concentrations in the principal edible mushrooms of commerce were found to be very low, i.e. on the average 0.5 mg/kg on dry matter. Among the asc...

  6. Accumulation and subsequent utilization of waste heat

    Koloničný, Jan; Richter, Aleš; Pavloková, Petra

    2016-06-01

    This article aims to introduce a special way of heat accumulation and primary operating characteristics. It is the unique way in which the waste heat from flue gas of biogas cogeneration station is stored in the system of storage tanks, into the heat transfer oil. Heat is subsequently transformed into water, from which is generated the low-pressure steam. Steam, at the time of peak electricity needs, spins the special designed turbine generator and produces electrical energy.

  7. How Financial Literacy Affects Household Wealth Accumulation

    Behrman, Jere R.; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Soo, Cindy K.; David Bravo

    2012-01-01

    This study isolates the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling on wealth accumulation using a new household dataset and an instrumental variables (IV) approach. Financial literacy and schooling attainment are both strongly positively associated with wealth outcomes in linear regression models, whereas the IV estimates reveal even more potent effects of financial literacy. They also indicate that the schooling effect only becomes positive when interacted with financial literacy. Es...

  8. Stationarity Testing of Accumulated Ethernet Traffic

    Zhiping Lu; Ming Li; Wei Zhao

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the stationarity property of the accumulated Ethernet traffic series. We applied several widely used stationarity and unit root tests, such as Dickey-Fuller test and its augmented version, Phillips-Perron test, as well as the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test and some of its generalizations, to the assessment of the stationarity of the traffic traces at the different time scales. The quantitative results in this research provide evidence that when the time scale increases,...

  9. Arsenic accumulation by edible aquatic macrophytes.

    Falinski, K A; Yost, R S; Sampaga, E; Peard, J

    2014-01-01

    Edible aquatic macrophytes grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soil and sediment were investigated to determine the extent of As accumulation and potential risk to humans when consumed. Nasturtium officinale (watercress) and Diplazium esculentum (warabi) are two aquatic macrophytes grown and consumed in Hawaii. Neither has been assessed for potential to accumulate As when grown in As-contaminated soil. Some former sugarcane plantation soils in eastern Hawaii have been shown to have concentrations of total As over 500 mg kg(-1). It was hypothesized that both species will accumulate more As in contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. N. officinale and D. esculentum were collected in areas with and without As-contaminated soil and sediment. High soil As concentrations averaged 356 mg kg(-1), while low soil As concentrations were 0.75 mg kg(-1). Average N. officinale and D. esculentum total As concentrations were 0.572 mg kg(-1) and 0.075 mg kg(-1), respectively, corresponding to hazard indices of 0.12 and 0.03 for adults. Unlike previous studies where watercress was grown in As-contaminated water, N. officinale did not show properties of a hyperaccumulator, yet plant concentrations in high As areas were more than double those in low As areas. There was a slight correlation between high total As in sediment and soil and total As concentrations in watercress leaves and stems, resulting in a plant uptake factor of 0.010, an order of magnitude higher than previous studies. D. esculentum did not show signs of accumulating As in the edible fiddleheads. Hawaii is unique in having volcanic ash soils with extremely high sorption characteristics of As and P that limit release into groundwater. This study presents a case where soils and sediments were significantly enriched in total As concentration, but the water As concentration was below detection limits. PMID:24210365

  10. Zinc accumulation and utilization by wine yeasts

    Walker, Graeme

    2009-01-01

    Raffaele De Nicola1,3, Nichola Hall2,3, Tatiana Bollag3, Georgios Thermogiannis3, Graeme M Walker31DSM Nutritional Products, Dept. NRD/CX, Basel, Switzerland; 2Vinquiry, Inc. Windsor, CA, USA; 3School of Contemporary Sciences, University of Abertay Dundee, Dundee, UK Abstract: The present study has focused on the accumulation of zinc by wine yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation of both grape juice and chemically defined medium with different carbohydrates and...

  11. Accumulation radionuclides bodes of living cover plants woods cenosis

    Features of accumulation radionuclides by bodies of living cover plants woods cenosis are investigated. Researches have shown, that in elevated bodies kinds now in the greater measure strontium 90, than caesium 137 is accumulated. In root systems accumulation radionuclides is lower, than in elevated bodies. There is a specific specificity of accumulation radionuclides various bodies of plants. Accumulation radionuclides depends on weather conditions of year of supervision

  12. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  13. Renewable Resources, Capital Accumulation, and Economic Growth

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with physical capital and renewable resources. Different from most of the neoclassical growth models with renewable resources which are based on microeconomic foundation and neglect physical capital accumulation, this study proposes a growth model with dynamics of renewable resources and physical capital accumulation. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory and the traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alternative approach to household behavior. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among physical accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. Because of its refined economic structure, our study enables some interactions among economic variables which are not found in the existing literature on economic growth with renewable resources. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. Our comparative dynamic analysis shows, for instance, that a rise in the propensity to consume the renewable resource increases the interest rate and reduces the national and production sector’s capital stocks, wage rate and level of the consumption good. Moreover, it initially reduces and then increases the capital stocks of the resource sector and the consumption and price of the renewable resource. The stock of the renewable resource is initially increased and then reduced. Finally, labor is redistributed from the production to the resource sector.

  14. Mercury accumulation of three Lactarius mushroom species.

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation, distribution and potential dietary intake of mercury accumulated by mushrooms of Lactarius species L. delicious, L. volemus and L. deterrimus were studied in the Pomerania region of Poland. In total, 212 fruiting bodies and 106 underlying topsoil samples were analyzed. Analysis indicated that the concentrations of Hg were at low levels both in mushrooms and forest topsoils for a majority of the locations investigated. L. volemus that grew in soils with only a slightly elevated contamination (0.11±0.07mgkg(-1) of dried soil), very efficiently accumulated Hg in fruiting bodies and concentration levels were at 3.7±1.3mgkg(-1) of dry biomass in caps and at 1.9±0.9mgkg(-1) of dry biomass in stipes. Consumption of mushrooms foraged from the Sobowidz forest, which is close to a foundry using ferrous and non-ferrous metals could result in a Hg intake that exceeds the current statutory limits. PMID:27507453

  15. Accumulated Waste Sampling and Analysis Plan

    This Accumulated Waste Sampling and Analysis Management Plan (AWSAMP) has been prepared in response to the AWP and the Accumulated Waste Characterization Work Plan (SAIC 1992). The scope of the AWSAMP includes: A review and compilation of existing waste characterization information for each container or grouping of containers as appropriate, The development of sampling and analysis plans, The development of sampling and analysis procedures, The assessment of analytical requirements, and Cost estimates for the accumulated waste characterization program. The AWSAMP addresses eight basic waste categories that have been identified in the waste inventory: industrial/sanitary, RAD, RCRA, TSCA, TSCA/RAD, RCRA/RAD, RCRA/TSCA, and RCRA/TSCA/RAD wastes. Requirements of RCRA, TSCA, and DOE Orders are the primary source of characterization criteria. Other standards and guidelines [e.g., Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations, DOE disposal facilities waste acceptance criteria, and national technical associations standards] are reviewed for completeness. This AWSAMP provides a detailed waste sampling and analysis plan. This includes general history (Sect. 2), regulatory setting (Sect. 3), compilation of existing data (Sect. 4), technical approach (Sect. 5), field sampling methodology and procedures (Sect. 6), health and safety plan (Sect. 7), and quality assurance requirements (Sect. 8)

  16. Erosion, sediment transportation and accumulation in rivers

    N.I.ALEKSEEVSKIY; K.M.BERKOVICH; R.S.CHALOV

    2008-01-01

    The present paper analyses the interrelation between erosion,sediment transportation and accumulation proposed by N.I.Makkaveyev (1908-1983) and its further development in modem studies of river channel processes in Russia.Spatio-temporal linkages between erosion and accumulation are defined considering channel processes at different scales - river longitudinal profile,channel morphological patterns,alluvial bedforms (bars,dunes) and individual sediment particles.Relations between river geomorphic activity,flow transportation capacity and sediment budgets are established (sediment input and output;channel bed erosion and sediment entrainment into flow -termination of sediment transport and its deposition).Channel planforms,floodplain segments separated by the latter and alluvial channel bedforms are shown to be geomorphic expressions of sediment transport process at different spatial and temporal scales.This paper is dedicated to the 100th anniversary of N.I.Makkaveyev,Professor of the Moscow State University,author of the book "River channel and erosion in its basin" (1955).That book is regarded in Russia as the pioneering work which initiated the complex hydrological and geographical studies of channel processes and laid a basis for the theory of unified fluvial erosion-accumulation process.

  17. Peculiarities of technogenic radionuclide accumulation in freshwater fish

    The concentration of cesium 137Cs, 134Cs, 54Mn, 60Co was investigated in different species of fish (Rutillus rutullus L., Abramis brama L., Esox lucius L., Perca fluviatilis L.) from lake Drukshiai and in their various tissues and organs. The dependence of these radionuclides accumulation on feeding habits and age of fish was defined. The data obtained showed that in the higher trophic level fish the role of food in 137Cs concentration was more important, i.e. the effect of the trophic level came to light. In the case of 54Mn and 60Co the food had no considerable importance, i.e. the effect of the trophic level was not pronounced (author)

  18. Desiccation induces accumulations of antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin in intertidal macro-alga Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta.

    Xiujun Xie

    Full Text Available For plants and algae, exposure to high light levels is deleterious to their photosynthetic machineries. It also can accelerate water evaporation and thus potentially lead to drought stress. Most photosynthetic organisms protect themselves against high light caused photodamages by xanthophyll cycle-dependent thermal energy dissipation. It is generally accepted that high light activates xanthophyll cycle. However, the relationship between xanthophyll cycle and drought stress remains ambiguous. Herein, Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta, a representative perennial intertidal macro-algae species with high drought-tolerant capabilities and simple structures, was used to investigate the operation of xanthophyll cycle during desiccation in air. The results indicate that desiccation under dim light induced accumulation of antheraxanthin (Ax and zeaxanthin (Zx at the expense of violaxanthin (Vx. This accumulation could be arrested by dithiothreitol completely and by uncoupler (carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone partially, implying the participation of Vx de-epoxidase in conversion of Vx to Ax and Zx. Treatment with inhibitors of electron transport along thylakoid membrane, e.g. DCMU, PG and DBMIB, did not significantly arrest desiccation-induced accumulation of Ax and Zx. We propose that for U. pertusa, besides excess light, desiccation itself could also induce accumulation of Ax and Zx. This accumulation could proceed without electron transport along thylakoid membrane, and is possibly resulting from the reduction of thylakoid lumen volume during desiccation. Considering the pleiotropic effects of Ax and Zx, accumulated Ax and Zx may function in protecting thylakoid membrane and enhancing thermal quenching during emersion in air.

  19. Nuclear accumulation and activation of p53 in embryonic stem cells after DNA damage

    Rolletschek Alexandra

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background P53 is a key tumor suppressor protein. In response to DNA damage, p53 accumulates to high levels in differentiated cells and activates target genes that initiate cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Since stem cells provide the proliferative cell pool within organisms, an efficient DNA damage response is crucial. Results In proliferating embryonic stem cells, p53 is localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. DNA damage-induced nuclear accumulation of p53 in embryonic stem cells activates transcription of the target genes mdm2, p21, puma and noxa. We observed bi-phasic kinetics for nuclear accumulation of p53 after ionizing radiation. During the first wave of nuclear accumulation, p53 levels were increased and the p53 target genes mdm2, p21 and puma were transcribed. Transcription of noxa correlated with the second wave of nuclear accumulation. Transcriptional activation of p53 target genes resulted in an increased amount of proteins with the exception of p21. While p21 transcripts were efficiently translated in 3T3 cells, we failed to see an increase in p21 protein levels after IR in embryonal stem cells. Conclusion In embryonic stem cells where (anti-proliferative p53 activity is not necessary, or even unfavorable, p53 is retained in the cytoplasm and prevented from activating its target genes. However, if its activity is beneficial or required, p53 is allowed to accumulate in the nucleus and activates its target genes, even in embryonic stem cells.

  20. A dynamic model of wetland extent and peat accumulation: results for the Holocene

    T. Kleinen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Substantial deposits of peat have accumulated since the last glacial. Since peat accumulation rates are rather low, this process was previously neglected in carbon cycle models. For assessments of the global carbon cycle on millennial or even longer timescales, though, the carbon storage in peat cannot be neglected any more. We have therefore developed a dynamic model of wetland extent and peat accumulation in order to assess the influence of peat accumulation on the global carbon cycle.

    The model is based on the dynamic global vegetation model LPJ and consists of a wetland module and routines describing the accumulation and decay of peat. The wetland module, based on the TOPMODEL approach, determines wetland area and water table. Peatland area is given by the innundated area at the summer minimum water table position and changes dynamically, depending on climate. The peat module describes oxic and anoxic decomposition of organic matter in the acrotelm, i.e., the part of the peat column above the permanent water table, as well as anoxic decoposition in the catotelm, the peat below the summer minimum water table.

    We apply the model to the period of the last 8000 yr, during which the model accumulates 210 ± 40 PgC as catotelm peat in the areas above 40° N.

  1. Metal toxicity in a sediment-dwelling polychaete: Threshold body concentrations or overwhelming accumulation rates?

    Carmen Casado-Martinez, M., E-mail: c.casado-martinez@nhm.ac.u [Department of Zoology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Smith, Brian D. [Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Luoma, Samuel N. [John Muir Institute of the Environment, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Rainbow, Philip S. [Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    We followed the net accumulation of As, Cu and Zn in the deposit-feeding polychaete Arenicola marina exposed in the laboratory to natural metal-contaminated sediments, one exposure leading to mass mortality between day 10 and 20, and the other not causing lethality over a period of 60 days of exposure. The worms showed lower total accumulated metal concentrations just before mortality occurred (<20 days) at the lethal exposure, than after 30 days of exposure to sediments not causing mortality. Moreover rates of accumulation of As, Cu and Zn were significantly higher in the lethal exposure than in the sublethal exposure. Our results show that it is not possible to link mortality to a critical total body concentration, and we add to a growing body of literature indicating that metal toxicity occurs when organisms cannot cope with overwhelming influx and subsequent accumulation rates. - Laboratory exposures with the deposit-feeding polychaete Arenicola marina suggest that toxicity is not caused by the accumulated concentration of toxic metals in the body of the animal, but by the rate at which the toxic metal is accumulated.

  2. Metal toxicity in a sediment-dwelling polychaete: Threshold body concentrations or overwhelming accumulation rates?

    We followed the net accumulation of As, Cu and Zn in the deposit-feeding polychaete Arenicola marina exposed in the laboratory to natural metal-contaminated sediments, one exposure leading to mass mortality between day 10 and 20, and the other not causing lethality over a period of 60 days of exposure. The worms showed lower total accumulated metal concentrations just before mortality occurred (<20 days) at the lethal exposure, than after 30 days of exposure to sediments not causing mortality. Moreover rates of accumulation of As, Cu and Zn were significantly higher in the lethal exposure than in the sublethal exposure. Our results show that it is not possible to link mortality to a critical total body concentration, and we add to a growing body of literature indicating that metal toxicity occurs when organisms cannot cope with overwhelming influx and subsequent accumulation rates. - Laboratory exposures with the deposit-feeding polychaete Arenicola marina suggest that toxicity is not caused by the accumulated concentration of toxic metals in the body of the animal, but by the rate at which the toxic metal is accumulated.

  3. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation: An Overview

    Seyed Hassan TONEKABONI*

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Tonekaboni SH, Mollamohammadi M. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation: An Overview. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn;8(4: 1-8.AbstractObjectiveNeurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA is a group of neurodegenerative disorder with deposition of iron in the brain (mainly Basal Ganglia leading to a progressive Parkinsonism, spasticity, dystonia, retinal degeneration, optic atrophy often accompanied by psychiatric manifestations and cognitive decline. 8 of the 10 genetically defined NBIA types are inherited as autosomal recessive and the remaining two by autosomal dominant and X-linked dominant manner. Brain MRI findings are almost specific and show abnormal brain iron deposition in basal ganglia some other related anatomicallocations. In some types of NBIA cerebellar atrophy is the major finding in MRI.ReferencesShevel M. Racial hygiene, activeeuthanasia, and Julius Hallervorden. Neurology 1992;42:2214-2219.HayflickSJ. Neurodegeneration with brain Iron accumulation: from genes to pathogenesis.Semin Pediatr Neurol 2006;13:182-185.Zhou B, Westawy SK, Levinson B, et al. A novel pantothenate kinase gene(PANK2 is defective in Hallervorden-Spatzsyndrome. Nat Genet 2001;28:345- 349.www.ncbi.nlm.nihgov/NBK111Y/university of Washington, seattle. Allison Gregory and Susan Hayflick.Paisan-Ruiz C, Li A, Schneider SA, et al. Widesread Levy body and tau accumulation in childhood and adult onset dystonia-parkinsonism cases with PLA2G6 mutations. Neurobiol Aging 2012;33:814-823.Dick KJ, Eckhardt M, Paison-Ruiz C, et al. Mutation of FA2H underlies a complicated form of hereditary spastic paraplegia(SPG 35. Hum Mutat 31: E1251-E1260.Edvardson S, Hama H, Shaag A, et al. Mutation in the fatty acid 2-Hydroxylase gene are associated with leukodystrophy with spastic paraparesis and dystonia. Am I Hum Genet 2008;83:647-648.Schneider SA, Aggarwal A, Bhatt m, et al. Severe tongue protrusion dystonia: clinical syndromes

  4. Monitoring of the aquatic environment by species accumulator of pollutants: a review

    Oscar RAVERA

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a short review on the biomonitoring of aquatic environments by animal and plant species accumulators of toxic pollutants ("scavengers". This monitoring is based on the relationship between the pollutant concentration in the organism and that in its environment, and not on alterations produced by pollution on the biota. The latter is the basis of other types of biomonitoring, such as those based on the biotic and diversity indices and saprobic scale. The various aspects of monitoring by pollutant accumulators are illustrated; for example, the uptake and loss of pollutants, the "critical organs" and "tissues", the detoxification mechanisms and the most common factors (C.F., BAF, BSAF for establishing a connection between the pollutant concentration in the organism and that in its environment. Several examples of this monitoring on heavy metals, radioisotopes and organic micropollutants are reported. The advantages of this monitoring, the characteristics of the species to be used as bioaccumulators and some practical suggestions are listed. A close collaboration between the scientific teams working on the biomonitoring based on accumulator organisms and on the chemical monitoring is recommended from the scientific and economic point of view.

  5. Mechanisms and microbial structure of partial denitrification with high nitrite accumulation.

    Du, Rui; Peng, Yongzhen; Cao, Shenbin; Li, Baikun; Wang, Shuying; Niu, Meng

    2016-02-01

    Nitrite (NO2 (-)-N) accumulation in denitrification can provide the substrate for anammox, an efficient and cost-saving process for nitrogen removal from wastewater. This batch-mode study aimed at achieving high NO2 (-)-N accumulation over long-term operation with the acetate as sole organic carbon source and elucidating the mechanisms of NO2 (-)-N accumulation. The results showed that the specific nitrate (NO3 (-)-N) reduction rate (59.61 mg N VSS(-1) h(-1) at NO3 (-)-N of 20 mg/L) was much higher than specific NO2 (-)-N reduction rate (7.30 mg N VSS(-1) h(-1) at NO3 (-)-N of 20 mg/L), and the NO2 (-)-N accumulation proceeded well at the NO3 (-)-N to NO2 (-)-N transformation ratio (NTR) as high as 90 %. NO2 (-)-N accumulation was barely affected by the ratio of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to NO3 (-)-N concentration (C/N). With the addition of NO3 (-)-N, NO2 (-)-N accumulation occurred and the specific NO2 (-)-N reduction rate declined to a much lower level compared with the value in the absence of NO3 (-)-N. This indicated that the denitrifying bacteria in the system preferred to use NO3 (-)-N as electron acceptor rather than use NO2 (-)-N. In addition, the Illumina high-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that the genus of Thauera bacteria was dominant in the denitrifying community with high NO2 (-)-N accumulation and account for 67.25 % of total microorganism. This bacterium might be functional for high NO2 (-)-N accumulation in the presence of NO3 (-)-N. PMID:26526457

  6. Effects of compost and phosphate on plant arsenic accumulation from soils near pressure-treated wood

    Leaching of arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood may elevate soil arsenic levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding accumulation of As in vegetables grown in these soils. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate As accumulation by vegetables from the soils adjacent to the CCA-treated utility poles and fences and examine the effects of soil amendments on plant As accumulation. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown for ten weeks in the soil with or without compost and phosphate amendments. As expected, elevated As concentrations were observed in the pole soil (43 mg kg-1) and in the fence soil (27 mg kg-1), resulting in enhanced As accumulation of 44 mg kg-1 in carrot and 32 mg kg-1 in lettuce. Addition of phosphate to soils increased As accumulation by 4.56-9.3 times for carrot and 2.45-10.1 for lettuce due to increased soil water-soluble As via replacement of arsenate by phosphate in soil. However, biosolid compost application significantly reduced plant As uptake by 79-86%, relative to the untreated soils. This suppression is possibly because of As adsorbed by biosolid organic mater, which reduced As phytoavailability. Fractionation analysis showed that biosolid decreased As in soil water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fraction by 45%, whereas phosphate increased it up to 2.61 times, compared to the untreated soils. Our results indicate that growing vegetables in soils near CCA-treated wood may pose a risk of As exposure for humans. Compost amendment can reduce such a risk by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils. Caution should be taken for phosphate application since it enhances As accumulation. - Capsule: Compost amendment can reduce As exposure risk for humans by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils

  7. Introducing a dimensioning and simulation model useful for engineering practice for the modelling/optimization of enhanced biological P elimination.; Vorstellung eines in der Ingenieurpraxis nutzbaren Bemessungs- und Simulationsmodelles zur Abbildung/Optimierung der vermehrten biologischen P-Elimination

    Wichern, M.; Rosenwinkel, K.H.; Binder, M.

    1999-07-01

    The paper describes in excerpts a stationary model, suitable for engineering practice, for assessing the efficiency of enhanced biological P elimination. Adapted to the latest state of knowledge and based on only a few measuring data, it can be used to dimension or optimize existing plant. It takes into account knowledge such as the following: growth of organisms with enhanced phosphorus accumulation (PAOs) in an anoxic environment, modelling of biomass die-back in an anaerobic environment, different yield and die-back rates of PAOs and non-bioP organisms, the share of denitrifying PAOs and degradation processes through hydrolysis/fermentation. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses Beitrages wird ein in der Ingenieurpraxis anwendbares stationaeres Modell zur Abschaetzung der Leistungsfaehigkeit der vermehrten biologischen P-Elimination in Auszuegen vorgestellt, das, angepasst an neueste Erkenntnisse, auf Basis weniger Messdaten zur Bemessung sowie Optimierung von bestehenden Anlagen eingesetzt werden kann. Erkenntnisse, wie z.B. das Wachsen der vermehrt phosphorspeichernden Organismen (PAO) im Anoxischen, die Abbildung des Biomassensterbens im Anaeroben, die unterschiedlichen Ertrags- und Sterberaten von PAOs und Nicht-BioP-Organismen, der Anteil der denitrifizierenden PAOs und Abbauprozesse durch Hydrolyse/Fermentation sind im Modell beruecksichtigt. (orig.)

  8. ncDNA and drift drive binding site accumulation

    Ruths Troy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amount of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS in an organism’s genome positively correlates with the complexity of the regulatory network of the organism. However, the manner by which TFBS arise and accumulate in genomes and the effects of regulatory network complexity on the organism’s fitness are far from being known. The availability of TFBS data from many organisms provides an opportunity to explore these issues, particularly from an evolutionary perspective. Results We analyzed TFBS data from five model organisms – E. coli K12, S. cerevisiae, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, A. thaliana – and found a positive correlation between the amount of non-coding DNA (ncDNA in the organism’s genome and regulatory complexity. Based on this finding, we hypothesize that the amount of ncDNA, combined with the population size, can explain the patterns of regulatory complexity across organisms. To test this hypothesis, we devised a genome-based regulatory pathway model and subjected it to the forces of evolution through population genetic simulations. The results support our hypothesis, showing neutral evolutionary forces alone can explain TFBS patterns, and that selection on the regulatory network function does not alter this finding. Conclusions The cis-regulome is not a clean functional network crafted by adaptive forces alone, but instead a data source filled with the noise of non-adaptive forces. From a regulatory perspective, this evolutionary noise manifests as complexity on both the binding site and pathway level, which has significant implications on many directions in microbiology, genetics, and synthetic biology.

  9. Test Plan - Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.; Fowley, M. D.

    2012-05-10

    This plan documents the highlights of the Solids Accumulations Scouting Studies test; a project, from Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), that began on February 1, 2012. During the last 12 weeks considerable progress has been made to design and plan methods that will be used to estimate the concentration and distribution of heavy fissile solids in accumulated solids in the Hanford double-shell tank (DST) 241-AW-105 (AW-105), which is the primary goal of this task. This DST will be one of the several waste feed delivery staging tanks designated to feed the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Note that over the length of the waste feed delivery mission AW-105 is currently identified as having the most fill empty cycles of any DST feed tanks, which is the reason for modeling this particular tank. At SRNL an existing test facility, the Mixing Demonstration Tank, which will be modified for the present work, will use stainless steel particles in a simulant that represents Hanford waste to perform mock staging tanks transfers that will allow solids to accumulate in the tank heel. The concentration and location of the mock fissile particles will be measured in these scoping studies to produce information that will be used to better plan larger scaled tests. Included in these studies is a secondary goal of developing measurement methods to accomplish the primary goal. These methods will be evaluated for use in the larger scale experiments. Included in this plan are the several pretest activities that will validate the measurement techniques that are currently in various phases of construction. Aspects of each technique, e.g., particle separations, volume determinations, topographical mapping, and core sampling, have been tested in bench-top trials, as discussed herein, but the actual equipment to be employed during the full test will need evaluation after fabrication and integration into the test facility.

  10. Test Plan - Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    This plan documents the highlights of the Solids Accumulations Scouting Studies test; a project, from Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), that began on February 1, 2012. During the last 12 weeks considerable progress has been made to design and plan methods that will be used to estimate the concentration and distribution of heavy fissile solids in accumulated solids in the Hanford double-shell tank (DST) 241-AW-105 (AW-105), which is the primary goal of this task. This DST will be one of the several waste feed delivery staging tanks designated to feed the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Note that over the length of the waste feed delivery mission AW-105 is currently identified as having the most fill empty cycles of any DST feed tanks, which is the reason for modeling this particular tank. At SRNL an existing test facility, the Mixing Demonstration Tank, which will be modified for the present work, will use stainless steel particles in a simulant that represents Hanford waste to perform mock staging tanks transfers that will allow solids to accumulate in the tank heel. The concentration and location of the mock fissile particles will be measured in these scoping studies to produce information that will be used to better plan larger scaled tests. Included in these studies is a secondary goal of developing measurement methods to accomplish the primary goal. These methods will be evaluated for use in the larger scale experiments. Included in this plan are the several pretest activities that will validate the measurement techniques that are currently in various phases of construction. Aspects of each technique, e.g., particle separations, volume determinations, topographical mapping, and core sampling, have been tested in bench-top trials, as discussed herein, but the actual equipment to be employed during the full test will need evaluation after fabrication and integration into the test facility

  11. Multidimensional Skills, Sorting, and Human Capital Accumulation

    Fabien Postel-Vinay; Jeremy Lise

    2015-01-01

    We construct a structural model of on-the-job search in which workers differ in skills along several dimensions (cognitive, manual, interpersonal) and sort themselves into jobs with heterogeneous skill requirements along those same dimensions. We further allow for skills to be accumulated when used, and eroded away when not used. We estimate the model using occupation-level measures of skill requirements based on O*NET data, combined with a worker-level panel from the NLSY79. We use the estim...

  12. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Ansart, F.; Castillo, S.; Laberty- Robert, C.; Pellizon-Birelli, M. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  13. Phospholipids accumulation in mucolipidosis IV cultured fibroblasts.

    Bargal, R; Bach, G

    1988-01-01

    Cultured fibroblasts from mucolipidosis IV patients accumulated phospholipids when compared to normal controls or cells from other genotypes. The major stored compounds were identified as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and to a larger extent lysophosphatidylcholine and lysobisphosphatidic acid. Pulse chase experiments of 32P-labelled phospholipids showed increased retention of these compounds in the mucolipidosis IV lines throughout the pulse and chase periods. Phospholipase A1, A2, C, D and lysophospholipase showed normal activity in the mucolipidosis IV lines and thus the metabolic cause for this storage remains to be identified. PMID:3139925

  14. Measuring Social Capital Accumulation in Rural Development

    Teilmann, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index. The...... index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark, and the study further investigates whether the organisational affiliation, project financing, and LAG co-financing can explain the degree of social capital accumulation. Furthermore, the author has tested if there are connections between motivation for...

  15. Mitochondrial accumulation of APP and Abeta

    Pavlov, Pavel F; Petersen, Anna Camilla Hansson; Glaser, Elzbieta;

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest that alterations in energy metabolism are among the earliest events that occur in the Alzheimer disease (AD) affected brain. Energy consumption is drastically decreased in the AD-affected regions of cerebral cortex and hippocampus pointing towards compromised...... mitochondrial function of neurons within specific brain regions. This is accompanied by an elevated production of reactive oxygen species contributing to increased rates of neuronal loss in the AD-affected brain regions. In this review, we will discuss the role of mitochondrial function and dysfunction in AD...

  16. External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax

    Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax

  17. Relationship between Protein Accumulation and Nitrogen Accumulation and Translocation in Different Genotype Soybean

    2002-01-01

    Physiological studies of soybean [Glycine max(L.)Merr.]genotypes with wide differences in seed protein concentration may permit detection of important yield-related processes.In order to research the law of protein accumulation and the characteristics of N accumulation and translocation,we did an experiment with three soybean cultivars which have different protein content and the similar phase in pot culture.The results showed that the laws of protein accumulation of three soybean cultivars are similar in the course of seeding;protein content descended in the early stage,and increased steadily in the middle period,then increased quickly in the later period.But the speed of protein accumulation in soybean seeds was difference in different period.In addition,high-protein cultivar (Dongnong 42) and intermediate protein cultivar (Dongnong 7819) were more than those of low-protein cultivar (Dongnong 434),including nitrogen contents in leaf and petiole,stem and pod,peak value of nitrogen accumulation of the whole plant,value of nitrogen translocation,its efficiency.

  18. A Process-Based Model of TCA Cycle Functioning to Analyze Citrate Accumulation in Pre- and Post-Harvest Fruits

    Etienne, Audrey; GÉNARD, MICHEL; Bugaud, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. The regulation of citrate accumulation throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the citrate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we developed a process-based model of citrate accumulation based on a simplified representation of the TCA cycle to predict citrate concentration in...

  19. Moderate physical activity from childhood contributes to metabolic health and reduces hepatic fat accumulation in adult rats

    de Moura, Leandro Pereira; Sponton, Amanda Christine da Silva; de Araújo, Michel Barbosa; Dalia, Rodrigo Augusto; PAULI, JOSÉ RODRIGO; Rostom de Mello, Maria Alice

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity, oxidative stress and inflammation, by triggering insulin resistance, may contribute to the accumulation of hepatic fat, and this accumulation by lipotoxicity can lead the organ to fail. Because obesity is growing at an alarming rate and, worryingly, in a precocious way, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of moderate physical training performed from childhood to adulthood on liver fat metabolism in rats. Methods Twenty rats that were 28 days old were divided...

  20. Improved cadmium uptake and accumulation in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii: the impact of citric acid and tartaric acid* #

    Lu, Ling-li; Tian, Sheng-ke; Yang, Xiao-e; Peng, Hong-yun; Li, Ting-qiang

    2013-01-01

    The elucidation of a natural strategy for metal hyperaccumulation enables the rational design of technologies for the clean-up of metal-contaminated soils. Organic acid has been suggested to be involved in toxic metallic element tolerance, translocation, and accumulation in plants. The impact of exogenous organic acids on cadmium (Cd) uptake and translocation in the zinc (Zn)/Cd co-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii was investigated in the present study. By the addition of organic acids, short-t...