WorldWideScience

Sample records for accretion shock instability

  1. Numerical Analysis on Standing Accretion Shock Instability with Neutrino Heating in the Supernova Cores

    Ohnishi, Naofumi; Kotake, Kei; Yamada, Shoichi

    2005-01-01

    We have numerically studied the instability of the spherically symmetric standing accretion shock wave against non-spherical perturbations. We have in mind the application to the collapse-driven supernovae in the post bounce phase, where the prompt shock wave generated by core bounce is commonly stalled. We take an experimental stand point in this paper. Using spherically symmetric, completely steady, shocked accretion flows as unperturbed states, we have clearly observed both the linear grow...

  2. Links between the shock instability in core-collapse supernovae and asymmetric accretions of envelopes

    Takahashi, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Yu; Yamada, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    The explosion mechanism of core-collapse supernovae has not been fully understood yet but multi-dimensional fluid instabilities such as standing accretion shock instability (SASI) and convection are now believed to be crucial for shock revival. Another multi-dimensional effect that has been recently argued is the asymmetric structures in progenitors, which are induced by violent convections in silicon/oxygen layers that occur before the onset of collapse, as revealed by recent numerical simulations of the last stage of massive star evolutions. Furthermore, it has been also demonstrated numerically that accretions of such non-spherical envelopes could facilitate shock revival. These two multi-dimensional may hence hold a key to successful explosions. In this paper, we performed a linear stability analysis of the standing accretion shock in core-collapse supernovae, taking into account non-spherical, unsteady accretion flows onto the shock to clarify the possible links between the two effects. We found that suc...

  3. Numerical Analysis of Standing Accretion Shock Instability with Neutrino Heating in Supernova Cores

    Ohnishi, Naofumi; Kotake, Kei; Yamada, Shoichi

    2006-04-01

    We have numerically studied the instability of the spherically symmetric standing accretion shock wave against nonspherical perturbations. We have in mind the application to collapse-driven supernovae in the postbounce phase, where the prompt shock wave generated by core bounce is commonly stalled. We take an experimental standpoint in this paper. Using spherically symmetric, completely steady, shocked accretion flows as unperturbed states, we have clearly observed both the linear growth and the subsequent nonlinear saturation of the instability. In so doing, we have employed a realistic equation of state, together with heating and cooling via neutrino reactions with nucleons. We have performed a mode analysis based on the spherical harmonics decomposition and found that the modes with l=1,2 are dominant not only in the linear regime but also after nonlinear couplings generate various modes and saturation occurs. By varying the neutrino luminosity, we have constructed unperturbed states both with and without a negative entropy gradient. We have found that in both cases the growth of the instability is similar, suggesting that convection does not play a dominant role, which also appears to be supported by the recent linear analysis of the convection in accretion flows by Foglizzo et al. The oscillation period of the unstable l=1 mode is found to fit better with the advection time rather than with the sound crossing time. Whatever the cause may be, the instability favors a shock revival.

  4. Jittering-jets explosion triggered by the standing accretion shock instability

    Papish, Oded; Soker, Noam

    2015-01-01

    We show that the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) that has been used to ease the shock revival in core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) neutrino-driven explosion models, might play a much more decisive role in supplying the stochastic angular momentum required to trigger an explosion with jittering jets. To play a minor role in neutrino-based explosion models, the kinetic energy of the gas inside the stalled shock associated with the transverse (non-radial) motion should be about more than ten percent of the energy of the accreted gas. We find that this implies a stochastic angular momentum that can reach about five percent of the Keplerian specific angular momentum around the newly born neutron star. Such an accretion flow leaves an open conical region along the poles with an average opening angle of about 5 degrees. The outflow from the open polar region powers an explosion according to the jittering-jets model.

  5. Numerical Analysis on Standing Accretion Shock Instability with Neutrino Heating in the Supernova Cores

    Ohnishi, N; Yamada, S; Ohnishi, Naofumi; Kotake, Kei; Yamada, Shoichi

    2006-01-01

    We have numerically studied the instability of the spherically symmetric standing accretion shock wave against non-spherical perturbations. We have in mind the application to the collapse-driven supernovae in the post bounce phase, where the prompt shock wave generated by core bounce is commonly stalled. We take an experimental stand point in this paper. Using spherically symmetric, completely steady, shocked accretion flows as unperturbed states, we have clearly observed both the linear growth and the subsequent nonlinear saturation of the instability. In so doing, we have employed a realistic equation of state together with heating and cooling via neutrino reactions with nucleons. We have done a mode analysis based on the spherical harmonics decomposition and found that the modes with l=1, 2 are dominant not only in the linear regime, but also after the nonlinear couplings generate various modes and the saturation occurs. Varying the neutrino luminosity, we have constructed the unperturbed states both with ...

  6. Inelastic Neutrino Reactions with Light Nuclei and Standing Accretion Shock Instability in Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Furusawa, S.; Nagakura, H.; Sumiyoshi, K.; Yamada, S.

    2016-01-01

    We perform numerical experiments to investigate the influence of inelastic neutrino reactions with light nuclei on the standing accretion shock instability. The time evolutions of shock waves are calculated with a simple light-bulb approximation for the neutrino transport and a multi-nuclei equation of state. The neutrino absorptions and inelastic interactions with deuterons, tritons, helions and alpha particles are taken into account in the hydrodynamical simulations in addition to the ordinary charged-current interactions with nucleons. Axial symmetry is assumed but no equatorial symmetry is imposed. We show that the heating rates of deuterons reach as high as ∼ 10% of those of nucleons around the bottom of the gain region. On the other hands, alpha particles heat the matter near the shock wave, which is important when the shock wave expands and density and temperature of matter become low. It is also found that the models with heating by light nuclei have different evolutions from those without it in non-linear evolution phase. The matter in the gain region has various densities and temperatures and there appear regions that are locally rich in deuterons and alpha particles. These results indicate that the inelastic reactions of light nuclei, especially deuterons, should be incorporated in the simulations of core-collapse supernovae.

  7. Pulsar spins from an instability in the accretion shock of supernovae.

    Blondin, John M; Mezzacappa, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Rotation-powered radio pulsars are born with inferred initial rotation periods of order 300 ms (some as short as 20 ms) in core-collapse supernovae. In the traditional picture, this fast rotation is the result of conservation of angular momentum during the collapse of a rotating stellar core. This leads to the inevitable conclusion that pulsar spin is directly correlated with the rotation of the progenitor star. So far, however, stellar theory has not been able to explain the distribution of pulsar spins, suggesting that the birth rotation is either too slow or too fast. Here we report a robust instability of the stalled accretion shock in core-collapse supernovae that is able to generate a strong rotational flow in the vicinity of the accreting proto-neutron star. Sufficient angular momentum is deposited on the proto-neutron star to generate a final spin period consistent with observations, even beginning with spherically symmetrical initial conditions. This provides a new mechanism for the generation of neutron star spin and weakens, if not breaks, the assumed correlation between the rotational periods of supernova progenitor cores and pulsar spin. PMID:17203055

  8. Pulsar spins from an instability in the accretion shock of supernovae

    Blondin, J M; Blondin, John M.; Mezzacappa, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Rotation-powered radio pulsars are born with inferred initial rotation periods of order 300 ms (some as short as 20 ms) in core-collapse supernovae. In the traditional picture, this fast rotation is the result of conservation of angular momentum during the collapse of a rotating stellar core. This leads to the inevitable conclusion that pulsar spin is directly correlated with the rotation of the progenitor star. So far, however, stellar theory has not been able to explain the distribution of pulsar spins, suggesting that the birth rotation is either too slow or too fast. Here we report a robust instability of the stalled accretion shock in core-collapse supernovae that is able to generate a strong rotational flow in the vicinity of the accreting proto-neutron star. Sufficient angular momentum is deposited on the proto-neutron star to generate a final spin period consistent with observations, even beginning with spherically symmetrical initial conditions. This provides a new mechanism for the generation of neu...

  9. Gravitational Radiation from Standing Accretion Shock Instability in Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Kotake, K; Yamada, S; Kotake, Kei; Ohnishi, Naofumi; Yamada, Shoichi

    2006-01-01

    We perform long-term two dimensional axisymmetric simulations in the postbounce phase of core-collapse supernovae to study how the asphericities induced by the growth of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) produce the gravitational waveforms. To obtain the neutrino-driven explosions, we parameterize the neutrino fluxes emitted from the central protoneutron star and approximate the neutrino transfer by a light-bulb scheme. We find that the waveforms due to the anisotropic neutrino emissions show the monotonic increase with time, whose amplitudes are up to two order-of-magnitudes larger than the ones from the convective matter motions outside the protoneutron stars. We point out that the amplitudes begin to become larger when the growth of the SASI enters the nonlinear phase, in which the deformation of the shocks and the neutrino anisotropy become large. From the spectrum analysis of the waveforms, we find that the amplitudes from the neutrinos are dominant over the ones from the matter motions at ...

  10. Ringed accretion disks: instabilities

    Pugliese, D

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the possibility that several instability points may be formed, due to the Paczy\\'nski mechanism of violation of mechanical equilibrium, in the orbiting matter around a supermassive Kerr black hole. We consider recently proposed model of ringed accretion disk, made up by several tori (rings) which can be corotating or counterrotating relative to the Kerr attractor due to the history of the accretion process. Each torus is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. We prove that the number of the instability points is generally limited and depends on the dimensionless spin of the rotating attractor.

  11. Ringed Accretion Disks: Instabilities

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the possibility that several instability points may be formed, due to the Paczyński mechanism of violation of mechanical equilibrium, in the orbiting matter around a supermassive Kerr black hole. We consider a recently proposed model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several tori (rings) that can be corotating or counter-rotating relative to the Kerr attractor due to the history of the accretion process. Each torus is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. We prove that the number of the instability points is generally limited and depends on the dimensionless spin of the rotating attractor.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF INELASTIC NEUTRINO REACTIONS WITH LIGHT NUCLEI ON THE STANDING ACCRETION SHOCK INSTABILITY IN CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    Furusawa, Shun; Nagakura, Hiroki; Yamada, Shoichi [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke, E-mail: furusawa@heap.phys.waseda.ac.jp [Numazu College of Technology, Ooka 3600, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-8501 (Japan)

    2013-09-01

    We perform numerical experiments to investigate the influence of inelastic neutrino reactions with light nuclei on the standing accretion shock instability (SASI). The time evolution of shock waves is calculated with a simple light-bulb approximation for the neutrino transport and a multi-nuclei equation of state. The neutrino absorptions and inelastic interactions with deuterons, tritons, helions, and alpha particles are taken into account in the hydrodynamical simulations. In addition, the effects of ordinary charged-current interactions with nucleons is addressed in the simulations. Axial symmetry is assumed but no equatorial symmetry is imposed. We show that the heating rates of deuterons reach as high as {approx}10% of those of nucleons around the bottom of the gain region. On the other hand, alpha particles are heated near the shock wave, which is important when the shock wave expands and the density and temperature of matter become low. It is also found that the models with heating by light nuclei evolve differently in the non-linear phase of SASI than do models that lack heating by light nuclei. This result is because matter in the gain region has a varying density and temperature and therefore sub-regions appear that are locally rich in deuterons and alpha particles. Although the light nuclei are never dominant heating sources and they work favorably for shock revival in some cases and unfavorably in other cases, they are non-negligible and warrant further investigation.

  13. Influences of inelastic neutrino reactions with light nuclei on standing accretion shock instability in core collapse supernovae

    Furusawa, Shun; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Yamada, Shoichi

    2013-01-01

    We perform numerical experiments to investigate the influence of inelastic neutrino reactions with light nuclei on the standing accretion shock instability. The time evolutions of shock waves are calculated with a simple light-bulb approximation for the neutrino transport and a multi-nuclei equation of state. The neutrino absorptions and inelastic interactions with deuterons, tritons, helions and alpha particles are taken into account in the hydrodynamical simulations in addition to the ordinary charged-current interactions with nucleons. Axial symmetry is assumed but no equatorial symmetry is imposed. We show that the heating rates of deuterons reach as high as ~ 10% of those of nucleons around the bottom of the gain region. On the other hands, alpha particles heat the matter near the shock wave,which is important when the shock wave expands and density and temperature of matter become low. It is also found that the models with heating by light nuclei have different evolutions from those without it in non-li...

  14. Limits on the spin up of stellar-mass black holes through a spiral stationary accretion shock instability

    Moreno Méndez, Enrique; Cantiello, Matteo

    2016-04-01

    The spin of a number of black holes (BHs) in binary systems has been measured. In the case of BHs found in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) the observed values are in agreement with some theoretical predictions based on binary stellar evolution. However, using the same evolutionary models, the calculated spins of BHs in high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) fall short compared to the observations. A possible solution to this conundrum is the accretion of high-specific-angular-momentum material after the formation of the BH, although this requires accretion above the Eddington limit. Another suggestion is that the observed high values of the BHs spin could be the result of an asymmetry during Core Collapse (CC). The only available energy to spin up the compact object during CC is its binding energy. A way to convert it to rotational kinetic energy is by using a Standing Accretion Shock Instability (SASI), which can develop during CC and push angular momentum into the central compact object through a spiral mode (m = 1). Here we study the CC-SASI scenario and discuss, in the case of LMXBs and HMXBs, the limits for the spin of a stellar-mass BHs. Our results predict a strong dichotomy in the maximum spin of low-mass compact objects and massive BHs found in HMXBs. The maximum spin value (|a⋆|) for a compact object near the mass boundary between BHs and NSs is found to be somewhere between 0.27 and 0.38, depending on whether secular or dynamical instabilities limit the efficiency of the spin up process. For more massive BHs, such as those found in HMXBs, the natal spin is substantially smaller and for MBH > 8M⊙ spin is limited to values |a⋆| ≲ 0.05. Therefore we conclude that the observed high spins of BHs in HMXBs cannot be the result of a CC-SASI spin up.

  15. Instabilities of advection-dominated accretion flows

    Chen, X

    1996-01-01

    Accretion disk instabilities are briefly reviewed. Some details are given to the short-wavelength thermal instabilities and the convective instabilities. Time-dependent calculations of two-dimensional advection-dominated accretion flows are presented.

  16. Instabilities of Advection-Dominated Accretion Flows

    Chen, Xingming

    1996-01-01

    Accretion disk instabilities are briefly reviewed. Some details are given to the short-wavelength thermal instabilities and the convective instabilities. Time-dependent calculations of two-dimensional advection-dominated accretion flows are presented.

  17. Instability in Shocked Granular Gases

    Sirmas, Nick; Falle, Sam; Radulescu, Matei

    2013-01-01

    Shocks in granular media, such as vertically oscillated beds, have been shown to develop instabilities. Similar jet formation has been observed in explosively dispersed granular media. Our previous work addressed this instability by performing discrete-particle simulations of inelastic media undergoing shock compression. By allowing finite dissipation within the shock wave, instability manifests itself as distinctive high density non-uniformities and convective rolls within the shock structur...

  18. Shock instability in dissipative gases

    Radulescu, Matei I.; Sirmas, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Previous experiments have revealed that shock waves in thermally relaxing gases, such as ionizing, dissociating and vibrationally excited gases, can become unstable. To date, the mechanism controlling this instability has not been resolved. Previous accounts of the D'yakov-Kontorovich instability, and Bethe-Zel'dovich-Thompson behaviour could not predict the experimentally observed instability. To address the mechanism controlling the instability, we study the propagation of shock waves in a ...

  19. Interaction of Accretion Shocks with Winds

    Kinsuk Acharya; Sandip K. Chakrabarti; D. Molteni

    2002-03-01

    Accretion shocks are known to oscillate in presence of cooling processes in the disk. This oscillation may also cause quasi-periodic oscillations of black holes. In the presence of strong winds, these shocks have oscillations in vertical direction as well.We show examples of shock oscillations under the influence of both the effects. When the shocks are absent and the flow is cooler, the wind becomes weaker and the vertical oscillation becomes negligible.

  20. Instability in Shocked Granular Gases

    Sirmas, Nick; Radulescu, Matei

    2013-01-01

    Shocks in granular media, such as vertically oscillated beds, have been shown to develop instabilities. Similar jet formation has been observed in explosively dispersed granular media. Our previous work addressed this instability by performing discrete-particle simulations of inelastic media undergoing shock compression. By allowing finite dissipation within the shock wave, instability manifests itself as distinctive high density non-uniformities and convective rolls within the shock structure. In the present study we have extended this work to investigate this instability at the continuum level. We modeled the Euler equations for granular gases with a modified cooling rate to include an impact velocity threshold necessary for inelastic collisions. Our results showed a fair agreement between the continuum and discrete-particle models. Discrepancies, such as higher frequency instabilities in our continuum results may be attributed to the absence of higher order effects.

  1. Instability in shocked granular gases

    Shocks in granular media, such as vertically oscillated beds, have been shown to develop instabilities. Similar jet formation has been observed in explosively dispersed granular media. Our previous work addressed this instability by performing discrete-particle simulations of inelastic media undergoing shock compression. By allowing finite dissipation within the shock wave, instability manifests itself as distinctive high density non-uniformities and convective rolls within the shock structure. In the present study we have extended this work to investigate this instability at the continuum level. We modeled the Euler equations for granular gases with a modified cooling rate to include an impact velocity threshold necessary for inelastic collisions. Our results showed a fair agreement between the continuum and discrete-particle models. Discrepancies, such as higher frequency instabilities in our continuum results may be attributed to the absence of higher order effects.

  2. Nonlinear Instabilities in Shock-Bounded Slabs

    Vishniac, E T

    1993-01-01

    (substantial changes to section 3.2, otherwise minor) We present an analysis of the hydrodynamic stability of a cold slab bounded by two accretion shocks. Previous numerical work has shown that when the Mach number of the shock is large the slab is unstable. Here we show that to linear order both the bending and breathing modes of such a slab are stable. However, nonlinear effects will tend to soften the restoring forces for bending modes, and when the slab displacement is comparable to its thickness this gives rise to a nonlinear instability. The growth rate of the instability, above this threshold but for small bending angles, is $\\sim c_sk (k\\eta)^{1/2}$, where $\\eta$ is the slab displacement. When the bending angle is large the slab will contain a local vorticity comparable to $c_s/L$, where $L$ is the slab thickness. We discuss the implications of this work for gravitational instabilities of slabs. Finally, we examine the cases of a decelerating slab bounded by a single shock and a stationary slab bounde...

  3. Gravitational Instability in Neutrino Dominated Accretion Disks

    We revisit the vertical structure of neutrino-dominated accretion flows (NDAFs) in spherical coordinates under a boundary condition based on a mechanical equilibrium. The solutions show that the NDAF is significantly geometrically thick. The Toomre parameter is determined by the mass accretion rate and the viscosity parameter, which is defined as Q = cSΩ/πGΣ, where cS, Ω and Σ are the sound speed, angular velocity and surface density, respectively. According to the distribution of the Toomre parameter, the possible fragments of the disk may appear near the disk surface in the outer region. These possible outflows originating from the gravitational instability of the disk may account for the late-time flares in gamma-ray bursts. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  4. Standing Shocks in Viscous Accretion Flows around Black Holes

    GU Wei-Min; LU Ju-Fu

    2005-01-01

    @@ We study the problem of standing shocks in viscous accretion flows around black holes.We parameterize such a flow with two physical constants, namely the specific angular momentum accreted by the black hole j and the energy quantity K.By providing the global dependence of shock formation in the j - K parameter space, we show that a significant parameter region can ensure solutions with shocks of different types, namely Rankine-Hugoniot shocks, isothermal shocks, and more realistically, mixed shocks.

  5. Generalized Shock Solutions for Hydrodynamic Black Hole Accretion

    Das, Tapas Kumar

    2002-01-01

    For the first time, {\\it all} available pseudo-Schwarzschild potentials are exhaustively used to investigate the possibility of shock formation in hydrodynamic, invicid, black hole accretion discs. It is shown that a significant region of parameter space spanned by important accretion parameters allows shock formation for flow in {\\it all} potentials used in this work. This leads to the conclusion that the standing shocks are essential ingredients in accretion discs around non-rotating black ...

  6. Parametric study of flow patterns behind the standing accretion shock wave for core-collapse supernovae

    In this study, we conduct three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations systematically to investigate the flow patterns behind the accretion shock waves that are commonly formed in the post-bounce phase of core-collapse supernovae. Adding small perturbations to spherically symmetric, steady, shocked accretion flows, we compute the subsequent evolutions to find what flow pattern emerges as a consequence of hydrodynamical instabilities such as convection and standing accretion shock instability for different neutrino luminosities and mass accretion rates. Depending on these two controlling parameters, various flow patterns are indeed realized. We classify them into three basic patterns and two intermediate ones; the former includes sloshing motion (SL), spiral motion (SP), and multiple buoyant bubble formation (BB); the latter consists of spiral motion with buoyant-bubble formation (SPB) and spiral motion with pulsationally changing rotational velocities (SPP). Although the post-shock flow is highly chaotic, there is a clear trend in the pattern realization. The sloshing and spiral motions tend to be dominant for high accretion rates and low neutrino luminosities, and multiple buoyant bubbles prevail for low accretion rates and high neutrino luminosities. It is interesting that the dominant pattern is not always identical between the semi-nonlinear and nonlinear phases near the critical luminosity; the intermediate cases are realized in the latter case. Running several simulations with different random perturbations, we confirm that the realization of flow pattern is robust in most cases.

  7. Intermittent activity of radio sources. Accretion instabilities and jet precession

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Janiuk, A.; Siemiginowska, A.; Gawronski, M.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the radiation pressure instability operating on short timescales 10^3 - 10^6 years in the accretion disk around a supermassive black hole as the origin of the intermittent activity of radio sources. We test whether this instability can be responsible for short ages (

  8. Magnetic Instability in Accretion Disks with Anomalous Viscosity

    ZHOU Ai-Ping; LI Xiao-Qing

    2004-01-01

    @@ Using the new model of anomalous viscosity, we investigate the magnetic instability in the accretion disks and give the dispersion formula. On the basis of the dispersion relation obtained, it is numerically shown that the instability condition of viscous accretion disk is well consistent with that of the ideal accretion disk, namely there would be magneto-rotational instability in the presence of a vertical weak magnetic field. For a given distance R from the centre of the disk, the growth rate in the anomalous case deviates from the ideal case more greatly when the vertical magnetic field is smaller. The large viscosity limits to the instability. In the two cases, the distributions of growth rate with wave number k approach each other when the magnetic field increases. It greatly represses the effect of viscosity.

  9. Standing Rankine-Hugoniot Shocks in Black Hole Accretion Discs

    GU Wei-Min; LU Ju-Fu

    2004-01-01

    @@ We study the problem of standing shocks in viscous disc-like accretion flows around black holes. For the first time we parametrize such a flow with two physical constants, namely the specific angular momentum accreted by the black hole j and the energy quantity K. By providing the global dependence of shock formation in the j - K parameter space, we show that a significant parameter region can ensure solutions with Rankine-Hugoniot shocks; and that the possibilities of shock formation are the largest for inviscid flows, decreasing with increasing viscosity, and ceasing to exist for a strong enough viscosity. Our results support the view that the standing shock is an essential ingredient in black hole accretion discs and is a general phenomenon in astrophysics, and that there should be a continuous change from the properties of inviscid flows to those of viscous ones.

  10. X-Ray Spectroscopy of Accretion Shocks in Young Stars

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    2011-01-01

    High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of accreting young stars is providing new insights into the physical conditions of the shocked plasma. While young stars exhibit exceedingly active coronae (>10 MK) with highly energetic flares, the relatively low temperature ( 3 MK), high density (>1012 cm-3) accretion shock can only be clearly distinguished at high spectral resolution. The nearby Classical T Tauri star TW Hydrae was the first to show evidence of accretion using 50 ks with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG). More recently a Chandra HETG Large Program (489 ks obtained over the course of one month) on TW Hydrae has found evidence for a new type of coronal structure. In the standard model, the accreting gas shocks near the atmosphere of the star and gently settles onto the surface as it slows down and cools. On TW Hydrae the observed post-shock region is not this predicted settling flow, since its mass is 30 times the mass of material that passes through the shock. Instead the stellar atmosphere must be heated to soft X-ray emitting temperatures. Of the CTTS systems observed with the gratings on Chandra and XMM-Newton not all show the accretion shock signature; however, all of them show excess soft X-ray emission related to accretion. The production of highly charged ions in the proximity of both open and closed magnetic field lines has important implications for coronal heating, winds and jets in the presence of accretion. This work is supported by the Chandra X-ray Observatory through a NASA contract with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

  11. Physical and radiative properties of the first core accretion shock

    Commerçon, Benoît; Chabrier, Gilles; Chièze, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Radiative shocks play a dominant role in star formation. The accretion shocks on the first and second Larson's cores involve radiative processes and are thus characteristic of radiative shocks. In this study, we explore the formation of the first Larson's core and characterize the radiative and dynamical properties of the accretion shock, using both analytical and numerical approaches. We develop both numerical RHD calculations and a semi-analytical model that characterize radiative shocks in various physical conditions, for radiating or barotropic fluids. Then, we perform 1D spherical collapse calculations of the first Larson's core, using a grey approximation for the opacity of the material. We consider three different models for radiative transfer, namely: the barotropic approximation, the FLD approximation and the more complete M1 model. We investigate the characteristic properties of the collapse and of the first core formation. Comparison between the numerical results and our semi-analytical model shows...

  12. Radiative Shocks in Rotating Accretion Flows around Black Holes

    Okuda, T; Toscano, E; Molteni, D

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the rotating accretion flows around black holes form shock waves close to the black holes, after the flow passes through the outer sonic point and can be virtually stopped by the centrifugal force. We examine numerically such shock waves in 1D and 2D accretion flows, taking account of the cooling and heating of gas and the radiation transport. The numerical results show that the shock location shifts outward compared with that in the adiabatic solutions and that the more rarefied ambient density leads to the more outward shock position. In the 2D-flow, we find an intermediate frequency QPO behavior of the shock location as is observed in the black hole candidate GRS 1915+105.

  13. Global MHD Simulations of Accretion Disks in Cataclysmic Variables. I. The Importance of Spiral Shocks

    Ju, Wenhua; Stone, James M.; Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2016-06-01

    We present results from the first global 3D MHD simulations of accretion disks in cataclysmic variable (CV) systems in order to investigate the relative importance of angular momentum transport via turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) compared with that driven by spiral shock waves. Remarkably, we find that even with vigorous MRI turbulence, spiral shocks are an important component of the overall angular momentum budget, at least when temperatures in the disk are high (so that Mach numbers are low). In order to understand the excitation, propagation, and damping of spiral density waves in our simulations more carefully, we perform a series of 2D global hydrodynamical simulations with various equation of states, both with and without mass inflow via the Lagrangian point (L1). Compared with previous similar studies, we find the following new results. (1) The linear wave dispersion relation fits the pitch angles of spiral density waves very well. (2) We demonstrate explicitly that mass accretion is driven by the deposition of negative angular momentum carried by the waves when they dissipate in shocks. (3) Using Reynolds stress scaled by gas pressure to represent the effective angular momentum transport rate {α }{eff} is not accurate when mass accretion is driven by non-axisymmetric shocks. (4) Using the mass accretion rate measured in our simulations to directly measure α defined in standard thin-disk theory, we find 0.02≲ {α }{eff}≲ 0.05 for CV disks, consistent with observed values in quiescent states of dwarf novae. In this regime, the disk may be too cool and neutral for the MRI to operate and spiral shocks are a possible accretion mechanism. However, we caution that our simulations use unrealistically low Mach numbers in this regime and, therefore, future models with more realistic thermodynamics and non-ideal MHD are warranted.

  14. Local Dynamical Instabilities in Magnetized, Radiation Pressure Supported Accretion Disks

    Blaes, Omer M; Blaes, Omer; Socrates, Aristotle

    2000-01-01

    We present a general linear dispersion relation which describes the coupled behavior of magnetorotational, photon bubble, and convective instabilities in weakly magnetized, differentially rotating accretion disks. We presume the accretion disks to be geometrically thin and supported vertically by radiation pressure. We fully incorporate the effects of a nonzero radiative diffusion length on the linear modes. In an equilibrium with purely vertical magnetic field, the vertical magnetorotational modes are completely unaffected by compressibility, stratification, and radiative diffusion. However, in the presence of azimuthal fields, which are expected in differentially rotating flows, the growth rate of all magnetorotational modes can be reduced substantially below the orbital frequency. This occurs if diffusion destroys radiation sound waves on the length scale of the instability, and the magnetic energy density of the azimuthal component exceeds the non-radiative thermal energy density. While sluggish in this c...

  15. Accretion of supersonic winds onto black holes in 3D: stability of the shock cone

    Gracia-Linares, M

    2015-01-01

    Using numerical simulations we present the accretion of supersonic winds onto a rotating black hole in three dimensions. We study five representative directions of the wind with respect to the axis of rotation of the black hole and focus on the evolution and stability of the high density shock cone that is formed during the process. We explore both, the regime in which the shock cone is expected to be stable in order to confirm previous results obtained with two dimensional simulations, and the regime in which the shock cone is expected to show a flip-flop type of instability. The methods used to attempt triggering the instability were first the accumulation of numerical errors and second the explicit application of a perturbation on the velocity field after the shock-cone was formed. The result is negative, that is, we did not find the flip-flop instability within the parameter space we explored, which includes cases that are expected to be unstable.

  16. Aerodynamic instability of a cylinder with thin ice accretion

    Gjelstrup, Henrik; Georgakis, Christos

    2009-01-01

    selected. This was then used in the generation of a generalized ice profile. The generalized ice profile was selected so as to depict with a fair degree of representation the most commonly observed ice accretion on the Great Belt East Bridge. Subsequently, the generalized ice profile was manufactured by...... use of rapid prototyping. Next, a series of static wind tunnel tests were undertaken to determine the aerodynamic force coefficients of the rapidly prototyped hanger sectional model. Finally the aerodynamic force coefficients (drag, lift and moment), found from the static wind tunnel tests, were used...... to determine the potential for aerodynamic instability of the hanger through application of the quasi-steady theory developed by Gjelstrup et al. [9-10]. The application of the theoretical model yield regions of expected aerodynamic instability in which the observed vibrations of the Great Belt East...

  17. Instability of an accretion disk with a magnetically driven wind

    Cao, X.; Spruit, H. C.

    2002-04-01

    We present a linear analysis of the stability of accretion disks in which angular momentum is removed by the magnetic torque exerted by a centrifugally driven wind. The effects of the dependence of the wind torque on field strength and inclination, the sub-Keplerian rotation due to magnetic forces, and the compression of the disk by the field are included. A WKB dispersion relation is derived for the stability problem. We find that the disk is always unstable if the wind torque is strong. The growth time scale of the instability can be as short as the orbital time scale. The instability is mainly the result of the sensitivity of the mass flux to changes in the inclination of the field at the disk surface. Magnetic diffusion in the disk stabilizes if the wind torque is small.

  18. Global MHD Simulations of Accretion Disks in Cataclysmic Variables (CVs): I. The Importance of Spiral Shocks

    Ju, Wenhua; Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2016-01-01

    We present results from the first global 3D MHD simulations of accretion disks in Cataclysmic Variable (CV) systems in order to investigate the relative importance of angular momentum transport via turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) compared to that driven by spiral shock waves. Remarkably, we find that even with vigorous MRI turbulence, spiral shocks are an important component to the overall angular momentum budget, at least when temperatures in the disk are high (so that Mach numbers are low). In order to understand the excitation, propagation, and damping of spiral density waves in our simulations more carefully, we perform a series of 2D global hydrodynamical simulations with various equation of states and both with and without mass inflow via the Lagrangian point (L1). Compared with previous similar studies, we find the following new results. 1) Linear wave dispersion relation fits the pitch angles of spiral density waves very well. 2) We demonstrate explicitly that mass accreti...

  19. Instability in stratified accretion flows under primary and secondary perturbations

    Nasraoui, S.; Salhi, A.; Lehner, T.

    2015-04-01

    We consider horizontal linear shear flow (shear rate denoted by Λ ) under vertical uniform rotation (ambient rotation rate denoted by Ω0 ) and vertical stratification (buoyancy frequency denoted by N ) in unbounded domain. We show that, under a primary vertical velocity perturbation and a radial density perturbation consisting of a one-dimensional standing wave with frequency N and amplitude proportional to w0sin(ɛ N x /w0) ≈ɛ N x (≪1 ) , where x denotes the radial coordinate and ɛ a small parameter, a parametric instability can develop in the flow, provided N2>8 Ω0(2 Ω0-Λ ) . For astrophysical accretion flows and under the shearing sheet approximation, this implies N2>8 Ω02(2 -q ) , where q =Λ /Ω0 is the local shear gradient. In the case of a stratified constant angular momentum disk, q =2 , there is a parametric instability with the maximal growth rate (σm/ɛ ) =3 √{3 }/16 for any positive value of the buoyancy frequency N . In contrast, for a stratified Keplerian disk, q =1.5 , the parametric instability appears only for N >2 Ω0 with a maximal growth rate that depends on the ratio Ω0/N and approaches (3 √{3 }/16 )ɛ for large values of N .

  20. Cures for the Expansion Shock and the Shock Instability of the Roe Scheme

    Li, Xue-song; Gu, Chun-wei

    2016-01-01

    A common defect of the Roe scheme is the production of non-physical expansion shock and shock instability. An improved method with several advantages was presented to suppress the shock instability. However, this method cannot prevent expansion shock and is incompatible with the traditional curing method for expansion shock. Therefore, the traditional curing mechanism is analyzed. The discussion explains the effectiveness of the traditional curing method and identifies several defects, one of which leads to incompatibility between curing the shock instability and expansion shock. Consequently, a new improved Roe scheme is proposed in this study. This scheme is concise, easy to implement, low computational cost, and robust. More importantly, the scheme can simultaneously cure the shock instability and expansion shock without additional costs.

  1. 3D numerical modeling of YSO accretion shocks

    Matsakos T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of YSO accretion shocks is determined by radiative processes as well as the strength and structure of the magnetic field. A quasi-periodic emission signature is theoretically expected to be observed, but observations do not confirm any such pattern. In this work, we assume a uniform background field, in the regime of optically thin energy losses, and we study the multi-dimensional shock evolution in the presence of perturbations, i.e. clumps in the stream and an acoustic energy flux flowing at the base of the chromosphere. We perform 3D MHD simulations using the PLUTO code, modelling locally the impact of the infalling gas onto the chromosphere. We find that the structure and dynamics of the post-shock region is strongly dependent on the plasma-beta (thermal over magnetic pressure, different values of which may give distinguishable emission signatures, relevant for observations. In particular, a strong magnetic field effectively confines the plasma inside its flux tubes and leads to the formation of quasi-independent fibrils. The fibrils may oscillate out of phase and hence the sum of their contributions in the emission results in a smooth overall profile. On the contrary, a weak magnetic field is not found to have any significant effect on the shocked plasma and the turbulent hot slab that forms is found to retain its periodic signature.

  2. Stability of stagnation via an expanding accretion shock wave

    Velikovich, A L; Taylor, B D; Giuliani, J L; Zalesak, S T; Iwamoto, Y

    2016-01-01

    Stagnation of a cold plasma streaming to the center or axis of symmetry via an expanding accretion shock wave is ubiquitous in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density plasma physics, the examples ranging from plasma flows in x-ray-generating Z pinches [Y. Maron et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 035001 (2013)] to the experiments in support of the recently suggested concept of impact ignition in ICF [H. Azechi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 235002 (2009); M. Murakami et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 054007 (2014)]. Some experimental evidence indicates that stagnation via an expanding shock wave is stable, but its stability has never been studied theoretically. We present such analysis for the stagnation that does not involve a rarefaction wave behind the expanding shock front and is described by the classic ideal-gas Noh solution in spherical and cylindrical geometry. In either case the stagnated flow has been demonstrated to be stable, initial perturbations exhibiting a power-law, oscillatory or monotonic...

  3. Stability of stagnation via an expanding accretion shock wave

    Velikovich, A. L.; Murakami, M.; Taylor, B. D.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.; Iwamoto, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Stagnation of a cold plasma streaming to the center or axis of symmetry via an expanding accretion shock wave is ubiquitous in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density plasma physics, the examples ranging from plasma flows in x-ray-generating Z pinches [Maron et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 035001 (2013)] to the experiments in support of the recently suggested concept of impact ignition in ICF [Azechi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 235002 (2009); Murakami et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 054007 (2014)]. Some experimental evidence indicates that stagnation via an expanding shock wave is stable, but its stability has never been studied theoretically. We present such analysis for the stagnation that does not involve a rarefaction wave behind the expanding shock front and is described by the classic ideal-gas Noh solution in spherical and cylindrical geometry. In either case, the stagnated flow has been demonstrated to be stable, initial perturbations exhibiting a power-law, oscillatory or monotonic, decay with time for all the eigenmodes. This conclusion has been supported by our simulations done both on a Cartesian grid and on a curvilinear grid in spherical coordinates. Dispersion equation determining the eigenvalues of the problem and explicit formulas for the eigenfunction profiles corresponding to these eigenvalues are presented, making it possible to use the theory for hydrocode verification in two and three dimensions.

  4. Nature of the Wiggle Instability of Galactic Spiral Shocks

    Kim, Woong-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Gas in disk galaxies interacts nonlinearly with an underlying stellar spiral potential to form galactic spiral shocks. While numerical simulations typically show that spiral shocks are unstable to wiggle instability (WI) even in the absence of magnetic fields and self-gravity, its physical nature has remained uncertain. To clarify the mechanism behind the WI, we conduct a normal-mode linear stability analysis as well as nonlinear simulations assuming that the disk is isothermal and infinitesimally thin. We find that the WI is physical, originating from the generation of potential vorticity at a deformed shock front, rather than Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities as previously thought. Since gas in galaxy rotation periodically passes through the shocks multiple times, the potential vorticity can accumulate successively, setting up a normal mode that grows exponentially with time. Eigenfunctions of the WI decay exponentially downstream from the shock front. Both shock compression of acoustic waves and a discontinui...

  5. Magnetic curtailment of the shock-induced thermal instability

    Efect of magnetic field on the thermal instability is studied in the radiatively cooling region behind an intersteller shock of moderate propagation velocity (approx.10km/sec). It is shown that the presence of intersteller magnetic field of a few micro gauss is very effective in preventing the thermal instability from building-up density concentration. In the absence of magnetic field, the shock-induced thermal instability amplifies preshock density inhomogeneity by more than an order of magnitude. However, in the presence of magnetic field, the amplified density contrast is shown to be only a factor 2. (Author)

  6. Soft X-Ray Excess from Shocked Accreting Plasma in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Fukumura, Keigo; Clark, Peter; Tombesi, Francesco; Takahashi, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel theoretical model to describe a physical identity of the soft X-ray excess, ubiquitously detected in many Seyfert galaxies, by considering a steady-state, axisymmetric plasma accretion within the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) around a black hole (BH) accretion disk. We extend our earlier theoretical investigations on general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) accretion which has implied that the accreting plasma can develop into a standing shock for suitable physical conditions causing the downstream flow to be sufficiently hot due to shock compression. We numerically calculate to examine, for sets of fiducial plasma parameters, a physical nature of fast MHD shocks under strong gravity for different BH spins. We show that thermal seed photons from the standard accretion disk can be effectively Compton up-scattered by the energized sub-relativistic electrons in the hot downstream plasma to produce the soft excess feature in X-rays. As a case study, we construct a three-paramet...

  7. The subcritical baroclinic instability in local accretion disc models

    Lesur, G

    2009-01-01

    (abridged) Aims: We present new results exhibiting a subcritical baroclinic instability (SBI) in local shearing box models. We describe the 2D and 3D behaviour of this instability using numerical simulations and we present a simple analytical model describing the underlying physical process. Results: A subcritical baroclinic instability is observed in flows stable for the Solberg-Hoiland criterion using local simulations. This instability is found to be a nonlinear (or subcritical) instability, which cannot be described by ordinary linear approaches. It requires a radial entropy gradient weakly unstable for the Schwartzchild criterion and a strong thermal diffusivity (or equivalently a short cooling time). In compressible simulations, the instability produces density waves which transport angular momentum outward with typically alpha<3e-3, the exact value depending on the background temperature profile. Finally, the instability survives in 3D, vortex cores becoming turbulent due to parametric instabilities...

  8. Electrostatic Instabilities at High Frequency in a Plasma Shock Front

    LV Jian-Hong; HE Yong; HU Xi-Wei

    2007-01-01

    New electrostatic instabilities in the plasma shock front are reported.These instabilities are driven by the electrostatic field which is caused by charge separation and the parameter gradients in a plasma shock front.The linear analysis to the high frequency branch of electrostatic instabilities has been carried out and the dispersion relations are obtained numerically.There are unstable disturbing waves in both the parallel and perpendicular directions of shock propagation.The real frequencies of both unstable waves are similar to the electron electrostatic wave,and the unstable growth rate in the parallel direction is much greater than the one in the perpendicular direction.The dependence of growth rates on the electric field and parameter gradients is also presented.

  9. Radiative accretion shocks along nonuniform stellar magnetic fields in classical T Tauri stars

    Orlando, S; Argiroffi, C; Reale, F; Peres, G; Miceli, M; Matsakos, T; Stehle', C; Ibgui, L; de Sa, L; Chie`ze, J P; Lanz, T

    2013-01-01

    (abridged) AIMS. We investigate the dynamics and stability of post-shock plasma streaming along nonuniform stellar magnetic fields at the impact region of accretion columns. We study how the magnetic field configuration and strength determine the structure, geometry, and location of the shock-heated plasma. METHODS. We model the impact of an accretion stream onto the chromosphere of a CTTS by 2D axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Our model takes into account the gravity, the radiative cooling, and the magnetic-field-oriented thermal conduction. RESULTS. The structure, stability, and location of the shocked plasma strongly depend on the configuration and strength of the magnetic field. For weak magnetic fields, a large component of B may develop perpendicular to the stream at the base of the accretion column, limiting the sinking of the shocked plasma into the chromosphere. An envelope of dense and cold chromospheric material may also develop around the shocked column. For strong magnetic fields, th...

  10. Supermassive star formation via episodic accretion: protostellar disc instability and radiative feedback efficiency

    Sakurai, Y.; Vorobyov, E. I.; Hosokawa, T.; Yoshida, N.; Omukai, K.; Yorke, H. W.

    2016-06-01

    The formation of supermassive stars (SMSs) is a potential pathway to seed supermassive black holes in the early universe. A critical issue for forming SMSs is stellar UV feedback, which may limit the stellar mass growth via accretion. In this paper, we study the evolution of an accreting SMS and its UV emissivity with realistic variable accretion from a circumstellar disc. First we conduct a 2D hydrodynamical simulation to follow the protostellar accretion until the stellar mass exceeds 104 M⊙. The disc fragments by gravitational instability, creating many clumps that migrate inward to fall on to the star. The resulting accretion history is highly time-dependent: short episodic accretion bursts are followed by longer quiescent phases. We show that the disc for the direct collapse model is more unstable and generates greater variability than normal Pop III cases. Next, we conduct a stellar evolution calculation using the obtained accretion history. Our results show that, regardless of the variable accretion, the stellar radius monotonically increases with almost constant effective temperature at Teff ≃ 5000 K as the stellar mass increases. The resulting UV feedback is too weak to hinder accretion due to the low flux of stellar UV photons. The insensitivity of stellar evolution to variable accretion is attributed to the fact that time-scales of variability, ≲103 yr, are too short to affect the stellar structure. We argue that this evolution will continue until the SMS collapses to produce a black hole by the general relativistic instability after the mass reaches ≳105 M⊙.

  11. DIFFUSIVE PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN SHOCKED, VISCOUS ACCRETION DISKS: GREEN'S FUNCTION ENERGY DISTRIBUTION

    The acceleration of relativistic particles in a viscous accretion disk containing a standing shock is investigated as a possible explanation for the energetic outflows observed around radio-loud black holes. The energy/space distribution of the accelerated particles is computed by solving a transport equation that includes the effects of first-order Fermi acceleration, bulk advection, spatial diffusion, and particle escape. The velocity profile of the accreting gas is described using a model for shocked viscous disks recently developed by the authors, and the corresponding Green's function distribution for the accelerated particles in the disk and the outflow is obtained using a classical method based on eigenfunction analysis. The accretion-driven, diffusive shock acceleration scenario explored here is conceptually similar to the standard model for the acceleration of cosmic rays at supernova-driven shocks. However, in the disk application, the distribution of the accelerated particles is much harder than would be expected for a plane-parallel shock with the same compression ratio. Hence the disk environment plays a key role in enhancing the efficiency of the shock acceleration process. The presence of the shock helps to stabilize the disk by reducing the Bernoulli parameter, while channeling the excess binding energy into the escaping relativistic particles. In applications to M87 and Sgr A*, we find that the kinetic power in the jet is ∼0.01 M-dot c2, and the outflowing relativistic particles have a mean energy ∼300 times larger than that of the thermal gas in the disk at the shock radius. Our results suggest that a standing shock may be an essential ingredient in accretion onto underfed black holes, helping to resolve the long-standing problem of the stability of advection-dominated accretion disks.

  12. Theoretical, numerical and experimental study of accretion shocks dynamics in magnetic cataclysmic variables

    Magnetic cataclysmic variables are interacting binary Systems containing a highly magnetized white dwarf which accretes material from a companion. Material is led along magnetic field lines and falls onto the magnetic pole(s) supersonically forming an accretion column. As the material hits the surface, a reverse shock is formed and the shocked region is structured by the cooling effect of radiation processes. This work is a multidisciplinary study of the dynamics of the accretion column. Firstly, a numerical study of the accretion column structure at the astrophysical scale is presented. The observational consequences are discussed. This approach is completed by experiments using radiative flows generated by powerful lasers. The relevance of such experiments is based on the establishment of scaling laws. News scaling laws in the frame of radiative ideal or resistive MHD are exposed. The results of the sizing and the interpretation of the POLAR experimental campaign of 2012 on LULI2000 installation are presented. (author)

  13. Collisionless shock experiments with lasers and observation of Weibel instabilities

    Park, H.-S., E-mail: park1@llnl.gov; Huntington, C. M.; Fiuza, F.; Levy, M. C.; Pollock, B. B.; Remington, B. A.; Ross, J. S.; Ryutov, D. D.; Turnbull, D. P.; Weber, S. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Froula, D. H.; Rosenberg, M. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14636 (United States); Gregori, G.; Meinecke, J. [University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Koenig, M. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Kugland, N. L. [Lam Research Corporation, Fremont, California 94538 (United States); Lamb, D. Q.; Tzeferacos, P. [University of Chicago, Chicago, California 94538 (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    Astrophysical collisionless shocks are common in the universe, occurring in supernova remnants, gamma ray bursts, and protostellar jets. They appear in colliding plasma flows when the mean free path for ion-ion collisions is much larger than the system size. It is believed that such shocks could be mediated via the electromagnetic Weibel instability in astrophysical environments without pre-existing magnetic fields. Here, we present laboratory experiments using high-power lasers and investigate the dynamics of high-Mach-number collisionless shock formation in two interpenetrating plasma streams. Our recent proton-probe experiments on Omega show the characteristic filamentary structures of the Weibel instability that are electromagnetic in nature with an inferred magnetization level as high as ∼1% [C. M. Huntington et al., “Observation of magnetic field generation via the weibel instability in interpenetrating plasma flows,” Nat. Phys. 11, 173–176 (2015)]. These results imply that electromagnetic instabilities are significant in the interaction of astrophysical conditions.

  14. The signature of the magnetorotational instability in the Reynolds and Maxwell stress tensors in accretion discs

    Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan; Psaltis, Dimitrios

    2006-01-01

    The magnetorotational instability is thought to be responsible for the generation of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that leads to enhanced outward angular momentum transport in accretion discs. Here, we present the first formal analytical proof showing that, during the exponential growth of the...

  15. Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays as heavy nuclei from cluster accretion shocks

    Inoue, Susumu; Sigl, Guenter; Miniati, Francesco; Armengaud, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale accretion shocks around massive clusters of galaxies, generically expected in the cold dark matter scenario of cosmological structure formation, are shown to be plausible sources of the observed ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) by accelerating a mixture of heavy nuclei including the iron group elements. Current observations can be explained if the source composition at injection for the heavier nuclei is somewhat enhanced from simple expectations for the accreting gas. The pr...

  16. Kinetic instabilities in plasmas: from electromagnetic fluctuations to collisionless shocks

    Collisionless shocks play a major role in powerful astrophysical objects (e.g., gamma-ray bursts, supernova remnants, pulsar winds, etc.), where they are thought to be responsible for non-thermal particle acceleration and radiation. Numerical simulations have shown that, in the absence of an external magnetic field, these self-organizing structures originate from electromagnetic instabilities triggered by high-velocity colliding flows. These Weibel-like instabilities are indeed capable of producing the magnetic turbulence required for both efficient scattering and Fermi-type acceleration. Along with rapid advances in their theoretical understanding, intense effort is now underway to generate collisionless shocks in the laboratory using energetic lasers. In a first part we study the (w,k)-resolved electromagnetic thermal spectrum sustained by a drifting relativistic plasma. In particular, we obtain analytical formulae for the fluctuation spectra, the latter serving as seeds for growing magnetic modes in counterstreaming plasmas. Distinguishing between sub-luminal and supra-luminal thermal fluctuations, we derived analytical formulae of their respective spectral contributions. Comparisons with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are made, showing close agreement in the sub-luminal regime along with some discrepancy in the supra-luminal regime. Our formulae are then used to estimate the saturation time of the Weibel instability of relativistic pair plasmas. Our predictions are shown to match 2-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations over a three-decade range in flow energy. We then develop a predictive kinetic model of the nonlinear phase of the Weibel instability induced by two counter-streaming, symmetric and non-relativistic ion beams. This self consistent, fully analytical model allows us to follow the evolution of the beams' properties up to a stage close to complete isotropization and thus to shock formation. Its predictions are supported by 2D and 3D particle

  17. Electron Weibel Instability Mediated Laser Driven Electromagnetic Collisionless Shock

    Jia, Qing; Mima, Kunioki; Cai, Hong-Bo; Taguchi, Toshihiro; Nagatomo, Hideo; He, X. T.

    2015-11-01

    As a fundamental nonlinear structure, collisionless shock is widely studied in astrophysics. Recently, the rapidly-developing laser technology provides a good test-bed to study such shock physics in laboratory. In addition, the laser driven shock ion acceleration is also interested due to its potential applications. We explore the effect of external parallel magnetic field on the collisionless shock formation and resultant particle acceleration by using the 2D3V PIC simulations. We show that unlike the electrostatic shock generated in the unmagnetized plasma, the shock generated in the weakly-magnetized laser-driven plasma is mostly electromagnetic (EM)-like with higher Mach number. The generation mechanism is due to the stronger transverse magnetic field self-generated at the nonlinear stage of the electron Weibel instability which drastically scatters particles and leads to higher energy dissipation. Simulation results also suggest more ions are reflected by this EM shock and results in larger energy transfer rate from the laser to ions, which is of advantage for applications such as neutron production and ion fast ignition.

  18. MHD instabilities in accretion mounds on neutron star binaries

    Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Mignone, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    We have numerically solved the Grad-Shafranov equation for axisymmetric static MHD equilibria of matter confined at the polar cap of neutron stars. From the equilibrium solutions we explore the stability of the accretion mounds using the PLUTO MHD code. We find that pressure driven modes disrupt the equilibria beyond a threshold mound mass. This results in formation of dynamic structures inside the mound, as matter spreads over the neutron star surface. Our results show that local variation of magnetic field will significantly affect the shape and nature of the cyclotron features observed in the spectra of High Mass X-ray Binaries.

  19. Instability evolution in shock-accelerated inclined heavy gas cylinder

    Olmstead, Dell; Wayne, Patrick; Vorobieff, Peter; Davis, Daniel; Truman, C. Randall

    2014-11-01

    A heavy gas cylinder interacts with a normal or oblique shockwave at Mach numbers M ranging from 1.13 to 2.0. The angle between the shock front and cylinder axis is varied between 0 and 30°, while the Atwood numbers A range from 0.25 (SF6-N2 mix) to 0.67 (pure SF6). The evolution of the column is imaged in two perpendicular planes with Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF). For oblique shock interactions, the nature of the flow is fully three-dimensional, with several instabilities developing in separate directions. In the plane that captures a cross-section of the column, Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) leads to formation of a pair of counter-rotating vortex columns. A uniform scaling appears to govern the primary instability growth in this plane across the M and A ranges, when the length scale is normalized by a product of the minimum streamwise scale after shock compression and M0.5. In the vertical plane through the column, Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices form with regular spacing along the column. The dominant wavelength of the structures in the vertical plane also appears to scale with the minimum compressed streamwise length. This research is supported by the US DOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Grant DE-NA0002220.

  20. Occurrence of instability through the protostellar accretion disks by landing of low-mass condensations

    Elyasi, Mahjubeh

    2016-01-01

    Low-mass condensations (LMCs) are observed inside the envelope of the collapsing molecular cloud cores. In this research, we investigate the effects of landing LMCs for occurrence of instability through the protostellar accretion disks. We consider some regions of the disk where duration of infalling and landing of the LMCs are shorter than the orbital period. In this way, we can consider the landing LMCs as density bumps and grooves in the azimuthal direction of an initial thin axisymmetric steady state self-gravitating protostellar accretion disk (nearly Keplerian). Using the linear effects of the bump quantities, we obtain a characteristic equation for growth/decay rate of bumps; we numerically solve it to find occurrence of instability. We also evaluate the minimum-growth-time-scale (MGTS) and the enhanced mass accretion rate. The results show that infalling and landing of the LMCs in the inner regions of the protostellar accretion disks can cause faster unstable modes and less enhanced accretion rates re...

  1. Evolutionary processes in protoplanetary accretion disks: the propagation of axisymmetric shock waves

    Willerding, Eugen

    1998-12-01

    In this paper we investigate both the global and the local hydrodynamics of axisymmetric accretion disks around young stellar objects under the simultaneous action of viscosity, self-gravity and pressure forces. For simplicity, we take for the global model a polytropic equation of state, make the infinitely thin disk approximation and characterize the surface density and temperature profiles in the disk as power laws in the radial distance r from the protostar. We solve the problem of the general density profile of a Keplerian disk showing that self-gravity could not be an important factor for the fast formation of the rocky cores of giant gaseous planets in our solar system. Under the hypothesis that the unperturbed rotation curve of the disk is nearly Keplerian throughout the radial extent, we can estimate with our polytropic model a lower limit for the resulting masses Md( r) of stable disks up to 100 AU. These masses are in the range of the so-called minimum mass solar nebular ( d/M s ≈ 0.01-0.02 ). By adopting a simplified viscosity model, where the height-integrated turbulent dynamical viscosity ν is a function of the surface density σ like η ∝ σΓ, we derive in the local shearing sheet model linearized evolution equations for small density perturbations describing both a diffusion process and the propagation of acoustic density waves. We solve a special initial value problem and calculate the appropriate Green's function. The analytical solutions so obtained describe in the case Γ Γc the density wave equation describes the propagation of an "overstable" ring-shaped acoustic density wavelet to the outer ranges of the accretion disk. Whereas the group velocity of the wave packet is subsonic, the phase velocities of individual wave crests in the wave packet are supersonic. The mode of maximum instability, the growth rate and the number of growing waves in the wavelet are controlled by Γ and α. Our present knowledge concerning turbulent viscosity in

  2. Nonlinear Weibel Instability and Turbulence in Strong Collisionless Shocks

    This research project was devoted to studies of collisionless shocks, their properties, microphysics and plasma physics of underlying phenomena, such as Weibel instability and generation of small-scale fields at shocks, particle acceleration and transport in the generated random fields, radiation mechanisms from these fields in application to astrophysical phenomena and laboratory experiments (e.g., laser-plasma and beam-plasma interactions, the fast ignition and inertial confinement, etc.). Thus, this study is highly relevant to astrophysical sciences, the inertial confinement program and, in particular, the Fast Ignition concept, etc. It makes valuable contributions to the shock physics, nonlinear plasma theory, as well as to the basic plasma science, in general

  3. Nonlinear Weibel Instability and Turbulence in Strong Collisionless Shocks

    Medvedev, Mikhail M.

    2008-08-31

    This research project was devoted to studies of collisionless shocks, their properties, microphysics and plasma physics of underlying phenomena, such as Weibel instability and generation of small-scale fields at shocks, particle acceleration and transport in the generated random fields, radiation mechanisms from these fields in application to astrophysical phenomena and laboratory experiments (e.g., laser-plasma and beam-plasma interactions, the fast ignition and inertial confinement, etc.). Thus, this study is highly relevant to astrophysical sciences, the inertial confinement program and, in particular, the Fast Ignition concept, etc. It makes valuable contributions to the shock physics, nonlinear plasma theory, as well as to the basic plasma science, in general.

  4. VERTICAL STRUCTURE AND CORONAL POWER OF ACCRETION DISKS POWERED BY MAGNETOROTATIONAL-INSTABILITY TURBULENCE

    In this paper, we consider two outstanding intertwined problems in modern high-energy astrophysics: (1) the vertical-thermal structure of an optically thick accretion disk heated by the dissipation of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI), and (2) determining the fraction of the accretion power released in the corona above the disk. For simplicity, we consider a gas-pressure-dominated disk and assume a constant opacity. We argue that the local turbulent dissipation rate due to the disruption of the MRI channel flows by secondary parasitic instabilities should be uniform across most of the disk, almost up to the disk photosphere. We then obtain a self-consistent analytical solution for the vertical thermal structure of the disk, governed by the balance between the heating by MRI turbulence and the cooling by radiative diffusion. Next, we argue that the coronal power fraction is determined by the competition between the Parker instability, viewed as a parasitic instability feeding off of MRI channel flows, and other parasitic instabilities. We show that the Parker instability inevitably becomes important near the disk surface, leading to a certain lower limit on the coronal power. While most of the analysis in this paper focuses on the case of a disk threaded by an externally imposed vertical magnetic field, we also discuss the zero net flux case, in which the magnetic field is produced by the MRI dynamo itself, and show that most of our arguments and conclusions should be valid in this case as well

  5. ACCRETION SHOCKS IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES AND THEIR SZ SIGNATURE FROM COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    Cold dark matter (CDM) hierarchical structure formation models predict the existence of large-scale accretion shocks between the virial and turnaround radii of clusters of galaxies. Kocsis et al. suggest that the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich signal associated with such shocks might be observable with the next generation radio interferometer, ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array). We study the three-dimensional distribution of accretion shocks around individual clusters of galaxies drawn from adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) and smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of ΛCDM (dark energy dominated CDM) models. In relaxed clusters, we find two distinct sets of shocks. One set ('virial shocks'), with Mach numbers of 2.5-4, is located at radii 0.9-1.3 R vir, where R vir is the spherical infall estimate of the virial radius, covering about 40%-50% of the total surface area around clusters at these radii. Another set of stronger shocks (external shocks) is located farther out, at about 3 R vir, with large Mach numbers (∼100), covering about 40%-60% of the surface area. We simulate SZ surface brightness maps of relaxed massive galaxy clusters drawn from high-resolution AMR runs, and conclude that ALMA should be capable of detecting the virial shocks in massive clusters of galaxies. More simulations are needed to improve estimates of astrophysical noise and to determine optimal observational strategies.

  6. On the observability of T Tauri accretion shocks in the X-ray band

    Sacco, G G; Argiroffi, C; Maggio, A; Peres, G; Reale, F; Curran, R L

    2010-01-01

    Context. High resolution X-ray observations of classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) show a soft X-ray excess due to high density plasma (n_e=10^11-10^13 cm^-3). This emission has been attributed to shock-heated accreting material impacting onto the stellar surface. Aims. We investigate the observability of the shock-heated accreting material in the X-ray band as a function of the accretion stream properties (velocity, density, and metal abundance) in the case of plasma-beta<<1 in the post-shock zone. Methods. We use a 1-D hydrodynamic model describing the impact of an accretion stream onto the chromosphere, including the effects of radiative cooling, gravity and thermal conduction. We explore the space of relevant parameters and synthesize from the model results the X-ray emission in the [0.5-8.0] keV band and in the resonance lines of O VII (21.60 Ang) and Ne IX (13.45 Ang), taking into account the absorption from the chromosphere. Results. The accretion stream properties influence the temperature and the s...

  7. Supermassive star formation via episodic accretion: protostellar disc instability and radiative feedback efficiency

    Sakurai, Yuya; Hosokawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yorke, Harold W

    2015-01-01

    The formation of SMSs is a potential pathway to seed SMBHs in the early universe. A critical issue for forming SMSs is stellar UV feedback, which may limit the stellar mass growth via accretion. In this paper we study the evolution of an accreting SMS and its UV emissivity under conditions of realistic variable accretion from a self-gravitating circumstellar disc. First we conduct a 2D hydrodynamical simulation to follow the long-term protostellar accretion until the stellar mass exceeds $10^4~M_\\odot$. The disc fragments due to gravitational instability, creating a number of small clumps that rapidly migrate inward to fall onto the star. The resulting accretion history is thus highly time-dependent: short episodic accretion bursts are followed by longer, relative quiescent phases. We show that the circumstellar disc for the so-called direct collapse model is more unstable and generates greater variability over shorter timescales than normal Pop III cases. We conduct a post-process stellar evolution calculati...

  8. Self-sustained asymmetry of lepton-number emission: a new phenomenon during the supernova shock-accretion phase in three dimensions

    During the stalled-shock phase of our three-dimensional, hydrodynamical core-collapse simulations with energy-dependent, three-flavor neutrino transport, the lepton-number flux (ν e minus ν-bar e) emerges predominantly in one hemisphere. This novel, spherical-symmetry breaking neutrino-hydrodynamical instability is termed LESA for 'Lepton-number Emission Self-sustained Asymmetry'. While the individual ν e and ν-bar e fluxes show a pronounced dipole pattern, the heavy-flavor neutrino fluxes and the overall luminosity are almost spherically symmetric. Initially, LESA seems to develop stochastically from convective fluctuations. It exists for hundreds of milliseconds or more and persists during violent shock sloshing associated with the standing accretion shock instability. The ν e minus ν-bar e flux asymmetry originates predominantly below the neutrinosphere in a region of pronounced proto-neutron star (PNS) convection, which is stronger in the hemisphere of enhanced lepton-number flux. On this side of the PNS, the mass accretion rate of lepton-rich matter is larger, amplifying the lepton-emission asymmetry, because the spherical stellar infall deflects on a dipolar deformation of the stalled shock. The increased shock radius in the hemisphere of less mass accretion and minimal lepton-number flux ( ν-bar e flux maximum) is sustained by stronger convection on this side, which is boosted by stronger neutrino heating due to 〈ϵν-bare〉>〈ϵνe〉. Asymmetric heating thus supports the global deformation despite extremely nonstationary convective overturn behind the shock. While these different elements of the LESA phenomenon form a consistent picture, a full understanding remains elusive at present. There may be important implications for neutrino-flavor oscillations, the neutron-to-proton ratio in the neutrino-heated supernova ejecta, and neutron-star kicks, which remain to be explored.

  9. Physical properties of the inner shocks in hot, tilted black hole accretion flows

    Simulations of hot, pressure-supported, tilted black hole accretion flows, in which the angular momentum of the flow is misaligned with the black hole spin axis, can exhibit two nonaxisymmetric shock structures in the inner regions of the flow. We analyze the strength and significance of these shock structures in simulations with tilt angles of 10° and 15°. By integrating fluid trajectories in the simulations through the shocks and tracking the variations of fluid quantities along these trajectories, we show that these shocks are strong, with substantial compression ratios, in contrast to earlier claims. However, they are only moderately relativistic. We also show that the two density enhancements resembling flow streams in their shape are in fact merely post-shock compressions, as fluid trajectories cut across, rather than flow along, them. The dissipation associated with the shocks is a substantial fraction (≅ 3%-12%) of the rest mass energy advected into the hole, and therefore comparable to the dissipation expected from turbulence. The shocks should therefore make order unity changes in the observed properties of black hole accretion flows that are tilted.

  10. Accretion-Ejection Instability and a "Magnetic Flood" scenario for GRS 1915+105

    Tagger, M

    1999-01-01

    We present an instability, occurring in the inner region of magnetized accretion disks, which seems to be a good candidate to explain the low-frequency QPO observed in many X-ray binaries. We then briefly show how, in the remarkable case of the microquasar GRS 1915+105, identifying this QPO with our instability leads to a scenario for the $\\sim$ 30 mn cycles of this source. In this scenario the cycles are controlled by the build-up of magnetic flux in the disk.

  11. X-ray optical depth diagnostics of T Tauri accretion shocks

    Argiroffi, C; Peres, G; Drake, J J; Santiago, J Lopez; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, B

    2009-01-01

    In classical T Tauri stars, X-rays are produced by two plasma components: a hot low-density plasma, with frequent flaring activity, and a high-density lower temperature plasma. The former is coronal plasma related to the stellar magnetic activity. The latter component, never observed in non-accreting stars, could be plasma heated by the shock formed by the accretion process. However its nature is still being debated. Our aim is to probe the soft X-ray emission from the high-density plasma component in classical T Tauri stars to check whether this is plasma heated in the accretion shock or whether it is coronal plasma. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy allows us to measure individual line fluxes. We analyze X-ray spectra of the classical T Tauri star MP Muscae and TW Hydrae. Our aim is to evaluate line ratios to search for optical depth effects, which are expected in the accretion-driven scenario. We also derive the plasma emission measure distributions EMD, to investigate whether and how the EMD of accreting...

  12. Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays as heavy nuclei from cluster accretion shocks

    Inoue, Susumu; Miniati, Francesco; Armengaud, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale accretion shocks around massive clusters of galaxies, generically expected in hierarchical scenarios of cosmological structure formation, are shown to be potential sources of the observed ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) by accelerating a mixture of heavy nuclei including the iron group elements. Current observations can be explained if the source composition at injection for the heavier nuclei is somewhat enhanced from simple expectations for the accreting gas. The proposed picture should be testable by current and upcoming facilities in the near future through characteristic features in the UHECR spectrum, composition and anisotropy. The associated X-ray and gamma-ray signatures are also briefly discussed.

  13. Instability of Non-uniform Toroidal Magnetic Fields in Accretion Disks

    Hirabayashi, Kota

    2016-01-01

    A new type of instability that is expected to drive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence from a purely toroidal magnetic field in an accretion disk is presented. It is already known that in a differentially rotating system, the uniform toroidal magnetic field is unstable due to a magnetorotational instability (MRI) under a non-axisymmetric and vertical perturbation, while it is stable under a purely vertical perturbation. Contrary to the previous study, this paper proposes an unstable mode completely confined to the equatorial plane, driven by the expansive nature of the magnetic pressure gradient force under a non-uniform toroidal field. The basic nature of this growing eigenmode, to which we give a name "magneto-gradient driven instability", is studied using linear analysis, and the corresponding nonlinear evolution is then investigated using two-dimensional ideal MHD simulations. Although a single localized magnetic field channel alone cannot provide sufficient Maxwell stress to contribute significantly to...

  14. 3D Finite Volume Simulation of Accretion Discs with Spiral Shocks

    Makita, M; Makita, Makoto; Matsuda, Takuya

    1998-01-01

    We perform 2D and 3D numerical simulations of an accretion disc in a close binary system using the Simplified Flux vector Splitting (SFS) finite volume method. In our calculations, gas is assumed to be the ideal one, and we calculate the cases with gamma=1.01, 1.05, 1.1 and 1.2. The mass ratio of the mass losing star to the mass accreting star is unity. Our results show that spiral shocks are formed on the accretion disc in all cases. In 2D calculations we find that the smaller gamma is, the more tightly the spiral winds. We observe this trend in 3D calculations as well in somewhat weaker sense.

  15. Soft X-Ray Excess from Shocked Accreting Plasma in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Fukumura, Keigo; Hendry, Douglas; Clark, Peter; Tombesi, Francesco; Takahashi, Masaaki

    2016-08-01

    We propose a novel theoretical model to describe the physical identity of the soft X-ray excess that is ubiquitously detected in many Seyfert galaxies, by considering a steady-state, axisymmetric plasma accretion within the innermost stable circular orbit around a black hole (BH) accretion disk. We extend our earlier theoretical investigations on general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic accretion, which implied that the accreting plasma can develop into a standing shock under suitable physical conditions, causing the downstream flow to be sufficiently hot due to shock compression. We perform numerical calculations to examine, for sets of fiducial plasma parameters, the physical nature of fast magnetohydrodynamic shocks under strong gravity for different BH spins. We show that thermal seed photons from the standard accretion disk can be effectively Compton up-scattered by the energized sub-relativistic electrons in the hot downstream plasma to produce the soft excess feature in X-rays. As a case study, we construct a three-parameter Comptonization model of inclination angle θ obs, disk photon temperature kT in, and downstream electron energy kT e to calculate the predicted spectra in comparison with a 60 ks XMM-Newton/EPIC-pn spectrum of a typical radio-quiet Seyfert 1 active galactic nucleus, Ark 120. Our χ 2-analyses demonstrate that the model is plausible for successfully describing data for both non-spinning and spinning BHs with derived ranges of 61.3 keV ≲ kT e ≲ 144.3 keV, 21.6 eV ≲ kT in ≲ 34.0 eV, and 17.°5 ≲ θ obs ≲ 42.°6, indicating a compact Comptonizing region of three to four gravitational radii that resembles the putative X-ray coronae.

  16. An Accretion Model for the Growth of the Central Black Holes Associated with Ionization Instability in Quasars

    Lu, Y.; Cheng, K. S.; Zhang, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    A possible accretion model associated with the ionization instability of quasar disks is proposed to address the growth of the central black hole (BH) harbored in the host galaxy. The evolution of quasars in cosmic time is assumed to change from a highly active state to a quiescent state triggered by the S-shaped ionization instability of the quasar accretion disk. For a given external mass transfer rate supplied by the quasar host galaxy, ionization instability can modify the accretion rate in the disk and separate the accretion flows of the disk into three different phases, like an S-shape. We suggest that the bright quasars observed today are those quasars with disks in the upper branch of the S-shaped instability, and the faint or 'dormant' quasars are simply these systems in the lower branch. The middle branch is the transition state, which is unstable. We assume the quasar disk evolves according to the advection-dominated inflow-outflow solution (ADIOS) configuration in the stable lower branch of the S-shaped instability, and the Eddington accretion rate is used to constrain the accretion rate in the highly active phase. The mass ratio between a BH and its host galactic bulge is a natural consequence of an ADIOS. Our model also demonstrates that a seed BH approx. 2 x 10(exp 6) solar masses similar to those found in spiral galaxies today is needed to produce a BH with a final mass of approx. 2 x 10(exp 8) solar masses.

  17. YSO accretion shocks: magnetic, chromospheric or stochastic flow effects can suppress fluctuations of X-ray emission

    Matsakos, T; Stehlé, C; González, M; Ibgui, L; de Sá, L; Lanz, T; Orlando, S; Bonito, R; Argiroffi, C; Reale, F; Peres, G

    2013-01-01

    Context. Theoretical arguments and numerical simulations of radiative shocks produced by the impact of the accreting gas onto young stars predict quasi-periodic oscillations in the emitted radiation. However, observational data do not show evidence of such periodicity. Aims. We investigate whether physically plausible perturbations in the accretion column or in the chromosphere could disrupt the shock structure influencing the observability of the oscillatory behavior. Methods. We performed local 2D magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of an accretion shock impacting a chromosphere, taking optically thin radiation losses and thermal conduction into account. We investigated the effects of several perturbation types, such as clumps in the accretion stream or chromospheric fluctuations, and also explored a wide range of plasma-\\beta values. Results. In the case of a weak magnetic field, the post-shock region shows chaotic motion and mixing, smoothing out the perturbations and retaining a global periodic signature....

  18. The Accretion-Ejection Instability and a "Magnetic Flood" scenario for GRS 1915+105

    Tagger, M

    2000-01-01

    I present a global view of recent results on the Accretion-Ejection Instability (AEI), described in more details in other contributions to this workshop. These results address essentially the characteristics of the AEI as a good candidate to explain the low-frequency QPO of X-ray binaries, in particular (at $\\sim 1-10$ Hz) of micro-quasars. I then discuss how, if the AEI is considered as the source of the QPO, a possible scenario can be considered where the $\\sim 30$ mn. cycles of GRS 1915+105 are controlled by the evolution of magnetic flux in the disk.

  19. A pure hydrodynamic instability in shear flows and its application to astrophysical accretion disks

    Nath, Sujit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    We provide the possible resolution for the century old problem of hydrodynamic shear flows, which are apparently stable in linear analysis but shown to be turbulent in astrophysically observed data and experiments. This mismatch is noticed in a variety of systems, from laboratory to astrophysical flows. There are so many uncountable attempts made so far to resolve this mismatch, beginning with the early work of Kelvin, Rayleigh, and Reynolds towards the end of the nineteenth century. Here we show that the presence of stochastic noise, whose inevitable presence should not be neglected in the stability analysis of shear flows, leads to pure hydrodynamic linear instability therein. This explains the origin of turbulence, which has been observed/interpreted in astrophysical accretion disks, laboratory experiments and direct numerical simulations. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first solution to the long standing problem of hydrodynamic instability of Rayleigh stable flows.

  20. Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays as heavy nuclei from cluster accretion shocks

    Inoue, S; Miniati, F; Armengaud, E; Inoue, Susumu; Sigl, Guenter; Miniati, Francesco; Armengaud, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale accretion shocks around massive clusters of galaxies, generically expected in the cold dark matter scenario of cosmological structure formation, are shown to be plausible sources of the observed ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) by accelerating a mixture of heavy nuclei including the iron group elements. Current observations can be explained if the source composition at injection for the heavier nuclei is somewhat enhanced from simple expectations for the accreting gas. The proposed picture should be clearly testable by current and upcoming facilities in the near future through characteristic features in the UHECR spectrum, composition and anisotropy, in particular the rapid increase of the average mass composition with energy from $10^{19}$ to $10^{20}$ eV.

  1. Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays as heavy nuclei from cluster accretion shocks

    Inoue, Susumu; Sigl, Günter; Miniati, Francesco; et al.

    Large-scale accretion shocks around massive clusters of galaxies, generically expected in hierarchical scenarios of cosmological structure formation, are shown to be plausible sources of the observed ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) by accelerating a mixture of heavy nuclei including the iron group elements. Current observations can be explained if the source composition at injection for the heavier nuclei is somewhat enhanced from simple expectations for the accreting gas. The proposed picture should be clearly testable by current and upcoming facilities in the near future through characteristic features in the UHECR spectrum, composition and anisotropy, in particular the rapid increase of the average mass composition with energy from 1019 to 1020 eV. The associated X-ray and gamma-ray signatures are also briefly discussed.

  2. IP Pegasi Investigation of the accretion disk structure. Searching evidences for spiral shocks in the quiescent accretion disk

    Neustroev, V V; Barwig, H; Bobinger, A; Mantel, K H; Simic, D; Wolf, S

    2002-01-01

    We present the results of spectral investigations of the cataclysmic variable IP Peg in quiescence. Optical spectra obtained on the 6-m telescope at the Special Astrophysical Observatory (Russia), and on the 3.5-m telescope at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center (Calar Alto, Spain), have been analysed by means of Doppler tomography and Phase Modelling Technique. From this analysis we conclude that the quiescent accretion disk of IP Peg has a complex structure. There are also explicit indications of spiral shocks. The Doppler maps and the variations of the peak separation of the emission lines confirm this interpretation. We have detected that all the emission lines show a rather considerable asymmetry of their wings varying with time. The wing asymmetry shows quasi-periodic modulations with a period much shorter than the orbital one. This indicates the presence of an emission source in the binary rotating asynchronously with the binary system. We also have found that the brightness of the bright spot chang...

  3. Double Relics in the Outskirts of A3376: Accretion Flows Meet Merger Shocks?

    Ruta Kale; K. S. Dwarakanath; Joydeep Bagchi; Surajit Paul

    2011-12-01

    The case of spectacular ring-like double radio relics in the merging, rich galaxy cluster A3376 is of great interest to study non-thermal phenomena at cluster outskirts.We present the first low frequency (330 and 150 MHz) images of the double relics using the GMRT. With our GMRT 330 MHz map and the VLA 1400 MHz map (Bagchi et al. 2006), we have constructed and analyzed the distribution of spectral indices over the radio relics. We find flat spectral indices at the outer edges of both the relics and a gradual steepening of spectral indices toward the inner regions. This supports the model of outgoing merger shock waves. The eastern relic has a complex morphology and spectral index distribution toward the inner region. This will be discussed in the context of the effect of large-scale accretion flows on the outgoing merger shocks as reported in the recent simulations.

  4. ASTRO-H White Paper - Stars -- Accretion, Shocks, Charge Exchanges and Magnetic Phenomena

    Tsuboi, Y; Audard, M; Hamaguchi, K; Leutenegger, M A; Maeda, Y; Mori, K; H,; Murakami,; Sugawara, Y; Tsujimoto, M

    2014-01-01

    X-ray emission from stars has origins as diverse as the stars themselves: accretion shocks, shocks generated in wind-wind collisions, or release of magnetic energy. Although the scenarios responsible for X-ray emission are thought to be known, the physical mechanisms operating are in many cases not yet fully understood. Full testing of many of these mechanisms requires high energy resolution, large effective area, and coverage of broad energy bands. The loss of the X-ray calorimeter spectrometer on board ASTRO-E2 was a huge blow to the field; it would have provided a large sample of high resolution spectra of stars with high signal-to-noise ratio. Now, with the advent of the ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Spectrometer and Hard X-ray Imager, we will be able to examine some of the hot topics in stellar astrophysics and solve outstanding mysteries.

  5. Electrostatic and electromagnetic instabilities associated with electrostatic shocks: two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation

    Kato, Tsunehiko N.; Takabe, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    A two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation with the realistic ion-to-electron mass ratio of 1836 is carried out to investigate the electrostatic collisionless shocks in relatively high-speed (~3000 km s^-1) plasma flows and also the influence of both electrostatic and electromagnetic instabilities, which can develop around the shocks, on the shock dynamics. It is shown that the electrostatic ion-ion instability can develop in front of the shocks, where the plasma is under c...

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling of the accretion shocks in classical T Tauri stars: the role of local absorption on the X-ray emission

    Bonito, R; Argiroffi, C; Miceli, M; Peres, G; Matsakos, T; Stehle, C; Ibgui, L

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the properties of X-ray emission from accretion shocks in classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs), generated where the infalling material impacts the stellar surface. Both observations and models of the accretion process reveal several aspects that are still unclear: the observed X-ray luminosity in accretion shocks is below the predicted value, and the density versus temperature structure of the shocked plasma, with increasing densities at higher temperature, deduced from the observations, is at odds with that proposed in the current picture of accretion shocks. To address these open issues we investigate whether a correct treatment of the local absorption by the surrounding medium is crucial to explain the observations. To this end, we describe the impact of an accretion stream on a CTTS by considering a magnetohydrodynamic model. From the model results we synthesize the X-ray emission from the accretion shock by producing maps and spectra. We perform density and temperature diagnostics on the synthe...

  7. Experimental study of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability induced by a Mach 3 shock wave

    OAK-B135 An experimental investigation of a shock-induced interfacial instability (Richtmyer-Meshkov instability) is undertaken in an effort to study temporal evolution of interfacial perturbations in the late stages of development. The experiments are performed in a vertical shock tube with a square cross-section. A membraneless interface is prepared by retracting a sinusoidally shaped metal plate initially separating carbon dioxide from air, with both gases initially at atmospheric pressure. With carbon dioxide above the plate, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability commences as the plate is retracted and the amplitude of the initial sinusoidal perturbation imposed on the interface begins to grow. The interface is accelerated by a strong shock wave (M=3.08) while its shape is still sinusoidal and before the Kelvin-Helmhotz instability distorts it into the well known mushroom-like structures; its initial amplitude to wavelength ratio is large enough that the interface evolution enters its nonlinear stage very shortly after shock acceleration. The pre-shock evolution of the interface due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the post-shock evolution of the interface due to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability are visualized using planar Mie scattering. The pre-shock evolution of the interface is carried out in an independent set of experiments. The initial conditions for the Richtmyer-Meshkov experiment are determined from the pre-shock Rayleigh-Taylor growth. One image of the post-shock interface is obtained per experiment and image sequences, showing the post-shock evolution of the interface, are constructed from several experiments. The growth rate of the perturbation amplitude is measured and compared with two recent analytical models of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

  8. Magnetic viscosity by localized shear flow instability in magnetized accretion disks

    Differentially rotating disks are subject to the axisymmetric instability for perfectly conducting plasma in the presence of poloidal magnetic fields. For nonaxisymmetric perturbations, the authors find localized unstable eigenmodes whose eigenfunction is confined between two Alfven singularities at ωd = ± ωA, where ωd is the Doppler-shifted wave frequency, and ωA = k parallel vA is the Alfven frequency. The radial width of the unstable eigenfunction is Δx ∼ ωA/(Aky), where A is the Oort's constant, and ky is the azimuthal wave number. The growth rate of the fundamental mode is larger for smaller value of ky/kz. The maximum growth rate when ky/kz ∼ 0.1 is ∼ 0.2Ω for the Keplerian disk with local angular velocity Ω. It is found that the purely growing mode disappears when ky/kz > 0.12. In a perfectly conducting disk, the instability grows even when the seed magnetic field is infinitesimal. Inclusion of the resistivity, however, leads to the appearance of an instability threshold. When the resistivity η depends on the instability-induced turbulent magnetic fields δB as η([δB2]), the marginal stability condition self-consistently determines the α parameter of the angular momentum transport due to the magnetic stress. For fully ionized disks, the magnetic viscosity parameter αB is between 0.001 and 1. The authors' three-dimensional MHD simulation confirms these unstable eigenmodes. It also shows that the α parameter observed in simulation is between 0.01 and 1, in agreement with theory. The observationally required smaller α in the quiescent phase of accretion disks in dwarf novae may be explained by the decreased ionization due to the temperature drop

  9. Detection of the Entropy of the Intergalactic Medium Accretion Shocks in Clusters, Adiabatic Cores in Groups

    Tozzi, P; Schärf, C A; Tozzi, Paolo; Norman, Colin; Scharf, Caleb

    2000-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the diffuse, X-ray emitting gas in clusters of galaxies is linked to the entropy level of the external intergalactic medium at the epoch of accretion. In particular, models that successfully reproduce the properties of local X-ray clusters and groups require the presence of a minimum value for the entropy of the pre-collapse, intergalactic medium. Such an entropy floor can be generated by non-gravitational phenomena, such as SNe heating, stellar winds and radiative processes. However, there is no consensus on the level, the source or the time evolution of this entropy. In this paper we propose that the best way to investigate the entropy distribution of the local universe is via the detection of the shock fronts expected at the virial boundary of rich clusters, and the extended isentropic gas distribution in the center of low mass clusters and groups. In particular we describe a strategy to look for accretion shocks with the next generation of X-ray facilities (in this case XMM). The mea...

  10. Interaction of the magnetorotational instability with hydrodynamic turbulence in accretion disks

    Workman, Jared C

    2008-01-01

    Accretion disks in which angular momentum transport is dominated by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) can also possess additional, purely hydrodynamic, drivers of turbulence. Even when the hydrodynamic processes, on their own, generate negligible levels of transport, they may still affect the evolution of the disk via their influence on the MRI. Here, we study the interaction between the MRI and hydrodynamic turbulence using local MRI simulations that include hydrodynamic forcing. As expected, we find that hydrodynamic forcing is generally negligible if it yields a saturated kinetic energy density that is small compared to the value generated by the MRI. For stronger hydrodynamic forcing levels, we find that hydrodynamic turbulence modifies transport, with the effect varying depending upon the spatial scale of hydrodynamic driving. Large scale forcing boosts transport by an amount that is approximately linear in the forcing strength, and leaves the character of the MRI (for example the ratio between Max...

  11. Role of local absorption on the X-ray emission from MHD accretion shocks in classical T Tauri stars

    Bonito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accretion processes onto classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs are believed to generate shocks at the stellar surface due to the impact of supersonic downflowing plasma. Although current models of accretion streams provide a plausible global picture of this process, several aspects are still unclear. For example, the observed X-ray luminosity in accretion shocks is, in general, well below the predicted value. A possible explanation discussed in the literature is in terms of significant absorption of the emission due to the thick surrounding medium. Here we consider a 2D MHD model describing an accretion stream propagating through the atmosphere of a CTTS and impacting onto its chromosphere. The model includes all the relevant physics, namely the gravity, the thermal conduction, and the radiative cooling, and a realistic description of the unperturbed stellar atmosphere (from the chromosphere to the corona. From the model results, we synthesize the X-ray emission emerging from the hot slab produced by the accretion shock, exploring different configurations and strengths of the stellar magnetic field. The synthesis includes the local absorption by the thick surrounding medium and the Doppler shift of lines due to the component of plasma velocity along the line-of-sight. We explore the effects of absorption on the emerging X-ray spectrum, considering different inclinations of the accretion stream with respect to the observer. Finally we compare our results with the observations.

  12. Locations of accretion shocks around galaxy clusters and the ICM properties: insights from self-similar spherical collapse with arbitrary mass accretion rates

    Shi, Xun

    2016-09-01

    Accretion shocks around galaxy clusters mark the position where the infalling diffuse gas is significantly slowed down, heated up, and becomes a part of the intracluster medium (ICM). They play an important role in setting the ICM properties. Hydrodynamical simulations have found an intriguing result that the radial position of this accretion shock tracks closely the position of the `splashback radius' of the dark matter, despite the very different physical processes that gas and dark matter experience. Using the self-similar spherical collapse model for dark matter and gas, we find that an alignment between the two radii happens only for a gas with an adiabatic index of γ ≈ 5/3 and for clusters with moderate mass accretion rates. In addition, we find that some observed ICM properties, such as the entropy slope and the effective polytropic index lying around ˜1.1-1.2, are captured by the self-similar spherical collapse model, and are insensitive to the mass accretion history.

  13. Supermassive black hole formation by the cold accretion shocks in the first galaxies

    Inayoshi, Kohei

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new scenario for supermassive star (SMS;>10^5Msun) formation in shocked regions of colliding cold accretion flows near the centers of first galaxies. Recent numerical simulations indicate that assembly of a typical first galaxy with virial temperature (~10^4K) proceeds via cold and dense flows penetrating deep to the center, where the supersonic streams collide each other to develop a hot and dense (~10^4K, ~10^3/cc) shocked gas. The post-shock layer first cools by efficient Ly alpha emission and contracts isobarically until 8000K. Whether the layer continues the isobaric contraction depends on the density at this moment: if the density is high enough for collisionally exciting H2 rovibrational levels (>10^4/cc), enhanced H2 collisional dissociation suppresses the gas to cool further. In this case, the layer fragments into massive (>10^5Msun) clouds, which collapse isothermally (~8000K) by the Ly alpha cooling without subsequent fragmentation. As an outcome, SMSs are expected to form and evolve e...

  14. Magnetic viscosity by localized shear flow instability in magnetized accretion disks

    Matsumoto, R.; Tajima, T.

    1995-01-01

    Differentially rotating disks are subject to the axisymmetric instability for perfectly conducting plasma in the presence of poloidal magnetic fields. For nonaxisymmetric perturbations, the authors find localized unstable eigenmodes whose eigenfunction is confined between two Alfven singularities at {omega}{sub d} = {+-} {omega}{sub A}, where {omega}{sub d} is the Doppler-shifted wave frequency, and {omega}{sub A} = k{parallel}v{sub A} is the Alfven frequency. The radial width of the unstable eigenfunction is {Delta}x {approximately} {omega}{sub A}/(Ak{sub y}), where A is the Oort`s constant, and k{sub y} is the azimuthal wave number. The growth rate of the fundamental mode is larger for smaller value of k{sub y}/k{sub z}. The maximum growth rate when k{sub y}/k{sub z} {approximately} 0.1 is {approximately} 0.2{Omega} for the Keplerian disk with local angular velocity {Omega}. It is found that the purely growing mode disappears when k{sub y}/k{sub z} > 0.12. In a perfectly conducting disk, the instability grows even when the seed magnetic field is infinitesimal. Inclusion of the resistivity, however, leads to the appearance of an instability threshold. When the resistivity {eta} depends on the instability-induced turbulent magnetic fields {delta}B as {eta}([{delta}B{sup 2}]), the marginal stability condition self-consistently determines the {alpha} parameter of the angular momentum transport due to the magnetic stress. For fully ionized disks, the magnetic viscosity parameter {alpha}{sub B} is between 0.001 and 1. The authors` three-dimensional MHD simulation confirms these unstable eigenmodes. It also shows that the {alpha} parameter observed in simulation is between 0.01 and 1, in agreement with theory. The observationally required smaller {alpha} in the quiescent phase of accretion disks in dwarf novae may be explained by the decreased ionization due to the temperature drop.

  15. X-ray Signatures of Non-Equilibrium Ionization Effects in Galaxy Cluster Accretion Shock Regions

    Wong, Ka-Wah; Ji, Li

    2010-01-01

    The densities in the outer regions of clusters of galaxies are very low, and the collisional timescales are very long. As a result, heavy elements will be under-ionized after they have passed through the accretion shock. We have studied systematically the effects of non-equilibrium ionization for relaxed clusters in the LambdaCDM cosmology using one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. We found that non-equilibrium ionization effects do not depend on cluster mass but depend strongly on redshift which can be understood by self-similar scaling arguments. The effects are stronger for clusters at lower redshifts. We present X-ray signatures such as surface brightness profiles and emission lines in detail for a massive cluster at low redshift. In general, soft emission (0.3-1.0 keV) is enhanced significantly by under-ionization, and the enhancement can be nearly an order of magnitude near the shock radius. The most prominent non-equilibrium ionization signature we found is the O VII and O VIII line ratio. The rat...

  16. Radio Observations as a Tool to Investigate Shocks and Asymmetries in Accreting White Dwarf Binaries

    Weston, Jennifer H. S.

    2016-07-01

    This dissertation uses radio observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to investigate the mechanisms that power and shape accreting white dwarfs (WD) and their ejecta. We test the predictions of both simple spherical and steady-state radio emission models by examining nova V1723 Aql, nova V5589 Sgr, symbiotic CH Cyg, and two small surveys of symbiotic binaries. First, we highlight classical nova V1723 Aql with three years of radio observations alongside optical and X-ray observations. We use these observations to show that multiple outflows from the system collided to create early non-thermal shocks with a brightness temperature of ≥106 K. While the late-time radio light curve is roughly consistent an expanding thermal shell of mass 2x10-4 M⊙ solar masses, resolved images of V1723 Aql show elongated material that apparently rotates its major axis over the course of 15 months, much like what is seen in gamma-ray producing nova V959 Mon, suggesting similar structures in the two systems. Next, we examine nova V5589 Sgr, where we find that the early radio emission is dominated by a shock-powered non-thermal flare that produces strong (kTx > 33 keV) X-rays. We additionally find roughly 10-5 M⊙ solar masses of thermal bremsstrahlung emitting material, all at a distance of ~4 kpc. The similarities in the evolution of both V1723 Aql and V5589 Sgr to that of nova V959 Mon suggest that these systems may all have dense equatorial tori shaping faster flows at their poles. Turning our focus to symbiotic binaries, we first use our radio observations of CH Cyg to link the ejection of a collimated jet to a change of state in the accretion disk. We additionally estimate the amount of mass ejected during this period (10-7 M⊙ masses), and improve measurements of the period of jet precession (P=12013 ± 74 days). We then use our survey of eleven accretion-driven symbiotic systems to determine that the radio brightness of a symbiotic system could potentially

  17. Cosmic-ray-induced filamentation instability in collisionless shocks

    Caprioli, D

    2012-01-01

    We used unprecedentedly large 2D and 3D hybrid (kinetic ions - fluid electrons) simulations of non-relativistic collisionless strong shocks in order to investigate the effects of self-consistently accelerated ions on the overall shock dynamics. The current driven by suprathermal particles streaming ahead of the shock excites modes transverse to the background magnetic field. The Lorentz force induced by these self-amplified fields tends to excavate tubular, underdense, magnetic-field-depleted cavities that are advected with the fluid and perturb the shock surface, triggering downstream turbulent motions. These motions further amplify the magnetic field, up to factors of 50-100 in knot-like structures. Once downstream, the cavities tend to be filled by hot plasma plumes that compress and stretch the magnetic fields in elongated filaments; this effect is particularly evident if the shock propagates parallel to the background field. Highly-magnetized knots and filaments may provide explanations for the rapid X-r...

  18. Origin of nonlinearity and plausible turbulence by hydromagnetic transient growth in accretion disks: faster growth rate than magnetorotational instability

    Nath, Sujit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of hydromagnetic perturbations in a small section of accretion disks. It is known that molecular viscosity is negligible in accretion disks. Hence, it has been argued that a mechanism, known as Magnetorotational Instability (MRI), is responsible for transporting matter in the presence of weak magnetic field. However, there are some shortcomings, which question effectiveness of MRI. Now the question arises, whether other hydromagnetic effects, e.g. transient growth (TG), can play important role to bring nonlinearity in the system, even at weak magnetic fields. Otherwise, whether MRI or TG, which is primarily responsible to reveal nonlinearity to make the flow turbulent? Our results prove explicitly that the flows with high Reynolds number (Re ), which is the case of realistic astrophysical accretion disks, exhibit nonlinearity by TG of perturbation modes faster than that by modes producing MRI. For a fixed wave vector, MRI dominates over transient effects, only at low Re , lower th...

  19. Emergence of nonlinearity and plausible turbulence in accretion disks via hydromagnetic transient growth faster than magnetorotational instability

    Nath, Sujit K

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of hydromagnetic perturbations in a small section of accretion disks. It is known that molecular viscosity is negligible in accretion disks. Hence, it has been argued that Magnetorotational Instability (MRI) is responsible for transporting matter in the presence of weak magnetic field. However, there are some shortcomings, which question effectiveness of MRI. Now the question arises, whether other hydromagnetic effects, e.g. transient growth (TG), can play an important role to bring nonlinearity in the system, even at weak magnetic fields. Otherwise, whether MRI or TG, which is primarily responsible to reveal nonlinearity to make the flow turbulent? Our results prove explicitly that the flows with high Reynolds number (Re), which is the case of realistic astrophysical accretion disks, exhibit nonlinearity by best TG of perturbation modes faster than that by best modes producing MRI. For a fixed wavevector, MRI dominates over transient effects, only at low Re, lower than its value ...

  20. Hybrid viscosity and the magnetoviscous instability in hot, collisionless accretion disks

    Subramanian, Prasad; Kafatos, Menas

    2008-01-01

    We aim to illustrate the role of hot protons in enhancing the magnetorotational instability (MRI) via the ``hybrid'' viscosity, which is due to the redirection of protons interacting with static magnetic field perturbations, and to establish that it is the only relevant mechanism in this situation. It has recently been shown by Balbus \\cite{PBM1} and Islam & Balbus \\cite{PBM11} using a fluid approach that viscous momentum transport is key to the development of the MRI in accretion disks for a wide range of parameters. However, their results do not apply in hot, advection-dominated disks, which are collisionless. We develop a fluid picture using the hybrid viscosity mechanism, that applies in the collisionless limit. We demonstrate that viscous effects arising from this mechanism can significantly enhance the growth of the MRI as long as the plasma $\\beta \\gapprox 80$. Our results facilitate for the first time a direct comparison between the MHD and quasi-kinetic treatments of the magnetoviscous instabilit...

  1. Bow-shock instability induced by Helmholtz resonator-like feedback in slipstream

    Ohnishi, Naofumi; Sato, Yosuke; Kikuchi, Yuta; Ohtani, Kiyonobu; Yasue, Kanako

    2015-06-01

    Bow-shock instability has been experimentally observed in a low-γ flow. To clarify its mechanism, a parametric study was conducted with three-dimensional numerical simulations for specific heat ratio γ and Mach number M. A critical boundary of the instability was found in the γ-M parametric space. The bow shock tends to be unstable with low γ and high M, and the experimental demonstration was designed based on this result. The experiments were conducted with the ballistic range of the single-stage powder gun mode using HFC-134a of γ = 1.12 at Mach 9.6. Because the deformation of the shock front was observed in a shadowgraph image, the numerical prediction was validated to some extent. The theoretical estimation of vortex formation in a curved shock wave indicates that the generated vorticity is proportional to the density ratio across the shock front and that the critical density ratio can be predicted as ˜10. A strong slipstream from the surface edge generates noticeable acoustic waves because it can be deviated by the upstream flow. The acoustic waves emitted by synchronizing the vortex formation can propagate upstream and may trigger bow-shock instability. This effect should be emphasized in terms of unstable shock formation around an edged flat body.

  2. Hydrodynamic Modeling of Accretion Impacts in Classical T Tauri Stars: Radiative Heating of the Pre-shock Plasma

    Costa, G; Peres, G; Argiroffi, C; Bonito, R

    2016-01-01

    Context. It is generally accepted that, in Classical T Tauri Stars, the plasma from the circumstellar disc accretes onto the stellar surface with free fall velocity, and the impact generates a shock. The impact region is expected to contribute to emission in different spectral bands; many studies have confirmed that the X-rays arise from the post-shock plasma but, otherwise, there are no studies in the literature investigating the origin of the observed UV emission which is apparently correlated to accretion. Aims. We investigated the effect of radiative heating of the infalling material by the post-shock plasma at the base of the accretion stream with the aim to identify in which region a significant part of the UV emission originates. Methods. We developed a 1D hydrodynamic model describing the impact of an accretion stream onto the stellar surface; the model takes into account the gravity, the radiative cooling of an optically thin plasma, the thermal conduction, and the heating due to absorption of X-ray ...

  3. Experimental demonstration of bow-shock instability and its numerical analysis

    Kikuchi, Y.; Ohnishi, N.; Ohtani, K.

    2016-07-01

    An experimental demonstration was carried out in a ballistic range at high Mach numbers with the low specific heat ratio gas hydrofluorocarbon HFC-134a to observe the unstable bow-shock wave generated in front of supersonic blunt objects. The shadowgraph images obtained from the experiments showed instability characteristics, in which the disturbances grow and flow downstream and the wake flow appears wavy because of the shock oscillation. Moreover, the influence of the body shape and specific heat ratio on the instability was investigated for various experimental conditions. Furthermore, the observed features, such as wave structure and disturbance amplitude, were captured by numerical simulations, and it was demonstrated that computational fluid dynamics could effectively simulate the physical instability. In addition, it was deduced that the shock instability is induced by sound emissions from the edge of the object. This inference supports the dependence of the instability on the specific heat ratio and Mach number because the shock stand-off distance is affected by these parameters and limits the sound wave propagation.

  4. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC MODELING OF THE ACCRETION SHOCKS IN CLASSICAL T TAURI STARS: THE ROLE OF LOCAL ABSORPTION IN THE X-RAY EMISSION

    We investigate the properties of X-ray emission from accretion shocks in classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs), generated where the infalling material impacts the stellar surface. Both observations and models of the accretion process reveal several aspects that are still unclear: the observed X-ray luminosity in accretion shocks is below the predicted value, and the density versus temperature structure of the shocked plasma, with increasing densities at higher temperature, deduced from the observations, is at odds with that proposed in the current picture of accretion shocks. To address these open issues, we investigate whether a correct treatment of the local absorption by the surrounding medium is crucial to explain the observations. To this end, we describe the impact of an accretion stream on a CTTS by considering a magnetohydrodynamic model. From the model results, we synthesize the X-ray emission from the accretion shock by producing maps and spectra. We perform density and temperature diagnostics on the synthetic spectra, and we directly compare the results with observations. Our model shows that the X-ray fluxes inferred from the emerging spectra are lower than expected because of the complex local absorption by the optically thick material of the chromosphere and of the unperturbed stream. Moreover, our model, including the effects of local absorption, explains in a natural way the apparently puzzling pattern of density versus temperature observed in the X-ray emission from accretion shocks

  5. COSMIC-RAY-INDUCED FILAMENTATION INSTABILITY IN COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS

    We used unprecedentedly large two-dimensional and three-dimensional hybrid (kinetic ions—fluid electrons) simulations of non-relativistic collisionless strong shocks in order to investigate the effects of self-consistently accelerated ions on the overall shock dynamics. The current driven by suprathermal particles streaming ahead of the shock excites modes transverse to the background magnetic field. The Lorentz force induced by these self-amplified fields tends to excavate tubular, underdense, magnetic-field-depleted cavities that are advected with the fluid and perturb the shock surface, triggering downstream turbulent motions. These motions further amplify the magnetic field, up to factors of 50-100 in knot-like structures. Once downstream, the cavities tend to be filled by hot plasma plumes that compress and stretch the magnetic fields in elongated filaments; this effect is particularly evident if the shock propagates parallel to the background field. Highly magnetized knots and filaments may provide explanations for the rapid X-ray variability observed in RX J1713.7–3946 and for the regular pattern of X-ray bright stripes detected in Tycho's supernova remnant.

  6. On physical and numerical instabilities arising in simulations of non-stationary radiatively cooling shocks

    Badjin, D. A.; Glazyrin, S. I.; Manukovskiy, K. V.; Blinnikov, S. I.

    2016-06-01

    We describe our modelling of the radiatively cooling shocks and their thin shells with various numerical tools in different physical and calculational setups. We inspect structure of the dense shell, its formation and evolution, pointing out physical and numerical factors that sustain its shape and also may lead to instabilities. We have found that under certain physical conditions, the circular shaped shells show a strong bending instability and successive fragmentation on Cartesian grids soon after their formation, while remain almost unperturbed when simulated on polar meshes. We explain this by physical Rayleigh-Taylor-like instabilities triggered by corrugation of the dense shell surfaces by numerical noise. Conditions for these instabilities follow from both the shell structure itself and from episodes of transient acceleration during re-establishing of dynamical pressure balance after sudden radiative cooling onset. They are also easily excited by physical perturbations of the ambient medium. The widely mentioned non-linear thin shell instability, in contrast, in tests with physical perturbations is shown to have only limited chances to develop in real radiative shocks, as it seems to require a special spatial arrangement of fluctuations to be excited efficiently. The described phenomena also set new requirements on further simulations of the radiatively cooling shocks in order to be physically correct and free of numerical artefacts.

  7. Long-term quasi-periodicity of 4U 1636-536 resulting from accretion disc instability

    Wisniewicz, Mateusz; Gondek-Rosinska, Dorota; Zdziarski, Andrzej A; Janiuk, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a study of the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-536. We have performed temporal analysis of all available RXTE/ASM, Swift/BAT and MAXI data. We have confirmed the previously discovered quasi-periodicity of ~45 d present during ~2004, however we found it continued to 2006. At other epochs, the quasi-periodicity is only transient, and the quasi-period, if present, drifts. We have then applied a time-dependent accretion disc model to the interval with the significant X-ray quasi-periodicity. For our best model, the period and the amplitude of the theoretical light curve agree well with that observed. The modelled quasi-periodicity is due to the hydrogen thermal-ionization instability occurring in outer regions of the accretion disc. The model parameters are the average mass accretion rate (estimated from the light curves), and the accretion disc viscosity parameters, for the hot and cold phases. Our best model gives relatively low values of viscosity parameter for cold phase 0.01 and for h...

  8. Instabilities in large economies: aggregate volatility without idiosyncratic shocks

    Bonart, Julius; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Landier, Augustin; Thesmar, David

    2014-10-01

    We study a dynamical model of interconnected firms which allows for certain market imperfections and frictions, restricted here to be myopic price forecasts and slow adjustment of production. Whereas the standard rational equilibrium is still formally a stationary solution of the dynamics, we show that this equilibrium becomes linearly unstable in a whole region of parameter space. When agents attempt to reach the optimal production target too quickly, coordination breaks down and the dynamics becomes chaotic. In the unstable, ‘turbulent’ phase, the aggregate volatility of the total output remains substantial even when the amplitude of idiosyncratic shocks goes to zero or when the size of the economy becomes large. In other words, crises become endogenous. This suggests an interesting resolution of the ‘small shocks, large business cycles’ puzzle.

  9. Instabilities in large economies: aggregate volatility without idiosyncratic shocks

    We study a dynamical model of interconnected firms which allows for certain market imperfections and frictions, restricted here to be myopic price forecasts and slow adjustment of production. Whereas the standard rational equilibrium is still formally a stationary solution of the dynamics, we show that this equilibrium becomes linearly unstable in a whole region of parameter space. When agents attempt to reach the optimal production target too quickly, coordination breaks down and the dynamics becomes chaotic. In the unstable, ‘turbulent’ phase, the aggregate volatility of the total output remains substantial even when the amplitude of idiosyncratic shocks goes to zero or when the size of the economy becomes large. In other words, crises become endogenous. This suggests an interesting resolution of the ‘small shocks, large business cycles’ puzzle. (paper)

  10. Bow shock fragmentation driven by a thermal instability in laboratory-astrophysics experiments

    Suzuki-Vidal, F; Ciardi, A; Pickworth, L A; Rodriguez, R; Gil, J M; Espinosa, G; Hartigan, P; Swadling, G F; Skidmore, J; Hall, G N; Bennett, M; Bland, S N; Burdiak, G; de Grouchy, P; Music, J; Suttle, L; Hansen, E; Frank, A

    2015-01-01

    The role of radiative cooling during the evolution of a bow shock was studied in laboratory-astrophysics experiments that are scalable to bow shocks present in jets from young stellar objects. The laboratory bow shock is formed during the collision of two counter-streaming, supersonic plasma jets produced by an opposing pair of radial foil Z-pinches driven by the current pulse from the MAGPIE pulsed-power generator. The jets have different flow velocities in the laboratory frame and the experiments are driven over many times the characteristic cooling time-scale. The initially smooth bow shock rapidly develops small-scale non-uniformities over temporal and spatial scales that are consistent with a thermal instability triggered by strong radiative cooling in the shock. The growth of these perturbations eventually results in a global fragmentation of the bow shock front. The formation of a thermal instability is supported by analysis of the plasma cooling function calculated for the experimental conditions with...

  11. Detection of a Cool, Accretion-Shock-Generated X-Ray Plasma in EX Lupi During the 2008 Optical Eruption

    Teets, William K.; Weintraub, David A.; Kastner, Joel H.; Grosso, Nicholas; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Richmond, Michael

    2012-01-01

    EX Lupi is the prototype for a class of young, pre-main-sequence stars which are observed to undergo irregular, presumably accretion-generated, optical outbursts that result in a several magnitude rise of the optical flux. EX Lupi was observed to optically erupt in 2008 January, triggering Chandra ACIS Target of Opportunity observations shortly thereafter. We find very strong evidence that most of the X-ray emission in the first few months after the optical outburst is generated by accretion of circumstellar material onto the stellar photosphere. Specifically, we find a strong correlation between the decreasing optical and X-ray fluxes following the peak of the outburst in the optical, which suggests that these observed declines in both the optical and X-ray fluxes are the result of declining accretion rate. In addition, in our models of the X-ray spectrum, we find strong evidence for an approx 0.4 keV plasma component, as expected for accretion shocks on low-mass, pre-main-sequence stars. From 2008 March through October, this cool plasma component appeared to fade as EX Lupi returned to its quiescent level in the optical, consistent with a decrease in the overall emission measure of accretion-shock-generated plasma. The overall small increase of the X-ray flux during the optical outburst of EX Lupi is similar to what was observed in previous X-ray observations of the 2005 optical outburst of the EX Lupi-type star V1118 Ori but contrasts with the large increase of the X-ray flux from the erupting young star V1647 Ori during its 2003 and 2008 optical outbursts.

  12. The fate or organic matter during planetary accretion - Preliminary studies of the organic chemistry of experimentally shocked Murchison meteorite

    Tingle, Tracy N.; Tyburczy, James A.; Ahrens, Thomas J.; Becker, Christopher H.

    1992-01-01

    The fate of organic matter in carbonaceous meteorites during hypervelocity (1-2 km/sec) impacts is investigated using results of experiments in which three samples of the Murchison (CM2) carbonaceous chondrite were shocked to 19, 20, and 36 GPa and analyzed by highly sensitive thermal-desorption photoionization mass spectrometry (SALI). The thermal-desorptive SALI mass spectra of unshocked CM2 material revealed presence of indigenous aliphatic, aromatic, sulfur, and organosulfur compounds, and samples shocked to about 20 GPa showed little or no loss of organic matter. On the other hand, samples shocked to 36 GPa exhibited about 70 percent loss of organic material and a lower alkene/alkane ratio than did the starting material. The results suggest that it is unlikely that the indigenous organic matter in carbonaceous chondritelike planetesimals could have survived the impact on the earth in the later stages of earth's accretion.

  13. The multipolar magnetic fields of accreting pre-main-sequence stars: B at the inner disk, B along the accretion flow, and B at the accretion shock

    Gregory, Scott G; Hussain, Gaitee A J

    2016-01-01

    Zeeman-Doppler imaging studies have revealed the complexity of the large-scale magnetic fields of accreting pre-main-sequence stars. All have multipolar magnetic fields with the octupole component being the dominant field mode for many of the stars studied thusfar. Young accreting stars with fully convective interiors often feature simple axisymmetric magnetic fields with dipole components of order a kilo-Gauss (at least those of mass $\\gtrsim0.5\\,{\\rm M}_\\odot$), while those with substantially radiative interiors host more complex non-axisymmetric magnetic fields with dipole components of order a few 0.1 kilo-Gauss. Here, via several simple examples, we demonstrate that i). in most cases, the dipole component alone can be used to estimate the disk truncation radius (but little else); ii) due the presence of higher order magnetic field components, the field strength in the accretion spots is far in excess of that expected if a pure dipole magnetic field is assumed. (Fields of $\\sim$6$\\,{\\rm kG}$ have been mea...

  14. ELECTRON HEATING BY THE ION CYCLOTRON INSTABILITY IN COLLISIONLESS ACCRETION FLOWS. I. COMPRESSION-DRIVEN INSTABILITIES AND THE ELECTRON HEATING MECHANISM

    Sironi, Lorenzo [NASA Einstein Postdoctoral Fellow. (United States); Narayan, Ramesh, E-mail: lsironi@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: rnarayan@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-02-20

    In systems accreting well below the Eddington rate, such as the central black hole in the Milky Way (Sgr A*), the plasma in the innermost regions of the disk is believed to be collisionless and have two temperatures, with the ions substantially hotter than the electrons. However, whether a collisionless faster-than-Coulomb energy transfer mechanism exists in two-temperature accretion flows is still an open question. We study the physics of electron heating during the growth of ion velocity-space instabilities by means of multidimensional, fully kinetic, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. A background large-scale compression—embedded in a novel form of the PIC equations—continuously amplifies the field. This constantly drives a pressure anisotropy P > P {sub ∥} because of the adiabatic invariance of the particle magnetic moments. We find that, for ion plasma beta values β{sub 0i} ∼ 5-30 appropriate for the midplane of low-luminosity accretion flows (here, β{sub 0i} is the ratio of ion thermal pressure to magnetic pressure), mirror modes dominate if the electron-to-proton temperature ratio is T {sub 0e}/T {sub 0i} ≳ 0.2, whereas for T {sub 0e}/T {sub 0i} ≲ 0.2 the ion cyclotron instability triggers the growth of strong Alfvén-like waves, which pitch-angle scatter the ions to maintain marginal stability. We develop an analytical model of electron heating during the growth of the ion cyclotron instability, which we validate with PIC simulations. We find that for cold electrons (β{sub 0e} ≲ 2 m{sub e} /m{sub i} , where β{sub 0e} is the ratio of electron thermal pressure to magnetic pressure), the electron energy gain is controlled by the magnitude of the E-cross-B velocity induced by the ion cyclotron waves. This term is independent of the initial electron temperature, so it provides a solid energy floor even for electrons starting with extremely low temperatures. On the other hand, the electron energy gain for β{sub 0e} ≳ 2 m{sub e} /m{sub i}

  15. The numerical study of shock-induced hydrodynamic instability and mixing

    Wang Tao; Bai Jing-Song; Li Ping; Zhong Min

    2009-01-01

    Based on multi-fluid volume fraction and piecewise parabolic method (PPM), a multi-viscosity-fluid hydrodynamic code MVPPM (Multi-Viscosity-Fluid Piecewise Parabolic Method) is developed and applied to the problems of shock-induced hydrodynamic interfacial instability and mixing. Simulations of gas/liquid interface instability show that the influences of initial perturbations on the fluid mixing zone (FMZ) growth are significant, especially at the late stages, while grids have only a slight effect on the FMZ width, when the interface is impulsively accelerated by a shock wave passing through it. A numerical study of the hydrodynamic interfacial instability and mixing of gaseous flows impacted by re-shocks is presented. It reveals that the numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental results and the mixing growth rate strongly depends on initial conditions. Ultimately, the jelly layer experiment relevant to the instability impacted by exploding is simulated. The shape of jelly interface, position of front face of jelly layer, crest and trough of perturbation versus time are given; their simulated results are in good agreement with experimental results.

  16. On physical and numerical instabilities arising in simulations of non-stationary radiatively cooling shocks

    Badjin, D A; Manukovskiy, K V; Blinnikov, S I

    2015-01-01

    We describe our experience of modelling of the radiatively cooling shocks and their thin shells with various numerical tools in different physical and calculational setups. We have found that under certain physical conditions, the circular shaped shells show a strong bending instability and successive fragmentation on Cartesian grids soon after their formation, while remain almost unperturbed when simulated on polar meshes. We explain these results as an interplay of numerical perturbations superimposed by grids not aligned to the flow lines, and a physical Rayleigh--Taylor like instability of the thin shell inner boundary being accelerated during re-estabilshing of pressure balance within and behind the shell after preceding sudden temperature loss. This phenomenon also sets new requirements on further radiatively cooling shocks simulations in order to be physically correct and free of numerical artefacts.

  17. A Local Model for Angular Momentum Transport in Accretion Disks Driven by the Magnetorotational Instability

    Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan; Psaltis, Dimitrios

    2006-01-01

    We develop a local model for the exponential growth and saturation of the Reynolds and Maxwell stresses in turbulent flows driven by the magnetorotational instability. We first derive equations that describe the effects of the instability on the growth and pumping of the stresses. We highlight th...

  18. Magnetic field generation by Biermann battery and Weibel instability in laboratory shock waves

    Gregori, G.; Miniati, F.; Reville, B.; Drake, R. P.

    2012-02-01

    Magnetic field generation in the Universe is still an open problem. Possible mechanisms involve the Weibel instability, due to anisotropic phase-space distributions, as well as the Biermann battery, due to misaligned density and temperature gradients. These mechanisms can be reproduced in scaled laboratory experiments. In this contribution we estimate the relative importance of these two processes and explore the laser-energy requirements for producing Weibel dominated shocks.

  19. Suppression of transverse instabilities of dark solitons and their dispersive shock waves

    Armaroli, Andrea

    2009-11-03

    We investigate the impact of nonlocality, owing to diffusive behavior, on transverse instabilities of a dark stripe propagating in a defocusing cubic medium. The nonlocal response turns out to have a strongly stabilizing effect both in the case of a single soliton input and in the regime where dispersive shock waves develop (multisoliton regime). Such conclusions are supported by the linear stability analysis and numerical simulation of the propagation. © 2009 The American Physical Society.

  20. Pulsational instability of supergiant protostars: Do they grow supermassive by accretion?

    Inayoshi, Kohei; Omukai, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Supermassive stars (SMSs; M>10^5 Msun) and their remnant black holes are promising progenitors for supermassive black holes (SMBHs) observed in the early universe at z>7. It has been postulated that SMSs forms through very rapid mass accretion onto a protostar at a high rate exceeding 0.01 Msun/yr. According to recent studies, such rapidly accreting protostars evolve into "supergiant protostars", i.e. protostars consisting of a bloated envelope and a contracting core, similar to giant star. However, like massive stars as well as giant stars, both of which are known to be pulsationally unstable, supergiant protostars may also be also unstable to launch strong pulsation-driven outflows. If this is the case, the stellar growth via accretion will be hindered by the mass loss. We here study the pulsational stability of the supergiant protostars in the mass range M600 Msun and very high accretion rate Mdot>1.0 Msun/yr are unstable due to the kappa mechanism. The pulsation is excited in the He^+ ionization layer in ...

  1. Effects of Toroidal Magnetic Fields on the Thermal Instability of Thin Accretion Disks

    Sheng-Ming Zheng; Feng Yuan; Wei-Min Gu; Ju-Fu Lu

    2011-03-01

    The standard thin disk model predicts that when the accretion rate is moderately high, the disk is radiation–pressure-dominated and thermally unstable. However, observations indicate the opposite, namely the disk is quite stable. We present an explanation in this work by taking into account the role of the magnetic field which was ignored in the previous analysis.

  2. A high-order Godunov scheme for global 3D MHD accretion disks simulations. I. The linear growth regime of the magneto-rotational instability

    Flock, M; Klahr, H; Mignone, A

    2009-01-01

    We employ the PLUTO code for computational astrophysics to assess and compare the validity of different numerical algorithms on simulations of the magneto-rotational instability in 3D accretion disks. In particular we stress on the importance of using a consistent upwind reconstruction of the electro-motive force (EMF) when using the constrained transport (CT) method to avoid the onset of numerical instabilities. We show that the electro-motive force (EMF) reconstruction in the classical constrained transport (CT) method for Godunov schemes drives a numerical instability. The well-studied linear growth of magneto-rotational instability (MRI) is used as a benchmark for an inter-code comparison of PLUTO and ZeusMP. We reproduce the analytical results for linear MRI growth in 3D global MHD simulations and present a robust and accurate Godunov code which can be used for 3D accretion disk simulations in curvilinear coordinate systems.

  3. Three dimensional simulations of Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities in gas-curtain shock-tube experiments

    It is not feasible to compute high Reynolds-number (Re) turbulent flows by directly resolving all scales of motion and material interfaces; instead, macroscale portions of the unsteady turbulent motion are computed while the rest of the flow physics including molecular diffusion and other micro scale physics (e.g., combustion) remains unresolved. In large eddy simulation (LES), the large energy containing structures are resolved whereas the smaller, presumably more isotropic, structures are filtered out and their unresolved subgrid scale (SGS) effects are modeled. The construction of SGS models for LES is pragmatic and based primarily on empirical information. Adding to the physics based difficulties in developing and validating SGS models, truncation terms due to discretization are comparable to SGS models in typical LES strategies, and LES resolution requirements become prohibitively expensive for practical flows and regimes. Implicit LES (ILES) - and monotone integrated LES (MILES) introduced earlier, effectively address the seemingly insurmountable issues posed to LES by underresolution, by relying on the use of SGS modeling and filtering provided implicitly by physics capturing numerics. Extensive work has demonstrated that predictive unresolved simulations of turbulent velocity fields are possible using any of the class of nonoscillatory finite-volume (NFV) numerical algorithms. Popular NFV methods such as flux-corrected transport (FCT), the piecewise parabolic method (PPM), total variation diminishing (TVD), and hybrid algorithms are being used for ILES. In many applications of interest, turbulence is generated by shock waves via Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities (RMI). The instability results in vorticity being introduced at material interfaces by the impulsive loading of the shock wave. A critical feature of this impulsive driving is that the turbulence decays as dissipation removes kinetic energy from the system. RMI add the complexity of shock waves and

  4. Internal shocks driven by accretion flow variability in the compact jet of the black hole binary GX 339-4

    Drappeau, S.; Malzac, J.; Belmont, R.; Gandhi, P.; Corbel, S.

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, compact jets have been playing a growing role in the understanding of accreting black hole engines. In the case of X-ray binary systems, compact jets are usually associated with the hard state phase of a source outburst. Recent observations of GX 339-4 have demonstrated the presence of a variable synchrotron spectral break in the mid-infrared band that was associated with its compact jet. In the model used in this study, we assume that the jet emission is produced by electrons accelerated in internal shocks driven by rapid fluctuations of the jet velocity. The resulting spectral energy distribution (SED) and variability properties are very sensitive to the Fourier power spectrum density (PSD) of the assumed fluctuations of the jet Lorentz factor. These fluctuations are likely to be triggered by the variability of the accretion flow which is best traced by the X-ray emission. Taking the PSD of the jet Lorentz factor fluctuations to be identical to the observed X-ray PSD, our study finds that the internal shock model successfully reproduces the radio to infrared SED of the source at the time of the observations as well as the reported strong mid-infrared spectral variability.

  5. Normal velocity freeze-out of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability when a shock is reflected

    It is known that for some values of the initial parameters that define the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, the normal velocity at the contact surface vanishes asymptotically in time. This phenomenon, called freeze-out, is studied here with an exact analytic model. The instability freeze-out, already considered by previous authors [K. O. Mikaelian, Phys. Fluids 6, 356 (1994), Y. Yang, Q. Zhang, and D. H. Sharp, Phys. Fluids 6, 1856 (1994), and A. L. Velikovich, Phys. Fluids 8, 1666 (1996)], is the result of a subtle interaction between the unstable surface and the corrugated shock fronts. In particular, it is seen that the transmitted shock at the contact surface plays a key role in determining the asymptotic behavior of the normal velocity at the contact surface. By properly tuning the fluids compressibilities, the density jump, and the incident shock Mach number, the value of the initial circulation deposited by the reflected and transmitted shocks at the material interface can be adjusted in such a way that the normal growth at the contact surface will vanish for large times. The conditions for this to happen are calculated exactly, by expressing the initial density ratio as a function of the other parameters of the problem: fluids compressibilities and incident shock Mach number. This is done by means of a linear theory model developed in a previous work [J. G. Wouchuk, Phys. Rev. E. 63, 056303 (2001)]. A general and qualitative criterion to decide the conditions for freezing-out is derived, and the evolution of different cases (freeze-out and non-freeze-out) are studied with some detail. A comparison with previous works is also presented

  6. Shear-driven instabilities and shocks in the atmospheres of hot Jupiters

    Fromang, Sébastien; Leconte, Jeremy; Heng, Kevin

    2016-07-01

    Context. General circulation models of the atmosphere of hot Jupiters have shown the existence of a supersonic eastward equatorial jet. These results have been obtained using numerical schemes that filter out vertically propagating sound waves and assume vertical hydrostatic equilibrium, or were acquired with fully compressive codes that use large dissipative coefficients. Aims: We remove these two limitations and investigate the effects of compressibility on the atmospheric dynamics by solving the standard Euler equations. Methods: This was done by means of a series of simulations performed in the framework of the equatorial β-plane approximation using the finite-volume shock-capturing code RAMSES. Results: At low resolution, we recover the classical results described in the literature: we find a strong and steady supersonic equatorial jet of a few km s-1 that displays no signature of shocks. We next show that the jet zonal velocity depends significantly on the grid meridional resolution. When this resolution is fine enough to properly resolve the jet, the latter is subject to a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The jet zonal mean velocity displays regular oscillations with a typical timescale of a few days and a significant amplitude of about 15% of the jet velocity. We also find compelling evidence for the development of a vertical shear instability at pressure levels of a few bars. It seems to be responsible for an increased downward kinetic energy flux that significantly affects the temperature of the deep atmosphere and appears to act as a form of drag on the equatorial jet. This instability also creates velocity fluctuations that propagate upward and steepen into weak shocks at pressure levels of a few mbars. Conclusions: We conclude that hot-Jupiter equatorial jets are potentially unstable to both a barotropic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and a vertical shear instability. Upon confirmation using more realistic models, these two instabilities could result in

  7. Self-Destructing Spiral Waves: Global Simulations of a Spiral Wave Instability in Accretion Disks

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee; Richard, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    We present results from a suite of three-dimensional global hydrodynamic simulations which show that spiral density waves propagating in circumstellar disks are unstable to the growth of a parametric instability that leads to break-down of the flow into turbulence. This spiral wave instability (SWI) arises from a resonant interaction between pairs of inertial waves, or inertial-gravity waves, and the background spiral wave. The development of the instability in the linear regime involves the growth of a broad spectrum of inertial modes, with growth rates on the order of the orbital time, and results in a nonlinear saturated state in which turbulent velocity perturbations are of a similar magnitude to those induced by the spiral wave. The turbulence induces angular momentum transport, and vertical mixing, at a rate that depends locally on the amplitude of the spiral wave (we obtain a stress parameter $\\alpha \\sim 5 \\times 10^{-4}$ in our reference model). The instability is found to operate in a wide-range of ...

  8. Suppression of the multi-azimuthal-angle instability in dense neutrino gas during supernova accretion phase

    Chakraborty, Sovan; Saviano, Ninetta; Seixas, David de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    It has been recently pointed out that removing the axial symmetry in the ``multi-angle effects'' associated with the neutrino-neutrino interactions for supernova (SN) neutrinos, a new multi-azimuthal-angle (MAA) instability would arise. In particular, for a flux ordering $F_{\

  9. Suppression of the multi-azimuthal-angle instability in dense neutrino gas during supernova accretion phase

    Chakraborty, Sovan; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Saviano, Ninetta; Seixas, David de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    It has been recently pointed out that removing the axial symmetry in the "multi-angle effects" associated with the neutrino-neutrino interactions for supernova (SN) neutrinos, a new multi-azimuthal-angle (MAA) instability would arise. In particular, for a flux ordering $F_{\\\

  10. A Double Outburst from IGR J00291+5934: Implications for Accretion Disk Instability Theory

    Hartman, Jacob M; Chakrabarty, Deepto

    2010-01-01

    The accretion-powered millisecond pulsar IGR J00291+5934 underwent two ~10 d long outbursts during 2008, separated by 30 d in quiescence. Such a short quiescent period between outbursts has never been seen before from a neutron star X-ray transient. X-ray pulsations at the 599 Hz spin frequency are detected throughout both outbursts. For the first time, we derive a pulse phase model that connects two outbursts, providing a long baseline for spin frequency measurement. Comparison with the frequency measured during the 2004 outburst of this source gives a spin-down during quiescence of -4(1)x10^-15 Hz/s, approximately an order of magnitude larger than the long-term spin-down observed in the 401 Hz accretion-powered pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658. If this spin-down is due to magnetic dipole radiation, it requires a 2x10^8 G field strength, and its high spin-down luminosity may be detectable with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Alternatively, this large spin-down could be produced by gravitational wave emission from a f...

  11. Gas Evolution Dynamics in Godunov-Type Schemes and Analysis of Numerical Shock Instability

    Xu, Kun

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we are going to study the gas evolution dynamics of the exact and approximate Riemann solvers, e.g., the Flux Vector Splitting (FVS) and the Flux Difference Splitting (FDS) schemes. Since the FVS scheme and the Kinetic Flux Vector Splitting (KFVS) scheme have the same physical mechanism and similar flux function, based on the analysis of the discretized KFVS scheme the weakness and advantage of the FVS scheme are closely observed. The subtle dissipative mechanism of the Godunov method in the 2D case is also analyzed, and the physical reason for shock instability, i.e., carbuncle phenomena and odd-even decoupling, is presented.

  12. Pulsar spins from an instability in the accretion shock of supernovae

    Blondin, John M.; Mezzacappa, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Rotation-powered radio pulsars are born with inferred initial rotation periods of order 300 ms (some as short as 20 ms) in core-collapse supernovae. In the traditional picture, this fast rotation is the result of conservation of angular momentum during the collapse of a rotating stellar core. This leads to the inevitable conclusion that pulsar spin is directly correlated with the rotation of the progenitor star. So far, however, stellar theory has not been able to explain the distribution of ...

  13. Internal shocks driven by accretion flow variability in the compact jet of the black hole binary GX 339-4

    Drappeau, S; Belmont, J; Gandhi, P; Corbel, S

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, compact jets have been playing a growing role in the understanding of accreting black hole engines. In the case of X-ray binary systems, compact jets are usually associated with the hard state phase of a source outburst. Recent observations of GX 339-4 have demonstrated the presence of a variable synchrotron spectral break in the mid-infrared band that was associated with its compact jet. In the model used in this study, we assume that the jet emission is produced by electrons accelerated in internal shocks driven by rapid fluctuations of the jet velocity. The resulting spectral energy distribution (SED) and variability properties are very sensitive to the Fourier power spectrum density (PSD) of the assumed fluctuations of the jet Lorentz factor. These fluctuations are likely to be triggered by the variability of the accretion flow which is best traced by the X-ray emission. Taking the PSD of the jet Lorentz factor fluctuations to be identical to the observed X-ray PSD, our study finds that t...

  14. Impact of MHD shock physics on magnetosheath asymmetry and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

    Nykyri, K.

    2013-08-01

    We have performed 13 three-dimensional global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the magnetosheath plasma and magnetic field properties for Parker spiral (PS) and ortho-Parker spiral interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientations corresponding to a wide range of solar wind plasma conditions. To study the growth of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability on the dawn and dusk flank magnetopause, we have performed 26 local two-dimensional MHD simulations, with the initial conditions taken from global simulations on both sides of the velocity shear layer at the dawn-dusk terminator. These simulations indicate that while the MHD physics of the fast shocks does not directly lead to strong asymmetry of the magnetosheath temperature for typical solar wind conditions, the magnetosheath on the quasi-parallel shock side has a smaller tangential magnetic field along the magnetosheath flow which enables faster growth of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI). Because the IMF is statistically mostly in the PS orientation, the KHI formation may statistically favor the dawnside flank. For all the 26 simulations, the growth rates of the KHI correlated well with the ratio of the velocity shear and Alfvén speed along the wave vector, k. Dynamics of the KHI may subsequently lead to formation of kinetic Alfvén waves and reconnection in the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices which can lead to particle energization. This may partly help to explain the observed plasma sheet asymmetry of cold-component ions, which are heated more on the dawnside plasma sheet.

  15. Analytical scalings of the linear Richtmyer-Meshkov instability when a shock is reflected

    Campos, F. Cobos; Wouchuk, J. G.

    2016-05-01

    When a planar shock hits a corrugated contact surface between two fluids, hydrodynamic perturbations are generated in both fluids that result in asymptotic normal and tangential velocity perturbations in the linear stage, the so called Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. In this work, explicit and exact analytical expansions of the asymptotic normal velocity (δ vi∞ ) are presented for the general case in which a shock is reflected back. The expansions are derived from the conservation equations and take into account the whole perturbation history between the transmitted and reflected fronts. The important physical limits of weak and strong shocks and the high/low preshock density ratio at the contact surface are shown. An approximate expression for the normal velocity, valid even for high compression regimes, is given. A comparison with recent experimental data is done. The contact surface ripple growth is studied during the linear phase showing good agreement between theory and experiments done in a wide range of incident shock Mach numbers and preshock density ratios, for the cases in which the initial ripple amplitude is small enough. In particular, it is shown that in the linear asymptotic phase, the contact surface ripple (ψi) grows as ψ∞+δ vi∞t , where ψ∞ is an asymptotic ordinate different from the postshock ripple amplitude at t =0 + . This work is a continuation of the calculations of F. Cobos Campos and J. G. Wouchuk, [Phys. Rev. E 90, 053007 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.053007] for a single shock moving into one fluid.

  16. An accretion disc instability induced by a temperature sensitive {\\alpha} parameter

    Potter, William J

    2014-01-01

    In the standard thin disc formalism the dimensionless {\\alpha} parameter is usually assumed to be constant. However, there are good theoretical reasons for believing, as well as evidence from simulations, that {\\alpha} is dependent on intrinsic disc properties. In this paper we analyse the conditions for the stability of a thin accretion disc in which {\\alpha} is a function of the magnetic Prandtl number, the ratio of collisional viscosity to resistivity. In the inner disc, where the free electron opacity and radiation viscosity dominate, the disc is unstable if {\\alpha} is proportional to the magnetic Prandtl number with an exponent > 0.5. This is within the range of values for the power-law index found in MHD simulations with simple energetics. We calculate the evolution of the unstable disc within the {\\alpha} formalism and show that the physically accessible solutions form a limit cycle, analogous to the behaviour seen in recurrent dwarf novae. It is noteworthy that the time-dependent global behaviour of ...

  17. Linear and nonlinear evolution of the vertical shear instability in accretion discs

    Nelson, Richard P; Umurhan, Orkan M

    2012-01-01

    (Abridged) We analyse the stability and evolution of power-law accretion disc models. These have midplane densities that follow radial power-laws, and have either temperature or entropy distributions that are power-law functions of cylindrical radius. We employ two different hydrodynamic codes to perform 2D-axisymmetric and 3D simulations that examine the long-term evolution of the disc models as a function of the power-law indices of the temperature or entropy, the thermal relaxation time of the fluid, and the viscosity. We present a stability analysis of the problem that we use to interpret the simulation results. We find that disc models whose temperature or entropy profiles cause the equilibrium angular velocity to vary with height are unstable to the growth of modes with wavenumber ratios |k_R/k_Z| >> 1 when the thermodynamic response of the fluid is isothermal, or the thermal evolution time is comparable to or shorter than the local dynamical time scale. These discs are subject to the Goldreich-Schubert...

  18. Can the magnetic field in the Orion arm inhibit the growth of instabilities in the bow shock of Betelgeuse?

    van Marle, Allard Jan; Meliani, Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    Many evolved stars travel through space at supersonic velocities, which leads to the formation of bow shocks ahead of the star where the stellar wind collides with the interstellar medium (ISM). Herschel observations of the bow shock of $\\alpha$-Orionis show that the shock is almost free of instabilities, despite being, at least in theory, subject to both Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. A possible explanation for the lack of instabilities lies in the presence of an interstellar magnetic field. We wish to investigate whether the magnetic field of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the Orion arm can inhibit the growth of instabilities in the bow shock of $\\alpha$-Orionis. We used the code MPI-AMRVAC to make magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of a circumstellar bow shock, using the wind parameters derived for $\\alpha$-Orionis and interstellar magnetic field strengths of $B\\,=\\,1.4,\\, 3.0$, and $5.0\\, \\mu$G, which fall within the boundaries of the observed magnetic field strength in the Orion arm ...

  19. High-order Godunov schemes for global 3D MHD simulations of accretion disks. I. Testing the linear growth of the magneto-rotational instability

    Flock, M.; Dzyurkevich, N.; Klahr, H.; Mignone, A.

    2010-06-01

    We assess the suitability of various numerical MHD algorithms for astrophysical accretion disk simulations with the PLUTO code. The well-studied linear growth of the magneto-rotational instability is used as the benchmark test for a comparison between the implementations within PLUTO and against the ZeusMP code. The results demonstrate the importance of using an upwind reconstruction of the electro-motive force (EMF) in the context of a constrained transport scheme, which is consistent with plane-parallel, grid-aligned flows. In contrast, constructing the EMF from the simple average of the Godunov fluxes leads to a numerical instability and the unphysical growth of the magnetic energy. We compare the results from 3D global calculations using different MHD methods against the analytical solution for the linear growth of the MRI, and discuss the effect of numerical dissipation. The comparison identifies a robust and accurate code configuration that is vital for realistic modeling of accretion disk processes.

  20. Perturbed disks get shocked. Binary black hole merger effects on accretion disks

    Megevand, Miguel; Frank, Juhan; Hirschmann, Eric W; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L; Motl, Patrick M; Neilsen, David

    2009-01-01

    The merger process of a binary black hole system can have a strong impact on a circumbinary disk. In the present work we study the effect of both central mass reduction (due to the energy loss through gravitational waves) and a possible black hole recoil (due to asymmetric emission of gravitational radiation). For the mass reduction case and recoil directed along the disk's angular momentum, oscillations are induced in the disk which then modulate the internal energy and bremsstrahlung luminosities. On the other hand, when the recoil direction has a component orthogonal to the disk's angular momentum, the disk's dynamics are strongly impacted, giving rise to relativistic shocks. The shock heating leaves its signature in our proxies for radiation, the total internal energy and bremsstrahlung luminosity. Interestingly, for cases where the kick velocity is below the smallest orbital velocity in the disk (a likely scenario in real AGN), we observe a common, characteristic pattern in the internal energy of the dis...

  1. ELECTRON HEATING BY THE ION CYCLOTRON INSTABILITY IN COLLISIONLESS ACCRETION FLOWS. II. ELECTRON HEATING EFFICIENCY AS A FUNCTION OF FLOW CONDITIONS

    In the innermost regions of low-luminosity accretion flows, including Sgr A* at the center of our Galaxy, the frequency of Coulomb collisions is so low that the plasma has two temperatures, with the ions substantially hotter than the electrons. This paradigm assumes that Coulomb collisions are the only channel for transferring the ion energy to the electrons. In this work, the second of a series, we assess the efficiency of electron heating by ion velocity-space instabilities in collisionless accretion flows. The instabilities are seeded by the pressure anisotropy induced by magnetic field amplification, coupled to the adiabatic invariance of the particle magnetic moments. Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we showed in Paper I that if the electron-to-ion temperature ratio is T 0e/T 0i ≲ 0.2, the ion cyclotron instability is the dominant mode for ion betas β0i ∼ 5-30 (here, β0i is the ratio of ion thermal pressure to magnetic pressure), as appropriate for the midplane of low-luminosity accretion flows. In this work, we employ analytical theory and one-dimensional PIC simulations (with the box aligned with the fastest-growing wave vector of the ion cyclotron mode) to fully characterize how the electron heating efficiency during the growth of the ion cyclotron instability depends on the electron-to-proton temperature ratio, the plasma beta, the Alfvén speed, the amplification rate of the mean field (in units of the ion Larmor frequency), and the proton-to-electron mass ratio. Our findings can be incorporated as a physically grounded subgrid model into global fluid simulations of low-luminosity accretion flows, thus helping to assess the validity of the two-temperature assumption

  2. ELECTRON HEATING BY THE ION CYCLOTRON INSTABILITY IN COLLISIONLESS ACCRETION FLOWS. II. ELECTRON HEATING EFFICIENCY AS A FUNCTION OF FLOW CONDITIONS

    Sironi, Lorenzo, E-mail: lsironi@cfa.harvard.edu [NASA Einstein Postdoctoral Fellow. (United States)

    2015-02-20

    In the innermost regions of low-luminosity accretion flows, including Sgr A* at the center of our Galaxy, the frequency of Coulomb collisions is so low that the plasma has two temperatures, with the ions substantially hotter than the electrons. This paradigm assumes that Coulomb collisions are the only channel for transferring the ion energy to the electrons. In this work, the second of a series, we assess the efficiency of electron heating by ion velocity-space instabilities in collisionless accretion flows. The instabilities are seeded by the pressure anisotropy induced by magnetic field amplification, coupled to the adiabatic invariance of the particle magnetic moments. Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we showed in Paper I that if the electron-to-ion temperature ratio is T {sub 0e}/T {sub 0i} ≲ 0.2, the ion cyclotron instability is the dominant mode for ion betas β{sub 0i} ∼ 5-30 (here, β{sub 0i} is the ratio of ion thermal pressure to magnetic pressure), as appropriate for the midplane of low-luminosity accretion flows. In this work, we employ analytical theory and one-dimensional PIC simulations (with the box aligned with the fastest-growing wave vector of the ion cyclotron mode) to fully characterize how the electron heating efficiency during the growth of the ion cyclotron instability depends on the electron-to-proton temperature ratio, the plasma beta, the Alfvén speed, the amplification rate of the mean field (in units of the ion Larmor frequency), and the proton-to-electron mass ratio. Our findings can be incorporated as a physically grounded subgrid model into global fluid simulations of low-luminosity accretion flows, thus helping to assess the validity of the two-temperature assumption.

  3. Modelling Shock Heating in Cluster Mergers: I. Moving Beyond the Spherical Accretion Model

    McCarthy, Ian G; Balogh, Michael L; Voit, G Mark; Pearce, Frazer R; Theuns, Tom; Babul, Arif; Lacey, Cedric G; Frenk, Carlos S; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.11465.x

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged) The thermal history of the intracluster medium (ICM) is complex. Heat input from cluster mergers, AGN, and galaxy winds offsets and may even halt the cooling of the ICM. Consequently, the processes that set the properties of the ICM play a key role in determining how galaxies form. In this paper we focus on the shock heating of the ICM during cluster mergers, with the eventual aim of incorporating this mechanism into semi-analytic models of galaxy formation. We use a suite of hydrodynamic simulations to track the evolution of the ICM in idealised two-body mergers. We find the heating of the ICM can be understood relatively simply by considering the evolution of the gas entropy during the mergers. We examine the processes that generate the entropy in order to understand why previous analytic shock heating models failed. We find that: (1) The energy that is thermalised in the collision greatly exceeds the kinetic energy available when the systems first touch. The smaller system penetrates deep into t...

  4. Shear-driven instabilities and shocks in the atmospheres of hot Jupiters

    Fromang, Sébastien; Heng, Keving

    2016-01-01

    General circulation models of the atmosphere of hot Jupiter have shown the existence of a supersonic eastward equatorial jet. In this paper, we investigate the effects of compressibility on the atmospheric dynamics by solving the standard Euler equations. This is done by means of a series of simulations performed in the framework of the equatorial beta-plane approximation using the finite volume shock-capturing code RAMSES. At low resolution, we recover the classical results described in the literature: we find a strong and steady supersonic equatorial jet of a few km/s that displays no signature of shocks. We next show that the jet zonal velocity depends significantly on the grid meridional resolution. When that resolution is fine enough to properly resolve the jet, the latter is subject to a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The jet zonal mean velocity displays regular oscillations with a typical timescale of few days and a significant amplitude of about 15% of the jet velocity. We also find compelling evidence...

  5. Accretion on to Magnetic White Dwarfs

    Wickramasinghe Dayal

    2014-01-01

    The polars have no counterparts in neutron star systems and their study provides unique insights into the complex nature of the magnetospheric boundary. The observed properties of accretion shocks at the white dwarf surface such as the anomalous soft-X-ray excess and its time variability provide strong support for the hypothesis that under certain circumstances the field channelled funnel flow is “blobby”. This has been attributed to interchange instabilities such as the Magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the shocked gas at the stream-magnetosphere boundary where the stream fragments into discrete clumps of gas. As the clumps penetrate into the magnetosphere, they are shredded into smaller mass blobs via the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability that then couple on to field lines over an extended inner transition region in the orbital plane. The more massive blobs penetrate deep into the photosphere of the white dwarf releasing their energy as a reprocessed soft-X-ray black body component. Although similar instabilities are expected in the inner transition region in disced accretion albeit on a different scale there has been no direct observational evidence for blobby accretion in the generally lower field and disced IPs.

  6. Development of nonlinear two fluid interfacial structures by combined action of Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities:Oblique shock

    Gupta, M R; Roy, Sourav; Banerjee, Rahul; Khan, Manoranjan

    2010-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of two fluid interfacial structures like bubbles and spikes arising due to the combined action of Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability or due to that of Richtmyer-Meshkov and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability resulting from oblique shock is investigated. Using Layzer's model analytic expressions for the asymptotic value of the combined growth rate are obtained in both cases for spikes and bubbles. However, if the overlying fluid is of lower density the interface perturbation behaves in different ways. Depending on the magnitude of the velocity shear associated with Kelvin-Helmholtz instability both the bubble and spike amplitude may simultaneously grow monotonically (instability) or oscillate with time or it may so happen that while this spike steepens the bubble tends to undulate. In case of an oblique shock which causes combined action of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability arising due to the normal component of the shock and Kelvin Helmholtz instability through creation of velocity...

  7. Electron Heating by the Ion Cyclotron Instability in Collisionless Accretion Flows. II. Electron Heating Efficiency as a Function of Flow Conditions

    Sironi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    In the innermost regions of low-luminosity accretion flows, including Sgr A* at the center of our Galaxy, the frequency of Coulomb collisions is so low that the plasma is two-temperature, with the ions substantially hotter than the electrons. This paradigm assumes that Coulomb collisions are the only channel for transferring the ion energy to the electrons. In this work, the second of a series, we assess the efficiency of electron heating by ion velocity-space instabilities in collisionless accretion flows. The instabilities are seeded by the pressure anisotropy induced by magnetic field amplification, coupled to the adiabatic invariance of the particle magnetic moments. Using two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we showed in Paper I that if the electron-to-ion temperature ratio is < 0.2, the ion cyclotron instability is the dominant mode for values of ion beta_i ~ 5-30 (here, beta_i is the ratio of ion thermal pressure to magnetic pressure), as appropriate for the midplane of low-lumin...

  8. Multi-shocks generation and collapsing instabilities induced by competing nonlinearities

    Crosta, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    We investigate dispersive shock dynamics in materials with competing cubic-quintic nonlinearities. Whitham theory of modulation, hydrodynamic analysis and numerics demonstrate a rich physical scenario, ranging from multi-shock generation to collapse.

  9. Photon Bubbles and the Vertical Structure of Accretion Disks

    Begelman, M C

    2006-01-01

    We consider the effects of "photon bubble" shock trains on the vertical structure of radiation pressure-dominated accretion disks. These density inhomogeneities are expected to develop spontaneously in radiation-dominated accretion disks where magnetic pressure exceeds gas pressure, even in the presence of magnetorotational instability. They increase the rate at which radiation escapes from the disk, and may allow disks to exceed the Eddington limit by a substantial factor. We first generalize the theory of photon bubbles to include the effects of finite optical depths and radiation damping. Modifications to the diffusion law at low optical depth tend to fill in the low-density regions of photon bubbles, while radiation damping inhibits the formation of photon bubbles at large radii, small accretion rates, and small heights above the equatorial plane. Accretion disks dominated by photon bubble transport may reach luminosities of 10 to >100 times the Eddington limit (L_E), depending on the mass of the central ...

  10. Temperature dependence of parametric instabilities in the context of the shock-ignition approach to inertial confinement fusion

    Weber, Stefan A.; Riconda, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3, Feb (2015), e6. ISSN 2095-4719 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279 Grant ostatní: ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; LaserZdroj (OP VK 3)(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0279 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : inertial confinement fusion * shock ignition * laser-plasma interaction * parametric instabilities Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  11. Effects of magnetic field on the runaway instability of relativistic accretion tori near a rotating black hole

    Karas, Vladimír; Hamerský, Jaroslav

    Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014 - (Sjouwerman, L.), s. 424-426. (IAU Symposium Proceedings Series. 303). ISBN 9781107044616. ISSN 1743-9213. [Symposium of the International Astronomical Union /303./. Santa Fe (US), 30.09.2013-04.10.2013] Grant ostatní: UK(CZ) SVV-26089 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : accretion discs * gravitation * black hole physics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  12. Neutrino signature of supernova hydrodynamical instabilities in three dimensions

    Tamborra, Irene; Hanke, Florian; Mueller, Bernhard; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Raffelt, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The first full-scale three-dimensional (3D) core-collapse supernova (SN) simulations with sophisticated neutrino transport show pronounced effects of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) for two high-mass progenitors (20 and 27 M_sun). In a low-mass progenitor (11.2 M_sun), large-scale convection is the dominant nonradial hydrodynamic instability in the postshock accretion layer. The SASI-associated modulation of the neutrino signal (80 Hz in our two examples) will be clearly detec...

  13. Bow shock fragmentation driven by a thermal instability in laboratory-astrophysics experiments

    Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Ciardi, A.; Pickworth, L. A.; Rodriguez, R.; Gil, J. M.; Espinosa, G. (Gaudencio); Hartigan, P.; Swadling, G. F.; Skidmore, J.; Hall, G. N.; Bennett, M; Bland, S. N.; Burdiak, G.; de Grouchy, P.

    2015-01-01

    The role of radiative cooling during the evolution of a bow shock was studied in laboratory-astrophysics experiments that are scalable to bow shocks present in jets from young stellar objects. The laboratory bow shock is formed during the collision of two counter-streaming, supersonic plasma jets produced by an opposing pair of radial foil Z-pinches driven by the current pulse from the MAGPIE pulsed-power generator. The jets have different flow velocities in the laboratory frame and the exper...

  14. Modification of the formation of high-Mach number electrostatic shock-like structures by the ion acoustic instability

    Dieckmann, Mark E; Doria, Domenico; Pohl, Martin; Borghesi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The formation of unmagnetized electrostatic shock-like structures with a high Mach number is examined with one- and two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The structures are generated through the collision of two identical plasma clouds, which consist of equally hot electrons and ions with a mass ratio of 250. The Mach number of the collision speed with respect to the initial ion acoustic speed of the plasma is set to 4.6. This high Mach number delays the formation of such structures by tens of inverse ion plasma frequencies. A pair of stable shock-like structures is observed after this time in the 1D simulation, which gradually evolve into electrostatic shocks. The ion acoustic instability, which can develop in the 2D simulation but not in the 1D one, competes with the nonlinear process that gives rise to these structures. The oblique ion acoustic waves fragment their electric field. The transition layer, across which the bulk of the ions change their speed, widens and their speed change is redu...

  15. Effect of the dynamics of the impurity distribution over the ionization states on the radiative plasma instabilities and shock wave structure

    We show that conventional quasistationary (coronal, or improved coronal) approximation for the energy loss due to the impurity radiation in practice can never be applied to the investigations of the impurity radiation driven instabilities in the edge plasmas due to relatively slow evolution of the impurity population over ionization states. We show that taking into account the effect of the evolution of the impurity population over ionization states results in a very significant change of the growth rates of the radiative driven instabilities and the structure of the shock wave in the radiative plasmas and leads to the strict conditions for the existence of the shock wave. (orig.)

  16. Corotational Instability of Inertial-Acoustic Modes in Black Hole Accretion Discs and Quasi-Periodic Oscillations

    Lai, Dong

    2008-01-01

    We study the global stability of non-axisymmetric p-modes (also called inertial-acoustic modes) trapped in the inner-most regions of accretion discs around black holes. We show that the lowest-order (highest-frequency) p-modes, with frequencies $\\omega=(0.5-0.7) m\\Omega_{\\rm ISCO}$, can be overstable due to general relativistic effects, according to which the radial epicyclic frequency is a non-monotonic function of radius near the black hole. The mode is trapped inside the corotation resonance radius and carries a negative energy. The mode growth arises primarily from wave absorption at the corotation resonance, and the sign of the wave absorption depends on the gradient of the disc vortensity. When the mode frequency is sufficiently high, such that the slope of the vortensity is positive at corotation positive wave energy is absorbed at the resonance, leading to the growth of mode amplitude. We also study how the rapid radial inflow at the inner edge of the disc affects the mode trapping and growth. Our ana...

  17. Multi-dimensional PIC-simulations of parametric instabilities for shock-ignition conditions

    Riconda C.; Weber S.; Klimo O.; Héron A.; Tikhonchuk V.T.

    2013-01-01

    Laser-plasma interaction is investigated for conditions relevant for the shock-ignition (SI) scheme of inertial confinement fusion using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of an intense laser beam propagating in a hot, large-scale, non-uniform plasma. The temporal evolution and interdependence of Raman- (SRS), and Brillouin- (SBS), side/backscattering as well as Two-Plasmon-Decay (TPD) are studied. TPD is developing in concomitance with SRS creating a broad spectrum of plasma ...

  18. Oscillating shocks in the low angular momentum flows as a source of variability of accreting black holes

    ,

    2014-01-01

    We derive the conditions for shock formation in a quasi-spherical, slightly rotating flows. We verify the results of semi-analytical, stationary calculations with the time evolution studied by numerical hydro-simulations, and we study the oscillations of the shock position. We also study the behaviour of flows with varying specific angular momentum, where the 'hysteresis' type of loop is found when passing through the multiple sonic points region. Our results are in agreement with the timescales and shapes of the luminosity flares observed in Sgr A*. These models may also be applicable for the Galactic stellar mass black holes, like GX 339-4 or GRS 1915+105, where periodic oscillations of X-ray luminosity are detected.

  19. Properties of the propagating oscillatory shock wave in the accretion flows around few transient black hole candidates during their outbursts

    Debnath, Dipak

    2013-01-01

    In our study of the timing properties of few Galactic black hole candidates evolutions of the low and intermediate frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (LIFQPOs) are observed. In 2005, for explaining evolution of QPO frequency during rising phase of 2005 GRO J1655-40 outburst, Chakrabarti and his students introduced a new model, namely propagating oscillatory shock (POS) model. Here we present the results obtained from the same POS model fitted QPO evolutions during both the rising and declining phases of the outbursts of 2005 GRO J165540, 2010-11 GX 339-4, and 2010 & 2011 H 1743-322.

  20. Multi-dimensional PIC-simulations of parametric instabilities for shock-ignition conditions

    Riconda C.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Laser-plasma interaction is investigated for conditions relevant for the shock-ignition (SI scheme of inertial confinement fusion using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC simulations of an intense laser beam propagating in a hot, large-scale, non-uniform plasma. The temporal evolution and interdependence of Raman- (SRS, and Brillouin- (SBS, side/backscattering as well as Two-Plasmon-Decay (TPD are studied. TPD is developing in concomitance with SRS creating a broad spectrum of plasma waves near the quarter-critical density. They are rapidly saturated due to plasma cavitation within a few picoseconds. The hot electron spectrum created by SRS and TPD is relatively soft, limited to energies below one hundred keV.

  1. Spherical Accretion

    Sari, Re'em; Goldreich, Peter

    2006-01-01

    We compare different examples of spherical accretion onto a gravitating mass. Limiting cases include the accretion of a collisionally dominated fluid and the accretion of collisionless particles. We derive expressions for the accretion rate and density profile for semi-collisional accretion which bridges the gap between these limiting cases. Particle crossing of the Hill sphere during the formation of the outer planets is likely to have taken place in the semi-collisional regime.

  2. Neutrino signature of supernova hydrodynamical instabilities in three dimensions.

    Tamborra, Irene; Hanke, Florian; Müller, Bernhard; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Raffelt, Georg

    2013-09-20

    The first full-scale three-dimensional core-collapse supernova (SN) simulations with sophisticated neutrino transport show pronounced effects of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) for two high-mass progenitors (20 and 27 M([Symbol: see text])). In a low-mass progenitor (11.2 M([Symbol: see text])), large-scale convection is the dominant nonradial hydrodynamic instability in the postshock accretion layer. The SASI-associated modulation of the neutrino signal (80 Hz in our two examples) will be clearly detectable in IceCube or the future Hyper-Kamiokande detector, depending on progenitor properties, distance, and observer location relative to the main SASI sloshing direction. The neutrino signal from the next galactic SN can, therefore, diagnose the nature of the hydrodynamic instability. PMID:24093243

  3. Theory of wind accretion

    Shakura N.I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of wind accretion in high-mass X-ray binaries is presented. We focus attention to different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto the neutron star: the supersonic (Bondi accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically toward NS magnetospghere, and subsonic (settling accretion which occurs when plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. Two regimes of accretion are separated by an X-ray luminosity of about 4 × 1036 erg/s. In the subsonic case, which sets in at low luminosities, a hot quasi-spherical shell must be formed around the magnetosphere, and the actual accretion rate onto NS is determined by ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We calculate the rate of plasma entry the magnetopshere and the angular momentum transfer in the shell due to turbulent viscosity appearing in the convective differentially rotating shell. We also discuss and calculate the structure of the magnetospheric boundary layer where the angular momentum between the rotating magnetosphere and the base of the differentially rotating quasi-spherical shell takes place. We show how observations of equilibrium X-ray pulsars Vela X-1 and GX 301-2 can be used to estimate dimensionless parameters of the subsonic settling accretion theory, and obtain the width of the magnetospheric boundary layer for these pulsars.

  4. Theory of wind accretion

    Shakura, N. I.; Postnov, K. A.; Kochetkova, A. Yu.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.

    2014-01-01

    A review of wind accretion in high-mass X-ray binaries is presented. We focus attention to different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto the neutron star: the supersonic (Bondi) accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically toward NS magnetospghere, and subsonic (settling) accretion which occurs when plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. Two regimes of accretion are separated by an X-ray luminosity of about 4 × 1036 erg/s. In the subsonic case, which sets in at low luminosities, a hot quasi-spherical shell must be formed around the magnetosphere, and the actual accretion rate onto NS is determined by ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We calculate the rate of plasma entry the magnetopshere and the angular momentum transfer in the shell due to turbulent viscosity appearing in the convective differentially rotating shell. We also discuss and calculate the structure of the magnetospheric boundary layer where the angular momentum between the rotating magnetosphere and the base of the differentially rotating quasi-spherical shell takes place. We show how observations of equilibrium X-ray pulsars Vela X-1 and GX 301-2 can be used to estimate dimensionless parameters of the subsonic settling accretion theory, and obtain the width of the magnetospheric boundary layer for these pulsars.

  5. Theory of wind accretion

    Shakura, N I; Kochetkova, A Yu; Hjalmarsdotter, L

    2013-01-01

    A review of wind accretion in high-mass X-ray binaries is presented. We focus attention to different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto the neutron star: the supersonic (Bondi) accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically toward NS magnetospghere, and subsonic (settling) accretion which occurs when plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. Two regimes of accretion are separated by an X-ray luminosity of about $4\\times10^{36}$ erg/s. In the subsonic case, which sets in at low luminosities, a hot quasi-spherical shell must be formed around the magnetosphere, and the actual accretion rate onto NS is determined by ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We calculate the rate of plasma entry the magnetopshere and the angular momentum transfer in the shell due to turbulent viscosity appearing in the convective differentially rotating shell. We also discuss and calculate the structure of the ...

  6. Cold Mode Accretion in Galaxy Formation

    Benson, Andrew J.; Bower, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A generic expectation for gas accreted by high mass haloes is that it is shock heated to the virial temperature of the halo. In low mass haloes, or at high redshift, however, the gas cooling rate is sufficiently rapid that an accretion shock is unlikely to form. Instead, gas can accrete directly into the centre of the halo in a `cold mode' of accretion. Although semi-analytic models have always made a clear distinction between hydrostatic and rapid cooling they have not made a distinction bet...

  7. An Investigation into the Character of Pre-Explosion Core-Collapse Supernova Shock Motion

    Burrows, Adam; Dolence, Joshua C.; Murphy, Jeremiah W.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the structure of the stalled supernova shock in both 2D and 3D and explore the differences in the effects of neutrino heating and the standing accretion shock instability (SASI). We find that early on the amplitude of the dipolar mode of the shock is factors of 2 to 3 smaller in 3D than in 2D. However, later in both 3D and 2D the monopole and dipole modes start to grow until explosion. Whereas in 2D the (l,m) = (1,0) mode changes sign quasi-periodically, producing the "up-and-d...

  8. The Linear Instability of Astrophysical Flames in Magnetic Fields

    Dursi, L J

    2004-01-01

    Supernovae of Type Ia are used as standard candles for cosmological observations despite the as yet incomplete understanding of their explosion mechanism. In one model, these events are thought to result from subsonic burning in the core of an accreting Carbon/Oxygen white dwarf that is accelerated through flame wrinkling and flame instabilities. Many such white dwarfs have significant magnetic fields. Here we derive the linear effects of such magnetic fields on one flame instability, the well-known Landau-Darrieus instability. When the magnetic field is strong enough that the flame is everywhere sub-Alfvenic, the instability can be greatly suppressed. Super-Alfvenic flames are much less affected by the field, with flames propagating parallel to the field somewh at destabilized, and flames propagating perpendicular to the field somewhat stabili zed. Trans-Alfvenic parallel flames, however, like trans-Alfvenic parallel shocks, are seen to be non-evolutionary; understanding the behavior of these flames will req...

  9. Modelling Accretion Disk and Stellar Wind Interactions: the Case of Sgr A*

    Christie, I M; Mimica, P; Giannios, D

    2016-01-01

    Sgr A* is an ideal target to study low-luminosity accreting systems. It has been recently proposed that properties of the accretion flow around Sgr A* can be probed through its interactions with the stellar wind of nearby massive stars belonging to the S-cluster. When a star intercepts the accretion disk, the ram and thermal pressures of the disk terminate the stellar wind leading to the formation of a bow shock structure. Here, a semi-analytical model is constructed which describes the geometry of the termination shock formed in the wind. With the employment of numerical hydrodynamic simulations, this model is both verified and extended to a region prone to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Because the characteristic wind and stellar velocities are in $\\sim10^{8}$ cm s$^{-1}$ range, the shocked wind may produce detectable X-rays via thermal bremsstrahlung emission. The application of this model to the pericenter passage of S2, the brightest member of the S-cluster, shows that the shocked wind produces roughly ...

  10. Linear analysis on the growth of non-spherical perturbations in supersonic accretion flows

    We analyzed the growth of non-spherical perturbations in supersonic accretion flows. We have in mind an application to the post-bounce phase of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). Such non-spherical perturbations have been suggested by a series of papers by Arnett, who has numerically investigated violent convections in the outer layers of pre-collapse stars. Moreover, Couch and Ott demonstrated in their numerical simulations that such perturbations may lead to a successful supernova even for a progenitor that fails to explode without fluctuations. This study investigated the linear growth of perturbations during the infall onto a stalled shock wave. The linearized equations are solved as an initial and boundary value problem with the use of a Laplace transform. The background is a Bondi accretion flow whose parameters are chosen to mimic the 15 M ☉ progenitor model by Woosley and Heger, which is supposed to be a typical progenitor of CCSNe. We found that the perturbations that are given at a large radius grow as they flow down to the shock radius; the density perturbations can be amplified by a factor of 30, for example. We analytically show that the growth rate is proportional to l, the index of the spherical harmonics. We also found that the perturbations oscillate in time with frequencies that are similar to those of the standing accretion shock instability. This may have an implication for shock revival in CCSNe, which will be investigated in our forthcoming paper in more detail.

  11. Linear analysis on the growth of non-spherical perturbations in supersonic accretion flows

    Takahashi, Kazuya; Yamada, Shoichi, E-mail: ktakahashi@heap.phys.waseda.ac.jp [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku 169-8555 (Japan)

    2014-10-20

    We analyzed the growth of non-spherical perturbations in supersonic accretion flows. We have in mind an application to the post-bounce phase of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). Such non-spherical perturbations have been suggested by a series of papers by Arnett, who has numerically investigated violent convections in the outer layers of pre-collapse stars. Moreover, Couch and Ott demonstrated in their numerical simulations that such perturbations may lead to a successful supernova even for a progenitor that fails to explode without fluctuations. This study investigated the linear growth of perturbations during the infall onto a stalled shock wave. The linearized equations are solved as an initial and boundary value problem with the use of a Laplace transform. The background is a Bondi accretion flow whose parameters are chosen to mimic the 15 M {sub ☉} progenitor model by Woosley and Heger, which is supposed to be a typical progenitor of CCSNe. We found that the perturbations that are given at a large radius grow as they flow down to the shock radius; the density perturbations can be amplified by a factor of 30, for example. We analytically show that the growth rate is proportional to l, the index of the spherical harmonics. We also found that the perturbations oscillate in time with frequencies that are similar to those of the standing accretion shock instability. This may have an implication for shock revival in CCSNe, which will be investigated in our forthcoming paper in more detail.

  12. Evolution of Massive Protostars Via Disk Accretion

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Yorke, Harold W.; Omukai, Kazuyuki

    2010-09-01

    Mass accretion onto (proto-)stars at high accretion rates \\dot{M}_* > 10^{-4} M_{⊙} yr^{-1} is expected in massive star formation. We study the evolution of massive protostars at such high rates by numerically solving the stellar structure equations. In this paper, we examine the evolution via disk accretion. We consider a limiting case of "cold" disk accretion, whereby most of the stellar photosphere can radiate freely with negligible backwarming from the accretion flow, and the accreting material settles onto the star with the same specific entropy as the photosphere. We compare our results to the calculated evolution via spherically symmetric accretion, the opposite limit, whereby the material accreting onto the star contains the entropy produced in the accretion shock front. We examine how different accretion geometries affect the evolution of massive protostars. For cold disk accretion at 10-3 M sun yr-1, the radius of a protostar is initially small, R *sime a few R sun. After several solar masses have accreted, the protostar begins to bloat up and for M * ~= 10 M sun the stellar radius attains its maximum of 30-400 R sun. The large radius ~100 R sun is also a feature of spherically symmetric accretion at the same accreted mass and accretion rate. Hence, expansion to a large radius is a robust feature of accreting massive protostars. At later times, the protostar eventually begins to contract and reaches the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) for M * ~= 30 M sun, independent of the accretion geometry. For accretion rates exceeding several 10-3 M sun yr-1, the protostar never contracts to the ZAMS. The very large radius of several hundreds R sun results in the low effective temperature and low UV luminosity of the protostar. Such bloated protostars could well explain the existence of bright high-mass protostellar objects, which lack detectable H II regions.

  13. EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE PROTOSTARS VIA DISK ACCRETION

    Mass accretion onto (proto-)stars at high accretion rates M-dot*> 10-4 Msun yr-1 is expected in massive star formation. We study the evolution of massive protostars at such high rates by numerically solving the stellar structure equations. In this paper, we examine the evolution via disk accretion. We consider a limiting case of 'cold' disk accretion, whereby most of the stellar photosphere can radiate freely with negligible backwarming from the accretion flow, and the accreting material settles onto the star with the same specific entropy as the photosphere. We compare our results to the calculated evolution via spherically symmetric accretion, the opposite limit, whereby the material accreting onto the star contains the entropy produced in the accretion shock front. We examine how different accretion geometries affect the evolution of massive protostars. For cold disk accretion at 10-3 Msun yr-1, the radius of a protostar is initially small, R*≅ a few Rsun. After several solar masses have accreted, the protostar begins to bloat up and for M* ≅ 10 Msun the stellar radius attains its maximum of 30-400 Rsun. The large radius ∼100 Rsun is also a feature of spherically symmetric accretion at the same accreted mass and accretion rate. Hence, expansion to a large radius is a robust feature of accreting massive protostars. At later times, the protostar eventually begins to contract and reaches the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) for M* ≅ 30 Msun, independent of the accretion geometry. For accretion rates exceeding several 10-3 Msun yr-1, the protostar never contracts to the ZAMS. The very large radius of several hundreds Rsun results in the low effective temperature and low UV luminosity of the protostar. Such bloated protostars could well explain the existence of bright high-mass protostellar objects, which lack detectable H II regions.

  14. Cosmological shock waves

    Bykov, A M; Durret, F

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale structure formation, accretion and merging processes, AGN activity produce cosmological gas shocks. The shocks convert a fraction of the energy of gravitationally accelerated flows to internal energy of the gas. Being the main gas-heating agent, cosmological shocks could amplify magnetic fields and accelerate energetic particles via the multi-fluid plasma relaxation processes. We first discuss the basic properties of standard single-fluid shocks. Cosmological plasma shocks are expected to be collisionless. We then review the plasma processes responsible for the microscopic structure of collisionless shocks. A tiny fraction of the particles crossing the shock is injected into the non-thermal energetic component that could get a substantial part of the ram pressure power dissipated at the shock. The energetic particles penetrate deep into the shock upstream producing an extended shock precursor. Scaling relations for postshock ion temperature and entropy as functions of shock velocity in strong coll...

  15. The Collisionless Magnetothermal Instability

    Islam, Tanim

    2013-01-01

    It is likely that nearly all central galactic massive and supermassive black holes are nonradiative: their accretion luminosities are orders of magnitude below what can be explained by efficient black hole accretion within their ambient environments. These objects, of which Sagittarius A* is the best-known example, are also dilute (mildly collisional to highly collisionless) and optically thin. In order for accretion to occur, magnetohydrodynamic instabilities must develop that not only transport angular momentum, but also gravitational energy generated through matter infall, outwards. A class of new magnetohydrodynamical fluid instabilities -- the magnetoviscous-thermal instability (MVTI) (Islam12) -- was found to transport angular momentum and energy along magnetic field lines through large (fluid) viscosities and thermal conductivities. This paper describes the collisionless and mildly collisional analogue to the MVTI, the collisional magnetothermal instability (CMTI), that similarly transports energy and ...

  16. Evolution of Massive Protostars via Disk Accretion

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Omukai, Kazuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Mass accretion onto (proto-)stars at high accretion rates > 10^-4 M_sun/yr is expected in massive star formation. We study the evolution of massive protostars at such high rates by numerically solving the stellar structure equations. In this paper we examine the evolution via disk accretion. We consider a limiting case of "cold" disk accretion, whereby most of the stellar photosphere can radiate freely with negligible backwarming from the accretion flow, and the accreting material settles onto the star with the same specific entropy as the photosphere. We compare our results to the calculated evolution via spherically symmetric accretion, the opposite limit, whereby the material accreting onto the star contains the entropy produced in the accretion shock front. We examine how different accretion geometries affect the evolution of massive protostars. For cold disk accretion at 10^-3 M_sun/yr the radius of a protostar is initially small, about a few R_sun. After several solar masses have accreted, the protostar...

  17. Hoyle-Lyttleton Accretion onto Accretion Disks

    Fukue, Jun; Ioroi, Masayuki

    1999-01-01

    We investigate Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion for the case where the central source is a luminous accretion disk. %In classical Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion onto a ``spherical'' source, accretion takes place in an axially symmetric manner around a so-called accretion axis. The accretion rate of the classical Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion onto a non-luminous object and $\\Gamma$ the luminosity of the central object normalized by the Eddington luminosity. %If the central object is a compact star with a lumi...

  18. Wind accretion: Theory and Observations

    Shakura, N I; Kochetkova, A Yu; Hjalmarsdotter, L; Sidoli, L; Paizis, A

    2014-01-01

    A review of wind accretion in HMXB is presented. We focus on different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto a NS: supersonic (Bondi) accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically towards the NS magnetosphere, and subsonic (settling) accretion which occurs when the plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. The two regimes are separated by a limit in X-ray luminosity at about 4 10^{36} erg/s. In subsonic accretion, which works a hot quasi-spherical shell must form around the magnetosphere, and the actual accretion rate onto the NS is determined by the ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Two regimes of subsonic accretion are possible, depending on the plasma cooling mechanism (Compton or radiative) near the magnetopshere. The transition from the high-luminosity regime with Compton cooling to the low-luminosity (L_x < 3\\times 10^35 erg/s) regime with radiative cooling can be respon...

  19. Conservative GRMHD simulations of moderately thin, tilted accretion disks

    This paper presents our latest numerical simulations of accretion disks that are misaligned with respect to the rotation axis of a Kerr black hole. In this work, we use a new, fully conservative version of the Cosmos++ general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) code, coupled with an ad hoc cooling function designed to control the thickness of the disk. Together these allow us to simulate the thinnest tilted accretion disks ever using a GRMHD code. In this way, we are able to probe the regime where the dimensionless stress and scale height of the disk become comparable. We present results for both prograde and retrograde cases. The simulated prograde tilted disk shows no sign of Bardeen-Petterson alignment even in the innermost parts of the disk. The simulated retrograde tilted disk, however, does show modest alignment. The implication of these results is that the parameter space associated with Bardeen-Petterson alignment for prograde disks may be rather small, only including very thin disks. Unlike our previous work, we find no evidence for standing shocks in our simulated tilted disks. We ascribe this to the black hole spin, tilt angle, and disk scale height all being small in these simulations. We also add to the growing body of literature pointing out that the turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability in global simulations of accretion disks is not isotropic. Finally, we provide a comparison between our moderately thin, untilted reference simulation and other numerical simulations of thin disks in the literature.

  20. A kinetic approach to non resonant modes and growth rates of streaming instability: consequences for shock acceleration

    Pasquale BlasiINAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri; Elena Amato(INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri)

    2015-01-01

    We show here that a purely kinetic approach to the excitation of waves by cosmic rays in the vicinity of a shock front leads to predict the appearance of a non-alfvenic fastly growing mode which is the same that was found by Bell (2004) by treating the plasma in the MHD approximation. The kinetic approach we present is more powerful in that it allows us to investigate different models for the compensation of the cosmic ray current in the background upstream plasma.

  1. Black Hole Accretion in Low States: Electron Heating

    Liu, Siming; Fryer, Christopher L.; Li, Hui

    2007-01-01

    Plasmas in an accretion flow are heated by MHD turbulence generated through the magneto-rotational instability. The viscous stress driving the accretion is intimately connected to the microscopic processes of turbulence dissipation. We show that, in a few well-observed black hole accretion systems, there is compelling observational evidence of efficient electron heating by turbulence or collective plasma effects in low accretion states, when Coulomb collisions are not efficient enough to esta...

  2. Dislocation mechanics based analysis of material dynamics behavior: enhanced ductility, deformation twinning, shock deformation, shear instability, dynamic recovery

    Further developments are described for the dislocation mechanics based constitutive equation analysis previously used to describe the separate dynamic stress-strain behavior of fcc and bcc metal polycrystals. An enhanced hardening and ductility in copper and certain tantalum materials at higher strain rates in split Hopkinson pressure bar tests and in shock loading are attributed to enhanced dislocation generation rather than to dislocation drag. Added material strengthening is accounted for also by deformation twinning in ARMCO iron and titanium and in shocked copper and tantalum. The separate equations are applied to calculate the critical strain for shear banding in copper, iron, and the titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V. In the two latter cases, the results are very sensitive to the details of the strain-hardening behavior and the need is demonstrated for a dynamic recovery factor to account for the onset of shear banding. Consideration is given also to the possibility that shear band behavior requires explanation on a more fundamental Hall-Petch dislocation pile-up basis. (orig.)

  3. Accretion Disks

    Spruit, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    This is an introduction to accretion disk theory, with emphasis on aspects relevant for X-ray Binaries and Cataclysmic Variables. The text corrects some mistakes in an earlier version, which appeared in 'Lives of Neutron Stars', A. Alpar, \\"U. Kizilo\\u glu and J. van Paradijs (eds.), Kluwer, Dordrecht (NATO ASI series, 1994).

  4. Accretion rates and accretion efficiency in AGNs

    Weihao, Bian; Yongheng, Zhao

    2003-01-01

    We used the standard geometrical thin accretion theory to obtain the accretion rates in Seyfert 1 galaxies and quasars. Combining accretion rates with the bolometric luminosity, we obtained the accretion efficiency. We found most of Seyfert 1 galaxies and radio quiet quasars have lower accretion efficiencies while most of the radio loud quasars possess higher accretion efficiencies. This finding further implies most of radio loud quasars possess Kerr black holes while Seyfert 1 galaxies and r...

  5. How do accretion discs break?

    Dogan, Suzan

    2016-07-01

    Accretion discs are common in binary systems, and they are often found to be misaligned with respect to the binary orbit. The gravitational torque from a companion induces nodal precession in misaligned disc orbits. In this study, we first calculate whether this precession is strong enough to overcome the internal disc torques communicating angular momentum. We compare the disc precession torque with the disc viscous torque to determine whether the disc should warp or break. For typical parameters precession wins: the disc breaks into distinct planes that precess effectively independently. To check our analytical findings, we perform 3D hydrodynamical numerical simulations using the PHANTOM smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, and confirm that disc breaking is widespread and enhances accretion on to the central object. For some inclinations, the disc goes through strong Kozai cycles. Disc breaking promotes markedly enhanced and variable accretion and potentially produces high-energy particles or radiation through shocks. This would have significant implications for all binary systems: e.g. accretion outbursts in X-ray binaries and fuelling supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. The behaviour we have discussed in this work is relevant to a variety of astrophysical systems, for example X-ray binaries, where the disc plane may be tilted by radiation warping, SMBH binaries, where accretion of misaligned gas can create effectively random inclinations and protostellar binaries, where a disc may be misaligned by a variety of effects such as binary capture/exchange, accretion after binary formation.

  6. Wind accretion: Theory and observations

    Shakura, N. I.; Postnov, K. A.; Kochetkova, A. Yu.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.; Sidoli, L.; Paizis, A.

    2015-07-01

    A review of wind accretion in high-mass X-ray binaries is presented. We focus on different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto the neutron star (NS): the supersonic (Bondi) accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically towards the NS magnetosphere, and subsonic (settling) accretion which occurs when plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. These two regimes of accretion are separated by an X-ray luminosity of about 4 × 1036 erg s-1. In the subsonic case, which sets in at lower luminosities, a hot quasi-spherical shell must form around the magnetosphere, and the actual accretion rate onto NS is determined by the ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. In turn, two regimes of subsonic accretion are possible, depending on plasma cooling mechanism (Compton or radiative) near the magnetopshere. The transition from the high-luminosity with Compton cooling to the lowluminosity (Lx ≲ 3 × 1035 erg s-1) with radiative cooling can be responsible for the onset of the off states repeatedly observed in several low-luminosity slowly accreting pulsars, such as Vela X-1, GX 301-2, and 4U 1907+09. The triggering of the transitionmay be due to a switch in the X-ray beam pattern in response to a change in the optical depth in the accretion column with changing luminosity. We also show that in the settling accretion theory, bright X-ray flares (~1038-1040 erg) observed in supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXT) can be produced by sporadic capture of magnetized stellar wind plasma. At sufficiently low accretion rates, magnetic reconnection can enhance the magnetospheric plasma entry rate, resulting in copious production of X-ray photons, strong Compton cooling and ultimately in unstable accretion of the entire shell. A bright flare develops on the free-fall time scale in the shell, and the typical energy released in an SFXT bright flare corresponds to the mass

  7. ACCRETING CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS: OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURES

    Zhu, Zhaohuan, E-mail: zhzhu@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    I calculate the spectral energy distributions of accreting circumplanetary disks using atmospheric radiative transfer models. Circumplanetary disks only accreting at 10{sup –10} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} around a 1 M{sub J} planet can be brighter than the planet itself. A moderately accreting circumplanetary disk ( M-dot ∼10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}; enough to form a 10 M{sub J} planet within 1 Myr) around a 1 M{sub J} planet has a maximum temperature of ∼2000 K, and at near-infrared wavelengths (J, H, K bands), this disk is as bright as a late-M-type brown dwarf or a 10 M{sub J} planet with a ''hot start''. To use direct imaging to find the accretion disks around low-mass planets (e.g., 1 M{sub J} ) and distinguish them from brown dwarfs or hot high-mass planets, it is crucial to obtain photometry at mid-infrared bands (L', M, N bands) because the emission from circumplanetary disks falls off more slowly toward longer wavelengths than those of brown dwarfs or planets. If young planets have strong magnetic fields (≳100 G), fields may truncate slowly accreting circumplanetary disks ( M-dot ≲10{sup −9} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) and lead to magnetospheric accretion, which can provide additional accretion signatures, such as UV/optical excess from the accretion shock and line emission.

  8. Dynamical structure of magnetized dissipative accretion flow around black holes

    Sarkar, Biplob

    2016-01-01

    We study the global structure of optically thin, advection dominated, magnetized accretion flow around black holes. We consider the magnetic field to be turbulent in nature and dominated by the toroidal component. With this, we obtain the complete set of accretion solutions for dissipative flows where bremsstrahlung process is regarded as the dominant cooling mechanism. We show that rotating magnetized accretion flow experiences virtual barrier around black hole due to centrifugal repulsion that can trigger the discontinuous transition of the flow variables in the form of shock waves. We examine the properties of the shock waves and find that the dynamics of the post-shock corona (PSC) is controlled by the flow parameters, namely viscosity, cooling rate and strength of the magnetic field, respectively. We separate the effective region of the parameter space for standing shock and observe that shock can form for wide range of flow parameters. We obtain the critical viscosity parameter that allows global accret...

  9. Diffusive Shock Acceleration at Cosmological Shock Waves

    Kang, Hyesung; Ryu, Dongsu

    2012-01-01

    We reexamine nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at cosmological shocks in the large scale structure of the Universe, incorporating wave-particle interactions that are expected to operate in collisionless shocks. Adopting simple phenomenological models for magnetic field amplification (MFA) by cosmic-ray (CR) streaming instabilities and Alfv'enic drift, we perform kinetic DSA simulations for a wide range of sonic and Alfv'enic Mach numbers and evaluate the CR injection fraction and a...

  10. High energy gamma rays from old accreting neutron stars

    P. Blasi(INAF Arcetri)

    1996-01-01

    We consider a magnetized neutron star with accretion from a companion star or a gas cloud around it, as a possible source of gamma rays with energy between $100$ $MeV$ and $10^{14}-10^{16}~eV$. The flow of the accreting plasma is terminated by a shock at the Alfv\\'en surface. Such a shock is the site for the acceleration of particles up to energies of $\\sim 10^{15}-10^{17}~eV$; gamma photons are produced in the inelastic $pp$ collisions between shock-accelerated particles and accreting matter...

  11. Time dependent white dwarf radiative shocks

    We study the oscillatory instability of white dwarf radiative accretion shocks discovered by Langer, Chanmugam, and Shaviv. We extend previous works by examining spherical shocks dominated by: (1) bremsstrahlung and Compton cooling; and (2) bremsstrahlung and Compton cooling when the effects of electron thermal conduction are not negligible. The results of our calculations allow us to delineate stability regimes as a function of the dwarf mass, M/sub d/, and the accretion rate, M0. We parameterize M0 in terms of the optical depth to electron scattering through the preshock flow, tau/sub es/. In the Compton cooling and bremsstrahlung case, the shocks are unstable to low order oscillation modes if M/sub d/ less than or equal to (0.7 +- 0.1) M/sub solar/ for tau/sub es/ = 14, and if M/sub d/ less than or equal to (0.9 +- 0.1) M/sub solar/ for tau/sub es/ = 1. When electron thermal conduction is added, low order oscillation modes are unstable only if M/sub d/ less than or equal to (0.3 +- 0.1) M/sub sun mass/. The unstable modes have approximate oscillation periods of 1.1 tau/sub br/ and 0.63 tau/sub br/, where tau/sub br/ is the bremsstrahlung cooling time scale of the postshock plasma. Our results can be scaled to magnetically funneled accretion flows as long as cyclotron emission contributes less than about 10% of the postshock cooling. 14 refs., 1 fig

  12. Accretion, winds and outflows in young stars

    Günther, Hans Moritz

    2012-01-01

    Young stars and planetary systems form in molecular clouds. For classical T Tauri stars (CTTS, F-K type precursors) the accretion disk does not reach down to the central star, but it is truncated near the co-rotation radius. The inner edge of the disk is ionized by the stellar radiation, so that the accretion stream is funneled along the magnetic field lines. On the stellar surface an accretion shock develops, which is observed over a wide wavelength range as X-ray emission, UV excess, optical veiling and optical and IR emission lines. Some of the accretion tracers, e.g. H\\alpha, can be calibrated to measure the accretion rate. This accretion process is variable on time scales of hours to years due to changing accretion rates, stellar rotation and reconfiguration of the magnetic field. Furthermore, many accreting systems also drive strong outflows which are ultimately powered by accretion. Several components could contribute to the outflows: slow, wide-angle disk winds, X-winds launched close to the inner dis...

  13. Theory of disk accretion onto supermassive black holes

    Armitage, P J

    2004-01-01

    Accretion onto supermassive black holes produces both the dramatic phenomena associated with active galactic nuclei and the underwhelming displays seen in the Galactic Center and most other nearby galaxies. I review selected aspects of the current theoretical understanding of black hole accretion, emphasizing the role of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and gravitational instabilities in driving the actual accretion and the importance of the efficacy of cooling in determining the structure and observational appearance of the accretion flow. Ongoing investigations into the dynamics of the plunging region, the origin of variability in the accretion process, and the evolution of warped, twisted, or eccentric disks are summarized.

  14. Modelling accretion disc and stellar wind interactions: the case of Sgr A*

    Christie, I. M.; Petropoulou, M.; Mimica, P.; Giannios, D.

    2016-07-01

    Sgr A* is an ideal target to study low-luminosity accreting systems. It has been recently proposed that properties of the accretion flow around Sgr A* can be probed through its interactions with the stellar wind of nearby massive stars belonging to the S-cluster. When a star intercepts the accretion disc, the ram and thermal pressures of the disc terminate the stellar wind leading to the formation of a bow shock structure. Here, a semi-analytical model is constructed which describes the geometry of the termination shock formed in the wind. With the employment of numerical hydrodynamic simulations, this model is both verified and extended to a region prone to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Because the characteristic wind and stellar velocities are in ˜108 cm s-1 range, the shocked wind may produce detectable X-rays via thermal bremsstrahlung emission. The application of this model to the pericentre passage of S2, the brightest member of the S-cluster, shows that the shocked wind produces roughly a month long X-ray flare with a peak luminosity of L ≈ 4 × 1033 erg s-1 for a stellar mass-loss rate, disc number density, and thermal pressure strength of dot{M}_w= 10^{-7} M_{⊙} yr^{-1}, nd = 105 cm-3, and α = 0.1, respectively. This peak luminosity is comparable to the quiescent X-ray emission detected from Sgr A* and is within the detection capabilities of current X-ray observatories. Its detection could constrain the density and thickness of the disc at a distance of ˜3000 gravitational radii from the supermassive black hole.

  15. Accreting Matter around Clusters of Galaxies One-Dimensional Considerations

    Ryu, D; Ryu, Dongsu; Kang, Hyesung

    1996-01-01

    During the formation of the large scale structure of the Universe, matter accretes onto high density peaks. Accreting collisionless dark matter (DM) forms caustics around them, while accreting collisional baryonic matter (BM) forms accretion shocks. The properties of the accreting matter depend upon the power spectrum of the initial perturbations on a given scale as well as the background expansion in a given cosmological model. In this paper, we have calculated the accretion of DM particles in one-dimensional spherical geometry under various cosmological models including the Einstein-de Sitter universe, the open universe with $\\Omega_o<1$, and the flat universe with a point mass at the origin has been considered. Since the accretion shock of BM is expected to form close to the first caustic of DM, the properties of the accreting BM are common with those of the DM. Hence, the accretion calculations with DM particles have been used to find the position and velocity of the accretion shock and the cluster mas...

  16. Numerical Simulations of Viscous Accretion Flow around Black Holes

    Lee, Seong-Jae; Chattopadhyay, Indranil; Kumar, Rajiv; Hyung, Siek; Ryu, Dongsu

    2016-06-01

    We present shocked viscous accretion flow onto a black hole in a two dimensional cylindrical geometry, where initial conditions were chosen from analytical solutions. The simulation code used the Lagrangian Total Variation Diminishing (LTVD) and remap routine, which enabled us to attain high accuracy in capturing shocks and to handle the angular momentum distribution correctly. The steady state shocked solution in the inviscid, as well as in the viscous regime, matched theoretical predictions well, but increasing viscosity renders the accretion shock unstable. Large amplitude shock oscillation is accompanied by intermittent, transient inner multiple shocks. Such oscillation of the inner part of disk is interpreted as the source of QPO in hard X-rays observed in microquasars; and strong shock oscillation induces strong episodic jet emission. The periodicity of jets and shock oscillation are similar. Our simulation shows that the jets for higher viscosity parameter are evidently stronger and faster than that for lower viscosity.

  17. Accretion Discs Around Black Holes: Developement of Theory

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.

    1999-01-01

    Standard accretion disk theory is formulated which is based on the local heat balance. The energy produced by a turbulent viscous heating is supposed to be emitted to the sides of the disc. Sources of turbulence in the accretion disc are connected with nonlinear hydrodynamic instability, convection, and magnetic field. In standard theory there are two branches of solution, optically thick, and optically thin. Advection in accretion disks is described by the differential equations what makes t...

  18. Theory of disk accretion onto supermassive black holes

    Armitage, Philip J.

    2004-01-01

    Accretion onto supermassive black holes produces both the dramatic phenomena associated with active galactic nuclei and the underwhelming displays seen in the Galactic Center and most other nearby galaxies. I review selected aspects of the current theoretical understanding of black hole accretion, emphasizing the role of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and gravitational instabilities in driving the actual accretion and the importance of the efficacy of cooling in determining the structure and ...

  19. 2-D MHD Configurations for Accretion Disks Around Magnetized Stars

    Benini, Riccardo; Montani, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    We discuss basic features of steady accretion disk morphology around magnetized compact astrophysical objects. A comparison between the standard model of accretion based on visco-resistive MHD and the plasma instabilities, like ballooning modes, triggered by very low value of resistivity, is proposed.

  20. Time-dependent Hypercritical Accretion onto Black Holes

    Zampieri, Luca

    1996-01-01

    Results are presented from a time-dependent, numerical investigation of super-Eddington spherical accretion onto black holes with different initial conditions. We have studied the stability of stationary solutions, the non-linear evolution of shocked models and the time-dependent accretion from an expanding medium.

  1. Spreading Layers in Accreting Objects: Role of Acoustic Waves for Angular Momentum Transport, Mixing, and Thermodynamics

    Philippov, Alexander A.; Rafikov, Roman R.; Stone, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Disk accretion at a high rate onto a white dwarf (WD) or a neutron star has been suggested to result in the formation of a spreading layer (SL)—a belt-like structure on the object's surface, in which the accreted matter steadily spreads in the poleward (meridional) direction while spinning down. To assess its basic characteristics, we perform two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of supersonic SLs in the relevant morphology with a simple prescription for cooling. We demonstrate that supersonic shear naturally present at the base of the SL inevitably drives sonic instability that gives rise to large-scale acoustic modes governing the evolution of the SL. These modes dominate the transport of momentum and energy, which is intrinsically global and cannot be characterized via some form of local effective viscosity (e.g., α-viscosity). The global nature of the wave-driven transport should have important implications for triggering Type I X-ray bursts in low-mass X-ray binaries. The nonlinear evolution of waves into a system of shocks drives effective rearrangement (sensitively depending on thermodynamical properties of the flow) and deceleration of the SL, which ultimately becomes transonic and susceptible to regular Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. We interpret this evolution in terms of the global structure of the SL and suggest that mixing of the SL material with the underlying stellar fluid should become effective only at intermediate latitudes on the accreting object's surface, where the flow has decelerated appreciably. In the near-equatorial regions the transport is dominated by acoustic waves and mixing is less efficient. We speculate that this latitudinal nonuniformity of mixing in accreting WDs may be linked to the observed bipolar morphology of classical nova ejecta.

  2. Simulations of Viscous Accretion Flow around Black Holes in Two-Dimensional Cylindrical Geometry

    Lee, Seong-Jae; Kumar, Rajiv; Hyung, Siek; Ryu, Dongsu

    2016-01-01

    We simulate shock-free and shocked viscous accretion flow onto a black hole in a two dimensional cylindrical geometry, where initial conditions were chosen from analytical solutions. The simulation code used the Lagrangian Total Variation Diminishing (LTVD) and remap routine, which enabled us to attain high accuracy in capturing shocks and to handle the angular momentum distribution correctly. Inviscid shock-free accretion disk solution produced a thick disk structure, while the viscous shock-free solution attained a Bondi-like structure, but in either case, no jet activity nor any QPO-like activity developed. The steady state shocked solution in the inviscid, as well as, in the viscous regime, matched theoretical predictions well. However, increasing viscosity renders the accretion shock unstable. Large amplitude shock oscillation is accompanied by intermittent, transient inner multiple shocks. Such oscillation of the inner part of disk is interpreted as the source of QPO in hard X-rays observed in micro-qua...

  3. Theory of wind accretion

    Shakura N.I.; Postnov K.A.; Kochetkova A.Yu.; Hjalmarsdotter L.

    2013-01-01

    A review of wind accretion in high-mass X-ray binaries is presented. We focus attention to different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto the neutron star: the supersonic (Bondi) accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically toward NS magnetospghere, and subsonic (settling) accretion which occurs when plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. Two regimes of accretion are separated by an X-ray luminosity of about $4\\...

  4. Evolution of Disk Accretion

    Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Strom, Stephen E.

    1999-01-01

    We review the present knowledge of disk accretion in young low mass stars, and in particular, the mass accretion rate and its evolution with time. The methods used to obtain mass accretion rates from ultraviolet excesses and emission lines are described, and the current best estimates of mass accretion rate for Classical T Tauri stars and for objects still surrounded by infalling envelopes are given. We argue that the low mass accretion rates of the latter objects require episodes of high mas...

  5. Discovery of an Accretion-Fed Corona in an Accreting Young Star

    Wolk, Scott J.; Brickhouse, N.; Cranmer, S.; Dupree, A.; Luna, G. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    A deep (489 ks) Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating spectrum of the classical T Tauri star TW Hydrae shows a new type of coronal structure that is produced by the accretion process. In the standard model for a stellar dipole, the magnetic field truncates the disk and channels the accreting material onto the star. The He-like diagnostic lines of Ne IX provide excellent agreement with the shock conditions predicted by this model, with an electron temperature of 2.5 MK and electron density of 3 times 1012 cm-3 (see also Kastner et al. 2002). However, the standard model completely fails to predict the post-shock conditions, significantly overpredicting both the density and absorption observed at O VII. Instead the observations require a second "post-shock" component with 30 times more mass and 1000 times larger volume than found at the shock itself. We note that in the standard model, the shocked plasma is conveniently located near both closed (coronal) and open (stellar wind) magnetic structures, as the magnetic field connecting the star and disk also separates the open and closed field regions on the stellar surface. The shocked plasma thus can provide the energy to heat not only the post-shock plasma, but also adjacent regions (i.e. an "accretion-fed corona") and drive stellar material into surrounding coronal structures. These observations provide new clues to the puzzling soft X-ray excess found in accreting systems, which depends on both the presence of accretion and the level of coronal activity (Guedel and Telleschi 2007). This work is partially supported by CXO grant G07-8018X.

  6. Cross-correlation Aided Transport in Stochastically Driven Accretion Flows

    Nath, Sujit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Origin of linear instability resulting in rotating sheared accretion flows has remained a controversial subject for long. While some explanations of such non-normal transient growth of disturbances in the Rayleigh stable limit were available for magnetized accretion flows, similar instabilities in absence of magnetic perturbations remained unexplained. This dichotomy was resolved in two recent publications by Chattopadhyay, {\\it et al} where it was shown that such instabilities, especially for non-magnetized accretion flows, were introduced through interaction of the inherent stochastic noise in the system (even a \\enquote{cold} accretion flow at 3000K is too \\enquote{hot} in the statistical parlance and is capable of inducing strong thermal modes) with the underlying Taylor-Couette flow profiles. Both studies, however, excluded the additional energy influx (or efflux) that could result from nonzero cross-correlation of a noise perturbing the velocity flow, say, with the noise that is driving the vorticity fl...

  7. Estimation of mass outflow rates from viscous relativistic accretion discs around black holes

    Chattopadhyay, Indranil; Kumar, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    We investigated flow in Schwarzschild metric, around a non-rotating black hole and obtained self-consistent accretion - ejection solution in full general relativity. We covered the whole of parameter space in the advective regime to obtain shocked, as well as, shock-free accretion solution. We computed the jet streamline using von - Zeipel surfaces and projected the jet equations of motion on to the streamline and solved them simultaneously with the accretion disc equations of motion. We foun...

  8. The Magnetoviscous-thermal Instability

    Islam, Tanim

    2011-01-01

    Accretion flows onto underluminous black holes, such as Sagittarius A* at the center of our galaxy, are dilute (mildly collisional to highly collisionless), optically thin, and radiatively inefficient. Therefore, the accretion properties of such dilute flows are expected to be modified by their large viscosities and thermal conductivities. Second, turbulence within these systems needs to transport angular momentum as well as thermal energy generated through gravitational infall outwards in order to allow accretion to occur. This is in contrast to classical accretion flows, in which the energy generated through accretion down a gravitational well is locally radiated. In this paper, using an incompressible fluid treatment of an ionized gas, we expand on previous research by considering the stability properties of a magnetized rotating plasma wherein the thermal conductivity and viscosity are not negligible and may be dynamically important. We find a class of MHD instabilities that can transport angular momentum...

  9. Simulations of relativistic collisionless shocks: shock structure and particle acceleration

    Spitkovsky, A

    2006-01-01

    We discuss 3D simulations of relativistic collisionless shocks in electron-positron pair plasmas using the particle-in-cell (PIC) method. The shock structure is mainly controlled by the shock's magnetization ("sigma" parameter). We demonstrate how the structure of the shock varies as a function of sigma for perpendicular shocks. At low magnetizations the shock is mediated mainly by the Weibel instability which generates transient magnetic fields that can exceed the initial field. At larger magnetizations the shock is dominated by magnetic reflections. We demonstrate where the transition occurs and argue that it is impossible to have very low magnetization collisionless shocks in nature (in more than one spatial dimension). We further discuss the acceleration properties of these shocks, and show that higher magnetization perpendicular shocks do not efficiently accelerate nonthermal particles in 3D. Among other astrophysical applications, this may pose a restriction on the structure and composition of gamma-ray...

  10. 一种用于RM不稳定性研究的竖直环形激波管的设计与验证%Design and validation of a vertical annular shock tube for RM instability study

    龙桐; 翟志刚; 司廷; 罗喜胜

    2014-01-01

    设计并加工了一套竖直环形同轴无膜激波管,可用于环形汇聚激波诱导下的Richtmyer-Meshkov 不稳定性实验研究。与前人工作相比,本文在流体界面的形成以及流场的观测方法上做了较大的改进。通过实验和数值方法,对该竖直激波管产生的环形柱状汇聚激波的参数进行测量和分析,验证了同轴激波管形成柱状汇聚激波方法的可行性和可靠性。在界面形成方面,采用细丝约束肥皂膜技术形成正八边形气体界面,并利用数值方法考察了细丝对界面发展的影响。结果表明在界面发展的前期,细丝的影响几乎可以忽略。利用连续激光片光结合高速摄影相机对流场进行观测,获得了正八边形air/SF6气体界面在环形汇聚激波及其反射激波冲击下的演化过程,并与数值结果进行了对比,获得了较好的一致性,进一步验证了汇聚激波的对称性以及细丝约束肥皂膜技术用于形成多边形气体界面的可靠性。%A vertical annular coaxial diaphragm-less shock tube is designed based on the prin-cipal proposed by Hosseini and Takayama and modified in order to conveniently install the initial interface in the test section and visualize the flow field for the investigation of the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM)instability.Parametric study is carried out both experimentally and numerically to explore the characteristics of the annular coaxial cylindrical converging shock wave.The varia-tion of pressure behind the shock shows the feasibility and reliability of this shock tube to generate the annular coaxial cylindrical converging shock wave.The pressure variations with time at differ-ent positions in the test section are acquired from the experiment and numerical simulation,and the converging effect of the shock wave is emphasized.After the validation of the converging shock wave,the experiment of RM instability induced by this converging shock wave is con

  11. Dynamical structure of magnetized dissipative accretion flow around black holes

    Sarkar, Biplob; Das, Santabrata

    2016-09-01

    We study the global structure of optically thin, advection dominated, magnetized accretion flow around black holes. We consider the magnetic field to be turbulent in nature and dominated by the toroidal component. With this, we obtain the complete set of accretion solutions for dissipative flows where bremsstrahlung process is regarded as the dominant cooling mechanism. We show that rotating magnetized accretion flow experiences virtual barrier around black hole due to centrifugal repulsion that can trigger the discontinuous transition of the flow variables in the form of shock waves. We examine the properties of the shock waves and find that the dynamics of the post-shock corona (PSC) is controlled by the flow parameters, namely viscosity, cooling rate and strength of the magnetic field, respectively. We separate the effective region of the parameter space for standing shock and observe that shock can form for wide range of flow parameters. We obtain the critical viscosity parameter that allows global accretion solutions including shocks. We estimate the energy dissipation at the PSC from where a part of the accreting matter can deflect as outflows and jets. We compare the maximum energy that could be extracted from the PSC and the observed radio luminosity values for several supermassive black hole sources and the observational implications of our present analysis are discussed.

  12. Dynamical structure of magnetized dissipative accretion flow around black holes

    Sarkar, Biplob; Das, Santabrata

    2016-06-01

    We study the global structure of optically thin, advection dominated, magnetized accretion flow around black holes. We consider the magnetic field to be turbulent in nature and dominated by the toroidal component. With this, we obtain the complete set of accretion solutions for dissipative flows where bremsstrahlung process is regarded as the dominant cooling mechanism. We show that rotating magnetized accretion flow experiences virtual barrier around black hole due to centrifugal repulsion that can trigger the discontinuous transition of the flow variables in the form of shock waves. We examine the properties of the shock waves and find that the dynamics of the post-shock corona (PSC) is controlled by the flow parameters, namely viscosity, cooling rate and strength of the magnetic field, respectively. We separate the effective region of the parameter space for standing shock and observe that shock can form for wide range of flow parameters. We obtain the critical viscosity parameter that allows global accretion solutions including shocks. We estimate the energy dissipation at the PSC from where a part of the accreting matter can deflect as outflows and jets. We compare the maximum energy that could be extracted from the PSC and the observed radio luminosity values for several super-massive black hole sources and the observational implications of our present analysis are discussed.

  13. An analytical model of accretion onto white dwarfs

    Ospina, N.; Hernanz, M.

    2013-05-01

    The analytical model of Frank et al. (2002) has been used to investigate the structure of the accretion stream onto white dwarfs (WD). In particular, the post-shock region (temperature, density and gas velocity distributions) and X-ray spectrum emitted by this region. We have obtained the temperature, density and gas velocity distributions of the emission region for different masses of white dwarfs and at different positions in the shock coordinate. Also, we calculated the emitted spectrum for different WD masses and at different positions of the shock with the principal objective of study the accretion at different points of the emission region.

  14. Time-dependent corona models: coronae with accretion

    Models of stationary extended coronae are presented for various values of the interstellar density. These calculations have been performed with the implicit time-dependent numerical method developed by Korevaar and Van Leer (1988). If the interstellar density is sufficiently low, the coronal gas expands through the Parker critical point to supersonic velocities. An increase in the interstellar density moves the interstellar shock closer to the star. When it comes closer than the critical point, the flow changes to a breeze solution that is subsonic everywhere. A further increase in the interstellar density reverses the flow. First an accretion breeze solution is found and then an inflow with a stationary accretion shock. This is the first numerical calculation of the complete set of stationary stellar wind solutions in spherical symmetry with boundary conditions specified at the stellar surface and at infinity, including the solutions with an interstellar shock or an accretion shock

  15. Dynamics of continental accretion.

    Moresi, L; Betts, P G; Miller, M S; Cayley, R A

    2014-04-10

    Subduction zones become congested when they try to consume buoyant, exotic crust. The accretionary mountain belts (orogens) that form at these convergent plate margins have been the principal sites of lateral continental growth through Earth's history. Modern examples of accretionary margins are the North American Cordilleras and southwest Pacific subduction zones. The geologic record contains abundant accretionary orogens, such as the Tasmanides, along the eastern margin of the supercontinent Gondwana, and the Altaïdes, which formed on the southern margin of Laurasia. In modern and ancient examples of long-lived accretionary orogens, the overriding plate is subjected to episodes of crustal extension and back-arc basin development, often related to subduction rollback and transient episodes of orogenesis and crustal shortening, coincident with accretion of exotic crust. Here we present three-dimensional dynamic models that show how accretionary margins evolve from the initial collision, through a period of plate margin instability, to re-establishment of a stable convergent margin. The models illustrate how significant curvature of the orogenic system develops, as well as the mechanism for tectonic escape of the back-arc region. The complexity of the morphology and the evolution of the system are caused by lateral rollback of a tightly arcuate trench migrating parallel to the plate boundary and orthogonally to the convergence direction. We find geological and geophysical evidence for this process in the Tasmanides of eastern Australia, and infer that this is a recurrent and global phenomenon. PMID:24670638

  16. Review: Accretion Disk Theory

    Montesinos, Matias

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I review and discuss the basic concepts of accretion disks, focused especially on the case of accretion disks around black holes. The well known alpha-model is revisited, showing the strengths and weaknesses of the model. Other turbulent viscosity prescription, based on the Reynolds number, that may improve our understanding of the accretion paradigm is discussed. A simple but efficient mathematical model of a self-gravitating accretion disk, as well as observational evidence of...

  17. Infall and accretion

    Combes, F.

    2007-01-01

    Gas infall and accretion play a fundamental role in galaxy formation, and several processes of accretion are reviewed. In particular the cold accretion may solve to some extent the angular momentum problem in disk formation, while it is aggravated by mergers. Gas accretion is one of the main actor in secular evolution: it is required to account for recurrent bar formation, and to explain the feedback cycles of formation of bulges and black holes, with correlated masses. Infall is also require...

  18. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in compressible fluids

    Sturtevant, B. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (USA). Graduate Aeronautical Labs.)

    1990-11-05

    This is a report of the progress during the past year of the shock-tube study of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, initiated under the sponsorship of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in September, 1982. The purpose of this research program, as stated in the original proposal, is: to investigate the nonlinear processes initiated by shock wave interaction with gas-gas interfaces. In particular, the nonlinear stage of shock-initiated Rayleigh-Taylor instability, the secondary instabilities (e.g., Kelvin-Helmholtz instability) arising therefrom and the concomitant mixing of the two fluids are of interest.''

  19. Massive Star Formation: Accreting from Companion

    X. Chen; J. S. Zhang

    2014-09-01

    We report the possible accretion from companion in the massive star forming region (G350.69–0.49). This region seems to be a binary system composed of a diffuse object (possible nebulae or UC HII region) and a Massive Young Stellar Object (MYSO) seen in Spitzer IRAC image. The diffuse object and MYSO are connected by the shock-excited 4.5 m emission, suggesting that the massive star may form through accreting material from the companion in this system.

  20. Magnetically controlled accretion onto a black hole

    Ikhsanov, N R; Beskrovnaya, N G; 10.1088/1742-6596/372/1/012062

    2012-01-01

    An accretion scenario in which the material captured by a black hole from its environment is assumed to be magnetized (\\beta ~ 1) is discussed. We show that the accretion picture in this case is strongly affected by the magnetic field of the flow itself. The accretion power within this Magnetically Controlled Accretion (MCA) scenario is converted predominantly into the magnetic energy of the accretion flow. The rapidly amplified field prevents the accretion flow from forming a homogeneous Keplerian disk. Instead, the flow is decelerated by its own magnetic field at a large distance (Shvartsman radius) from the black hole and switches into a non-Keplerian dense magnetized slab. The material in the slab is confined by the magnetic field and moves towards the black hole on the time scale of the magnetic field annihilation. The basic parameters of the slab are evaluated. Interchange instabilities in the slab may lead to a formation of Z-pinch type configuration of the magnetic field over the slab in which the acc...

  1. Radiative Shock Waves In Emerging Shocks

    Drake, R. Paul; Doss, F.; Visco, A.

    2011-05-01

    In laboratory experiments we produce radiative shock waves having dense, thin shells. These shocks are similar to shocks emerging from optically thick environments in astrophysics in that they are strongly radiative with optically thick shocked layers and optically thin or intermediate downstream layers through which radiation readily escapes. Examples include shocks breaking out of a Type II supernova (SN) and the radiative reverse shock during the early phases of the SN remnant produced by a red supergiant star. We produce these shocks by driving a low-Z plasma piston (Be) at > 100 km/s into Xe gas at 1.1 atm. pressure. The shocked Xe collapses to > 20 times its initial density. Measurements of structure by radiography and temperature by several methods confirm that the shock wave is strongly radiative. We observe small-scale perturbations in the post-shock layer, modulating the shock and material interfaces. We describe a variation of the Vishniac instability theory of decelerating shocks and an analysis of associated scaling relations to account for the growth of these perturbations, identify how they scale to astrophysical systems such as SN 1993J, and consider possible future experiments. Collaborators in this work have included H.F. Robey, J.P. Hughes, C.C. Kuranz, C.M. Huntington, S.H. Glenzer, T. Doeppner, D.H. Froula, M.J. Grosskopf, and D.C. Marion ________________________________ * Supported by the US DOE NNSA under the Predictive Sci. Academic Alliance Program by grant DE-FC52-08NA28616, the Stewardship Sci. Academic Alliances program by grant DE-FG52-04NA00064, and the Nat. Laser User Facility by grant DE-FG03-00SF22021.

  2. Estimation of mass outflow rates from viscous relativistic accretion discs around black holes

    Chattopadhyay, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    We investigated flow in Schwarzschild metric, around a non-rotating black hole and obtained self-consistent accretion - ejection solution in full general relativity. We covered the whole of parameter space in the advective regime to obtain shocked, as well as, shock-free accretion solution. We computed the jet streamline using von - Zeipel surfaces and projected the jet equations of motion on to the streamline and solved them simultaneously with the accretion disc equations of motion. We found that steady shock cannot exist {for $\\alpha \\gsim0.06$} in the general relativistic prescription, but is lower if mass - loss is considered too. We showed that for fixed outer boundary, the shock moves closer to the horizon with increasing viscosity parameter. The mass outflow rate increases as the shock moves closer to the black hole, but eventually decreases, maximizing at some intermediate value of shock {location}. The jet terminal speed increases with stronger shocks, quantitatively speaking, the terminal speed of ...

  3. Variable protostellar accretion with episodic bursts

    Vorobyov, Eduard I

    2015-01-01

    We present the latest development of the disk gravitational instability and fragmentation model, originally introduced by us to explain episodic accretion bursts in the early stages of star formation. Using our numerical hydrodynamics model with improved disk thermal balance and star-disk interaction, we computed the evolution of protostellar disks formed from the gravitational collapse of prestellar cores. In agreement with our previous studies, we find that cores of higher initial mass and angular momentum produce disks that are more favorable to gravitational instability and fragmentation, while a higher background irradiation and magnetic fields moderate the disk tendency to fragment. The protostellar accretion in our models is time-variable, thanks to the nonlinear interaction between different spiral modes in the gravitationally unstable disk, and can undergo episodic bursts when fragments migrate onto the star owing to the gravitational interaction with other fragments or spiral arms. Most bursts occur...

  4. Acoustic horizons in axially symmetric relativistic accretion

    Abraham, H; Das, T K; Abraham, Hrvoje; Bilic, Neven; Das, Tapas K.

    2006-01-01

    Transonic accretion onto astrophysical objects is a unique example of analogue black hole realized in nature. In the framework of acoustic geometry we study axially symmetric accretion and wind of a rotating astrophysical black hole or of a neutron star assuming isentropic flow of a fluid described by a polytropic equation of state. In particular we analyze the causal structure of multitransonic configurations with two sonic points and a shock. Retarded and advanced null curves clearly demonstrate the presence of the acoustic black hole at regular sonic points and of the white hole at the shock. We calculate the analogue surface gravity and the Hawking temperature for the inner and the outer acoustic horizons.

  5. Fermi bubbles inflated by winds launched from the hot accretion flow in Sgr A*

    A pair of giant gamma-ray Bubbles has been revealed by Fermi-LAT. In this paper we investigate their formation mechanism. Observations have indicated that the activity of the supermassive black hole located at the Galactic center, Sgr A*, was much stronger than at the present time. Specifically, one possibility is that while Sgr A* was also in the hot accretion regime, the accretion rate should be 103-104 times higher during the past ∼107 yr. On the other hand, recent magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations of hot accretion flows have unambiguously shown the existence and obtained the properties of strong winds. Based on this knowledge, by performing three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, we show in this paper that the Fermi Bubbles could be inflated by winds launched from the 'past' hot accretion flow in Sgr A*. In our model, the active phase of Sgr A* is required to last for about 10 million years and it was quenched no more than 0.2 million years ago. The central molecular zone (CMZ) is included and it collimates the wind orientation toward the Galactic poles. Viscosity suppresses the Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities and results in the smoothness of the Bubbles edge. The main observational features of the Bubbles can be well explained. Specifically, the ROSAT X-ray features are interpreted by the shocked interstellar medium and the interaction region between the wind and CMZ gas. The thermal pressure and temperature obtained in our model are consistent with recent Suzaku observations.

  6. Local Magnetohydrodynamical Models of Layered Accretion Disks

    Fleming, Timothy; Stone, James M.

    2002-01-01

    Using numerical MHD simulations, we have studied the evolution of the magnetorotational instability in stratified accretion disks in which the ionization fraction (and therefore resistivity) varies substantially with height. This model is appropriate to dense, cold disks around protostars or dwarf nova systems which are ionized by external irradiation of cosmic rays or high-energy photons. We find the growth and saturation of the MRI occurs only in the upper layers of the disk where the magne...

  7. Stability of black hole accretion disks

    Czerny B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the issues of stability of accretion disks that may undergo the limit-cycle oscillations due to the two main types of thermal-viscous instabilities. These are induced either by the domination of radiation pressure in the innermost regions close to the central black hole, or by the partial ionization of hydrogen in the zone of appropriate temperatures. These physical processes may lead to the intermittent activity in AGN on timescales between hundreds and millions of years. We list a number of observational facts that support the idea of the cyclic activity in high accretion rate sources. We conclude however that the observed features of quasars may provide only indirect signatures of the underlying instabilities. Also, the support from the sources with stellar mass black holes, whose variability timescales are observationally feasible, is limited to a few cases of the microquasars. Therefore we consider a number of plausible mechanisms of stabilization of the limit cycle oscillations in high accretion rate accretion disks. The newly found is the stabilizing effect of the stochastic viscosity fluctuations.

  8. Virial theorem for radiating accretion discs

    Mach, Patryk

    2011-01-01

    A continuum version of the virial theorem is derived for a radiating self-gravitating accretion disc around a compact object. The central object is point-like, but we can avoid the regularization of its gravitational potential. This is achieved by applying a modified Pohozaev-Rellich identity to the gravitational potential of the disk only. The theorem holds for general stationary configurations, including discontinuous flows (shock waves, contact discontinuities). It is used to test numerica...

  9. Accretion, winds and outflows in young stars

    Günther, H. M.

    2013-02-01

    Young stars and planetary systems form in molecular clouds. After the initial radial infall an accretion disk develops. For classical T Tauri stars (CTTS, F-K type precursors) the accretion disk does not reach down to the central star, but it is truncated near the co-rotation radius by the stellar magnetic field. The inner edge of the disk is ionized by the stellar radiation, so that the accretion stream is funneled along the magnetic field lines. On the stellar surface an accretion shock develops, which is observed over a wide wavelength range as X-ray emission, UV excess, optical veiling and optical and IR emission lines. Some of the accretion tracers, e.g. Hα, can be calibrated to measure the accretion rate. This accretion process is variable on time scales of hours to years due to changing accretion rates, stellar rotation and reconfiguration of the magnetic field. Furthermore, many (if not all) accreting systems also drive strong outflows which are ultimately powered by accretion. However, the exact driving mechanism is still unclear. Several components could contribute to the outflows: slow, wide-angle disk winds, X-winds launched close to the inner disk rim, and thermally driven stellar winds. In any case, the outflows contain material of very different temperatures and speeds. The disk wind is cool and can have a molecular component with just a few tens of km s-1, while the central component of the outflow can reach a few 100 km s-1. In some cases the inner part of the outflow is collimated to a small-angle jet. These jets have an onion-like structure, where the inner components are consecutively hotter and faster. The jets can contain working surfaces, which show up as Herbig-Haro knots. Accretion and outflows in the CTTS phase do not only determine stellar parameters like the rotation rate on the main-sequence, they also can have a profound impact on the environment of young stars. This review concentrates on CTTS in near-by star forming regions where

  10. Observational constraints on viscosity in AGN accretion discs

    The optical/UV/soft X-ray big bump can be modelled as thermal emission from an accretion disc. The observed UV variability in AGN spectra may be caused by accretion-disc instabilities, and can be used to constrain the viscosity. The comparison of thermal time-scales with the observed time-scales of variability in 10 Seyfert galaxies and 16 QSOs indicates values for the parameter α of the order of 0.01 for most cases. (author)

  11. Mineral accretion in seawater

    Bozak, Ronald Richard

    2000-10-01

    By performing electrolysis in seawater a concrete-like accretion of precipitating aragonite (one crystalline form of CaCO3) and brucite (Mg(OH) 2) slowly develops onto the cathode. The accretion forms by high pH conditions caused by the reduction reactions occurring at the cathode. A solid casing of accretions over a preformed cathodic mesh has the potential for many engineering applications such as artificial reefs, sub-surface breakwaters and pipe construction. To investigate using mineral accretion as an alternative means of construction, experiments in the open coast, laboratory and ocean harbor have resulted in tables that can projected into a feasibility study. Inevitable current density variations over the cathodic framework and sensitivity to seawater hydrodynamics make accretion thickness difficult to predict and control in practice. Ideal conditions for growing a large-scale mineral accretion structure are still, clean ocean waters where low DCV power can be delivered on the order of years.

  12. Large Cosmic Shock Waves as Sites for Particle Acceleration

    Miniati, Francesco; Ryu, Dongsu; Kang, Hyesung; Jones, T. W.

    1999-01-01

    The properties of cosmic shock waves are studied through numerical simulations in two cosmological scenarios (SCDM and LCDM). The scaling relations for the average radius and velocity associated with the accretion shocks are somewhat different, yet qualitatively similar to the self similar solutions for a flat Omega_M=1 universe. The energy supplied by infalling gas at accretion shock waves is large enough to sustain production of abundant cosmic ray populations if a viable acceleration mecha...

  13. The Final Fates of Accreting Supermassive Stars

    Umeda, Hideyuki; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The formation of supermassive stars (SMSs) via rapid mass accretion and their direct collapse into black holes (BHs) is a promising pathway for sowing seeds of supermassive BHs in the early universe. We calculate the evolution of rapidly accreting SMSs by solving the stellar structure equations including nuclear burning as well as general relativistic (GR) effects up to the onset of the collapse. We find that such SMSs have less concentrated structure than fully-convective counterpart, which is often postulated for non-accreting ones. This effect stabilizes the stars against GR instability even above the classical upper mass limit $\\gtrsim 10^5~M_\\odot$ derived for the fully-convective stars. The accreting SMS begins to collapse at the higher mass with the higher accretion rate. The collapse occurs when the nuclear fuel is exhausted only for cases with $\\dot M \\lesssim 0.1~M_\\odot~{\\rm yr}^{-1}$. With $\\dot{M} \\simeq 0.3 - 1~M_\\odot~{\\rm yr}^{-1}$, the star becomes GR-unstable during the helium-burning stage ...

  14. Modelling accretion disc and stellar wind interactions: the case of Sgr A*

    Christie, I. M.; Petropoulou, M.; Mimica, P.; Giannios, D.

    2016-01-01

    Sgr A* is an ideal target to study low-luminosity accreting systems. It has been recently proposed that properties of the accretion flow around Sgr A* can be probed through its interactions with the stellar wind of nearby massive stars belonging to the S-cluster. When a star intercepts the accretion disc, the ram and thermal pressures of the disc terminate the stellar wind leading to the formation of a bow shock structure. Here, a semi-analytical model is constructed which describes the geometry of the termination shock formed in the wind. With the employment of numerical hydrodynamic simulations, this model is both verified and extended to a region prone to Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities. Because the characteristic wind and stellar velocities are in ∼108 cm s−1 range, the shocked wind may produce detectable X-rays via thermal bremsstrahlung emission. The application of this model to the pericentre passage of S2, the brightest member of the S-cluster, shows that the shocked wind produces roughly a month long X-ray flare with a peak luminosity of L ≈ 4 × 1033 erg s−1 for a stellar mass-loss rate, disc number density, and thermal pressure strength of \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\dot{M}_{\\rm w}= 10^{-7} \\,\\mathrm{M}_{\\odot }\\, {\\rm yr}^{-1}$\\end{document}, nd = 105 cm−3, and α = 0.1, respectively. This peak luminosity is comparable to the quiescent X-ray emission detected from Sgr A* and is within the detection capabilities of current X-ray observatories. Its detection could constrain the density and thickness of the disc at a distance of ∼3000 gravitational radii from the supermassive black hole. PMID:27279781

  15. SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES POWERED BY FALLBACK ACCRETION

    Dexter, Jason; Kasen, Daniel, E-mail: jdexter@berkeley.edu [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    Some fraction of the material ejected in a core collapse supernova explosion may remain bound to the compact remnant, and eventually turn around and fall back. We show that the late time ({approx}>days) power potentially associated with the accretion of this 'fallback' material could significantly affect the optical light curve, in some cases producing super-luminous or otherwise peculiar supernovae. We use spherically symmetric hydrodynamical models to estimate the accretion rate at late times for a range of progenitor masses and radii and explosion energies. The accretion rate onto the proto-neutron star or black hole decreases as M-dot {proportional_to}t{sup -5/3} at late times, but its normalization can be significantly enhanced at low explosion energies, in very massive stars, or if a strong reverse shock wave forms at the helium/hydrogen interface in the progenitor. If the resulting super-Eddington accretion drives an outflow which thermalizes in the outgoing ejecta, the supernova debris will be re-energized at a time when photons can diffuse out efficiently. The resulting light curves are different and more diverse than previous fallback supernova models which ignored the input of accretion power and produced short-lived, dim transients. The possible outcomes when fallback accretion power is significant include super-luminous ({approx}> 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) Type II events of both short and long durations, as well as luminous Type I events from compact stars that may have experienced significant mass loss. Accretion power may unbind the remaining infalling material, causing a sudden decrease in the brightness of some long duration Type II events. This scenario may be relevant for explaining some of the recently discovered classes of peculiar and rare supernovae.

  16. Supernova Light Curves Powered by Fallback Accretion

    Dexter, Jason; Kasen, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Some fraction of the material ejected in a core collapse supernova explosion may remain bound to the compact remnant, and eventually turn around and fall back. We show that the late time (gsimdays) power potentially associated with the accretion of this "fallback" material could significantly affect the optical light curve, in some cases producing super-luminous or otherwise peculiar supernovae. We use spherically symmetric hydrodynamical models to estimate the accretion rate at late times for a range of progenitor masses and radii and explosion energies. The accretion rate onto the proto-neutron star or black hole decreases as \\dot{M} \\propto t^{-5/3} at late times, but its normalization can be significantly enhanced at low explosion energies, in very massive stars, or if a strong reverse shock wave forms at the helium/hydrogen interface in the progenitor. If the resulting super-Eddington accretion drives an outflow which thermalizes in the outgoing ejecta, the supernova debris will be re-energized at a time when photons can diffuse out efficiently. The resulting light curves are different and more diverse than previous fallback supernova models which ignored the input of accretion power and produced short-lived, dim transients. The possible outcomes when fallback accretion power is significant include super-luminous (gsim 1044 erg s-1) Type II events of both short and long durations, as well as luminous Type I events from compact stars that may have experienced significant mass loss. Accretion power may unbind the remaining infalling material, causing a sudden decrease in the brightness of some long duration Type II events. This scenario may be relevant for explaining some of the recently discovered classes of peculiar and rare supernovae.

  17. NEW TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODELS OF SUPERNOVA EXPLOSIONS BY THE NEUTRINO-HEATING MECHANISM: EVIDENCE FOR DIFFERENT INSTABILITY REGIMES IN COLLAPSING STELLAR CORES

    The neutrino-driven explosion mechanism for core-collapse supernovae in its modern flavor relies on the additional support of hydrodynamical instabilities in achieving shock revival. Two possible candidates, convection and the so-called standing accretion shock instability (SASI), have been proposed for this role. In this paper, we discuss new successful simulations of supernova explosions that shed light on the relative importance of these two instabilities. While convection has so far been observed to grow first in self-consistent hydrodynamical models with multi-group neutrino transport, we here present the first such simulation in which the SASI grows faster while the development of convection is initially inhibited. We illustrate the features of this SASI-dominated regime using an explosion model of a 27 M☉ progenitor, which is contrasted with a convectively dominated model of an 8.1 M☉ progenitor with subsolar metallicity, whose early post-bounce behavior is more in line with previous 11.2 M☉ and 15 M☉ explosion models. We analyze the conditions discriminating between the two different regimes, showing that a high mass-accretion rate and a short advection timescale are conducive for strong SASI activity. We also briefly discuss some important factors for capturing the SASI-driven regime, such as general relativity, the progenitor structure, a nuclear equation of state leading to a compact proto-neutron star, and the neutrino treatment. Finally, we evaluate possible implications of our findings for two-dimensional and three-dimensional supernova simulations.

  18. Accretion Flows in Magnetic White Dwarf Systems

    Imamura, James N.

    2005-01-01

    We received Type A and B funding under the NASA Astrophysics Data Program for the analysis and interpretation of hard x-ray data obtained by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and other NASA sponsored missions for Intermediate Polars (IPS) and Polars. For some targets, optical data was available. We reduced and analyzed the X-ray spectra and the X-ray and optical (obtained at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory) timing data using detailed shock models (which we constructed) to place constraints on the properties of the accreting white dwarfs, the high energy emission mechanisms of white dwarfs, and the large-scale accretion flows of Polars and IPS. IPS and Polars are white dwarf mass-transfer binaries, members of the larger class of cata,clysmic variables. They differ from the bulk of the cataclysmic variables in that they contain strongly magnetic white dwarfs; the white dwarfs in Polars have B, = 7 to 230 MG and those in IPS have B, less than 10 MG. The IPS and Polars are both examples of funneled accretion flows in strong magnetic field systems. The IPS are similar to x-ray pulsars in that accretion disks form in the systems which are disrupted by the strong stellar magnetic fields of the white dwarfs near the stellar surface from where the plasma is funneled to the surface of the white dwarf. The localized hot spots formed at the footpoints of the funnels coupled with the rotation of the white dwarf leads to coherent pulsed x-ray emission. The Polars offer an example of a different accretion topology; the magnetic field of the white dwarf controls the accretion flow from near the inner Lagrangian point of the system directly to the stellar surface. Accretion disks do not form. The strong magnetic coupling generally leads to synchronous orbital/rotational motion in the Polars. The physical system in this sense resembles the Io/Jupiter system. In both IPS and Polars, pulsed emission from the infrared to x-rays is produced as the funneled flows merge onto the

  19. An accurate geometric distance to the compact binary SS Cygni vindicates accretion disc theory

    Miller-Jones, J C A; Knigge, C; Körding, E G; Templeton, M; Waagen, E O

    2013-01-01

    Dwarf novae are white dwarfs accreting matter from a nearby red dwarf companion. Their regular outbursts are explained by a thermal-viscous instability in the accretion disc, described by the disc instability model that has since been successfully extended to other accreting systems. However, the prototypical dwarf nova, SS Cygni, presents a major challenge to our understanding of accretion disc theory. At the distance of 159 +/- 12 pc measured by the Hubble Space Telescope, it is too luminous to be undergoing the observed regular outbursts. Using very long baseline interferometric radio observations, we report an accurate, model-independent distance to SS Cygni that places the source significantly closer at 114 +/- 2 pc. This reconciles the source behavior with our understanding of accretion disc theory in accreting compact objects.

  20. Gravitational radiation and gamma-ray bursts from accreting neutron stars

    Mosquera Cuesta, H.J.; Araujo, J.C.N. de; Aguiar, O.D. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Astrofisica]. E-mail: herman@das.inpe.br; jcarlos@das.inpe.br; odylio@das.inpe.br; Horvath, J.E. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Astronomico e Geofisico]. E-mail: foton@orion.iagusp.usp.br

    2000-07-01

    It is well known that hydrodynamic instabilities can be induced in rapidly rotating low magnetic field neutron stars, which accrete mass from a companion in both high and low mass X-ray binaries. (author)

  1. The microphysics of collisionless shock waves

    Marcowith, A; Bykov, A; Dieckman, M E; Drury, L O C; Lembege, B; Lemoine, M; Morlino, G; Murphy, G; Pelletier, G; Plotnikov, I; Reville, B; Riquelme, M; Sironi, L; Novo, A Stockem

    2016-01-01

    Collisionless shocks, that is shocks mediated by electromagnetic processes, are customary in space physics and in astrophysics. They are to be found in a great variety of objects and environments: magnetospheric and heliospheric shocks, supernova remnants, pulsar winds and their nebul\\ae, active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts and clusters of galaxies shock waves. Collisionless shock microphysics enters at different stages of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle energization and/or acceleration. It turns out that the shock phenomenon is a multi-scale non-linear problem in time and space. It is complexified by the impact due to high-energy cosmic rays in astrophysical environments. This review adresses the physics of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle acceleration based on a close examination of available multi-wavelength or in-situ observations, analytical and numerical developments. A particular emphasize is made on the different instabilities triggered during the shock formation and in a...

  2. Multi‐instrument observations from Svalbard of a traveling convection vortex, electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave burst, and proton precipitation associated with a bow shock instability

    Engebretson, M. J.; Yeoman, T. K.; Oksavik, K.;

    2013-01-01

    An isolated burst of 0.35 Hz electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves was observed at four sites on Svalbard from 0947 to 0954 UT 2 January 2011, roughly 1 h after local noon. This burst was associated with one of a series of ~50 nT magnetic impulses observed at the northernmost stations of the...... IMAGE magnetometer array. Hankasalmi SuperDARN radar data showed a west-to-east (antisunward) propagating vortical ionospheric flow in a region of high spectral width ~ 1–2° north of Svalbard, confirming that this magnetic impulse was the signature of a traveling convection vortex. Ground...... of Earth observed a steady solar wind and predominantly radial interplanetary magnetic field orientation before and during this event, data from Geotail (near the morning bow shock) showed large reorientations of the interplanetary magnetic field and substantial decreases in ion density several...

  3. Constraints on active galactic nucleus accretion disc viscosity derived from continuum variability

    R.L.C. Starling; A. Siemiginowska; P. Uttley; R. Soria

    2004-01-01

    We estimate a value of the viscosity parameter in active galactic nucleus (AGN) accretion discs for the Palomar-Green quasar sample. We assume that optical variability on time-scales of months to years is caused by local instabilities in the inner accretion disc. Comparing the observed variability t

  4. Chaotic cold accretion onto black holes

    Gaspari, M; Oh, S Peng

    2013-01-01

    Using 3D AMR simulations, linking the 50 kpc to the sub-pc scales over the course of 40 Myr, we systematically relax the classic Bondi assumptions in a typical galaxy hosting a SMBH. In the realistic scenario, where the hot gas is cooling, while heated and stirred on large scales, the accretion rate is boosted up to two orders of magnitude compared with the Bondi prediction. The cause is the nonlinear growth of thermal instabilities, leading to the condensation of cold clouds and filaments when t_cool/t_ff 0.2) induces the formation of thermal instabilities, even in the absence of heating, while in the transonic regime turbulent dissipation inhibits their growth (t_turb/t_cool < 1). When heating restores global thermodynamic balance, the formation of the multiphase medium is violent, and the mode of accretion is fully cold and chaotic. The recurrent collisions, shearing and tidal motions between clouds, filaments and the central torus cause a significant reduction of angular momentum, boosting accretion. ...

  5. Instabilities in astrophysical jets

    Instabilities in astrophysical jets are studied in the nonlinear regime by performing 2D numerical classical gasdynamical calculations. The instabilities which arise from unsteadiness in output from the central engine feeding the jets, and those which arise from a beam in a turbulent surrounding are studied. An extra power output an order of magnitude higher than is normally delivered by the engine over a time equal to (nozzle length)/(sound velocity at centre) causes a nonlinear Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the jet walls. Constrictions move outwards, but the jet structure is left untouched. A beam in turbulent surroundings produces internal shocks over distances of a few beam widths. If viscosity is present the throughput of material is hampered on time scales of a few beam radius sound travel times. The implications are discussed. (Auth.)

  6. Life shocks and homelessness.

    Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

    2013-12-01

    We exploited an exogenous health shock-namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition-to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747

  7. Supernova Light Curves Powered by Fallback Accretion

    Dexter, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Some fraction of the material ejected in a core collapse supernova explosion may remain bound to the compact remnant, and eventually turn around and fall back. We show that the late time (> days) power associated with the accretion of this "fallback" material may significantly affect the optical light curve, in some cases producing super-luminous or otherwise peculiar supernovae. We use spherically symmetric hydrodynamical models to estimate the accretion rate at late times for a range of progenitor masses and radii and explosion energies. The accretion rate onto the proto-neutron star or black hole decreases as Mdot ~ t^-5/3 at late times, but its normalization can be significantly enhanced at low explosion energies, in very massive stars, or if a strong reverse shock wave forms at the helium/hydrogen interface in the progenitor. If the resulting super-Eddington accretion drives an outflow which thermalizes in the outgoing ejecta, the supernova debris will be re-energized at a time when photons can diffuse o...

  8. STEREO interplanetary shocks and foreshocks

    Blanco-Cano, X. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, CU, Coyoacan 04510 DF (Mexico); Kajdic, P. [IRAP-University of Toulouse, CNRS, Toulouse (France); Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Morelia (Mexico); Russell, C. T. [ESS and IGPP, University of California, Los Angeles, 603 Charles Young Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jian, L. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD and University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Luhmann, J. G. [SSL, University of California Berkeley (United States)

    2013-06-13

    We use STEREO data to study shocks driven by stream interactions and the waves associated with them. During the years of the extended solar minimum 2007-2010, stream interaction shocks have Mach numbers between 1.1-3.8 and {theta}{sub Bn}{approx}20-86 Degree-Sign . We find a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the shock and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and shock transmitted waves. We find that many quasiperpendicular shocks can be accompanied by ULF wave and ion foreshocks, which is in contrast to Earth's bow shock. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. Proton foreshocks of shocks driven by stream interactions have extensions dr {<=}0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven shocks. The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven shocks are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction shocks form at {approx}1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time.

  9. Accretion Rates for T Tauri Stars Using Nearly Simultaneous Ultraviolet and Optical Spectra

    Ingleby, Laura; Herczeg, Gregory; Blaty, Alex; Walter, Frederick; Ardila, David; Alexander, Richard; Edwards, Suzan; Espaillat, Catherine; Gregory, Scott G; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Brown, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the accretion properties of 21 low mass T Tauri stars using a dataset of contemporaneous near ultraviolet (NUV) through optical observations obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and the ground based Small and Medium Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS), a unique dataset because of the nearly simultaneous broad wavelength coverage. Our dataset includes accreting T Tauri stars (CTTS) in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, $\\eta$ Chamaeleon and the TW Hydra Association. For each source we calculate the accretion rate by fitting the NUV and optical excesses above the photosphere, produced in the accretion shock, introducing multiple accretion components characterized by a range in energy flux (or density) for the first time. This treatment is motivated by models of the magnetospheric geometry and accretion footprints, which predict that high density, low filling factor accretion spots co-exist with low density, high filling factor spots. By fitting the UV and optical spectra wi...

  10. Shoulder Instability

    ... Risk Factors Is shoulder instability the same as shoulder dislocation? No. The signs of dislocation and instability might ... the same to you--weakness and pain. However, dislocation occurs when your shoulder goes completely out of place. The shoulder ligaments ...

  11. Large Cosmic Shock Waves as Sites for Particle Acceleration

    Miniati, F; Kang, H; Jones, T W; Miniati, Francesco; Ryu, Dongsu; Kang, Hyesung

    1999-01-01

    The properties of cosmic shock waves are studied through numerical simulations in two cosmological scenarios (SCDM and LCDM). The scaling relations for the average radius and velocity associated with the accretion shocks are somewhat different, yet qualitatively similar to the self similar solutions for a flat Omega_M=1 universe. The energy supplied by infalling gas at accretion shock waves is large enough to sustain production of abundant cosmic ray populations if a viable acceleration mechanism can take place there. Finally, in addition to shocks created by the encounter of the merging ICMs of two clusters of galaxies, accretion shocks associated with the merging clusters generate strong ``relic'' shocks which propagate through the ICM producing additional heating of the ICM, and associated CR acceleration.

  12. General Overview of Black Hole Accretion Theory

    Blaes, Omer

    2013-01-01

    I provide a broad overview of the basic theoretical paradigms of black hole accretion flows. Models that make contact with observations continue to be mostly based on the four decade old alpha stress prescription of Shakura & Sunyaev (1973), and I discuss the properties of both radiatively efficient and inefficient models, including their local properties, their expected stability to secular perturbations, and how they might be tied together in global flow geometries. The alpha stress is a prescription for turbulence, for which the only existing plausible candidate is that which develops from the magnetorotational instability (MRI). I therefore also review what is currently known about the local properties of such turbulence, and the physical issues that have been elucidated and that remain uncertain that are relevant for the various alpha-based black hole accretion flow models.

  13. Embedded, Accreting Disks in Massive Star Formation

    Kratter, Kaitlin M; Krumholz, Mark R

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of massive star formation have made clear the important role of protostellar disks in mediating accretion. Here we describe a simple, semi-analytic model for young, deeply embedded, massive accretion disks. Our approach enables us to sample a wide parameter space of stellar mass and environmental variables, providing a means to make predictions for a variety of sources that next generation telescopes like ALMA and the EVLA will observe. Moreover we include, at least approximately, multiple mechanisms for angular momentum transport, a comprehensive model for disk heating and cooling, and a realistic estimate for the angular momentum in the gas reservoir. We make predictions for the typical sizes, masses, and temperatures of the disks, and describe the role of gravitational instabilities in determining the binarity fraction and upper mass cut-off.

  14. Eclipse Mapping: Astrotomography of Accretion Discs

    Baptista, Raymundo

    2015-01-01

    The Eclipse Mapping Method is an indirect imaging technique that transforms the shape of the eclipse light curve into a map of the surface brightness distribution of the occulted regions. Three decades of application of this technique to the investigation of the structure, the spectrum and the time evolution of accretion discs around white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables have enriched our understanding of these accretion devices with a wealth of details such as (but not limited to) moving heating/cooling waves during outbursts in dwarf novae, tidally-induced spiral shocks of emitting gas with sub-Keplerian velocities, elliptical precessing discs associated to superhumps, and measurements of the radial run of the disc viscosity through the mapping of the disc flickering sources. This chapter reviews the principles of the method, discusses its performance, limitations, useful error propagation procedures, as well as highlights a selection of applications aimed at showing the possible scientific problems that ha...

  15. The Magnetohydrodynamics of Convection-Dominated Accretion Flows

    Narayan, R; Igumenshchev, I V; Abramowicz, M A; Narayan, Ramesh; Quataert, Eliot; Igumenshchev, Igor V.; Abramowicz, Marek A.

    2002-01-01

    Radiatively inefficient accretion flows onto black holes are unstable due to both an outwardly decreasing entropy (``convection'') and an outwardly decreasing rotation rate (the ``magnetorotational instability'', MRI). Using a linear magnetohydrodynamic stability analysis, we show that long-wavelength modes are primarily destabilized by the entropy gradient and that such ``convective'' modes transport angular momentum inwards. Moreover, the stability criteria for the convective modes are the standard Hoiland criteria of hydrodynamics. By contrast, shorter wavelength modes are primarily destabilized by magnetic tension and differential rotation. These ``MRI'' modes transport angular momentum outwards. The convection-dominated accretion flow (CDAF) model, which has been proposed for radiatively inefficient accretion onto a black hole, posits that inward angular momentum transport and outward energy transport by long-wavelength convective fluctuations are crucial for determining the structure of the accretion fl...

  16. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole

    Tremblay, Grant R; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P; Baum, Stefi A; Voit, G Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R; Davis, Timothy A; McDonald, Michael A; Edge, Alastair C; Clarke, Tracy E; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N; Edwards, Louise O V; Fabian, Andrew C; Hamer, Stephen L; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R; Quillen, Alice C; Urry, C Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S; Wise, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds - a departure from the "hot mode" accretion model - although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z=0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities can precipitate from this hot gas, producing a rain of c...

  17. Accretion Does Not Drive the Turbulence in Galactic Disks

    Hopkins, Philip F; Murray, Norman

    2013-01-01

    Rapid accretion of cold gas plays a crucial role in getting gas into galaxies. It has been suggested that this accretion proceeds along narrow streams that might also directly drive the turbulence in galactic gas, dynamical disturbances, and bulge formation. In cosmological simulations, however, it is impossible to isolate and hence disentangle the effect of accretion from internal instabilities and mergers. Moreover, in most cosmological simulations, the phase structure and turbulence in the ISM arising from stellar feedback are treated in a sub-grid manner, so that feedback cannot generate ISM turbulence. In this paper we therefore test the effects of cold streams in extremely high-resolution simulations of otherwise isolated galaxy disks using detailed models for star formation and feedback; we then include or exclude mock cold flows falling onto the galaxies with accretion rates, velocities and geometry set to maximize their effect on the disk. We find: (1) Turbulent velocity dispersions in gas disks are ...

  18. Magnetohydrodynamics of accretion disks

    The thesis consists of an introduction and summary, and five research papers. The introduction and summary provides the background in accretion disk physics and magnetohydrodynamics. The research papers describe numerical studies of magnetohydrodynamical processes in accretion disks. Paper 1 is a one-dimensional study of the effect of magnetic buoyancy on a flux tube in an accretion disk. The stabilizing influence of an accretion disk corona on the flux tube is demonstrated. Paper 2-4 present numerical simulations of mean-field dynamos in accretion disks. Paper 11 verifies the correctness of the numerical code by comparing linear models to previous work by other groups. The results are also extended to somewhat modified disk models. A transition from an oscillatory mode of negative parity for thick disks to a steady mode of even parity for thin disks is found. Preliminary results for nonlinear dynamos at very high dynamo numbers are also presented. Paper 3 describes the bifurcation behaviour of the nonlinear dynamos. For positive dynamo numbers it is found that the initial steady solution is replaced by an oscillatory solution of odd parity. For negative dynamo numbers the solution becomes chaotic at sufficiently high dynamo numbers. Paper 4 continues the studies of nonlinear dynamos, and it is demonstrated that a chaotic solution appears even for positive dynamo numbers, but that it returns to a steady solution of mixed parity at very high dynamo numbers. Paper 5 describes a first attempt at simulating the small-scale turbulence of an accretion disk in three dimensions. There is only find cases of decaying turbulence, but this is rather due to limitations of the simulations than that turbulence is really absent in accretion disks

  19. TW Hya: Spectral Variability, X-Rays, and Accretion Diagnostics

    Dupree, A. K.; Brickhouse, N. S.; Cranmer, S. R.; Luna, G. J. M.; Schneider, E. E.; Bessell, M. S.; Bonanos, A.; Crause, L. A.; Lawson, W. A.; Mallik, S. V.; Schuler, S. C.

    2012-05-01

    The nearest accreting T Tauri star, TW Hya was intensively and continuously observed over ~17 days with spectroscopic and photometric measurements from four continents simultaneous with a long segmented exposure using the Chandra satellite. Contemporaneous optical photometry from WASP-S indicates a 4.74 day period was present during this time. The absence of a similar periodicity in the Hα flux and the total X-ray flux which are dominated by accretion processes and the stellar corona, respectively, points to a different source of photometric variations. The Hα emission line appears intrinsically broad and symmetric, and both the profile and its variability suggest an origin in the post-shock cooling region. An accretion event, signaled by soft X-rays, is traced spectroscopically for the first time through the optical emission line profiles. After the accretion event, downflowing turbulent material observed in the Hα and Hβ lines is followed by He I (λ5876) broadening near the photosphere. Optical veiling resulting from the heated photosphere increases with a delay of ~2 hr after the X-ray accretion event. The response of the stellar coronal emission to an increase in the veiling follows ~2.4 hr later, giving direct evidence that the stellar corona is heated in part by accretion. Subsequently, the stellar wind becomes re-established. We suggest a model that incorporates the dynamics of this sequential series of events: an accretion shock, a cooling downflow in a supersonically turbulent region, followed by photospheric and later, coronal heating. This model naturally explains the presence of broad optical and ultraviolet lines, and affects the mass accretion rates determined from emission line profiles.

  20. Formation of primordial supermassive stars by rapid mass accretion

    Supermassive stars (SMSs) forming via very rapid mass accretion ( M-dot ∗≳0.1 M⊙ yr−1) could be precursors of supermassive black holes observed beyond a redshift of about six. Extending our previous work, here we study the evolution of primordial stars growing under such rapid mass accretion until the stellar mass reaches 104–5 M ☉. Our stellar evolution calculations show that a star becomes supermassive while passing through the 'supergiant protostar' stage, whereby the star has a very bloated envelope and a contracting inner core. The stellar radius increases monotonically with the stellar mass until ≅ 100 AU for M * ≳ 104 M ☉, after which the star begins to slowly contract. Because of the large radius, the effective temperature is always less than 104 K during rapid accretion. The accreting material is thus almost completely transparent to the stellar radiation. Only for M * ≳ 105 M ☉ can stellar UV feedback operate and disturb the mass accretion flow. We also examine the pulsation stability of accreting SMSs, showing that the pulsation-driven mass loss does not prevent stellar mass growth. Observational signatures of bloated SMSs should be detectable with future observational facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope. Our results predict that an inner core of the accreting SMS should suffer from the general relativistic instability soon after the stellar mass exceeds 105 M ☉. An extremely massive black hole should form after the collapse of the inner core.

  1. Shoulder instability

    In the shoulder, the advantages of range of motion are traded for the disadvantages of vulnerability to injury and the development of instability. Shoulder instability and the lesion it produces represent one of the main causes of shoulder discomfort and pain. Shoulder instability is defined as a symptomatic abnormal motion of the humeral head relative to the glenoid during active shoulder motion. Glenohumeral instabilities are classified according to their causative factors as the pathogenesis of instability plays an important role with respect to treatment options: instabilities are classified in traumatic and atraumatic instabilities as part of a multidirectional instability syndrome, and in microtraumatic instabilities. Plain radiographs ('trauma series') are performed to document shoulder dislocation and its successful reposition. Direct MR arthrography is the most important imaging modality for delineation the different injury patterns on the labral-ligamentous complex and bony structures. Monocontrast CT-arthrography with use of multidetector CT scanners may be an alternative imaging modality, however, regarding the younger patient age, MR imaging should be preferred in the diagnostic work-up of shoulder instabilities. (orig.)

  2. Hip instability.

    Smith, Matthew V; Sekiya, Jon K

    2010-06-01

    Hip instability is becoming a more commonly recognized source of pain and disability in patients. Traumatic causes of hip instability are often clear. Appropriate treatment includes immediate reduction, early surgery for acetabular rim fractures greater than 25% or incarcerated fragments in the joint, and close follow-up to monitor for avascular necrosis. Late surgical intervention may be necessary for residual symptomatic hip instability. Atraumatic causes of hip instability include repetitive external rotation with axial loading, generalized ligamentous laxity, and collagen disorders like Ehlers-Danlos. Symptoms caused by atraumatic hip instability often have an insidious onset. Patients may have a wide array of hip symptoms while demonstrating only subtle findings suggestive of capsular laxity. Traction views of the affected hip can be helpful in diagnosing hip instability. Open and arthroscopic techniques can be used to treat capsular laxity. We describe an arthroscopic anterior hip capsular plication using a suture technique. PMID:20473129

  3. Disk Accretion of Tidally Disrupted Rocky Bodies onto White Dwarfs

    Feng, Wanda; Desch, Steven; Turner, Neal; Kalyaan, Anusha

    2016-06-01

    About 1/3 of white dwarfs (WDs) are polluted with heavy elements (e.g., Koester et al., 2014; Zuckerman et al., 2010) that should sediment out of their atmospheres on astronomically short timescales unless replenished by accretion from a reservoir, at rates that for many WDs must exceed ~1010 g/s (Farihi et al., 2010). Direct accretion of planetesimals is too improbable and Poynting-Robertson drag of dust is too slow (due to the low luminosity of WDs) (Jura, 2003), so it is often assumed that WDs accrete from a disk of gas and solid particles, fed by tidal disruption of planeteismals inside the WD Roche limit (e.g. Debes et al., 2012; Rafikov, 2011a, 2011b). A few such gaseous disks have been directly observed, through emission from Ca II atoms in the disk (e.g. Manser et al., 2016; Wilson et al. 2014). Models successfully explain the accretion rates of metals onto the WD, provided the gaseous disk viscously spreads at rates consistent with a partially suppressed magnetorotational instability (Rafikov, 2011a, 2011b). However, these models currently do not explore the likely extent of the magnetorotational instability in disks by calculating the degree of ionization, or suppression by strong magnetic field.We present a 1-D model of a gaseous WD disk accretion, to assess the extent of the magnetorotational instability in WD disks. The composition of the disk, the ionization and recombination mechanisms, and the degree of ionization of the disk are explored. Magnetic field strengths consistent with WD dipolar magnetic fields are assumed. Elsasser numbers are calculated as a function of radius in the WD disk. The rate of viscous spreading is calculated, and the model of Rafikov (2011a, 2011b) updated to compute likely accretion rates of metals onto WDs.

  4. Theory of local thermal instability in spherical systems

    Balbus, Steven A.; Soker, Noam

    1989-01-01

    The gasdynamical properties of local thermal instability in optically thin astrophysical plasmas as it occurs in spherical accretion and winds is investigated. In a medium characterized by both thermal and hydrostatic equilibrium, if the cooling function is not an explicit function of position and does not display isentropic thermal instability, then isobaric thermal instability by the Field criterion is present if and only if convective instability is present by the Schwarzschild criterion. In this case, thermal overstability cannot occur. Convective instability by the Schwarzschild criterion will also occur in accretion flows locally dominated by external heating or in marginally unbound, radiatively cooling outflows. A very general Lagrangian equation for the development of nonradial thermal instability in flows with spherical symmetry is derived and is solved analytically in certain regimes. The results are applied to cluster X-ray cooling flows.

  5. Electron velocity distributions near collisionless shocks

    Recent studies of the amount of electron heating and of the shapes of electron velocity distributions across shocks near the earth are reviewed. It is found that electron heating increases with increasing shock strength but is always less than the ion heating. The scale length of electron heating is also less than that for the ions. Electron velocity distributions show characteristic shapes which depend on the strength of the shocks. At the weaker shocks, electron heating is mostly perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, bar B, and results in Gaussian-shaped velocity distributions at low-to-moderate energies. At the stronger shocks, parallel heating predominates resulting in flat-topped velocity distributions. A reasonable interpretation of these results indicates that at the weaker shocks electron heating is dominated by a tendency toward conservation of the magnetic moment. At the stronger fast-mode shocks, this heating is thought to be dominated by an acceleration parallel to bar B produced by the macroscopic shock electric field followed by beam driven plasma instabilities. Some contribution to the heating at the stronger shocks from conservation of the magnetic moment and cross-field current-driven instabilities cannot be ruled out. Although the heating at slow-mode shocks is also dominated by instabilities driven by magnetic field-aligned electron beams, their acceleration mechanism is not yet established

  6. Self-gravity in neutrino-dominated accretion disks

    We present the effects of self-gravity on the vertical structure and neutrino luminosity of the neutrino-dominated accretion disks in cylindrical coordinates. It is found that significant changes of the structure appear in the outer region of the disk, especially for high accretion rates (e.g., ≳ 1 M☉ s–1), and thus cause the slight increase in the neutrino luminosity. Furthermore, the gravitational instability of the disk is reviewed by the vertical distribution of the Toomre parameter, which may account for the late-time flares in gamma-ray bursts and the extended emission in short-duration gamma-ray bursts.

  7. Episodic accretion, protostellar radiative feedback, and their role in low-mass star formation

    Stamatellos, Dimitris; Hubber, David A

    2012-01-01

    Protostars grow in mass by accreting material through their discs, and this accretion is initially their main source of luminosity. The resulting radiative feedback heats the environments of young protostars, and may thereby suppress further fragmentation and star formation. There is growing evidence that the accretion of material onto protostars is episodic rather than continuous; most of it happens in short bursts that last up to a few hundred years, whereas the intervals between these outbursts of accretion could be thousands of years. We have developed a model to include the effects of episodic accretion in simulations of star formation. Episodic accretion results in episodic radiative feedback, which heats and temporarily stabilises the disc, suppressing the growth of gravitational instabilities. However, once an outburst has been terminated, the luminosity of the protostar is low, and the disc cools rapidly. Provided that there is enough time between successive outbursts, the disc may become gravitation...

  8. Accretion rates and accretion tracers of Herbig Ae/Be stars

    Mendigutía, I; Montesinos, B; Mora, A; Muzerolle, J; Eiroa, C; Oudmaijer, R D; Merín, B

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to derive accretion rates for a sample of 38 HAeBe stars. We apply magnetospheric accretion (MA) shock modelling to reproduce the observed Balmer excesses. We look for possible correlations with the strength of the Halpha, [OI]6300, and Brgamma emission lines. The median mass accretion rate is 2 x 10^-7 Msun yr^-1 in our sample. The model fails to reproduce the large Balmer excesses shown by the four hottest stars (T* > 12000 K). We derive Macc propto M*^5 and Lacc propto L*^1.2 for our sample, with scatter. Empirical calibrations relating the accretion and the Halpha, [OI]6300, and Brgamma luminosities are provided. The slopes in our expressions are slightly shallower than those for lower mass stars, but the difference is within the uncertainties, except for the [OI]6300 line. The Halpha 10% width is uncorrelated with Macc, unlike for the lower mass regime. The mean Halpha width shows higher values as the projected rotational velocities of HAe stars increase, which agrees with MA. The accretio...

  9. Cosmic ray driven instability

    The interaction between energetic charged particles and thermal plasma, which forms the basis of diffusive shock acceleration, leads also to interesting dynamical phenomena. For a compressional mode propagating in a system with homoeneous energetic particle pressure it is well known that friction with the energetic particles leads to damping. The linear theory of this effect has been analyzed in detail by Ptuskin. Not so obvious is that a non-uniform energetic particle pressure can in addition amplify compressional disturbances. If the pressure gradient is sufficiently steep this growth can dominate the frictional damping and lead to an instability. It is important to not that this effect results from the collective nature of the interaction between the energetic particles and the gas and is not connected with the Parker instability, nor with the resonant amplification of Alfven waves

  10. Magnetically driven accretion in protoplanetary discs

    Simon, Jacob B; Kunz, Matthew W; Armitage, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    We characterize magnetically driven accretion at radii between 1 au and 100 au in protoplanetary discs, using a series of local non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. The simulations assume a Minimum Mass Solar Nebula (MMSN) disc that is threaded by a net vertical magnetic field of specified strength. Confirming previous results, we find that the Hall effect has only a modest impact on accretion at 30 au, and essentially none at 100 au. At 1-10 au the Hall effect introduces a pronounced bi-modality in the accretion process, with vertical magnetic fields aligned to the disc rotation supporting a strong laminar Maxwell stress that is absent if the field is anti-aligned. In the anti-aligned case, we instead find evidence for bursts of turbulent stress at 5-10 au, which we tentatively identify with the non-axisymmetric Hall-shear instability. The presence or absence of these bursts depends upon the details of the adopted chemical model, which suggests that appreciable regions of actual protoplanetary di...

  11. DISTRIBUTION OF ACCRETING GAS AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM ONTO CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS

    We investigate gas accretion flow onto a circumplanetary disk from a protoplanetary disk in detail by using high-resolution three-dimensional nested-grid hydrodynamic simulations, in order to provide a basis of formation processes of satellites around giant planets. Based on detailed analyses of gas accretion flow, we find that most of gas accretion onto circumplanetary disks occurs nearly vertically toward the disk surface from high altitude, which generates a shock surface at several scale heights of the circumplanetary disk. The gas that has passed through the shock surface moves inward because its specific angular momentum is smaller than that of the local Keplerian rotation, while gas near the midplane in the protoplanetary disk cannot accrete to the circumplanetary disk. Gas near the midplane within the planet's Hill sphere spirals outward and escapes from the Hill sphere through the two Lagrangian points L1 and L2. We also analyze fluxes of accreting mass and angular momentum in detail and find that the distributions of the fluxes onto the disk surface are well described by power-law functions and that a large fraction of gas accretion occurs at the outer region of the disk, i.e., at about 0.1 times the Hill radius. The nature of power-law functions indicates that, other than the outer edge, there is no specific radius where gas accretion is concentrated. These source functions of mass and angular momentum in the circumplanetary disk would provide us with useful constraints on the structure and evolution of the circumplanetary disk, which is important for satellite formation.

  12. Gas accretion by planetary cores

    Ayliffe, Ben A.; Bate, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    We present accretion rates obtained from three-dimensional self-gravitating radiation hydrodynamical models of giant planet growth. We investigate the dependence of accretion rates upon grain opacity and core/protoplanet mass. The accretion rates found for low mass cores are inline with the results of previous one-dimensional models that include radiative transfer.

  13. Asymmetric Accretion Flows within a Common Envelope

    MacLeod, Morgan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines flows in the immediate vicinity of stars and compact objects dynamically inspiralling within a common envelope (CE). These embedded objects spiral to tighter separations because of drag that is generated when gas collides and shocks as it is gravitationally focused. This flow convergence is expected to lead to gas accretion onto the inspiralling object. This process has been studied numerically and analytically in the context of Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion (HLA). Yet, within a CE, accretion structures may span a large fraction of the envelope radius, and in so doing sweep across a substantial radial gradient of density. We quantify these gradients using detailed stellar evolution models for a range of CE encounters. We provide estimates of typical scales in CE encounters that involve main sequence stars, white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes with giant-branch companions of a wide range of masses. We apply these typical scales to hydrodynamic simulations of 3D HLA with an upstream dens...

  14. Modeling quasar accretion disc temperature profiles

    Hall, Patrick B; Chajet, L S; Weiss, E; Nixon, C J

    2013-01-01

    Microlensing observations indicate that quasar accretion discs have half-light radii larger than expected from standard theoretical predictions based on quasar fluxes or black hole masses. Blackburne and colleagues have also found a very weak wavelength dependence of these half-light radii. We consider disc temperature profile models that might match these observations. Nixon and colleagues have suggested that misaligned accretion discs around spinning black holes will be disrupted at radii small enough for the Lense-Thirring torque to overcome the disc's viscous torque. Gas in precessing annuli torn off a disc will spread radially and intersect with the remaining disc, heating the disc at potentially large radii. However, if the intersection occurs at an angle of more than a degree or so, highly supersonic collisions will shock-heat the gas to a Compton temperature of T~10^7 K, and the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of discs with such shock-heated regions are poor fits to observations of quasar SEDs. T...

  15. Hybrid Simulations of Particle Acceleration at Shocks

    Caprioli, Damiano

    2014-11-15

    We present the results of large hybrid (kinetic ions – fluid electrons) simulations of particle acceleration at non-relativistic collisionless shocks. Ion acceleration efficiency and magnetic field amplification are investigated in detail as a function of shock inclination and strength, and compared with predictions of diffusive shock acceleration theory, for shocks with Mach number up to 100. Moreover, we discuss the relative importance of resonant and Bell's instability in the shock precursor, and show that diffusion in the self-generated turbulence can be effectively parametrized as Bohm diffusion in the amplified magnetic field.

  16. Hybrid Simulations of Particle Acceleration at Shocks

    Caprioli, Damiano

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of large hybrid (kinetic ions - fluid electrons) simulations of particle acceleration at non-relativistic collisionless shocks. Ion acceleration efficiency and magnetic field amplification are investigated in detail as a function of shock inclination and strength, and compared with predictions of diffusive shock acceleration theory, for shocks with Mach number up to 100. Moreover, we discuss the relative importance of resonant and Bell's instability in the shock precursor, and show that diffusion in the self-generated turbulence can be effectively parametrized as Bohm diffusion in the amplified magnetic field.

  17. Fundamentals of Non-relativistic Collisionless Shock Physics: III. Quasi-Perpendicular Supercritical Shocks

    Treumann, R A

    2008-01-01

    The theory and simulations of quasi-perpendicular and strictly perpendicular collisionless shocks are reviewed. The text is structured into the following sections and subsections: 1. Setting the frame, where the quasi-perpendicular shock problem is formulated, reflected particle dynamics is described in theoretical terms, foot formation and foot ion acceleration discussed, and the shock potential explained. 2. Shock structure, 3. Ion dynamics, describing its role in shock reformation and the various ion-excited instabilities. 4. Electron dynamics, describing electron instabilities in the foot; 5. The problem of stationarity, posing the theoretical reasons for shocks being non-stationary, discussing nonlinear whistler mediated variability, two-stream and modified two-stream variability, formation of ripples in two-dimensions, 6. Summary and conclusions: The possibility of shock breaking.

  18. Multiphase, non-spherical gas accretion onto a black hole

    Barai, Paramita; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2011-01-01

    (Abridged) We investigate non-spherical behavior of gas accreting onto a central supermassive black hole performing simulations using the SPH code GADGET-3 including radiative cooling and heating by the central X-ray source. As found in earlier 1D studies, our 3D simulations show that the accretion mode depends on the X-ray luminosity (L_X) for a fixed density at infinity and accretion efficiency. In the low L_X limit, gas accretes in a stable, spherically symmetric fashion. In the high L_X limit, the inner gas is significantly heated up and expands, reducing the central mass inflow rate. The expanding gas can turn into a strong enough outflow capable of expelling most of the gas at larger radii. For some intermediate L_X, the accretion flow becomes unstable developing prominent non-spherical features, the key reason for which is thermal instability (TI) as shown by our analyses. Small perturbations of the initially spherically symmetric accretion flow that is heated by the intermediate L_X quickly grow to fo...

  19. Settling accretion onto slowly rotating X-ray pulsars

    Shakura, N I; Kochetkova, A Yu; Hjalmarsdotter, L

    2013-01-01

    Quasi-spherical subsonic accretion onto slowly rotating magnetized NS is considered, when the accreting matter settles down subsonically onto the rotating magnetosphere, forming an extended quasi-static shell. The shell mediates the angular momentum transfer to/from the rotating NS magnetosphere by large-scale convective motions, which lead to an almost iso-angular-momentum rotation law inside the shell. The accretion rate through the shell is determined by the ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability while taking cooling into account. The settling regime of accretion is possible for moderate X-ray luminosities L <4 10^36 erg/s. At higher luminosities a free-fall gap above the NS magnetosphere appears due to rapid Compton cooling, and accretion becomes highly non-stationary. From observations of spin-up/spin-down rates of wind accreting equilibrium XPSRs with known orbital periods (GX 301-2, Vela X-1), the main dimensionless parameters of the model and be determin...

  20. Evolution of Accretion Disks in Tidal Disruption Events

    Shen, Rong-Feng

    2013-01-01

    In a stellar tidal disruption event (TDE), an accretion disk forms as the stellar debris returns and circularizes. Rather than being confined within the circularizing radius, the disk can spread to larger radii to conserve angular momentum. An outer spreading disk is a source of matter for re-accretion at rates which can exceed the later stellar fall-back rate, although a disk wind can suppress its contribution to the central black hole accretion rate. A spreading disk is detectible through a break in the central accretion rate history, or, at longer wavelengths, by its own emission. Moreover, as an angular momentum reservoir, it can broadcast its existence by affecting the disk precession rate. Because these features depend on the disk's internal viscosity and the nature of wind produced in its early, advection-dominated phase, they are useful probes of transient disk physics. To model the evolution of TDE disk size and accretion rate, we account for the possibility of thermal instability for accretion rates...

  1. Wind accretion: Theory and Observations

    Shakura, N. I.; Postnov, K. A.; Kochetkova, A. Yu.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.; Sidoli, L.; Paizis, A.

    2014-01-01

    A review of wind accretion in HMXB is presented. We focus on different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto a NS: supersonic (Bondi) accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically towards the NS magnetosphere, and subsonic (settling) accretion which occurs when the plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. The two regimes are separated by a limit in X-ray luminosity at about 4 10^{36} erg/s. In subsonic accretion, wh...

  2. 29th International Symposium on Shock Waves

    Ranjan, Devesh

    2015-01-01

    This proceedings present the results of the 29th International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW29) which was held in Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A., from July 14 to July 19, 2013. It was organized by the Wisconsin Shock Tube Laboratory, which is part of the College of Engineering of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The ISSW29 focused on the following areas: Blast Waves, Chemically Reactive Flows, Detonation and Combustion,  Facilities, Flow Visualization, Hypersonic Flow, Ignition, Impact and Compaction, Industrial Applications, Magnetohydrodynamics, Medical and Biological Applications, Nozzle Flow, Numerical Methods, Plasmas, Propulsion, Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability, Shock-Boundary Layer Interaction, Shock Propagation and Reflection, Shock Vortex Interaction, Shock Waves in Condensed Matter, Shock Waves in Multiphase Flow, as well as Shock Waves in Rarefield Flow. The two Volumes contain the papers presented at the symposium and serve as a reference for the participants of the ISSW 29 and individuals interes...

  3. Kinetic Simulations of Particle Acceleration at Shocks

    Caprioli, Damiano [Princeton University; Guo, Fan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-07-16

    Collisionless shocks are mediated by collective electromagnetic interactions and are sources of non-thermal particles and emission. The full particle-in-cell approach and a hybrid approach are sketched, simulations of collisionless shocks are shown using a multicolor presentation. Results for SN 1006, a case involving ion acceleration and B field amplification where the shock is parallel, are shown. Electron acceleration takes place in planetary bow shocks and galaxy clusters. It is concluded that acceleration at shocks can be efficient: >15%; CRs amplify B field via streaming instability; ion DSA is efficient at parallel, strong shocks; ions are injected via reflection and shock drift acceleration; and electron DSA is efficient at oblique shocks.

  4. Magnetospheric accretion in EX Lupi

    Abraham, Peter; Kospal, Agnes; Bouvier, Jerome

    2016-08-01

    We propose to observe EX Lup, the prototype of the EXor class of young eruptive stars, in order to understand how the accretion process works in the quiescent system. Here, we request 2.6 hours of telescope time on Spitzer, to carry out a mid-infrared photometric monitoring, which we will supplement with simultaneous ground-based optical and near-infrared data. The multi-wavelength light curves will allow us to reliably separate the effects of fluctuating accretion rate from the rotation of the star. By analyzing the variations of the accretion rate we will determine whether EX Lup accretes through a few stable accretion columns or several short-lived random accretion streams. With this campaign, EX Lup will become one of the T Tauri systems where the accretion process is best understood.

  5. Massive star formation by accretion. I. Disc accretion

    Haemmerlé, L.; Eggenberger, P.; Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.; Charbonnel, C.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Massive stars likely form by accretion and the evolutionary track of an accreting forming star corresponds to what is called the birthline in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. The shape of this birthline is quite sensitive to the evolution of the entropy in the accreting star. Aims: We first study the reasons why some birthlines published in past years present different behaviours for a given accretion rate. We then revisit the question of the accretion rate, which allows us to understand the distribution of the observed pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) stars in the HR diagram. Finally, we identify the conditions needed to obtain a large inflation of the star along its pre-MS evolution that may push the birthline towards the Hayashi line in the upper part of the HR diagram. Methods: We present new pre-MS models including accretion at various rates and for different initial structures of the accreting core. We compare them with previously published equivalent models. From the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram, we deduce the accretion law that best matches the accretion history of most of the intermediate-mass stars. Results: In the numerical computation of the time derivative of the entropy, some treatment leads to an artificial loss of entropy and thus reduces the inflation that the accreting star undergoes along the birthline. In the case of cold disc accretion, the existence of a significant swelling during the accretion phase, which leads to radii ≳ 100 R⊙ and brings the star back to the red part of the HR diagram, depends sensitively on the initial conditions. For an accretion rate of 10-3M⊙ yr-1, only models starting from a core with a significant radiative region evolve back to the red part of the HR diagram. We also obtain that, in order to reproduce the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram with an accretion law deduced from the observed mass outflows in ultra-compact HII regions, the fraction of the

  6. Accretion of southern Alaska

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  7. Accretion disk electrodynamics

    Coroniti, F. V.

    1985-01-01

    Accretion disk electrodynamic phenomena are separable into two classes: (1) disks and coronas with turbulent magnetic fields; (2) disks and black holes which are connected to a large-scale external magnetic field. Turbulent fields may originate in an alpha-omega dynamo, provide anomalous viscous transport, and sustain an active corona by magnetic buoyancy. The large-scale field can extract energy and angular momentum from the disk and black hole, and be dynamically configured into a collimated relativistic jet.

  8. Tilted Accretion Disk Models of Sgr A* Flares

    Dexter, Jason; Fragile, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the Galactic center massive black hole candidate, is an unparalleled laboratory for low-luminosity accretion theory. First discovered as a compact radio source, Sgr A* has since been observed to undergo rapid, large amplitude NIR/X-ray flares. The many proposed phenomenological models cannot simultaneously explain both the flaring emission and the peak of the SED in the submillimeter. I will describe flares seen in numerical simulations of black hole accretion flows where the disk angular momentum is misaligned from that of the black hole. Eccentric fluid orbits driven by gravitational torques converge and form strong shocks, which can lead to significant particle heating. The resulting NIR emission can reproduce the observations, and is completely unrelated to the submillimeter emission, which is included in these models and is also in excellent agreement with observations. I will describe the prospects for testing accretion theory and constraining the properties of Sgr A* with exciting ongoing multi-wavelength observations.

  9. Baroclinic instabilities

    Joly, Laurent; Chassaing, Patrick; Chapin, Vincent; Reinaud, Jean; Micallef, J; Suarez, Juan; Bretonnet, L

    2003-01-01

    1. Introduction - Illustrative examples from experiments and simulations 2. The baroclinic torque in high Froude number flows, its organization, scale and order of magnitude 3. Stability of the inhomogeneous mixing-layer 4. Transition of the inhomogeneous mixing-layer and the 2D secondary baroclinic instability 5. The strain field of 2D light jets 6. Transition to three-dimensionality in light jets and the question of side-jets 7. Baroclinic instability of heavy vortices and...

  10. Carpal instability

    Schmitt, R.; Froehner, S.; Coblenz, G.; Christopoulos, G. [Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Herz- und Gefaessklinik GmbH, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    This review addresses the pathoanatomical basics as well as the clinical and radiological presentation of instability patterns of the wrist. Carpal instability mostly follows an injury; however, other diseases, like CPPD arthropathy, can be associated. Instability occurs either if the carpus is unable to sustain physiologic loads (''dyskinetics'') or suffers from abnormal motion of its bones during movement (''dyskinematics''). In the classification of carpal instability, dissociative subcategories (located within proximal carpal row) are differentiated from non-dissociative subcategories (present between the carpal rows) and combined patterns. It is essential to note that the unstable wrist initially does not cause relevant signs in standard radiograms, therefore being ''occult'' for the radiologic assessment. This paper emphasizes the high utility of kinematographic studies, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR arthrography for detecting these predynamic and dynamic instability stages. Later in the natural history of carpal instability, static malalignment of the wrist and osteoarthritis will develop, both being associated with significant morbidity and disability. To prevent individual and socio-economic implications, the handsurgeon or orthopedist, as well as the radiologist, is challenged for early and precise diagnosis. (orig.)

  11. A New Parameter In Accretion Disk Model

    Yuan, Feng(Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA)

    2000-01-01

    Taking optically thin accretion flows as an example, we investigate the dynamics and the emergent spectra of accretion flows with different outer boundary conditions (OBCs) and find that OBC plays an important role in accretion disk model. This is because the accretion equations describing the behavior of accretion flows are a set of {\\em differential} equations, therefore, accretion is intrinsically an initial-value problem. We argue that optically thick accretion flow should also show OBC-d...

  12. New Two-Dimensional Models of Supernova Explosions by the Neutrino-Heating Mechanism: Evidence for Different Instability Regimes in Collapsing Stellar Cores

    Mueller, B; Heger, A

    2012-01-01

    The neutrino-driven explosion mechanism for core-collapse supernovae in its modern flavor relies on the additional support of hydrodynamical instabilities in achieving shock revival. Two possible candidates, convection and the so-called standing accretion shock instability (SASI), have been proposed for this role. In this paper, we discuss new successful simulations of supernova explosions that shed light on the relative importance of these two instabilities. While convection has so far emerged as the primary agent in self-consistent hydrodynamical models with multi-group neutrino transport, we here present the first such simulation in which the SASI grows faster while the development of convection is initially inhibited. We illustrate the features of this SASI-dominated regime using an explosion model of a 27 solar mass progenitor, which is contrasted with a convectively-dominated model of an 8.1 solar mass progenitor with subsolar metallicity, whose early post-bounce behavior is more in line with previous 1...

  13. The dynamic of stellar wind accretion and the HMXB zoo

    Walter, Roland; Manousakis, Antonios

    2016-07-01

    The dynamic of the accretion of stellar wind on the pulsar in Vela X-1 is dominated by unstable hydrodynamical flows. Off-states, 10^{37} erg/s flares, quasi-periodic oscillations and log normal flux distribution can all be reproduced by hydrodynamical simulations and reveal the complex motion of bow shocks moving either towards or away from the neutron star. These behaviors are enlightening the zoo of HMXB and suggest new phenomenology to be detected.

  14. Mass Accretion Rate of Rotating Viscous Accretion Flow

    Park, Myeong-Gu

    2009-01-01

    The mass accretion rate of transonic spherical accretion flow onto compact objects such as black holes is known as the Bondi accretion rate(Mdot_B), which is determined only by the density and the temperature of gas at the outer boundary. But most work on disc accretion has taken the mass flux to be a given with the relation between that parameter and external conditions left uncertain. Within the framework of a slim alpha disk, we have constructed global solutions of the rotating, viscous ho...

  15. The microphysics of collisionless shock waves

    Marcowith, A.; Bret, A.; Bykov, A.; Dieckman, M. E.; O'C Drury, L.; Lembège, B.; Lemoine, M.; Morlino, G.; Murphy, G.; Pelletier, G.; Plotnikov, I.; Reville, B.; Riquelme, M.; Sironi, L.; Stockem Novo, A.

    2016-04-01

    Collisionless shocks, that is shocks mediated by electromagnetic processes, are customary in space physics and in astrophysics. They are to be found in a great variety of objects and environments: magnetospheric and heliospheric shocks, supernova remnants, pulsar winds and their nebulæ, active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts and clusters of galaxies shock waves. Collisionless shock microphysics enters at different stages of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle energization and/or acceleration. It turns out that the shock phenomenon is a multi-scale non-linear problem in time and space. It is complexified by the impact due to high-energy cosmic rays in astrophysical environments. This review adresses the physics of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle acceleration based on a close examination of available multi-wavelength or in situ observations, analytical and numerical developments. A particular emphasis is made on the different instabilities triggered during the shock formation and in association with particle acceleration processes with regards to the properties of the background upstream medium. It appears that among the most important parameters the background magnetic field through the magnetization and its obliquity is the dominant one. The shock velocity that can reach relativistic speeds has also a strong impact over the development of the micro-instabilities and the fate of particle acceleration. Recent developments of laboratory shock experiments has started to bring some new insights in the physics of space plasma and astrophysical shock waves. A special section is dedicated to new laser plasma experiments probing shock physics.

  16. The microphysics of collisionless shock waves.

    Marcowith, A; Bret, A; Bykov, A; Dieckman, M E; Drury, L O'C; Lembège, B; Lemoine, M; Morlino, G; Murphy, G; Pelletier, G; Plotnikov, I; Reville, B; Riquelme, M; Sironi, L; Novo, A Stockem

    2016-04-01

    Collisionless shocks, that is shocks mediated by electromagnetic processes, are customary in space physics and in astrophysics. They are to be found in a great variety of objects and environments: magnetospheric and heliospheric shocks, supernova remnants, pulsar winds and their nebulæ, active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts and clusters of galaxies shock waves. Collisionless shock microphysics enters at different stages of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle energization and/or acceleration. It turns out that the shock phenomenon is a multi-scale non-linear problem in time and space. It is complexified by the impact due to high-energy cosmic rays in astrophysical environments. This review adresses the physics of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle acceleration based on a close examination of available multi-wavelength or in situ observations, analytical and numerical developments. A particular emphasis is made on the different instabilities triggered during the shock formation and in association with particle acceleration processes with regards to the properties of the background upstream medium. It appears that among the most important parameters the background magnetic field through the magnetization and its obliquity is the dominant one. The shock velocity that can reach relativistic speeds has also a strong impact over the development of the micro-instabilities and the fate of particle acceleration. Recent developments of laboratory shock experiments has started to bring some new insights in the physics of space plasma and astrophysical shock waves. A special section is dedicated to new laser plasma experiments probing shock physics. PMID:27007555

  17. Experimental study of radiative shocks at PALS facility

    Stehlé, Chantal; Kozlova, Michaela; Rus, Bedrich; Mocek, Tomas; Acef, Ouali; Colombier, Jean-Philippe; Lanz, Thierry; Champion, Norbert; Jakubczak, Krzysztof; Polan, Jiri; Barroso, Patrice; Bauduin, Daniel; Audit, Edouard; Dostal, Jan; Stupka, Michal

    2010-01-01

    We report on the investigation of strong radiative shocks generated with the high energy, sub-nanosecond iodine laser at PALS. These shock waves are characterized by a developed radiative precursor and their dynamics is analyzed over long time scales (~50 ns), approaching a quasi-stationary limit. We present the first preliminary results on the rear side XUV spectroscopy. These studies are relevant to the understanding of the spectroscopic signatures of accretion shocks in Classical T Tauri Stars.

  18. Launching jets from accretion belts

    Schreier, Ron

    2016-01-01

    We propose that sub-Keplerian accretion belts around stars might launch jets. The sub-Keplerian inflow does not form a rotationally supported accretion disk, but it rather reaches the accreting object from a wide solid angle. The basic ingredients of the flow are a turbulent region where the accretion belt interacts with the accreting object via a shear layer, and two avoidance regions on the poles where the accretion rate is very low. A dynamo that is developed in the shear layer amplifies magnetic fields to high values. It is likely that the amplified magnetic fields form polar outflows from the avoidance regions. Our speculative belt-launched jets model has implications to a rich variety of astrophysical objects, from the removal of common envelopes to the explosion of core collapse supernovae by jittering jets.

  19. Emission-Line Profiles of Accretion Disks with a Non-Axisymmetric Pattern

    SANBUICHI, Kiyotaka; FUKUE, Jun; Kojima, Yasufumi

    1994-01-01

    In several cases, accretion disks may have non-axisymmetric patterns, such as one-armed oscillations and spiral shock waves. In such cases the line emissivity may also become non-axisymmetric. We examined the emission-line profiles for geometrically thin/thick, (non-) relativistic accretion disks while taking acount of the non-axisymmetric emissivity. The emission-line profiles were calculated numerically using a code based on the ray-tracing method. The emission-line profiles are usually ...

  20. Accretion Stream Mapping

    Vrielmann, S; Vrielmann, Sonja; Schwope, Axel D.

    1998-01-01

    We present a new mapping algorithm, the Accretion Stream Mapping, which uses the complete emission-line light curve to derive spatially resolved intensity distributions along the stream on a surface created as a duodecadon shaped tube. We successfully test this method on artificial data and then applied it to emission line light curves in Hbeta, Hgamma and HeII 4686 of the magnetic CV HU Aqr. We find Balmer emission near the threading point in the stream facing the white dwarf and Helium emission all over the magnetic part of the stream.

  1. Non-linear evolution of thermally unstable slim accretion discs with a diffusive form of viscosity

    Szuszkiewicz, E; Szuszkiewicz, Ewa; Miller, John C.

    2001-01-01

    We are carrying out a programme of non-linear time-dependent numerical calculations to study the evolution of the thermal instability driven by radiation pressure in transonic accretion discs around black holes. In our previous studies we first investigated the original version of the slim-disc model with low viscosity (parameter alpha = 0.001) for a stellar-mass (10 solar masses) black hole, comparing the behaviour seen with results from local stability analysis (which were broadly confirmed). In some of the unstable models, we saw a violently evolving shock-like feature appearing near to the sonic point. Next, we retained the original model simplifications but considered a higher value of alpha = 0.1 and demonstrated the existence of limit-cycle behaviour under suitable circumstances. The present paper describes more elaborate calculations with a more physical viscosity prescription and including a vertically integrated treatment of acceleration in the vertical direction. Limit-cycle behaviour is still foun...

  2. Properties of Cosmic Shock Waves in Large Scale Structure Formation

    Miniati, F; Kang, H; Jones, T W; Cen, R; Ostriker, J P; Miniati, Francesco; Ryu, Dongsu; Kang, Hyesung; Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2000-01-01

    We have examined the properties of shock waves in simulations of large scale structure formation for two cosmological scenarios (a SCDM and a LCDM with Omega =1). Large-scale shocks result from accretion onto sheets, filaments and Galaxy Clusters (GCs) on a scale of circa 5 Mpc/h in both cases. Energetic motions, both residual of past accretion history and due to current asymmetric inflow along filaments, generate additional, common shocks on a scale of about 1 Mpc/h, which penetrate deep inside GCs. Also collisions between substructures inside GCs form merger shocks. Consequently, the topology of the shocks is very complex and highly connected. During cosmic evolution the comoving shock surface density decreases, reflecting the ongoing structure merger process in both scenarios. Accretion shocks have very high Mach numbers (10-10^3), when photo-heating of the pre-shock gas is not included. The typical shock speed is of order v_{sh}(z) =H(z)lambda_{NL}(z), with lambda_{NL}(z) the wavelength scale of the nonli...

  3. Shoulder instability

    Shoulder instability is a common clinical feature leading to recurrent pain and limitated range of motion within the glenohumeral joint. Instability can be due a single traumatic event, general joint laxity or repeated episodes of microtrauma. Differentiation between traumatic and atraumatic forms of shoulder instability requires careful history and a systemic clinical examination. Shoulder laxity has to be differentiated from true instability followed by the clinical assessment of direction and degree of glenohumeral translation. Conventional radiography and CT are used for the diagnosis of bony lesions. MR imaging and MR arthrography help in the detection of soft tissue affection, especially of the glenoid labrum and the capsuloligamentous complex. The most common lesion involving the labrum is the anterior labral tear, associated with capsuloperiostal stripping (Bankart lesion). A number of variants of the Bankart lesion have been described, such as ALPSA, SLAP or HAGL lesions. The purpose of this review is to highlight different forms of shoulder instability and its associated radiological findings with a focus on MR imaging. (orig.)

  4. Quasi-spherical accretion in X-ray pulsars

    Postnov, K; Kochetkova, A; Hjalmarsdotter, L

    2011-01-01

    Quasi-spherical accretion in wind-fed X-ray pulsars is discussed. At X-ray luminosities <4 10^{36} erg/s, a hot convective shell is formed around the neutron star magnetosphere, and subsonic settling accretion regime sets in. In this regime, accretion rate onto neutron star is determined by the ability of plasma to enter magnetosphere via Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A gas-dynamic theory of settling accretion is constructed taking into account anisotropic turbulence. The angular momentum can be transferred through the quasi-static shell via large-scale convective motions initiating turbulence cascade. The angular velocity distribution in the shell is found depending on the turbulent viscosity prescription. Comparison with observations of long-period X-ray wind-fed pulsars shows that an almost iso-angular-momentum distribution is most likely realized in their shells. The theory explains long-term spin-down in wind- fed accreting pulsars (e.g. GX 1+4) and properties of short-term torque-luminosity correlatio...

  5. Turbulent Mixing on Helium-Accreting White Dwarfs

    Piro, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    An attractive scenario for producing Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is a double detonation, where detonation of an accreted helium layer triggers ignition of a C/O core. Whether or not such a mechanism can explain some or most SNe Ia depends on the properties of the helium burning, which in turn is set by the composition of the surface material. Using a combination of semi-analytic and simple numerical models, I explore when turbulent mixing due to hydrodynamic instabilities during the accretion process can mix C/O core material up into the accreted helium. Mixing is strongest at high accretion rates, large white dwarf (WD) masses, and slow spin rates. The mixing would result in subsequent helium burning that better matches the observed properties of SNe Ia. In some cases, there is considerable mixing that can lead to more than 50% C/O in the accreted layer at the time of ignition. These results will hopefully motivate future theoretical studies of such strongly mixed conditions. Mixing also has implications for...

  6. Chaotic cold accretion on to black holes in rotating atmospheres

    Gaspari, M; Oh, S Peng; Brighenti, F; Temi, P

    2014-01-01

    Using 3D high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations, we probe the impact of rotation on the hot and cold black hole accretion flow in a typical massive galaxy. In the adiabatic hot mode, the pressure-dominated flow forms a geometrically thick rotational barrier, suppressing the accretion rate to 1/3 of the spherical case value. Stirring the hot flow with subsonic turbulence results in similar suppression. When radiative cooling is dominant, the gas loses pressure support and circularizes in a cold thin disk. The accretion rate is low and decoupled from the cooling rate, albeit its level is higher than in the hot mode. In the more common state of a turbulent and heated atmosphere, chaotic cold accretion drives the dynamics as long as the gas velocity dispersion exceeds the rotational velocity, i.e. turbulent Taylor number Ta_t 1, the turbulent broadening, the efficiency of collisions, and the thermal instability growth weaken, damping the accretion rate by a factor Ta_t, until the cold disk dominates the dynami...

  7. LARGE-SCALE AZIMUTHAL STRUCTURES OF TURBULENCE IN ACCRETION DISKS: DYNAMO TRIGGERED VARIABILITY OF ACCRETION

    Flock, M.; Dzyurkevich, N.; Klahr, H.; Turner, N.; Henning, Th. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-01-10

    We investigate the significance of large-scale azimuthal, magnetic, and velocity modes for the magnetorotational instability (MRI) turbulence in accretion disks. We perform three-dimensional global ideal MHD simulations of global stratified protoplanetary disk models. Our domains span azimuthal angles of {pi}/4, {pi}/2, {pi}, and 2{pi}. We observe up to 100% stronger magnetic fields and stronger turbulence for the restricted azimuthal domain models {pi}/2 and {pi}/4 compared to the full 2{pi} model. We show that for those models the Maxwell stress is larger due to strong axisymmetric magnetic fields generated by the {alpha}{Omega} dynamo. Large radial extended axisymmetric toroidal fields trigger temporal magnification of accretion stress. All models display a positive dynamo-{alpha} in the northern hemisphere (upper disk). The parity is distinct in each model and changes on timescales of 40 local orbits. In model 2{pi}, the toroidal field is mostly antisymmetric with respect to the midplane. The eddies of the MRI turbulence are highly anisotropic. The major wavelengths of the turbulent velocity and magnetic fields are between one and two disk scale heights. At the midplane, we find magnetic tilt angles around 8 Degree-Sign -9 Degree-Sign increasing up to 12 Degree-Sign -13 Degree-Sign in the corona. We conclude that an azimuthal extent of {pi} is sufficient to reproduce most turbulent properties in three-dimensional global stratified simulations of magnetized accretion disks.

  8. Massive star formation by accretion I. Disc accretion

    Haemmerlé, Lionel; Meynet, Georges; Maeder, André; Charbonnel, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Massive stars likely form by accretion and the evolutionary track of an accreting forming star corresponds to what is called the birthline in the HR diagram. The shape of this birthline is quite sensitive to the evolution of the entropy in the accreting star. We first study the reasons why some birthlines published in past years present different behaviours for a given accretion rate. We then revisit the question of the accretion rate, which allows us to understand the distribution of the observed pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. Finally, we identify the conditions needed to obtain a large inflation of the star along its pre-MS evolution that may push the birthline towards the Hayashi line in the upper part of the HR diagram. We present new pre-MS models including accretion at various rates and for different initial structures of the accreting core. From the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram, we deduce the accretion law that best matches the acc...

  9. Acceleration mechanisms flares, magnetic reconnection and shock waves

    Several mechanisms are briefly discussed for the acceleration of particles in the astrophysical environment. Included are hydrodynamic acceleration, spherically convergent shocks, shock and a density gradient, coherent electromagnetic acceleration, the flux tube origin, symmetries and instabilities, reconnection, galactic flares, intergalactic acceleration, stochastic acceleration, and astrophysical shocks. It is noted that the supernova shock wave models still depend critically on the presupernova star structure and the assumption of highly compact presupernova models for type I supernovae. 37 references

  10. Beam Instabilities

    Rumolo, G

    2014-01-01

    When a beam propagates in an accelerator, it interacts with both the external fields and the self-generated electromagnetic fields. If the latter are strong enough, the interplay between them and a perturbation in the beam distribution function can lead to an enhancement of the initial perturbation, resulting in what we call a beam instability. This unstable motion can be controlled with a feedback system, if available, or it grows, causing beam degradation and loss. Beam instabilities in particle accelerators have been studied and analysed in detail since the late 1950s. The subject owes its relevance to the fact that the onset of instabilities usually determines the performance of an accelerator. Understanding and suppressing the underlying sources and mechanisms is therefore the key to overcoming intensity limitations, thereby pushing forward the performance reach of a machine.

  11. Modelling Accretion Disk and Stellar Wind Interactions: the Case of Sgr A*

    Christie, I. M.; Petropoulou, M.; Mimica, P.; Giannios, D.

    2016-01-01

    Sgr A* is an ideal target to study low-luminosity accreting systems. It has been recently proposed that properties of the accretion flow around Sgr A* can be probed through its interactions with the stellar wind of nearby massive stars belonging to the S-cluster. When a star intercepts the accretion disk, the ram and thermal pressures of the disk terminate the stellar wind leading to the formation of a bow shock structure. Here, a semi-analytical model is constructed which describes the geome...

  12. Does Easing Monetary Policy Increase Financial Instability?

    Cesa-Bianchi, Ambrogio; Rebucci, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a model featuring both a macroeconomic and a financial stability objective that speaks to the interaction between monetary and macroprudential policies. First, we find that interest rate rigidities in a monopolistic banking system have an asymmetric impact on financial stability: they lead to greater financial instability in response to contractionary shocks, while they act as an automatic financial stabilizer in response to expansionary shocks. Second, we find that when t...

  13. Shock Waves in Outflows from Young Stars

    Hartigan, Patrick

    This review focuses on physics of the cooling zones behind radiative shocks and the emission line diagnostics that can be used to infer physical conditions and mass loss rates in jets from young stars. Spatial separations of the cooling zones from the shock fronts, now resolvable with HST, and recent evidence for C-shocks have greatly increased our understanding of how shocks in outflows interact with the surrounding medium and with other material within the flow. By combining multiple epoch HST images, one can create `movies' of flows like those produced from numerical codes, and learn what kinds of instabilities develop within these systems.

  14. Weibel instability driven by spatially anisotropic density structures

    Tomita, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Observations of afterglows of gamma-ray bursts suggest (GRBs) that post-shock magnetic fields are strongly amplified to about 100 times the shock-compressed value. The Weibel instability appears to play an important role in generating of the magnetic field. However, recent simulations of collisionless shocks in homogeneous plasmas show that the magnetic field generated by the Weibel instability rapidly decays. There must be some density fluctuations in interstellar and circumstellar media. The density fluctuations are anisotropically compressed in the downstream region of relativistic shocks. In this paper, we study the Weibel instability in electron--positron plasmas with the spatially anisotropic density distributions by means of two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We find that large magnetic fields are maintained for a longer time by the Weibel instability driven by the spatially anisotropic density structure. Particles anisotropically escape from the high density region, so that the temperature ...

  15. Bimodal gas accretion in the MareNostrum galaxy formation simulation

    Ocvirk, P; Teyssier, R

    2008-01-01

    The physics of diffuse gas accretion and the properties of the cold and hot modes of accretion onto proto-galaxies between z=2 and z=5.4 are investigated using the large cosmological simulation performed with the RAMSES code on the MareNostrum supercomputing facility. Galactic winds, chemical enrichment, UV background heating and radiative cooling are taken into account in this very high resolution simulation. Using {\\it accretion--weighted temperature histograms}, we have perfomed two different measurements of the thermal state of the gas accreted towards the central galaxy. The first measurement, performed using accretion--weighted histograms on a spherical surface of radius $0.2 \\Rv$ centred on {the densest gas structure in the vicinity of the halo centre of mass}, is a good indicator of the presence of an accretion shock in the vicinity of the galactic disc. We define the hot shock mass, $\\Msh$, as the typical halo mass separating cold dominated from hot dominated accretion in the vicinity of the galaxy. ...

  16. How do Most Planets Form? -- Constraints on Disk Instability from Direct Imaging

    Janson, Markus; Bonavita, Mariangela; Klahr, Hubert; Lafreniere, David

    2011-01-01

    Core accretion and disk instability have traditionally been regarded as the two competing possible paths of planet formation. In recent years, evidence have accumulated in favor of core accretion as the dominant mode, at least for close-in planets. However, it might be hypothesized that a significant population of wide planets formed by disk instabilities could exist at large separations, forming an invisible majority. In previous work, we addressed this issue through a direct imaging survey ...

  17. Two-dimensional models of layered protoplanetary discs. I. - The ring instability

    Wünsch, Richard; Klahr, Hubert; Rózycka, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 362, č. 1 (2005), s. 361-368. ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAB3003106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : accretion, accretion discs * hydrodynamics * instabilities * Solar system: formation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.352, year: 2005

  18. Accretion outbursts in self-gravitating protoplanetary disks

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Zhu, Zhaohuan [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Nelson, Richard P., E-mail: jaehbae@umich.edu, E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu, E-mail: zhuzh@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: r.p.nelson@qmul.ac.uk [Astronomy Unit, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-01

    We improve on our previous treatments of the long-term evolution of protostellar disks by explicitly solving disk self-gravity in two dimensions. The current model is an extension of the one-dimensional layered accretion disk model of Bae et al. We find that gravitational instability (GI)-induced spiral density waves heat disks via compressional heating (i.e., PdV work), and can trigger accretion outbursts by activating the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the magnetically inert disk dead zone. The GI-induced spiral waves propagate well inside of the gravitationally unstable region before they trigger outbursts at R ≲ 1 AU where GI cannot be sustained. This long-range propagation of waves cannot be reproduced with the previously used local α treatments for GI. In our standard model where zero dead-zone residual viscosity (α{sub rd}) is assumed, the GI-induced stress measured at the onset of outbursts is locally as large as 0.01 in terms of the generic α parameter. However, as suggested in our previous one-dimensional calculations, we confirm that the presence of a small but finite α{sub rd} triggers thermally driven bursts of accretion instead of the GI + MRI-driven outbursts that are observed when α{sub rd} = 0. The inclusion of non-zero residual viscosity in the dead zone decreases the importance of GI soon after mass feeding from the envelope cloud ceases. During the infall phase while the central protostar is still embedded, our models stay in a 'quiescent' accretion phase with M-dot {sub acc}∼10{sup −8}--10{sup −7} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} over 60% of the time and spend less than 15% of the infall phase in accretion outbursts. While our models indicate that episodic mass accretion during protostellar evolution can qualitatively help explain the low accretion luminosities seen in most low-mass protostars, detailed tests of the mechanism will require model calculations for a range of protostellar masses with some constraint on the

  19. Accretion outbursts in self-gravitating protoplanetary disks

    We improve on our previous treatments of the long-term evolution of protostellar disks by explicitly solving disk self-gravity in two dimensions. The current model is an extension of the one-dimensional layered accretion disk model of Bae et al. We find that gravitational instability (GI)-induced spiral density waves heat disks via compressional heating (i.e., PdV work), and can trigger accretion outbursts by activating the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the magnetically inert disk dead zone. The GI-induced spiral waves propagate well inside of the gravitationally unstable region before they trigger outbursts at R ≲ 1 AU where GI cannot be sustained. This long-range propagation of waves cannot be reproduced with the previously used local α treatments for GI. In our standard model where zero dead-zone residual viscosity (αrd) is assumed, the GI-induced stress measured at the onset of outbursts is locally as large as 0.01 in terms of the generic α parameter. However, as suggested in our previous one-dimensional calculations, we confirm that the presence of a small but finite αrd triggers thermally driven bursts of accretion instead of the GI + MRI-driven outbursts that are observed when αrd = 0. The inclusion of non-zero residual viscosity in the dead zone decreases the importance of GI soon after mass feeding from the envelope cloud ceases. During the infall phase while the central protostar is still embedded, our models stay in a 'quiescent' accretion phase with M-dot acc∼10−8--10−7 M⊙ yr−1 over 60% of the time and spend less than 15% of the infall phase in accretion outbursts. While our models indicate that episodic mass accretion during protostellar evolution can qualitatively help explain the low accretion luminosities seen in most low-mass protostars, detailed tests of the mechanism will require model calculations for a range of protostellar masses with some constraint on the initial core angular momentum, which affects the

  20. AGN flickering and chaotic accretion

    King, Andrew; Nixon, Chris

    2015-10-01

    Observational arguments suggest that the growth phases of the supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei have a characteristic time-scale ˜105 yr. We show that this is the time-scale expected in the chaotic accretion picture of black hole feeding, because of the effect of self-gravity in limiting the mass of any accretion-disc feeding event.

  1. AGN Flickering and Chaotic Accretion

    King, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Observational arguments suggest that the growth phases of the supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei have a characteristic timescale $\\sim 10^5$ yr. We show that this is the timescale expected in the chaotic accretion picture of black hole feeding, because of the effect of self-gravity in limiting the mass of any accretion disc feeding event.

  2. An hydrodynamic shear instability in stratified disks

    Dubrulle, B; Normand, C; Richard, D; Hersant, F; Zahn, J P; Normand, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the possibility that astrophysical accretion disks are dynamically unstable to non-axisymmetric disturbances with characteristic scales much smaller than the vertical scale height. The instability is studied using three methods: one based on the energy integral, which allows the determination of a sufficient condition of stability, one using a WKB approach, which allows the determination of the necessary and sufficient condition for instability and a last one by numerical solution. This linear instability occurs in any inviscid stably stratified differential rotating fluid for rigid, stress-free or periodic boundary conditions, provided the angular velocity $\\Omega$ decreases outwards with radius $r$. At not too small stratification, its growth rate is a fraction of $\\Omega$. The influence of viscous dissipation and thermal diffusivity on the instability is studied numerically, with emphasis on the case when $d \\ln \\Omega / d \\ln r =-3/2$ (Keplerian case). Strong stratification and large diffusivit...

  3. Winds and Accretion in Young Stars

    Edwards, Suzan

    2008-01-01

    Establishing the origin of accretion powered winds from forming stars is critical for understanding angular momentum evolution in the star-disk interaction region. Here, the high velocity component of accretion powered winds is launched and accreting stars are spun down, in defiance of the expected spin-up during magnetospheric accretion. T Tauri stars in the final stage of disk accretion offer a unique opportunity to study the connection between accretion and winds and their relation to stel...

  4. Evolution of Massive Protostars via Disk Accretion

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Yorke, Harold W.; Omukai, Kazuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Mass accretion onto (proto-)stars at high accretion rates > 10^-4 M_sun/yr is expected in massive star formation. We study the evolution of massive protostars at such high rates by numerically solving the stellar structure equations. In this paper we examine the evolution via disk accretion. We consider a limiting case of "cold" disk accretion, whereby most of the stellar photosphere can radiate freely with negligible backwarming from the accretion flow, and the accreting material settles ont...

  5. Accretion by the Galaxy

    Binney J.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cosmology requires at least half of the baryons in the Universe to be in the intergalactic medium, much of which is believed to form hot coronae around galaxies. Star-forming galaxies must be accreting from their coronae. Hi observations of external galaxies show that they have Hi halos associated with star formation. These halos are naturally modelled as ensembles of clouds driven up by supernova bubbles. These models can fit the data successfully only if clouds exchange mass and momentum with the corona. As a cloud orbits, it is ablated and forms a turbulent wake where cold high-metallicity gas mixes with hot coronal gas causing the prompt cooling of the latter. As a consequence the total mass of Hi increases. This model has recently been used to model the Leiden-Argentina-Bonn survey of Galactic Hi. The values of the model’s parameters that are required to model NGC 891, NGC 2403 and our Galaxy show a remarkable degree of consistency, despite the very different natures of the two external galaxies and the dramatic difference in the nature of the data for our Galaxy and the external galaxies. The parameter values are also consistent with hydrodynamical simulations of the ablation of individual clouds. The model predicts that a galaxy that loses its cool-gas disc for instance through a major merger cannot reform it from its corona; it can return to steady star formation only if it can capture a large body of cool gas, for example by accreting a gas-rich dwarf. Thus the model explains how major mergers can make galaxies “red and dead.”

  6. Angular Momentum Transport in Protoplanetary and Black Hole Accretion Disks: The Role of Parasitic Modes in the Saturation of MHD Turbulence

    Pessah, Martin Elias

    2010-01-01

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is considered a key process for driving efficient angular momentum transport in astrophysical disks. Understanding its nonlinear saturation constitutes a fundamental problem in modern accretion disk theory. The large dynamical range in physical conditions i...

  7. The dynamic instability of adiabatic blast waves

    Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, Ethan T.

    1991-01-01

    Adiabatic blastwaves, which have a total energy injected from the center E varies as t(sup q) and propagate through a preshock medium with a density rho(sub E) varies as r(sup -omega) are described by a family of similarity solutions. Previous work has shown that adiabatic blastwaves with increasing or constant postshock entropy behind the shock front are susceptible to an oscillatory instability, caused by the difference between the nature of the forces on the two sides of the dense shell behind the shock front. This instability sets in if the dense postshock layer is sufficiently thin. The stability of adiabatic blastwaves with a decreasing postshock entropy is considered. Such blastwaves, if they are decelerating, always have a region behind the shock front which is subject to convection. Some accelerating blastwaves also have such region, depending on the values of q, omega, and gamma where gamma is the adiabatic index. However, since the shock interface stabilizes dynamically induced perturbations, blastwaves become convectively unstable only if the convective zone is localized around the origin or a contact discontinuity far from the shock front. On the other hand, the contact discontinuity of accelerating blastwaves is subject to a strong Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The frequency spectra of the nonradial, normal modes of adiabatic blastwaves have been calculated. The results have been applied to the shocks propagating through supernovae envelopes. It is shown that the metal/He and He/H interfaces are strongly unstable against the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. This instability will induce mixing in supernovae envelopes. In addition the implications of this work for the evolution of planetary nebulae is discussed.

  8. Hydrodynamic stability in accretion disks under the combined influence of shear and density stratification

    Rüdiger, G.; Arlt, R.; Shalybkov, D.

    2002-01-01

    The hydrodynamic stability of accretion disks is considered. The particular question is whether the combined action of a (stable) vertical density stratification and a (stable) radial differential rotation gives rise to a new instability for nonaxisymmetric modes of disturbances. The existence of such an instability is not suggested by the well-known Solberg-Hoiland criterion. It is also not suggested by a local analysis for disturbances in general stratifications of entropy and angular momen...

  9. Reentry Shock

    Dorine; Houston

    1998-01-01

    Dear Xiao Lan, You remember the pain of culture and reentry shock; humor me please; let mereview the facts for the sake of the students you are sending here in greater numbers.Culture shock is the emotional pain that people experience when they visit a newcountry and find customs, experiences, smells, and non-verbal communication stylesto be different from their own country.

  10. Inter-galactic Shock Acceleration and the Cosmic Gamma-ray Background

    Miniati, Francesco

    2002-01-01

    We investigate numerically the contribution to the cosmic gamma-ray background from cosmic-rays ions and electrons accelerated at intergalactic shocks associated with cosmological structure formation. We show that the kinetic energy of accretion flows in the low-red-shift inter-galactic medium is thermalized primarily through moderately strong shocks, which allow for an efficient conversion of shock ram pressure into cosmic-ray pressure. Cosmic-rays accelerated at these shocks produce a diffu...

  11. Magnetic field structure in accretion columns on HMXB and effects on CRSF

    Mukherjee Dipanjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In accreting neutron star binaries, matter is channelled by the magnetic fields from the accretion disc to the poles of neutron stars forming an accretion mound. We model such mounds by numerically solving the Grad-Shafranov equation for axisymmetric static MHD equilibria. From our solutions we infer local distortion of field lines due to the weight of accreted matter. Variation in mass loading at the accretion disc will alter the shape of the accretion mound which will also affect the local field distortion. From simulations of cyclotron resonance scattering features from HMXBs, we conclude that local field distortion will greatly affect the shape and nature of the CRSF. From phase resolved spectral analysis one can infer the local field structure and hence the nature of mass loading of field lines at the accretion disc. We also study the stability of such mounds by performing MHD simulations using the PLUTO MHD code. We find that pressure and gravity driven instabilities depend on the total mass accreted and the nature of mass loading of the field lines.

  12. Magnetic field structure in accretion columns on HMXB and effects on CRSF

    Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Mignone, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In accreting neutron star binaries, matter is channelled by the magnetic fields from the accretion disc to the poles of neutron stars forming an accretion mound. We model such mounds by numerically solving the Grad-Shafranov equation for axisymmetric static MHD equilibria. From our solutions we infer local distortion of field lines due to the weight of accreted matter. Variation in mass loading at the accretion disc will alter the shape of the accretion mound which will also affect the local field distortion. From simulations of cyclotron resonance scattering features from HMXBs, we conclude that local field distortion will greatly affect the shape and nature of the CRSF. From phase resolved spectral analysis one can infer the local field structure and hence the nature of mass loading of field lines at the accretion disc. We also study the stability of such mounds by performing MHD simulations using the PLUTO MHD code. We find that pressure and gravity driven instabilities depend on the total mass accreted an...

  13. MHD Simulations of Magnetized Stars in the Propeller Regime of Accretion

    Lii Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accreting magnetized stars may be in the propeller regime of disc accretion in which the angular velocity of the stellar magnetosphere exceeds that of the inner disc. In these systems, the stellar magnetosphere acts as a centrifugal barrier and inhibits matter accretion onto the rapidly rotating star. Instead, the matter accreting through the disc accumulates at the disc-magnetosphere interface where it picks up angular momentum and is ejected from the system as a wide-angled outflow which gradually collimates at larger distances from the star. If the ejection rate is lower than the accretion rate, the matter will accumulate at the boundary faster than it can be ejected; in this case, accretion onto the star proceeds through an episodic accretion instability in which the episodes of matter accumulation are followed by a brief episode of simultaneous ejection and accretion of matter onto the star. In addition to the matter dominated wind component, the propeller outflow also exhibits a well-collimated, magnetically-dominated Poynting jet which transports energy and angular momentum away from the star. The propeller mechanism may explain some of the weakly-collimated jets and winds observed around some T Tauri stars as well as the episodic variability present in their light curves. It may also explain some of the quasi-periodic variability observed in cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars and other magnetized stars.

  14. Quasispherical subsonic accretion in X-ray pulsars

    Shakura, Nikolai I.; Postnov, Konstantin A.; Kochetkova, A. Yu; Hjalmarsdotter, L.

    2013-04-01

    A theoretical model is considered for quasispherical subsonic accretion onto slowly rotating magnetized neutron stars. In this regime, the accreting matter settles down subsonically onto the rotating magnetosphere, forming an extended quasistatic shell. Angular momentum transfer in the shell occurs via large-scale convective motions resulting, for observed pulsars, in an almost iso-angular-momentum \\omega \\sim 1/R^2 rotation law inside the shell. The accretion rate through the shell is determined by the ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, with allowance for cooling. A settling accretion regime is possible for moderate accretion rates \\dot M \\lesssim \\dot M_* \\simeq 4\\times 10^{16} g s ^{-1}. At higher accretion rates, a free-fall gap above the neutron star magnetosphere appears due to rapid Compton cooling, and the accretion becomes highly nonstationary. Observations of spin-up/spin-down rates of quasispherically wind accreting equilibrium X-ray pulsars with known orbital periods (e.g., GX 301-2 and Vela X-1) enable us to determine the main dimensionless parameters of the model, as well as to estimate surface magnetic field of the neutron star. For equilibrium pulsars, the independent measurements of the neutron star magnetic field allow for an estimate of the stellar wind velocity of the optical companion without using complicated spectroscopic measurements. For nonequilibrium pulsars, a maximum value is shown to exist for the spin-down rate of the accreting neutron star. From observations of the spin-down rate and the X-ray luminosity in such pulsars (e.g., GX 1+4, SXP 1062, and 4U 2206+54), a lower limit can be put on the neutron star magnetic field, which in all cases turns out to be close to the standard value and which agrees with cyclotron line measurements. Furthermore, both explains the spin-up/spin-down of the pulsar frequency on large time-scales and also accounts for the irregular short

  15. Quasispherical subsonic accretion in X-ray pulsars

    A theoretical model is considered for quasispherical subsonic accretion onto slowly rotating magnetized neutron stars. In this regime, the accreting matter settles down subsonically onto the rotating magnetosphere, forming an extended quasistatic shell. Angular momentum transfer in the shell occurs via large-scale convective motions resulting, for observed pulsars, in an almost iso-angular-momentum ω∼1/R2 rotation law inside the shell. The accretion rate through the shell is determined by the ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, with allowance for cooling. A settling accretion regime is possible for moderate accretion rates .M∼*≅4×1016 g s-1. At higher accretion rates, a free-fall gap above the neutron star magnetosphere appears due to rapid Compton cooling, and the accretion becomes highly nonstationary. Observations of spin-up/spin-down rates of quasispherically wind accreting equilibrium X-ray pulsars with known orbital periods (e.g., GX 301-2 and Vela X-1) enable us to determine the main dimensionless parameters of the model, as well as to estimate surface magnetic field of the neutron star. For equilibrium pulsars, the independent measurements of the neutron star magnetic field allow for an estimate of the stellar wind velocity of the optical companion without using complicated spectroscopic measurements. For nonequilibrium pulsars, a maximum value is shown to exist for the spin-down rate of the accreting neutron star. From observations of the spin-down rate and the X-ray luminosity in such pulsars (e.g., GX 1+4, SXP 1062, and 4U 2206+54), a lower limit can be put on the neutron star magnetic field, which in all cases turns out to be close to the standard value and which agrees with cyclotron line measurements. Furthermore, both explains the spin-up/spin-down of the pulsar frequency on large time-scales and also accounts for the irregular short-term frequency fluctuations, which may correlate or

  16. Evolution of accretion disks in tidal disruption events

    Shen, Rong-Feng [Current address: Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. (Israel); Matzner, Christopher D., E-mail: rf.shen@mail.huji.ac.il, E-mail: matzner@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    During a stellar tidal disruption event (TDE), an accretion disk forms as stellar debris returns to the disruption site and circularizes. Rather than being confined within the circularizing radius, the disk can spread to larger radii to conserve angular momentum. A spreading disk is a source of matter for re-accretion at rates that may exceed the later stellar fallback rate, although a disk wind can suppress its contribution to the central black hole accretion rate. A spreading disk is detectible through a break in the central accretion rate history or, at longer wavelengths, by its own emission. We model the evolution of TDE disk size and accretion rate by accounting for the time-dependent fallback rate, for the influence of wind losses in the early advective stage, and for the possibility of thermal instability for accretion rates intermediate between the advection-dominated and gas-pressure-dominated states. The model provides a dynamic basis for modeling TDE light curves. All or part of a young TDE disk will precess as a solid body because of the Lense-Thirring effect, and precession may manifest itself as a quasi-periodic modulation of the light curve. The precession period increases with time. Applying our results to the jetted TDE candidate Swift J1644+57, whose X-ray light curve shows numerous quasi-periodic dips, we argue that the data best fit a scenario in which a main-sequence star was fully disrupted by an intermediate mass black hole on an orbit significantly inclined from the black hole equator, with the apparent jet shutoff at t = 500 days corresponding to a disk transition from the advective state to the gas-pressure-dominated state.

  17. Evolution of accretion disks in tidal disruption events

    During a stellar tidal disruption event (TDE), an accretion disk forms as stellar debris returns to the disruption site and circularizes. Rather than being confined within the circularizing radius, the disk can spread to larger radii to conserve angular momentum. A spreading disk is a source of matter for re-accretion at rates that may exceed the later stellar fallback rate, although a disk wind can suppress its contribution to the central black hole accretion rate. A spreading disk is detectible through a break in the central accretion rate history or, at longer wavelengths, by its own emission. We model the evolution of TDE disk size and accretion rate by accounting for the time-dependent fallback rate, for the influence of wind losses in the early advective stage, and for the possibility of thermal instability for accretion rates intermediate between the advection-dominated and gas-pressure-dominated states. The model provides a dynamic basis for modeling TDE light curves. All or part of a young TDE disk will precess as a solid body because of the Lense-Thirring effect, and precession may manifest itself as a quasi-periodic modulation of the light curve. The precession period increases with time. Applying our results to the jetted TDE candidate Swift J1644+57, whose X-ray light curve shows numerous quasi-periodic dips, we argue that the data best fit a scenario in which a main-sequence star was fully disrupted by an intermediate mass black hole on an orbit significantly inclined from the black hole equator, with the apparent jet shutoff at t = 500 days corresponding to a disk transition from the advective state to the gas-pressure-dominated state.

  18. Evolution of Accretion Disks in Tidal Disruption Events

    Shen, Rong-Feng; Matzner, Christopher D.

    2014-04-01

    During a stellar tidal disruption event (TDE), an accretion disk forms as stellar debris returns to the disruption site and circularizes. Rather than being confined within the circularizing radius, the disk can spread to larger radii to conserve angular momentum. A spreading disk is a source of matter for re-accretion at rates that may exceed the later stellar fallback rate, although a disk wind can suppress its contribution to the central black hole accretion rate. A spreading disk is detectible through a break in the central accretion rate history or, at longer wavelengths, by its own emission. We model the evolution of TDE disk size and accretion rate by accounting for the time-dependent fallback rate, for the influence of wind losses in the early advective stage, and for the possibility of thermal instability for accretion rates intermediate between the advection-dominated and gas-pressure-dominated states. The model provides a dynamic basis for modeling TDE light curves. All or part of a young TDE disk will precess as a solid body because of the Lense-Thirring effect, and precession may manifest itself as a quasi-periodic modulation of the light curve. The precession period increases with time. Applying our results to the jetted TDE candidate Swift J1644+57, whose X-ray light curve shows numerous quasi-periodic dips, we argue that the data best fit a scenario in which a main-sequence star was fully disrupted by an intermediate mass black hole on an orbit significantly inclined from the black hole equator, with the apparent jet shutoff at t = 500 days corresponding to a disk transition from the advective state to the gas-pressure-dominated state.

  19. ESTIMATION OF THE VISCOSITY PARAMETER IN ACCRETION DISKS OF BLAZARS

    For an optical monitoring blazar sample set whose typical minimum variability timescale is about 1 hr, we estimate a mean value of the viscosity parameter in their accretion disk. We assume that optical variability on timescales of hours is caused by local instabilities in the inner accretion disk. Comparing the observed variability timescales to the thermal timescales of α-disk models, we could obtain constraints on the viscosity parameter (α) and the intrinsic Eddington ratio (Lin/LEdd=m-dot), 0.104 ≤ α ≤ 0.337, and 0.0201 ≤ L in/LEdd ≤ 0.1646. These narrow ranges suggest that all these blazars are observed in a single state, and thus provide a new evidence for the unification of flat-spectrum radio quasars and BL Lacs into a single blazar population. The values of α we derive are consistent with the theoretical expectation α ∼ 0.1-0.3 of Narayan and Mcclintock for advection-dominated accretion flow and are also compatible with Pessah et al.'s predictions (α ≥ 0.1) by numerical simulations in which magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is driven by the saturated magnetorotational instability.

  20. He-Accreting WDs: accretion regimes and final outcomes

    Piersanti, L; Yungelson, L R

    2014-01-01

    The behaviour of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (WDs) subject to direct helium accretion is extensively studied. We aim to analyze the thermal response of the accreting WD to mass deposition at different time scales. The analysis has been performed for initial WDs masses and accretion rates in the range (0.60 - 1.02) Msun and 1.e-9 - 1.e-5 Msun/yr, respectively. Thermal regimes in the parameters space M_{WD} - dot{M}_{He}, leading to formation of red-giant-like structure, steady burning of He, mild, strong and dynamical flashes have been identified and the transition between those regimes has been studied in detail. In particular, the physical properties of WDs experiencing the He-flash accretion regime have been investigated in order to determine the mass retention efficiency as a function of the accretor total mass and accretion rate. We also discuss to what extent the building-up of a He-rich layer via H-burning could be described according to the behaviour of models accreting He-rich matter directly. Polynomi...

  1. Numerical simulations of axisymmetric hydrodynamical Bondi-Hoyle accretion onto a compact object

    Mellah, Ileyk El

    2015-01-01

    Bondi-Hoyle accretion configurations occur as soon as a gravitating body is immersed in an ambient medium with a supersonic relative velocity. From wind-accreting X-ray binaries to runaway neutron stars, such a regime has been witnessed many times and is believed to account for shock formation, the properties of which can be only marginally derived analytically. In this paper, we present the first results of the numerical characterization of the stationary flow structure of Bondi-Hoyle accretion onto a compact object, from the large scale accretion radius down to the vicinity of the compact body. For different Mach numbers, we study the associated bow shock. It turns out that those simulations confirm the analytical prediction by Foglizzo & Ruffert (1996) concerning the topology of the inner sonic surface with an adiabatic index of 5/3. They also enable us to derive the related mass accretion rates, the position and the temperature of the bow shock, as function of the flow parameters, along with the trans...

  2. Observable Signatures of Classical T Tauri Stars Accreting in an Unstable Regime

    Kurosawa Ryuichi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss key observational signatures of Classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs accreting through Rayleigh-Taylor instability, which occurs at the interface between an accretion disk and a stellar magnetosphere. In this study, the results of global 3-D MHD simulations of accretion flows, in both stable and unstable regimes, are used to predict the variability of hydrogen emission lines and light curves associated with those two distinctive accretion flow patterns. In the stable regime, a redshifted absorption component (RAC periodically appears in some hydrogen lines, but only during a fraction of a stellar rotation period. In the unstable regime, the RAC is present rather persistently during a whole stellar rotation period, and its strength varies non-periodically. The latter is caused by multiple accreting streams, formed randomly due to the instability, passing across the line of sight to an observer during one stellar rotation. This results in the quasi-stationarity appearance of the RAC because at least one of the accretion stream is almost always in the line of sight to an observer. In the stable regime, two stable hot spots produce a smooth and periodic light curve that shows only one or two peaks per stellar rotation. In the unstable regime, multiple hot spots formed on the surface of the star, produce the stochastic light curve with several peaks per rotation period.

  3. An Accretion Model for the Growth of Black Hole in Quasars

    Lu, Ye; Cheng, K. S.; Zhang, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    A possible accretion model associated with the ionization instability of quasar disks is proposed to address the growth of the central black hole harbored in the host galaxy. The evolution of quasars in cosmic time is assumed to change from a highly active state to a quiescent state triggered by the S-shaped ionization instability of the quasar accretion disk. For a given external mass transfer rate ionization instability can modify accretion rate in the disk and separates the accretion flows of the disk into three different phases like a S-shape. We suggest that the bright quasars observed today are those quasars with disks in the upper branch of S-shaped instability and the dormant quasars are the system in the lower branch. The disk is assumed to evolve as ADIOS configuration in the lower branch. The mass ratio between black hole and its host galactic bulge is a nature consequence of ADIOS. Our model also demonstrates that a seed black hole 2 x 10(exp 6) solar masses similar to those found in spiral galaxies today is needed to produce a black hole with a final mass 2 x 10(exp 8) solar masses.

  4. Accretion discs around black holes two dimensional, advection cooled flows

    Igumenshchev, I V; Abramowicz, M A; Igumenshchev, Igor V; Chen, Xingming; Abramowicz, Marek Artur

    1995-01-01

    Two-dimensional accretion flows near black holes have been investigated by time-dependent hydrodynamical calculations. We assume that the flow is axisymmetric and that radiative losses of internal energy are negligible, so that the disc is geometrically thick and hot. Accretion occurs due to the overflow of the effective potential barrier near the black hole, similar to the case of the Roche lobe overflowing star in a binary system. We make no pre-assumptions on the properties of the flow, instead our models evolve self-consistently from an initially non-accreting state. The viscosity is due to the the small-scale turbulence and it is described by the \\alpha-viscosity prescription. We confirm earlier suggestions that viscous accretion flows are convectively unstable. We found that the instability produces transient eddies of various length-scales. The eddies contribute to the strength of the viscosity in the flow by redistributing the angular momentum. They also introduce low amplitude oscillatory variations ...

  5. Unstable mass-outflows in geometrically thick accretion flows around black holes

    Okuda, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Accretion flows around black holes generally result in mass-outflows that exhibit irregular behavior quite often. Using 2D time-dependent hydrodynamical calculations, we show that the mass-outflow is unstable in the cases of thick accretion flows such as the low angular momentum accretion flow and the advection-dominated accretion flow. For the low angular momentum flow, the inward accreting matter on the equatorial plane interacts with the outflowing gas along the rotational axis and the centrifugally supported oblique shock is formed at the interface of both the flows, when the viscosity parameter $\\alpha$ is as small as $\\alpha \\le 10^{-3}$. The hot and rarefied blobs, which result in the eruptive mass-outflow, are generated in the inner shocked region and grow up toward the outer boundary. The advection-dominated accretion flow attains finally in the form of a torus disc with the inner edge of the disc at $3R_{\\rm g} \\le r \\le 6R_{\\rm g}$ and the center at $6R_ {\\rm g} \\le r \\le 10R_{\\rm g}$, and a series...

  6. Application of high-speed photography to hydrodynamic instability research

    High-speed photography is used to study the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of air-water interface driven by high- pressure exploding gas. Clear images illustrating the instability are obtained, along with the air bubble peak speed and turbulent mixing speed. The RM (Richtmyer-Meshkov) instability of air/SF6 interface driven by shock wave is also researched by using high-speed Schlieren technique on the horizontal shock tube and primary experimental results are obtained, which show the change of the turbulent mixing region clearly. (authors)

  7. TW Hya: Spectral Variability, X-Rays, and Accretion Diagnostics

    Dupree, A K; Cranmer, S R; Luna, G J M; Schneider, E E; Bessell, M S; Bonanos, A; Crause, L A; Lawson, W A; Mallik, S V; Schuler, S C

    2012-01-01

    The nearest accreting T Tauri star, TW Hya was observed with spectroscopic and photometric measurements simultaneous with a long se gmented exposure using the CHANDRA satellite. Contemporaneous optical photometry from WASP-S indicates a 4.74 day period was present during this time. Absence of a similar periodicity in the H-alpha flux and the total X-ray flux points to a different source of photometric variations. The H-alpha emission line appears intrinsically broad and symmetric, and both the profile and its variability suggest an origin in the post-shock cooling region. An accretion event, signaled by soft X-rays, is traced spectroscopically for the first time through the optical emission line profiles. After the accretion event, downflowing turbulent material observed in the H-alpha and H-beta lines is followed by He I (5876A) broadening. Optical veiling increases with a delay of about 2 hours after the X-ray accretion event. The response of the stellar coronal emission to an increase in the veiling follow...

  8. On the efficiency of the Blandford-Znajek mechanism for low angular momentum relativistic accretion

    Das, Tapas K

    2011-01-01

    Blandford-Znajek (BZ) mechanism has usually been studied in the literature for accretion with considerably high angular momentum leading to the formation of a Keplerian disc. However, in nearby elliptical galaxies, as well as for our own Galactic centre, low angular momentum accretion is prevalent. Such sub-Keplerian accretion has complex dynamical features and can accommodate stationary shocks. In this letter, we present our calculation for the maximum efficiency obtainable through the BZ mechanism for complete general relativistic low angular momentum flow in the Kerr metric. Both shocked and shock free flow has been studied in detail for rotating and counter rotating accretion. Such study has never been done in the literature before. We find that the energy extraction efficiency is low, about 0.1%, and increases by a factor 15 if the ram pressure is included. Such an efficiency is still much higher than the radiative efficiency of such optically thin flows. For BZ mechanism, shocked flow produces higher ef...

  9. A Deep Chandra X-Ray Spectrum of the Accreting Young Star TW Hydrae

    Brickhouse, N. S.; Cranmer, S. R.; Dupree, A. K.; Luna, G. J. M.; Wolk, S.

    2010-02-01

    We present X-ray spectral analysis of the accreting young star TW Hydrae from a 489 ks observation using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating. The spectrum provides a rich set of diagnostics for electron temperature Te , electron density Ne , hydrogen column density NH , relative elemental abundances, and velocities, and reveals its source in three distinct regions of the stellar atmosphere: the stellar corona, the accretion shock, and a very large extended volume of warm postshock plasma. The presence of Mg XII, Si XIII, and Si XIV emission lines in the spectrum requires coronal structures at ~10 MK. Lower temperature lines (e.g., from O VIII, Ne IX, and Mg XI) formed at 2.5 MK appear more consistent with emission from an accretion shock. He-like Ne IX line ratio diagnostics indicate that Te = 2.50 ± 0.25 MK and Ne = 3.0 ± 0.2 × 1012 cm-3 in the shock. These values agree well with standard magnetic accretion models. However, the Chandra observations significantly diverge from current model predictions for the postshock plasma. This gas is expected to cool radiatively, producing O VII as it flows into an increasingly dense stellar atmosphere. Surprisingly, O VII indicates Ne = 5.7+4.4 -1.2 × 1011 cm-3, 5 times lower than Ne in the accretion shock itself and ~7 times lower than the model prediction. We estimate that the postshock region producing O VII has roughly 300 times larger volume and 30 times more emitting mass than the shock itself. Apparently, the shocked plasma heats the surrounding stellar atmosphere to soft X-ray emitting temperatures and supplies this material to nearby large magnetic structures—which may be closed magnetic loops or open magnetic field leading to mass outflow. Our model explains the soft X-ray excess found in many accreting systems as well as the failure to observe high Ne signatures in some stars. Such accretion-fed coronae may be ubiquitous in the atmospheres of accreting young stars.

  10. Mass loss from advective accretion disc around rotating black holes

    Aktar, Ramiz; Nandi, Anuj

    2015-01-01

    We examine the properties of the outflowing matter from an advective accretion disc around a spinning black hole. During accretion, rotating matter experiences centrifugal pressure supported shock transition that effectively produces a virtual barrier around the black hole in the form of post-shock corona (hereafter, PSC). Due to shock compression, PSC becomes hot and dense that eventually deflects a part of the inflowing matter as bipolar outflows because of the presence of extra thermal gradient force. In our approach, we study the outflow properties in terms of the inflow parameters, namely specific energy (${\\mathcal E}$) and specific angular momentum ($\\lambda$) considering the realistic outflow geometry around the rotating black holes. We find that spin of the black hole ($a_k$) plays an important role in deciding the outflow rate $R_{\\dot m}$ (ratio of mass flux of outflow and inflow), in particular, $R_{\\dot m}$ is directly correlated with $a_k$ for the same set of inflow parameters. It is found that ...

  11. Thin accretion discs are stabilized by a strong magnetic field

    Sądowski, Aleksander

    2016-07-01

    By studying three-dimensional, radiative, global simulations of sub-Eddington, geometrically thin (H/R ≈ 0.15) black hole accretion flows we show that thin discs which are dominated by magnetic pressure are stable against thermal instability. Such discs are thicker than predicted by the standard model and show significant amount of dissipation inside the marginally stable orbit. Radiation released in this region, however, does not escape to infinity but is advected into the black hole. We find that the resulting accretion efficiency (5.5 ± 0.5 per cent for the simulated 0.8dot{M}_Edd disc) is very close to the predicted by the standard model (5.7 per cent).

  12. Planet Formation in Circumbinary Configurations: Turbulence Inhibits Planetesimal Accretion

    Meschiari, Stefano

    2012-12-01

    The existence of planets born in environments highly perturbed by a stellar companion represents a major challenge to the paradigm of planet formation. In numerical simulations, the presence of a close binary companion stirs up the relative velocity between planetesimals, which is fundamental in determining the balance between accretion and erosion. However, the recent discovery of circumbinary planets by Kepler establishes that planet formation in binary systems is clearly viable. We perform N-body simulations of planetesimals embedded in a protoplanetary disk, where planetesimal phasing is frustrated by the presence of stochastic torques, modeling the expected perturbations of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability. We examine perturbation amplitudes relevant to dead zones in the midplane (conducive to planet formation in single stars), and find that planetesimal accretion can be inhibited even in the outer disk (4-10 AU) far from the central binary, a location previously thought to be a plausible starting point for the formation of circumbinary planets.

  13. Planet Formation in Circumbinary Configurations: Turbulence Inhibits Planetesimal Accretion

    Meschiari, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The existence of planets born in environments highly perturbed by a stellar companion represents a major challenge to the paradigm of planet formation. In numerical simulations, the presence of a close binary companion stirs up the relative velocity between planetesimals, which is fundamental in determining the balance between accretion and erosion. However, the recent discovery of circumbinary planets by Kepler establishes that planet formation in binary systems is clearly viable. We perform N-body simulations of planetesimals embedded in a protoplanetary disk, where planetesimal phasing is frustrated by the presence of stochastic torques, modeling the expected perturbations of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI). We examine perturbation amplitudes relevant to dead zones in the midplane (conducive to planet formation in single stars), and find that planetesimal accretion can be inhibited even in the outer disk (4-10 AU) far from the central binary, a location previously thought to be...

  14. Convection in axially symmetric accretion discs with microscopic transport coefficients

    Malanchev, K L; Shakura, N I

    2016-01-01

    The vertical structure of stationary thin accretion discs is calculated from the energy balance equation with heat generation due to microscopic ion viscosity {\\eta} and electron heat conductivity {\\kappa}, both depending on temperature. In the optically thin discs it is found that for the heat conductivity increasing with temperature, the vertical temperature gradient exceeds the adiabatic value at some height, suggesting convective instability in the upper disc layer. There is a critical Prandtl number, Pr = 4/9, above which a Keplerian disc become fully convective. The vertical density distribution of optically thin laminar accretion discs as found from the hydrostatic equilibrium equation cannot be generally described by a polytrope but in the case of constant viscosity and heat conductivity. In the optically thick discs with radiation heat transfer, the vertical disc structure is found to be convectively stable for both absorption dominated and scattering dominated opacities, unless a very steep dependen...

  15. Circumnuclear Media and Accretion Rates of Quiescent Supermassive Black Holes

    Generozov, Aleksey; Metzger, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    We calculate steady-state, one-dimensional hydrodynamic profiles of hot gas in slowly accreting ("quiescent") galactic nuclei for a range of central black hole masses, parameterized gas heating rates, and observationally-motivated stellar density profiles. Mass is supplied to the circumnuclear medium by stellar winds, while energy is injected primarily by stellar winds, supernovae, and black hole feedback. Analytic estimates are derived for the stagnation radius (where the radial velocity of the gas passes through zero) and the black hole accretion rate, as a function of the black hole mass and the gas heating efficiency, the latter being related to the star-formation history. We assess the conditions under which radiative instabilities develop in the hydrostatic region near the stagnation radius, both in the case of a single burst of star formation and for the average star formation history predicted by cosmological simulations. By combining a sample of measured nuclear X-ray luminosities from nearby quiesce...

  16. On the gravitational stability of gravito-turbulent accretion disks

    Lin, Min-Kai

    2016-01-01

    Low mass, self-gravitating accretion disks admit quasi-steady, `gravito-turbulent' states in which cooling balances turbulent viscous heating. However, numerical simulations show that gravito-turbulence cannot be sustained beyond dynamical timescales when the cooling rate or corresponding turbulent viscosity is too large. The result is disk fragmentation. We motivate and quantify an interpretation of disk fragmentation as the inability to maintain gravito-turbulence due to formal secondary instabilities driven by: 1) cooling, which reduces pressure support; and/or 2) viscosity, which reduces rotational support. We analyze the gravitational stability of viscous, non-adiabatic accretion disks with internal heating, external irradiation, and cooling. We consider parameterized cooling functions in 2D and 3D disks, as well as radiative diffusion in 3D. We show that generally there is no critical cooling rate/viscosity below which the disk is formally stable, although interesting limits appear for unstable modes wi...

  17. Active states and structure transformations in accreting white dwarfs

    Boneva, Daniela; Kaygorodov, Pavel

    2016-07-01

    Active states in white dwarfs are usually associated with light curve's effects that concern to the bursts, flickering or flare-up occurrences. It is common that a gas-dynamics source exists for each of these processes there. We consider the white dwarf binary stars with accretion disc around the primary. We suggest a flow transformation modeling of the mechanisms that are responsible for ability to cause some flow instability and bring the white dwarfs system to the outburst's development. The processes that cause the accretion rate to sufficiently increase are discussed. Then the transition from a quiescent to an active state is realized. We analyze a quasi-periodic variability in the luminosity of white dwarf binary stars systems. The results are supported with an observational data.

  18. On Hydromagnetic Stresses in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers

    Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan

    2012-01-01

    viscosity satisfies this assumption by construction. However, this behavior is not supported by numerical simulations of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion disks, which show that angular momentum transport driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is inefficient in disk regions where, as...... angular frequencies that increase outward in the shearing-sheet framework. We isolate the modes that are unrelated to the standard MRI and provide analytic solutions for the long-term evolution of the resulting shearing MHD waves. We show that, although the energy density of these waves can be amplified...... significantly, their associated stresses oscillate around zero, rendering them an inefficient mechanism to transport significant angular momentum (inward). These findings are consistent with the results obtained in numerical simulations of MHD accretion disk boundary layers and challenge the standard assumption...

  19. Electrodynamics of disk-accreting magnetic neutron stars

    Miller, M. Coleman; Lamb, Frederick K.; Hamilton, Russell J.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the electrodynamics of magnetic neutron stars accreting from Keplerian disks and the implications for particle acceleration and gamma-ray emission by such systems. We argue that the particle density in the magnetospheres of such stars is larger by orders of magnitude than the Goldreich-Julian density, so that the formation of vacuum gaps is unlikely. We show that even if the star rotates slowly, electromotive forces (EMFs) of order 10(exp 15) V are produced by the interaction of plasma in the accretion disk with the magnetic field of the neutron star. The resistance of the disk-magnetosphere-star circuit is small, and hence these EMFs drive very large conduction currents. Such large currents are likely to produce magnetospheric instabilities, such as relativistic double layers and reconnection events, that can accelerate electrons or ions to very high energies.

  20. Accretion torque on magnetized neutron stars

    Dai, Hai-Lang; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2006-01-01

    The conventional picture of disk accretion onto magnetized neutron stars has been challenged by the spin changes observed in a few X-ray pulsars, and by theoretical results from numerical simulations of disk-magnetized star interactions. These indicate possible accretion during the propeller regime and the spin-down torque increasing with the accretion rate. Here we present a model for the accretion torque exerted by the disk on a magnetized neutron star, assuming accretion continues even for...

  1. Hot Accretion Flows Around Black Holes

    Yuan, Feng(Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA); Narayan, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Black hole accretion flows can be divided into two broad classes: cold and hot. Cold accretion flows, which consist of cool optically thick gas, are found at relatively high mass accretion rates. Prominent examples are the standard thin disk, which occurs at a fraction of the Eddington mass accretion rate, and the slim disk at super-Eddington rates. These accretion flows are responsible for luminous systems such as active galactic nuclei radiating at or close to the Eddington luminosity and b...

  2. Structure and dynamics of the accretion process and wind in TW Hya

    Time-domain spectroscopy of the classical accreting T Tauri star, TW Hya, covering a decade and spanning the far UV to the near-infrared spectral regions can identify the radiation sources, the atmospheric structure produced by accretion, and properties of the stellar wind. On timescales from days to years, substantial changes occur in emission line profiles and line strengths. Our extensive time-domain spectroscopy suggests that the broad near-IR, optical, and far-uv emission lines, centered on the star, originate in a turbulent post-shock region and can undergo scattering by the overlying stellar wind as well as some absorption from infalling material. Stable absorption features appear in Hα, apparently caused by an accreting column silhouetted in the stellar wind. Inflow of material onto the star is revealed by the near-IR He I 10830 Å line, and its free-fall velocity correlates inversely with the strength of the post-shock emission, consistent with a dipole accretion model. However, the predictions of hydrogen line profiles based on accretion stream models are not well-matched by these observations. Evidence of an accelerating warm to hot stellar wind is shown by the near-IR He I line, and emission profiles of C II, C III, C IV, N V, and O VI. The outflow of material changes substantially in both speed and opacity in the yearly sampling of the near-IR He I line over a decade. Terminal outflow velocities that range from 200 km s–1 to almost 400 km s–1 in He I appear to be directly related to the amount of post-shock emission, giving evidence for an accretion-driven stellar wind. Calculations of the emission from realistic post-shock regions are needed.

  3. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Radiative Shocks

    Michaut, C.; Vinci, T.; Boireau, L.; Koenig, M.; Bouquet, S.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Osaki, N.; Herpe, G.; Falize, E.; Loupias, B.; Atzeni, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the radiative shock from both theoretical and numerical points of view. It is based on the whole experimental results obtained at Laboratoire d'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI, École Polytechnique). Radiative shocks are high-Mach number shocks with a strong coupling between radiation and hydrodynamics which leads to a structure governed by a radiative precursor. These shocks are involved in various astrophysical systems: stellar accretion shocks, pulsating stars, interaction between supernovae and the interstellar medium. In laboratory, these radiative shocks are generated using high power lasers. New diagnostics have been implemented to study the geometrical shape of the shock and the front shock density. Data were obtained varying initial conditions for different laser intensities and temperature. The modeling of these phenomena is mainly performed through numerical simulations (1D and 2D) and analytical studies. We exhibit results obtained from several radiative hydrodynamics codes. As a result, it is possible to discuss about the influence of the geometry and physical parameters introduced in the 1D and 2D models.

  4. Non-linear variability in microquasars in relation with the winds from their accretion disks

    Janiuk, Agnieszka; Sukova, Petra; Capitanio, Fiamma; Bianchi, Stefano; Kowalski, Wojtek

    2016-01-01

    The microquasar IGR J17091, which is the recently discovered analogue of the well known source GRS 1915+105, exhibits quasi-periodic outbursts, with a period of 5-70 seconds, and regular amplitudes, referred to as "heartbeat state". We argue that these states are plausibly explained by accretion disk instability, driven by the dominant radiation pressure. Using our GLobal Accretion DIsk Simulation hydrodynamical code, we model these outbursts quantitatively. We also find a correlation between the presence of massive outflows launched from the accretion disk and the stabilization of its oscillations. We verify the theoretical predictions with the available timing and spectral observations. Furthermore, we postulate that the underlying non-linear differential equations that govern the evolution of an accretion disk are responsible for the variability pattern of several other microquasars, including XTE J1550-564, GX 339-4, and GRO J1655-40. This is based on the signatures of deterministic chaos in the observed ...

  5. Electron Thermodynamics in GRMHD Simulations of Low-Luminosity Black Hole Accretion

    Ressler, Sean M; Quataert, Eliot; Chandra, Mani; Gammie, Charles F

    2015-01-01

    Simple assumptions made regarding electron thermodynamics often limit the extent to which general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations can be applied to observations of low-luminosity accreting black holes. We present, implement, and test a model that self-consistently evolves an electron entropy equation and takes into account the effects of spatially varying electron heating and relativistic anisotropic thermal conduction along magnetic field lines. We neglect the back-reaction of electron pressure on the dynamics of the accretion flow. Our model is appropriate for systems accreting at $\\ll 10^{-5}$ of the Eddington rate, so radiative cooling by electrons can be neglected. It can be extended to higher accretion rates in the future by including electron cooling and proton-electron Coulomb collisions. We present a suite of tests showing that our method recovers the correct solution for electron heating under a range of circumstances, including strong shocks and driven turbulence. Our initial a...

  6. Theoretical Researches on Hot Accretion Flows around Black Holes

    Xie, F. G.

    2010-10-01

    efficiency should be significantly increased, due to the strong global Compton scattering in hot accretion flows; (3) the global Compton heating effect in the outer regions may cause the "oscillation" of the accretion flow in AGN between active and non-active phases. The duration of the active phase approximately equals to the accretion timescale at the virial radius, while the duration of the non-active phase may be comparable to the cooling timescale at the virial radius. Subsequently in Chapter 4, the more accurate Monte Carlo simulations are used to uniformly deal with the Compton scattering process and explore the Compton cooling effect in the inner regions (r≲300rs) of the hot accretion flows. The results by using this approach are consistent with those in Chapter 3. Besides that, it is found that the radiative efficiency is increased by a factor of 5 at 0.05dot{M}_{Edd}, much higher than the expected; the spectral shape is also modified due to the existence of global Comptonization. We then discuss the contribution of the outflowing material to the observed spectrum. We find that the temperature and column density of outflow can partly help to explain one of the major difficulties in accretion fields, i.e., the temperature and optical depth from observational fittings deviate from what are predicted by ADAF theories. We also confirm the previous analysis (Yuan 2001, 2003) that the inner regions of hot accretion flow is thermally instable. One consequence is that the flow will collapse to form a thin disk. The other possibility predicted by LHAF is that the hot accretion flow will be filled with cold clumps/clouds. Disappointedly, we cannot rule out any of these two possibilities at present. The latter, namely two-phase accretion mode, could explain the steep power-law state in XRBs. In Chapter 5, a brief discussion of conceived researches related to this thesis is presented.

  7. Low-Mass Star Formation: Initial Conditions, Disk Instabilities, and the Brown Dwarf Desert

    Matzner, C D; Matzner, Christopher D.; Levin, Yuri

    2004-01-01

    We develop a simple theory to predict the initial conditions for low-mass star formation and relate these to instabilities of protostellar accretion disks that may produce stellar or substellar companions. We first account for the effects of a turbulent velocity field on the cores that form stars. Revised scales for mass, radius, turbulent velocity, and angular momentum are derived from the gas temperature of the prestellar core and the column density of the parent cloud. The full distribution angular momentum around its characteristic scale is derived from an idealized but reasonable set of assumptions. Second, we examine the criterion for fragmentation to occur during star formation, concentrating on the self-gravitational instabilities of protostellar accretion disks in their main accretion phase. Disk instability can develop from rotating initial conditions even if they are axisymmetric; therefore it provides a conservative bound for the criterion of fragmentation. Self-gravitational instabilities are str...

  8. How do Most Planets Form? -- Constraints on Disk Instability from Direct Imaging

    Janson, Markus; Klahr, Hubert; Lafreniere, David

    2011-01-01

    Core accretion and disk instability have traditionally been regarded as the two competing possible paths of planet formation. In recent years, evidence have accumulated in favor of core accretion as the dominant mode, at least for close-in planets. However, it might be hypothesized that a significant population of wide planets formed by disk instabilities could exist at large separations, forming an invisible majority. In previous work, we addressed this issue through a direct imaging survey of B2--A0-type stars, and concluded that <30% of such stars form and retain planets and brown dwarfs through disk instability, leaving core accretion as the likely dominant mechanism. In this paper, we extend this analysis to FGKM-type stars by applying a similar analysis to the Gemini Deep Planet Survey (GDPS) sample. The results strengthen the conclusion that substellar companions formed and retained around their parent stars by disk instabilities are rare. Specifically, we find that the frequency of such companions ...

  9. Effect of the flow composition on outflow rates from accretion discs around black holes

    Kumar, Rajiv; Chattopadhyay, Indranil; Chakrabarti, Sandip K

    2013-01-01

    We studied the outflow behaviour from accretion discs around black holes taking into account the vertical equilibrium accretion flow model. The outflow rate is found to depend crucially on flow composition. Our approach is to study the outflow behaviour as function of inflow around black holes with an equation of state which allows flow to be thermally relativistic close to black holes and non relativistic far away from black holes. We studied shock ejection model. A pure electron positron pair flow never undergoes shock transition while presence of some baryons (common in outflows and jets) makes it possible to have standing shock waves in the flow. It can be concluded that the presence of protons is necessary for the flow to show the outflow behaviour. The outflow rate is maximum when the flow contains the proton number density which is 27% of the electron number density. We conclude that a pure electron-positron jet is unlikely to form.

  10. Jets from magnetized accretion disks

    Matsumoto, Ryoji

    When an accretion disk is threaded by large scale poloidal magnetic fields, the injection of magnetic helicity from the accretion disk drives bipolar outflows. We present the results of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of jet formation from a torus initially threaded by vertical magnetic fields. After the torsional Alfvén waves generated by the injected magnetic twists propagate along the large-scale magnetic field lines, magnetically driven jets emanate from the surface of the torus. Due to the magnetic pinch effect, the jets are collimated along the rotation axis. Since the jet formation process extracts angular momentum from the disk, it enhances the accretion rate of the disk material. Through three-dimensional (3D) global MHD simulations, we confirmed previous 2D results that the magnetically braked surface of the disk accretes like an avalanche. Owing to the growth of non-axisymmetric perturbations, the avalanche flow breaks up into spiral channels. Helical structure also appears inside the jet. When magnetic helicity is injected into closed magnetic loops connecting the central object and the accretion disk, it drives recurrent magnetic reconnection and outflows.

  11. Preheated Advection Dominated Accretion Flow

    Park, M G; Park, Myeong-Gu; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2001-01-01

    All high temperature accretion solutions including ADAF are physically thick, so outgoing radiation interacts with the incoming flow, sharing as much or more resemblance with classical spherical accretion flows as with disk flows. We examine this interaction for the popular ADAF case. We find that without allowance for Compton preheating, a very restricted domain of ADAF solution is permitted and with Compton preheating included a new high temperature PADAF branch appears in the solution space. In the absence of preheating, high temperature flows do not exist when the mass accretion rate mdot == Mdot c^2 / L_E >~ 10^-1.5. Below this mass accretion rate, a roughly conical region around the hole cannot sustain high temperature ions and electrons for all flows having mdot >~ 10^-4, which may lead to a funnel possibly filled with a tenuous hot outgoing wind. If the flow starts at large radii with the usual equilibrium temperature ~10^4 K, the critical mass accretion rate is much lower, mdot exist. However, above ...

  12. Numerical simulations of thin accretion discs with PLUTO

    Parthasarathy, Varadarajan; Kluzniak, Wlodek

    2014-01-01

    Our goal is to perform global simulations of thin accretion discs around compact bodies like neutron stars with dipolar magnetic profile and black holes by exploiting the facilities provided by state-of-the-art grid-based, high resolution shock capturing (HRSC) and finite volume codes. We have used the Godunov-type code PLUTO to simulate a thin disc around a compact object prescribed with a pseudo-Newtonian potential in a purely hydrodynamical (HD) regime, with numerical viscosity as a first ...

  13. Numerical simulations of thin accretion discs with PLUTO

    Parthasarathy, Varadarajan

    2014-01-01

    Our goal is to perform global simulations of thin accretion discs around compact bodies like neutron stars with dipolar magnetic profile and black holes by exploiting the facilities provided by state-of-the-art grid-based, high resolution shock capturing (HRSC) and finite volume codes. We have used the Godunov-type code PLUTO to simulate a thin disc around a compact object prescribed with a pseudo-Newtonian potential in a purely hydrodynamical (HD) regime, with numerical viscosity as a first step towards achieving our goal as mentioned above.

  14. Stability of imploding spherical shock waves

    The stability of spherically imploding shock waves is systematically investigated in this letter. The basic state is Guderley and Landau's unsteady self-similar solution of the implosion of a spherical shock wave. The stability analysis is conducted by combining Chandrasekhar's approach to the stability of a viscous liquid drop with Zel'dovich's approach to the stability of spherical flames. The time-dependent amplitudes of the perturbations are obtained analytically by using perturbation method. The relative amplification and decay of the amplitudes of perturbations are obtained analytically by using perturbation method. The relative amplification and decay of the amplitudes of perturbations decides the stability/instability of the spherical imploding shock waves. It is found that the growth rate of perturbations is not in exponential form and near the collapse phase of the shocks, the spherically imploding shock waves are relatively stable. 14 refs., 1 fig

  15. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole

    Tremblay, Grant R.; Oonk, J. B. Raymond; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Voit, G. Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R.; Davis, Timothy A.; McDonald, Michael A.; Edge, Alastair C.; Clarke, Tracy E.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N.; Edwards, Louise O. V.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Hamer, Stephen; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R.; Quillen, Alice C.; Urry, C. Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S.; Wise, Michael W.

    2016-06-01

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds—a departure from the ‘hot mode’ accretion model—although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z = 0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities produce a rain of cold clouds that fall towards the galaxy’s centre, sustaining star formation amid a kiloparsec-scale molecular nebula that is found at its core. The observations show that these cold clouds also fuel black hole accretion, revealing ‘shadows’ cast by the molecular clouds as they move inward at about 300 kilometres per second towards the active supermassive black hole, which serves as a bright backlight. Corroborating evidence from prior observations of warmer atomic gas at extremely high spatial resolution, along with simple arguments based on geometry and probability, indicate that these clouds are within the innermost hundred parsecs of the black hole, and falling closer towards it.

  16. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole.

    Tremblay, Grant R; Oonk, J B Raymond; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P; Baum, Stefi A; Voit, G Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R; Davis, Timothy A; McDonald, Michael A; Edge, Alastair C; Clarke, Tracy E; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N; Edwards, Louise O V; Fabian, Andrew C; Hamer, Stephen; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R; Quillen, Alice C; Urry, C Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S; Wise, Michael W

    2016-06-01

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds--a departure from the 'hot mode' accretion model--although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z = 0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities produce a rain of cold clouds that fall towards the galaxy's centre, sustaining star formation amid a kiloparsec-scale molecular nebula that is found at its core. The observations show that these cold clouds also fuel black hole accretion, revealing 'shadows' cast by the molecular clouds as they move inward at about 300 kilometres per second towards the active supermassive black hole, which serves as a bright backlight. Corroborating evidence from prior observations of warmer atomic gas at extremely high spatial resolution, along with simple arguments based on geometry and probability, indicate that these clouds are within the innermost hundred parsecs of the black hole, and falling closer towards it. PMID:27279215

  17. Culture shock

    Adrian Furham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the popular concept of culture shock. From the academic perspective co-researchers from different disciplines (anthropology, education, psychiatry, psychology, sociology have attempted to operationalise the concept and understand the process behind it. It represents fifty years of research using different methodologies and trying to answer different questions about the experience of travel for many reasons. This paper also considers issues concerned with the “overseas” student, of which there are ever more, travelling abroad to study. They can have serious culture shock difficulties. Implications of this research are considered

  18. Radiatively and thermally driven self-consistent bipolar outflows from accretion discs around compact objects

    Kumar, Rajiv; Mandal, Samir

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the role of radiative driving of shock ejected bipolar outflows from advective accretion discs in a self consistent manner. Radiations from the inner disc affects the subsonic part of the jet while those from the pre-shock disc affects the supersonic part, and there by constitutes a multi stage acceleration process. We show that the radiation from the inner disc not only accelerate but also increase the mass outflow rate, while the radiation from the pre-shock disc only increases the kinetic energy of the flow. With proper proportions of these two radiations, very high terminal speed is possible. We also estimated the post-shock luminosity from the pre-shock radiations, and showed that with the increase of viscosity parameter the disc becomes more luminous, and the resulting jet simultaneously becomes faster. This mimics the production of steady mildly relativistic but stronger jets as micro-quasars moves from low hard to intermediate hard spectral states.

  19. Black hole accretion disc impacts

    Pihajoki, P.

    2016-04-01

    We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength λ = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.

  20. Black hole accretion disc impacts

    Pihajoki, Pauli

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength {\\lambda} = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.

  1. Protostellar Accretion Flows Destabilized by Magnetic Flux Redistribution

    Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang, Hsien; Zhao, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic flux redistribution lies at the heart of the problem of star formation in dense cores of molecular clouds that are magnetized to a realistic level. If all of the magnetic flux of a typical core were to be dragged into the central star, the stellar field strength would be orders of magnitude higher than the observed values. This well-known "magnetic flux problem" can in principle be resolved through non-ideal MHD effects. Two dimensional (axisymmetric) calculations have shown that ambipolar diffusion, in particular, can transport magnetic flux outward relative to matter, allowing material to enter the central object without dragging the field lines along. We show through simulations that such axisymmetric protostellar accretion flows are unstable in three dimensions to magnetic interchange instability in the azimuthal direction. The instability is driven by the magnetic flux redistributed from the matter that enters the central object. It typically starts to develop during the transition from the pres...

  2. Circumstellar Disks of the Most Vigorously Accreting Young Stars

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Dong, Ruobing; Vorobyov, Eduard I; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Fukagawa, Misato; Tamura, Motohide; Henning, Thomas; Dunham, Michael M; Karr, Jennifer; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Tsuribe, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Young stellar objects (YSOs) may not accumulate their mass steadily, as was previously thought, but in a series of violent events manifesting themselves as sharp stellar brightening. These events can be caused by fragmentation due to gravitational instabilities in massive gaseous disks surrounding young stars, followed by migration of dense gaseous clumps onto the star. We report our high angular resolution, coronagraphic near-infrared polarization imaging observations using the High Contrast Instrument for the Subaru Next Generation Adaptive Optics (HiCIAO) of the Subaru 8.2 m Telescope, towards four YSOs which are undergoing luminous accretion outbursts. The obtained infrared images have verified the presence of several hundred AUs scale arms and arcs surrounding these YSOs. In addition, our hydrodynamics simulations and radiative transfer models further demonstrate that these observed structures can indeed be explained by strong gravitational instabilities occurring at the beginning of the disk formation p...

  3. The application of front tracking to the simulation of shock refractions and shock accelerated interface mixing

    The mixing behavior of two or more fluids plays an important role in a number of physical processes and technological applications. The authors consider two basic types of mechanical (i.e., non-diffusive) fluid mixing. If a heavy fluid is suspended above a lighter fluid in the presence of a gravitational field, small perturbations at the fluid interface will grow. This process is known as the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. One can visualize this instability in terms of bubbles of the light fluid rising into the heavy fluid, and fingers (spikes) of the heavy fluid falling into the light fluid. A similar process, called the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability occurs when an interface is accelerated by a shock wave. These instabilities have several common features. Indeed, Richtmyer's approach to understanding the shock induced instability was to view that process as resulting from an acceleration of the two fluids by a strong gravitational field acting for a short time. Here, the authors report new results on the Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities. Highlights include calculations of Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities in curved geometries without grid orientation effects, improved agreement between computations and experiments in the case of Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities at a plane interface, and a demonstration of an increase in the Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer growth rate with increasing compressibility, along with a loss of universality of this growth rate. The principal computational tool used in obtaining these results was a code based on the front tracking method

  4. Dissecting accretion and outflows in accreting white dwarf binaries

    de Martino, D; Balman, S; Bernardini, F; Bianchini, A; Bode, M; Bonnet-Bidaud, J -M; Falanga, M; Greiner, J; Groot, P; Hernanz, M; Israel, G; Jose, J; Motch, C; Mouchet, M; Norton, A J; Nucita, A; Orio, M; Osborne, J; Ramsay, G; Rodriguez-Gil, P; Scaringi, S; Schwope, A; Traulsen, I; Tamburini, F

    2015-01-01

    This is a White Paper in support of the mission concept of the Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT), proposed as a medium-sized ESA mission. We discuss the potential of LOFT for the study of accreting white dwarfs. For a summary, we refer to the paper.

  5. Fueling galaxy growth through gas accretion in cosmological simulations

    Nelson, Dylan Rubaloff

    Despite significant advances in the numerical modeling of galaxy formation and evolution, it is clear that a satisfactory theoretical picture of how galaxies acquire their baryons across cosmic time remains elusive. In this thesis we present a computational study which seeks to address the question of how galaxies get their gas. We make use of new, more robust simulation techniques and describe the first investigations of cosmological gas accretion using a moving-mesh approach for solving the equations of continuum hydrodynamics. We focus first on a re-examination of past theoretical conclusions as to the relative importance of different accretion modes for galaxy growth. We study the rates and nature of gas accretion at z=2, comparing our new simulations run with the Arepo code to otherwise identical realizations run with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code Gadget. We find significant physical differences in the thermodynamic history of accreted gas, explained in terms of numerical inaccuracies in SPH. In contrast to previous results, we conclude that hot mode accretion generally dominates galaxy growth, while cold gas filaments experience increased heating and disruption. Next, we consider the impact of feedback on our results, including models for galactic-scale outflows driven by stars as well as the energy released from supermassive black holes. We find that feedback strongly suppresses the inflow of "smooth" mode gas at all redshifts, regardless of its temperature history. Although the geometry of accretion at the virial radius is largely unmodified, strong galactic-fountain recycling motions dominate the inner halo. We measure a shift in the characteristic timescale of accretion, and discuss implications for semi-analytical models of hot halo gas cooling. To overcome the resolution limitations of cosmological volumes, we simulate a suite of eight individual 1012 solar mass halos down to z=2. We quantify the thermal and dynamical structure of the gas in

  6. Nucleosynthesis in the accretion disks of Type II collapsars

    We investigate nucleosynthesis inside the gamma-ray burst (GRB) accretion disks formed by the Type II collapsars. In these collapsars, the core collapse of massive stars first leads to the formation of a proto-neutron star. After that, an outward moving shock triggers a successful supernova. However, the supernova ejecta lacks momentum and within a few seconds the newly formed neutron star gets transformed to a stellar mass black hole via massive fallback. The hydrodynamics of such an accretion disk formed from the fallback material of the supernova ejecta has been studied extensively in the past. We use these well-established hydrodynamic models for our accretion disk in order to understand nucleosynthesis, which is mainly advection dominated in the outer regions. Neutrino cooling becomes important in the inner disk where the temperature and density are higher. The higher the accretion rate ( M-dot ) is, the higher the density and temperature are in the disks. We deal with accretion disks with relatively low accretion rates: 0.001 Msun s−1 ≲ M-dot ≲ 0.01 Msun s−1 and hence these disks are predominantly advection dominated. We use He-rich and Sirich abundances as the initial condition of nucleosynthesis at the outer disk, and being equipped with the disk hydrodynamics and the nuclear network code, we study the abundance evolution as matter inflows and falls into the central object. We investigate the variation in the nucleosynthesis products in the disk with the change in the initial abundance at the outer disk and also with the change in the mass accretion rate. We report the synthesis of several unusual nuclei like 31P, 39K, 43Sc, 35Cl and various isotopes of titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese and copper. We also confirm that isotopes of iron, cobalt, nickel, argon, calcium, sulphur and silicon get synthesized in the disk, as shown by previous authors. Much of these heavy elements thus synthesized are ejected from the disk via outflows and hence they

  7. A Deep Chandra X-ray Spectrum of the Accreting Young Star TW Hydrae

    Brickhouse, N S; Dupree, A K; Luna, G J M; Wolk, S

    2010-01-01

    We present X-ray spectral analysis of the accreting young star TW Hydrae from a 489 ks observation using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating. The spectrum provides a rich set of diagnostics for electron temperature T_e, electron density N_e, hydrogen column density N_H, relative elemental abundances and velocities and reveals its source in 3 distinct regions of the stellar atmosphere: the stellar corona, the accretion shock, and a very large extended volume of warm postshock plasma. The presence of Mg XII, Si XIII, and Si XIV emission lines in the spectrum requires coronal structures at ~10 MK. Lower temperature lines (e.g., from O VIII, Ne IX, and Mg XI) formed at 2.5 MK appear more consistent with emission from an accretion shock. He-like Ne IX line ratio diagnostics indicate that T_e = 2.50 +/- 0.25 MK and N_e = 3.0 +/- 0.2 x 10^(12) cm^(-3) in the shock. These values agree well with standard magnetic accretion models. However, the Chandra observations significantly diverge from current model pred...

  8. New Insights: the Accretion Process and Variable Wind from TW Hya

    Dupree, A K

    2013-01-01

    For the first time in a classical T Tauri star, we are able to trace an accretion event signaled by an hour-long enhancement of X-rays from the accretion shock and revealed through substantial sequential changes in optical emission line profiles. Downflowing turbulent material appears in H-alpha and H-beta emission. He D3 (5876 Angstrom) broadens, coupled with an increase in flux. Two hours after the X-ray accretion event, the optical veiling increases due to continuum emission from the hot splashdown region. The response of the stellar coronal emission to the heated photosphere follows about 2.4 hours later, giving direct evidence that the stellar corona is heated in part by accretion. Then, the stellar wind becomes re-established. A model that incorporates the dynamics of this sequential series of events includes: an accretion shock, a cooling downflow in a supersonically turbulent region, followed by photospheric and later, coronal heating. This model naturally explains the presence of broad optical and ul...

  9. Kinetic Simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities

    Sagert, Irina; Bauer, Wolfgang; Colbry, Dirk; Howell, Jim; Staber, Alec; Strother, Terrance

    2014-09-01

    We report on an ongoing project to develop a large scale Direct Simulation Monte Carlo code. The code is primarily aimed towards applications in astrophysics such as simulations of core-collapse supernovae. It has been tested on shock wave phenomena in the continuum limit and for matter out of equilibrium. In the current work we focus on the study of fluid instabilities. Like shock waves these are routinely used as test-cases for hydrodynamic codes and are discussed to play an important role in the explosion mechanism of core-collapse supernovae. As a first test we study the evolution of a single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the interface of a light and a heavy fluid in the presence of a gravitational acceleration. To suppress small-wavelength instabilities caused by the irregularity in the separation layer we use a large particle mean free path. The latter leads to the development of a diffusion layer as particles propagate from one fluid into the other. For small amplitudes, when the instability is in the linear regime, we compare its position and shape to the analytic prediction. Despite the broadening of the fluid interface we see a good agreement with the analytic solution. At later times we observe the development of a mushroom like shape caused by secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities as seen in hydrodynamic simulations and consistent with experimental observations.

  10. Acceleration of Cosmic Rays at Large Scale Cosmic Shocks in the Universe

    Kang, H; Kang, Hyesung

    2002-01-01

    Cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of large scale structure in the universe have shown that accretion shocks and merger shocks form due to flow motions associated with the gravitational collapse of nonlinear structures. Estimated speed and curvature radius of these shocks could be as large as a few 1000 km/s and several Mpc, respectively. According to the diffusive shock acceleration theory, populations of cosmic-ray particles can be injected and accelerated to very high energy by astrophysical shocks in tenuous plasmas. In order to explore the cosmic ray acceleration at the cosmic shocks, we have performed nonlinear numerical simulations of cosmic ray (CR) modified shocks with the newly developed CRASH (Cosmic Ray Amr SHock) numerical code. We adopted the Bohm diffusion model for CRs, based on the hypothesis that strong Alfv\\'en waves are self-generated by streaming CRs. The shock formation simulation includes a plasma-physics-based ``injection'' model that transfers a small proportion of the thermal prot...

  11. The Rate of Turbulent Spherical Accretion

    Gruzinov, Andrei

    1998-01-01

    The rate of turbulent spherical accretion onto a compact object might be much smaller than the Bondi rate. It is suggested that the rate of accretion onto Sgr A-star is much smaller than the Bondi rate.

  12. Hoyle-Lyttleton Accretion in Three Dimensions

    Blondin, John M

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the stability of gravitational accretion of an ideal gas onto a compact object moving through a uniform medium at Mach 3. Previous three-dimensional simulations have shown that such accretion is not stable, and that strong rotational 'disk-like' flows are generated and accreted on short time scales. We re-address this problem using overset spherical grids that provide a factor of seven improvement in spatial resolution over previous simulations. With our higher spatial resolution we found these 3D accretion flows remained remarkably axisymmetric. We examined two cases of accretion with different sized accretors. The larger accretor produced very steady flow, with the mass accretion rate varying by less than 0.02% over 30 flow times. The smaller accretor exhibited an axisymmetric breathing mode that modulated the mass accretion rate by a constant 20%. Nonetheless, the flow remained highly axisymmetric with only negligible accretion of angular momentum in both cases.

  13. Standing Shocks around Black Holes and Estimation of Outflow Rates

    Santabrata Das; Sandip K. Chakrabarti

    2002-03-01

    We self-consistently obtain shock locations in an accretion flow by using an analytical method. One can obtain the spectral properties, quasi-periodic oscillation frequencies and the outflowrates when the inflow parameters are known. Since temperature of the CENBOL decides the spectral states of the black hole, and also the outflow rate, the outflow rate is directly related to the spectral states.

  14. Local Magnetohydrodynamical Models of Layered Accretion Disks

    Fleming, T; Fleming, Timothy; Stone, James M.

    2003-01-01

    Using numerical MHD simulations, we have studied the evolution of the magnetorotational instability in stratified accretion disks in which the ionization fraction (and therefore resistivity) varies substantially with height. This model is appropriate to dense, cold disks around protostars or dwarf nova systems which are ionized by external irradiation of cosmic rays or high-energy photons. We find the growth and saturation of the MRI occurs only in the upper layers of the disk where the magnetic Reynolds number exceeds a critical value; in the midplane the disk remains queiscent. The vertical Poynting flux into the "dead", central zone is small, however velocity fluctuations in the dead zone driven by the turbulence in the active layers generate a significant Reynolds stress in the midplane. When normalized by the thermal pressure, the Reynolds stress in the midplane never drops below about 10% of the value of the Maxwell stress in the active layers, even though the Maxwell stress in the dead zone may be orde...

  15. Kinetic Simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities

    Sagert, Irina; Bauer, Wolfgang; Colbry, Dirk; Howell, Jim; Staber, Alec; Strother, Terrance

    2014-01-01

    We report on an ongoing project to develop a large scale Direct Simulation Monte Carlo code. The code is primarily aimed towards applications in astrophysics such as simulations of core-collapse supernovae. It has been tested on shock wave phenomena in the continuum limit and for matter out of equilibrium. In the current work we focus on the study of fluid instabilities. Like shock waves these are routinely used as test-cases for hydrodynamic codes and are discussed to play an important role ...

  16. X-ray deficiency on strongly accreting T Tauri stars. Comparing Orion with Taurus

    Bustamante, I.; Merín, B.; Bouy, H.; Manara, C. F.; Ribas, Á.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Depending on whether a T Tauri star accretes material from its circumstellar disk or not, different X-ray emission properties can be found. The accretion shocks produce cool heating of the plasma, contributing to the soft X-ray emission from the star. Aims: Using X-ray data from the Chandra Orion Ultra-deep Project and accretion rates that were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 photometric measurements in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), we studied the relation between the accretion processes and the X-ray emissions of a coherent sample of T Tauri sources in the region. Methods: We performed regression and correlation analyses of our sample of T Tauri stars between the X-ray parameters, stellar properties, and the accretion measurements. Results: We find that a clear anti-correlation is present between the residual X-ray luminosity and the accretion rates in our samples in Orion that is consistent with that found on the XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus molecular cloud (XEST) study. A considerable number of classified non-accreting sources show accretion rates comparable to those of classical T Tauri Stars (CTTS). Our data do not allow us to confirm the classification between classical and weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTS), and the number of WTTS in this work is small compared to the complete samples. Thus, we have used the entire samples as accretors in our analysis. We provide a catalog with X-ray luminosities (corrected from distance) and accretion measurements of an ONC T Tauri stars sample. Conclusions: Although Orion and Taurus display strong differences in their properties (total gas and dust mass, star density, strong irradiation from massive stars), we find that a similar relation between the residual X-ray emission and accretion rate is present in the Taurus molecular cloud and in the accreting samples from the ONC. The spread in the data suggests dependencies of the accretion rates and the X-ray luminosities other than the

  17. Convection-Dominated Accretion Flows

    Quataert, Eliot; Gruzinov, Andrei

    1999-01-01

    Non-radiating, advection-dominated, accretion flows are convectively unstable. We calculate the two-dimensional (r-theta) structure of such flows assuming that (1) convection transports angular momentum inwards, opposite to normal viscosity and (2) viscous transport by other mechanisms (e.g., magnetic fields) is weak (alpha

  18. Tidally distorted accretion discs in binary stars

    Ogilvie, G. I.

    2002-03-01

    The non-axisymmetric features observed in the discs of dwarf novae in outburst are usually considered to be spiral shocks, which are the non-linear relatives of tidally excited waves. This interpretation suffers from a number of problems. For example, the natural site of wave excitation lies outside the Roche lobe, the disc must be especially hot, and most treatments of wave propagation do not take into account the vertical structure of the disc. In this paper I construct a detailed semi-analytical model of the non-linear tidal distortion of a thin, three-dimensional accretion disc by a binary companion on a circular orbit. The analysis presented here allows for vertical motion and radiative energy transport, and introduces a simple model for the turbulent magnetic stress. The m=2 inner vertical resonance has an important influence on the amplitude and phase of the tidal distortion. I show that the observed patterns find a natural explanation if the emission is associated with the tidally thickened sectors of the outer disc, which may be irradiated from the centre. According to this hypothesis, it may be possible to constrain the physical parameters of the disc through future observations.

  19. Accretion onto a Kiselev black hole

    Yang, Rong-Jia

    2016-01-01

    We consider accretion onto a Kiselev black hole. We obtain the fundamental equations for accretion without the back-reaction. We determine the general analytic expressions for the critical points and the mass accretion rate and find the physical conditions the critical points should fulfil. The case of polytropic gas are discussed in detail. It turns out that the quintessence parameter plays an important role in the accretion process.

  20. Non-Radiative Accretion and Thermodynamics

    Gruzinov, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that the laws of thermodynamics are violated by what we have called a convection-dominated accretion flow (or a 1/2-law accretion flow) -- an accretion flow characterized by a constant outflow of energy. We show that both the 1/2-law flow and the Bondi flow (also known as ADAF, advection dominated accretion flow) are thermodynamically admissible.

  1. Global Slim Accretion Disk Solutions Revisited

    Jiao, Cheng-Liang; Xue, Li; Gu, Wei-Min; Lu, Ju-Fu

    2008-01-01

    We show that there exists a maximal possible accretion rate, beyond which global slim disk solutions cannot be constructed because in the vertical direction the gravitational force would be unable to balance the pressure force to gather the accreted matter. The principle for this restriction is the same as that for the Eddington luminosity and the corresponding critical accretion rate, which were derived for spherical accretion by considering the same force balance in the radial direction. If...

  2. Black hole feedback from thick accretion discs

    Sadowski, Aleksander; Lasota, Jean-Pierre; Abramowicz, Marek A.; Narayan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    We study energy flows in geometrically thick accretion discs, both optically thick and thin, using general relativistic, three-dimensional simulations of black hole accretion flows. We find that for non-rotating black holes the efficiency of the total feedback from thick accretion discs is $3\\%$ - roughly half of the thin disc efficiency. This amount of energy is ultimately distributed between outflow and radiation, the latter scaling weakly with the accretion rate for super-critical accretio...

  3. Bondi accretion onto cosmological black holes

    Karkowski, Janusz; Malec, Edward

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a steady accretion within the Einstein-Straus vacuole, in the presence of the cosmological constant. The dark energy damps the mass accretion rate and --- above certain limit --- completely stops the steady accretion onto black holes, which in particular is prohibited in the inflation era and after (roughly) $10^{12}$ years from Big Bang (assuming the presently known value of the cosmological constant). Steady accretion would not exist in the late phases of the Pe...

  4. A Deep Chandra X-ray Spectrum of the Accreting Young Star TW Hydrae

    Brickhouse, N. S.; Cranmer, S. R.; Dupree, A. K.; Luna, G. J. M.; Wolk, S.

    2010-01-01

    We present X-ray spectral analysis of the accreting young star TW Hydrae from a 489 ks observation using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating. The spectrum provides a rich set of diagnostics for electron temperature T_e, electron density N_e, hydrogen column density N_H, relative elemental abundances and velocities and reveals its source in 3 distinct regions of the stellar atmosphere: the stellar corona, the accretion shock, and a very large extended volume of warm postshock plasma. ...

  5. Evolution of an Accretion Disk in Binary Black Hole Systems

    Kimura, Shigeo S; Toma, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    We investigate evolution of an accretion disk in binary black hole (BBH) systems, the importance of which is now increasing due to its close relationship to possible electromagnetic counterparts of the gravitational waves (GWs) from mergers of BBHs. Perna et al. (2016) proposed a novel evolutionary scenario of an accretion disk in BBHs in which a disk eventually becomes "dead", i.e., the magnetorotational instability (MRI) becomes inactive. In their scenario, the dead disk survives until {\\it a few seconds before} the merger event. We improve the dead disk model and propose another scenario, taking account of effects of the tidal torque from the companion and the critical ionization degree for MRI activation more carefully. We find that the mass of the dead disk is much lower than that in the Perna's scenario. When the binary separation sufficiently becomes small, the tidal heating reactivates MRI and mass accretion onto the black hole (BH). We also find that this disk "revival" happens {\\it many years before...

  6. Stability of helium accretion discs in ultracompact binaries

    Lasota, Jean-Pierre; Kruk, Katarzyna

    2008-01-01

    Stellar companions of accreting neutron stars in Ultra Compact X-ray binaries (UCXBs) are hydrogen-deficient. Their helium or C/O accretion discs are strongly X-ray irradiated. Both the chemical composition and irradiation determine the disc stability with respect to thermal and viscous perturbations. At shorter periods UCXBs are persistent whereas longer-period systems are mostly transient. To understand this behaviour one has to derive the stability criteria for X-ray irradiated hydrogen-poor accretion discs. We modify and update the code of Hameury et al. (1998), Dubus et al. (1999; 2001). We obtain the relevant stability criteria and compare the results to observed properties of UCXBs. Although the general trend of the stability behaviour of UCXBs is consistent with the prediction of the disc instability model, in few cases the the inconsistency of theoretical predictions with the system observed properties is weak enough to be attributed to observational and/or theoretical uncertainties but for two syste...

  7. Limiting Accretion onto Massive Stars by Fragmentation-Induced Starvation

    Peters, Thomas; /ZAH, Heidelberg; Klessen, Ralf S.; /ZAH, Heidelberg /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; /Amer. Museum Natural Hist.; Banerjee, Robi; /ZAH, Heidelberg

    2010-08-25

    Massive stars influence their surroundings through radiation, winds, and supernova explosions far out of proportion to their small numbers. However, the physical processes that initiate and govern the birth of massive stars remain poorly understood. Two widely discussed models are monolithic collapse of molecular cloud cores and competitive accretion. To learn more about massive star formation, we perform simulations of the collapse of rotating, massive, cloud cores including radiative heating by both non-ionizing and ionizing radiation using the FLASH adaptive mesh refinement code. These simulations show fragmentation from gravitational instability in the enormously dense accretion flows required to build up massive stars. Secondary stars form rapidly in these flows and accrete mass that would have otherwise been consumed by the massive star in the center, in a process that we term fragmentation-induced starvation. This explains why massive stars are usually found as members of high-order stellar systems that themselves belong to large clusters containing stars of all masses. The radiative heating does not prevent fragmentation, but does lead to a higher Jeans mass, resulting in fewer and more massive stars than would form without the heating. This mechanism reproduces the observed relation between the total stellar mass in the cluster and the mass of the largest star. It predicts strong clumping and filamentary structure in the center of collapsing cores, as has recently been observed. We speculate that a similar mechanism will act during primordial star formation.

  8. New insights: The accretion process and variable wind from TW Hya

    Dupree, A. K.

    2013-02-01

    For the first time in a classical T Tauri star, we are able to trace an accretion event signaled by an hour-long enhancement of X-rays from the accretion shock and revealed through substantial sequential changes in optical emission line profiles. Downflowing turbulent material appears in Hα and Hβ emission. He D3 (5876 Å) broadens, coupled with an increase in flux. Two hours after the X-ray accretion event, the optical veiling increases due to continuum emission from the hot splashdown region. The response of the stellar coronal emission to the heated photosphere follows about 2.4 hours later, giving direct evidence that the stellar corona is heated in part by accretion. Then, the stellar wind becomes re-established. A model that incorporates the dynamics of this sequential series of events includes: an accretion shock, a cooling downflow in a supersonically turbulent region, followed by photospheric and later, coronal heating. This model naturally explains the presence of broad optical and ultraviolet lines, and affects the mass accretion rates currently determined from emission line profiles. These results, coupled with the large heated coronal region revealed from X-ray diagnostics, suggest that current models are not adequate to explain the accretion process in young stars. Data were obtained with the Chandra satellite, the 6.5 m Magellan/Clay telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, and Gemini-S which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under a cooperative agreement with the US-NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership.

  9. Thermal radiation from an accretion disk

    Prigara, F. V.

    2003-01-01

    An effect of stimulated radiation processes on thermal radiation from an accretion disk is considered. The radial density waves triggering flare emission and producing quasi-periodic oscillations in radiation from an accretion disk are discussed. It is argued that the observational data suggest the existence of the weak laser sources in a two-temperature plasma of an accretion disk.

  10. Accretion at the periastron passage of Eta Carinae

    Kashi, Amit

    2016-01-01

    We present high resolution numerical simulations of the colliding wind system $\\eta$ Carinae, showing accretion onto the secondary star close to periastron passage. Our hydrodynamical simulations include self gravity and radiative cooling. The smooth stellar winds collide and develop instabilities, mainly the non-linear thin shell instability, and form filaments and clumps. We find that a few days before periastron passage the dense filaments and clumps flow towards the secondary as a result of its gravitational attraction, and reach the zone where we inject the secondary wind. We run our simulations for the conventional stellar masses, $M_1=120 ~\\rm{M_\\odot}$ and $M_2=30 ~\\rm{M_\\odot}$, and for a high mass model, $M_1=170 ~\\rm{M_\\odot}$ and $M_2=80 ~\\rm{M_\\odot}$, that was proposed to better fit the history of giant eruptions. As expected, the simulations results show that the accretion processes is more pronounced for a more massive secondary star.

  11. Shock Waves of the Large-Scale Structure Formation in the Universe

    Ensslin, Torsten A.; Biermann, Peter L.; Klein, Ulrich; Kohle, Sven

    1998-01-01

    Simulations of structure formation in the Universe predict accretion shock waves at the boundaries of the large-scale structures as sheets, filaments, and clusters of galaxies. If magnetic fields are present at these shocks, particle acceleration should take place, and could contribute to the observed cosmic rays of high energies. When the radio plasma of an old invisible radio lobe is dragged into such a shock wave, the relativistic electron population will be reaccelerated and the plasma be...

  12. Accretion, jets and winds: High-energy emission from young stellar objects

    Guenther, Hans Moritz

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the processes of high-energy emission in young stellar objects. Stars of spectral type A and B are called Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) stars in this stage, all later spectral types are termed classical T Tauri stars (CTTS). Both types are studied by high-resolution X-ray and UV spectroscopy and modeling. Three mechanisms contribute to the high-energy emission from CTTS: 1) CTTS have active coronae similar to main-sequence stars, 2) the accreted material passes through an accretion shock at the stellar surface, which heats it to a few MK, and 3) some CTTS drive powerful outflows. Shocks within these jets can heat the plasma to X-ray emitting temperatures. Coronae are already well characterized in the literature; for the latter two scenarios models are shown. The magnetic field suppresses motion perpendicular to the field lines in the accretion shock, thus justifying a 1D geometry. The radiative loss is calculated as optically thin emission. A mixture of shocked and coronal gas is fitted to X-ra...

  13. Slim accretion discs a model for ADAF-SLE transitions

    Igumenshchev, I V; Novikov, I D

    1997-01-01

    We numerically construct slim, global, vertically integrated models of optically thin, transonic accretion discs around black holes, assuming a regularity condition at the sonic radius and boundary conditions at the outer radius of the disc and near the black hole. In agreement with several previous studies, we find two branches of shock-free solutions, in which the cooling is dominated either by advection, or by local radiation. We also confirm that the part of the accretion flow where advection dominates is in some circumstances limited in size: it does not extend beyond a certain outer limiting radius. New results found in our paper concern the location of the limiting radius and properties of the flow near to it. In particular, we find that beyond the limiting radius, the advective dominated solutions match on to Shapiro, Lightman & Eardley (SLE) discs through a smooth transition region. Therefore, the full global solutions are shock-free and unlimited in size. There is no need for postulating an extr...

  14. Shock Waves

    Jiang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW) is a well established series of conferences held every two years in a different location. A unique feature of the ISSW is the emphasis on bridging the gap between physicists and engineers working in fields as different as gas dynamics, fluid mechanics and materials sciences. The main results presented at these meetings constitute valuable proceedings that offer anyone working in this field an authoritative and comprehensive source of reference.

  15. Septic Shock

    Achong, Michael R.

    1980-01-01

    Septic shock is a dynamic syndrome of inadequate tissue perfusion caused by invasion of the blood by micro-organisms. Gram-negative rod bacteremia accounts for about two-thirds of patients with this syndrome. The fully developed syndrome of high fever, chills, cold, moist extremities, hypotension and oliguria is easy to recognize. However, the initial features of the syndrome may be quite non-specific and subtle, particularly in elderly patients. Treatment is aimed at eliminating the infectio...

  16. Culture Shock

    宋文玲

    2004-01-01

    Specialists say that it is not easy to get used to life in a new culture.“Culture shock”is the term these specialists use when talking about the feelings that people have in a new environment.There are three stages of culture shock,say the specialists.In the first stage,the newcomers like their new environment,Then when the fresh experience

  17. The properties and causes of rippling in quasi-perpendicular collisionless shock fronts

    R. E. Lowe

    Full Text Available The overall structure of quasi-perpendicular, high Mach number collisionless shocks is controlled to a large extent by ion reflection at the shock ramp. Departure from a strictly one-dimensional structure is indicated by simulation results showing that the surface of such shocks is rippled, with variations in the density and all field components. We present a detailed analysis of these shock ripples, using results from a two-dimensional hybrid (particle ions, electron fluid simulation. The process that generates the ripples is poorly understood, because the large gradients at the shock ramp make it difficult to identify instabilities. Our analysis reveals new features of the shock ripples, which suggest the presence of a surface wave mode dominating the shock normal magnetic field component of the ripples, as well as whistler waves excited by reflected ions.

    Key words. Space plasma physics (numerical simulation studies; shock waves; waves and instabilities

  18. Shock waves in luminous early-type stars

    Shock waves that occur in stellar atmospheres have their origin in some hydrodynamic instability of the atmosphere itself or of the stellar interior. In luminous early-type stars these two possibilities are represented by shocks due to an unstable radiatively-accelerated wind, and to shocks generated by the non-radial pulsations known to be present in many or most OB stars. This review is concerned with the structure and development of the shocks in these two cases, and especially with the mass loss that may be due specifically to the shocks. Pulsation-produced shocks are found to be very unfavorable for causing mass loss, owing to the great radiation efficiency that allows them to remain isothermal. The situation regarding radiatively-driven shocks remains unclear, awaiting detailed hydrodynamics calculations. 20 refs., 2 figs

  19. ACCRETION VARIABILITY OF HERBIG Ae/Be STARS OBSERVED BY X-SHOOTER HD 31648 AND HD 163296

    Mendigutía, I.; Brittain, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Eiroa, C.; Meeus, G. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Módulo 15, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, P.O. Box 78, E-28049, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Montesinos, B. [Centro de Astrobiología, Departamento de Astrofísica (CSIC-INTA), ESAC Campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Mora, A. [GAIA Science Operations Centre, ESA, European Space Astronomy Centre, P.O. Box 78, E-28691, Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Muzerolle, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Oudmaijer, R. D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Rigliaco, E., E-mail: imendig@clemson.edu [Department of Planetary Science, Lunar and Planetary Lab, University of Arizona, 1629, E. University Boulevard, 85719, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2013-10-10

    This work presents X-Shooter/Very Large Telescope spectra of the prototypical, isolated Herbig Ae stars HD 31648 (MWC 480) and HD 163296 over five epochs separated by timescales ranging from days to months. Each spectrum spans over a wide wavelength range covering from 310 to 2475 nm. We have monitored the continuum excess in the Balmer region of the spectra and the luminosity of 12 ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared spectral lines that are commonly used as accretion tracers for T Tauri stars. The observed strengths of the Balmer excesses have been reproduced from a magnetospheric accretion shock model, providing a mean mass accretion rate of 1.11 × 10{sup –7} and 4.50 × 10{sup –7} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for HD 31648 and HD 163296, respectively. Accretion rate variations are observed, being more pronounced for HD 31648 (up to 0.5 dex). However, from the comparison with previous results it is found that the accretion rate of HD 163296 has increased by more than 1 dex, on a timescale of ∼15 yr. Averaged accretion luminosities derived from the Balmer excess are consistent with the ones inferred from the empirical calibrations with the emission line luminosities, indicating that those can be extrapolated to HAe stars. In spite of that, the accretion rate variations do not generally coincide with those estimated from the line luminosities, suggesting that the empirical calibrations are not useful to accurately quantify accretion rate variability.

  20. ACCRETION VARIABILITY OF HERBIG Ae/Be STARS OBSERVED BY X-SHOOTER HD 31648 AND HD 163296

    This work presents X-Shooter/Very Large Telescope spectra of the prototypical, isolated Herbig Ae stars HD 31648 (MWC 480) and HD 163296 over five epochs separated by timescales ranging from days to months. Each spectrum spans over a wide wavelength range covering from 310 to 2475 nm. We have monitored the continuum excess in the Balmer region of the spectra and the luminosity of 12 ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared spectral lines that are commonly used as accretion tracers for T Tauri stars. The observed strengths of the Balmer excesses have been reproduced from a magnetospheric accretion shock model, providing a mean mass accretion rate of 1.11 × 10–7 and 4.50 × 10–7 M☉ yr–1 for HD 31648 and HD 163296, respectively. Accretion rate variations are observed, being more pronounced for HD 31648 (up to 0.5 dex). However, from the comparison with previous results it is found that the accretion rate of HD 163296 has increased by more than 1 dex, on a timescale of ∼15 yr. Averaged accretion luminosities derived from the Balmer excess are consistent with the ones inferred from the empirical calibrations with the emission line luminosities, indicating that those can be extrapolated to HAe stars. In spite of that, the accretion rate variations do not generally coincide with those estimated from the line luminosities, suggesting that the empirical calibrations are not useful to accurately quantify accretion rate variability

  1. Application of a physical continuum model to recent X-ray observations of accreting pulsars

    Marcu-Cheatham, Diana Monica; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wolff, Michael Thomas; Becker, Peter A.; Wood, Kent S.; Wilms, Joern; Britton Hemphill, Paul; Gottlieb, Amy; Fuerst, Felix; Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Ballhausen, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    We present a uniform spectral analysis in the 0.5-50 keV energy range of a sample of accreting pulsars by applying an empirical broad-band continuum cut-off power-law model. We also apply the newly implemented physical continuum model developed by Becker and Wolff (2007, ApJ 654, 435) to a number of high-luminosity sources. The X-ray spectral formation process in this model consists of the Comptonization of bremsstrahlung, cyclotron, and black body photons emitted by the hot, magnetically channeled, accreting plasma near the neutron star surface. This model describes the spectral formation in high-luminosity accreting pulsars, where the dominant deceleration mechanism is via a radiation-dominated radiative shock. The resulting spectra depend on five physical parameters: the mass accretion rate, the radius of the accretion column, the electron temperature and electron scattering cross-sections inside the column, and the magnetic field strength. The empirical model is fitted to Suzaku data of a sample of high-mass X-ray binaries covering a broad luminosity range (0.3-5 x 10 37 erg/s). The physical model is fitted to Suzaku data from luminous sources: LMC X-4, Cen X-3, GX 304-1. We compare the results of the two types of modeling and summarize how they can provide new insight into the process of accretion onto magnetized neutron stars.

  2. X-ray deficiency on strong accreting T Tauri stars - Comparing Orion with Taurus

    Bustamante, Ignacio; Bouy, Hervé; Manara, Carlo; Ribas, Álvaro; Riviere-Marichalar, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Depending on whether a T Tauri star accretes material from its circumstellar disk or not, different X-ray emission properties can be found. The accretion shocks produce cool heating of the plasma, contributing to the soft X-ray emission from the star. Using X-ray data from the Chandra Orion Ultra-deep Project and accretion rates that were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 photometric measurements in the Orion Nebula Cluster, we studied the relation between the accretion processes and the X-ray emissions of a coherent sample of T Tauri sources in the region. We performed regression and correlation analyses of our sample of T Tauri stars between the X-ray parameters, stellar properties, and the accretion measurements. We find that a clear anti-correlation is present between the residual X-ray luminosity and the accretion rates in our samples in Orion that is consistent with that found on the XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus molecular cloud (XEST) study. We provide a catalog with X-ray lumin...

  3. The rates and modes of gas accretion on to galaxies and their gaseous haloes

    van de Voort, Freeke; Booth, C M; Haas, Marcel R; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla

    2010-01-01

    (Abridged) We study the rate at which gas accretes on to galaxies and haloes and investigate whether the accreted gas was shocked to high temperatures before reaching a galaxy. For this purpose we use a suite of large cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations from the OWLS project. We improve on previous work by considering a wider range of halo masses and redshifts, by distinguishing accretion on to haloes and galaxies, by including important feedback processes, and by comparing simulations with different physics. The specific rate of gas accretion on to haloes is, like that for dark matter, only weakly dependent on halo mass. For halo masses Mhalo>>10^11 Msun it is relatively insensitive to feedback processes. In contrast, accretion rates on to galaxies are determined by radiative cooling and by outflows driven by supernovae and active galactic nuclei. Galactic winds increase the halo mass at which the central galaxies grow the fastest by about two orders of magnitude to Mhalo~10^12 Msun. Gas accretion is bi...

  4. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in compressible fluids: Final report for the period 1 October 1985-30 September 1986

    The purpose of this research program is to investigate fluid dynamic instabilities and mixing initiated by the interaction of shock waves with interfaces between light and heavy gases. In particular, the nonlinear stage of shock-initiated Rayleigh-Taylor instability (also known as the Richtmeyer-Meshkov instability), the secondary instabilities (e.g., the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability) arising therefrom and the resulting mixing of the two gases are of interest. This report describes activities during the performance period 1 October 1985 to 30 September 1986

  5. The NuSTAR X-ray Spectrum of Hercules X-1: A Radiation-Dominated Radiative Shock

    Wolff, Michael T; Gottlieb, Amy M; Fürst, Felix; Hemphill, Paul B; Marcu-Cheatham, Diana M; Pottschmidt, Katja; Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Wilms, Jörn; Wood, Kent S

    2016-01-01

    We report new spectral modeling of the accreting X-ray pulsar Hercules X- 1. Our radiation-dominated radiative shock model is an implementation of the analytic work of Becker & Wolff on Comptonized accretion flows onto magnetic neutron stars. We obtain a good fit to the spin-phase averaged 4 to 78 keV X-ray spectrum observed by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array during a main- on phase of the Her X-1 35-day accretion disk precession period. This model allows us to estimate the accretion rate, the Comptonizing temperature of the radiating plasma, the radius of the magnetic polar cap, and the average scattering opacity parameters in the accretion column. This is in contrast to previous phenomenological models that characterized the shape of the X-ray spectrum but could not determine the physical parameters of the accretion flow. We describe the spectral fitting details and discuss the interpretation of the accretion flow physical parameters.

  6. Orbital circularization of a planet accreting disk gas: the formation of distant jupiters in circular orbits based on a core accretion model

    Kikuchi, Akihiro; Higuchi, Arika [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Ida, Shigeru, E-mail: kikuchi.a@geo.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: higuchia@geo.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: ida@elsi.jp [Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2014-12-10

    Recently, gas giant planets in nearly circular orbits with large semimajor axes (a ∼ 30-1000 AU) have been detected by direct imaging. We have investigated orbital evolution in a formation scenario for such planets, based on a core accretion model. (1) Icy cores accrete from planetesimals at ≲ 30 AU, (2) they are scattered outward by an emerging nearby gas giant to acquire highly eccentric orbits, and (3) their orbits are circularized through the accretion of disk gas in outer regions, where they spend most of their time. We analytically derived equations to describe the orbital circularization through gas accretion. Numerical integrations of these equations show that the eccentricity decreases by a factor of more than 5 while the planetary mass increases by a factor of 10. Because runaway gas accretion increases planetary mass by ∼10-300, the orbits are sufficiently circularized. On the other hand, a is reduced at most only by a factor of two, leaving the planets in the outer regions. If the relative velocity damping by shock is considered, the circularization slows down, but is still efficient enough. Therefore, this scenario potentially accounts for the formation of observed distant jupiters in nearly circular orbits. If the apocenter distances of the scattered cores are larger than the disk sizes, their a shrink to a quarter of the disk sizes; the a-distribution of distant giants could reflect the outer edges of the disks in a similar way that those of hot jupiters may reflect inner edges.

  7. Orbital circularization of a planet accreting disk gas: the formation of distant jupiters in circular orbits based on a core accretion model

    Recently, gas giant planets in nearly circular orbits with large semimajor axes (a ∼ 30-1000 AU) have been detected by direct imaging. We have investigated orbital evolution in a formation scenario for such planets, based on a core accretion model. (1) Icy cores accrete from planetesimals at ≲ 30 AU, (2) they are scattered outward by an emerging nearby gas giant to acquire highly eccentric orbits, and (3) their orbits are circularized through the accretion of disk gas in outer regions, where they spend most of their time. We analytically derived equations to describe the orbital circularization through gas accretion. Numerical integrations of these equations show that the eccentricity decreases by a factor of more than 5 while the planetary mass increases by a factor of 10. Because runaway gas accretion increases planetary mass by ∼10-300, the orbits are sufficiently circularized. On the other hand, a is reduced at most only by a factor of two, leaving the planets in the outer regions. If the relative velocity damping by shock is considered, the circularization slows down, but is still efficient enough. Therefore, this scenario potentially accounts for the formation of observed distant jupiters in nearly circular orbits. If the apocenter distances of the scattered cores are larger than the disk sizes, their a shrink to a quarter of the disk sizes; the a-distribution of distant giants could reflect the outer edges of the disks in a similar way that those of hot jupiters may reflect inner edges.

  8. The Role of Thermal Instability in Interstellar Medium

    Inutsuka, Shu-Ichiro; Koyama, Hiroshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi

    2005-09-01

    Our understanding on the physical processes in the transition between warm neutral medium (WNM) and cold neutral medium (CNM) is dramatically increased in the last few years. This article reviews the role of thermal instability in interstellar medium. First we explain the basic property of thermal instability in terms of linear stability analysis. Then we analyze the propagation of a shock wave into WNM or CNM by taking into account radiative heating/cooling, thermal conduction, and physical viscosity, in one-, two-, and three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations. The results show that the thermal instability in the post-shock gas produces high-density molecular cloudlets embedded in warm neutral medium. The molecular cloudlets have velocity dispersion which is supersonic with respect to the sound speed of the cold medium but is sub-sonic with respect to the warm medium. The dynamical evolution driven by thermal instability in the post-shock layer is an important basic process for the transition from warm gases to cold molecular gases, because the shock waves are frequently generated by supernovae in the Galaxy. The mechanism for maintaining the turbulent motion in two-phase medium is analyzed further by identifying the dynamical instability of the transition layer between WNM and CNM, that has analogy to Darrieus-Landau Instability of flame fronts and the corrugation instability of MHD slow shocks. Once the total column density of the ensemble of cold clouds becomes larger than the critical value (~ 1021cm-2), the two-phase medium is expected to become one phase medium with the cooling timescale. This process is not well understood and remains to be studied. Attempts to compare the numerical results of dynamical calculations with observation are suggested.

  9. Electron physics in shock waves

    Kilian, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The non-relativistic shocks that we find in the solar wind (no matter if driven by CMEs or encounters with planets) are dominated by ion dynamics. Therefore a detailed treatment of electrons is often neglegted to gain significant reductions in computational effort. With recent super computers and massively parallel codes it is possible to perform self-consistent kinetic simulations using particle in cell code. This allows to study the heating of the electrons as well as the acceleration to superthermal energies. These energetic electrons are interesting for couple of reasons. e.g. as an influence on plasma instabilities or for the generation of plasma waves.

  10. Accretion flows in elliptical galaxies

    A steady-state infall model of gas in elliptical galaxies is developed to investigate the properties and structure of the X-ray-emitting gas observed in these systems. Models have been computed for galaxies with an external pressure (as might be important for ellipticals in clusters), and for varying supernova heating rates. All the models exhibit cooling flows, with mass accretion rates of 0.1 - 0.5 solar mass/yr. A correlation between the radio luminosity and the X-ray luminosity of elliptical galaxies is examined which, in the context of the infall models, may suggest that the radio emission arises from nuclear sources that are powered by the gas accretion flow. These radio sources may also be confined effectively by the X-ray emitting gas. 26 references

  11. Ringed accretion disks: equilibrium configurations

    Pugliese, D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a model of ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the General Relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can be then determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We pr...

  12. How does a Secular Instability Grow in a Hyperaccretion Flow?

    Kimura, Mariko; Kawanaka, Norita

    2015-01-01

    Hyperaccretion flows with mass accretion rates far above the Eddington rate have an N-shaped equilibrium curve on the $\\Sigma$-$\\dot{M}$ plane (with $\\Sigma$ and $\\dot{M}$ being surface density and mass accretion rate, respectively). The accretion flow on the lower $\\Sigma$ branch of the N-shape is optically thick, advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) while that on the upper one is neutrino-dominated accretion flow (NDAF). The middle branch has a negative slope on the $\\Sigma$-$\\dot{M}$ plane, meaning that the flow on this branch is secularly unstable. To investigate how the instability affects the flow structure and what observable signatures are produced, we study the time evolution of the unstable hyperaccretion flow in response to variable mass injection rates by solving the height-averaged equations for viscous accretion flows. When a transition occurs from the lower branch to the upper branch (or from the upper branch to the lower branch), the surface density rapidly increases (decreases) around th...

  13. Model for Shock Wave Chaos

    Kasimov, Aslan R.

    2013-03-08

    We propose the following model equation, ut+1/2(u2−uus)x=f(x,us) that predicts chaotic shock waves, similar to those in detonations in chemically reacting mixtures. The equation is given on the half line, x<0, and the shock is located at x=0 for any t≥0. Here, us(t) is the shock state and the source term f is taken to mimic the chemical energy release in detonations. This equation retains the essential physics needed to reproduce many properties of detonations in gaseous reactive mixtures: steady traveling wave solutions, instability of such solutions, and the onset of chaos. Our model is the first (to our knowledge) to describe chaos in shock waves by a scalar first-order partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation thanks to an interplay between the nonlinearity of the inviscid Burgers equation and a novel forcing term that is nonlocal in nature and has deep physical roots in reactive Euler equations.

  14. Spiral Waves in Accretion Disks

    Harlaftis, Emilios

    A review with the most characteristic spiral waves in accretion disks of cataclysmic variables will be presented. Recent work on experiments targeting the detection of spiral waves from time lapse movies of real disks and the study of permanent spiral waves will be discussed. The relevance of spiral waves with other systems such as star-planet X-ray binaries and Algols will be reviewed.

  15. On the area of accretion curtains from fast aperiodic time variability of the intermediate polar EX Hya

    Semena, Andrey N; Buckley, David A H; Kotze, Marissa M; Khabibullin, Ildar I; Breytenbach, Hannes; Gulbis, Amanda A S; Coppejans, Rocco; Potter, Stephen B

    2014-01-01

    We present results of a study of the fast timing variability of the magnetic cataclysmic variable (mCV) EX Hya. It was previously shown that one may expect the rapid flux variability of mCVs to be smeared out at timescales shorter than the cooling time of hot plasma in the post shock region of the accretion curtain near the WD surface. Estimates of the cooling time and the mass accretion rate, thus provide us with a tool to measure the density of the post-shock plasma and the cross-sectional area of the accretion funnel at the WD surface. We have probed the high frequencies in the aperiodic noise of one of the brightest mCV EX Hya with the help of optical telescopes, namely SALT and the SAAO 1.9m telescope. We place upper limits on the plasma cooling timescale $\\tau<$0.3 sec, on the fractional area of the accretion curtain footprint $f<1.6\\times10^{-4}$, and a lower limit on the specific mass accretion rate $\\dot{M}/A \\gtrsim $3 g/sec/cm$^{-2}$. We show that measurements of accretion column footprints v...

  16. Electron thermodynamics in GRMHD simulations of low-luminosity black hole accretion

    Ressler, S. M.; Tchekhovskoy, A.; Quataert, E.; Chandra, M.; Gammie, C. F.

    2015-12-01

    Simple assumptions made regarding electron thermodynamics often limit the extent to which general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations can be applied to observations of low-luminosity accreting black holes. We present, implement, and test a model that self-consistently evolves an entropy equation for the electrons and takes into account the effects of spatially varying electron heating and relativistic anisotropic thermal conduction along magnetic field lines. We neglect the backreaction of electron pressure on the dynamics of the accretion flow. Our model is appropriate for systems accreting at ≪10-5 of the Eddington accretion rate, so radiative cooling by electrons can be neglected. It can be extended to higher accretion rates in the future by including electron cooling and proton-electron Coulomb collisions. We present a suite of tests showing that our method recovers the correct solution for electron heating under a range of circumstances, including strong shocks and driven turbulence. Our initial applications to axisymmetric simulations of accreting black holes show that (1) physically motivated electron heating rates that depend on the local magnetic field strength yield electron temperature distributions significantly different from the constant electron-to-proton temperature ratios assumed in previous work, with higher electron temperatures concentrated in the coronal region between the disc and the jet; (2) electron thermal conduction significantly modifies the electron temperature in the inner regions of black hole accretion flows if the effective electron mean free path is larger than the local scaleheight of the disc (at least for the initial conditions and magnetic field configurations we study). The methods developed in this work are important for producing more realistic predictions for the emission from accreting black holes such as Sagittarius A* and M87; these applications will be explored in future work.

  17. Counter-Rotating Accretion Discs

    Dyda, Sergei; Ustyugova, Galina V; Romanova, Marina M; Koldoba, Alexander V

    2014-01-01

    Counter-rotating discs can arise from the accretion of a counter-rotating gas cloud onto the surface of an existing co-rotating disc or from the counter-rotating gas moving radially inward to the outer edge of an existing disc. At the interface, the two components mix to produce gas or plasma with zero net angular momentum which tends to free-fall towards the disc center. We discuss high-resolution axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of a viscous counter-rotating disc for cases where the two components are vertically separated and radially separated. The viscosity is described by an isotropic $\\alpha-$viscosity including all terms in the viscous stress tensor. For the vertically separated components a shear layer forms between them. The middle of this layer free-falls to the disk center. The accretion rates are increased by factors $\\sim 10^2-10^4$ over that of a conventional disc rotating in one direction with the same viscosity. The vertical width of the shear layer and the accretion rate are strongly dep...

  18. Investigation of the Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities

    Riccardo Bonazza, Mark Anderson, Jason Oakley

    2006-11-03

    The present research program is centered on the experimental and numerical study of two instabilities that develop at the interface between two different fluids when the interface experiences an impulsive or a constant acceleration. The instabilities, called the Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor instability, respectively, adversely affect target implosion in experiments aimed at the achievement of nuclear fusion by inertial confinement by causing the nuclear fuel contained in a target and the shell material to mix, leading to contamination of the fuel, yield reduction or no ignition at all. The laboratory experiments summarized in this report include shock tube experiments to study a shock-accelerated bubble and a shock-accelerated 2-D sinusoidal interface; and experiments based on the use of magnetorheological fluids for the study of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Computational experiments based on the shock tube experimental conditions are also reported.

  19. Electromagnetic instabilities in rotating magnetized viscous objects

    Nekrasov, Anatoly

    2009-01-01

    We study electromagnetic streaming instabilities in thermal viscous regions of rotating astrophysical objects, such as, magnetized accretion disks, molecular clouds, their cores, and elephant trunks. The obtained results can also be applied to any regions of interstellar medium, where different equilibrium velocities between charged species can arise. We consider a weakly ionized multicomponent plasma consisting of neutrals and magnetized electrons, ions, and dust grains. The effect of perturbation of collisional frequencies due to density perturbations of species is taken into account. We obtain general expressions for perturbed velocities of species involving the thermal pressure and viscosity in the case in which perturbations propagate perpendicular to the background magnetic field. The dispersion relation is derived and investigated for axisymmetric perturbations. New compressible instabilities generated due to different equilibrium velocities of different charged species are found in the cold and therma...

  20. Kinetic Simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities

    Sagert, Irina; Colbry, Dirk; Howell, Jim; Staber, Alec; Strother, Terrance

    2014-01-01

    We report on an ongoing project to develop a large scale Direct Simulation Monte Carlo code. The code is primarily aimed towards applications in astrophysics such as simulations of core-collapse supernovae. It has been tested on shock wave phenomena in the continuum limit and for matter out of equilibrium. In the current work we focus on the study of fluid instabilities. Like shock waves these are routinely used as test-cases for hydrodynamic codes and are discussed to play an important role in the explosion mechanism of core-collapse supernovae. As a first test we study the evolution of a single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the interface of a light and a heavy fluid in the presence of a gravitational acceleration. To suppress small-wavelength instabilities caused by the irregularity in the separation layer we use a large particle mean free path. The latter leads to the development of a diffusion layer as particles propagate from one fluid into the other. For small amplitudes, when the instability is i...

  1. The Evolution and Impacts of Magnetorotational Instability in Magnetized Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Sawai, Hidetomo

    2015-01-01

    We carried out 2D-axisymmetric MHD simulations of core-collapse supernovae for rapidly-rotating magnetized progenitors. By changing both the strength of the magnetic field and the spatial resolution, the evolution of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) and its impacts upon the dynamics are investigated. We found that the MRI greatly amplifies the seed magnetic fields in the regime where not the Alfv\\'en mode but the buoyant mode plays a primary role in the exponential growth phase. The MRI indeed has a powerful impact on the supernova dynamics. It makes the shock expansion faster and the explosion more energetic, with some models being accompanied by the collimated-jet formations. These effects, however, are not made by the magnetic pressure except for the collimated-jet formations. The angular momentum transfer induced by the MRI causes the expansion of the heating region, by which the accreting matter gain an additional time to be heated by neutrinos. The MRI also drifts low-$Y_p$ matter from the deep i...

  2. Angular momentum transport in accretion disk boundary layers around weakly magnetized stars

    Pessah, M.E.; Chan, C.-K.

    2013-01-01

    The standard model for turbulent shear viscosity in accretion disks is based on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. This implies that the turbulent stress must be negative and thus transport angular momentum inwards, in...... the boundary layer where the accretion disk meets the surface of a weakly magnetized star. However, this behavior is not supported by numerical simulations of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion disks, which show that angular momentum transport driven by the magnetorotational instability...... (MRI) is inefficient in disk regions where, as expected in boundary layers, the angular frequency increases with radius. Motivated by the need of a deeper understanding of the behavior of an MHD fluid in a differentially rotating background that deviates from a Keplerian profile, we study the dynamics...

  3. The effect of rotation on the stability of nuclear burning in accreting neutron stars

    Keek, L; Zand, J J M in 't

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen and/or helium accreted by a neutron star from a binary companion may undergo thermonuclear fusion. At different mass accretion rates different burning regimes are discerned. Theoretical models predict helium fusion to proceed as a thermonuclear runaway for accretion rates below the Eddington limit and as stable burning above this limit. Observations, however, place the boundary close to 10% of the Eddington limit. We study the effect of rotationally induced transport processes on the stability of helium burning. For the first time detailed calculations of thin helium shell burning on neutron stars are performed using a hydrodynamic stellar evolution code including rotation and rotationally induced magnetic fields. We find that in most cases the instabilities from the magnetic field provide the dominant contribution to the chemical mixing, while Eddington-Sweet circulations become important at high rotation rates. As helium is diffused to greater depths, the stability of the burning is increased, such...

  4. Inefficient highly eccentric accretion and the low luminosity of stellar tidal disruption events

    Svirski, Gilad; Krolik, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Models for tidal disruption events (TDEs) in which a supermassive black hole disrupts a star commonly assume that the highly eccentric streams of bound stellar debris promptly form a circular accretion disk at the pericenter scale. However, the bolometric peak luminosity of most TDE candidates, $\\sim10^{44}\\,\\rm{erg\\,s^{-1}}$, implies that we observe only $\\sim1\\%$ of the energy expected from accretion. Moreover, recent numerical simulations (Shiokawa et al. 2015) have shown that dissipation via hydrodynamical shocks is insufficient to circularize debris orbits on the pericenter scale, and the debris flow retains its initial semi-major axis scale throughout the first $\\sim10$ orbits of the event. Motivated by these numerical results, Piran et al. (2015) suggested that the observed optical TDE emission is powered by shocks at the apocenter between freshly infalling material and earlier-arriving matter. This model explains the small radiated energy, the low temperature, and the large radius implied by the obser...

  5. A powerful local shear instability in stratified disks

    Richard, D; Dauchot, O; Daviaud, F; Dubrulle, B; Zahn, J P

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we show that astrophysical accretion disks are dynamically unstable to non-axisymmetric disturbances. This instability is present in any stably stratified anticyclonically sheared flow as soon as the angular velocity increases outwards. In the large Froude number limit, the maximal growth rate is proportional to the angular rotation velocity, and is independent of the stratification. In the low Froude number limit, it decreases like the inverse of the Froude number, thereby vanishing for unstratified, centrigugally stable flows. The instability is not sensitive to disk boundaries. We discuss the possible significance of our result, and its implications on the turbulent state achieved by the disks. We conclude that this linear instability is one of the best candidates for the source of turbulence in geometrically thin disks, and that magnetic fields can be safely ignored when studying their turbulent state. The relevance of the instability for thick disks or nearly neutrally stratified disks rem...

  6. Limit-Cycle Behaviour of Thermally-Unstable Accretion Flows onto Black Holes

    Szuszkiewicz, Ewa; Miller, John C.

    1998-01-01

    Nonlinear time-dependent calculations are being carried out in order to study the evolution of vertically-integrated models of non-selfgravitating, transonic accretion discs around black holes. In this paper we present results from a new calculation for a high-alpha model similar to one studied previously by Honma, Matsumoto and Kato who found evidence for limit-cycle behaviour connected with thermal instability. Our results are in substantial agreement with theirs but, in our calculation, th...

  7. A laboratory plasma experiment for studying magnetic dynamics of accretion discs and jets

    Hsu, S. C.; Bellan, P. M.

    2002-01-01

    This work describes a laboratory plasma experiment and initial results which should give insight into the magnetic dynamics of accretion discs and jets. A high-speed multiple-frame CCD camera reveals images of the formation and helical instability of a collimated plasma, similar to MHD models of disc jets, and also plasma detachment associated with spheromak formation, which may have relevance to disc winds and flares. The plasmas are produced by a planar magnetized coaxial gun. The resulting...

  8. Radiation from Shock-Accelerated Particles

    Nishikawa, Ken-ichi; Choi, E. J.; Min, K. W.; Niemiec, J.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Medvedev, M.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J.; Sol, H.; Pohl, M.; Hartmann, D. H.; Fishman, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Plasma instabilities excited in collisionless shocks are responsible for particle acceleration, generation of magnetic fields , and associated radiation. We have investigated the particle acceleration and shock structure associated with an unmagnetized relativistic jet propagating into an unmagnetized plasma. Cold jet electrons are thermalized and slowed while the ambient electrons are swept up to create a partially developed hydrodynamic-like shock structure. The shock structure depends on the composition of the jet and ambient plasma (electron-positron or electron-ions). Strong electromagnetic fields are generated in the reverse , jet shock and provide an emission site. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the shock. We have calculated, self-consistently, the radiation from electrons accelerated in the turbulent magnetic fields. We found that the synthetic spectra depend on the Lorentz factor of the jet, its thermal temperature and strength of the generated magnetic fields. The detailed properties of the radiation are important for understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jet shocks, and supernova remnants

  9. The evolution of accretion in young stellar objects: Strong accretors at 3-10 Myr

    Ingleby, Laura; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Miller, Jon; McClure, Melissa [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hernández, Jesus; Briceno, Cesar [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía (CIDA), Mérida, 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Espaillat, Catherine, E-mail: lingleby@umich.edu, E-mail: ncalvet@umich.edu, E-mail: cce@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    While the rate of accretion onto T Tauri stars is predicted to decline with age, objects with strong accretion have been detected at ages of up to 10 Myr. We analyze a sample of these old accretors, identified by having a significant U band excess and infrared emission from a circumstellar disk. Objects were selected from the ∼3 Myr σ Ori, 4-6 Myr Orion OB1b, and 7-10 Myr Orion OB1a star forming associations. We use high-resolution spectra from the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle to estimate the veiling of absorption lines and calculate extinction for our T Tauri sample. We also use observations obtained with the Magellan Echellette and, in a few cases, the SWIFT Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope to estimate the excess produced in the accretion shock, which is then fit with accretion shock models to estimate the accretion rate. We find that even objects as old as 10 Myr may have high accretion rates, up to ∼10{sup –8} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. These objects cannot be explained by viscous evolution models, which would deplete the disk in shorter timescales unless the initial disk mass is very high, a situation that is unstable. We show that the infrared spectral energy distribution of one object, CVSO 206, does not reveal evidence of significant dust evolution, which would be expected during the 10 Myr lifetime. We compare this object to predictions from photoevaporation and planet formation models and suggest that neither of these processes have had a strong impact on the disk of CVSO 206.

  10. The evolution of accretion in young stellar objects: Strong accretors at 3-10 Myr

    While the rate of accretion onto T Tauri stars is predicted to decline with age, objects with strong accretion have been detected at ages of up to 10 Myr. We analyze a sample of these old accretors, identified by having a significant U band excess and infrared emission from a circumstellar disk. Objects were selected from the ∼3 Myr σ Ori, 4-6 Myr Orion OB1b, and 7-10 Myr Orion OB1a star forming associations. We use high-resolution spectra from the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle to estimate the veiling of absorption lines and calculate extinction for our T Tauri sample. We also use observations obtained with the Magellan Echellette and, in a few cases, the SWIFT Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope to estimate the excess produced in the accretion shock, which is then fit with accretion shock models to estimate the accretion rate. We find that even objects as old as 10 Myr may have high accretion rates, up to ∼10–8 M☉ yr–1. These objects cannot be explained by viscous evolution models, which would deplete the disk in shorter timescales unless the initial disk mass is very high, a situation that is unstable. We show that the infrared spectral energy distribution of one object, CVSO 206, does not reveal evidence of significant dust evolution, which would be expected during the 10 Myr lifetime. We compare this object to predictions from photoevaporation and planet formation models and suggest that neither of these processes have had a strong impact on the disk of CVSO 206.

  11. What Causes Cardiogenic Shock?

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Cardiogenic Shock? Immediate Causes Cardiogenic shock occurs if the heart suddenly can' ... reason why emergency treatment is so important. Underlying Causes The underlying causes of cardiogenic shock are conditions ...

  12. On the Role of Disks in the Formation of Stellar Systems: A Numerical Parameter Study of Rapid Accretion

    Kratter, Kaitlin M; Krumholz, Mark R; Klein, Richard I

    2009-01-01

    We study rapidly accreting, gravitationally unstable disks with a series of global, three dimensional, numerical experiments using the code ORION. In this paper we conduct a numerical parameter study focused on protostellar disks, and show that one can predict disk behavior and the multiplicity of the accreting star system as a function of two dimensionless parameters which compare the disk's accretion rate to its sound speed and orbital period. Although gravitational instabilities become strong, we find that fragmentation into binary or multiple systems occurs only when material falls in several times more rapidly than the canonical isothermal limit. The disk-to-star accretion rate is proportional to the infall rate, and governed by gravitational torques generated by low-m spiral modes. We also confirm the existence of a maximum stable disk mass: disks that exceed ~50% of the total system mass are subject to fragmentation and the subsequent formation of binary companions.

  13. Structure and Dynamics of the Accretion Process and Wind in TW Hya

    Dupree, A K; Cranmer, S R; Berlind, P; Strader, J; Smith, G H

    2014-01-01

    Time-domain spectroscopy of the classical accreting T Tauri star, TW Hya, covering a decade and spanning the far UV to the near-infrared spectral regions can identify the radiation sources, the atmospheric structure produced by accretion,and properties of the stellar wind. On time scales from days to years, substantial changes occur in emission line profiles and line strengths. Our extensive time-domain spectroscopy suggests that the broad near-IR, optical, and far-uv emission lines, centered on the star, originate in a turbulent post-shock region and can undergo scattering by the overlying stellar wind as well as some absorption from infalling material. Stable absorption features appear in H-alpha, apparently caused by an accreting column silhouetted in the stellar wind. Inflow of material onto the star is revealed by the near-IR He I 10830A line, and its free-fall velocity correlates inversely with the strength of the post-shock emission, consistent with a dipole accretion model. However, the predictions of...

  14. BRIGHT HOT IMPACTS BY ERUPTED FRAGMENTS FALLING BACK ON THE SUN: UV REDSHIFTS IN STELLAR ACCRETION

    Reale, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Chimica, Università di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Orlando, S. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Testa, P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Landi, E. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Schrijver, C. J., E-mail: fabio.reale@unipa.it [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    A solar eruption after a flare on 2011 June 7 produced EUV-bright impacts of fallbacks far from the eruption site, observed with the Solar Dynamics Observatory. These impacts can be taken as a template for the impact of stellar accretion flows. Broad redshifted UV lines have been commonly observed in young accreting stars. Here we study the emission from the impacts in the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly's UV channels and compare the inferred velocity distribution to stellar observations. We model the impacts with two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. We find that the localized UV 1600 Å emission and its timing with respect to the EUV emission can be explained by the impact of a cloud of fragments. The first impacts produce strong initial upflows. The following fragments are hit and shocked by these upflows. The UV emission comes mostly from the shocked front shell of the fragments while they are still falling, and is therefore redshifted when observed from above. The EUV emission instead continues from the hot surface layer that is fed by the impacts. Fragmented accretion can therefore explain broad redshifted UV lines (e.g., C IV 1550 Å) to speeds around 400 km s{sup –1} observed in accreting young stellar objects.

  15. Systematics of shoulder instability

    Shoulder instability is defined as a symptomatic abnormal motion of the humeral head relative to the glenoid during active shoulder motion. Glenohumeral instabilities are classified according to the causative factors as the pathogenesis of instability plays an important role with respect to treatment options. Instabilities are classified into traumatic and atraumatic instabilities as part of a multidirectional instability syndrome and into microtraumatic instabilities. For diagnostics plain radiographs (''trauma series'') are performed to document shoulder dislocation and its successful repositioning. Direct magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography is the most important imaging modality for delineation of the different injury patterns of the labral-ligamentous complex and bony structures. Monocontrast computed tomography (CT) arthrography with the use of multidetector CT scanners represents an alternative imaging modality; however, MR imaging should be preferred in the work-up of shoulder instabilities due to the mostly younger age of patients. (orig.)

  16. Magnetostructural Transition Kinetics in Shocked Iron.

    Surh, Michael P; Benedict, Lorin X; Sadigh, Babak

    2016-08-19

    A generalized Heisenberg model is implemented to study the effect of thermal magnetic disorder on kinetics of the Fe α-ε transition. The barrier to bulk martensitic displacement remains large in α-Fe shocked well past the phase line but is much reduced in the [001] α-ε boundary. The first result is consistent with observed overdriving to metastable α, while the second suggests structural instability, as implied by observation of a [001] shock transformation front without plastic relaxation. Reconciling both behaviors may require concurrent treatment of magnetic and structural order. PMID:27588867

  17. Temperature Fluctuations driven by Magnetorotational Instability in Protoplanetary Disks

    McNally, Colin P; Yang, Chao-Chin; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2014-01-01

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) drives magnetized turbulence in sufficiently ionized regions of protoplanetary disks, leading to mass accretion. The dissipation of the potential energy associated with this accretion determines the thermal structure of accreting regions. Until recently, the heating from the turbulence has only been treated in an azimuthally averaged sense, neglecting local fluctuations. However, magnetized turbulence dissipates its energy intermittently in current sheet structures. We study this intermittent energy dissipation using high resolution numerical models including a treatment of radiative thermal diffusion in an optically thick regime. Our models predict that these turbulent current sheets drive order unity temperature variations even where the MRI is damped strongly by Ohmic resistivity. This implies that the current sheet structures where energy dissipation occurs must be well resolved to correctly capture the flow structure in numerical models. Higher resolutions are requ...

  18. Evaluating shoulder instability treatment

    Linde, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Shoulder instability common occurs. When treated nonoperatively, the resulting societal costs based on health care utilization and productivity losses are significant. Shoulder function can be evaluated using patient reported outcome measurements (PROMs). For shoulder instability, these include the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability index (WOSI) and the Oxford Shoulder Instability Score (OSIS). When translated and validated for the dutch population, both have good measurment properties. Sco...

  19. Earnings instability and tenure

    Cappellari, Lorenzo; Leonardi, Marco

    2007-01-01

    We study the effect of tenure on earnings instability in Italy using two alternative estimation strategies. First we use a descriptive measure of earnings instability and fixed effects regressions. Second, we develop a formal model of earnings dynamics distinguishing permanent from transitory earnings, and exploit variation of tenure and instability over time and across birth cohorts in estimation. We use the two approaches also to evaluate earnings instability associated with temporary contr...

  20. On the possible turbulence mechanism in accretion disks in nonmagnetic binary stars

    One of the major challenges in modern astrophysics is the unexplained turbulence of gas-dynamic (nonmagnetic) accretion disks. Since they are stable, such disks should not theoretically be turbulent, but observations show they are. The search for instabilities that can develop into turbulence is one of the most intriguing problems in modern astrophysics. In 2004, we pointed to the formation of the so-called 'precessional' density wave in accretion disks of binary stars, which produces additional density and velocity gradients in the disk. A linear hydrodynamics stability analysis of an accretion disk in a binary shows that the presence in the disk of a precessional wave produced by the tidal influence of the second binary component gives rise to the instability of radial modes, whose characteristic growth times are about one tenth or one hundredth of the binary's orbital period. The immediate reason for the instability is the radial velocity gradient in the precessional wave, the destabilizing perturbations being those in which the radial velocity variation on the wavelength scale is near or greater than the speed of sound. Unstable perturbations occur in the interior of the disk and make the gas turbulent as they propagate outward. The characteristic turbulence parameters are in agreement with observations (the Shakura–Sunyaev parameter (α≲0.01). (physics of our days)

  1. How Dim Accreting Black Holes Could Be?

    Abramowicz, M A; Abramowicz, Marek Artur; Igumenshchev, Igor V.

    2001-01-01

    Recent hydrodynamical simulations of radiatively inefficient black hole accretion flows with low viscosity have demonstrated that these flows differ significantly from those described by an advection-dominated model. The black hole flows are advection-dominated only in their inner parts, but convectively dominated at radii R>100R_g. In such flows, the radiative output comes mostly from the convection part, and the radiative efficiency is independent of accretion rate and equals ~0.001. This value gives a limit for how dim an accreting black hole could be. It agrees with recent Chandra observations which indicate that accreting black holes in low-mass X-ray binaries are by factor about 100 dimmer that neutron stars accreting with the same accretion rates.

  2. Black hole feedback from thick accretion discs

    Sadowski, Aleksander; Abramowicz, Marek A; Narayan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    We study energy flows in geometrically thick accretion discs, both optically thick and thin, using general relativistic, three-dimensional simulations of black hole accretion flows. We find that for non-rotating black holes the efficiency of the total feedback from thick accretion discs is $3\\%$ - roughly half of the thin disc efficiency. This amount of energy is ultimately distributed between outflow and radiation, the latter scaling weakly with the accretion rate for super-critical accretion rates, and returned to the interstellar medium. Accretion on to rotating black holes is more efficient because of the additional extraction of rotational energy. However, the jet component is collimated and likely to interact only weakly with the environment, whereas the outflow and radiation components cover a wide solid angle.

  3. Theory of Disk Accretion onto Magnetic Stars

    Lai Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disk accretion onto magnetic stars occurs in a variety of systems, including accreting neutron stars (with both high and low magnetic fields, white dwarfs, and protostars. We review some of the key physical processes in magnetosphere-disk interaction, highlighting the theoretical uncertainties. We also discuss some applications to the observations of accreting neutron star and protostellar systems, as well as possible connections to protoplanetary disks and exoplanets.

  4. Quasar Accretion Disks Are Strongly Inhomogeneous

    Dexter, Jason; Agol, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) have been observed to vary stochastically with 10-20 rms amplitudes over a range of optical wavelengths where the emission arises in an accretion disk. Since the accretion disk is unlikely to vary coherently, local fluctuations may be significantly larger than the global rms variability. We investigate toy models of quasar accretion disks consisting of a number of regions, n, whose temperatures vary independently with an amplitude of \\sigma_T in dex. Models with l...

  5. Accretion onto a higher dimensional black hole

    John, Anslyn J.; Ghosh, Sushant G.; Maharaj, Sunil D.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the steady-state spherically symmetric accretion of relativistic fluids, with a polytropic equation of state, onto a higher dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. The mass accretion rate, critical radius, and flow parameters are determined and compared with results obtained in standard four dimensions. The accretion rate, $\\dot{M}$, is an explicit function of the black hole mass, $M$, as well as the gas boundary conditions and the dimensionality, $D$, of the spacetime. We also find ...

  6. A Solution to the Protostellar Accretion Problem

    Padoan, Paolo; Kritsuk, Alexei; Norman, Michael L.; Nordlund, Ake

    2004-01-01

    Accretion rates of order 10^-8 M_\\odot/yr are observed in young protostars of approximately a solar mass with evidence of circumstellar disks. The accretion rate is significantly lower for protostars of smaller mass, approximately proportional to the second power of the stellar mass, \\dot{M}_accr\\propto M^2. The traditional view is that the observed accretion is the consequence of the angular momentum transport in isolated protostellar disks, controlled by disk turbulence or self--gravity. Ho...

  7. Dark Matter Accretion into Supermassive Black Holes

    Peirani, Sébastien; De Freitas Pacheco, José Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The relativistic accretion rate of dark matter by a black hole is revisited. Under the assumption that the phase space density indicator, $Q=\\rho_{\\infty}/\\sigma^3_{\\infty}$, remains constant during the inflow, the derived accretion rate can be higher up to five orders of magnitude than the classical accretion formula, valid for non-relativistic and non-interacting particles, when typical dark halo conditions are considered. For these typical conditions, the critical point of the flow is loca...

  8. Characterizing the Thermal History of Shock-Compressed Phyllosilicates

    Spaulding, D.; Stewart, S. T.; Hankin, M.; Wizda, L.

    2013-12-01

    Phyllosilicates are known to be abundant on the surface of Mars and as matrix material in carbonaceous chondrites. It is important to understand the influence of shock processing on such materials because they are expected to play an important role in the preservation and transport of volatile chemical species. Shock effects may thus influence how volatiles are preferentially incorporated or lost during planetary accretion as well as spectral observations and interpretations of the aqueous history of planetary surfaces. Previous experiments have studied devolatilization of phyllosilicates under shock compression, though the role of temperature and the details of thermal alteration are poorly constrained. Here we measure the shock response (Hugoniot) and post-shock temperatures of Montmorillonite up to 23 GPa (shock velocities of 5.5 km/sec). We examine the relative importance of temperature and pressure for shock devolatilization and revisit the implications for the interpretation of previously published experiments. In addition, progress towards increasingly controlled shock recovery experiments is presented using the above equation of state, post-shock temperature data, and computational modeling of recovery capsule geometries.

  9. Diffusive shock acceleration with magnetic field amplification and Alfvenic drift

    Kang, Hyesung

    2012-01-01

    We explore how wave-particle interactions affect diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at astrophysical shocks by performing time-dependent kinetic simulations, in which phenomenological models for magnetic field amplification (MFA), Alfvenic drift, thermal leakage injection, Bohm-like diffusion, and a free escape boundary are implemented. If the injection fraction of cosmic-ray (CR) particles is greater than 2x10^{-4}, for the shock parameters relevant for young supernova remnants, DSA is efficient enough to develop a significant shock precursor due to CR feedback, and magnetic field can be amplified up to a factor of 20 via CR streaming instability in the upstream region. If scattering centers drift with Alfven speed in the amplified magnetic field, the CR energy spectrum can be steepened significantly and the acceleration efficiency is reduced. Nonlinear DSA with self-consistent MFA and Alfvenic drift predicts that the postshock CR pressure saturates roughly at 10 % of the shock ram pressure for strong shocks...

  10. X-ray and ultraviolet radiation from accreting white dwarfs. IV - Two-temperature treatment with electron thermal conduction

    Imamura, J. N.; Durisen, R. H.; Lamb, D. Q.; Weast, G. J.

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported from two-temperature calculations of the structures and X-ray spectra of radiation shocks generated by accretion onto nonmagnetic white dwarfs. The approach was necessitated by the domination of bremsstrahlung in the emission region by Compton cooling. Features of the shock model, which includes steady, spherical infall of fully ionized plasma and dominance of the stand-off shock by collisional processes, are summarized. A maximum hard X-ray temperature of about 50 keV and a maximum hard X-ray luminosity of 2 x 10 to the 36th ergs/sec were obtained. The results prove that the bulk of accretion energy cannot be transported to the star by electron thermal conduction, provided that bremsstrahlung cooling is dominant over cyclotron cooling.

  11. A powerful local shear instability in stratified disks

    Richard, D.; Hersant, F.; Dauchot, O.; Daviaud, F.; B. Dubrulle; Zahn, J-P.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we show that astrophysical accretion disks are dynamically unstable to non-axisymmetric disturbances. This instability is present in any stably stratified anticyclonically sheared flow as soon as the angular velocity decreases outwards. In the large Froude number limit, the maximal growth rate is proportional to the angular rotation velocity, and is independent of the stratification. In the low Froude number limit, it decreases like the inverse of the Froude number, thereby van...

  12. Wing airfoil ice accretion model

    Hoření, Bohumír; Horák, V.

    Bucharest : Military technical academy, 2005, 3.56-3.62. ISBN 973-640-074-3. [Internationally attended scientific conference /31./ : modern technologies in the XXI century. Bucharest (RO), 03.11.2005-04.11.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2076106; GA ČR GA103/04/0970; GA MPO FT-TA/026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2060917 Keywords : aircraft icing * ice accretion * icing modell Subject RIV: JU - Aeronautics, Aerodynamics, Aircrafts

  13. Winds and Shocks in Galaxy Clusters Shock Acceleration on an Intergalactic Scale

    Jones, T W; Ryu, D; Kang, H; Miniati, Francesco; Ryu, Dongsu; Kang, Hyesung

    2000-01-01

    We review the possible roles of large scale shocks as particle accelerators in clusters of galaxies. Recent observational and theoretical work has suggested that high energy charged particles may constitute a substantial pressure component in clusters. If true that would alter the expected dynamical evolution of clusters and increase the dynamical masses consistent with hydrostatic equilibrium. Moderately strong shocks are probably common in clusters, through the actions of several agents. The most obvious of these agents include winds from galaxies undergoing intense episodes of starbursts, active galaxies and cosmic inflows, such as accretion and cluster mergers. We describe our own work derived from simulations of large scale structure formation, in which we have, for the first time, explicitly included passive components of high energy particles. We find, indeed that shocks associated with these large scale flows can lead to nonthermal particle pressures big enough to influence cluster dynamics. These sam...

  14. Accretion flows govern black hole jet properties

    Koljonen, K.; Russell, D.; Fernández Ontiveros, J.; Miller-Jones, J.; Russell, T.; Curran, P.; Soria, R.; Markoff, S.; van der Horst, A.; Casella, P.

    2015-07-01

    The process of jet formation in accreting black holes, and the conditions under which it occurs is currently hotly debated, with competing models predicting the jet power to be governed by black hole spin, the magnetic field strength, the location of the jet base, the mass accretion rate and/or the properties of the inner accretion flow. We present new results that show empirical correlations between the accretion flow properties and the spectral energy distribution of the jets launched from accreting black holes. The X-ray power law is directly related to the particle energy distribution in the hot accretion flow. We find that the photon index of this power law correlates with the characteristic break frequency in the jet spectrum emitted near the jet base, and the jet luminosity up to the break frequency. The observed correlations can be explained by the energy distribution of electrons in the hot accretion flow being subsequently channeled into the jet. These correlations represent a new inflow--outflow connection in accreting black holes, and demonstrate that the spectral properties of the jet rely most critically on the conditions in the inner accretion flow, rather than other parameters such as the black hole mass or spin.

  15. The Radiative Efficiency of Hot Accretion Flows

    Xie, Fu-Guo; Yuan, Feng(Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA)

    2012-01-01

    Two significant progresses have been made in the past years on our understanding of hot accretion flows. One is that only a small fraction of accretion flow available at the outer boundary can finally falls onto the black hole while most of them is lost in outflow. Another one is that electrons may directly receive a large fraction of the viscously dissipated energy in the accretion flow, i.e, $\\delta\\sim 0.1-0.5$. The radiative efficiency of hot accretion flow when these two progresses are t...

  16. Dynamics of accretion disks in a constant curvature f(R)-gravity

    Alipour, N.; Khesali, A. R.; Nozari, K.

    2016-07-01

    So far the basic physical properties of matter forming a thin accretion disc in the static and spherically symmetric space-time metric of the vacuum f(R) modified gravity models (Pun et al. in Phys. Rev. D 78:024043, 2008) and building radiative models of thin accretion disks for both Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes in f(R) gravity (Perez et al. in Astron. Astrophys. 551:4, 2013) were addressed properly. Also von Zeipel surfaces and convective instabilities in f(R)-Schwarzschild(Kerr) background have been investigated recently (Alipour et al. in Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 454:1992, 2015). In this streamline, here we study the effects of radial and angular pressure gradients on thick accretion disks in Schwarzschild geometries in a constant curvature f(R) modified gravity. Since thick accretion disks have high accretion rate, we study configuration and structure of thick disks by focusing on the effect of pressure gradient on formation of the disks. We clarify our study by assuming two types of equation of state: polytropic and Clapeyron equation of states.

  17. Spectral variability of classical T Tauri stars accreting in an unstable regime

    Kurosawa, Ryuichi

    2013-01-01

    Classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) are variable in different time-scales. One type of variability is possibly connected with the accretion of matter through the Rayleigh-Taylor instability that occurs at the interface between an accretion disc and a stellar magnetosphere. In this regime, matter accretes in a several temporarily formed accretion streams or `tongues' which appear in random locations, and produce stochastic photometric and line variability. We use the results of global three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of matter flows in both stable and unstable accretion regimes to calculate time-dependent hydrogen line profiles and study their variability behaviours. In the stable regime, some hydrogen lines (e.g. H-beta, H-gamma, H-delta, Pa-beta and Br-gamma) show a redshifted absorption component only during a fraction of a stellar rotation period, and its occurrence is periodic. However, in the unstable regime, the redshifted absorption component is present rather persistently during a whole s...

  18. Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability of a Membraneless, Sinusoidal Gas Interface

    Motl, Bradley

    2005-11-01

    Results are presented from a series of shock tube experiments studying the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) for the case of a 2-D single mode gas interface. The membraneless interface is formed by the head-on flow of nitrogen, seeded with acetone, and sulfur-hexafluoride which creates a stagnation surface. A sinusoidal interface is created by oscillating two rectangular pistons that are initially flush with the shock tube walls. The RMI is studied for varying incident shock strengths (1.3 <=M <= 4) by imaging the interface with planar laser-induced fluorescence, once immediately before shock arrival and at two different post-shock times. The experimental images and the growth rates of non-dimensionalized geometrical features are compared to numerical simulations using the Raptor code (LLNL) which takes advantage of the Piecewise Linear Method (PLM) with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) to solve the Navier-Stokes equations.

  19. Cluster Close Separation at the Bow Shock Campaign: Initial Results.

    Balikhin, M. A.; Sagdeev, R.; Walker, S. N.; Malkov, M.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Doss, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Cluster close separation at the terrestrial bow shock campaign was aimed at probing the terrestrial bow shock front using multi-scale spacecraft separations. The closest separation (structure of the magnetic ramp. It is shown that the magnetic field perturbations observed within the ramp along the shock normal possess spatial scales a few times shorter than the ramp region itself, and are accompanied by variations in the electric field with magnitudes of a few tens mV/m. Using dual spacecraft measurements enables us to show that in the plane of the shock front the characteristic width of these structures corresponds to electron scales. Comparison of the magnetic field profile obtained from Cluster 3 and 4 indicates possibility that the initial stage of the front reformation is observed. However alternative explanations ( kinetic instabilities, corrugation instability) are also discussed.

  20. A radiation-hydrodynamic model of accretion columns for ultra-luminous X-ray pulsars

    Kawashima, Tomohisa; Ohsuga, Ken; Ogawa, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    Prompted by the recent discovery of pulsed emission from an ultra-luminous X-ray source, M82 X-2 ("ULX-pulsar"), we perform a two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulation of a super-critical accretion flow onto a neutron star through a narrow accretion column. We set an accretion column with a cone shape filled with tenuous gas with density of $10^{-4} {\\rm g}~ {\\rm cm}^{-3}$ above a neutron star and solve the two dimensional gas motion and radiative transfer within the column. The side boundaries are set such that radiation can freely escape, while gas cannot. Since the initial gas layer is not in a hydrostatic balance, the column gas falls onto the neutron-star surface, thereby a shock being generated. As a result, the accretion column is composed of two regions: an upper, nearly free-fall region and a lower settling region, as was noted by Basko \\& Sunyaev (1976). The average accretion rate is very high; ${\\dot M}\\sim 10^{2-3} L_{\\rm E}/c^2$ (with $L_{\\rm E}$ being the Eddington luminosity), and s...

  1. Self-Similar Solutions for Viscous and Resistive Advection Dominated Accretion Flows

    Kazem Faghei

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, self-similar solutions of resistive advection dominated accretion flows (ADAF) in the presence of a pure azimuthal magnetic field are investigated. The mechanism of energy dissipation is assumed to be the viscosity and the magnetic diffusivity due to turbulence in the accretion flow. It is assumed that the magnetic diffusivity and the kinematic viscosity are not constant and vary by position and -prescription is used for them. In order to solve the integrated equations that govern the behavior of the accretion flow, a self-similar method is used. The solutions show that the structure of accretion flow depends on the magnetic field and the magnetic diffusivity. As the radial infall velocity and the temperature of the flow increase by magnetic diffusivity, the rotational velocity decreases. Also, the rotational velocity for all selected values of magnetic diffusivity and magnetic field is sub-Keplerian. The solutions show that there is a certain amount of magnetic field for which rotational velocity of the flow becomes zero. This amount of the magnetic field depends upon the gas properties of the disc, such as adiabatic index and viscosity, magnetic diffusivity, and advection parameters. The mass accretion rate increases by adding the magnetic diffusivity and the solutions show that in high magnetic pressure, the ratio of the mass accretion rate to the Bondi accretion rate is reduced with an increase in magnetic pressure. Also, the study of Lundquist and magnetic Reynolds numbers based on resistivity indicates that the linear growth of magnetorotational instability (MRI) of the flow reduces by resistivity. This property is qualitatively consistent with resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations.

  2. Ringed Accretion Disks: Equilibrium Configurations

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate a model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the general relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can then be determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We present also a perturbation analysis based on evolution of the oscillating components of the ringed disk. The dynamics of the unstable phases of the ringed disk evolution seems to be promising in relation to high-energy phenomena demonstrated in active galactic nuclei.

  3. Numerical Simulations Of Particle Acceleration In Relativistic Shocks With Application To AGN Central Engines

    Quenby, J; Quenby, John; Begley, Athina Meli & Alison

    2001-01-01

    Numerical modelling is performed for extreme relativistic parallel shocks with upstream Lorentz factor Gamma=50. Assuming the scattering is either large angle or over pitch angles ~ Gamma^(-1), spectral flattening and shock aaceleration speed-up is found. The energy gain for the first shock cycle is ~ Gamma^2. The likely output from relativistic shocks due to the infall from the accretion disk to the AGN black hole is computed. Neutrinos from proton-gamma interactions may be detectable with planned neutrino telescopes but the gamma-ray output may contribute only 1/100 th of the observed 3C273 flux.

  4. Simulation studies on hydrodynamic instabilities in inertial confinement fusion

    Hydrodynamic simulation code that is based on the cubic interpolated pseudo-particle (CIP) scheme and the model of the equation of state is developed to analyze the experimental results and the effects of the instabilities in the inertial confinement fusion. Shock structure and target acceleration by laser ablation is simulated to good accuracy with the code. (author)

  5. A variable efficiency for thin disk black hole accretion

    Reynolds, C S; Reynolds, Christopher S; Armitage, Philip J.

    2001-01-01

    We explore the presence of torques at the inner edges of geometrically-thin black hole accretion disks using 3-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations in a pseudo-Newtonian potential. By varying the saturation level of the magnetorotational instability that leads to angular momentum transport, we show that the dynamics of gas inside the radius of marginal stability varies depending upon the magnetic field strength just outside that radius. Weak fields are unable to causally connect material within the plunging region to the rest of the disk, and zero torque is an approximately correct boundary condition at the radius of marginal stability. Stronger fields, which we obtain artificially but which may occur physically within more complete disk models, are able to couple at least some parts of the plunging region to the rest of the disk. In this case, angular momentum (and implicitly energy) is extracted from the material in the plunging region. Furthermore, the magnetic coupling to the plunging region ...

  6. Connections Between Local and Global Turbulence in Accretion Disks

    Sorathia, Kareem A; Armitage, Philip J

    2010-01-01

    We analyze a suite of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion disk simulations in order to determine whether scaling laws for turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability, discovered via local shearing box studies, are globally robust. The simulations model geometrically-thin disks with zero net magnetic flux and no explicit resistivity or viscosity. We show that the local Maxwell stress is correlated with the self-generated local vertical magnetic field in a manner that is similar to that found in local simulations. Moreover, local patches of vertical field are strong enough to stimulate and control the strength of angular momentum transport across much of the disk. We demonstrate the importance of magnetic linkages (through the low-density corona) between different regions of the disk in determining the local field, and suggest a new convergence requirement for global simulations -- the vertical extent of the corona must be fully captured and resolved. Finally, we examine the temporal convergen...

  7. Resistivity-driven State Changes in Vertically Stratified Accretion Disks

    Simon, Jacob B; Beckwith, Kris

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect of shear viscosity and Ohmic resistivity on the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in vertically stratified accretion disks through a series of local simulations computed with the Athena code. First, we use a series of unstratified shearing box simulations to calibrate the effects of physical dissipation as a function of resolution and background field strength; we find that the effect of the magnetic Prandtl number, Pm = viscosity/resistivity, on the turbulence is captured by ~32 grid zones per disk scale height, H. In agreement with previous results, our stratified disk calculations are characterized by a subthermal, predominately toroidal magnetic field that produces MRI-driven turbulence for |z| < 2 H. Above |z| = 2 H, magnetic pressure dominates and the field is buoyantly unstable. In addition to the turbulent fields, mean radial and toroidal fields are generated near the mid-plane and subsequently rise through the disk. The polarity of the mean field switches on a roughly 1...

  8. Some challenges and directions for next generation accretion disc theory

    Blackman, Eric G

    2015-01-01

    Accretion disc theory is far less developed than that of stellar evolution, although a similarly mature phenomenological picture is ultimately desired. While conceptual progress from the interplay of theory and numerical simulations has amplified awareness of the role of magnetic fields in angular momentum transport, there remains a significant gap between the output of magneto-rotational instability (MRI) simulations and the synthesis of lessons learned into improved practical models. If discs are turbulent, then axisymmetric models must be recognized to be sensible only as mean field theories. Such is the case for the wonderfully practical and widely used framework of Shakura-Sunyaev (SS73). This model is most justifiable when the radial angular momentum transport dominates in discs and the transport is assumed to take the form of a local viscosity. However, the importance of large scale fields in coronae and jets and numerical evidence from MRI simulations points to a significant fraction of transport bein...

  9. On the thermal stability of transonic accretion discs

    Szuszkiewicz, E; Szuszkiewicz, Ewa; Miller, John C.

    1997-01-01

    Nonlinear time-dependent calculations have been carried out in order to study the evolution of the thermal instability for optically thick, transonic, slim accretion discs around black holes. In the present calculations we have investigated only the original version of the slim disc model with low viscosity. This version does not yet contain several important non-local effects but our aim is to use it as a standard reference against which to compare the results from forthcoming studies in which additional effects will be added one by one thus giving a systematic way of understanding the contribution from each of them. A range of results for different cases is presented showing a number of interesting features. One preliminary conclusion is that the stabilizing effect of advection seems not to be strong enough in these low viscosity models to allow for limit cycle behaviour to occur.

  10. Interaction of weak shock waves with cylindrical and spherical gas inhomogeneities

    Haas, J.-F.; Sturtevant, B.

    1987-01-01

    The interaction of a plane weak shock wave with a single discrete gaseous inhomogeneity is studied as a model of the mechanisms by which finite-amplitude waves in random media generate turbulence and intensify mixing. The experiments are treated as an example of the shock-induced Rayleigh-Taylor instability. or Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, with large initial distortions of the gas interfaces. The inhomogeneities are made by filling large soap bubbles and cylindrical refraction cells (5 cm d...

  11. Collisionless electrostatic shocks

    Andersen, H.K.; Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla;

    1970-01-01

    An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth......An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth...

  12. Studies of accreting and non-accreting neutron stars

    This thesis is divided into three parts. Part A is devoted to the statistical study of radio pulsars, in which the observations of nearly all known pulsars are used to study their properties such as magnetic field strengths, rotation periods, space velocities as well as their evolution in time. Part B is devoted to the modelling and understanding of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) in low-mass X-ray binaries. But, this study is mainly concerned with the accretion process in these sources, and one may hope to learn more about the neutron stars in these systems when the understanding of QPO is improved. In Part C the problem of 'super-Eddington luminosities' in X-ray burst sources is treated. The idea is that a good understanding of the burst process, which takes place directly at the surface of the neutron star, will eventually improve our understanding of the neutron stars themselves. (Auth.)

  13. On the Gravitational Stability of Gravito-turbulent Accretion Disks

    Lin, Min-Kai; Kratter, Kaitlin M.

    2016-06-01

    Low mass, self-gravitating accretion disks admit quasi-steady, “gravito-turbulent” states in which cooling balances turbulent viscous heating. However, numerical simulations show that gravito-turbulence cannot be sustained beyond dynamical timescales when the cooling rate or corresponding turbulent viscosity is too large. The result is disk fragmentation. We motivate and quantify an interpretation of disk fragmentation as the inability to maintain gravito-turbulence due to formal secondary instabilities driven by: (1) cooling, which reduces pressure support; and/or (2) viscosity, which reduces rotational support. We analyze the axisymmetric gravitational stability of viscous, non-adiabatic accretion disks with internal heating, external irradiation, and cooling in the shearing box approximation. We consider parameterized cooling functions in 2D and 3D disks, as well as radiative diffusion in 3D. We show that generally there is no critical cooling rate/viscosity below which the disk is formally stable, although interesting limits appear for unstable modes with lengthscales on the order of the disk thickness. We apply this new linear theory to protoplanetary disks subject to gravito-turbulence modeled as an effective viscosity, and cooling regulated by dust opacity. We find that viscosity renders the disk beyond ∼60 au dynamically unstable on radial lengthscales a few times the local disk thickness. This is coincident with the empirical condition for disk fragmentation based on a maximum sustainable stress. We suggest turbulent stresses can play an active role in realistic disk fragmentation by removing rotational stabilization against self-gravity, and that the observed transition in behavior from gravito-turbulent to fragmenting may reflect instability of the gravito-turbulent state itself.

  14. Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars

    Pulsar astrophysics has come a long way in the 40 years since the discovery of the first pulsar by Bell and Hewish. From humble beginnings as bits of 'scruff' on the Cambridge University group's chart recorder paper, the field of pulsars has blossomed into a major area of mainstream astrophysics, with an unparalleled diversity of astrophysical applications. These range from Nobel-celebrated testing of general relativity in the strong-field regime to constraining the equation-of-state of ultradense matter; from probing the winds of massive stars to globular cluster evolution. Previous notable books on the subject of pulsars have tended to focus on some particular topic in the field. The classic text Pulsars by Manchester and Taylor (1977 San Francisco, CA: Freeman) targeted almost exclusively rotation-powered radio pulsars, while the Meszaros book High-Energy Radiation from Magnetized Neutron Stars (1992 Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press) considered both rotation- and accretion-powered neutron stars, but focused on their radiation at x-ray energies and above. The recent book Neutron Stars 1 by Haensel et al (2007 Berlin: Springer) considers only the equation of state and neutron-star structure. Into this context appears Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars, by Pranab Ghosh. In contrast to other books, here the author takes an encyclopedic approach and attempts to synthesize practically all of the major aspects of the two main types of neutron star. This is ambitious. The only comparable undertaking is the useful but more elementary Lyne and Graham-Smith text Pulsar Astronomy (1998 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), or Compact Stellar X-ray Sources (eds Lewin and van der Klis, 2006 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), an anthology of technical review articles that also includes black hole topics. Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars thus fills a clear void in the field, providing a readable, graduate-level book that covers nearly everything you

  15. Turbulence in Global Simulations of Magnetized Thin Accretion Disks

    Beckwith, Kris; Simon, Jacob B

    2011-01-01

    We use a global magnetohydrodynamic simulation of a geometrically thin accretion disk to investigate the locality and detailed structure of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI). The model disk has an aspect ratio $H / R \\simeq 0.07$, and is computed using a higher-order Godunov MHD scheme with accurate fluxes. We focus the analysis on late times after the system has lost direct memory of its initial magnetic flux state. The disk enters a saturated turbulent state in which the fastest growing modes of the MRI are well-resolved, with a relatively high efficiency of angular momentum transport $ > \\approx 2.5 \\times 10^{-2}$. The accretion stress peaks at the disk midplane, above and below which exists a moderately magnetized corona with patches of superthermal field. By analyzing the spatial and temporal correlations of the turbulent fields, we find that the spatial structure of the magnetic and kinetic energy is moderately well-localized (with correlation lengths along the major axis of ...

  16. Boundary Between Stable and Unstable Regimes of Accretion

    Blinova A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the boundary between stable and unstable regimes of accretion and its dependence on different parameters. Simulations were performed using a “cubed sphere" code with high grid resolution (244 grid points in the azimuthal direction, which is twice as high as that used in our earlier studies. We chose a very low viscosity value, with alpha-parameter α=0.02. We observed from the simulations that the boundary strongly depends on the ratio between magnetospheric radius rm (where the magnetic stress in the magnetosphere matches the matter stress in the disk and corotation radius rcor (where the Keplerian velocity in the disk is equal to the angular velocity of the star. For a small misalignment angle of the dipole field, Θ = 5°, accretion is unstable if rcor/rm> 1.35, and is stable otherwise. In cases of a larger misalignment angle of the dipole, Θ = 20°, instability occurs at slightly larger values, rcor/rm> 1.41

  17. On the Stability of Elliptical Vortices in Accretion Discs

    Lesur, G

    2009-01-01

    (Abriged) The existence of large-scale and long-lived 2D vortices in accretion discs has been debated for more than a decade. They appear spontaneously in several 2D disc simulations and they are known to accelerate planetesimal formation through a dust trapping process. However, the issue of the stability of these structures to the imposition of 3D disturbances is still not fully understood, and it casts doubts on their long term survival. Aim: We present new results on the 3D stability of elliptical vortices embedded in accretion discs, based on a linear analysis and several non-linear simulations. Methods: We derive the linearised equations governing the 3D perturbations in the core of an elliptical vortex, and we show that they can be reduced to a Floquet problem. We solve this problem numerically in the astrophysical regime and we present several analytical limits for which the mechanism responsible for the instability can be explained. Finally, we compare the results of the linear analysis to some high ...

  18. Free-floating planets from core accretion theory: microlensing predictions

    Ma, Sizheng; Ida, Shigeru; Zhu, Wei; Lin, Douglas N C

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the microlensing event rate and typical time-scales for the free-floating planet (FFP) population that is predicted by the core accretion theory of planet formation. The event rate is found to be ~$1.8\\times 10^{-3}$ of that for the stellar population. While the stellar microlensing event time-scale peaks at around 20 days, the median time-scale for FFP events (~0.1 day) is much shorter. Our values for the event rate and the median time-scale are significantly smaller than those required to explain the \\cite{Sum+11} result, by factors of ~13 and ~16, respectively. The inclusion of planets at wide separations does not change the results significantly. This discrepancy may be too significant for standard versions of both the core accretion theory and the gravitational instability model to explain satisfactorily. Therefore, either a modification to the planet formation theory is required, or other explanations to the excess of short-time-scale microlensing events are needed. Our predictions can be t...

  19. Accretion, Primordial Black Holes and Standard Cosmology

    Nayak, Bibekananda; Singh, Lambodar Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Primordial Black Holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation time of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included.Thus depending on accretion efficiency more and more number of primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the idea that the primordial black holes are the proper candidate for dark matter.

  20. Accretion, primordial black holes and standard cosmology

    B Nayak; P Singh

    2011-01-01

    Primordial black holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation times of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included. Thus, depending on accretion efficiency, more primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the conjecture that the primordial black holes are the proper candidates for dark matter.