WorldWideScience

Sample records for accretion planet-system

  1. Spherical Accretion

    Sari, Re'em; Goldreich, Peter

    2006-01-01

    We compare different examples of spherical accretion onto a gravitating mass. Limiting cases include the accretion of a collisionally dominated fluid and the accretion of collisionless particles. We derive expressions for the accretion rate and density profile for semi-collisional accretion which bridges the gap between these limiting cases. Particle crossing of the Hill sphere during the formation of the outer planets is likely to have taken place in the semi-collisional regime.

  2. Kepler-108: A Mutually Inclined Giant Planet System

    Mills, Sean M

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of well studied giant-planet systems, including the Solar System, are nearly coplanar which implies dissipation within a primordial gas disk. however, intrinsic instability may lead to planet-planet scattering, which often produces non-coplanar, eccentric orbits. Planet scattering theories have been developed to explain observed high eccentricity systems and also hot Jupiters; thus far their predictions for mutual inclination (I) have barely been tested. Here we characterize a highly mutually-inclined (I ~ 15-60 degrees), moderately eccentric (e >~ 0.1) giant planet system: Kepler-108. This system consists of two approximately Saturn-mass planets with periods of ~49 and ~190 days around a star with a wide (~300AU) binary companion in an orbital configuration inconsistent with a purely disk migration origin.

  3. What do Multiple Planet Systems Teach us about Planet Formation?

    Ford, Eric B.

    2005-01-01

    For centuries, our knowledge of planetary systems and ideas about planet formation were based on a single example, our solar system. During the last thirteen years, the discovery of ~170 planetary systems has ushered in a new era for astronomy. I review the surprising properties of extrasolar planetary systems and discuss how they are reshaping theories of planet formation. I focus on how multiple planet systems constrain the mechanisms proposed to explain the large eccentricities typical of ...

  4. On the Detection of Non-Transiting Hot Jupiters in Multiple-Planet Systems

    Millholland, Sarah; Laughlin, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    We outline a photometric method for detecting the presence of a non-transiting short-period giant planet in a planetary system harboring one or more longer period transiting planets. Within a prospective system of the type that we consider, a hot Jupiter on an interior orbit inclined to the line-of-sight signals its presence through approximately sinusoidal full-phase photometric variations in the stellar light curve, correlated with astrometrically induced transit timing variations for exterior transiting planets. Systems containing a hot Jupiter along with a low-mass outer planet or planets on inclined orbits are a predicted hallmark of in situ accretion for hot Jupiters, and their presence can thus be used to test planetary formation theories. We outline the prospects for detecting non-transiting hot Jupiters using photometric data from typical Kepler objects of interest (KOIs). As a demonstration of the technique, we perform a brief assessment of Kepler candidates and identify a potential non-transiting h...

  5. On the Detection of Non-transiting Hot Jupiters in Multiple-planet Systems

    Millholland, Sarah; Wang, Songhu; Laughlin, Gregory

    2016-05-01

    We outline a photometric method for detecting the presence of a non-transiting short-period giant planet in a planetary system harboring one or more longer-period transiting planets. Within a prospective system of the type that we consider, a hot Jupiter on an interior orbit inclined to the line of sight signals its presence through approximately sinusoidal full-phase photometric variations in the stellar light curve, correlated with astrometrically induced transit timing variations for exterior transiting planets. Systems containing a hot Jupiter along with a low-mass outer planet or planets on inclined orbits are a predicted hallmark of in situ accretion for hot Jupiters, and their presence can thus be used to test planetary formation theories. We outline the prospects for detecting non-transiting hot Jupiters using photometric data from typical Kepler objects of interest (KOIs). As a demonstration of the technique, we perform a brief assessment of Kepler candidates and identify a potential non-transiting hot Jupiter in the KOI-1822 system. Candidate non-transiting hot Jupiters can be readily confirmed with a small number of Doppler velocity observations, even for stars with V ≳ 14.

  6. Architecture and Dynamics of Kepler's Candidate Multiple Transiting Planet Systems

    Lissauer, Jack J; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Batalha, Natalie M; Borucki, William J; Bryson, Stephen T; Caldwell, Douglas A; Dunham, Edward W; Ford, Eric B; Fortney, Jonathan J; Gautier, Thomas N; Holman, Matthew J; Jenkins, Jon M; Koch, David G; Latham, David W; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Morehead, Robert; Rowe, Jason; Quintana, Elisa V; Sasselov, Dimitar; Shporer, Avi; Steffen, Jason H

    2011-01-01

    Borucki et al. 2011 (ApJ, submitted) report on characteristics of over 1200 candidate transiting planets orbiting nearly 1000 Kepler spacecraft target stars detected in the first four months of spacecraft data. Included among these targets are 115 targets with two transiting planet candidates, 45 targets with three, 8 with four, and one each with five and six sets of transit signatures. We characterize herein the dynamical properties of these candidate multi-planet systems. We find that virtually all systems are stable, as tested by numerical integration assuming a mass-radius relationship. The distribution of observed period ratios is also clustered just outside resonances, particularly the 2:1 resonance. Neither of these characteristics would emerge if the systems were significantly contaminated with false positives, and these combined with other considerations strongly suggest that the majority of these multi-candidate systems are true planetary systems. Using the observed multiplicity frequencies (e.g., t...

  7. A Test of Stellar Cohabitation in Multiple Transiting Planet Systems

    Morehead, Robert C.; Ford, E. B.

    2013-01-01

    The Kepler mission has discovered over 2,300 exoplanet candidates, including more than 885 associated with target stars with multiple transiting planet candidates. While these putative multiple planet systems are predicted to have an extremely low false positive rate, it is important to test what fraction are indeed transiting a single star and what fraction are some sort of blend (e.g., one transiting planet and an eclipsing binary, or two planet-hosting stars blended within the photometric aperture). We perform such a test for stellar cohabitation using the observed distribution of ξ, the period-normalized transit duration ratio of pairs of transiting planet candidates. We developed a Bayesian framework to estimate the probability that two candidates orbit the target star based on the observed orbital periods and light curve properties with an emphasis on ξ. For priors distributions, we use empirical planet, binary star, and hierarchical triple star occurrence rates and galactic population synthesis models. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we calculate the implied distributions of ξ for all plausible blend scenarios; i.e., a planet around the target star and a background or physically associated eclipsing binary star, a planet around the the target star and a planet around a background or physically associated secondary star, as well as a single star with two planets and no blend. Finally, we compute the posterior probability that a given pair of transiting planet candidates are indeed a pair of planets in orbit around the target star given the observed values. We present the results of our test for a selection Kepler multiple planet candidates and for systems confirmed through other methods, such as transit timing variations. We demonstrate the utility of this technique for the confirmation and characterization of multiple transiting planet systems.

  8. Hoyle-Lyttleton Accretion onto Accretion Disks

    Fukue, Jun; Ioroi, Masayuki

    1999-01-01

    We investigate Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion for the case where the central source is a luminous accretion disk. %In classical Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion onto a ``spherical'' source, accretion takes place in an axially symmetric manner around a so-called accretion axis. The accretion rate of the classical Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion onto a non-luminous object and $\\Gamma$ the luminosity of the central object normalized by the Eddington luminosity. %If the central object is a compact star with a lumi...

  9. Are retrograde resonances possible in multi-planet systems?

    Gayon, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Most of multi-planetary systems detected until now are characterized by hot-Jupiters close to their central star and moving on eccentric orbits. Hence, from a dynamical point of view, compact multi-planetary systems form a particular class of the general N-body problem (with N >3). Moreover, extrasolar planets are up to now found in prograde orbital motions about their host star and often in mean motion resonances (MMR). In the present paper, we investigate theoretically in a first step a new stabilizing mechanism particularly suitable for compact two-planet systems. Such a mechanism involves counter-revolving orbits forming a retrograde MMR. In a second step, we study the feasibility of planetary systems to host counter-revolving planets. In order to characterize dynamical behaviors of multi-dimensional planetary systems in the vicinity of observations, we apply our technique of global dynamics analysis based on the MEGNO indicator (Mean Exponential Growth factor of Nearby Orbits) that provides the fine stru...

  10. Three Body Resonance Overlap in Closely Spaced Multiple Planet Systems

    Quillen, Alice C

    2011-01-01

    We compute the strengths of zero-th order (in eccentricity) three-body resonances for a co-planar and low eccentricity multiple planet system. In a numerical integration we illustrate that slowly moving Laplace angles are matched by variations in semi-major axes among three bodies with the outer two bodies moving in the same direction and the inner one moving in the opposite direction, as would be expected from the two quantities that are conserved in the three-body resonance. A resonance overlap criterion is derived for the closely and equally spaced, equal mass system with three-body resonances overlapping when interplanetary separation is greater than an order unity factor times the planet mass to the one quarter power. We find that three-body resonances are sufficiently dense to account for wander in semi-major axis seen in numerical integrations of closely spaced systems and they are likely the cause of instability of these systems. For interplanetary separations outside the overlap region, stability tim...

  11. Using Approximate Bayesian Computation to Probe Multiple Transiting Planet Systems

    Morehead, Robert C.

    2015-08-01

    The large number of multiple transiting planet systems (MTPS) uncovered with Kepler suggest a population of well-aligned planetary systems. Previously, the distribution of transit duration ratios in MTPSs has been used to place constraints on the distributions of mutual orbital inclinations and orbital eccentricities in these systems. However, degeneracies with the underlying number of planets in these systems pose added challenges and make explicit likelihood functions intractable. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) offers an intriguing path forward. In its simplest form, ABC proposes from a prior on the population parameters to produce synthetic datasets via a physically-motivated model. Samples are accepted or rejected based on how close they come to reproducing the actual observed dataset to some tolerance. The accepted samples then form a robust and useful approximation of the true posterior distribution of the underlying population parameters. We will demonstrate the utility of ABC in exoplanet populations by presenting new constraints on the mutual inclination and eccentricity distributions in the Kepler MTPSs. We will also introduce Simple-ABC, a new open-source Python package designed for ease of use and rapid specification of general models, suitable for use in a wide variety of applications in both exoplanet science and astrophysics as a whole.

  12. K2's First Five-Planet System

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-08-01

    Whats the latest from the Kepler K2 mission? K2 has found its first planetary system containing more than three planets an exciting five-planet system located ~380 light-years from Earth!Opportunities From K2Raw K2 light curve (blue, top) and systematic corrected light curve (orange, bottom) for HIP 41378. The three deepest transits are single transits from the three outermost planet candidates. [Vanderburg et al. 2016]The original Kepler mission was enormously successful, discovering thousands of planet candidates. But one side effect of Keplers original observing technique, in which it studied the same field for four years, is that it was very good at detecting extremely faint systems systems that were often too faint to be followed up with other techniques.After Keplers mechanical failure in 2013, the K2 mission was launched, in which the spacecraft uses solar pressure to stabilize it long enough to perform an 80-day searches of each region it examines. Over the course of the K2 mission, Kepler could potentially survey up to 20 times the sky area of the original mission, providing ample opportunity to find planetary systems around bright stars. These stars may be bright enough to be followed up with other techniques.Multi-Planet SystemsTheres a catch to the 80-day observing program: the K2 mission is less likely to detect multiple planets orbiting the same star, due to the short time spent observing the system. While the original Kepler mission detected systems with up to seven planets, K2 had yet to detect systems with more than three candidates until now.Led by Andrew Vanderburg (NSF Graduate Research Fellow at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), a team of scientists recentlyanalyzed K2 observations ofthe bright star HIP 41378. Theteamfound that this F-type star hosts five potential planetary candidates!Phase-folded light curve for each of the five transiting planets in the HIP 41378 system. The outermost planet (bottom panel) may provide an

  13. Accretion Disks

    Spruit, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    This is an introduction to accretion disk theory, with emphasis on aspects relevant for X-ray Binaries and Cataclysmic Variables. The text corrects some mistakes in an earlier version, which appeared in 'Lives of Neutron Stars', A. Alpar, \\"U. Kizilo\\u glu and J. van Paradijs (eds.), Kluwer, Dordrecht (NATO ASI series, 1994).

  14. Accretion rates and accretion efficiency in AGNs

    Weihao, Bian; Yongheng, Zhao

    2003-01-01

    We used the standard geometrical thin accretion theory to obtain the accretion rates in Seyfert 1 galaxies and quasars. Combining accretion rates with the bolometric luminosity, we obtained the accretion efficiency. We found most of Seyfert 1 galaxies and radio quiet quasars have lower accretion efficiencies while most of the radio loud quasars possess higher accretion efficiencies. This finding further implies most of radio loud quasars possess Kerr black holes while Seyfert 1 galaxies and r...

  15. Tidal evolution in multiple planet systems: application to Kepler-62 and Kepler-186

    Bolmont, Emeline; Leconte, Jérémy; Correia, Alexandre; Quintana, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    A large number of observed exoplanets are part of multiple planet systems. Most of these systems are sufficiently close-in to be tidally evolving. In such systems, there is a competition between the excitation caused by planet-planet interactions and tidal damping. Using as an example two multiple planet systems, which host planets in the surface liquid water habitable zone (HZ): Kepler-62 and Kepler-186, we show the importance and effect of both planetary and stellar tides on the dynamical evolution of planets and on the climate of the HZ planets.

  16. Theory of wind accretion

    Shakura N.I.; Postnov K.A.; Kochetkova A.Yu.; Hjalmarsdotter L.

    2013-01-01

    A review of wind accretion in high-mass X-ray binaries is presented. We focus attention to different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto the neutron star: the supersonic (Bondi) accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically toward NS magnetospghere, and subsonic (settling) accretion which occurs when plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. Two regimes of accretion are separated by an X-ray luminosity of about $4\\...

  17. Evolution of Disk Accretion

    Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Strom, Stephen E.

    1999-01-01

    We review the present knowledge of disk accretion in young low mass stars, and in particular, the mass accretion rate and its evolution with time. The methods used to obtain mass accretion rates from ultraviolet excesses and emission lines are described, and the current best estimates of mass accretion rate for Classical T Tauri stars and for objects still surrounded by infalling envelopes are given. We argue that the low mass accretion rates of the latter objects require episodes of high mas...

  18. THE ANGLO-AUSTRALIAN PLANET SEARCH. XXII. TWO NEW MULTI-PLANET SYSTEMS

    We report the detection of two new planets from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search. These planets orbit two stars each previously known to host one planet. The new planet orbiting HD 142 has a period of 6005 ± 427 days, and a minimum mass of 5.3 MJup. HD 142c is thus a new Jupiter analog: a gas-giant planet with a long period and low eccentricity (e = 0.21 ± 0.07). The second planet in the HD 159868 system has a period of 352.3 ± 1.3 days and m sin i = 0.73 ± 0.05 MJup. In both of these systems, including the additional planets in the fitting process significantly reduced the eccentricity of the original planet. These systems are thus examples of how multiple-planet systems can masquerade as moderately eccentric single-planet systems.

  19. Hiding Planets Behind a Big Friend: Mutual Inclinations of Multi-Planet Systems with External Companions

    Lai, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The {\\it Kepler} mission has detected thousands of planetary systems with 1-7 transiting planets packed within 0.7~au from their host stars. There is an apparent excess of single-transit planet systems that cannot be explained by transit geometries alone, when a single planetary mutual inclination dispersion is assumed. This suggests that the observed compact planetary systems have at least two different architectures. We present a scenario where the "Kepler dichotomy" can be explained by the action of an external giant planet (or stellar) companion misaligned with the inner multi-planet system. The external companion excites mutual inclinations of the inner planets, causing such systems to appear as "Kepler singles" in transit surveys. We derive approximate analytic expressions (in various limiting regimes), calibrated with numerical calculations, for the mutual inclination excitations for various planetary systems and perturber properties (mass $m_p$, semi-major axis $a_p$ and inclination $\\theta_p$). In ge...

  20. Review: Accretion Disk Theory

    Montesinos, Matias

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I review and discuss the basic concepts of accretion disks, focused especially on the case of accretion disks around black holes. The well known alpha-model is revisited, showing the strengths and weaknesses of the model. Other turbulent viscosity prescription, based on the Reynolds number, that may improve our understanding of the accretion paradigm is discussed. A simple but efficient mathematical model of a self-gravitating accretion disk, as well as observational evidence of...

  1. Infall and accretion

    Combes, F.

    2007-01-01

    Gas infall and accretion play a fundamental role in galaxy formation, and several processes of accretion are reviewed. In particular the cold accretion may solve to some extent the angular momentum problem in disk formation, while it is aggravated by mergers. Gas accretion is one of the main actor in secular evolution: it is required to account for recurrent bar formation, and to explain the feedback cycles of formation of bulges and black holes, with correlated masses. Infall is also require...

  2. Ten New and Updated Multi-planet Systems, and a Survey of Exoplanetary Systems

    Wright, J. T.; Upadhyay, S.; Marcy, G. W.; Fischer, D. A.; Ford, Eric B.; Johnson, John Asher

    2008-01-01

    We present the latest velocities for 10 multi-planet systems, including a re-analysis of archival Keck and Lick data, resulting in improved velocities that supersede our previously published measurements. We derive updated orbital fits for ten Lick and Keck systems, including two systems (HD 11964, HD 183263) for which we provide confirmation of second planets only tentatively identified elsewhere, and two others (HD 187123, and HD 217107) for which we provide a major revision of the outer pl...

  3. M2K. II. A TRIPLE-PLANET SYSTEM ORBITING HIP 57274

    Doppler observations from Keck Observatory have revealed a triple-planet system orbiting the nearby K4V star, HIP 57274. The inner planet, HIP 57274b, is a super-Earth with Msin i = 11.6 M⊕ (0.036 MJup), an orbital period of 8.135 ± 0.004 days, and slightly eccentric orbit e = 0.19 ± 0.1. We calculate a transit probability of 6.5% for the inner planet. The second planet has Msin i = 0.4 MJup with an orbital period of 32.0 ± 0.02 days in a nearly circular orbit (e = 0.05 ± 0.03). The third planet has Msin i = 0.53 MJup with an orbital period of 432 ± 8 days (1.18 years) and an eccentricity e = 0.23 ± 0.03. This discovery adds to the number of super-Earth mass planets with M sin i ⊕ that have been detected with Doppler surveys. We find that 56% ± 18% of super-Earths are members of multi-planet systems. This is certainly a lower limit because of observational detectability limits, yet significantly higher than the fraction of Jupiter mass exoplanets, 20% ± 8%, that are members of Doppler-detected, multi-planet systems.

  4. First order resonance overlap and the stability of close two planet systems

    Deck, Katherine M; Holman, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the population of multi-planet systems with orbital period ratios 1planet systems. The Hamiltonian for two massive planets on nearly circular and nearly coplanar orbits near a first order mean motion resonance can be reduced to a one degree of freedom problem (Sessin & Ferraz Mello (1984), Wisdom (1986), Henrard et al. (1986)). Using this analytically tractable Hamiltonian, we apply the resonance overlap criterion to predict the onset of large scale chaotic motion in close two planet systems. The reduced Hamiltonian has only a weak dependence on the planetary mass ratio, and hence the overlap criterion is independent of the planetary mass ratio at lowest order. Numerical integrations confirm that the planetary mass ratio has little effect on the structure of the chaotic phase space for close orbits in the low eccentricity (e <~0.1) regime. We show numerically that orbits in the chaotic web produced primarily by first order reso...

  5. Eleven Multi-planet Systems from K2 Campaigns 1 & 2 and the Masses of Two Hot Super-Earths

    Sinukoff, Evan; Howard, Andrew W.; Petigura, Erik A.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Ciardi, David R.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Isaacson, Howard; Aller, Kimberly M.; Baranec, Christoph; Beichman, Charles A.; Hansen, Brad M. S.; Knutson, Heather A.; Law, Nicholas M.; Liu, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    We present a catalog of 11 multi-planet systems from Campaigns 1 and 2 of the K2 mission. We report the sizes and orbits of 26 planets split between seven 2-planet systems and four 3-planet systems. These planets stem from a systematic search of the K2 photometry for all dwarf stars observed by K2 in these fields. We precisely characterized the host stars with adaptive optics imaging and analysis of high-resolution optical spectra from Keck/HIRES and medium-resolution spectra from IRTF/SpeX. ...

  6. Mineral accretion in seawater

    Bozak, Ronald Richard

    2000-10-01

    By performing electrolysis in seawater a concrete-like accretion of precipitating aragonite (one crystalline form of CaCO3) and brucite (Mg(OH) 2) slowly develops onto the cathode. The accretion forms by high pH conditions caused by the reduction reactions occurring at the cathode. A solid casing of accretions over a preformed cathodic mesh has the potential for many engineering applications such as artificial reefs, sub-surface breakwaters and pipe construction. To investigate using mineral accretion as an alternative means of construction, experiments in the open coast, laboratory and ocean harbor have resulted in tables that can projected into a feasibility study. Inevitable current density variations over the cathodic framework and sensitivity to seawater hydrodynamics make accretion thickness difficult to predict and control in practice. Ideal conditions for growing a large-scale mineral accretion structure are still, clean ocean waters where low DCV power can be delivered on the order of years.

  7. On the orbital structure of the HD 82943 multi-planet system

    Baluev, Roman V.; Beaugé, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    HD 82943 hosts a mysterious multi-planet system in the 2:1 mean-motion resonance that puzzles astronomers for more than a decade. We describe our new analysis of all radial velocity data currently available for this star, including both the most recent Keck data and the older but more numerous CORALIE measurements. Here we pay a major attention to the task of optimal scheduling of the future observation of this system. Applying several optimality criteria, we demonstrate that in the forthcomi...

  8. Limits on orbit crossing planetesimals in the resonant multiple planet system, KOI-730

    Moore, Alexander; Hasan, Imran; Quillen, Alice

    2012-01-01

    A fraction of multiple planet candidate systems discovered from transits by the Kepler mission contain pairs of planet candidates that are in orbital resonance or are spaced slightly too far apart to be in resonance. We focus here on the four planet system, KOI 730, that has planet periods satisfying the ratios 8:6:4:3. By numerically integrating four planets initially in this resonant configuration in proximity to an initially exterior cold planetesimal disk, we find that of the order of a M...

  9. Eight planets in four multi-planet systems via transit timing variations in 1350 days

    Analysis of the transit timing variations (TTVs) of candidate pairs near mean-motion resonances (MMRs) is an effective method to confirm planets. Hitherto, 68 planets in 34 multi-planet systems have been confirmed via TTVs. We analyze the TTVs of all candidates from the most recent Kepler data with a time span of upto about 1350 days (Q0-Q15). The anti-correlations of TTV signals and the mass upper limits of candidate pairs in the same system are calculated using an improved method suitable for long-period TTVs. If the false alarm probability of a candidate pair is less than 10–3 and the mass upper limit for each candidate is less than 13 M J, we confirm them as planets in the same system. Finally, eight planets in four multi-planet systems are confirmed via analysis of their TTVs. All of the four planet pairs are near first-order MMRs, including KOI-2672 near 2:1 MMR and KOI-1236, KOI-1563, and KOI-2038 near 3:2 MMR. Four planets have relatively long orbital periods (>35 days). KOI-2672.01 has an orbital period of 88.51658 days and a fit mass of 17 M ⊕. To date, it is the longest-period planet confirmed near a first-order MMR via TTVs.

  10. Orbital Stability of Multi-planet Systems: Behavior at High Masses

    Morrison, Sarah J.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.

    2016-06-01

    In the coming years, high-contrast imaging surveys are expected to reveal the characteristics of the population of wide-orbit, massive, exoplanets. To date, a handful of wide planetary mass companions are known, but only one such multi-planet system has been discovered: HR 8799. For low mass planetary systems, multi-planet interactions play an important role in setting system architecture. In this paper, we explore the stability of these high mass, multi-planet systems. While empirical relationships exist that predict how system stability scales with planet spacing at low masses, we show that extrapolating to super-Jupiter masses can lead to up to an order of magnitude overestimate of stability for massive, tightly packed systems. We show that at both low and high planet masses, overlapping mean-motion resonances trigger chaotic orbital evolution, which leads to system instability. We attribute some of the difference in behavior as a function of mass to the increasing importance of second order resonances at high planet–star mass ratios. We use our tailored high mass planet results to estimate the maximum number of planets that might reside in double component debris disk systems, whose gaps may indicate the presence of massive bodies.

  11. Resonant capture of multiple planet systems under dissipation and stable orbital configurations

    Voyatzis, George

    2016-01-01

    Migration of planetary systems caused by the action of dissipative forces may lead the planets to be trapped in a resonance. In this work we study the conditions and the dynamics of such resonant trapping. Particularly, we are interested in finding out whether resonant capture ends up in a long-term stable planetary configuration. For two planet systems we associate the evolution of migration with the existence of families of periodic orbits in the phase space of the three-body problem. The family of circular periodic orbits exhibits a gap at the 2:1 resonance and an instability and bifurcation at the 3:1 resonance. These properties explain the high probability of 2:1 and 3:1 resonant capture at low eccentricities. Furthermore, we study the resonant capture of three-planet systems. We show that such a resonant capture is possible and can occur under particular conditions. Then, from the migration path of the system, stable three-planet configurations, either symmetric or asymmetric, can be determined.

  12. The dynamical evolution of multi-planet systems in open clusters

    Hao, W; Spurzem, R

    2013-01-01

    The majority of stars form in star clusters and many are thought to have planetary companions. We demonstrate that multi-planet systems are prone to instabilities as a result of frequent stellar encounters in these star clusters much more than single-planet systems. The cumulative effect of close and distant encounters on these planetary systems are investigated using Monte Carlo scattering experiments. We consider two types of planetary configurations orbiting Sun-like stars: (i) five Jupiter-mass planets in the semi-major axis range 1-42 AU orbiting a Solar mass star, with orbits that are initially co-planar, circular, and separated by 10 mutual Hill radii, and (ii) the four gas giants of our Solar system. Planets with short orbital periods are not directly affected by encountering stars. However, secular evolution of perturbed systems may result in the ejection of the innermost planets or in physical collisions of the innermost planets with the host star, up to many thousands of years after a stellar encou...

  13. Eight planets in four multi-planet systems via transit timing variations in 1350 days

    Yang, Ming; Liu, Hui-Gen; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Jia-Yi; Zhou, Ji-Lin, E-mail: zhoujl@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: huigen@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy and Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics in Ministry of Education, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of the transit timing variations (TTVs) of candidate pairs near mean-motion resonances (MMRs) is an effective method to confirm planets. Hitherto, 68 planets in 34 multi-planet systems have been confirmed via TTVs. We analyze the TTVs of all candidates from the most recent Kepler data with a time span of upto about 1350 days (Q0-Q15). The anti-correlations of TTV signals and the mass upper limits of candidate pairs in the same system are calculated using an improved method suitable for long-period TTVs. If the false alarm probability of a candidate pair is less than 10{sup –3} and the mass upper limit for each candidate is less than 13 M {sub J}, we confirm them as planets in the same system. Finally, eight planets in four multi-planet systems are confirmed via analysis of their TTVs. All of the four planet pairs are near first-order MMRs, including KOI-2672 near 2:1 MMR and KOI-1236, KOI-1563, and KOI-2038 near 3:2 MMR. Four planets have relatively long orbital periods (>35 days). KOI-2672.01 has an orbital period of 88.51658 days and a fit mass of 17 M {sub ⊕}. To date, it is the longest-period planet confirmed near a first-order MMR via TTVs.

  14. Orbital Stability of Multi-Planet Systems: Behavior at High Masses

    Morrison, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    In the coming years, high contrast imaging surveys are expected to reveal the characteristics of the population of wide-orbit, massive, exoplanets. To date, a handful of wide planetary mass companions are known, but only one such multi-planet system has been discovered: HR8799. For low mass planetary systems, multi-planet interactions play an important role in setting system architecture. In this paper, we explore the stability of these high mass, multi-planet systems. While empirical relationships exist that predict how system stability scales with planet spacing at low masses, we show that extrapolating to super-Jupiter masses can lead to up to an order of magnitude overestimate of stability for massive, tightly packed systems. We show that at both low and high planet masses, overlapping mean motion resonances trigger chaotic orbital evolution, which leads to system instability. We attribute some of the difference in behavior as a function of mass to the increasing importance of second order resonances at h...

  15. Theory of wind accretion

    Shakura N.I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of wind accretion in high-mass X-ray binaries is presented. We focus attention to different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto the neutron star: the supersonic (Bondi accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically toward NS magnetospghere, and subsonic (settling accretion which occurs when plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. Two regimes of accretion are separated by an X-ray luminosity of about 4 × 1036 erg/s. In the subsonic case, which sets in at low luminosities, a hot quasi-spherical shell must be formed around the magnetosphere, and the actual accretion rate onto NS is determined by ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We calculate the rate of plasma entry the magnetopshere and the angular momentum transfer in the shell due to turbulent viscosity appearing in the convective differentially rotating shell. We also discuss and calculate the structure of the magnetospheric boundary layer where the angular momentum between the rotating magnetosphere and the base of the differentially rotating quasi-spherical shell takes place. We show how observations of equilibrium X-ray pulsars Vela X-1 and GX 301-2 can be used to estimate dimensionless parameters of the subsonic settling accretion theory, and obtain the width of the magnetospheric boundary layer for these pulsars.

  16. Theory of wind accretion

    Shakura, N. I.; Postnov, K. A.; Kochetkova, A. Yu.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.

    2014-01-01

    A review of wind accretion in high-mass X-ray binaries is presented. We focus attention to different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto the neutron star: the supersonic (Bondi) accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically toward NS magnetospghere, and subsonic (settling) accretion which occurs when plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. Two regimes of accretion are separated by an X-ray luminosity of about 4 × 1036 erg/s. In the subsonic case, which sets in at low luminosities, a hot quasi-spherical shell must be formed around the magnetosphere, and the actual accretion rate onto NS is determined by ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We calculate the rate of plasma entry the magnetopshere and the angular momentum transfer in the shell due to turbulent viscosity appearing in the convective differentially rotating shell. We also discuss and calculate the structure of the magnetospheric boundary layer where the angular momentum between the rotating magnetosphere and the base of the differentially rotating quasi-spherical shell takes place. We show how observations of equilibrium X-ray pulsars Vela X-1 and GX 301-2 can be used to estimate dimensionless parameters of the subsonic settling accretion theory, and obtain the width of the magnetospheric boundary layer for these pulsars.

  17. Scaling laws to quantify tidal dissipation in star-planet systems

    Auclair-Desrotour, P.; Mathis, S.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary systems evolve over secular time scales. One of the key mechanisms that drive this evolution is tidal dissipation. Submitted to tides, stellar and planetary fluid layers do not behave like rocky ones. Indeed, they are the place of resonant gravito-inertial waves. Therefore, tidal dissipation in fluid bodies strongly depends on the excitation frequency while this dependence is smooth in solid ones. Thus, the impact of the internal structure of celestial bodies must be taken into account when studying tidal dynamics. The purpose of this work is to present a local model of tidal gravito-inertial waves allowing us to quantify analytically the internal dissipation due to viscous friction and thermal diffusion, and to study the properties of the resonant frequency spectrum of the dissipated energy. We derive from this model scaling laws characterizing tidal dissipation as a function of fluid parameters (rotation, stratification, diffusivities) and discuss them in the context of star-planet systems.

  18. Angular momentum exchange during secular migration of two-planet systems

    Rodríguez, Adrián; Miloni, Octavio

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the secular dynamics of two-planet coplanar systems evolving under mutual gravitational interactions and dissipative forces. We consider two mechanisms responsible for the planetary migration: star-planet (or planet-satellite) tidal interactions and interactions of a planet with a gaseous disc. We show that each migration mechanism is characterized by a specific law of orbital angular momentum exchange. Calculating stationary solutions of the conservative secular problem and taking into account the orbital angular momentum leakage, we trace the evolutionary routes followed by the planet pairs during the migration process. This procedure allows us to recover the dynamical history of two-planet systems and constrain parameters of the involved physical processes.

  19. On the orbital structure of the HD 82943 multi-planet system

    Baluev, Roman V.; Beaugé, Cristian

    2014-07-01

    HD 82943 hosts a mysterious multi-planet system in the 2:1 mean-motion resonance that puzzles astronomers for more than a decade. We describe our new analysis of all radial velocity data currently available for this star, including both the most recent Keck data and the older but more numerous CORALIE measurements. Here we pay a major attention to the task of optimal scheduling of the future observation of this system. Applying several optimality criteria, we demonstrate that in the forthcoming observational season of HD 82943 (the winter 2014/2015) rather promising time ranges can be found. Observations of the near future may give rather remarkable improvement of the orbital fit, but only if we choose their time carefully.

  20. On the orbital structure of the HD 82943 multi-planet system

    Baluev, Roman V

    2014-01-01

    HD 82943 hosts a mysterious multi-planet system in the 2:1 mean-motion resonance that puzzles astronomers for more than a decade. We describe our new analysis of all radial velocity data currently available for this star, including both the most recent Keck data and the older but more numerous ELODIE measurements. Here we pay a major attention to the task of optimal scheduling of the future observation of this system. Applying several optimality criteria, we demonstrate that in the forthcoming observational season of HD 82943 (the winter 2014/2015) rather promising time ranges can be found. Observations of the near future may give rather remarkable improvement of the orbital fit, but only if we choose their time carefully.

  1. Scaling laws to quantify tidal dissipation in star-planet systems

    Auclair-Desrotour, Pierre; Poncin-Lafitte, Christophe Le

    2015-01-01

    Planetary systems evolve over secular time scales. One of the key mechanisms that drive this evolution is tidal dissipation. Submitted to tides, stellar and planetary fluid layers do not behave like rocky ones. Indeed, they are the place of resonant gravito-inertial waves. Therefore, tidal dissipation in fluid bodies strongly depends on the excitation frequency while this dependence is smooth in solid ones. Thus, the impact of the internal structure of celestial bodies must be taken into account when studying tidal dynamics. The purpose of this work is to present a local model of tidal gravito-inertial waves allowing us to quantify analytically the internal dissipation due to viscous friction and thermal diffusion, and to study the properties of the resonant frequency spectrum of the dissipated energy. We derive from this model scaling laws characterizing tidal dissipation as a function of fluid parameters (rotation, stratification, diffusivities) and discuss them in the context of star-planet systems.

  2. FIRST-ORDER RESONANCE OVERLAP AND THE STABILITY OF CLOSE TWO-PLANET SYSTEMS

    Motivated by the population of observed multi-planet systems with orbital period ratios 1 2/P1 ∼1/m2, and hence the overlap criterion is independent of the planetary mass ratio at lowest order. Numerical integrations confirm that the planetary mass ratio has little effect on the structure of the chaotic phase space for close orbits in the low-eccentricity (e ∼⊕) planetary systems with initially circular orbits the period ratio at which complete overlap occurs and widespread chaos results lies in a region of parameter space which is Hill stable. Our work indicates that a resonance overlap criterion which would apply for initially eccentric orbits likely needs to take into account second-order resonances. Finally, we address the connection found in previous work between the Hill stability criterion and numerically determined Lagrange instability boundaries in the context of resonance overlap

  3. Theory of wind accretion

    Shakura, N I; Kochetkova, A Yu; Hjalmarsdotter, L

    2013-01-01

    A review of wind accretion in high-mass X-ray binaries is presented. We focus attention to different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto the neutron star: the supersonic (Bondi) accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically toward NS magnetospghere, and subsonic (settling) accretion which occurs when plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. Two regimes of accretion are separated by an X-ray luminosity of about $4\\times10^{36}$ erg/s. In the subsonic case, which sets in at low luminosities, a hot quasi-spherical shell must be formed around the magnetosphere, and the actual accretion rate onto NS is determined by ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We calculate the rate of plasma entry the magnetopshere and the angular momentum transfer in the shell due to turbulent viscosity appearing in the convective differentially rotating shell. We also discuss and calculate the structure of the ...

  4. Magnetohydrodynamics of accretion disks

    The thesis consists of an introduction and summary, and five research papers. The introduction and summary provides the background in accretion disk physics and magnetohydrodynamics. The research papers describe numerical studies of magnetohydrodynamical processes in accretion disks. Paper 1 is a one-dimensional study of the effect of magnetic buoyancy on a flux tube in an accretion disk. The stabilizing influence of an accretion disk corona on the flux tube is demonstrated. Paper 2-4 present numerical simulations of mean-field dynamos in accretion disks. Paper 11 verifies the correctness of the numerical code by comparing linear models to previous work by other groups. The results are also extended to somewhat modified disk models. A transition from an oscillatory mode of negative parity for thick disks to a steady mode of even parity for thin disks is found. Preliminary results for nonlinear dynamos at very high dynamo numbers are also presented. Paper 3 describes the bifurcation behaviour of the nonlinear dynamos. For positive dynamo numbers it is found that the initial steady solution is replaced by an oscillatory solution of odd parity. For negative dynamo numbers the solution becomes chaotic at sufficiently high dynamo numbers. Paper 4 continues the studies of nonlinear dynamos, and it is demonstrated that a chaotic solution appears even for positive dynamo numbers, but that it returns to a steady solution of mixed parity at very high dynamo numbers. Paper 5 describes a first attempt at simulating the small-scale turbulence of an accretion disk in three dimensions. There is only find cases of decaying turbulence, but this is rather due to limitations of the simulations than that turbulence is really absent in accretion disks

  5. A four-planet system orbiting the K0V star HD 141399

    We present precision radial velocity (RV) data sets from Keck-HIRES and from Lick Observatory's new Automated Planet Finder Telescope and Levy Spectrometer on Mt. Hamilton that reveal a multiple-planet system orbiting the nearby, slightly evolved, K-type star HD 141399. Our 91 observations over 10.5 yr suggest the presence of four planets with orbital periods of 94.35, 202.08, 1070.35, and 3717.35 days and minimum masses of 0.46, 1.36, 1.22, and 0.69 MJ , respectively. The orbital eccentricities of the three inner planets are small, and the phase curves are well sampled. The inner two planets lie just outside the 2:1 resonance, suggesting that the system may have experienced dissipative evolution during the protoplanetary disk phase. The fourth companion is a Jupiter-like planet with a Jupiter-like orbital period. Its orbital eccentricity is consistent with zero, but more data will be required for an accurate eccentricity determination.

  6. Detection of Laplace-resonant three-planet systems from transit timing variations

    Libert, A -S

    2013-01-01

    Transit timing variations (TTVs) are useful to constrain the existence of perturbing planets, especially in resonant systems where the variations are strongly enhanced. Here we focus on Laplace-resonant three-planet systems, and assume the inner planet transits the star. A dynamical study is performed for different masses of the three bodies, with a special attention to terrestrial planets. We consider a maximal time-span of ~ 100 years and discuss the shape of the inner planet TTVs curve. Using frequency analysis, we highlight the three periods related to the evolution of the system: two periods associated with the Laplace-resonant angle and the third one with the precession of the pericenters. These three periods are clearly detected in the TTVs of an inner giant planet perturbed by two terrestrial companions. Only two periods are detected for a Jupiter-Jupiter-Earth configuration (the ones associated with the giant interactions) or for three terrestrial planets (the Laplace periods). However, the latter sy...

  7. How to reach the orbital configuration of the inner three planets in HD 40307 Planet System ?

    Yuan-Yuan, Chen; Yue-Hua, Ma

    2014-01-01

    The formation of the present configuration of three hot super-Earths in the planet system HD 40307 is a challenge to dynamical astronomers. With the two successive period ratios both near and slightly larger than 2, the system may have evolved from pairwise 2:1 mean motion resonances (MMRs). In this paper, we investigate the evolutions of the period ratios of the three planets after the primordial gas disk was depleted. Three routines are found to probably result in the current configuration under tidal dissipation with the center star, they are: (i) through apsidal alignment only; (ii) out of pairwise 2:1 MMRs, then through apsidal alignment; (iii) out of the 4:2:1 Laplace Resonance (LR) , then through apsidal alignment. All the three scenarios require the initial eccentricities of planets $\\sim0.15$, which implies a planetary scattering history during and after the gas disk was depleted. All the three routines will go through the apsidal alignment phase, and enter a state with near-zero eccentricities final...

  8. Eccentricity from transit photometry: small planets in Kepler multi-planet systems have low eccentricities

    Van Eylen, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Solar system planets move on almost circular orbits. In strong contrast, many massive gas giant exoplanets travel on highly elliptical orbits, whereas the shape of the orbits of smaller, more terrestrial, exoplanets remained largely elusive. Knowing the eccentricity distribution in systems of small planets would be important as it holds information about the planet's formation and evolution, and influences its habitability. We make these measurements using photometry from the Kepler satellite and utilizing a method relying on Kepler's second law, which relates the duration of a planetary transit to its orbital eccentricity, if the stellar density is known. Our sample consists of 28 bright stars with precise asteroseismic density measurements. These stars host 74 planets with an average radius of 2.6 $R_\\oplus$. We find that the eccentricity of planets in Kepler multi-planet systems is low and can be described by a Rayleigh distribution with $\\sigma$ = 0.049 $\\pm$ 0.013. This is in full agreement with solar sy...

  9. Fast low-energy halo-to-halo transfers between Sun–planet systems

    Shang Haibin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of fast low-energy halo-to-halo transfers between Sun–planet systems is discussed under ephemeris constraints. According to the structure of an invariant manifold, employing an invariant manifold and planetary gravity assist to save fuel consumption is analyzed from the view of orbital energy. Then, a pseudo-manifold is introduced to replace the invariant manifold in such a way that more transfer opportunities are allowed. Fast escape and capture can be achieved along the pseudo-manifold. Furthermore, a global searching method that is based on patched-models is proposed to find an appropriate transfer trajectory. In this searching method, the trajectory is divided into several segments that can be designed under simple dynamical models, and an analytical algorithm is developed for connecting the segments. Earth–Mars and Earth–Venus halo-to-halo transfers are designed to demonstrate the proposed approach. Numerical results show that the transfers that combine the pseudo-manifolds and planetary gravity assist can offer significant fuel consumption and flight time savings over traditional transfer schemes.

  10. Ringed accretion disks: instabilities

    Pugliese, D

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the possibility that several instability points may be formed, due to the Paczy\\'nski mechanism of violation of mechanical equilibrium, in the orbiting matter around a supermassive Kerr black hole. We consider recently proposed model of ringed accretion disk, made up by several tori (rings) which can be corotating or counterrotating relative to the Kerr attractor due to the history of the accretion process. Each torus is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. We prove that the number of the instability points is generally limited and depends on the dimensionless spin of the rotating attractor.

  11. Ringed Accretion Disks: Instabilities

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the possibility that several instability points may be formed, due to the Paczyński mechanism of violation of mechanical equilibrium, in the orbiting matter around a supermassive Kerr black hole. We consider a recently proposed model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several tori (rings) that can be corotating or counter-rotating relative to the Kerr attractor due to the history of the accretion process. Each torus is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. We prove that the number of the instability points is generally limited and depends on the dimensionless spin of the rotating attractor.

  12. Gas accretion by planetary cores

    Ayliffe, Ben A.; Bate, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    We present accretion rates obtained from three-dimensional self-gravitating radiation hydrodynamical models of giant planet growth. We investigate the dependence of accretion rates upon grain opacity and core/protoplanet mass. The accretion rates found for low mass cores are inline with the results of previous one-dimensional models that include radiative transfer.

  13. The dynamics of the multi-planet system orbiting Kepler-56

    Kepler-56 is a multi-planet system containing two coplanar inner planets that are in orbits misaligned with respect to the spin axis of the host star, and an outer planet. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the broad distribution of spin-orbit angles among exoplanets, and these theories fall under two broad categories. The first is based on dynamical interactions in a multi-body system, while the other assumes that disk migration is the driving mechanism in planetary configuration and that the star (or disk) is titled with respect to the planetary plane. Here we show that the large observed obliquity of Kepler 56 system is consistent with a dynamical origin. In addition, we use observations by Huber et al. to derive the obliquity's probability distribution function, thus improving the constrained lower limit. The outer planet may be the cause of the inner planets' large obliquities, and we give the probability distribution function of its inclination, which depends on the initial orbital configuration of the planetary system. We show that even in the presence of precise measurement of the true obliquity, one cannot distinguish the initial configurations. Finally we consider the fate of the system as the star continues to evolve beyond the main sequence, and we find that the obliquity of the system will not undergo major variations as the star climbs the red giant branch. We follow the evolution of the system and find that the innermost planet will be engulfed in ∼129 Myr. Furthermore we put an upper limit of ∼155 Myr for the engulfment of the second planet. This corresponds to ∼3% of the current age of the star.

  14. THE DYNAMICS OF THREE-PLANET SYSTEMS: AN APPROACH FROM A DYNAMICAL SYSTEM

    We study in detail the motions of three planets interacting with each other under the influence of a central star. It is known that the system with more than two planets becomes unstable after remaining quasi-stable for long times, leading to highly eccentric orbital motions or ejections of some of the planets. In this paper, we are concerned with the underlying physics for this quasi-stability as well as the subsequent instability and advocate the so-called stagnant motion in the phase space, which has been explored in the field of a dynamical system. We employ the Lyapunov exponent, the power spectra of orbital elements, and the distribution of the durations of quasi-stable motions to analyze the phase-space structure of the three-planet system, the simplest and hopefully representative one that shows the instability. We find from the Lyapunov exponent that the system is almost non-chaotic in the initial quasi-stable state whereas it becomes intermittently chaotic thereafter. The non-chaotic motions produce the horizontal dense band in the action-angle plot whereas the voids correspond to the chaotic motions. We obtain power laws for the power spectra of orbital eccentricities. Power-law distributions are also found for the durations of quasi-stable states. With all these results combined together, we may reach the following picture: the phase space consists of the so-called KAM tori surrounded by satellite tori and imbedded in the chaotic sea. The satellite tori have a self-similar distribution and are responsible for the scale-free power-law distributions of the duration times. The system is trapped around one of the KAM torus and the satellites for a long time (the stagnant motion) and moves to another KAM torus with its own satellites from time to time, corresponding to the intermittent chaotic behaviors.

  15. The dynamics of the multi-planet system orbiting Kepler-56

    Li, Gongjie; Naoz, Smadar; Johnson, John Asher [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Institute for Theory and Computation, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Valsecchi, Francesca; Rasio, Frederic A., E-mail: gli@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: snaoz@cfa.harvard.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    Kepler-56 is a multi-planet system containing two coplanar inner planets that are in orbits misaligned with respect to the spin axis of the host star, and an outer planet. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the broad distribution of spin-orbit angles among exoplanets, and these theories fall under two broad categories. The first is based on dynamical interactions in a multi-body system, while the other assumes that disk migration is the driving mechanism in planetary configuration and that the star (or disk) is titled with respect to the planetary plane. Here we show that the large observed obliquity of Kepler 56 system is consistent with a dynamical origin. In addition, we use observations by Huber et al. to derive the obliquity's probability distribution function, thus improving the constrained lower limit. The outer planet may be the cause of the inner planets' large obliquities, and we give the probability distribution function of its inclination, which depends on the initial orbital configuration of the planetary system. We show that even in the presence of precise measurement of the true obliquity, one cannot distinguish the initial configurations. Finally we consider the fate of the system as the star continues to evolve beyond the main sequence, and we find that the obliquity of the system will not undergo major variations as the star climbs the red giant branch. We follow the evolution of the system and find that the innermost planet will be engulfed in ∼129 Myr. Furthermore we put an upper limit of ∼155 Myr for the engulfment of the second planet. This corresponds to ∼3% of the current age of the star.

  16. COMPOSITIONS AND ORIGINS OF OUTER PLANET SYSTEMS: INSIGHTS FROM THE ROCHE CRITICAL DENSITY

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Hedman, Matthew M. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Burns, Joseph A. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Castillo-Rogez, Julie [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We consider the Roche critical density ({rho}{sub Roche}), the minimum density of an orbiting object that, at a given distance from its planet, is able to hold itself together by self-gravity. It is directly related to the more familiar ''Roche limit,'' the distance from a planet at which a strengthless orbiting object of given density is pulled apart by tides. The presence of a substantial ring requires that transient clumps have an internal density less than {rho}{sub Roche}. Conversely, in the presence of abundant material for accretion, an orbiting object with density greater than {rho}{sub Roche} will grow. Comparing the {rho}{sub Roche} values at which the Saturn and Uranus systems transition rapidly from disruption-dominated (rings) to accretion-dominated (moons), we infer that the material composing Uranus' rings is likely more rocky, as well as less porous, than that composing Saturn's rings. From the high values of {rho}{sub Roche} at the innermost ring moons of Jupiter and Neptune, we infer that those moons may be composed of denser material than expected, or more likely that they are interlopers that formed farther from their planets and have since migrated inward, now being held together by internal material strength. Finally, the ''Portia group'' of eight closely packed Uranian moons has an overall surface density similar to that of Saturn's A ring. Thus, it can be seen as an accretion-dominated ring system, of similar character to the standard ring systems except that its material has a characteristic density greater than the local {rho}{sub Roche}.

  17. Ten Multi-planet Systems from K2 Campaigns 1 & 2 and the Masses of Two Hot Super-Earths

    Sinukoff, Evan; Petigura, Erik A; Schlieder, Joshua E; Crossfield, Ian J M; Ciardi, David R; Fulton, Benjamin J; Isaacson, Howard; Aller, Kimberly M; Baranec, Christoph; Beichman, Charles A; Hansen, Brad M S; Knutson, Heather A; Law, Nicholas M; Liu, Michael C; Riddle, Reed

    2015-01-01

    We present a catalog of 10 multi-planet systems from Campaigns 1 and 2 of the K2 mission. We report the sizes and orbits of 24 planets split between six 2-planet systems and four 3-planet systems. These planets stem from a systematic search of the K2 photometry for all dwarf stars observed by K2 in these fields. We precisely characterized the host stars with adaptive optics imaging and analysis of high-resolution optical spectra from Keck/HIRES and medium-resolution spectra from IRTF/SpeX. The planets are mostly smaller than Neptune (19/24 planets) as in the Kepler mission and all have short periods ($P < 50$ d) due to the duration of the K2 photometry. The host stars are relatively bright (most have $Kp < 12.5$ mag) and are amenable to follow-up planet characterization. For EPIC 204221263, we measured precise radial velocities using Keck/HIRES and provide initial estimates of the planet masses. EPIC 204221263b is a short-period super-Earth with a radius of $1.55 \\pm 0.16~R_\\oplus$, a mass of $12.0 \\pm ...

  18. Wind accretion: Theory and Observations

    Shakura, N. I.; Postnov, K. A.; Kochetkova, A. Yu.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.; Sidoli, L.; Paizis, A.

    2014-01-01

    A review of wind accretion in HMXB is presented. We focus on different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto a NS: supersonic (Bondi) accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically towards the NS magnetosphere, and subsonic (settling) accretion which occurs when the plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. The two regimes are separated by a limit in X-ray luminosity at about 4 10^{36} erg/s. In subsonic accretion, wh...

  19. Magnetospheric accretion in EX Lupi

    Abraham, Peter; Kospal, Agnes; Bouvier, Jerome

    2016-08-01

    We propose to observe EX Lup, the prototype of the EXor class of young eruptive stars, in order to understand how the accretion process works in the quiescent system. Here, we request 2.6 hours of telescope time on Spitzer, to carry out a mid-infrared photometric monitoring, which we will supplement with simultaneous ground-based optical and near-infrared data. The multi-wavelength light curves will allow us to reliably separate the effects of fluctuating accretion rate from the rotation of the star. By analyzing the variations of the accretion rate we will determine whether EX Lup accretes through a few stable accretion columns or several short-lived random accretion streams. With this campaign, EX Lup will become one of the T Tauri systems where the accretion process is best understood.

  20. Massive star formation by accretion. I. Disc accretion

    Haemmerlé, L.; Eggenberger, P.; Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.; Charbonnel, C.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Massive stars likely form by accretion and the evolutionary track of an accreting forming star corresponds to what is called the birthline in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. The shape of this birthline is quite sensitive to the evolution of the entropy in the accreting star. Aims: We first study the reasons why some birthlines published in past years present different behaviours for a given accretion rate. We then revisit the question of the accretion rate, which allows us to understand the distribution of the observed pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) stars in the HR diagram. Finally, we identify the conditions needed to obtain a large inflation of the star along its pre-MS evolution that may push the birthline towards the Hayashi line in the upper part of the HR diagram. Methods: We present new pre-MS models including accretion at various rates and for different initial structures of the accreting core. We compare them with previously published equivalent models. From the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram, we deduce the accretion law that best matches the accretion history of most of the intermediate-mass stars. Results: In the numerical computation of the time derivative of the entropy, some treatment leads to an artificial loss of entropy and thus reduces the inflation that the accreting star undergoes along the birthline. In the case of cold disc accretion, the existence of a significant swelling during the accretion phase, which leads to radii ≳ 100 R⊙ and brings the star back to the red part of the HR diagram, depends sensitively on the initial conditions. For an accretion rate of 10-3M⊙ yr-1, only models starting from a core with a significant radiative region evolve back to the red part of the HR diagram. We also obtain that, in order to reproduce the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram with an accretion law deduced from the observed mass outflows in ultra-compact HII regions, the fraction of the

  1. Accretion of southern Alaska

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  2. Accretion disk electrodynamics

    Coroniti, F. V.

    1985-01-01

    Accretion disk electrodynamic phenomena are separable into two classes: (1) disks and coronas with turbulent magnetic fields; (2) disks and black holes which are connected to a large-scale external magnetic field. Turbulent fields may originate in an alpha-omega dynamo, provide anomalous viscous transport, and sustain an active corona by magnetic buoyancy. The large-scale field can extract energy and angular momentum from the disk and black hole, and be dynamically configured into a collimated relativistic jet.

  3. A New Parameter In Accretion Disk Model

    Yuan, Feng(Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA)

    2000-01-01

    Taking optically thin accretion flows as an example, we investigate the dynamics and the emergent spectra of accretion flows with different outer boundary conditions (OBCs) and find that OBC plays an important role in accretion disk model. This is because the accretion equations describing the behavior of accretion flows are a set of {\\em differential} equations, therefore, accretion is intrinsically an initial-value problem. We argue that optically thick accretion flow should also show OBC-d...

  4. Mass Accretion Rate of Rotating Viscous Accretion Flow

    Park, Myeong-Gu

    2009-01-01

    The mass accretion rate of transonic spherical accretion flow onto compact objects such as black holes is known as the Bondi accretion rate(Mdot_B), which is determined only by the density and the temperature of gas at the outer boundary. But most work on disc accretion has taken the mass flux to be a given with the relation between that parameter and external conditions left uncertain. Within the framework of a slim alpha disk, we have constructed global solutions of the rotating, viscous ho...

  5. Launching jets from accretion belts

    Schreier, Ron

    2016-01-01

    We propose that sub-Keplerian accretion belts around stars might launch jets. The sub-Keplerian inflow does not form a rotationally supported accretion disk, but it rather reaches the accreting object from a wide solid angle. The basic ingredients of the flow are a turbulent region where the accretion belt interacts with the accreting object via a shear layer, and two avoidance regions on the poles where the accretion rate is very low. A dynamo that is developed in the shear layer amplifies magnetic fields to high values. It is likely that the amplified magnetic fields form polar outflows from the avoidance regions. Our speculative belt-launched jets model has implications to a rich variety of astrophysical objects, from the removal of common envelopes to the explosion of core collapse supernovae by jittering jets.

  6. Accretion Stream Mapping

    Vrielmann, S; Vrielmann, Sonja; Schwope, Axel D.

    1998-01-01

    We present a new mapping algorithm, the Accretion Stream Mapping, which uses the complete emission-line light curve to derive spatially resolved intensity distributions along the stream on a surface created as a duodecadon shaped tube. We successfully test this method on artificial data and then applied it to emission line light curves in Hbeta, Hgamma and HeII 4686 of the magnetic CV HU Aqr. We find Balmer emission near the threading point in the stream facing the white dwarf and Helium emission all over the magnetic part of the stream.

  7. A High Eccentricity Component in the Double Planet System Around HD 163607 and a Planet Around HD 164509

    Giguere, Matthew J.; Fischer, Debra A; Howard, Andrew W.; Johnson, John A.; Henry, Gregory W.; Wright, Jason T.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard T.; Hou, Fengji; Spronck, Julien

    2011-01-01

    We report the detection of three new exoplanets from Keck Observatory. HD 163607 is a metal-rich G5IV star with two planets. The inner planet has an observed orbital period of 75.29 $\\pm$ 0.02 days, a semi-amplitude of 51.1 $\\pm$ 1.4 \\ms, an eccentricity of 0.73 $\\pm$ 0.02 and a derived minimum mass of \\msini = 0.77 $\\pm$ 0.02 \\mjup. This is the largest eccentricity of any known planet in a multi-planet system. The argument of periastron passage is 78.7 $\\pm$ 2.0$^{\\circ}$; consequently, the ...

  8. Massive star formation by accretion I. Disc accretion

    Haemmerlé, Lionel; Meynet, Georges; Maeder, André; Charbonnel, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Massive stars likely form by accretion and the evolutionary track of an accreting forming star corresponds to what is called the birthline in the HR diagram. The shape of this birthline is quite sensitive to the evolution of the entropy in the accreting star. We first study the reasons why some birthlines published in past years present different behaviours for a given accretion rate. We then revisit the question of the accretion rate, which allows us to understand the distribution of the observed pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. Finally, we identify the conditions needed to obtain a large inflation of the star along its pre-MS evolution that may push the birthline towards the Hayashi line in the upper part of the HR diagram. We present new pre-MS models including accretion at various rates and for different initial structures of the accreting core. From the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram, we deduce the accretion law that best matches the acc...

  9. Mercury-T: A new code to study tidally evolving multi-planet systems. Applications to Kepler-62

    Bolmont, Emeline; Leconte, Jeremy; Hersant, Franck; Correia, Alexandre C M

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of observed planetary systems contain several planets in a compact orbital configuration, and often harbor at least one close-in object. These systems are then most likely tidally evolving. We investigate how the effects of planet-planet interactions influence the tidal evolution of planets. We introduce for that purpose a new open-source addition to the Mercury N-body code, Mercury-T, which takes into account tides, general relativity and the effect of rotation-induced flattening in order to simulate the dynamical and tidal evolution of multi-planet systems. It uses a standard equilibrium tidal model, the constant time lag model. Besides, the evolution of the radius of several host bodies has been implemented (brown dwarfs, M-dwarfs of mass $0.1~M_\\odot$, Sun-like stars, Jupiter). We validate the new code by comparing its output for one-planet systems to the secular equations results. We find that this code does respect the conservation of total angular momentum. We applied this new tool t...

  10. AGN flickering and chaotic accretion

    King, Andrew; Nixon, Chris

    2015-10-01

    Observational arguments suggest that the growth phases of the supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei have a characteristic time-scale ˜105 yr. We show that this is the time-scale expected in the chaotic accretion picture of black hole feeding, because of the effect of self-gravity in limiting the mass of any accretion-disc feeding event.

  11. AGN Flickering and Chaotic Accretion

    King, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Observational arguments suggest that the growth phases of the supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei have a characteristic timescale $\\sim 10^5$ yr. We show that this is the timescale expected in the chaotic accretion picture of black hole feeding, because of the effect of self-gravity in limiting the mass of any accretion disc feeding event.

  12. Winds and Accretion in Young Stars

    Edwards, Suzan

    2008-01-01

    Establishing the origin of accretion powered winds from forming stars is critical for understanding angular momentum evolution in the star-disk interaction region. Here, the high velocity component of accretion powered winds is launched and accreting stars are spun down, in defiance of the expected spin-up during magnetospheric accretion. T Tauri stars in the final stage of disk accretion offer a unique opportunity to study the connection between accretion and winds and their relation to stel...

  13. Evolution of Massive Protostars via Disk Accretion

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Yorke, Harold W.; Omukai, Kazuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Mass accretion onto (proto-)stars at high accretion rates > 10^-4 M_sun/yr is expected in massive star formation. We study the evolution of massive protostars at such high rates by numerically solving the stellar structure equations. In this paper we examine the evolution via disk accretion. We consider a limiting case of "cold" disk accretion, whereby most of the stellar photosphere can radiate freely with negligible backwarming from the accretion flow, and the accreting material settles ont...

  14. Accretion by the Galaxy

    Binney J.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cosmology requires at least half of the baryons in the Universe to be in the intergalactic medium, much of which is believed to form hot coronae around galaxies. Star-forming galaxies must be accreting from their coronae. Hi observations of external galaxies show that they have Hi halos associated with star formation. These halos are naturally modelled as ensembles of clouds driven up by supernova bubbles. These models can fit the data successfully only if clouds exchange mass and momentum with the corona. As a cloud orbits, it is ablated and forms a turbulent wake where cold high-metallicity gas mixes with hot coronal gas causing the prompt cooling of the latter. As a consequence the total mass of Hi increases. This model has recently been used to model the Leiden-Argentina-Bonn survey of Galactic Hi. The values of the model’s parameters that are required to model NGC 891, NGC 2403 and our Galaxy show a remarkable degree of consistency, despite the very different natures of the two external galaxies and the dramatic difference in the nature of the data for our Galaxy and the external galaxies. The parameter values are also consistent with hydrodynamical simulations of the ablation of individual clouds. The model predicts that a galaxy that loses its cool-gas disc for instance through a major merger cannot reform it from its corona; it can return to steady star formation only if it can capture a large body of cool gas, for example by accreting a gas-rich dwarf. Thus the model explains how major mergers can make galaxies “red and dead.”

  15. Wind accretion: Theory and Observations

    Shakura, N I; Kochetkova, A Yu; Hjalmarsdotter, L; Sidoli, L; Paizis, A

    2014-01-01

    A review of wind accretion in HMXB is presented. We focus on different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto a NS: supersonic (Bondi) accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically towards the NS magnetosphere, and subsonic (settling) accretion which occurs when the plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. The two regimes are separated by a limit in X-ray luminosity at about 4 10^{36} erg/s. In subsonic accretion, which works a hot quasi-spherical shell must form around the magnetosphere, and the actual accretion rate onto the NS is determined by the ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Two regimes of subsonic accretion are possible, depending on the plasma cooling mechanism (Compton or radiative) near the magnetopshere. The transition from the high-luminosity regime with Compton cooling to the low-luminosity (L_x < 3\\times 10^35 erg/s) regime with radiative cooling can be respon...

  16. Wind accretion: Theory and observations

    Shakura, N. I.; Postnov, K. A.; Kochetkova, A. Yu.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.; Sidoli, L.; Paizis, A.

    2015-07-01

    A review of wind accretion in high-mass X-ray binaries is presented. We focus on different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto the neutron star (NS): the supersonic (Bondi) accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically towards the NS magnetosphere, and subsonic (settling) accretion which occurs when plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. These two regimes of accretion are separated by an X-ray luminosity of about 4 × 1036 erg s-1. In the subsonic case, which sets in at lower luminosities, a hot quasi-spherical shell must form around the magnetosphere, and the actual accretion rate onto NS is determined by the ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. In turn, two regimes of subsonic accretion are possible, depending on plasma cooling mechanism (Compton or radiative) near the magnetopshere. The transition from the high-luminosity with Compton cooling to the lowluminosity (Lx ≲ 3 × 1035 erg s-1) with radiative cooling can be responsible for the onset of the off states repeatedly observed in several low-luminosity slowly accreting pulsars, such as Vela X-1, GX 301-2, and 4U 1907+09. The triggering of the transitionmay be due to a switch in the X-ray beam pattern in response to a change in the optical depth in the accretion column with changing luminosity. We also show that in the settling accretion theory, bright X-ray flares (~1038-1040 erg) observed in supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXT) can be produced by sporadic capture of magnetized stellar wind plasma. At sufficiently low accretion rates, magnetic reconnection can enhance the magnetospheric plasma entry rate, resulting in copious production of X-ray photons, strong Compton cooling and ultimately in unstable accretion of the entire shell. A bright flare develops on the free-fall time scale in the shell, and the typical energy released in an SFXT bright flare corresponds to the mass

  17. He-Accreting WDs: accretion regimes and final outcomes

    Piersanti, L; Yungelson, L R

    2014-01-01

    The behaviour of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (WDs) subject to direct helium accretion is extensively studied. We aim to analyze the thermal response of the accreting WD to mass deposition at different time scales. The analysis has been performed for initial WDs masses and accretion rates in the range (0.60 - 1.02) Msun and 1.e-9 - 1.e-5 Msun/yr, respectively. Thermal regimes in the parameters space M_{WD} - dot{M}_{He}, leading to formation of red-giant-like structure, steady burning of He, mild, strong and dynamical flashes have been identified and the transition between those regimes has been studied in detail. In particular, the physical properties of WDs experiencing the He-flash accretion regime have been investigated in order to determine the mass retention efficiency as a function of the accretor total mass and accretion rate. We also discuss to what extent the building-up of a He-rich layer via H-burning could be described according to the behaviour of models accreting He-rich matter directly. Polynomi...

  18. TRANSIT TIMING VARIATION OF NEAR-RESONANCE PLANETARY PAIRS. II. CONFIRMATION OF 30 PLANETS IN 15 MULTIPLE-PLANET SYSTEMS

    Following on from Paper I in this series, I report the confirmation of a further 30 planets in 15 multiple-planet systems via transit timing variations (TTVs), using the publicly available Kepler light curves (Q0-Q16). All 15 pairs are near first-order mean motion resonances, showing sinusoidal TTVs consistent with theoretically predicted periods, which demonstrate they are orbiting and interacting in the same systems. Although individual masses cannot be accurately extracted based only on TTVs (because of the well known degeneracy between mass and eccentricity), the measured TTV phases and amplitudes can still place relatively tight constraints on their mass ratios and upper limits on their masses, which confirm their planetary nature. Some of these systems (KOI-274, KOI-285, KOI-370, and KOI-2672) are relatively bright and thus suitable for further follow-up observations

  19. The Pan-Pacific Planet Search. II. Confirmation of a two-planet system around HD 121056

    Wittenmyer, Robert A; Liu, Fan; Horner, Jonathan; Endl, Michael; Johnson, John Asher; Tinney, C G; Carter, B D

    2014-01-01

    Precise radial velocities from the Anglo-Australian Telescope confirm the presence of a rare short-period planet around the K0 giant HD 121056. An independent two-planet solution using the AAT data shows that the inner planet has P=89.1+/-0.1 days, and m sin i=1.35+/-0.17 Mjup. These data also confirm the planetary nature of the outer companion, with m sin i=3.9+/-0.6 Mjup and a=2.96+/-0.16 AU. HD 121056 is the most-evolved star to host a confirmed multiple-planet system, and is a valuable example of a giant star hosting both a short-period and a long-period planet.

  20. THE PAN-PACIFIC PLANET SEARCH. II. CONFIRMATION OF A TWO-PLANET SYSTEM AROUND HD 121056

    Precise radial velocities from the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) confirm the presence of a rare short-period planet around the K0 giant HD 121056. An independent two-planet solution using the AAT data shows that the inner planet has P = 89.1 ± 0.1 days, and m sin i = 1.35 ± 0.17 MJup. These data also confirm the planetary nature of the outer companion, with m sin i = 3.9 ± 0.6 MJup and a = 2.96 ± 0.16 AU. HD 121056 is the most-evolved star to host a confirmed multiple-planet system, and is a valuable example of a giant star hosting both a short-period and a long-period planet

  1. THE PAN-PACIFIC PLANET SEARCH. II. CONFIRMATION OF A TWO-PLANET SYSTEM AROUND HD 121056

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Tinney, C. G. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Wang, Liang [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, A20 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Fan [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Horner, Jonathan [Australian Centre for Astrobiology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Endl, Michael [McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Johnson, John Asher [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Carter, B. D., E-mail: rob@unsw.edu.au [Computational Engineering and Science Research Centre, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia)

    2015-02-10

    Precise radial velocities from the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) confirm the presence of a rare short-period planet around the K0 giant HD 121056. An independent two-planet solution using the AAT data shows that the inner planet has P = 89.1 ± 0.1 days, and m sin i = 1.35 ± 0.17 M{sub Jup}. These data also confirm the planetary nature of the outer companion, with m sin i = 3.9 ± 0.6 M{sub Jup} and a = 2.96 ± 0.16 AU. HD 121056 is the most-evolved star to host a confirmed multiple-planet system, and is a valuable example of a giant star hosting both a short-period and a long-period planet.

  2. Dynamics of continental accretion.

    Moresi, L; Betts, P G; Miller, M S; Cayley, R A

    2014-04-10

    Subduction zones become congested when they try to consume buoyant, exotic crust. The accretionary mountain belts (orogens) that form at these convergent plate margins have been the principal sites of lateral continental growth through Earth's history. Modern examples of accretionary margins are the North American Cordilleras and southwest Pacific subduction zones. The geologic record contains abundant accretionary orogens, such as the Tasmanides, along the eastern margin of the supercontinent Gondwana, and the Altaïdes, which formed on the southern margin of Laurasia. In modern and ancient examples of long-lived accretionary orogens, the overriding plate is subjected to episodes of crustal extension and back-arc basin development, often related to subduction rollback and transient episodes of orogenesis and crustal shortening, coincident with accretion of exotic crust. Here we present three-dimensional dynamic models that show how accretionary margins evolve from the initial collision, through a period of plate margin instability, to re-establishment of a stable convergent margin. The models illustrate how significant curvature of the orogenic system develops, as well as the mechanism for tectonic escape of the back-arc region. The complexity of the morphology and the evolution of the system are caused by lateral rollback of a tightly arcuate trench migrating parallel to the plate boundary and orthogonally to the convergence direction. We find geological and geophysical evidence for this process in the Tasmanides of eastern Australia, and infer that this is a recurrent and global phenomenon. PMID:24670638

  3. ACCRETING CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS: OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURES

    Zhu, Zhaohuan, E-mail: zhzhu@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    I calculate the spectral energy distributions of accreting circumplanetary disks using atmospheric radiative transfer models. Circumplanetary disks only accreting at 10{sup –10} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} around a 1 M{sub J} planet can be brighter than the planet itself. A moderately accreting circumplanetary disk ( M-dot ∼10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}; enough to form a 10 M{sub J} planet within 1 Myr) around a 1 M{sub J} planet has a maximum temperature of ∼2000 K, and at near-infrared wavelengths (J, H, K bands), this disk is as bright as a late-M-type brown dwarf or a 10 M{sub J} planet with a ''hot start''. To use direct imaging to find the accretion disks around low-mass planets (e.g., 1 M{sub J} ) and distinguish them from brown dwarfs or hot high-mass planets, it is crucial to obtain photometry at mid-infrared bands (L', M, N bands) because the emission from circumplanetary disks falls off more slowly toward longer wavelengths than those of brown dwarfs or planets. If young planets have strong magnetic fields (≳100 G), fields may truncate slowly accreting circumplanetary disks ( M-dot ≲10{sup −9} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) and lead to magnetospheric accretion, which can provide additional accretion signatures, such as UV/optical excess from the accretion shock and line emission.

  4. On the formation of compact planetary systems via concurrent core accretion and migration

    Coleman, Gavin A L

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of planet formation N-body simulations based on a comprehensive physical model that includes planetary mass growth through mutual embryo collisions and planetesimal/boulder accretion, viscous disc evolution, planetary migration and gas accretion onto planetary cores. The main aim of this study is to determine which set of model parameters leads to the formation of planetary systems that are similar to the compact low mass multi-planet systems that have been discovered by radial velocity surveys and the Kepler mission. We vary the initial disc mass, solids-to-gas ratio and the sizes of the boulders/planetesimals, and for a restricted volume of the parameter space we find that compact systems containing terrestrial planets, super-Earths and Neptune-like bodies arise as natural outcomes of the simulations. Disc models with low values of the solids-to-gas ratio can only form short-period super-Earths and Neptunes when small planetesimals/boulders provide the main source of accretion, since ...

  5. How do accretion discs break?

    Dogan, Suzan

    2016-07-01

    Accretion discs are common in binary systems, and they are often found to be misaligned with respect to the binary orbit. The gravitational torque from a companion induces nodal precession in misaligned disc orbits. In this study, we first calculate whether this precession is strong enough to overcome the internal disc torques communicating angular momentum. We compare the disc precession torque with the disc viscous torque to determine whether the disc should warp or break. For typical parameters precession wins: the disc breaks into distinct planes that precess effectively independently. To check our analytical findings, we perform 3D hydrodynamical numerical simulations using the PHANTOM smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, and confirm that disc breaking is widespread and enhances accretion on to the central object. For some inclinations, the disc goes through strong Kozai cycles. Disc breaking promotes markedly enhanced and variable accretion and potentially produces high-energy particles or radiation through shocks. This would have significant implications for all binary systems: e.g. accretion outbursts in X-ray binaries and fuelling supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. The behaviour we have discussed in this work is relevant to a variety of astrophysical systems, for example X-ray binaries, where the disc plane may be tilted by radiation warping, SMBH binaries, where accretion of misaligned gas can create effectively random inclinations and protostellar binaries, where a disc may be misaligned by a variety of effects such as binary capture/exchange, accretion after binary formation.

  6. Accretion torque on magnetized neutron stars

    Dai, Hai-Lang; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2006-01-01

    The conventional picture of disk accretion onto magnetized neutron stars has been challenged by the spin changes observed in a few X-ray pulsars, and by theoretical results from numerical simulations of disk-magnetized star interactions. These indicate possible accretion during the propeller regime and the spin-down torque increasing with the accretion rate. Here we present a model for the accretion torque exerted by the disk on a magnetized neutron star, assuming accretion continues even for...

  7. Hot Accretion Flows Around Black Holes

    Yuan, Feng(Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA); Narayan, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Black hole accretion flows can be divided into two broad classes: cold and hot. Cold accretion flows, which consist of cool optically thick gas, are found at relatively high mass accretion rates. Prominent examples are the standard thin disk, which occurs at a fraction of the Eddington mass accretion rate, and the slim disk at super-Eddington rates. These accretion flows are responsible for luminous systems such as active galactic nuclei radiating at or close to the Eddington luminosity and b...

  8. Jets from magnetized accretion disks

    Matsumoto, Ryoji

    When an accretion disk is threaded by large scale poloidal magnetic fields, the injection of magnetic helicity from the accretion disk drives bipolar outflows. We present the results of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of jet formation from a torus initially threaded by vertical magnetic fields. After the torsional Alfvén waves generated by the injected magnetic twists propagate along the large-scale magnetic field lines, magnetically driven jets emanate from the surface of the torus. Due to the magnetic pinch effect, the jets are collimated along the rotation axis. Since the jet formation process extracts angular momentum from the disk, it enhances the accretion rate of the disk material. Through three-dimensional (3D) global MHD simulations, we confirmed previous 2D results that the magnetically braked surface of the disk accretes like an avalanche. Owing to the growth of non-axisymmetric perturbations, the avalanche flow breaks up into spiral channels. Helical structure also appears inside the jet. When magnetic helicity is injected into closed magnetic loops connecting the central object and the accretion disk, it drives recurrent magnetic reconnection and outflows.

  9. Preheated Advection Dominated Accretion Flow

    Park, M G; Park, Myeong-Gu; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2001-01-01

    All high temperature accretion solutions including ADAF are physically thick, so outgoing radiation interacts with the incoming flow, sharing as much or more resemblance with classical spherical accretion flows as with disk flows. We examine this interaction for the popular ADAF case. We find that without allowance for Compton preheating, a very restricted domain of ADAF solution is permitted and with Compton preheating included a new high temperature PADAF branch appears in the solution space. In the absence of preheating, high temperature flows do not exist when the mass accretion rate mdot == Mdot c^2 / L_E >~ 10^-1.5. Below this mass accretion rate, a roughly conical region around the hole cannot sustain high temperature ions and electrons for all flows having mdot >~ 10^-4, which may lead to a funnel possibly filled with a tenuous hot outgoing wind. If the flow starts at large radii with the usual equilibrium temperature ~10^4 K, the critical mass accretion rate is much lower, mdot exist. However, above ...

  10. Evolution of Massive Protostars Via Disk Accretion

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Yorke, Harold W.; Omukai, Kazuyuki

    2010-09-01

    Mass accretion onto (proto-)stars at high accretion rates \\dot{M}_* > 10^{-4} M_{⊙} yr^{-1} is expected in massive star formation. We study the evolution of massive protostars at such high rates by numerically solving the stellar structure equations. In this paper, we examine the evolution via disk accretion. We consider a limiting case of "cold" disk accretion, whereby most of the stellar photosphere can radiate freely with negligible backwarming from the accretion flow, and the accreting material settles onto the star with the same specific entropy as the photosphere. We compare our results to the calculated evolution via spherically symmetric accretion, the opposite limit, whereby the material accreting onto the star contains the entropy produced in the accretion shock front. We examine how different accretion geometries affect the evolution of massive protostars. For cold disk accretion at 10-3 M sun yr-1, the radius of a protostar is initially small, R *sime a few R sun. After several solar masses have accreted, the protostar begins to bloat up and for M * ~= 10 M sun the stellar radius attains its maximum of 30-400 R sun. The large radius ~100 R sun is also a feature of spherically symmetric accretion at the same accreted mass and accretion rate. Hence, expansion to a large radius is a robust feature of accreting massive protostars. At later times, the protostar eventually begins to contract and reaches the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) for M * ~= 30 M sun, independent of the accretion geometry. For accretion rates exceeding several 10-3 M sun yr-1, the protostar never contracts to the ZAMS. The very large radius of several hundreds R sun results in the low effective temperature and low UV luminosity of the protostar. Such bloated protostars could well explain the existence of bright high-mass protostellar objects, which lack detectable H II regions.

  11. EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE PROTOSTARS VIA DISK ACCRETION

    Mass accretion onto (proto-)stars at high accretion rates M-dot*> 10-4 Msun yr-1 is expected in massive star formation. We study the evolution of massive protostars at such high rates by numerically solving the stellar structure equations. In this paper, we examine the evolution via disk accretion. We consider a limiting case of 'cold' disk accretion, whereby most of the stellar photosphere can radiate freely with negligible backwarming from the accretion flow, and the accreting material settles onto the star with the same specific entropy as the photosphere. We compare our results to the calculated evolution via spherically symmetric accretion, the opposite limit, whereby the material accreting onto the star contains the entropy produced in the accretion shock front. We examine how different accretion geometries affect the evolution of massive protostars. For cold disk accretion at 10-3 Msun yr-1, the radius of a protostar is initially small, R*≅ a few Rsun. After several solar masses have accreted, the protostar begins to bloat up and for M* ≅ 10 Msun the stellar radius attains its maximum of 30-400 Rsun. The large radius ∼100 Rsun is also a feature of spherically symmetric accretion at the same accreted mass and accretion rate. Hence, expansion to a large radius is a robust feature of accreting massive protostars. At later times, the protostar eventually begins to contract and reaches the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) for M* ≅ 30 Msun, independent of the accretion geometry. For accretion rates exceeding several 10-3 Msun yr-1, the protostar never contracts to the ZAMS. The very large radius of several hundreds Rsun results in the low effective temperature and low UV luminosity of the protostar. Such bloated protostars could well explain the existence of bright high-mass protostellar objects, which lack detectable H II regions.

  12. Black hole accretion disc impacts

    Pihajoki, P.

    2016-04-01

    We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength λ = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.

  13. Black hole accretion disc impacts

    Pihajoki, Pauli

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength {\\lambda} = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.

  14. A High Eccentricity Component in the Double Planet System Around HD 163607 and a Planet Around HD 164509

    Giguere, Matthew J; Howard, Andrew W; Johnson, John A; Henry, Gregory W; Wright, Jason T; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Isaacson, Howard T; Hou, Fengji; Spronck, Julien

    2011-01-01

    We report the detection of three new exoplanets from Keck Observatory. HD 163607 is a metal-rich G5IV star with two planets. The inner planet has an observed orbital period of 75.29 $\\pm$ 0.02 days, a semi-amplitude of 51.1 $\\pm$ 1.4 \\ms, an eccentricity of 0.73 $\\pm$ 0.02 and a derived minimum mass of \\msini = 0.77 $\\pm$ 0.02 \\mjup. This is the largest eccentricity of any known planet in a multi-planet system. The argument of periastron passage is 78.7 $\\pm$ 2.0$^{\\circ}$; consequently, the planet's closest approach to its parent star is very near the line of sight, leading to a relatively high transit probability of 8%. The outer planet has an orbital period of 3.60 $\\pm$ 0.02 years, an orbital eccentricity of 0.12 $\\pm$ 0.06 and a semi-amplitude of 40.4 $\\pm$ 1.3 \\ms. The minimum mass is \\msini = 2.29 $\\pm$ 0.16 \\mjup. HD 164509 is a metal-rich G5V star with a planet in an orbital period of 282.4 $\\pm$ 3.8 days and an eccentricity of 0.26 $\\pm$ 0.14. The semi-amplitude of 14.2 $\\pm$ 2.7 \\ms\\ implies a mini...

  15. Dissecting accretion and outflows in accreting white dwarf binaries

    de Martino, D; Balman, S; Bernardini, F; Bianchini, A; Bode, M; Bonnet-Bidaud, J -M; Falanga, M; Greiner, J; Groot, P; Hernanz, M; Israel, G; Jose, J; Motch, C; Mouchet, M; Norton, A J; Nucita, A; Orio, M; Osborne, J; Ramsay, G; Rodriguez-Gil, P; Scaringi, S; Schwope, A; Traulsen, I; Tamburini, F

    2015-01-01

    This is a White Paper in support of the mission concept of the Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT), proposed as a medium-sized ESA mission. We discuss the potential of LOFT for the study of accreting white dwarfs. For a summary, we refer to the paper.

  16. Instabilities of advection-dominated accretion flows

    Chen, X

    1996-01-01

    Accretion disk instabilities are briefly reviewed. Some details are given to the short-wavelength thermal instabilities and the convective instabilities. Time-dependent calculations of two-dimensional advection-dominated accretion flows are presented.

  17. Instabilities of Advection-Dominated Accretion Flows

    Chen, Xingming

    1996-01-01

    Accretion disk instabilities are briefly reviewed. Some details are given to the short-wavelength thermal instabilities and the convective instabilities. Time-dependent calculations of two-dimensional advection-dominated accretion flows are presented.

  18. The Rate of Turbulent Spherical Accretion

    Gruzinov, Andrei

    1998-01-01

    The rate of turbulent spherical accretion onto a compact object might be much smaller than the Bondi rate. It is suggested that the rate of accretion onto Sgr A-star is much smaller than the Bondi rate.

  19. Hoyle-Lyttleton Accretion in Three Dimensions

    Blondin, John M

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the stability of gravitational accretion of an ideal gas onto a compact object moving through a uniform medium at Mach 3. Previous three-dimensional simulations have shown that such accretion is not stable, and that strong rotational 'disk-like' flows are generated and accreted on short time scales. We re-address this problem using overset spherical grids that provide a factor of seven improvement in spatial resolution over previous simulations. With our higher spatial resolution we found these 3D accretion flows remained remarkably axisymmetric. We examined two cases of accretion with different sized accretors. The larger accretor produced very steady flow, with the mass accretion rate varying by less than 0.02% over 30 flow times. The smaller accretor exhibited an axisymmetric breathing mode that modulated the mass accretion rate by a constant 20%. Nonetheless, the flow remained highly axisymmetric with only negligible accretion of angular momentum in both cases.

  20. Convection-Dominated Accretion Flows

    Quataert, Eliot; Gruzinov, Andrei

    1999-01-01

    Non-radiating, advection-dominated, accretion flows are convectively unstable. We calculate the two-dimensional (r-theta) structure of such flows assuming that (1) convection transports angular momentum inwards, opposite to normal viscosity and (2) viscous transport by other mechanisms (e.g., magnetic fields) is weak (alpha

  1. Accretion onto a Kiselev black hole

    Yang, Rong-Jia

    2016-01-01

    We consider accretion onto a Kiselev black hole. We obtain the fundamental equations for accretion without the back-reaction. We determine the general analytic expressions for the critical points and the mass accretion rate and find the physical conditions the critical points should fulfil. The case of polytropic gas are discussed in detail. It turns out that the quintessence parameter plays an important role in the accretion process.

  2. Non-Radiative Accretion and Thermodynamics

    Gruzinov, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that the laws of thermodynamics are violated by what we have called a convection-dominated accretion flow (or a 1/2-law accretion flow) -- an accretion flow characterized by a constant outflow of energy. We show that both the 1/2-law flow and the Bondi flow (also known as ADAF, advection dominated accretion flow) are thermodynamically admissible.

  3. Global Slim Accretion Disk Solutions Revisited

    Jiao, Cheng-Liang; Xue, Li; Gu, Wei-Min; Lu, Ju-Fu

    2008-01-01

    We show that there exists a maximal possible accretion rate, beyond which global slim disk solutions cannot be constructed because in the vertical direction the gravitational force would be unable to balance the pressure force to gather the accreted matter. The principle for this restriction is the same as that for the Eddington luminosity and the corresponding critical accretion rate, which were derived for spherical accretion by considering the same force balance in the radial direction. If...

  4. Black hole feedback from thick accretion discs

    Sadowski, Aleksander; Lasota, Jean-Pierre; Abramowicz, Marek A.; Narayan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    We study energy flows in geometrically thick accretion discs, both optically thick and thin, using general relativistic, three-dimensional simulations of black hole accretion flows. We find that for non-rotating black holes the efficiency of the total feedback from thick accretion discs is $3\\%$ - roughly half of the thin disc efficiency. This amount of energy is ultimately distributed between outflow and radiation, the latter scaling weakly with the accretion rate for super-critical accretio...

  5. Bondi accretion onto cosmological black holes

    Karkowski, Janusz; Malec, Edward

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a steady accretion within the Einstein-Straus vacuole, in the presence of the cosmological constant. The dark energy damps the mass accretion rate and --- above certain limit --- completely stops the steady accretion onto black holes, which in particular is prohibited in the inflation era and after (roughly) $10^{12}$ years from Big Bang (assuming the presently known value of the cosmological constant). Steady accretion would not exist in the late phases of the Pe...

  6. Evolution of Massive Protostars via Disk Accretion

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Omukai, Kazuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Mass accretion onto (proto-)stars at high accretion rates > 10^-4 M_sun/yr is expected in massive star formation. We study the evolution of massive protostars at such high rates by numerically solving the stellar structure equations. In this paper we examine the evolution via disk accretion. We consider a limiting case of "cold" disk accretion, whereby most of the stellar photosphere can radiate freely with negligible backwarming from the accretion flow, and the accreting material settles onto the star with the same specific entropy as the photosphere. We compare our results to the calculated evolution via spherically symmetric accretion, the opposite limit, whereby the material accreting onto the star contains the entropy produced in the accretion shock front. We examine how different accretion geometries affect the evolution of massive protostars. For cold disk accretion at 10^-3 M_sun/yr the radius of a protostar is initially small, about a few R_sun. After several solar masses have accreted, the protostar...

  7. Thermal radiation from an accretion disk

    Prigara, F. V.

    2003-01-01

    An effect of stimulated radiation processes on thermal radiation from an accretion disk is considered. The radial density waves triggering flare emission and producing quasi-periodic oscillations in radiation from an accretion disk are discussed. It is argued that the observational data suggest the existence of the weak laser sources in a two-temperature plasma of an accretion disk.

  8. Accretion flows in elliptical galaxies

    A steady-state infall model of gas in elliptical galaxies is developed to investigate the properties and structure of the X-ray-emitting gas observed in these systems. Models have been computed for galaxies with an external pressure (as might be important for ellipticals in clusters), and for varying supernova heating rates. All the models exhibit cooling flows, with mass accretion rates of 0.1 - 0.5 solar mass/yr. A correlation between the radio luminosity and the X-ray luminosity of elliptical galaxies is examined which, in the context of the infall models, may suggest that the radio emission arises from nuclear sources that are powered by the gas accretion flow. These radio sources may also be confined effectively by the X-ray emitting gas. 26 references

  9. Ringed accretion disks: equilibrium configurations

    Pugliese, D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a model of ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the General Relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can be then determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We pr...

  10. Spiral Waves in Accretion Disks

    Harlaftis, Emilios

    A review with the most characteristic spiral waves in accretion disks of cataclysmic variables will be presented. Recent work on experiments targeting the detection of spiral waves from time lapse movies of real disks and the study of permanent spiral waves will be discussed. The relevance of spiral waves with other systems such as star-planet X-ray binaries and Algols will be reviewed.

  11. Counter-Rotating Accretion Discs

    Dyda, Sergei; Ustyugova, Galina V; Romanova, Marina M; Koldoba, Alexander V

    2014-01-01

    Counter-rotating discs can arise from the accretion of a counter-rotating gas cloud onto the surface of an existing co-rotating disc or from the counter-rotating gas moving radially inward to the outer edge of an existing disc. At the interface, the two components mix to produce gas or plasma with zero net angular momentum which tends to free-fall towards the disc center. We discuss high-resolution axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of a viscous counter-rotating disc for cases where the two components are vertically separated and radially separated. The viscosity is described by an isotropic $\\alpha-$viscosity including all terms in the viscous stress tensor. For the vertically separated components a shear layer forms between them. The middle of this layer free-falls to the disk center. The accretion rates are increased by factors $\\sim 10^2-10^4$ over that of a conventional disc rotating in one direction with the same viscosity. The vertical width of the shear layer and the accretion rate are strongly dep...

  12. A HIGH-ECCENTRICITY COMPONENT IN THE DOUBLE-PLANET SYSTEM AROUND HD 163607 AND A PLANET AROUND HD 164509

    We report the detection of three new exoplanets from Keck Observatory. HD 163607 is a metal-rich G5IV star with two planets. The inner planet has an observed orbital period of 75.29 ± 0.02 days, a semi-amplitude of 51.1 ± 1.4 m s–1, an eccentricity of 0.73 ± 0.02, and a derived minimum mass of MP sin i = 0.77 ± 0.02 MJup. This is the largest eccentricity of any known planet in a multi-planet system. The argument of periastron passage is 78.7 ± 2.00; consequently, the planet's closest approach to its parent star is very near the line of sight, leading to a relatively high transit probability of 8%. The outer planet has an orbital period of 3.60 ± 0.02 years, an orbital eccentricity of 0.12 ± 0.06, and a semi-amplitude of 40.4 ± 1.3 m s–1. The minimum mass is MP sin i = 2.29 ± 0.16 MJup. HD 164509 is a metal-rich G5V star with a planet in an orbital period of 282.4 ± 3.8 days and an eccentricity of 0.26 ± 0.14. The semi-amplitude of 14.2 ± 2.7 m s–1 implies a minimum mass of 0.48 ± 0.09 MJup. The radial velocities (RVs) of HD 164509 also exhibit a residual linear trend of –5.1 ± 0.7 m s–1 year–1, indicating the presence of an additional longer period companion in the system. Photometric observations demonstrate that HD 163607 and HD 164509 are constant in brightness to submillimagnitude levels on their RV periods. This provides strong support for planetary reflex motion as the cause of the RV variations.

  13. How Dim Accreting Black Holes Could Be?

    Abramowicz, M A; Abramowicz, Marek Artur; Igumenshchev, Igor V.

    2001-01-01

    Recent hydrodynamical simulations of radiatively inefficient black hole accretion flows with low viscosity have demonstrated that these flows differ significantly from those described by an advection-dominated model. The black hole flows are advection-dominated only in their inner parts, but convectively dominated at radii R>100R_g. In such flows, the radiative output comes mostly from the convection part, and the radiative efficiency is independent of accretion rate and equals ~0.001. This value gives a limit for how dim an accreting black hole could be. It agrees with recent Chandra observations which indicate that accreting black holes in low-mass X-ray binaries are by factor about 100 dimmer that neutron stars accreting with the same accretion rates.

  14. Black hole feedback from thick accretion discs

    Sadowski, Aleksander; Abramowicz, Marek A; Narayan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    We study energy flows in geometrically thick accretion discs, both optically thick and thin, using general relativistic, three-dimensional simulations of black hole accretion flows. We find that for non-rotating black holes the efficiency of the total feedback from thick accretion discs is $3\\%$ - roughly half of the thin disc efficiency. This amount of energy is ultimately distributed between outflow and radiation, the latter scaling weakly with the accretion rate for super-critical accretion rates, and returned to the interstellar medium. Accretion on to rotating black holes is more efficient because of the additional extraction of rotational energy. However, the jet component is collimated and likely to interact only weakly with the environment, whereas the outflow and radiation components cover a wide solid angle.

  15. Theory of Disk Accretion onto Magnetic Stars

    Lai Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disk accretion onto magnetic stars occurs in a variety of systems, including accreting neutron stars (with both high and low magnetic fields, white dwarfs, and protostars. We review some of the key physical processes in magnetosphere-disk interaction, highlighting the theoretical uncertainties. We also discuss some applications to the observations of accreting neutron star and protostellar systems, as well as possible connections to protoplanetary disks and exoplanets.

  16. Quasar Accretion Disks Are Strongly Inhomogeneous

    Dexter, Jason; Agol, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) have been observed to vary stochastically with 10-20 rms amplitudes over a range of optical wavelengths where the emission arises in an accretion disk. Since the accretion disk is unlikely to vary coherently, local fluctuations may be significantly larger than the global rms variability. We investigate toy models of quasar accretion disks consisting of a number of regions, n, whose temperatures vary independently with an amplitude of \\sigma_T in dex. Models with l...

  17. Accretion onto a higher dimensional black hole

    John, Anslyn J.; Ghosh, Sushant G.; Maharaj, Sunil D.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the steady-state spherically symmetric accretion of relativistic fluids, with a polytropic equation of state, onto a higher dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. The mass accretion rate, critical radius, and flow parameters are determined and compared with results obtained in standard four dimensions. The accretion rate, $\\dot{M}$, is an explicit function of the black hole mass, $M$, as well as the gas boundary conditions and the dimensionality, $D$, of the spacetime. We also find ...

  18. A Solution to the Protostellar Accretion Problem

    Padoan, Paolo; Kritsuk, Alexei; Norman, Michael L.; Nordlund, Ake

    2004-01-01

    Accretion rates of order 10^-8 M_\\odot/yr are observed in young protostars of approximately a solar mass with evidence of circumstellar disks. The accretion rate is significantly lower for protostars of smaller mass, approximately proportional to the second power of the stellar mass, \\dot{M}_accr\\propto M^2. The traditional view is that the observed accretion is the consequence of the angular momentum transport in isolated protostellar disks, controlled by disk turbulence or self--gravity. Ho...

  19. Dark Matter Accretion into Supermassive Black Holes

    Peirani, Sébastien; De Freitas Pacheco, José Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The relativistic accretion rate of dark matter by a black hole is revisited. Under the assumption that the phase space density indicator, $Q=\\rho_{\\infty}/\\sigma^3_{\\infty}$, remains constant during the inflow, the derived accretion rate can be higher up to five orders of magnitude than the classical accretion formula, valid for non-relativistic and non-interacting particles, when typical dark halo conditions are considered. For these typical conditions, the critical point of the flow is loca...

  20. Wing airfoil ice accretion model

    Hoření, Bohumír; Horák, V.

    Bucharest : Military technical academy, 2005, 3.56-3.62. ISBN 973-640-074-3. [Internationally attended scientific conference /31./ : modern technologies in the XXI century. Bucharest (RO), 03.11.2005-04.11.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2076106; GA ČR GA103/04/0970; GA MPO FT-TA/026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2060917 Keywords : aircraft icing * ice accretion * icing modell Subject RIV: JU - Aeronautics, Aerodynamics, Aircrafts

  1. Accretion, winds and outflows in young stars

    Günther, Hans Moritz

    2012-01-01

    Young stars and planetary systems form in molecular clouds. For classical T Tauri stars (CTTS, F-K type precursors) the accretion disk does not reach down to the central star, but it is truncated near the co-rotation radius. The inner edge of the disk is ionized by the stellar radiation, so that the accretion stream is funneled along the magnetic field lines. On the stellar surface an accretion shock develops, which is observed over a wide wavelength range as X-ray emission, UV excess, optical veiling and optical and IR emission lines. Some of the accretion tracers, e.g. H\\alpha, can be calibrated to measure the accretion rate. This accretion process is variable on time scales of hours to years due to changing accretion rates, stellar rotation and reconfiguration of the magnetic field. Furthermore, many accreting systems also drive strong outflows which are ultimately powered by accretion. Several components could contribute to the outflows: slow, wide-angle disk winds, X-winds launched close to the inner dis...

  2. Accretion flows govern black hole jet properties

    Koljonen, K.; Russell, D.; Fernández Ontiveros, J.; Miller-Jones, J.; Russell, T.; Curran, P.; Soria, R.; Markoff, S.; van der Horst, A.; Casella, P.

    2015-07-01

    The process of jet formation in accreting black holes, and the conditions under which it occurs is currently hotly debated, with competing models predicting the jet power to be governed by black hole spin, the magnetic field strength, the location of the jet base, the mass accretion rate and/or the properties of the inner accretion flow. We present new results that show empirical correlations between the accretion flow properties and the spectral energy distribution of the jets launched from accreting black holes. The X-ray power law is directly related to the particle energy distribution in the hot accretion flow. We find that the photon index of this power law correlates with the characteristic break frequency in the jet spectrum emitted near the jet base, and the jet luminosity up to the break frequency. The observed correlations can be explained by the energy distribution of electrons in the hot accretion flow being subsequently channeled into the jet. These correlations represent a new inflow--outflow connection in accreting black holes, and demonstrate that the spectral properties of the jet rely most critically on the conditions in the inner accretion flow, rather than other parameters such as the black hole mass or spin.

  3. The Radiative Efficiency of Hot Accretion Flows

    Xie, Fu-Guo; Yuan, Feng(Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA)

    2012-01-01

    Two significant progresses have been made in the past years on our understanding of hot accretion flows. One is that only a small fraction of accretion flow available at the outer boundary can finally falls onto the black hole while most of them is lost in outflow. Another one is that electrons may directly receive a large fraction of the viscously dissipated energy in the accretion flow, i.e, $\\delta\\sim 0.1-0.5$. The radiative efficiency of hot accretion flow when these two progresses are t...

  4. Cold Mode Accretion in Galaxy Formation

    Benson, Andrew J.; Bower, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A generic expectation for gas accreted by high mass haloes is that it is shock heated to the virial temperature of the halo. In low mass haloes, or at high redshift, however, the gas cooling rate is sufficiently rapid that an accretion shock is unlikely to form. Instead, gas can accrete directly into the centre of the halo in a `cold mode' of accretion. Although semi-analytic models have always made a clear distinction between hydrostatic and rapid cooling they have not made a distinction bet...

  5. Ringed Accretion Disks: Equilibrium Configurations

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate a model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the general relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can then be determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We present also a perturbation analysis based on evolution of the oscillating components of the ringed disk. The dynamics of the unstable phases of the ringed disk evolution seems to be promising in relation to high-energy phenomena demonstrated in active galactic nuclei.

  6. Studies of accreting and non-accreting neutron stars

    This thesis is divided into three parts. Part A is devoted to the statistical study of radio pulsars, in which the observations of nearly all known pulsars are used to study their properties such as magnetic field strengths, rotation periods, space velocities as well as their evolution in time. Part B is devoted to the modelling and understanding of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) in low-mass X-ray binaries. But, this study is mainly concerned with the accretion process in these sources, and one may hope to learn more about the neutron stars in these systems when the understanding of QPO is improved. In Part C the problem of 'super-Eddington luminosities' in X-ray burst sources is treated. The idea is that a good understanding of the burst process, which takes place directly at the surface of the neutron star, will eventually improve our understanding of the neutron stars themselves. (Auth.)

  7. Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars

    Pulsar astrophysics has come a long way in the 40 years since the discovery of the first pulsar by Bell and Hewish. From humble beginnings as bits of 'scruff' on the Cambridge University group's chart recorder paper, the field of pulsars has blossomed into a major area of mainstream astrophysics, with an unparalleled diversity of astrophysical applications. These range from Nobel-celebrated testing of general relativity in the strong-field regime to constraining the equation-of-state of ultradense matter; from probing the winds of massive stars to globular cluster evolution. Previous notable books on the subject of pulsars have tended to focus on some particular topic in the field. The classic text Pulsars by Manchester and Taylor (1977 San Francisco, CA: Freeman) targeted almost exclusively rotation-powered radio pulsars, while the Meszaros book High-Energy Radiation from Magnetized Neutron Stars (1992 Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press) considered both rotation- and accretion-powered neutron stars, but focused on their radiation at x-ray energies and above. The recent book Neutron Stars 1 by Haensel et al (2007 Berlin: Springer) considers only the equation of state and neutron-star structure. Into this context appears Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars, by Pranab Ghosh. In contrast to other books, here the author takes an encyclopedic approach and attempts to synthesize practically all of the major aspects of the two main types of neutron star. This is ambitious. The only comparable undertaking is the useful but more elementary Lyne and Graham-Smith text Pulsar Astronomy (1998 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), or Compact Stellar X-ray Sources (eds Lewin and van der Klis, 2006 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), an anthology of technical review articles that also includes black hole topics. Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars thus fills a clear void in the field, providing a readable, graduate-level book that covers nearly everything you

  8. Accretion, Primordial Black Holes and Standard Cosmology

    Nayak, Bibekananda; Singh, Lambodar Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Primordial Black Holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation time of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included.Thus depending on accretion efficiency more and more number of primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the idea that the primordial black holes are the proper candidate for dark matter.

  9. Accretion, primordial black holes and standard cosmology

    B Nayak; P Singh

    2011-01-01

    Primordial black holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation times of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included. Thus, depending on accretion efficiency, more primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the conjecture that the primordial black holes are the proper candidates for dark matter.

  10. Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory

    Marek A. Abramowicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks, Shakura-Sunyaev (thin disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs. After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs.

  11. Dark Matter Accretion into Supermassive Black Holes

    Peirani, Sébastien

    2008-01-01

    The relativistic accretion rate of dark matter by a black hole is revisited. Under the assumption that the phase space density indicator, $Q=\\rho_{\\infty}/\\sigma^3_{\\infty}$, remains constant during the inflow, the derived accretion rate can be higher up to five orders of magnitude than the classical accretion formula, valid for non-relativistic and non-interacting particles, when typical dark halo conditions are considered. For these typical conditions, the critical point of the flow is located at distances of about 30-150 times the horizon radius. Application of our results to black hole seeds hosted by halos issued from cosmological simulations indicate that dark matter contributes to no more than ~10% of the total accreted mass, confirming that the bolometric quasar luminosity is related to the baryonic accretion history of the black hole.

  12. Dark matter accretion into supermassive black holes

    The relativistic accretion rate of dark matter by a black hole is revisited. Under the assumption that the phase space density indicator, Q=ρ∞/σ∞3, remains constant during the inflow, the derived accretion rate can be higher up to 5 orders of magnitude than the classical accretion formula, valid for nonrelativistic and noninteracting particles, when typical dark halo conditions are considered. For these typical conditions, the critical point of the flow is located at distances of about 30-150 times the horizon radius. Application of our results to black hole seeds hosted by halos issued from cosmological simulations indicate that dark matter contributes to no more than ∼10% of the total accreted mass, confirming that the bolometric quasar luminosity is related to the baryonic accretion history of the black hole.

  13. Validation of Kepler's multiple planet candidates. III. Light curve analysis and announcement of hundreds of new multi-planet systems

    The Kepler mission has discovered more than 2500 exoplanet candidates in the first two years of spacecraft data, with approximately 40% of those in candidate multi-planet systems. The high rate of multiplicity combined with the low rate of identified false positives indicates that the multiplanet systems contain very few false positive signals due to other systems not gravitationally bound to the target star. False positives in the multi-planet systems are identified and removed, leaving behind a residual population of candidate multi-planet transiting systems expected to have a false positive rate less than 1%. We present a sample of 340 planetary systems that contain 851 planets that are validated to substantially better than the 99% confidence level; the vast majority of these have not been previously verified as planets. We expect ∼two unidentified false positives making our sample of planet very reliable. We present fundamental planetary properties of our sample based on a comprehensive analysis of Kepler light curves, ground-based spectroscopy, and high-resolution imaging. Since we do not require spectroscopy or high-resolution imaging for validation, some of our derived parameters for a planetary system may be systematically incorrect due to dilution from light due to additional stars in the photometric aperture. Nonetheless, our result nearly doubles the number verified exoplanets.

  14. Numerical Computation of Two Dimensional Wind Accretion of Isothermal Gas

    Shima, Eiji; Matsuda, Takuya; Anzer, Ulrich; Borner, Gerhard; Boffin, Henri M. J.

    1998-01-01

    A new numerical algorithm for calculating isothermal wind accretion flows has been developed and is applied here to the analysis of the hydrodynamics of two-dimensional plane symmetric accretion flows in wind-fed sources. Polar coordinates are used to ensure fine resolution near the object. It is found that a thin accretion column is formed which shows wave-like oscillations. Small accretion disks are formed temporarily around the object. Mass accretion rate and angular momentum accretion rat...

  15. Protoplanetary Accretion by Collisional Fusion

    Wettlaufer, J S

    2009-01-01

    The formation of a solar system is believed to have followed a multi-stage process around a protostar. Whipple first noted that planetesimal growth by particle agglomeration is strongly influenced by gas drag; there is a ``bottleneck'' at the meter scale with such bodies rapidly spiraling into the central star, whereas much smaller or larger particles do not. Thus, successful planetary accretion requires rapid planetesimal growth to km scale. A commonly accepted picture is that for collisional velocities $V_c$ above a certain threshold collisional velocity, ${V_{th}} \\sim$ 0.1-10 cm s$^{-1}$, particle agglomeration is not possible; elastic rebound overcomes attractive surface and intermolecular forces. However, if perfect sticking is assumed for all collisions the bottleneck can be overcome by rapid planetesimal growth. While previous work has dealt explicitly with the influences of collisional pressures and the possibility of particle fracture or penetration, the basic role of the phase behavior of matter--p...

  16. Neutrino transport in accretion disks

    Sawyer, R F

    2003-01-01

    We test approximate approaches to solving a neutrino transport problem that presents itself in the analysis of some accretion-disk models. Approximation #1 consists of replacing the full, angular- dependent, distribution function by a two-stream simulation, where the streams are respectively outwardly and inwardly directed, with angles $\\cos \\theta=\\pm 1/\\sqrt{3}$ to the vertical. In this approximation the full energy dependence of the distribution function is retained, as are the energy and temperature dependences of the scattering rates. Approximation #2, used in recent works on the subject, replaces the distribution function by an intensity function and the scattering rates by temperature-energy-averaged quantities. We compare the approximations to the results of solving the full Boltzmann equation. Under some interesting conditions, approximation #1 passes the test; approximation #2 does not. We utilize the results of our analysis to construct a toy model of a disc at a temperature and density such that r...

  17. Magnetically Accreting Isolated Old Neutron Stars

    Rutledge, R E

    2001-01-01

    Previous work on the emission from isolated old neutron stars (IONS) accreting the inter-stellar medium (ISM) focussed on gravitational capture - Bondi accretion. We propose a new class of sources which accrete via magnetic interaction with the ISM. While for the Bondi mechanism, the accretion rate decreases with increasing NS velocity, in magnetic accretors (MAGACs="magics") the accretion rate increases with increasing NS velocity. MAGACs will be produced among high velocity (~> 100 km s-1) high magnetic field (B> 1e14 G) radio pulsars - the ``magnetars'' - after they have evolved first through magnetic dipole spin-down, followed by a ``propeller'' phase (when the object sheds angular momentum on a timescale ~1e14 G; minimum velocities relative to the ISM of >25-100 km s-1, depending on B, well below the median in the observed radio-pulsar population; spin-periods of >days to years; accretion luminosities of 1e28- 1e31 ergs s-1 ; and effective temperatures kT=0.3 - 2.5 keV if they accrete onto the magnetic p...

  18. Pulsed Accretion onto Eccentric and Circular Binaries

    Muñoz, Diego J

    2016-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of circumbinary accretion onto eccentric and circular binaries using the moving-mesh code AREPO. This is the first set of simulations to tackle the problem of binary accretion using a finite-volume scheme on a freely moving mesh, which allows for accurate measurements of accretion onto individual stars for arbitrary binary eccentricity. While accretion onto a circular binary shows bursts with period of ~5 times the binary period P_b,accretion onto an eccentric binary is predominantly modulated at the period ~1P_b. For an equal-mass circular binary, the accretion rates onto individual stars are quite similar to each other, following the same variable pattern in time. By contrast, for eccentric binaries, one of the stars can accrete at a rate 10-20 times larger than its companion. This "symmetry breaking" between the stars, however, alternates over timescales of order 200 P_b, and can be attributed to a slowly precessing, eccentric circumbinary disk. Over longer timescales, the ...

  19. Accretion and plasma outflow from dissipationless discs

    Bogovalov, Sergei; Kelner, Stanislav

    2008-01-01

    We consider an extreme case of disc accretion onto a gravitating centre when the viscosity in the disc is negligible. The angular momentum and the rotational energy of the accreted matter is carried out by a magnetized wind outflowing from the disc. The outflow of matter from the disc occurs due to the Blandford & Payne(1982) centrifugal mechanism. The disc is assumed to be cold. Accretion and outflow are connected by the conservation of the energy, mass and the angular momentum. The basic pr...

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in warped accretion discs

    Torkelsson, U; Brandenburg, A; Pringle, J E; Nordlund, A A; Stein, R F; Nordlund, AA.

    2001-01-01

    Warped, precessing accretion discs appear in a range of astrophysical systems, for instance the X-ray binary Her X-1 and in the active nucleus of NGC4258. In a warped accretion disc there are horizontal pressure gradients that drive an epicyclic motion. We have studied the interaction of this epicyclic motion with the magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in numerical simulations. We find that the turbulent stress acting on the epicyclic motion is comparable in size to the stress that drives the accretion, however an important ingredient in the damping of the epicyclic motion is its parametric decay into inertial waves.

  1. Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory

    Abramowicz, Marek A.; P. Chris Fragile

    2011-01-01

    This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads ...

  2. Consequences of tidal interaction between disks and orbiting protoplanets for the evolution of multi-planet systems with architecture resembling that of Kepler 444

    Papaloizou, J C B

    2016-01-01

    We study orbital evolution of multi-planet systems with masses in the terrestrial planet regime induced through tidal interaction with a protoplanetary disk assuming that this is the dominant mechanism for producing orbital migration and circularization. We develop a simple analytic model for a system that maintains consecutive pairs in resonance while undergoing orbital circularization and migration. Migration times for each planet may be estimated once planet masses, circularization times and the migration time for the innermost planet are given. We applied it to a model system with the current architecture of Kepler 444 interacting with a protoplanetary disk, the evolution time for the system as a whole being comparable to current protoplanetary disk lifetimes. In addition we performed numerical simulations with input data obtained from this model. These indicate that although the analytic model is inexact, relatively small corrections to estimated migration rates yield systems for which period ratios vary...

  3. Coupled orbital and spin evolution of the CoRoT-7 two-planet system using a Maxwell viscoelastic rheology

    Colucci, Adrián Rodríguez; Correia, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the orbital and rotational evolution of the CoRoT-7 two-planet system, assuming that the innermost planet behaves like a Maxwell body. We numerically resolve the coupled differential equations governing the instantaneous deformation of the inner planet together with the orbital motion of the system. We show that, depending on the relaxation time for the deformation of the planet, the orbital evolution has two distinct behaviours: for relaxation times shorter than the orbital period, we reproduce the results from classic tidal theories, for which the eccentricity is always damped. However, for longer relaxation times, the eccentricity of the inner orbit is secularly excited and can grow to high values. This mechanism provides an explanation for the present high eccentricity observed for CoRoT-7 b, as well as for other close-in super-Earths in multiple planetary systems.

  4. Gravitomagnetic acceleration from black hole accretion disks

    Poirier, J.; Mathews, G. J.

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate how the motion of the neutral masses in an accretion disk orbiting a black hole creates a general-relativistic magnetic-like (gravitomagnetic) field that vertically accelerates neutral particles near an accretion disk upward and then inward toward the axis of the accretion disk. Even though this gravitomagnetic field is not the only mechanism contributing to the production of jets, it presents a novel means to identify one general relativistic effect from a much more complicated problem. In addition, as the accelerated material above or below the accretion disk nears the axis with a nearly vertical direction, a frame-dragging effect twists the trajectories around the axis thus contributing to the collimation of the jet.

  5. Time lag in transient cosmic accreting sources

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G S

    2016-01-01

    We develop models for time lag between maxima of the source brightness in different wavelengths during a transient flash of luminosity connected with a short period of increase of the mass flux onto the central compact object. We derive a simple formula for finding the time delay among events in different wavelengths, valid in general for all disk accreting cosmic sources, and discuss quantitatively a model for time lag formation in AGNs. In close binaries with accretion disks the time lag is connected with effects of viscosity defining a radial motion of matter in the accretion disk. In AGN flashes, the falling matter has a low angular momentum, and the time lag is defined by the free fall time to the gravitating center. We show the validity of these models by means of several examples of galactic and extragalactic accreting sources.

  6. Quasar Accretion Disks Are Strongly Inhomogeneous

    Dexter, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) have been observed to vary stochastically with 10-20 rms amplitudes over a range of optical wavelengths where the emission arises in an accretion disk. Since the accretion disk is unlikely to vary coherently, local fluctuations may be significantly larger than the global rms variability. We investigate toy models of quasar accretion disks consisting of a number of regions, n, whose temperatures vary independently with an amplitude of \\sigma_T in dex. Models with large fluctuations (\\sigma_T=0.35-0.50) in 100-1000 independently fluctuating zones for every factor of two in radius can explain the observed discrepancy between thin accretion disk sizes inferred from microlensing events and optical luminosity while matching the observed optical variability. For the same range of \\sigma_T, inhomogeneous disk spectra provide excellent fits to the HST quasar composite without invoking global Compton scattering atmospheres to explain the high levels of observed UV emission. Simulated microl...

  7. Gravitational Radiation from Accreting Millisecond Pulsars

    Vigelius, Matthias; Melatos, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is widely assumed that the observed reduction of the magnetic field of millisecond pulsars can be connected to the accretion phase during which the pulsar is spun up by mass accretion from a companion. A wide variety of reduction mechanisms have been proposed, including the burial of the field by a magnetic mountain, formed when the accreted matter is confined to the poles by the tension of the stellar magnetic field. A magnetic mountain effectively screens the magnetic dipole moment. On the other hand, observational data suggests that accreting neutron stars are sources of gravitational waves, and magnetic mountains are a natural source of a time-dependent quadrupole moment. We show that the emission is sufficiently strong to be detectable by current and next generation long-baseline interferometers. Preliminary results from fully three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations are presented. We find that the initial axisymmetric state relaxes into a nearly axisymmetric configuration via toroidal ...

  8. Accretion, winds and outflows in young stars

    Günther, H. M.

    2013-02-01

    Young stars and planetary systems form in molecular clouds. After the initial radial infall an accretion disk develops. For classical T Tauri stars (CTTS, F-K type precursors) the accretion disk does not reach down to the central star, but it is truncated near the co-rotation radius by the stellar magnetic field. The inner edge of the disk is ionized by the stellar radiation, so that the accretion stream is funneled along the magnetic field lines. On the stellar surface an accretion shock develops, which is observed over a wide wavelength range as X-ray emission, UV excess, optical veiling and optical and IR emission lines. Some of the accretion tracers, e.g. Hα, can be calibrated to measure the accretion rate. This accretion process is variable on time scales of hours to years due to changing accretion rates, stellar rotation and reconfiguration of the magnetic field. Furthermore, many (if not all) accreting systems also drive strong outflows which are ultimately powered by accretion. However, the exact driving mechanism is still unclear. Several components could contribute to the outflows: slow, wide-angle disk winds, X-winds launched close to the inner disk rim, and thermally driven stellar winds. In any case, the outflows contain material of very different temperatures and speeds. The disk wind is cool and can have a molecular component with just a few tens of km s-1, while the central component of the outflow can reach a few 100 km s-1. In some cases the inner part of the outflow is collimated to a small-angle jet. These jets have an onion-like structure, where the inner components are consecutively hotter and faster. The jets can contain working surfaces, which show up as Herbig-Haro knots. Accretion and outflows in the CTTS phase do not only determine stellar parameters like the rotation rate on the main-sequence, they also can have a profound impact on the environment of young stars. This review concentrates on CTTS in near-by star forming regions where

  9. 有行星系统恒星的金属丰度研究%ABUNDANCE ANALYSIS OF PARENT STARS WITH EXTRASOLAR PLANET SYSTEM

    唐仕奎; 李宗伟; 赵刚; 陈玉琴; 邱红梅

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters and abundance of tens of elements forseven stars which have Sunlike spectrum type and planet system are calculated. The mean metallicity of these stars is 0.101, including a star named HD98230(whose value is -0.271, much lower than that of the rest). The metallicity of other six stars is 0.187, which is much higher than the mean value([Fe/H]≈-0.30) of F & G type stars in the Galactic disk. This result shows a certain correlation of the formation of planet system with the rich metallicity of the parent star.%计算了7颗类太阳恒星(带有类似太阳的行星系统)的大气参数和多种金属元素的丰度,所有样本星的金属丰度平均值为0.101,其中HD98230的值为-0.271,相对其余6颗星的值小很多(其余6颗星的平均值为0.184),比银盘附近类太阳星的平均值([Fe/H]≈-0.3)相对较高.计算结果表明行星系统的形成与恒星的富金属丰度存在着一定的联系.

  10. Some Interesting Behaviour of Accreting Particles in the Gap Region of Black Hole Accretion Discs

    WANG Ding-Xiong; XIAO Kan; LEI Wei-Hua

    2001-01-01

    Some interesting behaviour of accreting particles in the gap region between the horizon of the Kerr black hole and the inner edge of the surrounding disc is investigated. The following results are obtained. (i) Spacetime coincidence of the maximum of angular velocity of accreting particles and that of the black hole horizon is extended to the more general disc-accretion. (ii) The possibility is discussed of negative energy of accreting particles in prograde orbit inside the ergosphere of the Kerr black hole, which is surrounded by strong enough magnetic field.

  11. Hydrodynamics and Thermodynamics of Ice Particle Accretion

    Kintea, Daniel Martin

    2016-01-01

    Icing in warm environments, e.g. in aircraft engines or heated measurement probes, occurs if airplanes fly through areas with high amounts of atmospheric ice crystals. Ingested into the warm engine, they start to melt, resulting in an airflow laden with mixed-phase particles consisting of water and ice. Liquid water deposits on component surfaces, which enables ice particles to adhere to them, forming ice accretion of considerable thickness. Such an accretion reduces reliability, power and ef...

  12. A Note on Bimodal Accretion Disks

    Dullemond, C.P.; Turolla, R.

    1998-01-01

    The existence of bimodal disks is investigated. Following a simple argument based on energetic considerations we show that stationary, bimodal accretion disk models in which a Shakura--Sunyaev disk (SSD) at large radii matches an advection dominated accretion flow (ADAF) at smaller radii are never possible using the standard slim disk approach, unless some extra energy flux is present. The same argument, however, predicts the possibility of a transition from an outer Shapiro--Lightman--Eardle...

  13. Supernova Light Curves Powered by Fallback Accretion

    Dexter, Jason; Kasen, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Some fraction of the material ejected in a core collapse supernova explosion may remain bound to the compact remnant, and eventually turn around and fall back. We show that the late time (> days) power associated with the accretion of this "fallback" material may significantly affect the optical light curve, in some cases producing super-luminous or otherwise peculiar supernovae. We use spherically symmetric hydrodynamical models to estimate the accretion rate at late times for a range of pro...

  14. SMBH accretion and mergers: removing the symmetries

    We review recent progress in studying accretion flows on to supermassive black holes (SMBH). Much of this removes earlier assumptions of symmetry and regularity, such as aligned and prograde disc rotation. This allows a much richer variety of effects, often because cancellation of angular momentum allows rapid infall. Potential applications include lower SMBH spins allowing faster mass growth and suppressing gravitational-wave reaction recoil in mergers, gas-assisted SMBH mergers, and near-dynamical accretion in galaxy centres. (paper)

  15. Accretion funnels onto weakly magnetized young stars

    Bessolaz, N.; Zanni, C.; Ferreira, J.; Keppens, R.; Bouvier, J.

    2007-01-01

    Aims : We re-examine the conditions required to steadily deviate an accretion flow from a circumstellar disc into a magnetospheric funnel flow onto a slow rotating young forming star. Methods : New analytical constraints on the formation of accretion funnels flows due to the presence of a dipolar stellar magnetic field disrupting the disc are derived. The Versatile Advection Code is used to confirm these constraints numerically. Axisymmetric MHD simulations are performed, where a stellar dipo...

  16. Magnetically controlled accretion onto a black hole

    Ikhsanov, N R; Beskrovnaya, N G; 10.1088/1742-6596/372/1/012062

    2012-01-01

    An accretion scenario in which the material captured by a black hole from its environment is assumed to be magnetized (\\beta ~ 1) is discussed. We show that the accretion picture in this case is strongly affected by the magnetic field of the flow itself. The accretion power within this Magnetically Controlled Accretion (MCA) scenario is converted predominantly into the magnetic energy of the accretion flow. The rapidly amplified field prevents the accretion flow from forming a homogeneous Keplerian disk. Instead, the flow is decelerated by its own magnetic field at a large distance (Shvartsman radius) from the black hole and switches into a non-Keplerian dense magnetized slab. The material in the slab is confined by the magnetic field and moves towards the black hole on the time scale of the magnetic field annihilation. The basic parameters of the slab are evaluated. Interchange instabilities in the slab may lead to a formation of Z-pinch type configuration of the magnetic field over the slab in which the acc...

  17. Bondi accretion in early-type galaxies

    Korol, Valeriya; Ciotti, Luca; Pellegrini, Silvia

    2016-05-01

    Accretion on to central massive black holes in galaxies is often modelled with the Bondi solution. In this paper we study a generalization of the classical Bondi accretion theory, considering the additional effects of the gravitational potential of the host galaxy, and of electron scattering in the optically thin limit. We provide a general analysis of the bias in the estimates of the Bondi radius and mass accretion rate, when adopting as fiducial values for the density and temperature at infinity the values of these quantities measured at finite distance from the central black hole. We also give general formulae to compute the correction terms of the critical accretion parameter in relevant asymptotic regimes. A full analytical discussion is presented in the case of an Hernquist galaxy, when the problem reduces to the discussion of a cubic equation, therefore allowing for more than one critical point in the accretion structure. The results are useful for observational works (especially in the case of systems with a low Eddington ratio), as well as for numerical simulations, where accretion rates are usually defined in terms of the gas properties near the black hole.

  18. Winds and Accretion in Young Stars

    Edwards, Suzan

    2008-01-01

    Establishing the origin of accretion powered winds from forming stars is critical for understanding angular momentum evolution in the star-disk interaction region. Here, the high velocity component of accretion powered winds is launched and accreting stars are spun down, in defiance of the expected spin-up during magnetospheric accretion. T Tauri stars in the final stage of disk accretion offer a unique opportunity to study the connection between accretion and winds and their relation to stellar spindown. Although spectroscopic indicators of high velocity T Tauri winds have been known for decades, the line of He I 10830 offers a promising new diagnostic to probe the magnetically controlled star-disk interaction and wind-launching region. The high opacity and resonance scattering properties of this line offer a powerful probe of the geometry of both the funnel flow and the inner wind that, together with other atomic and molecular spectral lines covering a wide range of excitation and ionization states, suggest...

  19. Bondi accretion in early-type galaxies

    Korol, Valeriya; Ciotti, Luca; Pellegrini, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    Accretion on to central massive black holes in galaxies is often modelled with the Bondi solution. In this paper, we study a generalization of the classical Bondi accretion theory, considering the additional effects of the gravitational potential of the host galaxy, and of electron scattering in the optically thin limit. We provide a general analysis of the bias in the estimates of the Bondi radius and mass accretion rate, when adopting as fiducial values for the density and temperature at infinity the values of these quantities measured at finite distance from the central black hole. We also give general formulae to compute the correction terms of the critical accretion parameter in relevant asymptotic regimes. A full analytical discussion is presented in the case of a Hernquist galaxy, when the problem reduces to the discussion of a cubic equation, therefore, allowing for more than one critical point in the accretion structure. The results are useful for observational works (especially in the case of systems with a low Eddington ratio), as well as for numerical simulations, where accretion rates are usually defined in terms of the gas properties near the black hole.

  20. The observational appearance of slim accretion disks

    Szuszkiewicz, E; Abramowicz, M A; Szuszkiewicz, Ewa; Malkan, Matthew A; Abramowicz, Marek Artur

    1995-01-01

    We reexamine the hypothesis that the optical/UV/soft X-ray continuum of Active Galactic Nuclei is thermal emission from an accretion disk. Previous studies have shown that fitting the spectra with the standard, optically thick and geometrically thin accretion disk models often led to luminosities which contradict the basic assumptions adopted in the standard model. There is no known reason why the accretion rates in AGN should not be larger than the thin disk limit. In fact, more general, slim accretion disk models are self-consistent even for moderately super-Eddington luminosities. We calculate here spectra from a set of thin and slim, optically thick accretion disks. We discuss the differences between the thin and slim disk models, stressing the implications of these differences for the interpretation of the observed properties of AGN. We found that the spectra can be fitted not only by models with a high mass and a low accretion rate (as in the case of thin disk fitting) but also by models with a low mass...

  1. On Rapid Disk Accretion and Initial Conditions in Protostellar Evolution

    Hartmann, Lee; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Calvet, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    Low-mass protostars may accrete most of their material through short-lived episodes of rapid disk accretion; yet until recently evolutionary tracks for these protostars assumed only constant or slowly-varying accretion. Important initial steps toward examining the potential effects of rapid accretion were recently made by Baraffe, Chabrier, & Gallardo, who showed that in the limit of low-temperature ("cold") accretion, protostars may have much smaller radii than found in previous treatments. ...

  2. SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES POWERED BY FALLBACK ACCRETION

    Dexter, Jason; Kasen, Daniel, E-mail: jdexter@berkeley.edu [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    Some fraction of the material ejected in a core collapse supernova explosion may remain bound to the compact remnant, and eventually turn around and fall back. We show that the late time ({approx}>days) power potentially associated with the accretion of this 'fallback' material could significantly affect the optical light curve, in some cases producing super-luminous or otherwise peculiar supernovae. We use spherically symmetric hydrodynamical models to estimate the accretion rate at late times for a range of progenitor masses and radii and explosion energies. The accretion rate onto the proto-neutron star or black hole decreases as M-dot {proportional_to}t{sup -5/3} at late times, but its normalization can be significantly enhanced at low explosion energies, in very massive stars, or if a strong reverse shock wave forms at the helium/hydrogen interface in the progenitor. If the resulting super-Eddington accretion drives an outflow which thermalizes in the outgoing ejecta, the supernova debris will be re-energized at a time when photons can diffuse out efficiently. The resulting light curves are different and more diverse than previous fallback supernova models which ignored the input of accretion power and produced short-lived, dim transients. The possible outcomes when fallback accretion power is significant include super-luminous ({approx}> 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) Type II events of both short and long durations, as well as luminous Type I events from compact stars that may have experienced significant mass loss. Accretion power may unbind the remaining infalling material, causing a sudden decrease in the brightness of some long duration Type II events. This scenario may be relevant for explaining some of the recently discovered classes of peculiar and rare supernovae.

  3. Supernova Light Curves Powered by Fallback Accretion

    Dexter, Jason; Kasen, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Some fraction of the material ejected in a core collapse supernova explosion may remain bound to the compact remnant, and eventually turn around and fall back. We show that the late time (gsimdays) power potentially associated with the accretion of this "fallback" material could significantly affect the optical light curve, in some cases producing super-luminous or otherwise peculiar supernovae. We use spherically symmetric hydrodynamical models to estimate the accretion rate at late times for a range of progenitor masses and radii and explosion energies. The accretion rate onto the proto-neutron star or black hole decreases as \\dot{M} \\propto t^{-5/3} at late times, but its normalization can be significantly enhanced at low explosion energies, in very massive stars, or if a strong reverse shock wave forms at the helium/hydrogen interface in the progenitor. If the resulting super-Eddington accretion drives an outflow which thermalizes in the outgoing ejecta, the supernova debris will be re-energized at a time when photons can diffuse out efficiently. The resulting light curves are different and more diverse than previous fallback supernova models which ignored the input of accretion power and produced short-lived, dim transients. The possible outcomes when fallback accretion power is significant include super-luminous (gsim 1044 erg s-1) Type II events of both short and long durations, as well as luminous Type I events from compact stars that may have experienced significant mass loss. Accretion power may unbind the remaining infalling material, causing a sudden decrease in the brightness of some long duration Type II events. This scenario may be relevant for explaining some of the recently discovered classes of peculiar and rare supernovae.

  4. Accreting neutron stars by QFT

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    layer with thickness of 1 km then q = 1 (N1S1), the gravity from N1S1 inside and exterior will be completely shielded. Because of net nuν _{0} flux is the medium to produce and transmit gravity, q obstructed by the shielding layer lie on the density of layer matter and the section of single nucleon to electronic neutrino obtained by nuclear physics experiments is about 1.1*10 ({-) 43} cm (2) . The mass inside N1S1 for exterior has not gravity interaction, it equivalent to has not inertia as the mass vanish. The neutron star is as a empty shell thereby may rapidly rotating and has not upper limit of mass and radii by the gravity accretion of N1S1, which will influence the mechanisms of pulsars, quasars and X-rays generated. At N1S1 interior the mass for exterior has not gravity which is just we searching dark matter. The mass each part will each other shielding and gravity decrease to less than the pressure of the degenerate neutron gas. The neutron star cannot collapse into a singular point with infinite density, i.e., the black hole with infinite gravity cannot be formed or the neutron star is jest the black hole in observational meaning. By the gravity accrete of N1S1 the neutron star may enlarge its shell radii but thickness keep. Only a shell gravity may be not less than any a observed value which to be deemed as black hole. The neutron star has powerful gravity certainly accompany with great surface negative charge and it may rapidly to rotate, so that there is a powerful magnetic field surround it. The accreting neutron star is as a slowly expand empty shell with fixed thickness of 1 km, its spin period depend on its radii or total accretion mass.

  5. Disk Accretion and the Stellar Birthline

    Hartmann, Lee; Cassen, Patrick; Kenyon, Scott J.

    1997-02-01

    We present a simplified analysis of some effects of disk accretion on the early evolution of fully convective, low-mass pre-main-sequence stars. Our analysis builds on the previous seminal work of Stahler, but it differs in that the accretion of material occurs over a small area of the stellar surface, such as through a disk or magnetospheric accretion column, so that most of the stellar photosphere is free to radiate to space. This boundary condition is similar to the limiting case considered by Palla & Stahler for intermediate-mass stars. We argue that for a wide variety of disk mass accretion rates, material will be added to the star with relatively small amounts of thermal energy. Protostellar evolution calculated assuming this ``low-temperature'' limit of accretion generally follows the results of Stahler because of the thermostatic nature of deuterium fusion, which prevents protostars from contracting below a ``birthline'' in the H-R diagram. Our calculated protostellar radii tend to fall below Stahler's at higher masses; the additional energy loss from the stellar photosphere in the case of disk accretion tends to make the protostar contract. The low-temperature disk accretion evolutionary tracks never fall below the deuterium-fusion birthline until the internal deuterium is depleted, but protostellar tracks can lie above the birthline in the H-R diagram if the initial radius of the protostellar core is large enough or if rapid disk accretion (such as might occur during FU Ori outbursts) adds significant amounts of thermal energy to the star. These possibilities cannot be ruled out by either theoretical arguments or observational constraints at present, so that individual protostars might evolve along a multiplicity of birthlines with a modest range of luminosity at a given mass. Our results indicate that there are large uncertainties in assigning ages for the youngest stars from H-R diagram positions, given the uncertainty in birthline positions. Our

  6. Nucleosynthesis in Gamma Ray Burst Accretion Disks

    Pruet, J; Hoffman, R D; Pruet, Jason

    2003-01-01

    We follow the nuclear reactions that occur in the accretion disks of stellar mass black holes that are accreting at a very high rate, 0.01 to 1 solar masses per second, as is realized in many current models for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The degree of neutronization in the disk is a sensitive function of the accretion rate, black hole mass, Kerr parameter, and disk viscosity. For high accretion rates and low viscosity, material arriving at the black hole will consist predominantly of neutrons. This degree of neutronization will have important implications for the dynamics of the GRB producing jet and perhaps for the synthesis of the r-process. For lower accretion rates and high viscosity, as might be appropriate for the outer disk in the collapsar model, neutron-proton equality persists allowing the possible synthesis of 56Ni in the disk wind. 56Ni must be present to make any optically bright Type Ib supernova, and in particular those associated with GRBs.

  7. Aerodynamic Simulation of Ice Accretion on Airfoils

    Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Bragg, Michael B.; Busch, Greg T.; Montreuil, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    This report describes recent improvements in aerodynamic scaling and simulation of ice accretion on airfoils. Ice accretions were classified into four types on the basis of aerodynamic effects: roughness, horn, streamwise, and spanwise ridge. The NASA Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) was used to generate ice accretions within these four types using both subscale and full-scale models. Large-scale, pressurized windtunnel testing was performed using a 72-in.- (1.83-m-) chord, NACA 23012 airfoil model with high-fidelity, three-dimensional castings of the IRT ice accretions. Performance data were recorded over Reynolds numbers from 4.5 x 10(exp 6) to 15.9 x 10(exp 6) and Mach numbers from 0.10 to 0.28. Lower fidelity ice-accretion simulation methods were developed and tested on an 18-in.- (0.46-m-) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model in a small-scale wind tunnel at a lower Reynolds number. The aerodynamic accuracy of the lower fidelity, subscale ice simulations was validated against the full-scale results for a factor of 4 reduction in model scale and a factor of 8 reduction in Reynolds number. This research has defined the level of geometric fidelity required for artificial ice shapes to yield aerodynamic performance results to within a known level of uncertainty and has culminated in a proposed methodology for subscale iced-airfoil aerodynamic simulation.

  8. The Final Fates of Accreting Supermassive Stars

    Umeda, Hideyuki; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The formation of supermassive stars (SMSs) via rapid mass accretion and their direct collapse into black holes (BHs) is a promising pathway for sowing seeds of supermassive BHs in the early universe. We calculate the evolution of rapidly accreting SMSs by solving the stellar structure equations including nuclear burning as well as general relativistic (GR) effects up to the onset of the collapse. We find that such SMSs have less concentrated structure than fully-convective counterpart, which is often postulated for non-accreting ones. This effect stabilizes the stars against GR instability even above the classical upper mass limit $\\gtrsim 10^5~M_\\odot$ derived for the fully-convective stars. The accreting SMS begins to collapse at the higher mass with the higher accretion rate. The collapse occurs when the nuclear fuel is exhausted only for cases with $\\dot M \\lesssim 0.1~M_\\odot~{\\rm yr}^{-1}$. With $\\dot{M} \\simeq 0.3 - 1~M_\\odot~{\\rm yr}^{-1}$, the star becomes GR-unstable during the helium-burning stage ...

  9. Strongly magnetized accretion discs require poloidal flux

    Salvesen, Greg; Armitage, Philip J.; Simon, Jacob B.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2016-05-01

    Motivated by indirect observational evidence for strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes, and the novel theoretical properties of such solutions, we investigate how a strong magnetization state can develop and persist. To this end, we perform local simulations of accretion discs with an initially purely toroidal magnetic field of equipartition strength. We demonstrate that discs with zero net vertical magnetic flux and realistic boundary conditions cannot sustain a strong toroidal field. However, a magnetic pressure-dominated disc can form from an initial configuration with a sufficient amount of net vertical flux and realistic boundary conditions. Our results suggest that poloidal flux is a necessary prerequisite for the sustainability of strongly magnetized accretion discs.

  10. Strongly magnetized accretion discs require poloidal flux

    Salvesen, Greg; Simon, Jacob B; Begelman, Mitchell C

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by indirect observational evidence for strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes, and the novel theoretical properties of such solutions, we investigate how a strong magnetization state can develop and persist. To this end, we perform local simulations of accretion discs with an initially purely toroidal magnetic field of equipartition strength. We demonstrate that discs with zero net vertical magnetic flux and realistic boundary conditions cannot sustain a strong toroidal field. However, a magnetic pressure-dominated disc can form from an initial configuration with a sufficient amount of net vertical flux and realistic boundary conditions. Our results suggest that poloidal flux is a necessary prerequisite for the sustainability of strongly magnetized accretion discs.

  11. Global Models for Embedded, Accreting Protostellar Disks

    Kratter, Kaitlin M; Krumholz, Mark R

    2007-01-01

    Most analytic work to date on protostellar disks has focused on disks in isolation from their environments. However, observations are now beginning to probe the earliest, most embedded phases of star formation, during which disks are rapidly accreting from their parent cores and cannot be modeled in isolation. We present a simple, one-zone model of protostellar accretion disks with high mass infall rates. Our model combines a self-consistent calculation of disk temperatures with an approximate treatment of angular momentum transport via several mechanisms. We use this model to survey the properties of protostellar disks across a wide range of stellar masses and evolutionary times, and make predictions for disks' masses, sizes, spiral structure, and fragmentation that will be directly testable by future large-scale surveys of deeply embedded disks. We define a dimensionless accretion-rotation parameter which, in conjunction with the disk's temperature, controls the disk evolution. We track the dominant mode of...

  12. Earth, Moon, Sun, and CV Accretion Disks

    Montgomery, M M

    2009-01-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting Cataclysmic Variable (CV) Dwarf Novae systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar and black hole systems. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our a...

  13. Strongly magnetized accretion discs require poloidal flux

    Salvesen, Greg; Armitage, Philip J.; Simon, Jacob B.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by indirect observational evidence for strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes, and the novel theoretical properties of such solutions, we investigate how a strong magnetization state can develop and persist. To this end, we perform local simulations of accretion discs with an initially purely toroidal magnetic field of equipartition strength. We demonstrate that discs with zero net vertical magnetic flux and realistic boundary conditions cannot sustain a strong toroidal field. However, a magnetic pressure-dominated disc can form from an initial configuration with a sufficient amount of net vertical flux and realistic boundary conditions. Our results suggest that poloidal flux is a necessary prerequisite for the sustainability of strongly magnetized accretion discs.

  14. Accretion disks in Algols: progenitors and evolution

    Van Rensbergen, W

    2016-01-01

    There are only a few Algols with measured accretion disk parameters. These measurements provide additional constraints for tracing the origin of individual systems, narrowing down the initial parameter space. We investigate the origin and evolution of 6 Algol systems with accretion disks to find the initial parameters and evolutionary constraints for them. With a modified binary evolution code, series of close binary evolution are calculated to obtain the best match for observed individual systems. Initial parameters for 6 Algol systems with accretion disks were determined matching both the present system parameters and the observed disk characteristics. When RLOF starts during core hydrogen burning of the donor, the disk lifetime was found to be short. The disk luminosity is comparable to the luminosity of the gainer during a large fraction of the disk lifetime.

  15. Accretion disks in luminous young stellar objects

    Beltran, M T

    2015-01-01

    An observational review is provided of the properties of accretion disks around young stars. It concerns the primordial disks of intermediate- and high-mass young stellar objects in embedded and optically revealed phases. The properties were derived from spatially resolved observations and therefore predominantly obtained with interferometric means, either in the radio/(sub)millimeter or in the optical/infrared wavelength regions. We make summaries and comparisons of the physical properties, kinematics, and dynamics of these circumstellar structures and delineate trends where possible. Amongst others, we report on a quadratic trend of mass accretion rates with mass from T Tauri stars to the highest mass young stellar objects and on the systematic difference in mass infall and accretion rates.

  16. Massive Star Formation: Accreting from Companion

    X. Chen; J. S. Zhang

    2014-09-01

    We report the possible accretion from companion in the massive star forming region (G350.69–0.49). This region seems to be a binary system composed of a diffuse object (possible nebulae or UC HII region) and a Massive Young Stellar Object (MYSO) seen in Spitzer IRAC image. The diffuse object and MYSO are connected by the shock-excited 4.5 m emission, suggesting that the massive star may form through accreting material from the companion in this system.

  17. Accretion Flows in Magnetic White Dwarf Systems

    Imamura, James N.

    2005-01-01

    We received Type A and B funding under the NASA Astrophysics Data Program for the analysis and interpretation of hard x-ray data obtained by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and other NASA sponsored missions for Intermediate Polars (IPS) and Polars. For some targets, optical data was available. We reduced and analyzed the X-ray spectra and the X-ray and optical (obtained at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory) timing data using detailed shock models (which we constructed) to place constraints on the properties of the accreting white dwarfs, the high energy emission mechanisms of white dwarfs, and the large-scale accretion flows of Polars and IPS. IPS and Polars are white dwarf mass-transfer binaries, members of the larger class of cata,clysmic variables. They differ from the bulk of the cataclysmic variables in that they contain strongly magnetic white dwarfs; the white dwarfs in Polars have B, = 7 to 230 MG and those in IPS have B, less than 10 MG. The IPS and Polars are both examples of funneled accretion flows in strong magnetic field systems. The IPS are similar to x-ray pulsars in that accretion disks form in the systems which are disrupted by the strong stellar magnetic fields of the white dwarfs near the stellar surface from where the plasma is funneled to the surface of the white dwarf. The localized hot spots formed at the footpoints of the funnels coupled with the rotation of the white dwarf leads to coherent pulsed x-ray emission. The Polars offer an example of a different accretion topology; the magnetic field of the white dwarf controls the accretion flow from near the inner Lagrangian point of the system directly to the stellar surface. Accretion disks do not form. The strong magnetic coupling generally leads to synchronous orbital/rotational motion in the Polars. The physical system in this sense resembles the Io/Jupiter system. In both IPS and Polars, pulsed emission from the infrared to x-rays is produced as the funneled flows merge onto the

  18. Stability of black hole accretion disks

    Czerny B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the issues of stability of accretion disks that may undergo the limit-cycle oscillations due to the two main types of thermal-viscous instabilities. These are induced either by the domination of radiation pressure in the innermost regions close to the central black hole, or by the partial ionization of hydrogen in the zone of appropriate temperatures. These physical processes may lead to the intermittent activity in AGN on timescales between hundreds and millions of years. We list a number of observational facts that support the idea of the cyclic activity in high accretion rate sources. We conclude however that the observed features of quasars may provide only indirect signatures of the underlying instabilities. Also, the support from the sources with stellar mass black holes, whose variability timescales are observationally feasible, is limited to a few cases of the microquasars. Therefore we consider a number of plausible mechanisms of stabilization of the limit cycle oscillations in high accretion rate accretion disks. The newly found is the stabilizing effect of the stochastic viscosity fluctuations.

  19. Gravitational waves from accreting neutron stars

    Bonazzola, S.; Gourgoulhon, E.

    1996-01-01

    We show that accreting neutron stars in binary systems or in Landau-Thorne-Zytkow objects are good candidates for continuous gravitational wave emission. Their gravitational radiation is strong enough to be detected by the next generation of detectors having a typical noise of 10^{-23} Hz^{-1/2}.

  20. Probing thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars

    Keek, L.

    2008-01-01

    Neutron stars are the most compact stars that can be directly observed, which makes them ideal laboratories to study physics at extreme densities. Neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries accrete hydrogen and helium from a lower-mass companion star through Roche lobe overflow. This matter undergoes

  1. Supernova Light Curves Powered by Fallback Accretion

    Dexter, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Some fraction of the material ejected in a core collapse supernova explosion may remain bound to the compact remnant, and eventually turn around and fall back. We show that the late time (> days) power associated with the accretion of this "fallback" material may significantly affect the optical light curve, in some cases producing super-luminous or otherwise peculiar supernovae. We use spherically symmetric hydrodynamical models to estimate the accretion rate at late times for a range of progenitor masses and radii and explosion energies. The accretion rate onto the proto-neutron star or black hole decreases as Mdot ~ t^-5/3 at late times, but its normalization can be significantly enhanced at low explosion energies, in very massive stars, or if a strong reverse shock wave forms at the helium/hydrogen interface in the progenitor. If the resulting super-Eddington accretion drives an outflow which thermalizes in the outgoing ejecta, the supernova debris will be re-energized at a time when photons can diffuse o...

  2. Quasar Accretion Disks are Strongly Inhomogeneous

    Dexter, Jason; Agol, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei have been observed to vary stochastically with 10%-20% rms amplitudes over a range of optical wavelengths where the emission arises in an accretion disk. Since the accretion disk is unlikely to vary coherently, local fluctuations may be significantly larger than the global rms variability. We investigate toy models of quasar accretion disks consisting of a number of regions, n, whose temperatures vary independently with an amplitude of σ T in dex. Models with large fluctuations (σ T = 0.35-0.50) in 102-103 independently fluctuating zones for every factor of two in radius can explain the observed discrepancy between thin accretion disk sizes inferred from microlensing events and optical luminosity while matching the observed optical variability. For the same range of σ T , inhomogeneous disk spectra provide excellent fits to the Hubble Space Telescope quasar composite without invoking global Compton scattering atmospheres to explain the high levels of observed UV emission. Simulated microlensing light curves for the Einstein cross from our time-varying toy models are well fit using a time-steady power-law temperature disk and produce magnification light curves that are consistent with current microlensing observations. Deviations due to the inhomogeneous, time-dependent disk structure should occur above the 1% level in the light curves, detectable in future microlensing observations with millimagnitude sensitivity.

  3. Mission Accretion in the California Community Colleges.

    Gaskin, Lori L.

    This study examines mission accretion, or the process by which the mission of the community college has broadened over time, in California's community colleges. The historical community college emphasis on transfer, occupational and remedial education, and community service has expanded to include the nontraditional educational initiatives of…

  4. QPOs and Resonance in Accretion Disks

    Kluzniak, W.; Abramowicz, M. A.; Bursa, Michal; Török, G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 27, Marzo 2007 (2007), s. 18-25. ISSN 1405-2059 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300030510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : quasi-periodic oscillations * accretion disks * general relativity Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  5. Super-Eddington accretion disc around a Kerr black hole

    Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    1998-01-01

    We calculate the structure of accretion disc around a rapidly rotating black hole with a super-Eddington accretion rate. The luminosity and height of the disc are reduced by the advection effect. In the case of a large viscosity parameter, alpha > 0.03, the accretion flow strongly deviates from thermodynamic equilibrium and overheats in the central region. With increasing accretion rate, the flow temperature steeply increases, reaches a maximum, and then falls off. The maximum is achieved in ...

  6. Advection-Dominated Accretion with Infall and Outflows

    Beckert, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    We present self-similar solutions for advection-dominated accretion flows with radial viscous force in the presence of outflows from the accretion flow or infall. The axisymmetric flow is treated in variables integrated over polar sections and the effects of infall and outflows on the accretion flow are parametrised for possible configurations compatible with the self-similar solution. We investigate the resulting accretion flows for three different viscosity laws and derive upper limits on t...

  7. Convection in radiatively inefficient black hole accretion flows

    Igumenshchev, Igor V.; Abramowicz, Marek A.

    2001-01-01

    Recent numerical simulations of radiatively inefficient accretion flows onto compact objects have shown that convection is a general feature in such flows. Dissipation of rotational and gravitational energies in the accretion flows results in inward increase of entropy and development of efficient convective motions. Convection-dominated accretion flows (CDAFs) have a structure that is modified significantly in comparison with the canonical advection-dominated and Bondi-like accretion flows. ...

  8. Luminous hot accretion flows: thermal equilibrium curve and thermal stability

    Yuan, Feng(Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA)

    2003-01-01

    In a previous paper, we presented the global solution of a new accretion flow model, namely luminous hot accretion flows (LHAFs). In this {\\em Letter}, we first show the corresponding thermal equilibrium curve of LHAFs in the mass accretion rate vs. surface density diagram. Then we examine its thermal stability again local perturbations. We find that LHAFs are thermally unstable when thermal conduction is neglected. However, when the accretion rate is not very large, the timescale of the grow...

  9. Phantom Accretion onto the Schwarzschild de-Sitter Black Hole

    M. Sharif; Abbas, G.(Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, 57000, Sahiwal, Pakistan)

    2011-01-01

    We deal with phantom energy accretion onto the Schwarzschild de-Sitter black hole. The energy flux conservation, relativistic Bernoulli equation and mass flux conservation equation are formulated to discuss the phantom accretion. We discuss the conditions for critical accretion. It is found that mass of the black hole decreases due to phantom accretion. There exist two critical points which lie in the exterior of horizons (black hole and cosmological horizons). The results for the phantom ene...

  10. Black Hole Accretion in Low States: Electron Heating

    Liu, Siming; Fryer, Christopher L.; Li, Hui

    2007-01-01

    Plasmas in an accretion flow are heated by MHD turbulence generated through the magneto-rotational instability. The viscous stress driving the accretion is intimately connected to the microscopic processes of turbulence dissipation. We show that, in a few well-observed black hole accretion systems, there is compelling observational evidence of efficient electron heating by turbulence or collective plasma effects in low accretion states, when Coulomb collisions are not efficient enough to esta...

  11. What can we learn from Accretion Disc Eclipse Mapping experiments?

    Baptista, Raymundo

    2004-01-01

    The accretion disc eclipse mapping method is an astrotomographic inversion technique that makes use of the information contained in eclipse light curves to probe the structure, the spectrum and the time evolution of accretion discs in cataclysmic variables. This paper presents examples of eclipse mapping results that have been key to improve our understanding of accretion physics.

  12. Development of 3D Ice Accretion Measurement Method

    Lee, Sam; Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Sills, Robert; Pifer, Ellen M.

    2012-01-01

    Icing wind tunnels are designed to simulate in-flight icing environments. The chief product of such facilities is the ice accretion that forms on various test articles. Documentation of the resulting ice accretion key piece of data in icing-wind-tunnel tests. Number of currently used options for documenting ice accretion in icing-wind-tunnel testing.

  13. Consequences of tidal interaction between disks and orbiting protoplanets for the evolution of multi-planet systems with architecture resembling that of Kepler 444

    Papaloizou, J. C. B.

    2016-05-01

    We study orbital evolution of multi-planet systems with masses in the terrestrial planet regime induced through tidal interaction with a protoplanetary disk assuming that this is the dominant mechanism for producing orbital migration and circularization. We develop a simple analytic model for a system that maintains consecutive pairs in resonance while undergoing orbital circularization and migration. This model enables migration times for each planet to be estimated once planet masses, circularization times and the migration time for the innermost planet are specified. We applied it to a system with the current architecture of Kepler 444 adopting a simple protoplanetary disk model and planet masses that yield migration times inversely proportional to the planet mass, as expected if they result from torques due to tidal interaction with the protoplanetary disk. Furthermore the evolution time for the system as a whole is comparable to current protoplanetary disk lifetimes. In addition we have performed a number of numerical simulations with input data obtained from this model. These indicate that although the analytic model is inexact, relatively small corrections to the estimated migration rates yield systems for which period ratios vary by a minimal extent. Because of relatively large deviations from exact resonance in the observed system of up to 2 %, the migration times obtained in this way indicate only weak convergent migration such that a system for which the planets did not interact would contract by only {˜ }1 % although undergoing significant inward migration as a whole. We have also performed additional simulations to investigate conditions under which the system could undergo significant convergent migration before reaching its final state. These indicate that migration times have to be significantly shorter and resonances between planet pairs significantly closer during such an evolutionary phase. Relative migration rates would then have to decrease

  14. THE SECOND MULTIPLE-PLANET SYSTEM DISCOVERED BY MICROLENSING: OGLE-2012-BLG-0026Lb, c-A PAIR OF JOVIAN PLANETS BEYOND THE SNOW LINE

    Han, C.; Choi, J.-Y. [Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Udalski, A.; Szymanski, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Soszynski, I.; Pietrzynski, G.; Poleski, R.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Kozlowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, L. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Yee, J. C.; Gould, A.; Skowron, J.; Batista, V. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Christie, G. [Auckland Observatory, Auckland (New Zealand); Tan, T.-G. [Perth Exoplanet Survey Telescope, Perth (Australia); Almeida, L. A. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Depoy, D. L. [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Collaboration: OGLE Collaboration; muFUN Collaboration; and others

    2013-01-10

    We report the discovery of a planetary system from observation of the high-magnification microlensing event OGLE-2012-BLG-0026. The lensing light curve exhibits a complex central perturbation with multiple features. We find that the perturbation was produced by two planets located near the Einstein ring of the planet host star. We identify four possible solutions resulting from the well-known close/wide degeneracy. By measuring both the lens parallax and the Einstein radius, we estimate the physical parameters of the planetary system. According to the best-fit model, the two planet masses are {approx}0.11 M{sub J} and 0.68 M{sub J} and they are orbiting a G-type main-sequence star with a mass {approx}0.82 M{sub Sun }. The projected separations of the individual planets are beyond the snow line in all four solutions, being {approx}3.8 AU and 4.6 AU in the best-fit solution. The deprojected separations are both individually larger and possibly reversed in order. This is the second multi-planet system with both planets beyond the snow line discovered by microlensing. This is the only such system (other than the solar system) with measured planet masses without sin i degeneracy. The planetary system is located at a distance 4.1 kpc from the Earth toward the Galactic center. It is very likely that extra light from stars other than the lensed star comes from the lens itself. If this is correct, it will be possible to obtain detailed information about the planet host star from follow-up observation.

  15. Theory of disk accretion onto supermassive black holes

    Armitage, P J

    2004-01-01

    Accretion onto supermassive black holes produces both the dramatic phenomena associated with active galactic nuclei and the underwhelming displays seen in the Galactic Center and most other nearby galaxies. I review selected aspects of the current theoretical understanding of black hole accretion, emphasizing the role of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and gravitational instabilities in driving the actual accretion and the importance of the efficacy of cooling in determining the structure and observational appearance of the accretion flow. Ongoing investigations into the dynamics of the plunging region, the origin of variability in the accretion process, and the evolution of warped, twisted, or eccentric disks are summarized.

  16. Phantom Accretion onto the Schwarzschild de-Sitter Black Hole

    We deal with phantom energy accretion onto the Schwarzschild de-Sitter black hole. The energy flux conservation, relativistic Bernoulli equation and mass flux conservation equation are formulated to discuss the phantom accretion. We discuss the conditions for critical accretion. It is found that the mass of the black hole decreases due to phantom accretion. There exist two critical points which lie in the exterior of horizons (black hole and cosmological horizons). The results for the phantom energy accretion onto the Schwarzschild black hole can be recovered by taking Λ → 0. (general)

  17. Accretion in Strong Gravity: From Galactic to Supermassive Black Holes

    Done, Chris; Gierlinski, Marek

    2005-01-01

    The galactic black hole binary systems give an observational template showing how the accretion flow changes as a function of increasing mass accretion rate, or L/L_Edd. These data can be synthetised with theoretical models of the accretion flow to give a coherent picture of accretion in strong gravity, in which the major hard-soft spectral transition is triggered by a change in the nature and geometry of the inner accretion flow from a hot, optically thin plasma to a cool, optically thick ac...

  18. Cosmological accretion disks via external radiation drag

    Fukue, Jun; Umemura, Masayuki

    1994-02-01

    Accretion disks as well as disk accretion driven by external radiation drag are presented under a steady approximation in the cases of the point-mass potential and of the dark-matter potential. We assume that the external drag force can be expressed as -beta V, where beta is a constant coefficient and V the velocity vector. When the gravitational potential is given by a central point-mass M, we find, in a cold regime where the pressure force is neglected, steady solutions such that the infalling velocity Vr is expressed as Vr = -beta r far from the center and as Vr = 2 beta r near the center, where r is the distance from the center, while the rotation velocity Vphi is constant far from the center and almost Keplerian (i.e., Vphi = square root of (GM/r)) near the center. In a warm regime, where the effect of the gas pressure is taken into account, a transonic solution is found, where the flow accretes supersonically far from the center, passes a sonic point, and eventually becomes subsonic, but rotating in a nearly Keplerian orbit. When the dark matter exerts a gravitational force, which is assumed to be -r((omegaDM)2) (omegaDM = const.), we find steady analytical solutions in the cold regime such that Vr = -(beta/2)r and Vphi = r(square root of (((omegaDM)2) - ((beta2)/4))). The effect of the gas pressure is also discussed. Such accretion disks, where the angular momentum is removed via an external radiative drag proportional to the velocity (beta disk), are possible in the post-recombination epoch during the early universe. Shortly after the cosmological recombination era, when the radiation density of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) was sufficiently high, the gas could lose its angular momentum efficiently through Compton drag with the CBR and, consequently, form cosmological accretion disks which evolve into primordial active galactic nuclei (proto-quasars). In a dark matter-dominated universe, the disk gas would initially accrete in the dark

  19. Low Accretion Rate Expected From G2 Gas Cloud

    Gracey, Brandon; Morsony, Brian; Workman, Jared

    2015-08-01

    We present high-resolution simulations of the encounter of the G2 gas cloud with Sag A*, focusing on the mass that can be accreted onto the supermassive black hole. Even assuming G2 is a gas cloud of a few time the mass of Earth, we find that very little material should be expected to be accreted. From 5 years before to 5 years after pericenter passage, at most 0.1% of the cloud mass is accreted. The total amount of material accreted by Sag A* increases by at most 20% over this period, and in many cases actually decreases due to the passage of G2. Even over very long timescales, out to 30 years after pericenter passage, only a few 10th's of a percent of the cloud will be accreted, with no significant increase in the overall mass accretion rate of Sag A*.We find that the size of the accretion radius in our simulations has a large effect on the accretion rate, with a smaller accretion radius having a smaller accretion rate. Changing the size of the accretion radius has a larger effect than changing the density profile of the cloud or changing the structure of the background material around Sag A*.

  20. Effects of ice accretion on the aerodynamics of bridge cables

    Demartino, C.; Koss, Holger; Georgakis, Christos T.;

    2015-01-01

    temperature, wind speed and yaw angle of accretion, were reproduced in a climatic wind tunnel, giving rise to different types of accretion. These were chosen such to generate the most common natural ice formations expected to produce bridge cable vibrations. A description of the geometric characteristics of......Undesirable wind induced vibrations of bridge cables can occur when atmospheric conditions are such to generate ice accretion. This paper contains the results of an extensive investigation of the effects of ice accretion due to in-cloud icing, on the aerodynamic characteristics of bridge hangers...... and stay cables. The aim of this paper is twofold; first, it was investigated the ice accretion process and the final shape of the ice accreted; then the aerodynamics of the ice accreted bridge cables was characterized, and related to the ice shape. Different climatic conditions, i.e. combinations of...

  1. The mass accretion rate of galaxy clusters: a measurable quantity

    De Boni, Cristiano; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Giocoli, Carlo; Baldi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We explore the possibility of measuring the mass accretion rate of galaxy clusters by using dense galaxy redshift surveys of their outer regions. By approximating the accretion with the infall of a spherical shell, the mass accretion rate only depends on the mass profile of the cluster in a thin shell at radii larger than $R_{200}$. This approximation is rather crude in hierarchical clustering scenarios, where both smooth accretion and aggregation of smaller dark matter haloes contribute to the mass accretion of clusters. Nevertheless, in the redshift range $z=[0,1]$, our prescription returns an average mass accretion rate within $20 \\%$ of the average rate derived with the more realistic merger trees of dark matter haloes extracted from $N$-body simulations. The mass accretion rate of galaxy clusters has been the topic of numerous detailed numerical and theoretical investigations, but so far it has remained inaccessible to measurements in the real Universe. Our result suggests that measuring the mass accreti...

  2. A recipe for making hot accretion disks

    A powerful new method to determine the structure of effectively optically thin accretion disks is described. The method reduces the set of equations needed to be numerically solved to the microphysical equations only and reduces the dimension of the parameter space needed to be explored from three to two. It is shown why proton optical depth and compactness are natural parameters in studying hot plasma clouds (HPCs), and the structure equations of geometrically thin alpha disk are studied and the accretion disk parameters are related to the HPC parameters. As an example, the method is applied to an effectively optically thin bremsstrahlung disk. It is shown how a full disk solution is constructed from the generic solution profile. 17 refs

  3. General Overview of Black Hole Accretion Theory

    Blaes, Omer

    2013-01-01

    I provide a broad overview of the basic theoretical paradigms of black hole accretion flows. Models that make contact with observations continue to be mostly based on the four decade old alpha stress prescription of Shakura & Sunyaev (1973), and I discuss the properties of both radiatively efficient and inefficient models, including their local properties, their expected stability to secular perturbations, and how they might be tied together in global flow geometries. The alpha stress is a prescription for turbulence, for which the only existing plausible candidate is that which develops from the magnetorotational instability (MRI). I therefore also review what is currently known about the local properties of such turbulence, and the physical issues that have been elucidated and that remain uncertain that are relevant for the various alpha-based black hole accretion flow models.

  4. Quasistars: Accreting black holes inside massive envelopes

    Begelman, Mitchell C; Armitage, Philip J

    2007-01-01

    We study the structure and evolution of "quasistars," accreting black holes embedded within massive hydrostatic gaseous envelopes. These configurations may model the early growth of supermassive black hole seeds. The accretion rate onto the black hole adjusts so that the luminosity carried by the convective envelope equals the Eddington limit for the total mass. This greatly exceeds the Eddington limit for the black hole mass alone, leading to rapid growth of the black hole. We use analytic models and numerical stellar structure calculations to study the structure and evolution of quasistars. We derive analytically the scaling of the photospheric temperature with the black hole mass and envelope mass, and show that it decreases with time as the black hole mass increases. Once the photospheric temperature becomes lower than 10000 K, the photospheric opacity drops precipitously and the photospheric temperature hits a limiting value, analogous to the Hayashi track for red giants and protostars, below which no hy...

  5. Acoustic horizons in axially symmetric relativistic accretion

    Abraham, H; Das, T K; Abraham, Hrvoje; Bilic, Neven; Das, Tapas K.

    2006-01-01

    Transonic accretion onto astrophysical objects is a unique example of analogue black hole realized in nature. In the framework of acoustic geometry we study axially symmetric accretion and wind of a rotating astrophysical black hole or of a neutron star assuming isentropic flow of a fluid described by a polytropic equation of state. In particular we analyze the causal structure of multitransonic configurations with two sonic points and a shock. Retarded and advanced null curves clearly demonstrate the presence of the acoustic black hole at regular sonic points and of the white hole at the shock. We calculate the analogue surface gravity and the Hawking temperature for the inner and the outer acoustic horizons.

  6. Magnetised accretion discs in Kerr spacetimes

    Ranea-Sandoval, Ignacio F

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect caused by external magnetic fields on the observed thermal spectra and iron line profiles of thin accretion discs formed around Kerr black holes and naked singularities. We aim to provide a tool that can be used to estimate the presence of magnetic fields in the neighbourhood of a compact object and to probe the cosmic censorship conjecture in these particular astrophysical environments. We developed a numerical scheme able to calculate thermal spectra of magnetised Page-Thorne accretion discs formed around rotating black holes and naked singularities as seen by an arbitrary distant observer. We incorporated two different magnetic field configurations: uniform and dipolar, using a perturbative scheme in the coupling constant between matter and magnetic field strength. Under the same assumptions, we obtained observed synthetic line profiles of the 6.4 keV fluorescent iron line. We show that an external magnetic field produces potentially observable modifications on the thermal energy spectr...

  7. Eclipse Mapping: Astrotomography of Accretion Discs

    Baptista, Raymundo

    2015-01-01

    The Eclipse Mapping Method is an indirect imaging technique that transforms the shape of the eclipse light curve into a map of the surface brightness distribution of the occulted regions. Three decades of application of this technique to the investigation of the structure, the spectrum and the time evolution of accretion discs around white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables have enriched our understanding of these accretion devices with a wealth of details such as (but not limited to) moving heating/cooling waves during outbursts in dwarf novae, tidally-induced spiral shocks of emitting gas with sub-Keplerian velocities, elliptical precessing discs associated to superhumps, and measurements of the radial run of the disc viscosity through the mapping of the disc flickering sources. This chapter reviews the principles of the method, discusses its performance, limitations, useful error propagation procedures, as well as highlights a selection of applications aimed at showing the possible scientific problems that ha...

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of black hole accretion

    Reynolds, C S; Chiang, J; Reynolds, Christopher S; Armitage, Philip J.; Chiang, James

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the results of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, using a pseudo-Newtonian potential, of thin disk (h/r ~ 0.1) accretion onto black holes. We find (i) that magnetic stresses persist within the marginally stable orbit, and (ii) that the importance of those stresses for the dynamics of the flow depends upon the strength of magnetic fields in the disk outside the last stable orbit. Strong disk magnetic fields (alpha > 0.1) lead to a gross violation of the zero-torque boundary condition at the last stable orbit, while weaker fields (alpha ~ 0.01) produce results more akin to traditional models for thin disk accretion onto black holes. Fluctuations in the magnetic field strength in the disk could lead to changes in the radiative efficiency of the flow on short timescales.

  9. Accretion disk structure in SS Cygni

    Hessman, F. V.

    1987-02-01

    High-resolution coude observations of nonaxisymmetric line emission from the dwarf nova SS Cygni are presented. By subtracting the constant line component, the asymmetric line emission responsible for the observed phase shift between the absorption and emission line radial velocity curves can be isolated. The extra emission is a large fraction of the total line emission and extends to large velocities (of about 1500 km/sec). The phase stability of the emission demands a large-scale structure which is fixed in the frame of the binary. A magnetic origin of the excitation cannot be ruled out but is implausible. A simple explanation is that the accretion stream from the companion star is able to spill over the edge of the disk, introducing emission at noncircular velocities and most likely disturbing the upper layers of the accretion disk.

  10. Embedded, Accreting Disks in Massive Star Formation

    Kratter, Kaitlin M; Krumholz, Mark R

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of massive star formation have made clear the important role of protostellar disks in mediating accretion. Here we describe a simple, semi-analytic model for young, deeply embedded, massive accretion disks. Our approach enables us to sample a wide parameter space of stellar mass and environmental variables, providing a means to make predictions for a variety of sources that next generation telescopes like ALMA and the EVLA will observe. Moreover we include, at least approximately, multiple mechanisms for angular momentum transport, a comprehensive model for disk heating and cooling, and a realistic estimate for the angular momentum in the gas reservoir. We make predictions for the typical sizes, masses, and temperatures of the disks, and describe the role of gravitational instabilities in determining the binarity fraction and upper mass cut-off.

  11. Gravitational Instability in Neutrino Dominated Accretion Disks

    We revisit the vertical structure of neutrino-dominated accretion flows (NDAFs) in spherical coordinates under a boundary condition based on a mechanical equilibrium. The solutions show that the NDAF is significantly geometrically thick. The Toomre parameter is determined by the mass accretion rate and the viscosity parameter, which is defined as Q = cSΩ/πGΣ, where cS, Ω and Σ are the sound speed, angular velocity and surface density, respectively. According to the distribution of the Toomre parameter, the possible fragments of the disk may appear near the disk surface in the outer region. These possible outflows originating from the gravitational instability of the disk may account for the late-time flares in gamma-ray bursts. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  12. Magnetic activity in accretion disc boundary layers

    Armitage, Philip J.

    2002-03-01

    We use three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations to study the structure of the boundary layer between an accretion disc and a non-rotating, unmagnetized star. Under the assumption that cooling is efficient, we obtain a narrow but highly variable transition region in which the radial velocity is only a small fraction of the sound speed. A large fraction of the energy dissipation occurs in high-density gas adjacent to the hydrostatic stellar envelope, and may therefore be reprocessed and largely hidden from view of the observer. As suggested by Pringle, the magnetic field energy in the boundary layer is strongly amplified by shear, and exceeds that in the disc by an order of magnitude. These fields may play a role in generating the magnetic activity, X-ray emission and outflows in disc systems where the accretion rate is high enough to overwhelm the stellar magnetosphere.

  13. Satellites in discs regulating the accretion luminosity

    Syer, D; Syer, Dave; Clarke, Cathie

    1995-01-01

    We demonstrate, using a simple analytic model, that the presence of a massive satellite can globally modify the structure and emission properties of an accretion disc to which it is tidally coupled. We show, using two levels of numerical approximation, that the analytic model gives reasonable results. The results are applicable to two astrophysical situations. In the case of an active galactic nucleus, we consider the case of a \\sim 10^3\\Msun compact companion to the central black-hole and show that it could modulate the emitted spectrum on a timescale of \\sim10^5 years. In the case of a T Tauri accretion disc, a satellite such as a sub-dwarf or giant planet could modify the disc spectral energy distribution over a substantial fraction of the T Tauri star lifetime.

  14. Variable protostellar accretion with episodic bursts

    Vorobyov, Eduard I

    2015-01-01

    We present the latest development of the disk gravitational instability and fragmentation model, originally introduced by us to explain episodic accretion bursts in the early stages of star formation. Using our numerical hydrodynamics model with improved disk thermal balance and star-disk interaction, we computed the evolution of protostellar disks formed from the gravitational collapse of prestellar cores. In agreement with our previous studies, we find that cores of higher initial mass and angular momentum produce disks that are more favorable to gravitational instability and fragmentation, while a higher background irradiation and magnetic fields moderate the disk tendency to fragment. The protostellar accretion in our models is time-variable, thanks to the nonlinear interaction between different spiral modes in the gravitationally unstable disk, and can undergo episodic bursts when fragments migrate onto the star owing to the gravitational interaction with other fragments or spiral arms. Most bursts occur...

  15. Compositional evolution during rocky protoplanet accretion

    Carter, Philip J; Elliott, Tim; Walter, Michael J; Stewart, Sarah T

    2015-01-01

    The Earth appears non-chondritic in its abundances of refractory lithophile elements, posing a significant problem for our understanding of its formation and evolution. It has been suggested that this non-chondritic composition may be explained by collisional erosion of differentiated planetesimals of originally chondritic composition. In this work, we present N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation that track the growth of planetary embryos from planetesimals. We simulate evolution through the runaway and oligarchic growth phases under the Grand Tack model and in the absence of giant planets. These simulations include a state-of-the-art collision model which allows multiple collision outcomes, such as accretion, erosion, and bouncing events, that enables tracking of the evolving core mass fraction of accreting planetesimals. We show that the embryos grown during this intermediate stage of planet formation exhibit a range of core mass fractions, and that with significant dynamical excitation, enoug...

  16. Rapidly varying accretion and AGN feedback

    Pope, Edward C. D.

    2007-01-01

    Accretion rates onto AGN are likely to be extremely variable on short timescales; much shorter than the typical cooling time of X-ray emitting gas in elliptical galaxies and galaxy clusters. Using the Langevin approach it is shown that, for a simple feedback system, this can induce variability in the AGN power output that is of much larger amplitude, and persists for longer timescales, than the initial fluctuations. An implication of this is that rich galaxy clusters are expected to show the ...

  17. Accretion Disks, Jets and Blazar Variability

    Wiita, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    Although blazar variability is probably dominated by emission from relativistic jets, accretion disks should be present in all blazars. These disks produce emission over most of the electromagnetic spectrum; various unstable processes operate in those disks which lead to variable emission. Here I summarize some of the most relevant disk mechanisms for AGN variability. I also discuss some aspects of jet variability, focusing on the possibility that ultrarelativisitic jets of modest opening ang...

  18. Relativistic Accretion Mediated by Turbulent Comptonization

    Socrates, Aristotle

    2008-01-01

    Black hole and neutron star accretion flows display unusually high levels of hard coronal emission in comparison to all other optically thick, gravitationally bound, turbulent astrophysical systems. Since these flows sit in deep relativistic gravitational potentials, their random bulk motions approach the speed of light, therefore allowing turbulent Comptonization to be an important effect. We show that the inevitable production of hard X-ray photons results from turbulent Comptonization in t...

  19. Airfoil Ice-Accretion Aerodynamics Simulation

    Bragg, Michael B.; Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Guffond, Didier; Montreuil, E.

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center, ONERA, and the University of Illinois are conducting a major research program whose goal is to improve our understanding of the aerodynamic scaling of ice accretions on airfoils. The program when it is completed will result in validated scaled simulation methods that produce the essential aerodynamic features of the full-scale iced-airfoil. This research will provide some of the first, high-fidelity, full-scale, iced-airfoil aerodynamic data. An initial study classified ice accretions based on their aerodynamics into four types: roughness, streamwise ice, horn ice, and spanwise-ridge ice. Subscale testing using a NACA 23012 airfoil was performed in the NASA IRT and University of Illinois wind tunnel to better understand the aerodynamics of these ice types and to test various levels of ice simulation fidelity. These studies are briefly reviewed here and have been presented in more detail in other papers. Based on these results, full-scale testing at the ONERA F1 tunnel using cast ice shapes obtained from molds taken in the IRT will provide full-scale iced airfoil data from full-scale ice accretions. Using these data as a baseline, the final step is to validate the simulation methods in scale in the Illinois wind tunnel. Computational ice accretion methods including LEWICE and ONICE have been used to guide the experiments and are briefly described and results shown. When full-scale and simulation aerodynamic results are available, these data will be used to further develop computational tools. Thus the purpose of the paper is to present an overview of the program and key results to date.

  20. Accreting Neutron Stars and Radioactive Beam Experiments

    The nuclear processes on accreting neutron stars in X-ray binaries are related to a number of open astrophysical questions. I review these open questions, their relation to the α p, rp and crust processes, and the nuclear data needed to solve the problems. Data on very unstable proton and neutron rich nuclei are most critical, and therefore radioactive beam experiments together with progress in the theoretical understanding of nuclei far from stability are needed. (author)

  1. Local Magnetohydrodynamical Models of Layered Accretion Disks

    Fleming, Timothy; Stone, James M.

    2002-01-01

    Using numerical MHD simulations, we have studied the evolution of the magnetorotational instability in stratified accretion disks in which the ionization fraction (and therefore resistivity) varies substantially with height. This model is appropriate to dense, cold disks around protostars or dwarf nova systems which are ionized by external irradiation of cosmic rays or high-energy photons. We find the growth and saturation of the MRI occurs only in the upper layers of the disk where the magne...

  2. Reconnection in Marginally Collisionless Accretion Disk Coronae

    Goodman, J.; Uzdensky, D.

    2008-01-01

    We point out that a conventional construction placed upon observations of accreting black holes, in which their nonthermal X-ray spectra are produced by inverse comptonization in a coronal plasma, suggests that the plasma is marginally collisionless. Recent developments in plasma physics indicate that fast reconnection takes place only in collisionless plasmas. As has recently been suggested for the Sun's corona, such marginal states may result from a combination of energy balance and the req...

  3. Interaction of Accretion Shocks with Winds

    Kinsuk Acharya; Sandip K. Chakrabarti; D. Molteni

    2002-03-01

    Accretion shocks are known to oscillate in presence of cooling processes in the disk. This oscillation may also cause quasi-periodic oscillations of black holes. In the presence of strong winds, these shocks have oscillations in vertical direction as well.We show examples of shock oscillations under the influence of both the effects. When the shocks are absent and the flow is cooler, the wind becomes weaker and the vertical oscillation becomes negligible.

  4. Simulating Ice Accretion Effects on Engine Performance

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Veres, Joseph P.; Wright, William

    2011-01-01

    Develop a modeling tool that can be used to predict the onset of engine icing due to ice crystal ingestion. The tool will be capable of modeling the effects of ice build up as well as its effect on engine performance. Perform a parametric study of an engine with simulated ice blockage effects at altitude conditions. Using the tool, estimate the effect of blockage in the low pressure compressor due to ice buildup (accretion), and its effects on engine performance.

  5. Relativistic Radiation Hydrodynamics of Spherical Accretion

    Park, Myeong-Gu

    2001-12-01

    Radiation hydrodynamics in high velocity or high optical-depth flow should be treated under rigorous relativistic formalism. Relativistic radiation hydrodynamic moment equations are summarized, and its application to the near-critical accretion onto neutron star is discussed. The relativistic effects can dominate the dynamics of the flow even when the gravity is weak and the velocity is small. First order equations fail to describe the intricate relativistic effects correctly.

  6. Accretion tectonics and crustal structure in Alaska

    Coney, P.J.; Jones, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    The entire width of the North American Cordillera in Alaska is made up of "suspect terranes". Pre-Late Cretaceous paleogeography is poorly constrained and the ultimate origins of the many fragments which make up the state are unclear. The Prince William and Chugach terranes accreted since Late Cretaceous time and represent the collapse of much of the northeast Pacific Ocean swept into what today is southern Alaska. Greater Wrangellia, a composite terrane now dispersed into fragments scattered from Idaho to southern Alaska, apparently accreted into Alaska in Late Cretaceous time crushing an enormous deep-marine flysch basin on its inboard side. Most of interior eastern Alaska is the Yukon Tanana terrane, a very large entirely fault-bounded metamorphic-plutonic assemblage covering thousands of square kilometers in Canada as well as Alaska. The original stratigraphy and relationship to North America of the Yukon-Tanana terrane are both obscure. A collapsed Mesozoic flysch basin, similar to the one inboard of Wrangellia, lies along the northern margin. Much of Arctic Alaska was apparently a vast expanse of upper Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic deep marine sediments and mafic volcanic and plutonic rocks now scattered widely as large telescoped sheets and Klippen thrust over the Ruby geanticline and the Brooks Range, and probably underlying the Yukon-Koyukuk basin and the Yukon flats. The Brooks Range itself is a stack of north vergent nappes, the telescoping of which began in Early Cretaceous time. Despite compelling evidence for thousands of kilometers of relative displacement between the accreted terranes, and large amounts of telescoping, translation, and rotation since accretion, the resulting new continental crust added to North America in Alaska carries few obvious signatures that allow application of currently popular simple plate tectonic models. Intraplate telescoping and strike-slip translations, delamination at mid-crustal levels, and large-scale lithospheric

  7. Radiative Transfer in Accretion-Disk Winds

    Fukue, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Radiative transfer equation in an accretion disk wind is examined analytically and numerically under the plane-parallel approximation in the subrelativistic regime of $(v/c)^1$, where $v$ is the wind vertical velocity. Emergent intensity is analytically obtained for the case of a large optical depth, where the flow speed and the source function are almost constant. The usual limb-darkening effect, which depends on the direction cosine at the zero-optical depth surface, does not appear, since ...

  8. Virial theorem for radiating accretion discs

    Mach, Patryk

    2011-01-01

    A continuum version of the virial theorem is derived for a radiating self-gravitating accretion disc around a compact object. The central object is point-like, but we can avoid the regularization of its gravitational potential. This is achieved by applying a modified Pohozaev-Rellich identity to the gravitational potential of the disk only. The theorem holds for general stationary configurations, including discontinuous flows (shock waves, contact discontinuities). It is used to test numerica...

  9. The accretion of lower oceanic crust

    Harris, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The formation of new ocean lithosphere at mid-ocean ridges is a fundamental component of the plate tectonic cycle, and through hydrothermal interactions with seawater is a major control on the composition of the oceans, ocean crust, and upper mantle. Two complementary approaches are used to investigate the thermal implications of endmember theoretical models that describe the accretion of the lower oceanic crust at fast spreading rates. The first approach uses the record of hydrothermal alter...

  10. Accretion on to Magnetic White Dwarfs

    Wickramasinghe Dayal

    2014-01-01

    The polars have no counterparts in neutron star systems and their study provides unique insights into the complex nature of the magnetospheric boundary. The observed properties of accretion shocks at the white dwarf surface such as the anomalous soft-X-ray excess and its time variability provide strong support for the hypothesis that under certain circumstances the field channelled funnel flow is “blobby”. This has been attributed to interchange instabilities such as the Magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the shocked gas at the stream-magnetosphere boundary where the stream fragments into discrete clumps of gas. As the clumps penetrate into the magnetosphere, they are shredded into smaller mass blobs via the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability that then couple on to field lines over an extended inner transition region in the orbital plane. The more massive blobs penetrate deep into the photosphere of the white dwarf releasing their energy as a reprocessed soft-X-ray black body component. Although similar instabilities are expected in the inner transition region in disced accretion albeit on a different scale there has been no direct observational evidence for blobby accretion in the generally lower field and disced IPs.

  11. Tidal Disruption Flares: The Accretion Disk Phase

    Armijo, Matias Montesinos

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of an accretion disk, formed as a consequence of the disruption of a star by a black hole, is followed by solving numerically the hydrodynamic equations. The present investigation aims to study the dependence of resulting light curves on dynamical and physical properties of such a transient disk during its existence. One of main results derived from our simulations is that black body fits of X-ray data tend to overestimate the true mean disk temperature. The temperature derived from black body fits should be identified with the color X-ray temperature rather than the average value derived from the true temperature distribution along the disk. The time interval between the beginning of the circularization of the bound debris and the beginning of the accretion process by the black hole is determined by the viscous timescale, which fixes also the raising part of the resulting light curve. The luminosity peak coincides with the beginning of matter accretion by the black hole and the late evolution o...

  12. Asymmetric Accretion Flows within a Common Envelope

    MacLeod, Morgan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines flows in the immediate vicinity of stars and compact objects dynamically inspiralling within a common envelope (CE). These embedded objects spiral to tighter separations because of drag that is generated when gas collides and shocks as it is gravitationally focused. This flow convergence is expected to lead to gas accretion onto the inspiralling object. This process has been studied numerically and analytically in the context of Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion (HLA). Yet, within a CE, accretion structures may span a large fraction of the envelope radius, and in so doing sweep across a substantial radial gradient of density. We quantify these gradients using detailed stellar evolution models for a range of CE encounters. We provide estimates of typical scales in CE encounters that involve main sequence stars, white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes with giant-branch companions of a wide range of masses. We apply these typical scales to hydrodynamic simulations of 3D HLA with an upstream dens...

  13. Terrane accretion: Insights from numerical modelling

    Vogt, Katharina; Gerya, Taras

    2016-04-01

    The oceanic crust is not homogenous, but contains significantly thicker crust than norm, i.e. extinct arcs, spreading ridges, detached continental fragments, volcanic piles or oceanic swells. These (crustal) fragments may collide with continental crust and form accretionary complexes, contributing to its growth. We analyse this process using a thermo-mechanical computer model (i2vis) of an ocean-continent subduction zone. In this model the oceanic plate can bend spontaneously under the control of visco-plastic rheologies. It moreover incorporates effects such as mineralogical phase changes, fluid release and consumption, partial melting and melt extraction. Based on our 2-D experiments we suggest that the lithospheric buoyancy of the downgoing slab and the rheological strength of crustal material may result in a variety of accretionary processes. In addition to terrane subduction, we are able to identify three distinct modes of terrane accretion: frontal accretion, basal accretion and underplating plateaus. We show that crustal fragments may dock onto continental crust and cease subduction, be scrapped off the downgoing plate, or subduct to greater depth prior to slab break off and subsequent exhumation. Direct consequences of these processes include slab break off, subduction zone transference, structural reworking, formation of high-pressure terranes, partial melting and crustal growth.

  14. Chaotic cold accretion onto black holes

    Gaspari, M; Oh, S Peng

    2013-01-01

    Using 3D AMR simulations, linking the 50 kpc to the sub-pc scales over the course of 40 Myr, we systematically relax the classic Bondi assumptions in a typical galaxy hosting a SMBH. In the realistic scenario, where the hot gas is cooling, while heated and stirred on large scales, the accretion rate is boosted up to two orders of magnitude compared with the Bondi prediction. The cause is the nonlinear growth of thermal instabilities, leading to the condensation of cold clouds and filaments when t_cool/t_ff 0.2) induces the formation of thermal instabilities, even in the absence of heating, while in the transonic regime turbulent dissipation inhibits their growth (t_turb/t_cool < 1). When heating restores global thermodynamic balance, the formation of the multiphase medium is violent, and the mode of accretion is fully cold and chaotic. The recurrent collisions, shearing and tidal motions between clouds, filaments and the central torus cause a significant reduction of angular momentum, boosting accretion. ...

  15. Generalized Similarity for Accretion/Decretion Disks

    Rafikov, Roman R

    2016-01-01

    Decretion (or external) disks are gas disks freely expanding to large radii due to their internal stresses. They are expected to naturally arise in tidal disruption events, around Be stars, in mass-losing post main sequence binaries, as a result of supernova fallback, etc. Their evolution is theoretically understood in two regimes: when the central object does not exert torque on the disk (a standard assumption for conventional accretion disks) or when no mass inflow (or outflow) occurs at the disk center. However, many astrophysical objects - circumbinary disks, Be stars, neutron stars accreting in a propeller regime, etc. - feature non-zero torque simultaneously with the non-zero accretion (or ejection of mass) at the disk center. We provide a general description for the evolution of such disks (both linear and non-linear) in the self-similar regime, to which the disk should asymptotically converge with time. We identify a similarity parameter $\\lambda$, which is uniquely related to the degree, to which the...

  16. Modeling the Accretion Structure of AU Mon

    Atwood-Stone, Corwin; Richards, Mercedes T; Budaj, Jan; Peters, Geraldine J

    2012-01-01

    AU Mon is a long-period (11.113 d) Algol-type binary system with a persistent accretion disk that is apparent as double-peaked H-alpha emission. We present previously unpublished optical spectra of AU Mon which were obtained over several years with dense orbital phase coverage. We utilize these data, along with archival UV spectra, to model the temperature and structure of the accretion disk and the gas stream. Synthetic spectral profiles for lines including H-alpha, H-beta, and the Al III and Si IV doublets were computed with the Shellspec program. The best match between the model spectra and the observations is obtained for an accretion disk of inner/outer radius 5.1/23 R_sun, thickness of 5.2 R_sun, density of 1.0e-13 g/cm^3, and maximum temperature of 14000 K, along with a gas stream at a temperature of ~8000 K transferring ~2.4e-9 M_sun/yr. We show H-alpha Doppler tomograms of the velocity structure of the gas, constructed from difference profiles calculated through sequentially subtracting contributions...

  17. Magnetically driven accretion in protoplanetary discs

    Simon, Jacob B; Kunz, Matthew W; Armitage, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    We characterize magnetically driven accretion at radii between 1 au and 100 au in protoplanetary discs, using a series of local non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. The simulations assume a Minimum Mass Solar Nebula (MMSN) disc that is threaded by a net vertical magnetic field of specified strength. Confirming previous results, we find that the Hall effect has only a modest impact on accretion at 30 au, and essentially none at 100 au. At 1-10 au the Hall effect introduces a pronounced bi-modality in the accretion process, with vertical magnetic fields aligned to the disc rotation supporting a strong laminar Maxwell stress that is absent if the field is anti-aligned. In the anti-aligned case, we instead find evidence for bursts of turbulent stress at 5-10 au, which we tentatively identify with the non-axisymmetric Hall-shear instability. The presence or absence of these bursts depends upon the details of the adopted chemical model, which suggests that appreciable regions of actual protoplanetary di...

  18. Stochastic accretion of planetesimals onto white dwarfs: constraints on the mass distribution of accreted material from atmospheric pollution

    Wyatt, M C; Pringle, J E; Bonsor, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how the stochastic accretion of planetesimals onto white dwarfs would be manifested in observations of their atmospheric pollution. Archival observations of pollution levels for unbiased samples of DA and non-DA white dwarfs are used to derive the distribution of accretion rates, confirming that rates become systematically lower as sinking time is decreased, with no discernable dependence on cooling age. The accretion rates expected from planetesimals that are all the same mass (ie, a mono-mass distribution) are explored both analytically and using a Monte Carlo model, quantifying how measured accretion rates inevitably depend on sinking time, since different sinking times probe different times since the last accretion event. However, that dependence is so dramatic that a mono-mass distribution can be excluded. Consideration of accretion from a broad distribution of planetesimal masses uncovers an important conceptual difference: accretion is continuous (rather than stochastic) for planete...

  19. Multi-dimensional structure of accreting young stars

    Geroux, C.; Baraffe, I.; Viallet, M.; Goffrey, T.; Pratt, J.; Constantino, T.; Folini, D.; Popov, M. V.; Walder, R.

    2016-04-01

    This work is the first attempt to describe the multi-dimensional structure of accreting young stars based on fully compressible time implicit multi-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations. One major motivation is to analyse the validity of accretion treatment used in previous 1D stellar evolution studies. We analyse the effect of accretion on the structure of a realistic stellar model of the young Sun. Our work is inspired by the numerical work of Kley & Lin (1996, ApJ, 461, 933) devoted to the structure of the boundary layer in accretion disks, which provides the outer boundary conditions for our simulations. We analyse the redistribution of accreted material with a range of values of specific entropy relative to the bulk specific entropy of the material in the accreting object's convective envelope. Low specific entropy accreted material characterises the so-called cold accretion process, whereas high specific entropy is relevant to hot accretion. A primary goal is to understand whether and how accreted energy deposited onto a stellar surface is redistributed in the interior. This study focusses on the high accretion rates characteristic of FU Ori systems. We find that the highest entropy cases produce a distinctive behaviour in the mass redistribution, rms velocities, and enthalpy flux in the convective envelope. This change in behaviour is characterised by the formation of a hot layer on the surface of the accreting object, which tends to suppress convection in the envelope. We analyse the long-term effect of such a hot buffer zone on the structure and evolution of the accreting object with 1D stellar evolution calculations. We study the relevance of the assumption of redistribution of accreted energy into the stellar interior used in the literature. We compare results obtained with the latter treatment and those obtained with a more physical accretion boundary condition based on the formation of a hot surface layer suggested by present multi

  20. Accreting Matter around Clusters of Galaxies One-Dimensional Considerations

    Ryu, D; Ryu, Dongsu; Kang, Hyesung

    1996-01-01

    During the formation of the large scale structure of the Universe, matter accretes onto high density peaks. Accreting collisionless dark matter (DM) forms caustics around them, while accreting collisional baryonic matter (BM) forms accretion shocks. The properties of the accreting matter depend upon the power spectrum of the initial perturbations on a given scale as well as the background expansion in a given cosmological model. In this paper, we have calculated the accretion of DM particles in one-dimensional spherical geometry under various cosmological models including the Einstein-de Sitter universe, the open universe with $\\Omega_o<1$, and the flat universe with a point mass at the origin has been considered. Since the accretion shock of BM is expected to form close to the first caustic of DM, the properties of the accreting BM are common with those of the DM. Hence, the accretion calculations with DM particles have been used to find the position and velocity of the accretion shock and the cluster mas...

  1. Phantom Accretion onto the Schwarzschild de-Sitter Black Hole

    M Sharif; G Abbas

    2011-01-01

    We deal with phantom energy accretion onto the Schwarzschild de-Sitter black hole. The energy flux conservation, relativistic Bernoulli equation and mass Bux conservation equation are formulated to discuss the phantom accretion. We discuss the conditions for critical accretion. It is found that the mass of the black hole decreases due to phantom accretion. There exist two critical points which lie in the exterior of horizons (black hole and cosmological horizons). The results for the phantom energy accretion onto the Schwarzschild black hole can be recovered by taking A → 0.%@@ We deal with phantom energy accretion onto the Schwarzschild de-Sitter black hole.The energy flux conserva-tion,relativistic Bernoulli equation and mass flux conservation equation are formulated to discuss the phantom accretion.We discuss the conditions for critical accretion.It is found that the mass of the black hole decreases due to phantom accretion.There exist two critical points which lie in the exterior of horizons(black hole and cosmological horizons).The results for the phantom energy accretion onto the Schwarzschild black hole can be recovered by taking ∧→0.

  2. Convection in radiatively inefficient black hole accretion flows

    Igumenshchev, I V; Igumenshchev, Igor V.; Abramowicz, Marek Artur

    2001-01-01

    Recent numerical simulations of radiatively inefficient accretion flows onto compact objects have shown that convection is a general feature in such flows. Dissipation of rotational and gravitational energies in the accretion flows results in inward increase of entropy and development of efficient convective motions. Convection-dominated accretion flows (CDAFs) have a structure that is modified significantly in comparison with the canonical advection-dominated and Bondi-like accretion flows. The flows are characterized by the flattened radial density profiles, ~R^{-1/2}, and have reduced mass accretion rates. Convection transports outward a significant amount of the released binding energy of the accretion flow. We discuss basic dynamical and observational properties of ADAFs using numerical models and self-similar analytical solutions.

  3. Accretion Disk Outflows from Compact Object Mergers

    Metzger, Brian

    Nuclear reactions play a key role in the accretion disks and outflows associated with the merger of binary compact objects and the central engines of gamma-ray bursts and supernovae. The proposed research program will investigate the impact of nucleosynthesis on these events and their observable signatures by means of analytic calculations and numerical simulations. One focus of this research is rapid accretion following the tidal disruption of a white dwarf (WD) by a neutron star (NS) or black hole (BH) binary companion. Tidal disruption shreds the WD into a massive torus composed of C, O, and/or He, which undergoes nuclear reactions and burns to increasingly heavier elements as it flows to smaller radii towards the central compact object. The nuclear energy so released is comparable to that released gravitationally, suggesting that burning could drastically alter the structure and stability of the accretion flow. Axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of the torus including nuclear burning will be performed to explore issues such as the mass budget of the flow (accretion vs. outflows) and its thermal stability (steady burning and accretion vs. runaway explosion). The mass, velocity, and composition of outflows from the disk will be used in separate radiative transfer calculations to predict the lightcurves and spectra of the 56Ni-decay powered optical transients from WD-NS/WD-BH mergers. The possible connection of such events to recently discovered classes of sub-luminous Type I supernovae will be assessed. The coalescence of NS-NS/NS-BH binaries also results in the formation of a massive torus surrounding a central compact object. Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the long-term evolution of such accretion disks will be performed, which for the first time follow the effects of weak interactions and the nuclear energy released by Helium recombination. The nucleosynthetic yield of disk outflows will be calculated using a detailed

  4. Cold Accretion from the Cosmic Web

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    The cosmic web is a vast, foam-like network of filaments and voids stretching throughout the universe. How did the first galaxies form within the cosmic web, at the intersections of filaments? New observations of a protodisk a galaxy in the early stages of formation may provide a clue.Models for Galaxy FormationNarrowband image of the candidate protodisk (marked with a white ellipse) and filaments (outlined in white). [Adapted from Martin et al. 2016]The standard model for galaxy formation, known as the hot accretion model, argues that galaxies form out of collapsing, virialized gas that forms a hot halo and then slowly cools, fueling star and galaxy formation at its center.But what if galaxies are actually formed from cool gas? In this contrasting picture, the cold accretion model, cool (temperature of ~104 K) unshocked gas from cosmic web filaments flows directly onto galactic disks forming at the filamentary intersections. The narrow streams of cold gas deliver fuel for star formation.A signature of the cold accretion model is that the streams of cold gas form a disk as the gas spirals inward, sinking toward the central protogalaxy. Detecting these cold-flow disks could be strong evidence in support of this model and last year, a team of authors reported just such a detection! This year theyre back again with a second object that may provide confirmation of cold accretion from the cosmic web.A Candidate ProtodiskThe team, led by Christopher Martin (California Institute of Technology), made the discovery using the Palomar Cosmic Web Imager, an instrument designed to observe faint emission from the intergalactic medium. Martin and collaborators found a large (R 100 kpc, more than six times the radius of the Milky Way), rotating structure of hydrogen gas, illuminated by the nearby quasi-stellar object QSO HS1549+1919. The system is located at a redshift of z~2.8.The authors testthree potential kinematic models of the candidate protodisk and filaments. In (a) two

  5. Settling accretion onto slowly rotating X-ray pulsars

    Shakura, N. I.; Postnov, K. A.; Kochetkova, A. Yu.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.

    2013-01-01

    Quasi-spherical subsonic accretion onto slowly rotating magnetized NS is considered, when the accreting matter settles down subsonically onto the rotating magnetosphere, forming an extended quasi-static shell. The shell mediates the angular momentum transfer to/from the rotating NS magnetosphere by large-scale convective motions, which lead to an almost iso-angular-momentum rotation law inside the shell. The accretion rate through the shell is determined by the ability of the plasma to enter ...

  6. Dynamical structure of magnetized dissipative accretion flow around black holes

    Sarkar, Biplob; Das, Santabrata

    2016-01-01

    We study the global structure of optically thin, advection dominated, magnetized accretion flow around black holes. We consider the magnetic field to be turbulent in nature and dominated by the toroidal component. With this, we obtain the complete set of accretion solutions for dissipative flows where bremsstrahlung process is regarded as the dominant cooling mechanism. We show that rotating magnetized accretion flow experiences virtual barrier around black hole due to centrifugal repulsion t...

  7. Neutrino oscillation above a black hole accretion disk

    We examine neutrino oscillations in the context of an accretion disk surrounding a black hole. Because accretion disks produce large quantities of neutrinos, they may be home to interesting neutrino oscillation as well. We model accretion disks associated with stellar collapse for the sake of understanding neutrino oscillations. We find that the neutrino oscillations include phenomena seen in the protoneutron star setting as well as phenomena not seen elsewhere

  8. Accretion onto a charged higher-dimensional black hole

    M. Sharif; Iftikhar, Sehrish

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the steady-state polytropic fluid accretion onto a higher-dimensional Reissner–Nordström black hole. We formulate the generalized mass flux conservation equation, energy flux conservation and relativistic Bernoulli equation to discuss the accretion process. The critical accretion is investigated by finding the critical radius, the critical sound velocity, and the critical flow velocity. We also explore gas compression and temperature profiles to analyze the asymptotic be...

  9. Accretion Discs Around Black Holes: Developement of Theory

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.

    1999-01-01

    Standard accretion disk theory is formulated which is based on the local heat balance. The energy produced by a turbulent viscous heating is supposed to be emitted to the sides of the disc. Sources of turbulence in the accretion disc are connected with nonlinear hydrodynamic instability, convection, and magnetic field. In standard theory there are two branches of solution, optically thick, and optically thin. Advection in accretion disks is described by the differential equations what makes t...

  10. Theory of disk accretion onto supermassive black holes

    Armitage, Philip J.

    2004-01-01

    Accretion onto supermassive black holes produces both the dramatic phenomena associated with active galactic nuclei and the underwhelming displays seen in the Galactic Center and most other nearby galaxies. I review selected aspects of the current theoretical understanding of black hole accretion, emphasizing the role of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and gravitational instabilities in driving the actual accretion and the importance of the efficacy of cooling in determining the structure and ...

  11. Accretion processes in magnetically and tidally perturbed Schwarzschild black holes

    Kovacs, Z; Gergely, LA; Vasuth, M.

    2011-01-01

    We study the accretion process in the region of the Preston-Poisson space-time describing a Schwarzschild black hole perturbed by an asymptotically uniform magnetic field and axisymmetric tidal structures. We find that the accretion disk shrinks and the marginally stable orbit shifts toward the black hole with the perturbation. The radiation intensity of the accretion disk increases, while the radius where radiation is maximal remains unchanged. The spectrum is blue-shifted. Finally, the conv...

  12. On the Viability of Two-temperature Accretion Flows

    Quataert, Eliot

    2003-01-01

    Binney (2003) has argued that two-temperature radiatively inefficient accretion flow models are unphysical because the electron-ion equipartition time is much shorter than the accretion time. I show that this conclusion is incorrect because it relies on a misidentification of the electron-ion equipartition time. I also clarify what requirements must, in fact, be satisfied to maintain a two-temperature accretion flow.

  13. Radial equation for an accretion flow driven by Poynting flux

    Lee, Hyun Kyu

    2002-01-01

    Using a toy model of a two dimensional accretion disk, we discuss further the radial equation of the accretion flow dominated by the Poynting flux. Assuming the force-free condition is valid around the accretion disk, the relation between the fluid angular velocity of the disk, $\\Omega_D$, and the angular velocity of the magnetic field lines, $\\Omega_F$, is also discussed.

  14. Black hole mass decreasing due to phantom energy accretion

    Babichev, E.; Dokuchaev, V.; Eroshenko, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Solution for a stationary spherically symmetric accretion of the relativistic perfect fluid with an equation of state $p(\\rho)$ onto the Schwarzschild black hole is presented. This solution is a generalization of Michel solution and applicable to the problem of dark energy accretion. It is shown that accretion of phantom energy is accompanied with the gradual decrease of the black hole mass. Masses of all black holes tend to zero in the phantom energy universe approaching to the Big Rip.

  15. Neutrino oscillation above a black hole accretion disk

    Malkus, A.; Kneller, J. P.; McLaughlin, G. C. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Surman, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Union College, Schenectady, NY 12308 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    We examine neutrino oscillations in the context of an accretion disk surrounding a black hole. Because accretion disks produce large quantities of neutrinos, they may be home to interesting neutrino oscillation as well. We model accretion disks associated with stellar collapse for the sake of understanding neutrino oscillations. We find that the neutrino oscillations include phenomena seen in the protoneutron star setting as well as phenomena not seen elsewhere.

  16. Generalized Shock Solutions for Hydrodynamic Black Hole Accretion

    Das, Tapas Kumar

    2002-01-01

    For the first time, {\\it all} available pseudo-Schwarzschild potentials are exhaustively used to investigate the possibility of shock formation in hydrodynamic, invicid, black hole accretion discs. It is shown that a significant region of parameter space spanned by important accretion parameters allows shock formation for flow in {\\it all} potentials used in this work. This leads to the conclusion that the standing shocks are essential ingredients in accretion discs around non-rotating black ...

  17. Lifetimes and Accretion Rates of Protoplanetary Disks

    Li, Min; Xiao, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Protoplanetary disks originate in the collapse of molecular cloud cores. The formation and evolution of disks are influenced by the properties of molecular cloud cores. In this paper we investigate the dependence of disk lifetimes and accretion rates on cloud core properties. We find that the lifetime increases as the angular velocities and the mass of cloud cores increase and that the lifetime decreases as the core temperature increases. We have calculated the distribution of disk lifetimes and disk fractions with stellar age. Our calculations show that the lifetime is in the range of 1-15 Myr and that the typical lifetime is 1-3 Myr. There are a few disks with lifetimes greater than 10 Myr and ˜ 30% of the disks have lifetimes less than 1 Myr. We also fit the disk fraction by an exponential decay curve with characteristic time ˜3.7 Myr. Our results explain the observations of disk lifetimes. We also find that the accretion rate does not change significantly with ω and generally decreases with {T}{{cd}}. At the early evolution of the disks, the \\dot{M}{--}{M}* relation is about \\dot{M}\\propto {M}*1.2-2. Since the effects of the photoevaporation are weak at this stage, this relation is the consequence of the cloud core properties. At the late evolution of the disks, the \\dot{M}{--}{M}* relation is about \\dot{M}\\propto {M}*1.2-1.7. For low accretion rates at this stage, the \\dot{M}{--}{M}* relation results from the effects of X-ray photoevaporation. The calculated \\dot{M}{--}{M}* relations are consistent with the observations.

  18. Wiggly cosmic strings accrete dark energy

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F.; Madrid, Jose A. Jimenez

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with a study of the cylindrically symmetric accretion of dark energy with equation of state $p=w\\rho$ onto wiggly straight cosmic strings. We have obtained that when $w>-1$ the linear energy density in the string core gradually increases tending to a finite maximum value as time increases for all considered dark energy models. On the regime where the dominant energy condition is violated all such models predict a steady decreasing of the linear energy density of the cosmic st...

  19. Alfvenic Heating of Protostellar Accretion Disks

    Vasconcelos, M. J.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.; R. Opher

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the effects of heating generated by damping of Alfven waves on protostellar accretion disks. Two mechanisms of damping are investigated, nonlinear and turbulent, which were previously studied in stellar winds (Jatenco-Pereira & Opher 1989a, b). For the nominal values studied, f=delta v/v_{A}=0.002 and F=varpi/Omega_{i}=0.1, where delta v, v_{A} and varpi are the amplitude, velocity and average frequency of the Alfven wave, respectively, and Omega_{i} is the ion cyclotron freque...

  20. Stability properties of an isothermal accretion disk

    A local stability analysis of an isothermal, transonic accretion disk around a non-rotating black hole is used to infer the time-dependent behaviour of linear perturbations. The three modes in the problem are one viscous Lightman-Eardley mode, which is always stable, and two acoustic modes, which are always overstable. If the growth rate is required to be greater than the escape rate, then the acoustic modes become stable in the outer region, and unstable in the innermost region, if the viscosity parameter α is greater than 0.5. (orig.)

  1. Normal Modes of Black Hole Accretion Disks

    Ortega-Rodriguez, Manuel; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Costa Rica U.; Silbergleit, Alexander S.; /Stanford U., HEPL; Wagoner, Robert V.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2006-11-07

    This paper studies the hydrodynamical problem of normal modes of small adiabatic oscillations of relativistic barotropic thin accretion disks around black holes (and compact weakly magnetic neutron stars). Employing WKB techniques, we obtain the eigen frequencies and eigenfunctions of the modes for different values of the mass and angular momentum of the central black hole. We discuss the properties of the various types of modes and examine the role of viscosity, as it appears to render some of the modes unstable to rapid growth.

  2. Angular Momentum Transport in Accretion Disks

    E. Pessah, Martin; Chan, Chi-kwan; Psaltis, Dimitrios;

    2007-01-01

    We present a scaling law that predicts the values of the stresses obtained in numerical simulations of saturated MRI-driven turbulence in non-stratified shearing boxes. It relates the turbulent stresses to the strength of the vertical magnetic field, the sound speed, the vertical size of the box...... threaded by a significant vertical magnetic field and the turbulent magnetic energy must be in near equipartition with the thermal energy. This result has important implications for the spectra of accretion disks and their stability....

  3. Analytical models of relativistic accretion disks

    Zhuravlev, Viacheslav V

    2015-01-01

    We present not a literature review but a description, as detailed and consistent as possible, of two analytic models of disk accretion onto a rotating black hole: a standard relativistic disk and a twisted relativistic disk. Although one of these models is much older than the other, both are of topical current interest for black hole studies. The way the exposition is presented, the reader with only a limited knowledge of general relativity and relativistic hydrodynamics can --- with little or no use of additional sources -- gain good insight into many technical details lacking in the original papers.

  4. Zircon dating of oceanic crustal accretion.

    Lissenberg, C Johan; Rioux, Matthew; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Bowring, Samuel A; Mével, Catherine

    2009-02-20

    Most of Earth's present-day crust formed at mid-ocean ridges. High-precision uranium-lead dating of zircons in gabbros from the Vema Fracture Zone on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge reveals that the crust there grew in a highly regular pattern characterized by shallow melt delivery. Combined with results from previous dating studies, this finding suggests that two distinct modes of crustal accretion occur along slow-spreading ridges. Individual samples record a zircon date range of 90,000 to 235,000 years, which is interpreted to reflect the time scale of zircon crystallization in oceanic plutonic rocks. PMID:19179492

  5. Fundamental Ice Crystal Accretion Physics Studies

    Struk, Peter M.; Broeren, Andy P.; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Vargas, Mario; Wright, William B.; Currie, Tom; Knezevici, Danny; Fuleki, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Due to numerous engine power-loss events associated with high-altitude convective weather, ice accretion within an engine due to ice crystal ingestion is being investigated. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada are starting to examine the physical mechanisms of ice accretion on surfaces exposed to ice-crystal and mixed-phase conditions. In November 2010, two weeks of testing occurred at the NRC Research Altitude Facility utilizing a single wedge-type airfoil designed to facilitate fundamental studies while retaining critical features of a compressor stator blade or guide vane. The airfoil was placed in the NRC cascade wind tunnel for both aerodynamic and icing tests. Aerodynamic testing showed excellent agreement compared with CFD data on the icing pressure surface and allowed calculation of heat transfer coefficients at various airfoil locations. Icing tests were performed at Mach numbers of 0.2 to 0.3, total pressures from 93 to 45 kPa, and total temperatures from 5 to 15 C. Ice and liquid water contents ranged up to 20 and 3 g/m3, respectively. The ice appeared well adhered to the surface in the lowest pressure tests (45 kPa) and, in a particular case, showed continuous leading-edge ice growth to a thickness greater than 15 mm in 3 min. Such widespread deposits were not observed in the highest pressure tests, where the accretions were limited to a small area around the leading edge. The suction surface was typically ice-free in the tests at high pressure, but not at low pressure. The icing behavior at high and low pressure appeared to be correlated with the wet-bulb temperature, which was estimated to be above 0 C in tests at 93 kPa and below 0 C in tests at lower pressure, the latter enhanced by more evaporative cooling of water. The authors believe that the large ice accretions observed in the low pressure tests would undoubtedly cause the aerodynamic performance of a compressor component

  6. Accretion and evaporation of modified Hayward black hole

    We assume the most general static spherically symmetric black hole metric. The accretion of any general kind of fluid flow around the black hole is investigated. The accretion of the fluid flow around the modified Hayward black hole is analyzed, and we then calculate the critical point, the fluid's four-velocity, and the velocity of sound during the accretion process. Also the nature of the dynamical mass of the black hole during accretion of the fluid flow, taking into consideration Hawking radiation from the black hole, i.e., evaporation of the black hole, is analyzed. (orig.)

  7. Accretion and evaporation of modified Hayward black hole

    Debnath, Ujjal [Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics, Howrah (India)

    2015-03-01

    We assume the most general static spherically symmetric black hole metric. The accretion of any general kind of fluid flow around the black hole is investigated. The accretion of the fluid flow around the modified Hayward black hole is analyzed, and we then calculate the critical point, the fluid's four-velocity, and the velocity of sound during the accretion process. Also the nature of the dynamical mass of the black hole during accretion of the fluid flow, taking into consideration Hawking radiation from the black hole, i.e., evaporation of the black hole, is analyzed. (orig.)

  8. Deceleration Effect of Magnetic Field on Black Hole Accretion Disks

    WANG Ding-Xiong

    2000-01-01

    The deceleration effect of magnetic field near the horizon of a spinning black hole (BH) of accretion disk is investigated in the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) process. It is shown that rates of change with respect to time for both the angular velocities of BH horizon and accreting particles at the inner edge of an accretion disk are reduced in the BZ process, behaving with non-monotonous evolution characteristics. This result implies that the magnetic field near the BH horizon has & deceleration effect not only on the spinning BH but also on the surrounding accretion disk.

  9. Extracting Energy from Accretion into Kerr Black Hole

    Li, L X; Li, Li-Xin; Paczynski, Bohdan

    2000-01-01

    The highest efficiency of converting rest mass into energy by accreting matter into a Kerr black hole is ~ 31(Thorne 1974). We propose a new process in which periods of accretion from a thin disk, and the associated spin-up of the black hole, alternate with the periods of no accretion and magnetic transfer of energy from the black hole to the disk. These cycles can repeat indefinitely, at least in principle, with the black hole mass increasing by ~ 660er cycle, and up to ~ 43563641f accreted rest mass radiated away by the disk.

  10. Accretion and evaporation of modified Hayward black hole

    Debnath, Ujjal

    2015-01-01

    We assume the most general static spherically symmetric black hole metric. The accretion of any general kind of fluid flow around the black hole is investigated. The accretion of the fluid flow around the modified Hayward black hole is analyzed, and we then calculate the critical point, the fluid’s four-velocity, and the velocity of sound during the accretion process. Also the nature of the dynamical mass of the black hole during accretion of the fluid flow, taking into consideration Hawking ...

  11. Accretion properties of T Tauri stars in sigma Ori

    Gatti, T.; Natta, A.; Randich, S.; Testi, L.; Sacco, G.

    2008-01-01

    Accretion disks around young stars evolve in time with time scales of few million years. We present here a study of the accretion properties of a sample of 35 stars in the ~3 million year old star-forming region sigma Ori. Of these, 31 are objects with evidence of disks, based on their IR excess emission. We use near-IR hydrogen recombination lines (Pa_gamma) to measure their mass accretion rate. We find that the accretion rates are significantly lower in sigma Ori than in younger regions, su...

  12. Maximum Accretion Efficiency in General Theory of Relativity

    Mitra, Abhas

    1998-01-01

    We derive here the expression for the accretion luminosity, $L(\\infty)$, as seen by a distant inertial observer $S_\\infty$, for the case of spherical accretion onto a static compact object having a surface gravitational red-shift $z_x$. It is found that the ``efficiency'' for conversion of mass energy into accretion energy is given by $\\epsilon = z_x/(1+z_x)$. And since the maximum value of $z_x$ permitted by General Theory of Relativity (GTR) is 2, the maximum theoretical value of the accret...

  13. Accretion Onto a Charged Higher-Dimensional Black Hole

    Sharif, M

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the steady-state polytropic fluid accretion onto a higher-dimensional Reissner-Nordstr$\\ddot{o}$m black hole. We formulate the generalized mass flux conservation equation, energy flux conservation and relativistic Bernoulli equation to discuss the accretion process. The critical accretion is investigated by finding critical radius, critical sound velocity and critical flow velocity. We also explore gas compression and temperature profiles to analyze the asymptotic behavior. It is found that the results for Schwarzschild black hole are recovered when $q=0$ in four dimensions. We conclude that accretion process in higher dimensions becomes slower in the presence of charge.

  14. Accretion rates and accretion tracers of Herbig Ae/Be stars

    Mendigutía, I; Montesinos, B; Mora, A; Muzerolle, J; Eiroa, C; Oudmaijer, R D; Merín, B

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to derive accretion rates for a sample of 38 HAeBe stars. We apply magnetospheric accretion (MA) shock modelling to reproduce the observed Balmer excesses. We look for possible correlations with the strength of the Halpha, [OI]6300, and Brgamma emission lines. The median mass accretion rate is 2 x 10^-7 Msun yr^-1 in our sample. The model fails to reproduce the large Balmer excesses shown by the four hottest stars (T* > 12000 K). We derive Macc propto M*^5 and Lacc propto L*^1.2 for our sample, with scatter. Empirical calibrations relating the accretion and the Halpha, [OI]6300, and Brgamma luminosities are provided. The slopes in our expressions are slightly shallower than those for lower mass stars, but the difference is within the uncertainties, except for the [OI]6300 line. The Halpha 10% width is uncorrelated with Macc, unlike for the lower mass regime. The mean Halpha width shows higher values as the projected rotational velocities of HAe stars increase, which agrees with MA. The accretio...

  15. Discovery of an Accretion-Fed Corona in an Accreting Young Star

    Wolk, Scott J.; Brickhouse, N.; Cranmer, S.; Dupree, A.; Luna, G. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    A deep (489 ks) Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating spectrum of the classical T Tauri star TW Hydrae shows a new type of coronal structure that is produced by the accretion process. In the standard model for a stellar dipole, the magnetic field truncates the disk and channels the accreting material onto the star. The He-like diagnostic lines of Ne IX provide excellent agreement with the shock conditions predicted by this model, with an electron temperature of 2.5 MK and electron density of 3 times 1012 cm-3 (see also Kastner et al. 2002). However, the standard model completely fails to predict the post-shock conditions, significantly overpredicting both the density and absorption observed at O VII. Instead the observations require a second "post-shock" component with 30 times more mass and 1000 times larger volume than found at the shock itself. We note that in the standard model, the shocked plasma is conveniently located near both closed (coronal) and open (stellar wind) magnetic structures, as the magnetic field connecting the star and disk also separates the open and closed field regions on the stellar surface. The shocked plasma thus can provide the energy to heat not only the post-shock plasma, but also adjacent regions (i.e. an "accretion-fed corona") and drive stellar material into surrounding coronal structures. These observations provide new clues to the puzzling soft X-ray excess found in accreting systems, which depends on both the presence of accretion and the level of coronal activity (Guedel and Telleschi 2007). This work is partially supported by CXO grant G07-8018X.

  16. Formation of redbacks via accretion induced collapse

    Smedley, Sarah L; Ferrario, Lilia; Wickramasinghe, Dayal T

    2014-01-01

    We examine the growing class of binary millisecond pulsars known as redbacks. In these systems the pulsar's companion has a mass between 0.1 and about 0.5 solar masses in an orbital period of less than 1.5 days. All show extended radio eclipses associated with circumbinary material. They do not lie on the period-companion mass relation expected from the canonical intermediate-mass X-ray binary evolution in which the companion filled its Roche lobe as a red giant and has now lost its envelope and cooled as a white dwarf. The redbacks lie closer to, but usually at higher period than, the period-companion mass relation followed by cataclysmic variables and low-mass X-ray binaries. In order to turn on as a pulsar mass accretion on to a neutron star must be sufficiently weak, considerably weaker than expected in systems with low-mass main-sequence companions driven together by magnetic braking or gravitational radiation. If a neutron star is formed by accretion induced collapse of a white dwarf as it approaches th...

  17. The Physics of Wind-Fed Accretion

    We provide a brief review of the physical processes behind the radiative driving of the winds of OB stars and the Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton capture and accretion of a fraction of the stellar wind by a compact object, typically a neutron star, in detached high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). In addition, we describe a program to develop global models of the radiatively-driven photoionized winds and accretion flows of HMXBs, with particular attention to the prototypical system Vela X-l. The models combine XSTAR photoionization calculations, HULLAC emission models appropriate to X-ray photoionized plasmas, improved models of the radiative driving of photoionized winds, FLASH time-dependent adaptive-mesh hydrodynamics calculations, and Monte Carlo radiation transport. We present two- and three-dimensional maps of the density, temperature, velocity, ionization parameter, and emissivity distributions of representative X-ray emission lines, as well as synthetic global Monte Carlo X-ray spectra. Such models help to better constrain the properties of the winds of HMXBs, which bear on such fundamental questions as the long-term evolution of these binaries and the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium.

  18. The lamppost model of accreting black holes

    Zdziarski, A.

    2016-06-01

    Niedzwiecki, Zdziarski & Szanecki (2016, ApJL, submitted) have studied the lamppost model, in which the X-ray source in accreting black-hole systems is located on the rotation axis close to the horizon. We point out a number of inconsistencies in the widely used lamppost model relxilllp. They appear to invalidate those model fitting results for which the source distances from the horizon are within several gravitational radii. Furthermore, we note that if those results were correct, most of the photons produced in the lamppost would be trapped by the black hole, and the source luminosity as measured at infinity would be much larger than that observed. This appears to be in conflict with the observed smooth state transitions between the hard and soft states of X-ray binaries. The required increase of the accretion rate and the associated efficiency reduction present also a problem for AGNs. Then, those models imply the luminosity measured in the local frame much higher than the dissipated power due to time dilation and redshift, and the electron temperature significantly higher than that observed. We show that these conditions imply that the fitted sources would be out of the pair equilibrium.

  19. Magnetic field evolution of accreting neutron stars

    Istomin, Ya N

    2016-01-01

    The flow of a matter, accreting onto a magnetized neutron star, is accompanied by an electric current. The closing of the electric current occurs in the crust of a neutron stars in the polar region across the magnetic field. But the conductivity of the crust along the magnetic field greatly exceeds the conductivity across the field, so the current penetrates deep into the crust down up to the super conducting core. The magnetic field, generated by the accretion current, increases greatly with the depth of penetration due to the Hall conductivity of the crust is also much larger than the transverse conductivity. As a result, the current begins to flow mainly in the toroidal direction, creating a strong longitudinal magnetic field, far exceeding an initial dipole field. This field exists only in the narrow polar tube of $r$ width, narrowing with the depth, i.e. with increasing of the crust density $\\rho$, $r\\propto \\rho^{-1/4}$. Accordingly, the magnetic field $B$ in the tube increases with the depth, $B\\propto...

  20. Broken discs: warp propagation in accretion discs

    Nixon, Christopher J.; King, Andrew R.

    2012-04-01

    We simulate the viscous evolution of an accretion disc around a spinning black hole. In general, any such disc is misaligned, and warped by the Lense-Thirring effect. Unlike previous studies, we use effective viscosities constrained to be consistent with the internal fluid dynamics of the disc. We find that non-linear fluid effects, which reduce the effective viscosities in warped regions, can promote breaking of the disc into two distinct planes. This occurs when the Shakura & Sunyaev dimensionless viscosity parameter α is ≲0.3 and the initial angle of misalignment between the disc and hole is ≳45°. The break can be a long-lived feature, propagating outwards in the disc on the usual alignment time-scale, after which the disc is fully co-aligned or counter-aligned with the hole. Such a break in the disc may be significant in systems where we know the inclination of the outer accretion disc to the line of sight, such as some X-ray binaries: the inner disc, and so any jets, may be noticeably misaligned with respect to the orbital plane.

  1. The Physics of Wind-Fed Accretion

    Mauche, Christopher W; Akiyama, Shizuka; Plewa, Tomasz

    2008-01-01

    We provide a brief review of the physical processes behind the radiative driving of the winds of OB stars and the Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton capture and accretion of a fraction of the stellar wind by a compact object, typically a neutron star, in detached high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). In addition, we describe a program to develop global models of the radiatively-driven photoionized winds and accretion flows of HMXBs, with particular attention to the prototypical system Vela X-1. The models combine XSTAR photoionization calculations, HULLAC emission models appropriate to X-ray photoionized plasmas, improved models of the radiative driving of photoionized winds, FLASH time-dependent adaptive-mesh hydrodynamics calculations, and Monte Carlo radiation transport. We present two- and three-dimensional maps of the density, temperature, velocity, ionization parameter, and emissivity distributions of representative X-ray emission lines, as well as synthetic global Monte Carlo X-ray spectra. Such models help to better c...

  2. Accretion, Outflows, and Winds of Magnetized Stars

    Romanova, M M

    2016-01-01

    Many types of stars have strong magnetic fields that can dynamically influence the flow of circumstellar matter. In stars with accretion disks, the stellar magnetic field can truncate the inner disk and determine the paths that matter can take to flow onto the star. These paths are different in stars with different magnetospheres and periods of rotation. External field lines of the magnetosphere may inflate and produce favorable conditions for outflows from the disk-magnetosphere boundary. Outflows can be particularly strong in the propeller regime, wherein a star rotates more rapidly than the inner disk. Outflows may also form at the disk-magnetosphere boundary of slowly rotating stars, if the magnetosphere is compressed by the accreting matter. In isolated, strongly magnetized stars, the magnetic field can influence formation and/or propagation of stellar wind outflows. Winds from low-mass, solar-type stars may be either thermally or magnetically driven, while winds from massive, luminous O and B type stars...

  3. Seismology of Rapidly Rotating Accreting White Dwarfs

    Townsley, Dean M; Bildsten, Lars

    2016-01-01

    A number of White Dwarfs (WDs) in cataclysmic binaries have shown brightness variations consistent with non-radial oscillations as observed in isolated WDs. A few objects have been well-characterized with photometric campaigns in the hopes of gleaning information about the mass, spin, and possibly internal structural characteristics. The novel aspect of this work is the possiblity to measure or constrain the interior structure and spin rate of WDs which have spent gigayears accreting material from their companion, undergoing thousands of nova outbursts in the process. In addition, variations in the surface temperature affect the site of mode driving, and provide unique and challenging tests for mode driving theories previously applied to isolated WD's. Having undergone long-term accretion, these WDs are expected to have been spun up. Spin periods in the range 60-100 seconds have been measured by other means for two objects, GW Lib and V455 And. Compared to typical mode frequencies, the spin frequency may be s...

  4. Modeling quasar accretion disc temperature profiles

    Hall, Patrick B; Chajet, L S; Weiss, E; Nixon, C J

    2013-01-01

    Microlensing observations indicate that quasar accretion discs have half-light radii larger than expected from standard theoretical predictions based on quasar fluxes or black hole masses. Blackburne and colleagues have also found a very weak wavelength dependence of these half-light radii. We consider disc temperature profile models that might match these observations. Nixon and colleagues have suggested that misaligned accretion discs around spinning black holes will be disrupted at radii small enough for the Lense-Thirring torque to overcome the disc's viscous torque. Gas in precessing annuli torn off a disc will spread radially and intersect with the remaining disc, heating the disc at potentially large radii. However, if the intersection occurs at an angle of more than a degree or so, highly supersonic collisions will shock-heat the gas to a Compton temperature of T~10^7 K, and the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of discs with such shock-heated regions are poor fits to observations of quasar SEDs. T...

  5. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF ICE ACCRETION ON AIRFOIL

    Nicusor ALEXANDRESCU

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work consists in the simulation of the ice accretion in the leading edge of aerodynamic profiles and our proposed model encompasses: geometry generation, calculation of the potential flow around the body, boundary layer thickness computation, water droplet trajectory computation, heat and mass balances and the consequent modification of the geometry by the ice growth. The flow calculation is realized with panel methods, using only segments defined over the body contour. The viscous effects are considered using the Karman-Pohlhausen method for the laminar boundary layer. The local heat transfer coefficient is obtained by applying the Smith-Spalding method for the thermal boundary layer. The ice accretion limits and the collection efficiency are determined by computing water droplet trajectories impinging the surface. The heat transfer process is analyzed with an energy and a mass balance in each segment defining the body. Finally, the geometry is modified by the addition of the computed ice thickness to the respective panel. The process by repeating all the steps. The model validation is done using a selection of problems with experimental solution, CIRA (the CESAR project. Hereinafter, results are obtained for different aerodynamic profiles, angles of attack and meteorological parameters

  6. Radiatively Inefficient Accretion: Breezes, Winds and Hyperaccretion

    Begelman, Mitchell C

    2011-01-01

    We reformulate the adiabatic inflow-outflow (ADIOS) model for radiatively inefficient accretion flows, treating the inflow and outflow zones on an equal footing. For purely adiabatic flows (i.e., with no radiative losses), we show that the mass flux in each zone must satisfy Mdot ~ R^n with n=1, in contrast to previous work in which 0accretion. We explore the parameter space of non-radiative models and show that both powerful winds and gentle breezes are possible. When small radiative losses (with fixed efficiency) are included, any centrally injected energy flux is radiated away and the system reverts to a power-law behavior with n < 1, where n falls in a small range determined by the fractional...

  7. A Wind Accretion Model for HLX-1

    Miller, M Coleman; Maccarone, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    The brightest ultraluminous X-ray source currently known, HLX-1, has been observed to undergo five outburst cycles. The periodicity of these outbursts, and their high inferred maximum accretion rates of $\\sim{\\rm few}\\times 10^{-4} M_\\odot {\\rm yr}^{-1}$, naturally suggest Roche lobe overflow at the pericenter of an eccentric orbit. It is, however, difficult for the Roche lobe overflow model to explain the apparent trend of decreasing decay times over the different outbursts while the integrated luminosity also drops. Thus if the trend is real rather than simply being a reflection of the complex physics of accretion disks, a different scenario may be necessary. We present a speculative model in which, within the last decade, a high-mass giant star had most of its envelope tidally stripped by the $\\sim 10^{4-5} M_\\odot$ black hole in HLX-1, and the remaining core plus low-mass hydrogen envelope now feeds the hole with a strong wind. This model can explain the short decay time of the disk, and could explain the...

  8. Magnetic fields in primordial accretion disks

    Latif, Muhammad A

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields are considered as a vital ingredient of contemporary star formation, and may have been important during the formation of the first stars in the presence of an efficient amplification mechanism. Initial seed fields are provided via plasma fluctuations, and are subsequently amplified by the small-scale dynamo, leading to a strong tangled magnetic field. Here we explore how the magnetic field provided by the small-scale dynamo is further amplified via the $\\alpha-\\Omega$ dynamo in a protostellar disk and assess its implications. For this purpose, we consider two characteristic cases, a typical Pop.~III star with $10$~M$_\\odot$ and an accretion rate of $10^{-3}$~M$_\\odot$~yr$^{-1}$, and a supermassive star with $10^5$~M$_\\odot$ and an accretion rate of $10^{-1}$~M$_\\odot$~yr$^{-1}$. For the $10$~M$_\\odot$ Pop.~III star, we find that coherent magnetic fields can be produced on scales of at least $100$~AU, which are sufficient to drive a jet with a luminosity of $100$~L$_\\odot$ and a mass outflow ra...

  9. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence in accretion discs

    Kaufman, J.; Blaes, O. M.

    2016-06-01

    Radiation pressure dominated accretion discs around compact objects may have turbulent velocities that greatly exceed the electron thermal velocities within the disc. Bulk Comptonization by the turbulence may therefore dominate over thermal Comptonization in determining the emergent spectrum. Bulk Comptonization by divergenceless turbulence is due to radiation viscous dissipation only. It can be treated as thermal Comptonization by solving the Kompaneets equation with an equivalent `wave' temperature, which is a weighted sum over the power present at each scale in the turbulent cascade. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence with non-zero divergence is due to both pressure work and radiation viscous dissipation. Pressure work has negligible effect on photon spectra in the limit of optically thin turbulence, and in this limit radiation viscous dissipation alone can be treated as thermal Comptonization with a temperature equivalent to the full turbulent power. In the limit of extremely optically thick turbulence, radiation viscous dissipation is suppressed, and the evolution of local photon spectra can be understood in terms of compression and expansion of the strongly coupled photon and gas fluids. We discuss the consequences of these effects for self-consistently resolving and interpreting turbulent Comptonization in spectral calculations in radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of high luminosity accretion flows.

  10. Sporadically Torqued Accretion Disks Around Black Holes

    Garofalo, D; Garofalo, David; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2005-01-01

    The assumption that black hole accretion disks possess an untorqued inner boundary, the so-called zero torque boundary condition, has been employed by models of black hole disks for many years. However, recent theoretical and observational work suggests that magnetic forces may appreciably torque the inner disk. This raises the question of the effect that a time-changing magnetic torque may have on the evolution of such a disk. In particular, we explore the suggestion that the ``Deep Minimum State'' of the Seyfert galaxy MCG--6-30-15 can be identified as a sporadic inner disk torquing event. This suggestion is motivated by detailed analyses of changes in the profile of the broad fluorescence iron line in XMM-Newton spectra. We find that the response of such a disk to a torquing event has two phases; an initial damming of the accretion flow together with a partial draining of the disk interior to the torque location, followed by a replenishment of the inner disk as the system achieves a new (torqued) steady-st...

  11. BOOK REVIEW: Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars

    Kaspi, V. M.

    2008-03-01

    Pulsar astrophysics has come a long way in the 40 years since the discovery of the first pulsar by Bell and Hewish. From humble beginnings as bits of 'scruff' on the Cambridge University group's chart recorder paper, the field of pulsars has blossomed into a major area of mainstream astrophysics, with an unparalleled diversity of astrophysical applications. These range from Nobel-celebrated testing of general relativity in the strong-field regime to constraining the equation-of-state of ultradense matter; from probing the winds of massive stars to globular cluster evolution. Previous notable books on the subject of pulsars have tended to focus on some particular topic in the field. The classic text Pulsars by Manchester and Taylor (1977 San Francisco, CA: Freeman) targeted almost exclusively rotation-powered radio pulsars, while the Mészáros book High-Energy Radiation from Magnetized Neutron Stars (1992 Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press) considered both rotation- and accretion-powered neutron stars, but focused on their radiation at x-ray energies and above. The recent book Neutron Stars 1 by Haensel et al (2007 Berlin: Springer) considers only the equation of state and neutron-star structure. Into this context appears Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars, by Pranab Ghosh. In contrast to other books, here the author takes an encyclopedic approach and attempts to synthesize practically all of the major aspects of the two main types of neutron star. This is ambitious. The only comparable undertaking is the useful but more elementary Lyne and Graham-Smith text Pulsar Astronomy (1998 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), or Compact Stellar X-ray Sources (eds Lewin and van der Klis, 2006 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), an anthology of technical review articles that also includes black hole topics. Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars thus fills a clear void in the field, providing a readable, graduate-level book that covers nearly everything you

  12. Outflows from dynamo-active protostellar accretion discs

    Von Rekowski, B; Dobler, W; Shukurov, A M; Brandenburg, Axel; Dobler, Wolfgang; Rekowski, Brigitta von; Shukurov, Anvar

    2003-01-01

    An axisymmetric model of a cool, dynamo-active accretion disc is applied to protostellar discs. Thermally and magnetically driven outflows develop that are not collimated within 0.1 AU. In the presence of a central magnetic field from the protostar, accretion onto the protostar is highly episodic, which is in agreement with earlier work.

  13. The Efficiency of Using Accretion Power of Kerr Black Holes

    Dutan, Ioana; Biermann, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The efficiency of a rapidly spinning Kerr black hole to turn accretion power into observable power can attain 32 percent for the photon emission from the disk, as is well known, following the work of Novikov-Page-Thorne. But many accretion disks are now understood to be underluminous ($L

  14. Dynamic processes during accretion into a black hole

    G. S. Bisonvatyi-kogan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Accretion disc theory was first developed as a theory with the local heat balance, where the whole energy produced by a viscous heating was emitted to the sides of the disc. One of the most important new invention of this theory was a phenomenological treatment of the turbulent viscosity, known as “alpha” prescription, when the (rϕ component of the stress tensor was approximated by (αP with a unknown constant α This prescription played the role in the accretion disc theory as well important as the mixing-length theory of convection for stellar evolution. Sources of turbulence in the accretion disc are discussed, including nonlinear hydrodynamic turbulence, convection and magnetic filed role. In parallel to the optically thick geometrically thin accretion disc models, a new branch of the optically thin accretion disc models was discovered, with a larger thickness for the same total luminosity. The choice between these solutions should be done of the base of stability analysis. The ideas underlying the necessity to include advection into the accretion disc theory are presented and first models with advection are reviewed. The present status of the solution for a low-luminous optically thin accretion disc model with advection is discussed and the limits for an advection dominated accretion flows (ADAF imposed by the presence of magnetic field are analyzed.

  15. Multi-dimensional structure of accreting young stars

    Geroux, C; Viallet, M; Goffrey, T; Pratt, J; Constantino, T; Folini, D; Popov, M V; Walder, R

    2016-01-01

    This work is the first attempt to describe the multi-dimensional structure of accreting young stars based on fully compressible time implicit multi-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations. One major motivation is to analyse the validity of accretion treatment used in previous 1D stellar evolution studies. We analyse the effect of accretion on the structure of a realistic stellar model of the young Sun. Our work is inspired by the numerical work of Kley \\& Lin (1996, ApJ, 461, 933) devoted to the structure of the boundary layer in accretion disks. We analyse the redistribution of accreted material with a range of values of specific entropy relative to the bulk specific entropy of the material in the accreting object's convective envelope. A primary goal is to understand whether and how accreted energy deposited onto a stellar surface is redistributed in the interior. This study focusses on the high accretion rates characteristic of FU Ori systems. We find that the highest entropy cases produce a distinctive ...

  16. Time-dependent Hypercritical Accretion onto Black Holes

    Zampieri, Luca

    1996-01-01

    Results are presented from a time-dependent, numerical investigation of super-Eddington spherical accretion onto black holes with different initial conditions. We have studied the stability of stationary solutions, the non-linear evolution of shocked models and the time-dependent accretion from an expanding medium.

  17. 2-D MHD Configurations for Accretion Disks Around Magnetized Stars

    Benini, Riccardo; Montani, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    We discuss basic features of steady accretion disk morphology around magnetized compact astrophysical objects. A comparison between the standard model of accretion based on visco-resistive MHD and the plasma instabilities, like ballooning modes, triggered by very low value of resistivity, is proposed.

  18. Mergers of accreting stellar-mass black holes

    Tagawa, Hiromichi; Gouda, Naoteru

    2016-01-01

    We present post-Newtonian $N$-body simulations on mergers of accreting stellar-mass black holes (BHs), where such general relativistic effects as the pericentre shift and gravitational wave emission are taken into consideration. To elucidate the key physics that regulates mergers of BHs, the dynamical friction and the mass accretion by ambient gas are incorporated. We consider a system composed of ten black holes with initial mass of $30~M_\\odot$. As a result, we show that mergers of accreting stellar-mass BHs are classified into four types: a gas drag-driven, an interplay-driven, a three body-driven, or an accretion-driven merger. We find that BH mergers proceed before significant mass accretion, even if the accretion rate is $\\sim10$ Eddington accretion rate, and then all BHs can merge into one heavy BH. More specifically, using the simulation results for a wide range of parameters, we derive a critical accretion rate ($\\dot{m}_{\\rm c}$), below which the BH growth is promoted faster by mergers: $\\dot{m}_{\\r...

  19. The ins and outs of emission from accreting black holes

    S. Drappeau

    2013-01-01

    The most extreme physical conditions of space-time in the Universe happen in the vicinity of accreting black holes, which make them the perfect laboratory for testing extreme physics theories. The present thesis investigates accretion processes using radiation as a tracer of the physics occurring ve

  20. Spinning up black holes with super-critical accretion flows

    Sądowski, A.; Bursa, Michal; Abramowicz, M. A.; Kluzniak, W.; Lasota, J.-P.; Moderski, R.; Safarzadeh, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 532, August (2011), A41/1-A41/11. ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : black hole physics * accretion * accretion disks Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.587, year: 2011

  1. Aerodynamic Simulation of Runback Ice Accretion

    Broeren, Andy P.; Whalen, Edward A.; Busch, Greg T.; Bragg, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of recent investigations into the aerodynamics of simulated runback ice accretion on airfoils. Aerodynamic tests were performed on a full-scale model using a high-fidelity, ice-casting simulation at near-flight Reynolds (Re) number. The ice-casting simulation was attached to the leading edge of a 72-in. (1828.8-mm ) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model. Aerodynamic performance tests were conducted at the ONERA F1 pressurized wind tunnel over a Reynolds number range of 4.7?10(exp 6) to 16.0?10(exp 6) and a Mach (M) number ran ge of 0.10 to 0.28. For Re = 16.0?10(exp 6) and M = 0.20, the simulated runback ice accretion on the airfoil decreased the maximum lift coe fficient from 1.82 to 1.51 and decreased the stalling angle of attack from 18.1deg to 15.0deg. The pitching-moment slope was also increased and the drag coefficient was increased by more than a factor of two. In general, the performance effects were insensitive to Reynolds numb er and Mach number changes over the range tested. Follow-on, subscale aerodynamic tests were conducted on a quarter-scale NACA 23012 model (18-in. (457.2-mm) chord) at Re = 1.8?10(exp 6) and M = 0.18, using low-fidelity, geometrically scaled simulations of the full-scale castin g. It was found that simple, two-dimensional simulations of the upper- and lower-surface runback ridges provided the best representation of the full-scale, high Reynolds number iced-airfoil aerodynamics, whereas higher-fidelity simulations resulted in larger performance degrada tions. The experimental results were used to define a new subclassification of spanwise ridge ice that distinguishes between short and tall ridges. This subclassification is based upon the flow field and resulting aerodynamic characteristics, regardless of the physical size of the ridge and the ice-accretion mechanism.

  2. Accretion Discs Show Their True Colours

    2008-07-01

    Quasars are the brilliant cores of remote galaxies, at the hearts of which lie supermassive black holes that can generate enough power to outshine the Sun a trillion times. These mighty power sources are fuelled by interstellar gas, thought to be sucked into the hole from a surrounding 'accretion disc'. A paper in this week's issue of the journal Nature, partly based on observations collected with ESO's Very Large Telescope, verifies a long-standing prediction about the intensely luminous radiation emitted by these accretion discs. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 21/08 Uncovering the inner disc "Astronomers were puzzled by the fact that the best models of these discs couldn't quite be reconciled with some of the observations, in particular, with the fact that these discs did not appear as blue as they should be," explains lead-author Makoto Kishimoto. Such a discrepancy could be the signal that there was something very wrong with the models. With his colleagues, he investigated this discrepancy by studying the polarised light from six quasars. This enabled them to demonstrate that the disc spectrum is as blue as predicted. "The crucial observational difficulty here has been that the disc is surrounded by a much larger torus containing hot dust, whose light partly outshines that of the disc," says Kishimoto. "Because the light coming from the disc is scattered in the disc vicinity and thus polarised, by observing only polarised light from the quasars, one can uncover the buried light from the disc." In a similar way that a fisherman would wear polarised sunglasses to help get rid of the glare from the water surface and allow him to see more clearly under the water, the filter on the telescope allowed the astronomers to see beyond surrounding clouds of dust and gas to the blue colour of the disc in infrared light. The observations were done with the FORS and ISAAC instruments on one of the 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope, located in the Atacama

  3. Rotating Accretion Flows: From Infinity to the Black Hole

    Li, Jason; Sunyaev, Rashid

    2012-01-01

    Accretion onto a supermassive black hole of a rotating inflow is a particularly difficult problem to study because of the wide range of length scales involved. There has been some analytic and numerical treatment of the global properties of accretion flows, but detailed numerical simulations are required to address certain critical aspects. We use the ZEUS code to run hydrodynamical simulations of rotating, axisymmetric accretion flows with Bremsstrahlung cooling, considering solutions with and without viscous angular momentum transport, and also electron thermal conduction. Infalling gas is followed from well beyond R_Bondi down to the vicinity of the black hole. Absent viscous transport, when the centrifugal balance radius significantly exceeds R_Schwarzschild, the accretion rate is zero and the flow approaches a stationary solution in which pressure impedes inflow from large radii. With viscosity, we find two general classes of solutions: low inflow rate, hot, vertically extended disks with very low accret...

  4. Three-dimensional MHD Simulations of Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flows

    Igumenshchev, I V; Abramowicz, M A; Igumenshchev, Igor V.; Narayan, Ramesh; Abramowicz, Marek A.

    2003-01-01

    We present three-dimensional MHD simulations of rotating radiatively inefficient accretion flows onto black holes. In the simulations, we continuously inject magnetized matter into the computational domain near the outer boundary, and we run the calculations long enough for the resulting accretion flow to reach a quasi-steady state. We have studied two limiting cases for the geometry of the injected magnetic field: pure toroidal field and pure poloidal field. In the case of toroidal field injection, the accreting matter forms a nearly axisymmetric, geometrically-thick, turbulent accretion disk. The disk resembles in many respects the convection-dominated accretion flows found in previous numerical and analytical investigations of viscous hydrodynamic flows. Models with poloidal field injection evolve through two distinct phases. In an initial transient phase, the flow forms a relatively flattened, quasi-Keplerian disk with a hot corona and a bipolar outflow. However, when the flow later achieves steady state,...

  5. Accretion onto the First Stellar Mass Black Holes

    Alvarez, Marcelo A; Abel, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The first stars in the universe, forming at redshifts z>15 in minihalos with masses of order 10^6 Msun, may leave behind black holes as their remnants. These objects could conceivably serve as "seeds" for much larger black holes observed at redshifts z~6. We study the growth of the remnant black holes through accretion including for the first time the emitted accretion radiation with adaptive mesh refinement cosmological radiation-hydrodynamical simulations. The effects of photo-ionization and heating dramatically affect the accretion flow from large scales, resulting in negligible mass growth of the black hole. We compare cases with the accretion luminosity included and neglected to show that the accretion radiation drastically changes the environment within 100 pc of the black hole, where gas temperatures are increased by an order of magnitude. The gas densities are reduced and further star formation in the same minihalo prevented for the two hundred million years of evolution we followed. These calculation...

  6. Magnetic field structure in accretion columns on HMXB and effects on CRSF

    Mukherjee Dipanjan; Bhattacharya Dipankar; Mignone Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In accreting neutron star binaries, matter is channelled by the magnetic fields from the accretion disc to the poles of neutron stars forming an accretion mound. We model such mounds by numerically solving the Grad-Shafranov equation for axisymmetric static MHD equilibria. From our solutions we infer local distortion of field lines due to the weight of accreted matter. Variation in mass loading at the accretion disc will alter the shape of the accretion mound which will also affect the local ...

  7. Accretion onto Planetary Mass Companions of Low-Mass Young Stars

    Zhou, Yifan; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Kraus, Adam L.; Metchev, Stanimir; Cruz, Kelle

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of accretion rates onto planetary mass objects may distinguish between different planet formation mechanisms, which predict different accretion histories. In this Letter, we use \\HST/WFC3 UVIS optical photometry to measure accretion rates onto three accreting objects, GSC06214-00210 b, GQ Lup b, and DH Tau b, that are at the planet/brown dwarf boundary and are companions to solar mass stars. The excess optical emission in the excess accretion continuum yields mass accretion rates...

  8. The Rapid Burster and its X-ray bursts: extremes of accretion and thermonuclear burning

    Klis, van der, M.; Zand, in 't, J.J.M.; Watts, A.; Bagnoli, T.

    2015-01-01

    X-ray bursts originate from accreting neutron stars (NSs) in X-ray binaries (XRBs). They come in two flavours: thermonuclear bursts are due to the sudden runaway burning of the material accreted on the surface; accretion bursts signal a sudden change in the mass accretion rate, leading to enhanced emission in the innermost regions of the accretion flow. While thermonuclear bursts have been observed from 105 NSs as of writing, accretion bursts remain enigmatically confined to only two sources....

  9. Constraints on radiatively inefficient accretion history from Eddington ratio distribution of active galactic nuclei

    Cao, Xinwu; Xu, Ya-Di

    2005-01-01

    The transition of a standard thin disk to a radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) is expected to occur, when the accretion rate is close to the critical rate. The radiative efficiencies of accretion flows accreting at rates lower than the critical accretion rate become significantly lower than that of standard thin disks. It is believed that the initial transition radius is small just after the accretion mode transition, and then the transition radius increases with decreasing accreti...

  10. Evolution and precession of accretion disk in tidal disruption events

    Shen, R.-F.; Matzner, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    In a supermassive black hole (BH) tidal disruption event (TDE), the tidally disrupted star feeds the BH via an accretion disk. Most often it is assumed that the accretion rate history, hence the emission light curve, tracks the rate at which new debris mass falls back onto the disk, notably the t-5/3 power law. But this is not the case when the disk evolution due to viscous spreading - the driving force for accretion - is carefully considered. We construct a simple analytical model that comprehensively describes the accretion rate history across 4 different phases of the disk evolution, in the presence of mass fallback and disk wind loss. Accretion rate evolves differently in those phases which are governed by how the disk heat energy is carried away, early on by advection and later by radiation. The accretion rate can decline as steeply as t-5/3 only if copious disk wind loss is present during the early advection-cooled phase. Later, the accretion rate history is t-8/7 or shallower. These have great implications on the TDE flare light curve. A TDE accretion disk is most likely misaligned with the equatorial plane of the spinning BH. Moreover, in the TDE the accretion rate is super- or near-Eddington thus the disk is geometrically thick, for which case the BH's frame dragging effect may cause the disk precess as a solid body, which may manifest itself as quasi-periodic signal in the TDE light curve. Our disk evolution model predicts the disk precession period increases with time, typically as ∝ t. The results are applied to the recently jetted TDE flare Swift transient J1644 + 57 which shows numerous, quasi-periodic dips in its long-term X-ray light curve. As the current TDE sample increases, the identification of the disk precession signature provides a unique way of measuring BH spin and studying BH accretion physics.

  11. Evolution and precession of accretion disk in tidal disruption events

    Matzner C.D.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In a supermassive black hole (BH tidal disruption event (TDE, the tidally disrupted star feeds the BH via an accretion disk. Most often it is assumed that the accretion rate history, hence the emission light curve, tracks the rate at which new debris mass falls back onto the disk, notably the t−5/3 power law. But this is not the case when the disk evolution due to viscous spreading - the driving force for accretion - is carefully considered. We construct a simple analytical model that comprehensively describes the accretion rate history across 4 different phases of the disk evolution, in the presence of mass fallback and disk wind loss. Accretion rate evolves differently in those phases which are governed by how the disk heat energy is carried away, early on by advection and later by radiation. The accretion rate can decline as steeply as t−5/3 only if copious disk wind loss is present during the early advection-cooled phase. Later, the accretion rate history is t−8/7 or shallower. These have great implications on the TDE flare light curve. A TDE accretion disk is most likely misaligned with the equatorial plane of the spinning BH. Moreover, in the TDE the accretion rate is super- or near-Eddington thus the disk is geometrically thick, for which case the BH’s frame dragging effect may cause the disk precess as a solid body, which may manifest itself as quasi-periodic signal in the TDE light curve. Our disk evolution model predicts the disk precession period increases with time, typically as ∝ t. The results are applied to the recently jetted TDE flare Swift transient J1644 + 57 which shows numerous, quasi-periodic dips in its long-term X-ray light curve. As the current TDE sample increases, the identification of the disk precession signature provides a unique way of measuring BH spin and studying BH accretion physics.

  12. Diskoseismology - Signatures of black hole accretion disks

    Nowak, Michael; Wagoner, Robert V.

    1992-01-01

    General relativity requires the existence of a spectrum of oscillations which are trapped near the inner edge of accretion disks around black holes. We have developed a general formalism for analyzing the normal modes of such acoustic perturbations of arbitrary thin disk models, approximating the dominant relativistic effects via a modified Newtonian potential (these modes do not exist in Newtonian gravity). The eigenfunctions and eigenfrequencies of a variety of disk models are found to fall in to two main classes, which are analogous to the p-modes and g-modes in the sun. In this work, we compute the eigenfunctions and eigenfrequencies of isothermal disks. The (relatively small) rates of growth or damping of these oscillations due to gravitational radiation and parameterized models of viscosity are also computed.

  13. Dead Zone Accretion Flows in Protostellar Disks

    Turner, Neal; Sano, T.

    2008-01-01

    Planets form inside protostellar disks in a dead zone where the electrical resistivity of the gas is too high for magnetic forces to drive turbulence. We show that much of the dead zone nevertheless is active and flows toward the star while smooth, large-scale magnetic fields transfer the orbital angular momentum radially outward. Stellar X-ray and radionuclide ionization sustain a weak coupling of the dead zone gas to the magnetic fields, despite the rapid recombination of free charges on dust grains. Net radial magnetic fields are generated in the magnetorotational turbulence in the electrically conducting top and bottom surface layers of the disk, and reach the midplane by ohmic diffusion. A toroidal component to the fields is produced near the midplane by the orbital shear. The process is similar to the magnetization of the solar tachocline. The result is a laminar, magnetically driven accretion flow in the region where the planets form.

  14. Structures of magnetized thin accretion disks

    李晓卿; 季海生

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) process in thin accretion disks. Therelevant momentum as well as magnetic reduction equations in the thin disk approximation areincluded. On the basis of these equations, we examine numerically the stationary structures, includingdistributions of the surface mass density, temperature and flow velocities of a disk around a youngstellar object (YSO). The numerical results are as follows: (i) There should be an upper limit to themagnitude of magnetic field, such an upper limit corresponds to the equipartition field. For relevantmagnitude of magnetic field of the disk's interior the disk remains approximately Keplerian. (ii) Thedistribution of effective temperature T(r) is a smoothly decreasing function of radius with power 1 corresponding to the observed radiation flux density, provided that the magnetic fieldindex γ= -1/2,is suitably chosen.

  15. Accretion radiation from nearby isolated black holes

    Recent work attempting to establish the presence of dark matter in the solar neighbourhood has led to renewed interest in the search for the nature of this matter. Previous authors attempt to exclude large (>=2 solar mass) objects by considering their tidal effect on wide binaries. Here independent constraints on such dark massive objects, if they are black holes, are provided by the requirement that their radiation due to accretion from the ISM should not make the nearest ones directly observable as optical objects. The expected infrared brightness is also predicted. It is shown that halo holes must be less massive than about 103 solar masses, and that the dark matter in the galactic disc cannot be made up of black holes of mass more than 10solar masses. Even if black holes do not make up the dark matter, they are expected to be present in the disc as remnants of massive stars. (author)

  16. Bulk Comptonization by Turbulence in Accretion Disks

    Kaufman, J

    2016-01-01

    Radiation pressure dominated accretion discs around compact objects may have turbulent velocities that greatly exceed the electron thermal velocities within the disc. Bulk Comptonization by the turbulence may therefore dominate over thermal Comptonization in determining the emergent spectrum. Bulk Comptonization by divergenceless turbulence is due to radiation viscous dissipation only. It can be treated as thermal Comptonization by solving the Kompaneets equation with an equivalent "wave" temperature, which is a weighted sum over the power present at each scale in the turbulent cascade. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence with non-zero divergence is due to both pressure work and radiation viscous dissipation. Pressure work has negligible effect on photon spectra in the limit of optically thin turbulence, and in this limit radiation viscous dissipation alone can be treated as thermal Comptonization with a temperature equivalent to the full turbulent power. In the limit of extremely optically thick turbulence, ra...

  17. A wind accretion model for HLX-1

    The brightest ultraluminous X-ray source currently known, HLX-1, has been observed to undergo five outburst cycles. The periodicity of these outbursts, and their high inferred maximum accretion rates of ∼few × 10–4 M ☉ yr–1, naturally suggest Roche lobe overflow at the pericenter of an eccentric orbit. It is, however, difficult for the Roche lobe overflow model to explain the apparent trend of decreasing decay times over the different outbursts while the integrated luminosity also drops. Thus, if the trend is real rather than simply being a reflection of the complex physics of accretion disks, a different scenario may be necessary. We present a speculative model in which, within the last decade, a high-mass giant star had most of its envelope tidally stripped by the ∼104–5 M ☉ black hole in HLX-1, and the remaining core plus low-mass hydrogen envelope now feeds the hole with a strong wind. This model can explain the short decay time of the disk, and could explain the fast decrease in decay time if the wind speed changes with time. A key prediction of this model is that there will be excess line absorption due to the wind; our analysis does in fact find a flux deficit in the ∼0.9-1.1 keV range that is consistent with predictions, albeit at low significance. If this idea is correct, we also expect that within years to dacades the bound material from the original disruption will return and will make HLX-1 a persistently bright source.

  18. LARGE-SCALE AZIMUTHAL STRUCTURES OF TURBULENCE IN ACCRETION DISKS: DYNAMO TRIGGERED VARIABILITY OF ACCRETION

    Flock, M.; Dzyurkevich, N.; Klahr, H.; Turner, N.; Henning, Th. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-01-10

    We investigate the significance of large-scale azimuthal, magnetic, and velocity modes for the magnetorotational instability (MRI) turbulence in accretion disks. We perform three-dimensional global ideal MHD simulations of global stratified protoplanetary disk models. Our domains span azimuthal angles of {pi}/4, {pi}/2, {pi}, and 2{pi}. We observe up to 100% stronger magnetic fields and stronger turbulence for the restricted azimuthal domain models {pi}/2 and {pi}/4 compared to the full 2{pi} model. We show that for those models the Maxwell stress is larger due to strong axisymmetric magnetic fields generated by the {alpha}{Omega} dynamo. Large radial extended axisymmetric toroidal fields trigger temporal magnification of accretion stress. All models display a positive dynamo-{alpha} in the northern hemisphere (upper disk). The parity is distinct in each model and changes on timescales of 40 local orbits. In model 2{pi}, the toroidal field is mostly antisymmetric with respect to the midplane. The eddies of the MRI turbulence are highly anisotropic. The major wavelengths of the turbulent velocity and magnetic fields are between one and two disk scale heights. At the midplane, we find magnetic tilt angles around 8 Degree-Sign -9 Degree-Sign increasing up to 12 Degree-Sign -13 Degree-Sign in the corona. We conclude that an azimuthal extent of {pi} is sufficient to reproduce most turbulent properties in three-dimensional global stratified simulations of magnetized accretion disks.

  19. Bondi-Hoyle accretion in an isothermal magnetized plasma

    In regions of star formation, protostars and newborn stars will accrete mass from their natal clouds. These clouds are threaded by magnetic fields with a strength characterized by the plasma β—the ratio of thermal and magnetic pressures. Observations show that molecular clouds have β ≲ 1, so magnetic fields have the potential to play a significant role in the accretion process. We have carried out a numerical study of the effect of large-scale magnetic fields on the rate of accretion onto a uniformly moving point particle from a uniform, non-self-gravitating, isothermal gas. We consider gas moving with sonic Mach numbers of up to M≈45; magnetic fields that are either parallel, perpendicular, or oriented 45° to the flow; and β as low as 0.01. Our simulations utilize adaptive mesh refinement in order to obtain high spatial resolution where it is needed; this also allows the boundaries to be far from the accreting object to avoid unphysical effects arising from boundary conditions. Additionally, we show that our results are independent of our exact prescription for accreting mass in the sink particle. We give simple expressions for the steady-state accretion rate as a function of β and M for the parallel and perpendicular orientations. Using typical molecular cloud values of M∼5 and β ∼ 0.04 from the literature, our fits suggest that a 0.4 M ☉ star accretes ∼4 × 10–9 M ☉ yr–1, almost a factor of two less than accretion rates predicted by hydrodynamic models. This disparity can grow to orders of magnitude for stronger fields and lower Mach numbers. We also discuss the applicability of these accretion rates versus accretion rates expected from gravitational collapse, and under what conditions a steady state is possible. The reduction in the accretion rate in a magnetized medium leads to an increase in the time required to form stars in competitive accretion models, making such models less efficient than predicted by Bondi-Hoyle rates. Our

  20. Bondi-Hoyle accretion in an isothermal magnetized plasma

    Lee, Aaron T.; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I. [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cunningham, Andrew J., E-mail: a.t.lee@berkeley.edu [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-23, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    In regions of star formation, protostars and newborn stars will accrete mass from their natal clouds. These clouds are threaded by magnetic fields with a strength characterized by the plasma β—the ratio of thermal and magnetic pressures. Observations show that molecular clouds have β ≲ 1, so magnetic fields have the potential to play a significant role in the accretion process. We have carried out a numerical study of the effect of large-scale magnetic fields on the rate of accretion onto a uniformly moving point particle from a uniform, non-self-gravitating, isothermal gas. We consider gas moving with sonic Mach numbers of up to M≈45; magnetic fields that are either parallel, perpendicular, or oriented 45° to the flow; and β as low as 0.01. Our simulations utilize adaptive mesh refinement in order to obtain high spatial resolution where it is needed; this also allows the boundaries to be far from the accreting object to avoid unphysical effects arising from boundary conditions. Additionally, we show that our results are independent of our exact prescription for accreting mass in the sink particle. We give simple expressions for the steady-state accretion rate as a function of β and M for the parallel and perpendicular orientations. Using typical molecular cloud values of M∼5 and β ∼ 0.04 from the literature, our fits suggest that a 0.4 M {sub ☉} star accretes ∼4 × 10{sup –9} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, almost a factor of two less than accretion rates predicted by hydrodynamic models. This disparity can grow to orders of magnitude for stronger fields and lower Mach numbers. We also discuss the applicability of these accretion rates versus accretion rates expected from gravitational collapse, and under what conditions a steady state is possible. The reduction in the accretion rate in a magnetized medium leads to an increase in the time required to form stars in competitive accretion models, making such models less efficient than predicted by

  1. Migration of accreting planets in radiative discs from dynamical torques

    Pierens, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of hydrodynamical simulations of the orbital evolution of planets undergoing runaway gas accretion in radiative discs. We consider accreting disc models with constant mass flux through the disc, and where radiative cooling balances the effect of viscous heating and stellar irradiation. We assume that 20-30 $M_\\oplus$ giant planet cores are formed in the region where viscous heating dominates and migrate outward under the action of a strong corotation torque. In the case where gas accretion is neglected, we find evidence for strong dynamical torques in accreting discs with accretion rates ${\\dot M}\\gtrsim 7\\times 10^{-8} \\;M_\\odot/yr$. Their main effect is to increase outward migration rates by a factor of $\\sim 2$ typically. In the presence of gas accretion, however, runaway outward migration is observed with the planet passing through the zero-torque radius and the transition between the viscous heating and stellar heating dominated regimes. The ability for an accreting planet to enter...

  2. Thin accretion disks in stationary axisymmetric wormhole spacetimes

    In this paper, we study the physical properties and the equilibrium thermal radiation emission characteristics of matter forming thin accretion disks in stationary axially symmetric wormhole spacetimes. The thin disk models are constructed by taking different values of the wormhole's angular velocity, and the time averaged energy flux, the disk temperature, and the emission spectra of the accretion disks are obtained. Comparing the mass accretion in a rotating wormhole geometry with the one of a Kerr black hole, we verify that the intensity of the flux emerging from the disk surface is greater for wormholes than for rotating black holes with the same geometrical mass and accretion rate. We also present the conversion efficiency of the accreting mass into radiation, and show that the rotating wormholes provide a much more efficient engine for the transformation of the accreting mass into radiation than the Kerr black holes. Therefore specific signatures appear in the electromagnetic spectrum of thin disks around rotating wormholes, thus leading to the possibility of distinguishing wormhole geometries by using astrophysical observations of the emission spectra from accretion disks.

  3. Formation of primordial supermassive stars by burst accretion

    Sakurai, Y; Yoshida, N; Yorke, H W

    2015-01-01

    A promising formation channel of SMBHs at redshift 6 is the so-called DC model, which posits that a massive seed BH forms through gravitational collapse of a $\\sim 10^5~M_\\odot$ SMS. We study the evolution of such a SMS growing by rapid mass accretion. In particular, we examine the impact of time-dependent mass accretion of repeating burst and quiescent phases that are expected to occur with a self-gravitating circumstellar disk. We show that the stellar evolution with such episodic accretion differs qualitatively from that expected with a constant accretion rate, even if the mean accretion rate is the same. Unlike the case of constant mass accretion, whereby the star expands roughly following $R_* \\simeq 2.6 \\times 10^3 R_\\odot (M_*/100~M_\\odot)^{1/2}$, the protostar can substantially contract during the quiescent phases between accretion bursts. The stellar effective temperature and ionizing photon emissivity increase accordingly as the star contracts, which can cause strong ionizing feedback and halt the m...

  4. Formation of primordial supermassive stars by rapid mass accretion

    Supermassive stars (SMSs) forming via very rapid mass accretion ( M-dot ∗≳0.1 M⊙ yr−1) could be precursors of supermassive black holes observed beyond a redshift of about six. Extending our previous work, here we study the evolution of primordial stars growing under such rapid mass accretion until the stellar mass reaches 104–5 M ☉. Our stellar evolution calculations show that a star becomes supermassive while passing through the 'supergiant protostar' stage, whereby the star has a very bloated envelope and a contracting inner core. The stellar radius increases monotonically with the stellar mass until ≅ 100 AU for M * ≳ 104 M ☉, after which the star begins to slowly contract. Because of the large radius, the effective temperature is always less than 104 K during rapid accretion. The accreting material is thus almost completely transparent to the stellar radiation. Only for M * ≳ 105 M ☉ can stellar UV feedback operate and disturb the mass accretion flow. We also examine the pulsation stability of accreting SMSs, showing that the pulsation-driven mass loss does not prevent stellar mass growth. Observational signatures of bloated SMSs should be detectable with future observational facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope. Our results predict that an inner core of the accreting SMS should suffer from the general relativistic instability soon after the stellar mass exceeds 105 M ☉. An extremely massive black hole should form after the collapse of the inner core.

  5. A computer model of glaze accretion on wires

    Draganoiu, G.; Lamarche, L.; McComber, P. [Univ. of Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-05-01

    The design of power transmission lines requires a knowledge of combined wind and ice loading and of the dynamic behavior of wires loaded with ice accretion. The calculation of the wind forces, in turn, imposes a need for a more detailed computer model for determining glaze accretion shape. For this purpose, a computer model of glaze accretion on wires was developed. It is based on experimental results in the area of ice accretion on wires, as well as on results in the related field of the glaze ice accretion on airfoils. The model incorporates the time dependent on feedback between the growing accretion and the air stream, the variation of the heat transfer coefficient around the cylinder, and the surface runback of water. The main components of the model are the computation of the air flow field, the computation of the impingement water at the control volume level, the solving of the heat balance equation, and the computation of the accretion shape on the wire. The surface air velocity is obtained through the solution of the potential flow around the iced wire and wake, followed by the integration on the surface of the laminar boundary layer. The water flux is computed in each control volume down to the separation point. The heat balance equation derived from the energy equation is solved to determine the freezing fraction and the resulting modified ice surface geometry.

  6. ACCRETION RATE AND THE PHYSICAL NATURE OF UNOBSCURED ACTIVE GALAXIES

    We show how accretion rate governs the physical properties of a sample of unobscured broad-line, narrow-line, and lineless active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We avoid the systematic errors plaguing previous studies of AGN accretion rates by using accurate intrinsic accretion luminosities (Lint) from well-sampled multiwavelength spectral energy distributions from the Cosmic Evolution Survey, and accurate black hole masses derived from virial scaling relations (for broad-line AGNs) or host-AGN relations (for narrow-line and lineless AGNs). In general, broad emission lines are present only at the highest accretion rates (Lint/LEdd > 10-2), and these rapidly accreting AGNs are observed as broad-line AGNs or possibly as obscured narrow-line AGNs. Narrow-line and lineless AGNs at lower specific accretion rates (Lint/LEdd -2) are unobscured and yet lack a broad-line region. The disappearance of the broad emission lines is caused by an expanding radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) at the inner radius of the accretion disk. The presence of the RIAF also drives Lint/LEdd -2 narrow-line and lineless AGNs to have ratios of radio-to-optical/UV emission that are 10 times higher than Lint/LEdd > 10-2 broad-line AGNs, since the unbound nature of the RIAF means it is easier to form a radio outflow. The IR torus signature also tends to become weaker or disappear from Lint/LEdd -2 AGNs, although there may be additional mid-IR synchrotron emission associated with the RIAF. Together, these results suggest that specific accretion rate is an important physical 'axis' of AGN unification, as described by a simple model.

  7. Ubiquitous equatorial accretion disc winds in black hole soft states

    Ponti, G.; Fender, R. P.; Begelman, M. C.; Dunn, R. J. H.; Neilsen, J.; Coriat, M.

    2012-01-01

    High resolution spectra of Galactic Black Holes (GBH) reveal the presence of highly ionised absorbers. In one GBH, accreting close to the Eddington limit for more than a decade, a powerful accretion disc wind is observed to be present in softer X-ray states and it has been suggested that it can carry away enough mass and energy to quench the radio jet. Here we report that these winds, which may have mass outflow rates of the order of the inner accretion rate or higher, are an ubiquitous compo...

  8. Lambda Boo Abundance Patterns: Accretion from Orbiting Sources

    Jura, M

    2015-01-01

    The abundance anomalies in lambda Boo stars are popularly explained by element-specific mass inflows at rates that are much greater than empirically-inferred bounds for interstellar accretion. Therefore, a lambda Boo star's thin outer envelope must derive from a companion star, planet, analogs to Kuiper Belt Objects or a circumstellar disk. Because radiation pressure on gas-phase ions might selectively allow the accretion of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen and inhibit the inflow of elements such as iron, the source of the acquired matter need not contain dust. We propose that at least some lambda Boo stars accrete from the winds of hot Jupiters.

  9. Sedimentation, accretion, and subsidence in marshes of Barataria Basin, Louisiana

    Vertical accretion and sediment accumulation rates were determined from the distribution of 137Cs in cores collected from fresh water, intermediate, brackish, and salt marshes in the Barataria Basin, Louisiana. Vertical accretion rates vary from about 1.3 cm.yr-1 in levee areas to 0.7 in backmarshes. Mineral sediment content of the marsh soil profile decreased with distance from the coast. Except in natural levee areas, marsh accretion rates are less than subsidence measured by water level data, however this alone cannot account for observed land-loss patterns in the basin area

  10. Jet Luminosity from Neutrino-Dominated Accretion Flows in GRBs

    Kawanaka, Norita

    2013-01-01

    A hyperaccretion disk around a stellar-mass black hole is a plausible model for the central engine that powers gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We estimate the luminosity of a jet driven by magnetohydrodynamic processes such as the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) mechanism as a function of mass accretion rate, the black hole mass, and other accretion parameters. We show that the jet is most efficient when the accretion flow is cooled via optically-thin neutrino emission, and that its luminosity is much larger ...

  11. Eclipse Mapping of the Accretion Stream in UZ Fornacis

    Kube, J.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Beuermann, K.

    1999-01-01

    We present a new method to map the surface brightness of the accretion streams in AM Herculis systems from observed light curves. Extensive tests of the algorithm show that it reliably reproduces the intensity distribution of the stream for data with a signal-to-noise ratio >5. As a first application, we map the accretion stream emission of Civ lambda 1550 in the polar UZ Fornacis using HST FOS high state spectra. We find three main emission regions along the accretion stream: (1) On the ball...

  12. Neutrino-cooled Accretion Disks around Spinning Black Holes

    Chen, Wen-Xin; Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the structure of accretion disk around a spinning black hole for accretion rates 0.01 - 10 M_sun/s. The model is fully relativistic and treats accurately the disk microphysics including neutrino emissivity, opacity, electron degeneracy, and nuclear composition. We find that the accretion flow always regulates itself to a mildly degenerate state with the proton-to-nucleon ratio Y_e ~ 0.1 and becomes very neutron-rich. The disk has a well defined "ignition" radius where neutrino fl...

  13. New evidence for halo gas accretion onto disk galaxies

    Fraternali, Filippo

    2008-01-01

    Studies of the halo gas in the Milky Way and in nearby spiral galaxies show the presence of gas complexes that cannot be reconciled with an internal (galactic fountain) origin and are direct evidence of gas accretion. Estimating gas accretion rates from these features consistently gives values, which are one order of magnitude lower than what is needed to feed the star formation. I show that this problem can be overcome if most of the accretion is in fact "hidden" as it mixes with the galacti...

  14. Do we see accreting magnetars in X-ray pulsars?

    Postnov K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong magnetic field of accreting neutron stars (1014 G is hard to probe by Xray spectroscopy but can be indirectly inferred from spin-up/spin-down measurement in X-ray pulsars. The existing observations of slowly rotating X-ray pulsars are discussed. It is shown that magnetic fields of neutron stars derived from these observations (or lower limits in some cases fall within the standard 1012-1013 G range. Claims about the evidence for accreting magnetars are critically discussed in the light of recent progress in understanding of accretion onto slowly rotating neutron stars in the subsonic regime.

  15. High energy gamma rays from old accreting neutron stars

    P. Blasi(INAF Arcetri)

    1996-01-01

    We consider a magnetized neutron star with accretion from a companion star or a gas cloud around it, as a possible source of gamma rays with energy between $100$ $MeV$ and $10^{14}-10^{16}~eV$. The flow of the accreting plasma is terminated by a shock at the Alfv\\'en surface. Such a shock is the site for the acceleration of particles up to energies of $\\sim 10^{15}-10^{17}~eV$; gamma photons are produced in the inelastic $pp$ collisions between shock-accelerated particles and accreting matter...

  16. Observations of accretion discs in interacting binaries

    Honey, William Bruce

    Cataclysmic and X-ray binaries (CV and LMXB) are considered, and new observations of both types of source are considered. Chapter 1 gives an introduction to the subject and presents a study of the evolution and period relationships of these objects. Chapter 2 studies the superoutburst of a system. The observational data presented in the Chapter are used to place constraints on the geometry of the system, and also upon the theoretical models examined; only eccentric disc models are found to be acceptable. A tidally dominated eccentric accretion disc is considered, and good agreement between the observations and a tidally distorted disc simulation is achieved. In Chapter 3, a search for the superhump phenomenon is conducted. No such superhump behavior was found. These observations support the ideas first raised in Chapter 2 of the importance of tidal behavior in dwarf novae. Chapter 4 reviews observations of black hole candidates, and lists the generally expected 'fingerprint' thought to be associated with black holes in binary systems. Chapter 5 reports on observations of the LMXB GX339-4 and the discovery of the period for the system. Constraints on the system parameters are given and a model is presented that is compatible with the observations. Chapter 6 reviews the work done and considers other important observational evidence that is to be found in the literature and is pertinent to the work in this thesis.

  17. Universal Accretion Growth Using Sandpile Models

    Datta, Srabani; McKie, Shane; Spencer, Ralph

    2015-08-01

    The Bak-Tang- Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile process is a model of a complex dynamical system with a large collection of particles or grains in a node that sheds load to their neighbours when they reach capacity. The cascades move around thesystem till it reaches stability with a critical point as an attractor. The BTW growth process shows self-organized criticality (SOC) with power-law distribution in cascade sizes having slope -5/3. This self-similarity of structureis synonymous with the fractal structure found in molecular clouds of Kolmogorov dimension 1.67 and by treating cascades as waves, scaling functions are found to be analogous to those observed for velocity structure functions influid turbulence. We apply the BTW sandpile model to study growth on a 2 dimensional rotating lattice in a magnetic field. In this paper, we show that this is a naturally occuring universal process giving rise to scale-freestructures with size limited only by the number of infalling grains. We also compare the BTW process with other sandpile models such as the Manna and Zhang processes. We find that the BTW sandpile model can be applied to a widerange of objects including molecular clouds, accretion disks and perhaps galaxies.

  18. Probing the Environment of Accreting Compact Objects

    Hanke, Manfred

    2011-04-01

    X-ray binaries are the topic of this thesis. They consist of a compact object -- a black hole or a neutron star -- and an ordinary star, which loses matter to the compact object. The gravitational energy released through this process of mass accretion is largely converted into X-rays. The latter are used in the present work to screen the environment of the compact object. The main focus in the case of a massive star is on its wind, which is not homogeneous, but may display structures in form of temperature and density variations. Since great importance is, in multiple respects, attached to stellar winds in astrophysics, there is large interest in general to understand these structures more thoroughly. In particular for X-ray binaries, whose compact object obtains matter from the wind of its companion star, the state of the wind can decisively influence mass accretion and its related radiation processes. A detailed introduction to the fundamentals of stellar winds, compact objects, accretion and radiation processes in X-ray binaries, as well as to the employed instruments and analysis methods, is given in chapter 1. The focus of this investigation is on Cygnus X-1, a binary system with a black hole and a blue supergiant, which form a persistently very bright X-ray source because of accretion from the stellar wind. It had been known for a long time that this source -- when the black hole is seen through the dense stellar wind -- often displays abrupt absorption events whose origin is suspected to be in clumps in the wind. More detailed physical properties of these clumps and of the wind in general are explored in this work. Observations that were specifically acquired for this study, as well as archival data from different satellite observatories, are analyzed in view of signatures of the wind and its fine structures. These results are presented in chapter 2. In a first part of the analysis, the statistical distribution of the brightness of Cyg X-1, as measured since

  19. Superextremal spinning black holes via accretion

    Bode, Tanja; Laguna, Pablo; Matzner, Richard

    2011-09-01

    A Kerr black hole with mass M and angular momentum J satisfies the extremality inequality |J|≤M2. In the presence of matter and/or gravitational radiation, this bound needs to be reformulated in terms of local measurements of the mass and the angular momentum directly associated with the black hole. The isolated and dynamical horizon framework provides such quasilocal characterization of black hole mass and angular momentum. With this framework, it is possible in axisymmetry to reformulate the extremality limit as |J|≤2MH2, with MH the irreducible mass of the black hole computed from its apparent horizon area and J obtained using a rotational Killing vector field on the apparent horizon. The |J|≤2MH2 condition is also equivalent to requiring a non-negative black hole surface gravity. We present numerical experiments of an accreting black hole that temporarily violates this extremality inequality. The initial configuration consists of a single, rotating black hole surrounded by a thick, shell cloud of negative energy density. For these numerical experiments, we introduce a new matter-without-matter evolution method.

  20. Local Magnetohydrodynamical Models of Layered Accretion Disks

    Fleming, T; Fleming, Timothy; Stone, James M.

    2003-01-01

    Using numerical MHD simulations, we have studied the evolution of the magnetorotational instability in stratified accretion disks in which the ionization fraction (and therefore resistivity) varies substantially with height. This model is appropriate to dense, cold disks around protostars or dwarf nova systems which are ionized by external irradiation of cosmic rays or high-energy photons. We find the growth and saturation of the MRI occurs only in the upper layers of the disk where the magnetic Reynolds number exceeds a critical value; in the midplane the disk remains queiscent. The vertical Poynting flux into the "dead", central zone is small, however velocity fluctuations in the dead zone driven by the turbulence in the active layers generate a significant Reynolds stress in the midplane. When normalized by the thermal pressure, the Reynolds stress in the midplane never drops below about 10% of the value of the Maxwell stress in the active layers, even though the Maxwell stress in the dead zone may be orde...

  1. The universal nature of subhalo accretion

    Libeskind, Noam I; Hoffman, Yehuda; Gottloeber, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    We examine the angular infall pattern of subhaloes onto host haloes in the context of the large-scale structure. We find that this infall pattern is essentially driven by the shear tensor of the ambient velocity field. Dark matter subhaloes are found to be preferentially accreted along the principal axis of the shear tensor which corresponds to the direction of weakest collapse. We examine the dependence of this preferential infall on subhalo mass, host halo mass and redshift. Although strongest for the most massive hosts and the most massive subhaloes at high redshift, the preferential infall of subhaloes is effectively universal in the sense that its always aligned with the axis of weakest collapse of the velocity shear tensor. It is the same shear tensor that dictates the structure of the cosmic web and hence the shear field emerges as the key factor that governs the local anisotropic pattern of structure formation. Since the small (sub-Mpc) scale is strongly correlated with the mid-range (~10 Mpc) scale -...

  2. Tidally distorted accretion discs in binary stars

    Ogilvie, G. I.

    2002-03-01

    The non-axisymmetric features observed in the discs of dwarf novae in outburst are usually considered to be spiral shocks, which are the non-linear relatives of tidally excited waves. This interpretation suffers from a number of problems. For example, the natural site of wave excitation lies outside the Roche lobe, the disc must be especially hot, and most treatments of wave propagation do not take into account the vertical structure of the disc. In this paper I construct a detailed semi-analytical model of the non-linear tidal distortion of a thin, three-dimensional accretion disc by a binary companion on a circular orbit. The analysis presented here allows for vertical motion and radiative energy transport, and introduces a simple model for the turbulent magnetic stress. The m=2 inner vertical resonance has an important influence on the amplitude and phase of the tidal distortion. I show that the observed patterns find a natural explanation if the emission is associated with the tidally thickened sectors of the outer disc, which may be irradiated from the centre. According to this hypothesis, it may be possible to constrain the physical parameters of the disc through future observations.

  3. Vertical structure of Advection dominated Accretion Flows

    Zeraatgari, Fateme Zahra

    2015-01-01

    We solve the set of hydrodynamic (HD) equations for optically thin Advection Dominated Accretion Flows (ADAFs) by assuming radially self-similar in spherical coordinate system $ (r, \\theta, \\phi) $. The disk is considered to be steady state and axi-symmetric. We define the boundary conditions at the pole and the equator of the disk and to avoid singularity at the rotation axis, the disk is taken to be symmetric with respect to this axis. Moreover, only the $ \\tau_{r \\phi} $ component of viscous stress tensor is assumed and we have set $ v_{\\theta} = 0 $. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the variation of dynamical quantities of the flow in the vertical direction by finding an analytical solution. As a consequence, we found that the advection parameter, $ f^{adv} $, varies along the $ \\theta $ direction and reaches to its maximum near the rotation axis. Our results also show that, in terms of no-outflow solution, thermal equilibrium still exists and consequently advection cooling can balance vis...

  4. Type Ia Supernovae and Accretion Induced Collapse

    Ruiter, A J; Sim, S A; Hillebrandt, W; Fink, M; Kromer, M

    2010-01-01

    Using the population synthesis binary evolution code StarTrack, we present theoretical rates and delay times of Type Ia supernovae arising from various formation channels. These channels include binaries in which the exploding white dwarf reaches the Chandrasekhar mass limit (DDS, SDS, and helium-rich donor scenario) as well as the sub-Chandrasekhar mass scenario, in which a white dwarf accretes from a helium-rich companion and explodes as a SN Ia before reaching the Chandrasekhar mass limit. We find that using a common envelope parameterization employing energy balance with alpha=1 and lambda=1, the supernova rates per unit mass (born in stars) of sub-Chandrasekhar mass SNe Ia exceed those of all other progenitor channels at epochs t=0.7 - 4 Gyr for a burst of star formation at t=0. Additionally, the delay time distribution of the sub-Chandrasekhar model can be divided in to two distinct evolutionary channels: the `prompt' helium-star channel with delay times 800 Myr spanning up to a Hubble time. These find...

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic Origin of Jets from Accretion Disks

    Lovelace, R. V. E.; Romanova, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    A review is made of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory and simulation of outflows from disks for different distributions of magnetic field threading the disk. In one limit of a relatively weak, initially diverging magnetic field, both thermal and magnetic pressure gradients act to drive matter to an outflow, while a toroidal magnetic field develops which strongly collimates the outflow. The collimation greatly reduces the field divergence and the mass outflow rate decreases after an initial peak. In a second limit of a strong magnetic field, the initial field configuration was taken with the field strength on the disk decreasing outwards to small values so that collimation was reduced. As a result, a family of stationary solutions was discovered where matter is driven mainly by the strong magnetic pressure gradient force. The collimation in this case depends on the pressure of an external medium. These flows are qualitatively similar to the analytic solutions for magnetically driven outflows. The problem of the opening of a closed field line configuration linking a magnetized star and an accretion disk is also discussed.

  6. Magnetic flux stabilizing thin accretion disks

    Sadowski, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the minimal amount of large-scale poloidal magnetic field that has to thread the inner, radiation-over-gas pressure dominated region of a thin disk for its thermal stability. Such a net field amplifies the magnetization of the saturated turbulent state and makes it locally stable. For a $10 M_\\odot$ black hole the minimal magnetic flux is $10^{24}(\\dot M/\\dot M_{\\rm Edd})^{20/21}\\,\\rm G\\cdot cm^{2}$. This amount is compared with the amount of uniform magnetic flux that can be provided by the companion star -- estimated to be in the range $10^{22}-10^{24}\\,\\rm G\\cdot cm^2$. If accretion rate is large enough, the companion is not able to provide the required amount and such a system, if still sub-Eddington, must be thermally unstable. The peculiar variability of GRS 1915+105, an X-ray binary with the exceptionally high BH mass and near-Eddington luminosity, may result from the shortage of large scale poloidal field of uniform polarity.

  7. Accretion of radiation and rotating primordial black holes

    Mahapatra, S.; Nayak, B.

    2016-02-01

    We consider rotating primordial black holes (PBHs) and study the effect of accretion of radiation in the radiation-dominated era. The central part of our analysis deals with the role of the angular momentum parameter on the evolution of PBHs. We find that both the accretion and evaporation rates decrease with an increase in the angular momentum parameter, but the rate of evaporation decreases more rapidly than the rate of accretion. This shows that the evaporation time of PBHs is prolonged with an increase in the angular momentum parameter. We also note that the lifetime of rotating PBHs increases with an increase in the accretion efficiency of radiation as in the case of nonrotating PBHs.

  8. Dynamically important magnetic fields near accreting supermassive black holes.

    Zamaninasab, M; Clausen-Brown, E; Savolainen, T; Tchekhovskoy, A

    2014-06-01

    Accreting supermassive black holes at the centres of active galaxies often produce 'jets'--collimated bipolar outflows of relativistic particles. Magnetic fields probably play a critical role in jet formation and in accretion disk physics. A dynamically important magnetic field was recently found near the Galactic Centre black hole. If this is common and if the field continues to near the black hole event horizon, disk structures will be affected, invalidating assumptions made in standard models. Here we report that jet magnetic field and accretion disk luminosity are tightly correlated over seven orders of magnitude for a sample of 76 radio-loud active galaxies. We conclude that the jet-launching regions of these radio-loud galaxies are threaded by dynamically important fields, which will affect the disk properties. These fields obstruct gas infall, compress the accretion disk vertically, slow down the disk rotation by carrying away its angular momentum in an outflow and determine the directionality of jets. PMID:24899311

  9. Grand Unification of AGN and the Accretion and Spin Paradigms

    Meier, D L

    1999-01-01

    While attempts to unify certain classes of AGN using orientation and environmental effects have been successful, it is widely recognized that intrinsic properties of the accreting black hole system also must play a role in determining the appearance of such an object. In addition to mass and accretion rate, the angular momentum (or spin) of the black hole can play a crucial role in determining the power of a relativistic jet that is generated by magnetohydrodynamic acceleration near the hole. In this paper a scenario is presented, based on accretion theory and recent models of MHD jet production, in which the primary (although not only) parameter differentiating between radio loud and quiet objects is the black hole spin, and that determining quasar vs. radio galaxy is the accretion rate. A surprising number of desirable features result from these simple concepts and the accompanying equations. In addition, there are several testable predictions that can determine whether this grand unification scheme has fur...

  10. Impact-induced melting during accretion of the Earth

    de Vries, Jellie; Melosh, H Jay; Jacobson, Seth A; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Rubie, David C

    2016-01-01

    Because of the high energies involved, giant impacts that occur during planetary accretion cause large degrees of melting. The depth of melting in the target body after each collision determines the pressure and temperature conditions of metal-silicate equilibration and thus geochemical fractionation that results from core-mantle differentiation. The accretional collisions involved in forming the terrestrial planets of the inner Solar System have been calculated by previous studies using N-body accretion simulations. Here we use the output from such simulations to determine the volumes of melt produced and thus the pressure and temperature conditions of metal-silicate equilibration, after each impact, as Earth-like planets accrete. For these calculations a parametrised melting model is used that takes impact velocity, impact angle and the respective masses of the impacting bodies into account. The evolution of metal-silicate equilibration pressures (as defined by evolving magma ocean depths) during Earth's ac...

  11. The Magnetohydrodynamics of Convection-Dominated Accretion Flows

    Narayan, R; Igumenshchev, I V; Abramowicz, M A; Narayan, Ramesh; Quataert, Eliot; Igumenshchev, Igor V.; Abramowicz, Marek A.

    2002-01-01

    Radiatively inefficient accretion flows onto black holes are unstable due to both an outwardly decreasing entropy (``convection'') and an outwardly decreasing rotation rate (the ``magnetorotational instability'', MRI). Using a linear magnetohydrodynamic stability analysis, we show that long-wavelength modes are primarily destabilized by the entropy gradient and that such ``convective'' modes transport angular momentum inwards. Moreover, the stability criteria for the convective modes are the standard Hoiland criteria of hydrodynamics. By contrast, shorter wavelength modes are primarily destabilized by magnetic tension and differential rotation. These ``MRI'' modes transport angular momentum outwards. The convection-dominated accretion flow (CDAF) model, which has been proposed for radiatively inefficient accretion onto a black hole, posits that inward angular momentum transport and outward energy transport by long-wavelength convective fluctuations are crucial for determining the structure of the accretion fl...

  12. Photon Bubbles and the Vertical Structure of Accretion Disks

    Begelman, M C

    2006-01-01

    We consider the effects of "photon bubble" shock trains on the vertical structure of radiation pressure-dominated accretion disks. These density inhomogeneities are expected to develop spontaneously in radiation-dominated accretion disks where magnetic pressure exceeds gas pressure, even in the presence of magnetorotational instability. They increase the rate at which radiation escapes from the disk, and may allow disks to exceed the Eddington limit by a substantial factor. We first generalize the theory of photon bubbles to include the effects of finite optical depths and radiation damping. Modifications to the diffusion law at low optical depth tend to fill in the low-density regions of photon bubbles, while radiation damping inhibits the formation of photon bubbles at large radii, small accretion rates, and small heights above the equatorial plane. Accretion disks dominated by photon bubble transport may reach luminosities of 10 to >100 times the Eddington limit (L_E), depending on the mass of the central ...

  13. Fate of accreting white dwarfs: Type I supernovae vs collapse

    The final fate of accreting C + O white dwarfs is either thermonuclear explosion or collapse, if the white dwarf mass grows to the Chandrasekhar mass. We discuss how the fate depends on the initial mass, age, composition of the white dwarf and the mass accretion rate. Relatively fast accretion leads to a carbon deflagration at low central density that gives rise to a Type Ia supernova. Slower accretion induces a helium detonation that could be observed as a Type Ib supernova. If the initial mass of the C + O white dwarf is larger than 1.2 Msub solar, a carbon deflagration starts at high central density and induces a collapse of the white dwarf to form a neutron star. We examine the critical condition for which a carbon deflagration leads to collapse, not explosion. For the case of explosion, we discuss to what extent the nucleosynthesis models are consistent with spectra of Type Ia and Ib supernovae. 61 refs., 18 figs

  14. Cross-correlation Aided Transport in Stochastically Driven Accretion Flows

    Nath, Sujit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Origin of linear instability resulting in rotating sheared accretion flows has remained a controversial subject for long. While some explanations of such non-normal transient growth of disturbances in the Rayleigh stable limit were available for magnetized accretion flows, similar instabilities in absence of magnetic perturbations remained unexplained. This dichotomy was resolved in two recent publications by Chattopadhyay, {\\it et al} where it was shown that such instabilities, especially for non-magnetized accretion flows, were introduced through interaction of the inherent stochastic noise in the system (even a \\enquote{cold} accretion flow at 3000K is too \\enquote{hot} in the statistical parlance and is capable of inducing strong thermal modes) with the underlying Taylor-Couette flow profiles. Both studies, however, excluded the additional energy influx (or efflux) that could result from nonzero cross-correlation of a noise perturbing the velocity flow, say, with the noise that is driving the vorticity fl...

  15. Dynamical structure of magnetized dissipative accretion flow around black holes

    Sarkar, Biplob

    2016-01-01

    We study the global structure of optically thin, advection dominated, magnetized accretion flow around black holes. We consider the magnetic field to be turbulent in nature and dominated by the toroidal component. With this, we obtain the complete set of accretion solutions for dissipative flows where bremsstrahlung process is regarded as the dominant cooling mechanism. We show that rotating magnetized accretion flow experiences virtual barrier around black hole due to centrifugal repulsion that can trigger the discontinuous transition of the flow variables in the form of shock waves. We examine the properties of the shock waves and find that the dynamics of the post-shock corona (PSC) is controlled by the flow parameters, namely viscosity, cooling rate and strength of the magnetic field, respectively. We separate the effective region of the parameter space for standing shock and observe that shock can form for wide range of flow parameters. We obtain the critical viscosity parameter that allows global accret...

  16. The mass accretion rate of galaxy clusters: a measurable quantity

    De Boni, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    We are interested in investigating the growth of structures at the nonlinear scales of galaxy clusters from an observational perspective: we explore the possibility of measuring the mass accretion rate of galaxy clusters from their mass profile beyond the virial radius. We derive the accretion rate from the mass of a spherical shell whose infall velocity is extracted from $N$-body simulations. In the redshift range $z=[0,2]$, our prescription returns an average mass accretion rate within $20-40 \\%$ of the average rate derived from the merger trees of dark matter haloes extracted from $N$-body simulations. Our result suggests that measuring the mean mass accretion rate of a sample of galaxy clusters is actually feasible, thus providing a new potential observational test of the cosmological and structure formation models.

  17. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole

    Tremblay, Grant R; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P; Baum, Stefi A; Voit, G Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R; Davis, Timothy A; McDonald, Michael A; Edge, Alastair C; Clarke, Tracy E; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N; Edwards, Louise O V; Fabian, Andrew C; Hamer, Stephen L; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R; Quillen, Alice C; Urry, C Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S; Wise, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds - a departure from the "hot mode" accretion model - although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z=0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities can precipitate from this hot gas, producing a rain of c...

  18. Accretion Does Not Drive the Turbulence in Galactic Disks

    Hopkins, Philip F; Murray, Norman

    2013-01-01

    Rapid accretion of cold gas plays a crucial role in getting gas into galaxies. It has been suggested that this accretion proceeds along narrow streams that might also directly drive the turbulence in galactic gas, dynamical disturbances, and bulge formation. In cosmological simulations, however, it is impossible to isolate and hence disentangle the effect of accretion from internal instabilities and mergers. Moreover, in most cosmological simulations, the phase structure and turbulence in the ISM arising from stellar feedback are treated in a sub-grid manner, so that feedback cannot generate ISM turbulence. In this paper we therefore test the effects of cold streams in extremely high-resolution simulations of otherwise isolated galaxy disks using detailed models for star formation and feedback; we then include or exclude mock cold flows falling onto the galaxies with accretion rates, velocities and geometry set to maximize their effect on the disk. We find: (1) Turbulent velocity dispersions in gas disks are ...

  19. Accretion, radial flows and abundance gradients in spiral galaxies

    Pezzulli, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The metal-poor gas continuously accreting onto the discs of spiral galaxies is unlikely to arrive from the intergalactic medium (IGM) with exactly the same rotation velocity as the galaxy itself and even a small angular momentum mismatch inevitably drives radial gas flows within the disc, with significant consequences to galaxy evolution. Here we provide some general analytic tools to compute accretion profiles, radial gas flows and abundance gradients in spiral galaxies as a function of the angular momentum of accreting material. We generalize existing solutions for the decomposition of the gas flows, required to reproduce the structural properties of galaxy discs, into direct accretion from the IGM and a radial mass flux within the disc. We then solve the equation of metallicity evolution in the presence of radial gas flows with a novel method, based on characteristic lines, which greatly reduces the numerical demand on the computation and sheds light on the crucial role of boundary conditions on the abunda...

  20. Accretion disk radiation dynamics and the cosmic battery

    We investigate the dynamics of radiation in the surface layers of an optically thick astrophysical accretion disk around a Kerr black hole. The source of the radiation is the surface of the accretion disk itself, and not a central object as in previous studies of the Poynting-Robertson effect. We generate numerical sky maps from photon trajectories that originate on the surface of the disk as seen from the inner edge of the disk at the position of the innermost stable circular orbit. We investigate several accretion disk morphologies with a Shakura-Sunyaev surface temperature distribution. Finally, we calculate the electromotive source of the Cosmic Battery mechanism around the inner edge of the accretion disk and obtain characteristic timescales for the generation of astrophysical magnetic fields.

  1. On the growth of pebble-accreting planetesimals

    Visser, Rico G

    2015-01-01

    Pebble accretion is a new mechanism to quickly grow the cores of planets. In pebble accretion, gravity and gas drag conspire to yield large collisional cross sections for small particles in protoplanetary disks. However, before pebble accretion commences, aerodynamical deflection may act to prevent planetesimals from becoming large, because particles tend to follow gas streamlines. We derive the planetesimal radius where pebble accretion is initiated and determine the growth timescales of planetesimals by sweepup of small particles. We obtain the collision efficiency factor as the ratio of the numerically-obtained collisional cross section to the planetesimal surface area, from which we obtain the growth timescales. Integrations are conducted in the potential flow limit (steady, inviscid) and in the Stokes flow regime (steady, viscid). Only particles of stopping time $t_s \\ll t_X$ where $t_X\\approx10^3$ s experience aerodynamic deflection. Even in that case, the planetesimal's gravity always ensures positive ...

  2. Polarized X-rays from accreting neutron stars

    Bhattacharya, Dipankar

    2016-07-01

    Accreting neutron stars span a wide range in X-ray luminosity and magnetic field strength. Accretion may be wind-fed or disk-fed, and the dominant X-ray flux may originate in the disk or a magnetically confined accretion column. In all such systems X-ray polarization may arise due to Compton or Magneto-Compton scattering, and on some occasions polarization of non-thermal emission from jet-like ejection may also be detectable. Spectral and temporal behaviour of the polarized X-rays would carry information regarding the radiation process, as well as of the matter dynamics - and can assist the detection of effects such as the Lense-Thirring precession. This talk will review our current knowledge of the expected X-ray polarization from accreting neutron stars and explore the prospects of detection with upcoming polarimetry missions.

  3. Fate of accreting white dwarfs: Type I supernovae vs collapse

    Nomoto, Ken' ichi

    1986-01-01

    The final fate of accreting C + O white dwarfs is either thermonuclear explosion or collapse, if the white dwarf mass grows to the Chandrasekhar mass. We discuss how the fate depends on the initial mass, age, composition of the white dwarf and the mass accretion rate. Relatively fast accretion leads to a carbon deflagration at low central density that gives rise to a Type Ia supernova. Slower accretion induces a helium detonation that could be observed as a Type Ib supernova. If the initial mass of the C + O white dwarf is larger than 1.2 Msub solar, a carbon deflagration starts at high central density and induces a collapse of the white dwarf to form a neutron star. We examine the critical condition for which a carbon deflagration leads to collapse, not explosion. For the case of explosion, we discuss to what extent the nucleosynthesis models are consistent with spectra of Type Ia and Ib supernovae. 61 refs., 18 figs.

  4. Accretion to a Magnetized Neutron Star in the "Propeller" Regime

    Toropina, O D; Lovelace, R V E

    2006-01-01

    We investigate spherical accretion to a rotating magnetized star in the "propeller" regime using axisymmetric resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The regime is predicted to occur if the magnetospheric radius is larger than the corotation radius and smaller than the light cylinder radius. The simulations show that accreting matter is expelled from the equatorial region of the magnetosphere and that it moves away from the star in a supersonic, disk-shaped outflow. At larger radial distances the outflow slows down and becomes subsonic. The equatorial matter outflow is initially driven by the centrifugal force, but at larger distances the pressure gradient force becomes significant. We find the fraction of the Bondi accretion rate which accretes to the surface of the star.

  5. Variability and Stability in Radiation Hydrodynamic Accretion Flows

    Miller, G S; Miller, Guy S.; Park, Myeong-Gu

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we examine time-dependent and three-dimensional perturbations of spherical accretion flow onto a neutron star close to its Eddington limit. Our treatment assumes a Schwarzschild geometry for the spacetime outside the neutron star and is fully general relativistic. At all the accretion rates studied, the response of the accretion flow to perturbations includes weakly damped oscillatory modes. At sufficiently high luminosities --- but still well below the Eddington limit --- the flows become unstable to aspherical perturbations. These unstable radiation hydrodynamic modes resemble the onset of convection, and allow accretion to occur preferentially through more rapidly descending columns of gas, while the radiation produced escapes through neighboring columns in which the gas descends more slowly.

  6. Standing Shocks in Viscous Accretion Flows around Black Holes

    GU Wei-Min; LU Ju-Fu

    2005-01-01

    @@ We study the problem of standing shocks in viscous accretion flows around black holes.We parameterize such a flow with two physical constants, namely the specific angular momentum accreted by the black hole j and the energy quantity K.By providing the global dependence of shock formation in the j - K parameter space, we show that a significant parameter region can ensure solutions with shocks of different types, namely Rankine-Hugoniot shocks, isothermal shocks, and more realistically, mixed shocks.

  7. Observational constraints on viscosity in AGN accretion discs

    The optical/UV/soft X-ray big bump can be modelled as thermal emission from an accretion disc. The observed UV variability in AGN spectra may be caused by accretion-disc instabilities, and can be used to constrain the viscosity. The comparison of thermal time-scales with the observed time-scales of variability in 10 Seyfert galaxies and 16 QSOs indicates values for the parameter α of the order of 0.01 for most cases. (author)

  8. Deformations of Accreting Neutron Star Crusts and Gravitational Wave Emission

    Ushomirsky, Greg; Cutler, Curt; Bildsten, Lars

    2000-01-01

    Motivated by the narrow range of spin frequencies of nearly 20 accreting neutron stars, Bildsten (1998) conjectured that their spin-up had been halted by the emission of gravitational waves. He also pointed out that small nonaxisymmetric temperature variations in the accreted crust will lead to "wavy" electron capture layers, whose horizontal density variations naturally create a mass quadrupole moment. We present a full calculation of the crust's elastic adjustment to these density perturbat...

  9. Numerical models of rotating accretion flows around black holes

    Igumenshchev, I V

    1999-01-01

    Numerical, two-dimensional, time-dependent hydrodynamical models of geometrically thick accretion discs around black holes are presented. Accretion flows with non-effective radiation cooling (ADAFs) can be both convectively stable or unstable depending on the value of the viscosity parameter \\alpha. The high viscosity flows (\\alpha~1) are stable and have a strong equatorial inflow and bipolar outflows. The low viscosity flows (\\alpha<0.1) are convectively unstable and this induces quasi-periodic variability.

  10. Line emission from optically thick relativistic accretion tori

    Fuerst, Steven V.; Wu, Kinwah

    2007-01-01

    We calculate line emission from relativistic accretion tori around Kerr black holes and investigate how the line profiles depend on the viewing inclination, spin of the central black hole, parameters describing the shape of the tori, and spatial distribution of line emissivity on the torus surface. We also compare the lines with those from thin accretion disks. Our calculations show that lines from tori and lines from thin disks share several common features. In particular, at low and moderat...

  11. Constraining the MOdified Newtonian Dynamics from spherically symmetrical hydrodynamic accretion

    Roy, Nirupam

    2011-01-01

    The MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) is an alternative to the dark matter assumption that can explain the observed flat rotation curve of galaxies. Here hydrodynamic accretion is considered to critically check the consistency and to constrain the physical interpretation of this theory. It is found that, in case of spherically symmetrical hydrodynamic accretion, the modified Euler's equation has real solution if the interpretation is assumed to be a modification of the law of dynamics. There...

  12. TW Hya: Spectral Variability, X-Rays, and Accretion Diagnostics

    Dupree, A. K.; Brickhouse, N. S.; Cranmer, S. R.; Luna, G. J. M.; Schneider, E. E.; Bessell, M. S.; Bonanos, A.; Crause, L. A.; Lawson, W. A.; Mallik, S. V.; Schuler, S. C.

    2012-05-01

    The nearest accreting T Tauri star, TW Hya was intensively and continuously observed over ~17 days with spectroscopic and photometric measurements from four continents simultaneous with a long segmented exposure using the Chandra satellite. Contemporaneous optical photometry from WASP-S indicates a 4.74 day period was present during this time. The absence of a similar periodicity in the Hα flux and the total X-ray flux which are dominated by accretion processes and the stellar corona, respectively, points to a different source of photometric variations. The Hα emission line appears intrinsically broad and symmetric, and both the profile and its variability suggest an origin in the post-shock cooling region. An accretion event, signaled by soft X-rays, is traced spectroscopically for the first time through the optical emission line profiles. After the accretion event, downflowing turbulent material observed in the Hα and Hβ lines is followed by He I (λ5876) broadening near the photosphere. Optical veiling resulting from the heated photosphere increases with a delay of ~2 hr after the X-ray accretion event. The response of the stellar coronal emission to an increase in the veiling follows ~2.4 hr later, giving direct evidence that the stellar corona is heated in part by accretion. Subsequently, the stellar wind becomes re-established. We suggest a model that incorporates the dynamics of this sequential series of events: an accretion shock, a cooling downflow in a supersonically turbulent region, followed by photospheric and later, coronal heating. This model naturally explains the presence of broad optical and ultraviolet lines, and affects the mass accretion rates determined from emission line profiles.

  13. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole

    Tremblay, Grant R.; Oonk, J. B. Raymond; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Voit, G. Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R.; Davis, Timothy A.; McDonald, Michael A.; Edge, Alastair C.; Clarke, Tracy E.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N.

    2016-01-01

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecul...

  14. TLUSTY: Stellar Atmospheres, Accretion Disks, and Spectroscopic Diagnostics

    Hubeny, Ivan; Lanz, Thierry

    2011-09-01

    TLUSTY is a user-oriented package written in FORTRAN77 for modeling stellar atmospheres and accretion disks and wide range of spectroscopic diagnostics. In the program's maximum configuration, the user may start from scratch and calculate a model atmosphere of a chosen degree of complexity, and end with a synthetic spectrum in a wavelength region of interest for an arbitrary stellar rotation and an arbitrary instrumental profile. The user may also model the vertical structure of annuli of an accretion disk.

  15. Type I migration in optically thick accretion discs

    Yamada, K; Inaba, S.

    2012-01-01

    We study the torque acting on a planet embedded in an optically thick accretion disc, using global two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. The temperature of an optically thick accretion disc is determined by the energy balance between the viscous heating and the radiative cooling. The radiative cooling rate depends on the opacity of the disc. The opacity is expressed as a function of the temperature. We find the disc is divided into three regions that have different temperature distributio...

  16. Black hole accretion discs and screened scalar hair

    Davis, Anne-Christine; Jha, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel way to investigate scalar field profiles around black holes with an accretion disc for a range of models where the Compton wavelength of the scalar is large compared to other length scales. By analysing the problem in "Weyl" coordinates, we are able to calculate the scalar profiles for accretion discs in the static Schwarzschild, as well as rotating Kerr, black holes. We comment on observational effects.

  17. The Event Horizon Telescope: exploring strong gravity and accretion physics

    Ricarte, Angelo; Dexter, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a global sub-millimeter wavelength very long baseline interferometry array, is now resolving the innermost regions around the supermassive black holes Sgr A* and M87. Using black hole images from both simple geometric models and relativistic magnetohydrodynamical accretion flow simulations, we perform a variety of experiments to assess the promise of the EHT for studying strong gravity and accretion physics during the stages of its development. We find that ...

  18. Observational Signatures of Tilted Black Hole Accretion Disks from Simulations

    Dexter, Jason; Fragile, P. Chris

    2011-01-01

    Geometrically thick accretion flows may be present in black hole X-ray binaries observed in the low/hard state and in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei. Unlike in geometrically thin disks, the angular momentum axis in these sources is not expected to align with the black hole spin axis. We compute images from three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of misaligned (tilted) accretion flows using relativistic radiative transfer, and compare the estimated locatio...

  19. Non-axisymmetric wind-accretion simulations. II. Density gradients

    Ruffert, M.

    1999-01-01

    The hydrodynamics of a variant of classical Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion is investigated: a totally absorbing sphere moves at various Mach numbers (3 and 10) relative to a medium, which is taken to be an ideal gas having a density gradient (of 3%, 20% or 100% over one accretion radius) perpendicular to the relative motion. Similarly to the 3D models published previously, both with velocity gradients and without, the models with a density gradient presented here exhibit non-stationary flow ...

  20. Continental accretion: From oceanic plateaus to allochthonous terranes

    Ben-Avraham, Z.; Nur, A.; Jones, D.; Cox, A.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the regions of the anomalously high sea-floor topography in today's oceans may be modern allochthonous terranes moving with their oceanic plates. Fated to collide with and be accreted to adjacent continents, they may create complex volcanism, cut off and trap oceanic crust, and cause orogenic deformation. The accretion of plateaus during subduction of oceanic plates may be responsible for mountain building comparable to that produced by the collision of continents. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  1. A New Approach to Evolution of Black Hole Accretion Disks

    WANG Ding-Xiong; LEI Wei-Hua; XIAO Kan

    2000-01-01

    Evolution of black hole (BH) accretion disks is investigated by a new approach, in which the evolution of the central BH can be derived in terms of BH spin directly, and the evolution characteristics of the concerning BH parameters are shown more easily and obviously. As an example, the unusual evolution characteristics of angular velocity of BH horizon and that of accreting particles at the inner edge of the disk are derived by considering the Blandford-Znajek process.

  2. Simulations of accretion disks in pseudo-complex General Relativity

    Hess, P. O.; Algalán B., M.; Schönenbach, T.; Greiner, W.

    2015-11-01

    After a summary on pseudo-complex General Relativity (pc-GR), circular orbits and stable orbits in general are discussed, including predictions compared to observations. Using a modified version of a model for accretions disks, presented by Page and Thorne in 1974, we apply the raytracing technique in order to simulate the appearance of an accretion disk as it should be observed in a detector. In pc-GR we predict a dark ring near a very massive, rapidly rotating object.

  3. Dark Energy Accretion onto black holes in a cosmic scenario

    Martín Moruno, Prado; Marrakchi, Az-Eddine L.; Robles Pérez, Salvador; González-Díaz, Pedro F.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study the accretion of dark energy onto a black hole in the cases that dark energy is equipped with a positive cosmological constant and when the space-time is described by a Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric. While the first case is the same as the usual accretion procedure for a more complicated fluid, the second one give rise to a consistent cosmic scenario for the mentioned phenomenon. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009.

  4. Orbiting circumgalactic gas as a signature of cosmological accretion

    Stewart, K. R.; Kaufmann, T; Bullock, J S; Barton, E. J.; Maller, A. H.; Diemand, J.; Wadsley, J.

    2011-01-01

    We use cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations to study the kinematic signatures of cool gas accretion onto a pair of well-resolved galaxy halos. We find that cold-flow streams and gas-rich mergers produce a circumgalactic component of cool gas that generally orbits with high angular momentum about the galaxy halo before falling in to build the disk. This signature of cosmological accretion should be observable using background-object absorption-line studies as features that a...

  5. Binary interactions with high accretion rates onto main sequence stars

    Shiber, Sagiv; Schreier, Ron; Soker, Noam

    2016-07-01

    Energetic outflows from main sequence stars accreting mass at very high rates might account for the powering of some eruptive objects, such as merging main sequence stars, major eruptions of luminous blue variables, e.g., the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae, and other intermediate luminosity optical transients (ILOTs; red novae; red transients). These powerful outflows could potentially also supply the extra energy required in the common envelope process and in the grazing envelope evolution of binary systems. We propose that a massive outflow/jets mediated by magnetic fields might remove energy and angular momentum from the accretion disk to allow such high accretion rate flows. By examining the possible activity of the magnetic fields of accretion disks, we conclude that indeed main sequence stars might accrete mass at very high rates, up to ≈ 10‑2 M ⊙ yr‑1 for solar type stars, and up to ≈ 1 M ⊙ yr‑1 for very massive stars. We speculate that magnetic fields amplified in such extreme conditions might lead to the formation of massive bipolar outflows that can remove most of the disk's energy and angular momentum. It is this energy and angular momentum removal that allows the very high mass accretion rate onto main sequence stars.

  6. Multiphase, non-spherical gas accretion onto a black hole

    Barai, Paramita; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2011-01-01

    (Abridged) We investigate non-spherical behavior of gas accreting onto a central supermassive black hole performing simulations using the SPH code GADGET-3 including radiative cooling and heating by the central X-ray source. As found in earlier 1D studies, our 3D simulations show that the accretion mode depends on the X-ray luminosity (L_X) for a fixed density at infinity and accretion efficiency. In the low L_X limit, gas accretes in a stable, spherically symmetric fashion. In the high L_X limit, the inner gas is significantly heated up and expands, reducing the central mass inflow rate. The expanding gas can turn into a strong enough outflow capable of expelling most of the gas at larger radii. For some intermediate L_X, the accretion flow becomes unstable developing prominent non-spherical features, the key reason for which is thermal instability (TI) as shown by our analyses. Small perturbations of the initially spherically symmetric accretion flow that is heated by the intermediate L_X quickly grow to fo...

  7. Settling accretion onto slowly rotating X-ray pulsars

    Shakura, N I; Kochetkova, A Yu; Hjalmarsdotter, L

    2013-01-01

    Quasi-spherical subsonic accretion onto slowly rotating magnetized NS is considered, when the accreting matter settles down subsonically onto the rotating magnetosphere, forming an extended quasi-static shell. The shell mediates the angular momentum transfer to/from the rotating NS magnetosphere by large-scale convective motions, which lead to an almost iso-angular-momentum rotation law inside the shell. The accretion rate through the shell is determined by the ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability while taking cooling into account. The settling regime of accretion is possible for moderate X-ray luminosities L <4 10^36 erg/s. At higher luminosities a free-fall gap above the NS magnetosphere appears due to rapid Compton cooling, and accretion becomes highly non-stationary. From observations of spin-up/spin-down rates of wind accreting equilibrium XPSRs with known orbital periods (GX 301-2, Vela X-1), the main dimensionless parameters of the model and be determin...

  8. Probing neutron star physics using accreting neutron stars

    Patruno A.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We give an obervational overview of the accreting neutron stars systems as probes of neutron star physics. In particular we focus on the results obtained from the periodic timing of accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars in outburst and from the measurement of X-ray spectra of accreting neutron stars during quiescence. In the first part of this overview we show that the X-ray pulses are contaminated by a large amount of noise of uncertain origin, and that all these neutron stars do not show evidence of spin variations during the outburst. We present also some recent developments on the presence of intermittency in three accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars and investigate the reason why only a small number of accreting neutron stars show X-ray pulsations and why none of these pulsars shows sub-millisecond spin periods. In the second part of the overview we introduce the observational technique that allows the study of neutron star cooling in accreting systems as probes of neutron star internal composition and equation of state. We explain the phenomenon of the deep crustal heating and present some recent developments on several quasi persistent X-ray sources where a cooling neutron star has been observed.

  9. Phantom Energy Accretion by a Stringy Charged Black Hole

    M.Sharif; G.Abbas

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical behavior of phantom energy near a stringy magnetically charged black hole. For this purpose, we derive equations of motion for steady-state spherically symmetric Row of phantom energy onto the stringy magnetically charged black hole. It is found that phantom energy accreting onto a black hole decreases its mass. Further, the location of the critical points of accretion is explored, which yields a mass to charge ratio. This ratio implies that accretion process cannot transform a black hole into an extremal black hole or a naked singularity, hence cosmic censorship hypothesis remains valid here.%We investigate the dynamical behavior of phantom energy near a stringy magnetically charged black hole.For this purpose,we derive equations of motion for steady-state spherically symmetric flow of phantom energy onto the stringy magnetically charged black hole.It is found that phantom energy accreting onto a black hole decreases its mass.Further,the location of the critical points of accretion is explored,which yields a mass to charge ratio.This ratio implies that accretion process cannot transform a black hole into an extremal black hole or a naked singularity,hence cosmic censorship hypothesis remains valid here.

  10. Rapidly Accreting Supergiant Protostars: Embryos of Supermassive Black Holes?

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Yorke, Harold W

    2012-01-01

    Direct collapse of supermassive stars (SMSs) is a possible pathway for generating supermassive black holes in the early universe. It is expected that an SMS could form via very rapid mass accretion with Mdot ~ 0.1 - 1 Msun/yr during the gravitational collapse of an atomic-cooling primordial gas cloud. In this paper we study how stars would evolve under such extreme rapid mass accretion, focusing on the early evolution until the stellar mass reaches 1000 Msun. To this end we numerically calculate the detailed interior structure of accreting stars with primordial element abundances. Our results show that for accretion rates higher than 0.01 Msun/yr, stellar evolution is qualitatively different from that expected at lower rates. While accreting at these high rates the star always has a radius exceeding 100 Rsun, which increases monotonically with the stellar mass. The mass-radius relation for stellar masses exceeding ~ 100 Msun follows the same track with R_* \\propto M_*^0.5 in all cases with accretion rates > 0...

  11. Evolution of Accretion Disks in Tidal Disruption Events

    Shen, Rong-Feng

    2013-01-01

    In a stellar tidal disruption event (TDE), an accretion disk forms as the stellar debris returns and circularizes. Rather than being confined within the circularizing radius, the disk can spread to larger radii to conserve angular momentum. An outer spreading disk is a source of matter for re-accretion at rates which can exceed the later stellar fall-back rate, although a disk wind can suppress its contribution to the central black hole accretion rate. A spreading disk is detectible through a break in the central accretion rate history, or, at longer wavelengths, by its own emission. Moreover, as an angular momentum reservoir, it can broadcast its existence by affecting the disk precession rate. Because these features depend on the disk's internal viscosity and the nature of wind produced in its early, advection-dominated phase, they are useful probes of transient disk physics. To model the evolution of TDE disk size and accretion rate, we account for the possibility of thermal instability for accretion rates...

  12. Bondi-like Accretion in Magnetized Supersonic Isothermal Turbulence

    Burleigh, Kaylan J.; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.

    2016-01-01

    The Bondi and Bondi-Hoyle-Lytlleton formulas give the order of magnitude steady-accretion rate onto a point mass at rest or moving, respectively, in a uniform density gas in the limit of negligible gas self-gravity. This applies in star-forming clouds where self-gravity is negligible near protostars and new-born stars, but instead of being uniform the gas is supersonically turbulent and threaded by dynamically important (Alven Mach number ˜ 1) large-scale magnetic fields. To determine the Bondi-like accretion rate in these environments, we used the ORION2 code to carry out grid-based 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of accretion onto sink particles embedded in an environment of fully developed, magnetized supersonic isothermal turbulence. We evolved the models until the median and mean accretion rates, over particles, became steady. We present a simple semi-analytic model that predicts the median and mean accretion rate from the turbulent properties of the background medium, such as the 3D Mach number and RMS plasma-β, and show that it is highly consistent with our simulations. Numerical codes can use our semi-analytic model as an accurate sub-grid model for accretion in magnetized supersonic isothermal turbulence.

  13. A Systems-Level Perspective on Engine Ice Accretion

    May, Ryan D.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Simon, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    The accretion of ice in the compression system of commercial gas turbine engines operating in high ice water content conditions is a safety issue being studied by the aviation sector. While most of the research focuses on the underlying physics of ice accretion and the meteorological conditions in which accretion can occur, a systems-level perspective on the topic lends itself to potential near-term operational improvements. This work focuses on developing an accurate and reliable algorithm for detecting the accretion of ice in the low pressure compressor of a generic 40,000 lbf thrust class engine. The algorithm uses only the two shaft speed sensors and works regardless of engine age, operating condition, and power level. In a 10,000-case Monte Carlo simulation, the detection approach was found to have excellent capability at determining ice accretion from sensor noise with detection occurring when ice blocks an average of 6.8% of the low pressure compressor area. Finally, an initial study highlights a potential mitigation strategy that uses the existing engine actuators to raise the temperature in the low pressure compressor in an effort to reduce the rate at which ice accretes.

  14. Implementation and Validation of 3-D Ice Accretion Measurement Methodology

    Lee, Sam; Broeren, Andy P.; Kreeger, Richard E.; Potapczuk, Mark; Utt, Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    A research program has been implemented to develop and validate the use of a commercial 3-D laser scanning system to record ice accretion geometry in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel. A main component of the program was the geometric assessment of the 3- D laser scanning system on a 2-D (straight wing) and a 3-D (swept wing) airfoil geometries. This exercise consisted of comparison of scanned ice accretion to castings of the same ice accretion. The scan data were also used to create rapid prototype artificial ice shapes that were scanned and compared to the original ice accretion. The results from geometric comparisons on the straight wing showed that the ice shape models generated through the scan/rapid prototype process compared reasonably well with the cast shapes. Similar results were obtained with the geometric comparisons on the swept wing. It was difficult to precisely compare the scans of the cast shapes to the original ice accretion scans because the cast shapes appear to have shrunk during the mold/casting process by as much as 0.10-inch. However the comparison of the local ice-shape features were possible and produced better results. The rapid prototype manufacturing process was shown to reproduce the original ice accretion scan normally within 0.01-inch.

  15. A dynamical model for radiatively inefficient accretion flows with convection

    We explore the time evolution of radiatively-inefficient accretion flows. Since these types of accretion flows are convectively unstable, we also study the effects of convection in the present model. The effects of convection are applied to equations describing angular momentum and energy. In analogy to the traditional α-prescription, we introduce the convection parameter αc to study the influences of convection on physical quantities. The model is studied in two cases: the transport of angular momentum due to convection inward and outward. We found the physical variables are sensitive to the parameter αc and are also dependent on the direction of angular momentum that is transported by convection. As for angular momentum transfer inward, the accretion flow can be convectively dominated and radial infall velocity becomes zero. Moreover, we found the radial dependence of the density and radial velocity takes an intermediate place between steady state radiatively-inefficient accretion flow and steady state advection-dominated accretion flow. This property is in accord with direct numerical simulation of radiatively-inefficient accretion flows

  16. Binary accretion rates: dependence on temperature and mass-ratio

    Young, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    We perform a series of 2D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gas accretion onto binaries via a circumbinary disc, for a range of gas temperatures and binary mass ratios ($q$). We show that increasing the gas temperature increases the accretion rate onto the primary for all values of the binary mass ratio: for example, for $q=0.1$ and a fixed binary separation, an increase of normalised sound speed by a factor of $5$ (from our "cold" to "hot" simulations) changes the fraction of the accreted gas that flows on to the primary from $ 10\\%$ to $\\sim40\\%$. We present a simple parametrisation for the average accretion rate of each binary component accurate to within a few percent and argue that this parametrisation (rather than those in the literature based on warmer simulations) is relevant to supermassive black hole accretion and all but the widest stellar binaries. We present trajectories for the growth of $q$ during circumbinary disc accretion and argue that the period distribution of stellar "...

  17. The accretion of galaxies into groups and clusters

    McGee, Sean L; Bower, Richard G; Font, Andreea S; McCarthy, Ian G

    2009-01-01

    We use the galaxy stellar mass and halo merger tree information from the semi-analytic model galaxy catalogue of Font et al. (2009) to examine the accretion of galaxies into a large sample of groups and clusters, covering a wide range in halo mass (10E12.9 to 10E15.3 Msun/h), and selected from each of four redshift epochs (z=0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5). We find that clusters at all examined redshifts have accreted a significant fraction of their final galaxy populations through galaxy groups. A 10E14.5 Msun/h mass cluster at z=0 has, on average, accreted ~ 40% of its galaxies (Mstellar > 10E9 Msun/h) from halos with masses greater than 10E13 Msun/h. Further, the galaxies which are accreted through groups are more massive, on average, than galaxies accreted through smaller halos or from the field population. We find that at a given epoch, the fraction of galaxies accreted from isolated environments is independent of the final cluster or group mass. In contrast, we find that observing a cluster of the same halo mass a...

  18. Global Compton heating and cooling in hot accretion flows

    Yuan, Feng; Ostriker, Jeremiah P

    2008-01-01

    The hot accretion flow (such as advection-dominated accretion flow) is usually optically thin in the radial direction, therefore the photons produced at one radius can travel for a long distance without being absorbed and heat or cool electrons at other radii via Compton scattering. This effect has been ignored in most previous works on hot accretion flows and is the focus of this paper. If the mass accretion rate is described by $\\dot{M}=\\dot{M}_0(r/r_{\\rm out})^{0.3}$ with $r_{\\rm out}=10^4 r_s$ and $r_s=2GM/c^2$, we find that when $\\dot{M}_0>0.1L_{\\rm Edd}/c^2$, the rates of Compton heating (at $r\\ga 10^3 r_s$) or cooling (at $r\\la 10^3 r_s$) are larger than the local heating rate of electrons; therefore the effect is important. We can obtain the self-consistent steady solution with this effect included only if the accretion rate $\\dot{M}_0\\la L_{\\rm Edd}/c^2$ which corresponds to $L\\la 0.01L_{\\rm Edd}$. Above this accretion rate the equilibrium temperature of electrons at $r_{\\rm out}=10^4r_s$ is higher t...

  19. Dynamo generated magnetic configurations in accretion discs and the nature of quasi-periodic oscillations in accreting binary systems

    Moss, David; Suleimanov, Valery

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields are important for accretion disc structure. Magnetic fields in a disc system may be transported with the accreted matter. They can be associated with either the central body and/or jet, and be fossil or dynamo excited in situ. We consider dynamo excitation of magnetic fields in accretion discs of accreting binary systems in an attempt to clarify possible configurations of dynamo generated magnetic fields. We first model the entire disc with realistic radial extent and thickness using an alpha-quenching non-linearity. We then study the simultaneous effect of feedback from the Lorentz force from the dynamo-generated field. We perform numerical simulations in the framework of a relatively simple mean-field model which allows the generation of global magnetic configurations. We explore a range of possibilities for the dynamo number, and find quadrupolar-type solutions with irregular temporal oscillations that might be compared to observed rapid luminosity fluctuations. The dipolar symmetry models ...

  20. Limits on luminosity and mass accretion rate of a radiation pressure dominated accretion disc

    Cao, Xinwu

    2015-01-01

    There is a maximum for the gravity of a black hole in the vertical direction in the accretion disc. Outflows may probably be driven from the disc if the radiation flux of the disc is greater than a critical value corresponding to the maximal vertical gravity. We find that outflows are driven by the radiation force from the disc if the accretion rate is greater than the Eddington rate. The radiation of the disc is therefore limited by such outflows. The disc luminosity, L=L_Edd\\propto ln mdot, at large-mdot cases. The Eddington ratio of the disc is ~3 for mdot~100, which is significantly lower than that of a conventional slim disc without outflows. This implies that the emission from some ultra-luminous X-ray sources with highly super Eddington luminosity should be Doppler beamed, or intermediate mass black holes are in these sources instead of stellar mass black holes. The spectra of the discs with outflows are saturated in the high frequency end provided mdot>2. We suggest that the saturated emission can be ...

  1. Large Scale Azimuthal Structures Of Turbulence In Accretion Disks - Dynamo triggered variability of accretion

    Flock, M; Klahr, H; Turner, N; Henning, Th

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the significance of large scale azimuthal, magnetic and velocity modes for the MRI turbulence in accretion disks. We perform 3D global ideal MHD simulations of global stratified proto-planetary disk models. Our domains span azimuthal angles of \\pi/4, \\pi/2, \\pi and 2\\pi. We observe up to 100% stronger magnetic fields and stronger turbulence for the restricted azimuthal domain models \\pi/2 and \\pi/4 compared to the full 2\\pi model. We show that for those models, the Maxwell Stress is larger due to strong axisymmetric magnetic fields, generated by the \\alpha \\Omega dynamo. Large radial extended axisymmetric toroidal fields trigger temporal magnification of accretion stress. All models display a positive dynamo-\\alpha in the northern hemisphere (upper disk). The parity is distinct in each model and changes on timescales of 40 local orbits. In model 2\\pi, the toroidal field is mostly antisymmetric in respect to the midplane. The eddies of the MRI turbulence are highly anisotropic. The major wavelen...

  2. Phantom energy accretion and primordial black holes evolution in Brans-Dicke theory

    Nayak, B; Singh, L. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we study the evolution of primordial black holes within the context of Brans-Dicke theory by considering the presence of a dark energy component with a super-negative equation of state called phantom energy as a background. Besides Hawking evaporation, here we consider two type of accretions - radiation accretion and phantom energy accretion. We found that radiation accretion increases the lifetime of primordial black holes whereas phantom accretion decreases the lifespan of pri...

  3. Phantom energy accretion onto a black hole in Horava Lifshitz gravity

    Abbas, G.(Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, 57000, Sahiwal, Pakistan)

    2013-01-01

    In this Letter, we examine the phantom energy accretion onto a Kehagias-Sfetsos black hole in Ho$\\check{r}$ava Lifshitz gravity. To discuss the accretion process onto the black hole, the equations of phantom flow near the black hole have been derived. It is found that mass of the black hole decreases because of phantom accretion. We discuss the conditions for critical accretion. Graphically, it has been found that the critical accretion phenomena is possible for different values of parameters...

  4. The Accretion Disc Particle Method for Simulations of Black Hole Feeding and Feedback

    Power, Chris; Nayakshin, Sergei; King, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Black holes grow by accreting matter from their surroundings. However, angular momentum provides an efficient natural barrier to accretion and so only the lowest angular momentum material will be available to feed the black holes. The standard sub-grid model for black hole accretion in galaxy formation simulations - based on the Bondi-Hoyle method - does not account for the angular momentum of accreting material, and so it is unclear how representative the black hole accretion rate estimated ...

  5. FORMING AN O STAR VIA DISK ACCRETION?

    We present a study of outflow, infall, and rotation in a ∼105 L☉ star-forming region, IRAS 18360-0537, with Submillimeter Array and IRAM 30 m observations. The 1.3 mm continuum map shows a 0.5 pc dust ridge, of which the central compact part has a mass of ∼80 M☉ and harbors two condensations, MM1 and MM2. The CO (2-1) and SiO (5-4) maps reveal a biconical outflow centered at MM1, which is a hot molecular core (HMC) with a gas temperature of 320 ± 50 K and a mass of ∼13 M☉. The outflow has a gas mass of 54 M☉ and a dynamical timescale of 8 × 103 yr. The kinematics of the HMC are probed by high-excitation CH3OH and CH3CN lines, which are detected at subarcsecond resolution and unveil a velocity gradient perpendicular to the outflow axis, suggesting a disk-like rotation of the HMC. An infalling envelope around the HMC is evidenced by CN lines exhibiting a profound inverse P Cygni profile, and the estimated mass infall rate, 1.5 × 10–3 M☉ yr–1, is well comparable to that inferred from the mass outflow rate. A more detailed investigation of the kinematics of the dense gas around the HMC is obtained from the 13CO and C18O (2-1) lines; the position-velocity diagrams of the two lines are consistent with the model of a free-falling and Keplerian-like rotating envelope. The observations suggest that the protostar of a current mass ∼10 M☉ embedded within MM1 will develop into an O star via disk accretion and envelope infall.

  6. Pouring 'Cold Water' on Hot Accretion

    Rubin, A. E.

    1995-09-01

    The extensive recrystallization of type-6 OC has been interpreted as having resulted either from prograde thermal metamorphism of initially cold, unequilibrated material [1,2] or from autometamorphism due to slow cooling of material that accreted while still hot (1000-1200 K). Although the physical implausibility of hot accretion has been addressed [3], no comprehensive evaluation has been made of arguments in its favor. As shown below, these arguments are based on incomplete data, flawed experiments or improbable interpretations. Correlation between petrologic type and Ca in low-Ca pyroxene. Models of prograde metamorphism assume that, with increasing temperature, opx acquires Ca at the expense of diopside. Analyses of pyroxene in 10 H chondrites showed no correlation between Ca in pyroxene cores and increasing petrologic type [4], but more extensive data sets show such correlations [1,5,6]. A review of data for 51 OC [7] shows a progressive increase in the Wo content of low-Ca pyroxene with petrologic type: Wo 0.4-1.2 in type-3 and -4; Wo 1.2-1.6 in type-5; and Wo 1.6-2.2 in type-6. Striated opx. Undeformed striated opx were interpreted as having formed from inverted protopyroxene during slow cooling [8]; striated opx from H4 Quenggouk were found to convert into normal opx within 1 week during annealing at 1100 K [9]. Because prograde metamorphism probably lasted ~60 Ma [10], there should be no striated opx remaining in type-4 or -5 OC. However, samples of 99% twinned clinopyroxene (analogous to that in chondrules in type-3 OC) annealed for >3 weeks at conjoined objects are adhering or enveloping compound chondrules that fused in the nebula [25]; most are probably siblings that collided shortly after forming in the same heating event. Objects adjacent to the compound chondrules are separated by intervening matrix material; because matrix material is fine grained, porous, highly disequilibrated and unmelted [26,27], any complementarity in shape between adjacent

  7. DISTRIBUTION OF ACCRETING GAS AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM ONTO CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS

    We investigate gas accretion flow onto a circumplanetary disk from a protoplanetary disk in detail by using high-resolution three-dimensional nested-grid hydrodynamic simulations, in order to provide a basis of formation processes of satellites around giant planets. Based on detailed analyses of gas accretion flow, we find that most of gas accretion onto circumplanetary disks occurs nearly vertically toward the disk surface from high altitude, which generates a shock surface at several scale heights of the circumplanetary disk. The gas that has passed through the shock surface moves inward because its specific angular momentum is smaller than that of the local Keplerian rotation, while gas near the midplane in the protoplanetary disk cannot accrete to the circumplanetary disk. Gas near the midplane within the planet's Hill sphere spirals outward and escapes from the Hill sphere through the two Lagrangian points L1 and L2. We also analyze fluxes of accreting mass and angular momentum in detail and find that the distributions of the fluxes onto the disk surface are well described by power-law functions and that a large fraction of gas accretion occurs at the outer region of the disk, i.e., at about 0.1 times the Hill radius. The nature of power-law functions indicates that, other than the outer edge, there is no specific radius where gas accretion is concentrated. These source functions of mass and angular momentum in the circumplanetary disk would provide us with useful constraints on the structure and evolution of the circumplanetary disk, which is important for satellite formation.

  8. X-Ray Spectroscopy of Accretion Shocks in Young Stars

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    2011-01-01

    High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of accreting young stars is providing new insights into the physical conditions of the shocked plasma. While young stars exhibit exceedingly active coronae (>10 MK) with highly energetic flares, the relatively low temperature ( 3 MK), high density (>1012 cm-3) accretion shock can only be clearly distinguished at high spectral resolution. The nearby Classical T Tauri star TW Hydrae was the first to show evidence of accretion using 50 ks with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG). More recently a Chandra HETG Large Program (489 ks obtained over the course of one month) on TW Hydrae has found evidence for a new type of coronal structure. In the standard model, the accreting gas shocks near the atmosphere of the star and gently settles onto the surface as it slows down and cools. On TW Hydrae the observed post-shock region is not this predicted settling flow, since its mass is 30 times the mass of material that passes through the shock. Instead the stellar atmosphere must be heated to soft X-ray emitting temperatures. Of the CTTS systems observed with the gratings on Chandra and XMM-Newton not all show the accretion shock signature; however, all of them show excess soft X-ray emission related to accretion. The production of highly charged ions in the proximity of both open and closed magnetic field lines has important implications for coronal heating, winds and jets in the presence of accretion. This work is supported by the Chandra X-ray Observatory through a NASA contract with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

  9. Theoretical Researches on Hot Accretion Flows around Black Holes

    Xie, F. G.

    2010-10-01

    Black hole accretion systems, which are widely believed to be harbored in the central regions of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), low-luminosity AGNs (LLAGNs) as well as some X-ray binaries (XRBs), are the key physical processes to understand their observational phenomena, like spectral energy distribution, radiative variability, etc. In this thesis, we focus on the hot accretion flow models, including advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) and luminous hot accretion flow (LHAF). These models are the foundations to explain the observations of LLAGNs and XRBs in hard state. In Chapter 1, a detailed description of the background is presented. First the astrophysical black holes and the systems in which they reside are discussed. Then, an extensive discussion on the accretion process is presented. The basic concepts, 4 well-known accretion models and the mechanism of the transition between ADAF and standard thin disk are focused on. After this, we further describe the properties of ADAF - the basic model of this thesis, e.g., the dynamics, the radiative processes and several recent progresses: outflow, direct turbulent heating to the electrons, as well as LHAF at relatively high accretion rate. In Chapter 2, the influences of outflow on the dynamics of inflow are explored. As indicated through observations (e.g., towards the Galactic center), theoretical researches and (magneto-) hydrodynamical simulations, outflow is a common phenomenon in accretion systems. However, most researches in this field, especially when aiming at explaining/fitting observational data, incline to only include the mass loss due to the existence of outflow, while all the other effects like the angular momentum transport are totally neglected. This obviously conflicts with the results from simulations. Since outflow is not fully understood currently, we here parameterize its properties. Our results are shown as follows: (1) under current status of observations and theories, it is acceptable to

  10. Quasispherical subsonic accretion in X-ray pulsars

    Shakura, Nikolai I.; Postnov, Konstantin A.; Kochetkova, A. Yu; Hjalmarsdotter, L.

    2013-04-01

    A theoretical model is considered for quasispherical subsonic accretion onto slowly rotating magnetized neutron stars. In this regime, the accreting matter settles down subsonically onto the rotating magnetosphere, forming an extended quasistatic shell. Angular momentum transfer in the shell occurs via large-scale convective motions resulting, for observed pulsars, in an almost iso-angular-momentum \\omega \\sim 1/R^2 rotation law inside the shell. The accretion rate through the shell is determined by the ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, with allowance for cooling. A settling accretion regime is possible for moderate accretion rates \\dot M \\lesssim \\dot M_* \\simeq 4\\times 10^{16} g s ^{-1}. At higher accretion rates, a free-fall gap above the neutron star magnetosphere appears due to rapid Compton cooling, and the accretion becomes highly nonstationary. Observations of spin-up/spin-down rates of quasispherically wind accreting equilibrium X-ray pulsars with known orbital periods (e.g., GX 301-2 and Vela X-1) enable us to determine the main dimensionless parameters of the model, as well as to estimate surface magnetic field of the neutron star. For equilibrium pulsars, the independent measurements of the neutron star magnetic field allow for an estimate of the stellar wind velocity of the optical companion without using complicated spectroscopic measurements. For nonequilibrium pulsars, a maximum value is shown to exist for the spin-down rate of the accreting neutron star. From observations of the spin-down rate and the X-ray luminosity in such pulsars (e.g., GX 1+4, SXP 1062, and 4U 2206+54), a lower limit can be put on the neutron star magnetic field, which in all cases turns out to be close to the standard value and which agrees with cyclotron line measurements. Furthermore, both explains the spin-up/spin-down of the pulsar frequency on large time-scales and also accounts for the irregular short

  11. Quasispherical subsonic accretion in X-ray pulsars

    A theoretical model is considered for quasispherical subsonic accretion onto slowly rotating magnetized neutron stars. In this regime, the accreting matter settles down subsonically onto the rotating magnetosphere, forming an extended quasistatic shell. Angular momentum transfer in the shell occurs via large-scale convective motions resulting, for observed pulsars, in an almost iso-angular-momentum ω∼1/R2 rotation law inside the shell. The accretion rate through the shell is determined by the ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, with allowance for cooling. A settling accretion regime is possible for moderate accretion rates .M∼*≅4×1016 g s-1. At higher accretion rates, a free-fall gap above the neutron star magnetosphere appears due to rapid Compton cooling, and the accretion becomes highly nonstationary. Observations of spin-up/spin-down rates of quasispherically wind accreting equilibrium X-ray pulsars with known orbital periods (e.g., GX 301-2 and Vela X-1) enable us to determine the main dimensionless parameters of the model, as well as to estimate surface magnetic field of the neutron star. For equilibrium pulsars, the independent measurements of the neutron star magnetic field allow for an estimate of the stellar wind velocity of the optical companion without using complicated spectroscopic measurements. For nonequilibrium pulsars, a maximum value is shown to exist for the spin-down rate of the accreting neutron star. From observations of the spin-down rate and the X-ray luminosity in such pulsars (e.g., GX 1+4, SXP 1062, and 4U 2206+54), a lower limit can be put on the neutron star magnetic field, which in all cases turns out to be close to the standard value and which agrees with cyclotron line measurements. Furthermore, both explains the spin-up/spin-down of the pulsar frequency on large time-scales and also accounts for the irregular short-term frequency fluctuations, which may correlate or

  12. Glancing through the accretion column of EXO 2030+375

    Ferrigno, C.; Pjanka, P.; Bozzo, E.; Klochkov, D.; Ducci, L.; Zdziarski, A.

    2016-06-01

    The current generation of X-ray instruments is revealing more and more details about the complex magnetic field topology and the geometry of the accretion flows in highly magnetized accretion powered pulsars. We took advantage of the large collecting area and timing capabilities of the EPIC cameras to investigate the accretion geometry onto the magnetized neutron star in the high mass X-ray binary EXO 2030+375 during the rise of one of the source outburst. The X-ray luminosity was 2×10^{36} erg/s and the timing analysis revealed the presence of a narrow dip-like feature in its pulse profile that was never reported before. The width of this feature corresponds to about one hundredth of the neutron star spin period. From the results of the phase-resolved spectral analysis we suggest that this feature can be ascribed to the self-obscuration of the accretion stream passing in front of the observer line of sight. We inferred from Suzaku observation carried out in 2007 that the self-obscuration of the accretion stream might produce a significantly wider feature in the neutron star pulsed profile at higher luminosities (>˜2×10^{37} erg/s). The presence of such feature is so far unique among all known high mass X-ray binaries hosting strongly magnetized neutron stars.

  13. Quasi-spherical accretion in X-ray pulsars

    Postnov, K; Kochetkova, A; Hjalmarsdotter, L

    2011-01-01

    Quasi-spherical accretion in wind-fed X-ray pulsars is discussed. At X-ray luminosities <4 10^{36} erg/s, a hot convective shell is formed around the neutron star magnetosphere, and subsonic settling accretion regime sets in. In this regime, accretion rate onto neutron star is determined by the ability of plasma to enter magnetosphere via Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A gas-dynamic theory of settling accretion is constructed taking into account anisotropic turbulence. The angular momentum can be transferred through the quasi-static shell via large-scale convective motions initiating turbulence cascade. The angular velocity distribution in the shell is found depending on the turbulent viscosity prescription. Comparison with observations of long-period X-ray wind-fed pulsars shows that an almost iso-angular-momentum distribution is most likely realized in their shells. The theory explains long-term spin-down in wind- fed accreting pulsars (e.g. GX 1+4) and properties of short-term torque-luminosity correlatio...

  14. Relativistic reflection X-ray spectra of accretion disks

    Khee-Gan Lee; Kinwah Wu; Steven V. Fuerst; Graziella Branduardi-Raymont; Oliver Crowley

    2009-01-01

    We have calculated the relativistic reflection component of the X-ray spectra of accretion disks in active galactic nuclei (AGN). Our calculations have shown that the spectra can be significantly modified by the motion of the accretion flow, and the gravity and rotation of the central black hole. The absorption edges in the spectra suffer severe en- ergy shifts and smearing, and the degree of distortion depends on the system parameters, in particular, the inner radius of the accretion disk and the disk viewing inclination angles. The effects are significant. Fluorescent X-ray emission lines from the inner accretion disk could be a powerful diagnostic of space-time distortion and dynamical relativistic effects near the event horizons of accreting black holes. However, improper treatment of the re- flection component in fitting the X-ray continuum could give rise to spurious line-like features. These features mimic the true fluorescent emission lines and may mask their relativistic signatures. Fully relativistic models for reflection continua together with the emission lines are needed in order to extract black-hole parameters from the AGN X-ray spectra.

  15. Turbulent Mixing on Helium-Accreting White Dwarfs

    Piro, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    An attractive scenario for producing Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is a double detonation, where detonation of an accreted helium layer triggers ignition of a C/O core. Whether or not such a mechanism can explain some or most SNe Ia depends on the properties of the helium burning, which in turn is set by the composition of the surface material. Using a combination of semi-analytic and simple numerical models, I explore when turbulent mixing due to hydrodynamic instabilities during the accretion process can mix C/O core material up into the accreted helium. Mixing is strongest at high accretion rates, large white dwarf (WD) masses, and slow spin rates. The mixing would result in subsequent helium burning that better matches the observed properties of SNe Ia. In some cases, there is considerable mixing that can lead to more than 50% C/O in the accreted layer at the time of ignition. These results will hopefully motivate future theoretical studies of such strongly mixed conditions. Mixing also has implications for...

  16. Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion flow revisited: Analytic solution

    Matsuda, Takuya; Isaka, Hiromu; Ohsugi, Yukimasa

    2015-11-01

    The time-steady equation for a 1D wind accretion flow, i.e. the Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton (BHL) equation, is investigated analytically. The BHL equation is well known to have infinitely many solutions. Traditionally, the accretion radius has been assumed to be 2textit {GM}/v_{infty }2, but its mathematical foundation has not been clarified because of the non-uniqueness of the solution. Here, we assume that the solution curves possess physically nice characteristics, i.e. velocity and line mass-density increase monotonically with radial distance. This condition restricts the accretion radius to the range left (0.71 - 1.0right ) × 2textit {GM}/v_{infty }2. Further assumptions, specifically, that the solution curves for velocity and line mass-density are convex upward, restrict the accretion radius to (0.84 - 0.94) × 2textit {GM}/v_{infty }2, and 0.90 × 2textit {GM}/v_{infty }2, respectively. Therefore, we conclude that the accretion radius is almost uniquely determined to be 0.90 × 2textit {GM}/v_{infty }2.

  17. Dynamical structure of magnetized dissipative accretion flow around black holes

    Sarkar, Biplob; Das, Santabrata

    2016-09-01

    We study the global structure of optically thin, advection dominated, magnetized accretion flow around black holes. We consider the magnetic field to be turbulent in nature and dominated by the toroidal component. With this, we obtain the complete set of accretion solutions for dissipative flows where bremsstrahlung process is regarded as the dominant cooling mechanism. We show that rotating magnetized accretion flow experiences virtual barrier around black hole due to centrifugal repulsion that can trigger the discontinuous transition of the flow variables in the form of shock waves. We examine the properties of the shock waves and find that the dynamics of the post-shock corona (PSC) is controlled by the flow parameters, namely viscosity, cooling rate and strength of the magnetic field, respectively. We separate the effective region of the parameter space for standing shock and observe that shock can form for wide range of flow parameters. We obtain the critical viscosity parameter that allows global accretion solutions including shocks. We estimate the energy dissipation at the PSC from where a part of the accreting matter can deflect as outflows and jets. We compare the maximum energy that could be extracted from the PSC and the observed radio luminosity values for several supermassive black hole sources and the observational implications of our present analysis are discussed.

  18. Formation of Primordial Supermassive Stars by Rapid Mass Accretion

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Inayoshi, Kohei; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Supermassive stars (SMSs) forming via very rapid mass accretion (Mdot >~ 0.1 Msun/yr) could be precursors of supermassive black holes observed beyond redshift of about 6. Extending our previous work, we here study the evolution of primordial stars growing under such rapid mass accretion until the stellar mass reaches 10^{4 - 5} Msun. Our stellar evolution calculations show that a star becomes supermassive while passing through the "supergiant protostar'' stage, whereby the star has a very bloated envelope and a contracting inner core. The stellar radius increases monotonically with the stellar mass, until =~ 100 AU for M_* >~ 10^4 Msun, after which the star begins to slowly contract. Because of the large radius the effective temperature is always less than 10^4 K during rapid accretion. The accreting material is thus almost completely transparent to the stellar radiation. Only for M_* >~ 10^5 Msun can stellar UV feedback operate and disturb the mass accretion flow. We also examine the pulsation stability of a...

  19. Accretion onto black holes formed by direct collapse

    Johnson, Jarrett L; Greif, Thomas H; Durier, Fabrice

    2010-01-01

    One possible scenario for the formation of massive black holes (BHs) in the early Universe is from the direct collapse of primordial gas in atomic-cooling dark matter haloes in which the gas is unable to cool efficiently via molecular transitions. We study the formation of such BHs, as well as the accretion of gas onto these objects and the high energy radiation emitted in the accretion process, by carrying out cosmological radiation hydrodynamics simulations. In the absence of radiative feedback, we find an upper limit to the accretion rate onto the central object which forms from the initial collapse of hot (~ 10^4 K) gas of the order of 0.1 MSun per year. This is high enough for the formation of a supermassive star, the immediate precursor of a BH, with a mass of the order of 10^5 MSun. Assuming that a fraction of this mass goes into a BH, we track the subsequent accretion of gas onto the BH self-consistently with the high energy radiation emitted from the accretion disk. Using a ray-tracing algorithm to f...

  20. The IMF of stellar clusters: effects of accretion and feedback

    Dib, Sami; Padoan, Paolo; G., Maheswar; Ojha, D K; Khajenabi, Fazeleh

    2009-01-01

    (abridged) We develop a model which describes the coevolution of the mass function of dense cores and of the IMF in a protocluster clump. In the model, cores injected in the clump evolve under the effect of gas accretion. Accretion onto the cores follows a time-dependent accretion rate that describes accretion in a turbulent medium. Once the accretion timescales of cores exceed their contraction timescales, they are turned into stars. We include the effect of feedback by the newly formed massive stars through their stellar winds. A fraction of the wind's energy is assumed to counter gravity and disperse the gas from the protocluster and as a consequence, quench further star formation. The latter effect sets the final IMF of the cluster. We apply our model to a clump that is expected to resemble the progenitor clump of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). Our model is able to reproduce both the shape and normalization of the ONC's IMF and the mass function of dense cores in Orion. The complex features of the ONC's ...

  1. Electromagnetic Spindown of a Transient Accreting Millisecond Pulsar During Quiescence

    Melatos, A.; Mastrano, A.

    2016-02-01

    The measured spindown rates in quiescence of the transient accreting millisecond pulsars IGR J00291+5934, XTE J1751-305, SAX J1808.4-3658, and Swift J1756.9-2508 have been used to estimate the magnetic moments of these objects assuming standard magnetic dipole braking. It is shown that this approach leads to an overestimate if the amount of residual accretion is enough to distort the magnetosphere away from a force-free configuration through magnetospheric mass loading or crushing, so that the lever arm of the braking torque migrates inside the light cylinder. We derive an alternative spindown formula and calculate the residual accretion rates where the formula is applicable. As a demonstration we apply the alternative spindown formula to produce updated magnetic moment estimates for the four objects above. We note that based on current uncertain observations of quiescent accretion rates, magnetospheric mass loading and crushing are neither firmly indicated nor ruled out in these four objects. Because quiescent accretion rates are not measured directly (only upper limits are placed), without more data it is impossible to be confident about whether the thresholds for magnetospheric mass loading or crushing are reached or not.

  2. Glancing through the accretion column of EXO 2030+375

    Ferrigno, C.; Pjanka, P.; Bozzo, E.; Klochkov, D.; Ducci, L.; Zdziarski, A.

    2016-06-01

    The current generation of X-ray instruments is revealing more and more details about the complex magnetic field topology and the geometry of the accretion flows in highly magnetized accretion powered pulsars. We took advantage of the large collecting area and timing capabilities of the EPIC cameras to investigate the accretion geometry onto the magnetized neutron star in the high mass X-ray binary EXO 2030+375 during the rise of one of the source outburst. The X-ray luminosity was 2×10^{36} erg/s and the timing analysis revealed the presence of a narrow dip-like feature in its pulse profile that was never reported before. The width of this feature corresponds to about one hundredth of the neutron star spin period. From the results of the phase-resolved spectral analysis we suggest that this feature can be ascribed to the self-obscuration of the accretion stream passing in front of the observer line of sight. We inferred from Suzaku observation carried out in 2007 that the self-obscuration of the accretion stream might produce a significantly wider feature in the neutron star pulsed profile at higher luminosities (≳2×10^{37} erg/s). The presence of such feature is so far unique among all known high mass X-ray binaries hosting strongly magnetized neutron stars.

  3. X-Shooter study of accretion in Chamaeleon I

    Manara, C F; Herczeg, G J; Teixeira, P

    2016-01-01

    We present the analysis of 34 new VLT/X-Shooter spectra of young stellar objects in the Chamaeleon I star forming region, together with four more spectra of stars in Taurus and two in Chamaeleon II. The broad wavelength coverage and accurate flux calibration of our spectra allow us to estimate stellar and accretion parameters for our targets by fitting the photospheric and accretion continuum emission from the Balmer continuum down to 700 nm. The dependence of accretion with stellar properties for this sample is consistent with previous results from the literature. The accretion rates for transitional disks are consistent with those of full disks in the same region. The spread of mass accretion rates at any given stellar mass is found to be smaller than in many studies, but is larger than that derived in the Lupus clouds using similar data and techniques. Differences in the stellar mass range and in the environmental conditions between our sample and that of Lupus may account for the discrepancy in scatter be...

  4. The evolution of misaligned accretion discs and spinning black holes

    Pringle, J E

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider the process of alignment of a spinning black hole and a surrounding misaligned accretion disc. We use a simplified set of equations, that describe the evolution of the system in the case where the propagation of warping disturbances in the accretion disc occurs diffusively, a situation likely to be common in the thin discs in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We also allow the direction of the hole spin to move under the action of the disc torques. In such a way, the evolution of the hole-disc system is computed self-consistently. We consider a number of different situations and we explore the relevant parameter range, by varying the location of the warp radius $R_{\\rm w}$ and the propagation speed of the warp. We find that the dissipation associated with the twisting of the disc results in a large increase in the accretion rate through the disc, so that AGN accreting from a misaligned disc are likely to be significantly more luminous than those accreting from a flat disc. We compute exp...

  5. Chaotic cold accretion on to black holes in rotating atmospheres

    Gaspari, M; Oh, S Peng; Brighenti, F; Temi, P

    2014-01-01

    Using 3D high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations, we probe the impact of rotation on the hot and cold black hole accretion flow in a typical massive galaxy. In the adiabatic hot mode, the pressure-dominated flow forms a geometrically thick rotational barrier, suppressing the accretion rate to 1/3 of the spherical case value. Stirring the hot flow with subsonic turbulence results in similar suppression. When radiative cooling is dominant, the gas loses pressure support and circularizes in a cold thin disk. The accretion rate is low and decoupled from the cooling rate, albeit its level is higher than in the hot mode. In the more common state of a turbulent and heated atmosphere, chaotic cold accretion drives the dynamics as long as the gas velocity dispersion exceeds the rotational velocity, i.e. turbulent Taylor number Ta_t 1, the turbulent broadening, the efficiency of collisions, and the thermal instability growth weaken, damping the accretion rate by a factor Ta_t, until the cold disk dominates the dynami...

  6. Thermonuclear bursts from slowly and rapidly accreting neutron stars

    Linares, Manuel

    2012-07-01

    Models of thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars predict different ignition regimes, depending mainly on the mass accretion rate per unit area. For more than three decades, testing these regimes observationally has met with only partial success. I will present recent results from the Fermi-GBM all-sky X-ray burst monitor, which is yielding robust measurements of recurrence time of rare and highly energetic thermonuclear bursts at the lowest mass accretion rates. I will also present RXTE observations of thermonuclear bursts at high mass accretion rates, including the discovery of millihertz quasi-periodic oscillations and several bursting regimes in a neutron star transient and 11 Hz X-ray pulsar. This unusual neutron star, with higher magnetic field and slower rotation than any other known burster, showed copious bursting activity when the mass accretion rate varied between 10% and 50% of the Eddington rate. I will discuss the role of fuel composition and neutron star spin in setting the burst properties of this system, and the possible implications for the rest of thermonuclear bursters.

  7. Dynamical structure of magnetized dissipative accretion flow around black holes

    Sarkar, Biplob; Das, Santabrata

    2016-06-01

    We study the global structure of optically thin, advection dominated, magnetized accretion flow around black holes. We consider the magnetic field to be turbulent in nature and dominated by the toroidal component. With this, we obtain the complete set of accretion solutions for dissipative flows where bremsstrahlung process is regarded as the dominant cooling mechanism. We show that rotating magnetized accretion flow experiences virtual barrier around black hole due to centrifugal repulsion that can trigger the discontinuous transition of the flow variables in the form of shock waves. We examine the properties of the shock waves and find that the dynamics of the post-shock corona (PSC) is controlled by the flow parameters, namely viscosity, cooling rate and strength of the magnetic field, respectively. We separate the effective region of the parameter space for standing shock and observe that shock can form for wide range of flow parameters. We obtain the critical viscosity parameter that allows global accretion solutions including shocks. We estimate the energy dissipation at the PSC from where a part of the accreting matter can deflect as outflows and jets. We compare the maximum energy that could be extracted from the PSC and the observed radio luminosity values for several super-massive black hole sources and the observational implications of our present analysis are discussed.

  8. The large scale magnetic fields of thin accretion disks

    Cao, Xinwu

    2013-01-01

    Large scale magnetic field threading an accretion disk is a key ingredient in the jet formation model. The most attractive scenario for the origin of such a large scale field is the advection of the field by the gas in the accretion disk from the interstellar medium or a companion star. However, it is realized that outward diffusion of the accreted field is fast compared to the inward accretion velocity in a geometrically thin accretion disk if the value of the Prandtl number Pm is around unity. In this work, we revisit this problem considering the angular momentum of the disk is removed predominantly by the magnetically driven outflows. The radial velocity of the disk is significantly increased due to the presence of the outflows. Using a simplified model for the vertical disk structure, we find that even moderately weak fields can cause sufficient angular momentum loss via a magnetic wind to balance outward diffusion. There are two equilibrium points, one at low field strengths corresponding to a plasma-bet...

  9. OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURES OF TILTED BLACK HOLE ACCRETION DISKS FROM SIMULATIONS

    Geometrically thick accretion flows may be present in black hole X-ray binaries observed in the low/hard state and in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei. Unlike in geometrically thin disks, the angular momentum axis in these sources is not expected to align with the black hole spin axis. We compute images from three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of misaligned (tilted) accretion flows using relativistic radiative transfer and compare the estimated locations of the radiation edge with expectations from their aligned (untilted) counterparts. The radiation edge in the tilted simulations is independent of black hole spin for a tilt of 15 deg., in stark contrast to the results for untilted simulations, which agree with the monotonic dependence on spin expected from thin accretion disk theory. Synthetic emission line profiles from the tilted simulations depend strongly on the observer's azimuth and exhibit unique features such as broad 'blue wings'. Coupled with precession, the azimuthal variation could generate time fluctuations in observed emission lines, which would be a clear 'signature' of a tilted accretion flow. Finally, we evaluate the possibility that the observed low- and high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) from black hole binaries could be produced by misaligned accretion flows. Although low-frequency QPOs from precessing, tilted disks remains a viable option, we find little evidence for significant power in our light curves in the frequency range of high-frequency QPOs.

  10. Observational Signatures of Tilted Black Hole Accretion Disks from Simulations

    Dexter, Jason; Fragile, P. Chris

    2011-03-01

    Geometrically thick accretion flows may be present in black hole X-ray binaries observed in the low/hard state and in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei. Unlike in geometrically thin disks, the angular momentum axis in these sources is not expected to align with the black hole spin axis. We compute images from three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of misaligned (tilted) accretion flows using relativistic radiative transfer and compare the estimated locations of the radiation edge with expectations from their aligned (untilted) counterparts. The radiation edge in the tilted simulations is independent of black hole spin for a tilt of 15°, in stark contrast to the results for untilted simulations, which agree with the monotonic dependence on spin expected from thin accretion disk theory. Synthetic emission line profiles from the tilted simulations depend strongly on the observer's azimuth and exhibit unique features such as broad "blue wings." Coupled with precession, the azimuthal variation could generate time fluctuations in observed emission lines, which would be a clear "signature" of a tilted accretion flow. Finally, we evaluate the possibility that the observed low- and high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) from black hole binaries could be produced by misaligned accretion flows. Although low-frequency QPOs from precessing, tilted disks remains a viable option, we find little evidence for significant power in our light curves in the frequency range of high-frequency QPOs.

  11. Synthesis of accretion disk and nonthermal source models for AGN

    Band, D. L.; Malkan, M. A.

    1988-05-25

    A scenario for the central engine of AGN has been developed consisting of a massive black hole (MBH) onto which gas accretes through an accretion disk. The accretion disk radiates the observed optical and ultraviolet continua. Surrounding the MBH is a nonthermal source which produces the infrared and soft x-ray continua by synchrotron emission, and the x-ray spectrum by inverse Compton scattering of the optical-ultraviolet photons from the accretion disk. Previously we modeled the accretion disk (M.A.M.) and nonthermal source (D.L.B.) separately, and here we combine the two models to form a unified description of the AGN engine. This combined model can be inverted to determine source parameters from observed spectra. A group of AGN for which multiband observations exist can then be modeled to: demonstrate the validity of the combined model for a large number of objects; establish the range of parameter values that describe the source; and search for any correlations between source description and type.

  12. Synthesis of accretion disk and nonthermal source models for AGN

    A scenario for the central engine of AGN has been developed consisting of a massive black hole (MBH) onto which gas accretes through an accretion disk. The accretion disk radiates the observed optical and ultraviolet continua. Surrounding the MBH is a nonthermal source which produces the infrared and soft x-ray continua by synchrotron emission, and the x-ray spectrum by inverse Compton scattering of the optical-ultraviolet photons from the accretion disk. Previously we modeled the accretion disk (M.A.M.) and nonthermal source (D.L.B.) separately, and here we combine the two models to form a unified description of the AGN engine. This combined model can be inverted to determine source parameters from observed spectra. A group of AGN for which multiband observations exist can then be modeled to: demonstrate the validity of the combined model for a large number of objects; establish the range of parameter values that describe the source; and search for any correlations between source description and type

  13. Accretion of solid materials onto circumplanetary disks from protoplanetary disks

    We investigate the accretion of solid materials onto circumplanetary disks from heliocentric orbits rotating in protoplanetary disks, which is a key process for the formation of regular satellite systems. In the late stage of the gas-capturing phase of giant planet formation, the accreting gas from protoplanetary disks forms circumplanetary disks. Since the accretion flow toward the circumplanetary disks affects the particle motion through gas drag force, we use hydrodynamic simulation data for the gas drag term to calculate the motion of solid materials. We consider a wide range of size for the solid particles (10–2-106 m), and find that the accretion efficiency of the solid particles peaks around 10 m sized particles because energy dissipation of drag with circum-planetary disk gas in this size regime is most effective. The efficiency for particles larger than 10 m becomes lower because gas drag becomes less effective. For particles smaller than 10 m, the efficiency is lower because the particles are strongly coupled with the background gas flow, which prevents particles from accretion. We also find that the distance from the planet where the particles are captured by the circumplanetary disks is in a narrow range and well described as a function of the particle size.

  14. Nucleosynthesis in the accretion disks of Type II collapsars

    Banerjee, Indrani

    2013-01-01

    We investigate nucleosynthesis inside the gamma-ray burst (GRB) accretion disks formed by the Type II collapsars. In these collapsars, the core collapse of massive stars first leads to the formation of a proto-neutron star and a mild supernova explosion is driven. However, this supernova ejecta lack momentum and falls back onto the neutron star which gets transformed to a stellar mass black hole. In order to study the hydrodynamics and nucleosynthesis of such an accretion disk formed from the fallback material of the supernova ejecta, we use the well established hydrodynamic models. In such a disk neutrino cooling becomes important in the inner disk where the temperature and density are higher. Higher the accretion rate (dot{M}), higher is the density and temperature in the disks. In this work we deal with accretion disks with relatively low accretion rates: 0.001 M_sun s^{-1} \\lesssim dot{M} \\lesssim 0.01 M_sun s^{-1} and hence these disks are predominantly advection dominated. We use He-rich and Si-rich abu...

  15. Progenitors of the Accretion-Induced Collapse of White Dwarfs

    Kwiatkowski, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Recent calculations of accretion-induced collapse of an oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarf into a neutron star [Piro & Thompson 2014] allow for a potentially detectable transient electromagnetic signal. Motivated by these results, I present theoretical rates and physical properties of binary stars that can produce accretion-induced collapse. The rates are presented for various types of host galaxies (e.g. old ellipticals versus spirals) and are differentiated by the donor star type (e.g. large giant star versus compact helium-rich donor). Results presented in this thesis may help to guide near-future electromagnetic transient search campaigns to find likely candidates for accretion-induced collapse events. My predictions are based on binary evolution calculations that include the most recent updates on mass accretion and secular mass growth of white dwarfs. I find that the most likely systems that undergo accretion-induced collapse consist of an ONeMg white dwarf with a Hertzsprung gap star or a red giant ...

  16. LUNAR ACCRETION FROM A ROCHE-INTERIOR FLUID DISK

    Salmon, Julien; Canup, Robin M., E-mail: julien@boulder.swri.edu, E-mail: robin@boulder.swri.edu [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    We use a hybrid numerical approach to simulate the formation of the Moon from an impact-generated disk, consisting of a fluid model for the disk inside the Roche limit and an N-body code to describe accretion outside the Roche limit. As the inner disk spreads due to a thermally regulated viscosity, material is delivered across the Roche limit and accretes into moonlets that are added to the N-body simulation. Contrary to an accretion timescale of a few months obtained with prior pure N-body codes, here the final stage of the Moon's growth is controlled by the slow spreading of the inner disk, resulting in a total lunar accretion timescale of {approx}10{sup 2} years. It has been proposed that the inner disk may compositionally equilibrate with the Earth through diffusive mixing, which offers a potential explanation for the identical oxygen isotope compositions of the Earth and Moon. However, the mass fraction of the final Moon that is derived from the inner disk is limited by resonant torques between the disk and exterior growing moons. For initial disks containing <2.5 lunar masses (M{sub Last-Quarter-Moon }), we find that a final Moon with mass > 0.8 M{sub Last-Quarter-Moon} contains {<=}60% material derived from the inner disk, with this material preferentially delivered to the Moon at the end of its accretion.

  17. Clumpy Accretion onto Black Holes. I. Clumpy-advection-dominated Accretion Flow Structure and Radiation

    Wang, Jian-Min; Cheng, Cheng; Li, Yan-Rong

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the dynamics of clumps embedded in and confined by the advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs), in which collisions among the clumps are neglected. We start from the collisionless Boltzmann equation and assume that interaction between the clumps and the ADAF is responsible for transporting the angular momentum of clumps outward. The inner edge of the clumpy-ADAF is set to be the tidal radius of the clumps. We consider strong- and weak-coupling cases, in which the averaged properties of clumps follow the ADAF dynamics and are mainly determined by the black hole potential, respectively. We propose the analytical solution of the dynamics of clumps for the two cases. The velocity dispersion of clumps is one magnitude higher than the ADAF for the strong-coupling case. For the weak-coupling case, we find that the mean radial velocity of clumps is linearly proportional to the coefficient of the drag force. We show that the tidally disrupted clumps would lead to an accumulation of the debris to form a debris disk in the Shakura-Sunyaev regime. The entire hot ADAF will be efficiently cooled down by photons from the debris disk, giving rise to a collapse of the ADAF, and quench the clumpy accretion. Subsequently, evaporation of the collapsed ADAF drives resuscitate of a new clumpy-ADAF, resulting in an oscillation of the global clumpy-ADAF. Applications of the present model are briefly discussed to X-ray binaries, low ionization nuclear emission regions, and BL Lac objects.

  18. Standing Rankine-Hugoniot Shocks in Black Hole Accretion Discs

    GU Wei-Min; LU Ju-Fu

    2004-01-01

    @@ We study the problem of standing shocks in viscous disc-like accretion flows around black holes. For the first time we parametrize such a flow with two physical constants, namely the specific angular momentum accreted by the black hole j and the energy quantity K. By providing the global dependence of shock formation in the j - K parameter space, we show that a significant parameter region can ensure solutions with Rankine-Hugoniot shocks; and that the possibilities of shock formation are the largest for inviscid flows, decreasing with increasing viscosity, and ceasing to exist for a strong enough viscosity. Our results support the view that the standing shock is an essential ingredient in black hole accretion discs and is a general phenomenon in astrophysics, and that there should be a continuous change from the properties of inviscid flows to those of viscous ones.

  19. Magnetic Instability in Accretion Disks with Anomalous Viscosity

    ZHOU Ai-Ping; LI Xiao-Qing

    2004-01-01

    @@ Using the new model of anomalous viscosity, we investigate the magnetic instability in the accretion disks and give the dispersion formula. On the basis of the dispersion relation obtained, it is numerically shown that the instability condition of viscous accretion disk is well consistent with that of the ideal accretion disk, namely there would be magneto-rotational instability in the presence of a vertical weak magnetic field. For a given distance R from the centre of the disk, the growth rate in the anomalous case deviates from the ideal case more greatly when the vertical magnetic field is smaller. The large viscosity limits to the instability. In the two cases, the distributions of growth rate with wave number k approach each other when the magnetic field increases. It greatly represses the effect of viscosity.

  20. Angular Momentum Transport in Quasi-Keplerian Accretion Disks

    Prasad Subramanian; B. S. Pujari; Peter A. Becker

    2004-03-01

    We reexamine arguments advanced by Hayashi & Matsuda (2001), who claim that several simple, physically motivated derivations based on mean free path theory for calculating the viscous torque in a quasi-Keplerian accretion disk yield results that are inconsistent with the generally accepted model. If correct, the ideas proposed by Hayashi & Matsuda would radically alter our understanding of the nature of the angular momentum transport in the disk, which is a central feature of accretion disk theory. However, in this paper we point out several fallacies in their arguments and show that there indeed exists a simple derivation based on mean free path theory that yields an expression for the viscous torque that is proportional to the radial derivative of the angular velocity in the accretion disk, as expected. The derivation is based on the analysis of the epicyclic motion of gas parcels in adjacent eddies in the disk.

  1. On the properties of discs around accreting brown dwarfs

    Mayne, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    We present a grid of models of accreting brown dwarf systems with circumstellar discs. The calculations involve a self-consistent solution of both vertical hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium along with a sophisticated treatment of dust sublimation. We have simulated observations of the spectral energy distributions and several broadband photometric systems. Analysis of the disc structures and simulated observations reveal a natural dichotomy in accretion rates, with \\logmdot $>-$9 and $\\leq -$9 classed as extreme and typical accretors respectively. Derivation of ages and masses from our simulated photometry using isochrones is demonstrated to be unreliable even for typical accretors. Although current brown dwarf disc candidate selection criteria have been shown to be largely reliable when applied to our model grid we suggest improved selection criteria in several colour indices. We show that as accretion rates increase brown dwarf disc systems are less likely to be correctly identified. This suggests that,...

  2. Characteristic QSO Accretion Disk Temperatures from Spectroscopic Continuum Variability

    Pereyra, N A; Turnshek, D A; Hillier, D J; Wilhite, B C; Kron, R G; Schneider, D P; Brinkmann, J; Pereyra, Nicolas A.; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden; Turnshek, David A.; Wilhite, Brian C.; Kron, Richard G.; Schneider, Donald P.; Brinkmann, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar spectra taken at multiple epochs, we find that the composite flux density differences in the rest frame wavelength range 1300-6000 AA can be fit by a standard thermal accretion disk model where the accretion rate has changed from one epoch to the next (without considering additional continuum emission components). The fit to the composite residual has two free parameters: a normalizing constant and the average characteristic temperature $\\bar{T}^*$. In turn the characteristic temperature is dependent on the ratio of the mass accretion rate to the square of the black hole mass. We therefore conclude that most of the UV/optical variability may be due to processes involving the disk, and thus that a significant fraction of the UV/optical spectrum may come directly from the disk.

  3. Can we measure the accretion efficiency of Active Galactic Nuclei?

    Raimundo, S I; Vasudevan, R V; Gandhi, P; Wu, Jianfeng

    2011-01-01

    The accretion efficiency for individual black holes is very difficult to determine accurately. There are many factors that can influence each step of the calculation, such as the dust and host galaxy contribution to the observed luminosity, the black hole mass and more importantly, the uncertainties on the bolometric luminosity measurement. Ideally, we would measure the AGN emission at every wavelength, remove the host galaxy and dust, reconstruct the AGN spectral energy distribution and integrate to determine the intrinsic emission and the accretion rate. In reality, this is not possible due to observational limitations and our own galaxy line of sight obscuration. We have then to infer the bolometric luminosity from spectral measurements made in discontinuous wavebands and at different epochs. In this paper we tackle this issue by exploring different methods to determine the bolometric luminosity. We first explore the trend of accretion efficiency with black hole mass (efficiency proportional to M^{\\sim 0.5...

  4. The Influence of Outflow in Supercritical Accretion Flows

    Zahra Zeraatgari, Fatemeh; Abbassi, Shahram; Mosallanezhad, Amin

    2016-06-01

    We solve the radiation-hydrodynamic equations of supercritical accretion flows in the presence of radiation force and outflow by using self-similar solutions. Similar to the pioneering works, in this paper we consider a power-law function for mass inflow rate as \\dot{M}\\propto {r}s. We found that s = 1 when the radiative cooling term is included in the energy equation. Correspondingly, the effective temperature profile with respect to the radius was obtained as {T}{eff}\\propto {r}-1/2. In addition, we investigated the influence of the outflow on the dynamics of the accretion flow. We also calculated the continuum spectrum emitted from the disk surface as well as the bolometric luminosity of the accretion flow. Furthermore, our results show that the advection parameter, f, depends strongly on mass inflow rate.

  5. Tilted Accretion Disk Models of Sgr A* Flares

    Dexter, Jason; Fragile, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the Galactic center massive black hole candidate, is an unparalleled laboratory for low-luminosity accretion theory. First discovered as a compact radio source, Sgr A* has since been observed to undergo rapid, large amplitude NIR/X-ray flares. The many proposed phenomenological models cannot simultaneously explain both the flaring emission and the peak of the SED in the submillimeter. I will describe flares seen in numerical simulations of black hole accretion flows where the disk angular momentum is misaligned from that of the black hole. Eccentric fluid orbits driven by gravitational torques converge and form strong shocks, which can lead to significant particle heating. The resulting NIR emission can reproduce the observations, and is completely unrelated to the submillimeter emission, which is included in these models and is also in excellent agreement with observations. I will describe the prospects for testing accretion theory and constraining the properties of Sgr A* with exciting ongoing multi-wavelength observations.

  6. The Event Horizon Telescope: exploring strong gravity and accretion physics

    Ricarte, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a global sub-millimeter wavelength very long baseline interferometry array, is now resolving the innermost regions around the supermassive black holes Sgr A* and M87. Using black hole images from both simple geometric models and relativistic magnetohydrodynamical accretion flow simulations, we perform a variety of experiments to assess the promise of the EHT for studying strong gravity and accretion physics during the stages of its development. We find that (1) the addition of the LMT and ALMA along with upgraded instrumentation in the "Complete" stage of the EHT allow detection of the photon ring, a signature of Kerr strong gravity, for predicted values of its total flux; (2) the inclusion of coherently averaged closure phases in our analysis dramatically improves the precision of even the current array, allowing (3) significantly tighter constraints on plausible accretion models and (4) detections of structural variability at the levels predicted by the models. While obser...

  7. Nonlinear dynamics of accretion disks with stochastic viscosity

    We present a nonlinear numerical model for a geometrically thin accretion disk with the addition of stochastic nonlinear fluctuations in the viscous parameter. These numerical realizations attempt to study the stochastic effects on the disk angular momentum transport. We show that this simple model is capable of reproducing several observed phenomenologies of accretion-driven systems. The most notable of these is the observed linear rms-flux relationship in the disk luminosity. This feature is not formally captured by the linearized disk equations used in previous work. A Fourier analysis of the dissipation and mass accretion rates across disk radii show coherence for frequencies below the local viscous frequency. This is consistent with the coherence behavior observed in astrophysical sources such as Cygnus X-1.

  8. Holocene reef accretion: southwest Molokai, Hawaii, U.S.A.

    Engels, Mary S.; Fletcher, Charles H., III; Field, Michael E.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Grossman, Eric E.; Rooney, John J.B.; Conger, Christopher L.; Glenn, Craig

    2004-01-01

    Two reef systems off south Molokai, Hale O Lono and Hikauhi (separated by only 10 km), show strong and fundamental differences in modern ecosystem structure and Holocene accretion history that reflect the influence of wave-induced near-bed shear stresses on reef development in Hawaii. Both sites are exposed to similar impacts from south, Kona, and trade-wind swell. However, the Hale O Lono site is exposed to north swell and the Hikuahi site is not. As a result, the reef at Hale O Lono records no late Holocene net accretion while the reef at Hikauhi records consistent and robust accretion over late Holocene time. Analysis and dating of 24 cores from Hale O Lono and Hikauhi reveal the presence of five major lithofacies that reflect paleo-environmental conditions. In order of decreasing depositional energy they are: (1) coral-algal bindstone; (2) mixed skeletal rudstone; (3) massive coral framestone; (4) unconsolidated floatstone; and (5) branching coral framestone-bafflestone. At Hale O Lono, 10 cores document a backstepping reef ranging from ∼ 8,100 cal yr BP (offshore) to ∼ 4,800 cal yr BP (nearshore). A depauperate community of modern coral diminishes shoreward and seaward of ∼ 15 m depth due to wave energy, disrupted recruitment activities, and physical abrasion. Evidence suggests a change from conditions conducive to accretion during the early Holocene to conditions detrimental to accretion in the late Holocene. Reef structure at Hikauhi, reconstructed from 14 cores, reveals a thick, rapidly accreting and young reef (maximum age ∼ 900 cal yr BP). Living coral cover on this reef increases seaward with distance from the reef crest but terminates at a depth of ∼ 20 m where the reef ends in a large sand field. The primary limitation on vertical reef growth is accommodation space under wave base, not recruitment activities or energy conditions. Interpretations of cored lithofacies suggest that modern reef growth on the southwest corner of Molokai, and by

  9. Time-dependent corona models: coronae with accretion

    Models of stationary extended coronae are presented for various values of the interstellar density. These calculations have been performed with the implicit time-dependent numerical method developed by Korevaar and Van Leer (1988). If the interstellar density is sufficiently low, the coronal gas expands through the Parker critical point to supersonic velocities. An increase in the interstellar density moves the interstellar shock closer to the star. When it comes closer than the critical point, the flow changes to a breeze solution that is subsonic everywhere. A further increase in the interstellar density reverses the flow. First an accretion breeze solution is found and then an inflow with a stationary accretion shock. This is the first numerical calculation of the complete set of stationary stellar wind solutions in spherical symmetry with boundary conditions specified at the stellar surface and at infinity, including the solutions with an interstellar shock or an accretion shock

  10. The influence of outflow in supercritical accretion flows

    Zeraatgari, Fatemeh Zahra; Mosallanezhad, Amin

    2016-01-01

    We solve the radiation-hydrodynamic (RHD) equations of supercritical accretion flows in the presence of radiation force and outflow by using self similar solutions. Compare with the pioneer works, in this paper we consider power-law function for mass inflow rate as $ \\dot{M} \\propto r^{s} $. We found that $ s = 1 $ when the radiative cooling term is included in the energy equation. Correspondingly, the effective temperature profile with respect to the radius was obtained as $ T_{\\text{eff}} \\varpropto r^{-1/2} $. In addition, we investigated the influence of the outflow on the dynamics of the accretion flow. We also calculated the continuum spectrum emitted from the disk surface as well as the bolometric luminosity of the accretion flow. Furthermore, our results show that the advection parameter, $ f $, strongly depends on mass inflow rate.

  11. Observational Signatures of Tilted Black Hole Accretion Disks from Simulations

    Dexter, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Geometrically thick accretion flows may be present in black hole X-ray binaries observed in the low/hard state and in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei. Unlike in geometrically thin disks, the angular momentum axis in these sources is not expected to align with the black hole spin axis. We compute images from three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of misaligned (tilted) accretion flows using relativistic radiative transfer, and compare the estimated locations of the radiation edge with expectations from their aligned (untilted) counterparts. The radiation edge in the tilted simulations is independent of black hole spin for a tilt of 15 degrees, in stark contrast to the results for untilted simulations, which agree with the monotonic dependence on spin expected from thin accretion disk theory. Synthetic emission line profiles from the tilted simulations depend strongly on the observer's azimuth, and exhibit unique features such as broad "blue wings." Coupled with precession,...

  12. Star Formation and Gas Accretion in Nearby Galaxies

    Yim, Kijeong

    2016-01-01

    In order to quantify the relationship between gas accretion and star formation, we analyse a sample of 29 nearby galaxies from the WHISP survey which contains galaxies with and without evidence for recent gas accretion. We compare combined radial profiles of FUV (GALEX) and IR 24 {\\mu}m (Spitzer) characterizing distributions of recent star formation with radial profiles of CO (IRAM, BIMA, or CARMA) and HI (WSRT) tracing molecular and atomic gas contents to examine star formation efficiencies in symmetric (quiescent), asymmetric (accreting), and interacting (tidally disturbed) galaxies. In addition, we investigate the relationship between star formation rate and HI in the outer discs for the three groups of galaxies. We confirm the general relationship between gas surface density and star formation surface density, but do not find a significant difference between the three groups of galaxies.

  13. Dynamo generated magnetic configurations in accretion discs and the nature of quasi-periodic oscillations in accreting binary systems

    Moss, D.; Sokoloff, D.; Suleimanov, V.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Magnetic fields are important for accretion disc structure. Magnetic fields in a disc system may be transported with the accreted matter. They can be associated with either the central body and/or jet, and be fossil or dynamo excited in situ. Aims: We consider dynamo excitation of magnetic fields in accretion discs of accreting binary systems in an attempt to clarify possible configurations of dynamo generated magnetic fields. We first model the entire disc with realistic radial extent and thickness using an alpha-quenching non-linearity. We then study the simultaneous effect of feedback from the Lorentz force from the dynamo-generated field. Methods: We perform numerical simulations in the framework of a relatively simple mean-field model which allows the generation of global magnetic configurations. Results: We explore a range of possibilities for the dynamo number, and find quadrupolar-type solutions with irregular temporal oscillations that might be compared to observed rapid luminosity fluctuations. The dipolar symmetry models with Rα< 0 have lobes of strong toroidal field adjacent to the rotation axis that could be relevant to jet launching phenomena. Conclusions: We have explored and extended the solutions known for thin accretion discs.

  14. Orbital Circularization of a Planet Accreting Disk Gas: Formation of Distant Jupiters in Circular Orbits based on Core Accretion Model

    Kikuchi, A; Ida, S

    2014-01-01

    Recently, gas giant planets in nearly circular orbits with large semimajor axes ($a \\sim$ 30--1000AU) have been detected by direct imaging. We have investigated orbital evolution in a formation scenario for such planets, based on core accretion model: i) Icy cores accrete from planetesimals at $\\lesssim$ 30AU, ii) they are scattered outward by an emerging nearby gas giant to acquire highly eccentric orbits, and iii) their orbits are circularized through accretion of disk gas in outer regions, where they spend most of time. We analytically derived equations to describe the orbital circularization through the gas accretion. Numerical integrations of these equations show that the eccentricity decreases by a factor of more than 5 during the planetary mass increases by a factor of 10. Because runaway gas accretion increases planetary mass by $\\sim$ 10--300, the orbits are sufficiently circularized. On the other hand, $a$ is reduced at most only by a factor of 2, leaving the planets in outer regions. If the relativ...

  15. Parsec-scale Accretion and Winds Irradiated by a Quasar

    Dorodnitsyn, A.; Kallman, T.; Proga, D.

    2016-03-01

    We present numerical simulations of properties of a parsec-scale torus exposed to illumination by the central black hole in an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Our physical model allows to investigate the balance between the formation of winds and accretion simultaneously. Radiation-driven winds are allowed by taking into account radiation pressure due to UV and IR radiation along with X-ray heating and dust sublimation. Accretion is allowed through angular momentum transport and the solution of the equations of radiative, viscous radiation hydrodynamics. Our methods adopt flux-limited diffusion radiation hydrodynamics for the dusty, infrared pressure driven part of the flow, along with X-ray heating and cooling. Angular momentum transport in the accreting part of the flow is modeled using effective viscosity. Our results demonstrate that radiation pressure on dust can play an important role in shaping AGN obscuration. For example, when the luminosity illuminating the torus exceeds L\\gt 0.01 {L}{{Edd}}, where LEdd is the Eddington luminosity, we find no episodes of sustained disk accretion because radiation pressure does not allow a disk to form. Despite the absence of the disk accretion, the flow of gas to smaller radii still proceeds at a rate 10-4-10-1{M}⊙ {{{yr}}}-1 through the capturing of the gas from the hot evaporative flow, thus providing a mechanism to deliver gas from a radiation-pressure dominated torus to the inner accretion disk. As L/{L}{{edd}} increases, larger radiation input leads to larger torus aspect ratios and increased obscuration of the central black hole. We also find the important role of the X-ray heated gas in shaping the obscuring torus.

  16. Hyper-Eddington accretion flows on to massive black holes

    Inayoshi, Kohei; Haiman, Zoltán; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2016-07-01

    We study very high rate, spherically symmetric accretion flows on to massive black holes (BHs; 102 ≲ MBH ≲ 106 M⊙) embedded in dense metal-poor clouds, performing one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamical simulations. We find solutions from outside the Bondi radius at hyper-Eddington rates, unimpeded by radiation feedback when (n∞/105 cm-3) > (MBH/104 M⊙)-1(T∞/104 K)3/2, where n∞ and T∞ are the density and temperature of ambient gas. Accretion rates in this regime are steady, and larger than 5000LEdd/c2, where LEdd is the Eddington luminosity. At lower Bondi rates, the accretion is episodic due to radiative feedback and the average rate is below the Eddington rate. In the hyper-Eddington case, the solution consists of a radiation-dominated central core, where photon trapping due to electron scattering is important, and an accreting envelope which follows a Bondi profile with T ≃ 8000 K. When the emergent luminosity is limited to ≲ LEdd because of photon trapping, radiation from the central region does not affect the gas dynamics at larger scales. We apply our result to the rapid formation of massive BHs in protogalaxies with a virial temperature of Tvir ≳ 104K. Once a seed BH forms at the centre of the galaxy, it can grow to a maximum ˜105(Tvir/104 K) M⊙ via gas accretion independent of the initial BH mass. Finally, we discuss possible observational signatures of rapidly accreting BHs with/without allowance for dust. We suggest that these systems could explain Lyα emitters without X-rays and nearby luminous infrared sources with hot dust emission, respectively.

  17. Evolution of accretion disks in tidal disruption events

    Shen, Rong-Feng [Current address: Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. (Israel); Matzner, Christopher D., E-mail: rf.shen@mail.huji.ac.il, E-mail: matzner@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    During a stellar tidal disruption event (TDE), an accretion disk forms as stellar debris returns to the disruption site and circularizes. Rather than being confined within the circularizing radius, the disk can spread to larger radii to conserve angular momentum. A spreading disk is a source of matter for re-accretion at rates that may exceed the later stellar fallback rate, although a disk wind can suppress its contribution to the central black hole accretion rate. A spreading disk is detectible through a break in the central accretion rate history or, at longer wavelengths, by its own emission. We model the evolution of TDE disk size and accretion rate by accounting for the time-dependent fallback rate, for the influence of wind losses in the early advective stage, and for the possibility of thermal instability for accretion rates intermediate between the advection-dominated and gas-pressure-dominated states. The model provides a dynamic basis for modeling TDE light curves. All or part of a young TDE disk will precess as a solid body because of the Lense-Thirring effect, and precession may manifest itself as a quasi-periodic modulation of the light curve. The precession period increases with time. Applying our results to the jetted TDE candidate Swift J1644+57, whose X-ray light curve shows numerous quasi-periodic dips, we argue that the data best fit a scenario in which a main-sequence star was fully disrupted by an intermediate mass black hole on an orbit significantly inclined from the black hole equator, with the apparent jet shutoff at t = 500 days corresponding to a disk transition from the advective state to the gas-pressure-dominated state.

  18. Evolution of accretion disks in tidal disruption events

    During a stellar tidal disruption event (TDE), an accretion disk forms as stellar debris returns to the disruption site and circularizes. Rather than being confined within the circularizing radius, the disk can spread to larger radii to conserve angular momentum. A spreading disk is a source of matter for re-accretion at rates that may exceed the later stellar fallback rate, although a disk wind can suppress its contribution to the central black hole accretion rate. A spreading disk is detectible through a break in the central accretion rate history or, at longer wavelengths, by its own emission. We model the evolution of TDE disk size and accretion rate by accounting for the time-dependent fallback rate, for the influence of wind losses in the early advective stage, and for the possibility of thermal instability for accretion rates intermediate between the advection-dominated and gas-pressure-dominated states. The model provides a dynamic basis for modeling TDE light curves. All or part of a young TDE disk will precess as a solid body because of the Lense-Thirring effect, and precession may manifest itself as a quasi-periodic modulation of the light curve. The precession period increases with time. Applying our results to the jetted TDE candidate Swift J1644+57, whose X-ray light curve shows numerous quasi-periodic dips, we argue that the data best fit a scenario in which a main-sequence star was fully disrupted by an intermediate mass black hole on an orbit significantly inclined from the black hole equator, with the apparent jet shutoff at t = 500 days corresponding to a disk transition from the advective state to the gas-pressure-dominated state.

  19. Evolution of Accretion Disks in Tidal Disruption Events

    Shen, Rong-Feng; Matzner, Christopher D.

    2014-04-01

    During a stellar tidal disruption event (TDE), an accretion disk forms as stellar debris returns to the disruption site and circularizes. Rather than being confined within the circularizing radius, the disk can spread to larger radii to conserve angular momentum. A spreading disk is a source of matter for re-accretion at rates that may exceed the later stellar fallback rate, although a disk wind can suppress its contribution to the central black hole accretion rate. A spreading disk is detectible through a break in the central accretion rate history or, at longer wavelengths, by its own emission. We model the evolution of TDE disk size and accretion rate by accounting for the time-dependent fallback rate, for the influence of wind losses in the early advective stage, and for the possibility of thermal instability for accretion rates intermediate between the advection-dominated and gas-pressure-dominated states. The model provides a dynamic basis for modeling TDE light curves. All or part of a young TDE disk will precess as a solid body because of the Lense-Thirring effect, and precession may manifest itself as a quasi-periodic modulation of the light curve. The precession period increases with time. Applying our results to the jetted TDE candidate Swift J1644+57, whose X-ray light curve shows numerous quasi-periodic dips, we argue that the data best fit a scenario in which a main-sequence star was fully disrupted by an intermediate mass black hole on an orbit significantly inclined from the black hole equator, with the apparent jet shutoff at t = 500 days corresponding to a disk transition from the advective state to the gas-pressure-dominated state.

  20. Disk Accretion of Tidally Disrupted Rocky Bodies onto White Dwarfs

    Feng, Wanda; Desch, Steven; Turner, Neal; Kalyaan, Anusha

    2016-06-01

    About 1/3 of white dwarfs (WDs) are polluted with heavy elements (e.g., Koester et al., 2014; Zuckerman et al., 2010) that should sediment out of their atmospheres on astronomically short timescales unless replenished by accretion from a reservoir, at rates that for many WDs must exceed ~1010 g/s (Farihi et al., 2010). Direct accretion of planetesimals is too improbable and Poynting-Robertson drag of dust is too slow (due to the low luminosity of WDs) (Jura, 2003), so it is often assumed that WDs accrete from a disk of gas and solid particles, fed by tidal disruption of planeteismals inside the WD Roche limit (e.g. Debes et al., 2012; Rafikov, 2011a, 2011b). A few such gaseous disks have been directly observed, through emission from Ca II atoms in the disk (e.g. Manser et al., 2016; Wilson et al. 2014). Models successfully explain the accretion rates of metals onto the WD, provided the gaseous disk viscously spreads at rates consistent with a partially suppressed magnetorotational instability (Rafikov, 2011a, 2011b). However, these models currently do not explore the likely extent of the magnetorotational instability in disks by calculating the degree of ionization, or suppression by strong magnetic field.We present a 1-D model of a gaseous WD disk accretion, to assess the extent of the magnetorotational instability in WD disks. The composition of the disk, the ionization and recombination mechanisms, and the degree of ionization of the disk are explored. Magnetic field strengths consistent with WD dipolar magnetic fields are assumed. Elsasser numbers are calculated as a function of radius in the WD disk. The rate of viscous spreading is calculated, and the model of Rafikov (2011a, 2011b) updated to compute likely accretion rates of metals onto WDs.

  1. The role of an accretion disk in AGN variability

    Czerny, B.

    2004-01-01

    Optically thick accretion disks are considered to be important ingredients of luminous AGN. The claim of their existence is well supported by observations and recent years brought some progress in understanding of their dynamics. However, the role of accretion disks in optical/UV/X-ray variability of AGN is not quite clear. Most probably, in short timescales the disk reprocesses the variable X-ray flux but at longer timescales the variations of the disk structure lead directly to optical/UV v...

  2. Accretion onto Some Well-Known Regular Black Holes

    Jawad, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we discuss the accretion onto static spherical symmetric regular black holes for specific choices of equation of state parameter. The underlying regular black holes are charged regular black hole using Fermi-Dirac Distribution, logistic distribution, nonlinear electrodynamics, respectively and Kehagias-Sftesos asymptotically flat regular black hole. We obtain the critical radius, critical speed and squared sound speed during the accretion process near the regular black holes. We also study the behavior of radial velocity, energy density and rate of change of mass for each regular black holes.

  3. On angular momentum transport in convection-dominated accretion flows

    Igumenshchev, I V

    2002-01-01

    Convection-dominated accretion flow (CDAF) is a promising model to explain underluminous accreting black holes in X-ray binaries and galactic nuclei. I discuss effects of angular momentum transport in viscous hydrodynamical and MHD CDAFs. In hydrodynamical CDAFs, convection transports angular momentum inward, and this together with outward convection transport of thermal energy determine the radial structure of the flow. In MHD CDAFs, convection can transport angular momentum either inward or outward, depending on properties of turbulence in rotating magnetized plasma, which are not fully understood yet. Direction of convection angular momentum transport can affect the law of rotation of MHD CDAFs.

  4. Picard-like iterations for nonlinear equations involving -accretive operators

    Moore Chika

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Let be an arbitrary real normed linear space and let be a -Lipschitz strongly -accretive operator. It is proved that Picard-like iteration processes converge strongly to the unique solutions of the operator equations and where is an arbitrary but fixed vector. Related results deal with the strong convergence of Picard-like iteration processes to the unique solution of equations involving linear -positive definite ( -p.d operators. Nontrivial examples, indicating that this class of mappings properly contains the classes of nonlinear accretive, dissipative and linear -p.d. operators, are also given.

  5. Accretion disk dynamics in X-ray binaries

    Peris, Charith Srian

    Accreting X-ray binaries consist of a normal star which orbits a compact object with the former transferring matter onto the later via an accretion disk. These accretion disks emit radiation across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. This thesis exploits two regions of the spectrum, exploring the (1) inner disk regions of an accreting black hole binary, GRS1915+105, using X-ray spectral analysis and (2) the outer accretion disks of a set of neutron star and black hole binaries using Doppler Tomography applied on optical observations. X-ray spectral analysis of black hole binary GRS1915+105: GRS1915+105 stands out as an exceptional black hole primarily due to the wild variability exhibited by about half of its X-ray observations. This study focused on the steady X-ray observations of the source, which were found to exhibit significant curvature in the harder coronal component within the RXTE/PCA band-pass. The roughly constant inner-disk radius seen in a majority of the steady-soft observations is strongly reminiscent of canonical soft state black-hole binaries. Remarkably, the steady-hard observations show the presence of growing truncation in the inner-disk. A majority of the steady observations of GRS1915+105 map to the states observed in canonical black hole binaries which suggests that within the complexity of this source is a simpler underlying basis of states. Optical tomography of X-ray binary systems: Doppler tomography was applied to the strong line features present in the optical spectra of X-ray binaries in order to determine the geometric structure of the systems' emitting regions. The point where the accretion stream hits the disk, also referred to as the "hotspot'', is clearly identified in the neutron star system V691 CrA and the black hole system Nova Muscae 1991. Evidence for stream-disk overflows exist in both systems, consistent with relatively high accretion rates. In contrast, V926 Sco does not show evidence for the presence of a hotspot which

  6. The evolution of misaligned accretion discs and spinning black holes

    LODATO G; Pringle, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider the process of alignment of a spinning black hole and a surrounding misaligned accretion disc. We use a simplified set of equations, that describe the evolution of the system in the case where the propagation of warping disturbances in the accretion disc occurs diffusively, a situation likely to be common in the thin discs in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We also allow the direction of the hole spin to move under the action of the disc torques. In such a way, the evo...

  7. Gravitational Wave Heating of Stars and Accretion Disks

    Li, Gongjie; Loeb, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the electromagnetic (EM) counterpart of gravitational waves (GWs) emitted by a supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) through the viscous dissipation of the GW energy in an accretion disk and stars surrounding the SMBHB. We account for the suppression of the heating rate if the forcing period is shorter than the turnover time of the largest turbulent eddies. We find that the viscous heating luminosity in 0.1 solar mass stars can be significantly higher than their intrinsic luminosity. The relative brightening is small for accretion disks.

  8. Accretion outbursts in self-gravitating protoplanetary disks

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Zhu, Zhaohuan [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Nelson, Richard P., E-mail: jaehbae@umich.edu, E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu, E-mail: zhuzh@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: r.p.nelson@qmul.ac.uk [Astronomy Unit, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-01

    We improve on our previous treatments of the long-term evolution of protostellar disks by explicitly solving disk self-gravity in two dimensions. The current model is an extension of the one-dimensional layered accretion disk model of Bae et al. We find that gravitational instability (GI)-induced spiral density waves heat disks via compressional heating (i.e., PdV work), and can trigger accretion outbursts by activating the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the magnetically inert disk dead zone. The GI-induced spiral waves propagate well inside of the gravitationally unstable region before they trigger outbursts at R ≲ 1 AU where GI cannot be sustained. This long-range propagation of waves cannot be reproduced with the previously used local α treatments for GI. In our standard model where zero dead-zone residual viscosity (α{sub rd}) is assumed, the GI-induced stress measured at the onset of outbursts is locally as large as 0.01 in terms of the generic α parameter. However, as suggested in our previous one-dimensional calculations, we confirm that the presence of a small but finite α{sub rd} triggers thermally driven bursts of accretion instead of the GI + MRI-driven outbursts that are observed when α{sub rd} = 0. The inclusion of non-zero residual viscosity in the dead zone decreases the importance of GI soon after mass feeding from the envelope cloud ceases. During the infall phase while the central protostar is still embedded, our models stay in a 'quiescent' accretion phase with M-dot {sub acc}∼10{sup −8}--10{sup −7} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} over 60% of the time and spend less than 15% of the infall phase in accretion outbursts. While our models indicate that episodic mass accretion during protostellar evolution can qualitatively help explain the low accretion luminosities seen in most low-mass protostars, detailed tests of the mechanism will require model calculations for a range of protostellar masses with some constraint on the

  9. Accretion onto some well-known regular black holes

    In this work, we discuss the accretion onto static spherically symmetric regular black holes for specific choices of the equation of state parameter. The underlying regular black holes are charged regular black holes using the Fermi-Dirac distribution, logistic distribution, nonlinear electrodynamics, respectively, and Kehagias-Sftesos asymptotically flat regular black holes. We obtain the critical radius, critical speed, and squared sound speed during the accretion process near the regular black holes. We also study the behavior of radial velocity, energy density, and the rate of change of the mass for each of the regular black holes. (orig.)

  10. Accretion bursts in young stars driven by cluster environment

    Pfalzner, S; Tackenberg, J.; Steinhausen, M.

    2008-01-01

    The standard picture of accretion is a steady flow of matter from the disc onto the young star - a concept which assumes the star-disc system to be completely isolated. However, in a dense cluster environment star-disc systems do interact gravitationally. The aim here is to estimate the encounter-induced accretion rate in an ONC-like environment. Combining simulations of the cluster dynamics with simulations of the effect of encounters on star-disc systems we determine the likelihood and degr...

  11. Accretion processes for general spherically symmetric compact objects

    We investigate the accretion process for different spherically symmetric space-time geometries for a static fluid. We analyze this procedure using the most general black hole metric ansatz. After that, we examine the accretion process for specific spherically symmetric metrics obtaining the velocity of the sound during the process and the critical speed of the flow of the fluid around the black hole. In addition, we study the behavior of the rate of change of the mass for each chosen metric for a barotropic fluid. (orig.)

  12. Accretion outbursts in self-gravitating protoplanetary disks

    We improve on our previous treatments of the long-term evolution of protostellar disks by explicitly solving disk self-gravity in two dimensions. The current model is an extension of the one-dimensional layered accretion disk model of Bae et al. We find that gravitational instability (GI)-induced spiral density waves heat disks via compressional heating (i.e., PdV work), and can trigger accretion outbursts by activating the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the magnetically inert disk dead zone. The GI-induced spiral waves propagate well inside of the gravitationally unstable region before they trigger outbursts at R ≲ 1 AU where GI cannot be sustained. This long-range propagation of waves cannot be reproduced with the previously used local α treatments for GI. In our standard model where zero dead-zone residual viscosity (αrd) is assumed, the GI-induced stress measured at the onset of outbursts is locally as large as 0.01 in terms of the generic α parameter. However, as suggested in our previous one-dimensional calculations, we confirm that the presence of a small but finite αrd triggers thermally driven bursts of accretion instead of the GI + MRI-driven outbursts that are observed when αrd = 0. The inclusion of non-zero residual viscosity in the dead zone decreases the importance of GI soon after mass feeding from the envelope cloud ceases. During the infall phase while the central protostar is still embedded, our models stay in a 'quiescent' accretion phase with M-dot acc∼10−8--10−7 M⊙ yr−1 over 60% of the time and spend less than 15% of the infall phase in accretion outbursts. While our models indicate that episodic mass accretion during protostellar evolution can qualitatively help explain the low accretion luminosities seen in most low-mass protostars, detailed tests of the mechanism will require model calculations for a range of protostellar masses with some constraint on the initial core angular momentum, which affects the

  13. Evolution of Pre-Main Sequence Accretion Disks

    Hartmann, Lee W.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this project was to develop a comprehensive global picture of the physical conditions in, and evolutionary timescales of, premain sequence accretion disks. The results of this work will help constrain the initial conditions for planet formation. To this end we developed much larger samples of 3-10 Myr-old stars to provide better empirical constraints on protoplanetary disk evolution; measured disk accretion rates in these systems; and constructed detailed model disk structures consistent with observations to infer physical conditions such as grain growth in protoplanetary disks.

  14. Self-gravity in neutrino-dominated accretion disks

    We present the effects of self-gravity on the vertical structure and neutrino luminosity of the neutrino-dominated accretion disks in cylindrical coordinates. It is found that significant changes of the structure appear in the outer region of the disk, especially for high accretion rates (e.g., ≳ 1 M☉ s–1), and thus cause the slight increase in the neutrino luminosity. Furthermore, the gravitational instability of the disk is reviewed by the vertical distribution of the Toomre parameter, which may account for the late-time flares in gamma-ray bursts and the extended emission in short-duration gamma-ray bursts.

  15. Potential flow analysis of glaze ice accretions on an airfoil

    Zaguli, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The results of an analytical/experimental study of the flow fields about an airfoil with leading edge glaze ice accretion shapes are presented. Tests were conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel to measure surface pressure distributions and boundary layer separation reattachment characteristics on a general aviation wing section to which was affixed wooden ice shapes which approximated typical glaze ice accretions. Comparisons were made with predicted pressure distributions using current airfoil analysis codes as well as the Bristow mixed analysis/design airfoil panel code. The Bristow code was also used to predict the separation reattachment dividing streamline by inputting the appropriate experimental surface pressure distribution.

  16. Retrograde binaries of massive black holes in circumbinary accretion discs

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Maureira-Fredes, Cristián; Dotti, Massimo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Context. We explore the hardening of a massive black hole binary embedded in a circumbinary gas disc under a specific circumstance: when the binary and the gas are coplanar and the gas is counter-rotating. The binary has unequal mass and the interaction of the gas with the lighter secondary black hole is the main cause of the braking torque on the binary that shrinks with time. The secondary black hole, revolving in the direction opposite to the gas, experiences a drag from gas-dynamical friction and from direct accretion of part of it. Aims: In this paper, using two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamical grid simulations we investigate the effect of changing the accretion prescriptions on the dynamics of the secondary black hole, which in turn affect the binary hardening and eccentricity evolution. Methods: We find that realistic accretion prescriptions lead to results that differ from those inferred assuming accretion of all the gas within the Roche Lobe of the secondary black hole. Results: When considering gas accretion within the gravitational influence radius of the secondary black hole (which is smaller than the Roche Lobe radius) to better describe gas inflows, the shrinking of the binary is slower. In addition, in this case, a smaller amount of accreted mass is required to reduce the binary separation by the same amount. Different accretion prescriptions result in different discs' surface densities, which alter the black hole's dynamics back. Full 3D Smoothed-particle hydrodynamics realizations of a number of representative cases, run over a shorter interval of time, validate the general trends observed in the less computationally demanding 2D simulations. Conclusions: Initially circular black hole binaries increase their eccentricity only slightly, which then oscillates around small values (<0.1) while they harden. By contrast, initially eccentric binaries become more and more eccentric. A semi-analytical model describing the black hole's dynamics under

  17. Scalar field confinement as a model for accreting systems

    Megevand, M [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Olabarrieta, I [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Lehner, L [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States)

    2007-07-07

    We investigate the possibility of localizing scalar field configurations as a model for black hole accretion. We analyse and resolve difficulties encountered when localizing scalar fields in general relativity. We illustrate this ability with a simple spherically symmetric model which can be used to study features of accreting shells around a black hole. This is accomplished by prescribing a scalar field with a coordinate-dependent potential. Numerical solutions to the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equations are shown, where a scalar field is indeed confined within a region surrounding a black hole. The resulting spacetime can be described in terms of simple harmonic time dependence.

  18. Accretion onto some well-known regular black holes

    Jawad, Abdul; Shahzad, M.U. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-03-15

    In this work, we discuss the accretion onto static spherically symmetric regular black holes for specific choices of the equation of state parameter. The underlying regular black holes are charged regular black holes using the Fermi-Dirac distribution, logistic distribution, nonlinear electrodynamics, respectively, and Kehagias-Sftesos asymptotically flat regular black holes. We obtain the critical radius, critical speed, and squared sound speed during the accretion process near the regular black holes. We also study the behavior of radial velocity, energy density, and the rate of change of the mass for each of the regular black holes. (orig.)

  19. Accretion processes for general spherically symmetric compact objects

    Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Jamil, Mubasher [National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), H-12, Department of Mathematics, School of Natural Sciences (SNS), Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-10-15

    We investigate the accretion process for different spherically symmetric space-time geometries for a static fluid. We analyze this procedure using the most general black hole metric ansatz. After that, we examine the accretion process for specific spherically symmetric metrics obtaining the velocity of the sound during the process and the critical speed of the flow of the fluid around the black hole. In addition, we study the behavior of the rate of change of the mass for each chosen metric for a barotropic fluid. (orig.)

  20. Accretion onto some well-known regular black holes

    Jawad, Abdul; Shahzad, M. Umair

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we discuss the accretion onto static spherically symmetric regular black holes for specific choices of the equation of state parameter. The underlying regular black holes are charged regular black holes using the Fermi-Dirac distribution, logistic distribution, nonlinear electrodynamics, respectively, and Kehagias-Sftesos asymptotically flat regular black holes. We obtain the critical radius, critical speed, and squared sound speed during the accretion process near the regular black holes. We also study the behavior of radial velocity, energy density, and the rate of change of the mass for each of the regular black holes.

  1. Variability in the Thermal Emission from Accreting Neutron Star Transients

    Brown, Edward F.; Bildsten, Lars; Chang, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The composition of the outer 100 m of a neutron star sets the heat flux that flows outwards from the core. For an accreting neutron star in an X-ray transient, the thermal quiescent flux depends sensitively on the amount of hydrogen and helium remaining on the surface after an accretion outburst and on the composition of the underlying ashes of previous H/He burning. Because H/He has a higher thermal conductivity, a larger mass of H/He implies a shallower thermal gradient through the low dens...

  2. An analytical model of accretion onto white dwarfs

    Ospina, N.; Hernanz, M.

    2013-05-01

    The analytical model of Frank et al. (2002) has been used to investigate the structure of the accretion stream onto white dwarfs (WD). In particular, the post-shock region (temperature, density and gas velocity distributions) and X-ray spectrum emitted by this region. We have obtained the temperature, density and gas velocity distributions of the emission region for different masses of white dwarfs and at different positions in the shock coordinate. Also, we calculated the emitted spectrum for different WD masses and at different positions of the shock with the principal objective of study the accretion at different points of the emission region.

  3. ACCRETION ONTO PLANETARY MASS COMPANIONS OF LOW-MASS YOUNG STARS

    Measurements of accretion rates onto planetary mass objects may distinguish between different planet formation mechanisms, which predict different accretion histories. In this Letter, we use Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFC3 UVIS optical photometry to measure accretion rates onto three accreting objects, GSC 06214–00210 b, GQ Lup b, and DH Tau b, that are at the planet/brown dwarf boundary and are companions to solar mass stars. The excess optical emission in the excess accretion continuum yields mass accretion rates of 10–9-10–11 M ☉ yr–1 for these three objects. Their accretion rates are an order of magnitude higher than expected from the correlation between mass and accretion rates measured from the UV excess, which is applicable if these wide planetary mass companions formed by protostellar core fragmentation. The high accretion rates and large separation from the central star demonstrate the presence of massive disks around these objects. Models for the formation and evolution of wide planetary mass companions should account for their large accretion rates. High ratios of Hα luminosity over accretion luminosity for objects with low accretion rates suggest that searches for Hα emission may be an efficient way to find accreting planets

  4. Accretion onto Intermediate Mass Black Holes Regulated by Radiative Feedback I. Parametric Study for Spherically Symmetric Accretion

    Park, KwangHo; Ricotti, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    We study the effect of radiative feedback on accretion onto intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) using the hydrodynamical code ZEUS-MP with a radiative transfer algorithm. In this paper, the first of a series, we assume accretion from a uniformly dense gas with zero angular momentum and extremely low metallicity. Our 1D and 2D simulations explore how X-ray and UV radiation emitted near the black hole regulates the gas supply from large scales. Both 1D and 2D simulations show similar accretio...

  5. The multipolar magnetic fields of accreting pre-main-sequence stars: B at the inner disk, B along the accretion flow, and B at the accretion shock

    Gregory, Scott G; Hussain, Gaitee A J

    2016-01-01

    Zeeman-Doppler imaging studies have revealed the complexity of the large-scale magnetic fields of accreting pre-main-sequence stars. All have multipolar magnetic fields with the octupole component being the dominant field mode for many of the stars studied thusfar. Young accreting stars with fully convective interiors often feature simple axisymmetric magnetic fields with dipole components of order a kilo-Gauss (at least those of mass $\\gtrsim0.5\\,{\\rm M}_\\odot$), while those with substantially radiative interiors host more complex non-axisymmetric magnetic fields with dipole components of order a few 0.1 kilo-Gauss. Here, via several simple examples, we demonstrate that i). in most cases, the dipole component alone can be used to estimate the disk truncation radius (but little else); ii) due the presence of higher order magnetic field components, the field strength in the accretion spots is far in excess of that expected if a pure dipole magnetic field is assumed. (Fields of $\\sim$6$\\,{\\rm kG}$ have been mea...

  6. Rapid growth of gas-giant cores by pebble accretion

    Lambrechts, Michiel

    2012-01-01

    The observed lifetimes of gaseous protoplanetary discs place strong constraints on gas and ice giant formation in the core accretion scenario. The approximately 10-Earth-mass solid core responsible for the attraction of the gaseous envelope has to form before gas dissipation in the protoplanetary disc is completed within 1-10 million years. Building up the core by collisions between km-sized planetesimals fails to meet this time-scale constraint, especially at wide stellar separations. Nonetheless, gas-giant planets are detected by direct imaging at wide orbital distances. In this paper, we numerically study the growth of cores by the accretion of cm-sized pebbles loosely coupled to the gas. We measure the accretion rate onto seed masses ranging from a large planetesimal to a fully grown 10-Earth-mass core and test different particle sizes. The numerical results are in good agreement with our analytic expressions, indicating the existence of two accretion regimes, one set by the azimuthal and radial particle ...

  7. Structure and Spectroscopy of Black Hole Accretion Disks

    Liedahl, D; Mauche, C

    2005-02-14

    The warped spacetime near black holes is one of the most exotic observable environments in the Universe. X-ray spectra from active galaxies obtained with the current generation of X-ray observatories reveal line emission that is modified by both special relativistic and general relativistic effects. The interpretation is that we are witnessing X-ray irradiated matter orbiting in an accretion disk around a supermassive black hole, as it prepares to cross the event horizon. This interpretation, however, is based upon highly schematized models of accretion disk structure. This report describes a project to design a detailed computer model of accretion disk atmospheres, with the goal of elucidating the high radiation density environments associated with mass flows in the curved spacetime near gravitationally collapsed objects. We have evolved the capability to generate realistic theoretical X-ray line spectra of accretion disks, thereby providing the means for a workable exploration of the behavior of matter in the strong-field limit of gravitation.

  8. Wind accretion in symbiotic X-ray binaries

    Postnov, K; González-Galán, A; Kuulkers, E; Kretschmar, P; Larsson, S; Finger, M H; Kochetkova, A; Lü, G; Yungelson, L

    2011-01-01

    The properties of wind accretion in symbiotic X-ray binaries (SyXBs) consisting of red-giant and magnetized neutron star (NS) are discussed. The spin-up/spin-down torques applied to NS are derived based on a hydrodynamic theory of quasi-spherical accretion onto magnetized NSs. In this model, a settling subsonic accretion proceeds through a hot shell formed around the NS magnetosphere. The accretion rate onto the NS is determined by the ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere.Due to large Reynolds numbers in the shell, the interaction of the rotating magnetosphere with plasma initiates a subsonic turbulence. The convective motions are capable of carrying the angular momentum through the shell. We carry out a population synthesis of SyXBs in the Galaxy with account for the spin evolution of magnetized NS. The Galactic number of SyXBs with bright (M_v<1) low-mass red-giant companion is found to be from \\sim 40 to 120, and their birthrate is \\sim 5\\times 10^{-5}-10^{-4} per year. According to our mode...

  9. Ubiquitous equatorial accretion disc winds in black hole soft states

    Ponti, G; Begelman, M C; Dunn, R J H; Neilsen, J; Coriat, M

    2012-01-01

    High resolution spectra of Galactic Black Holes (GBH) reveal the presence of highly ionised absorbers. In one GBH, accreting close to the Eddington limit for more than a decade, a powerful accretion disc wind is observed to be present in softer X-ray states and it has been suggested that it can carry away enough mass and energy to quench the radio jet. Here we report that these winds, which may have mass outflow rates of the order of the inner accretion rate or higher, are an ubiquitous component of the jet-free soft states of all GBH. We furthermore demonstrate that these winds have an equatorial geometry with opening angles of few tens of degrees, and so are only observed in sources in which the disc is inclined at a large angle to the line of sight. The decrease in Fe XXV / Fe XXVI line ratio with Compton temperature, observed in the soft state, suggests a link between higher wind ionisation and harder spectral shapes. Although the physical interaction between the wind, accretion flow and jet is still not ...

  10. The physics of accretion-ejection with LOFT

    Casella, Piergiorgio; Fender, Rob; Coriat, Mickael; Kalemci, Emrah; Motta, S.; Neilsen, J.; Ponti, G.; Begelman, M.; T. Belloni(INAF-OA Brera, Italy); Koerding, E.; Maccarone, T.J.; Petrucci, P. O.; Rodriguez, J.; Tomsick, J.; Bhattacharyya, S.

    2015-01-01

    This is a White Paper in support of the mission concept of the Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT), proposed as a medium-sized ESA mission. We discuss the potential of LOFT for the study of the physics of accretion and ejection around compact objects. For a summary, we refer to the paper.

  11. The Radiative Efficiency of Accretion Flows in Individual AGN

    Davis, Shane W

    2010-01-01

    The radiative efficiency of AGN is commonly estimated based on the total mass accreted and the total AGN light emitted per unit volume in the universe integrated over time (the Soltan argument). In individual AGN, thin accretion disk model spectral fits can be used to deduce the absolute accretion rate Mdot, if the black hole mass M is known. The radiative efficiency {\\eta} is then set by the ratio of the bolometric luminosity L_bol to Mdot c^2. We apply this method to determine {\\eta} in a sample of 80 PG quasars with well determined L_bol, where Mdot is set by thin accretion disk model fits to the optical luminosity density, and the M determination based on the bulge stellar velocity dispersion (13 objects) or the broad line region (BLR). For the BLR-based masses, we derive a mean log {\\eta} = -1.05 +/- 0.52 consistent with the Soltan argument based estimates. We find a strong correlation of {\\eta} with M, rising from {\\eta} ~ 0.03 at M = 10^7 M{\\odot} and L/L_Edd ~ 1 to {\\eta} ~ 0.4 at M = 10^9 M{\\odot} an...

  12. TW Hya: Spectral Variability, X-Rays, and Accretion Diagnostics

    Dupree, A K; Cranmer, S R; Luna, G J M; Schneider, E E; Bessell, M S; Bonanos, A; Crause, L A; Lawson, W A; Mallik, S V; Schuler, S C

    2012-01-01

    The nearest accreting T Tauri star, TW Hya was observed with spectroscopic and photometric measurements simultaneous with a long se gmented exposure using the CHANDRA satellite. Contemporaneous optical photometry from WASP-S indicates a 4.74 day period was present during this time. Absence of a similar periodicity in the H-alpha flux and the total X-ray flux points to a different source of photometric variations. The H-alpha emission line appears intrinsically broad and symmetric, and both the profile and its variability suggest an origin in the post-shock cooling region. An accretion event, signaled by soft X-rays, is traced spectroscopically for the first time through the optical emission line profiles. After the accretion event, downflowing turbulent material observed in the H-alpha and H-beta lines is followed by He I (5876A) broadening. Optical veiling increases with a delay of about 2 hours after the X-ray accretion event. The response of the stellar coronal emission to an increase in the veiling follow...

  13. The Mass Accretion Rate of Galaxy Clusters: A Measurable Quantity

    De Boni, C.; Serra, A. L.; Diaferio, A.; Giocoli, C.; Baldi, M.

    2016-02-01

    We explore the possibility of measuring the mass accretion rate (MAR) of galaxy clusters from their mass profiles beyond the virial radius R200. We derive the accretion rate from the mass of a spherical shell whose inner radius is 2R200, whose thickness changes with redshift, and whose infall velocity is assumed to be equal to the mean infall velocity of the spherical shells of dark matter halos extracted from N-body simulations. This approximation is rather crude in hierarchical clustering scenarios where both smooth accretion and aggregation of smaller dark matter halos contribute to the mass accretion of clusters. Nevertheless, in the redshift range z = [0, 2], our prescription returns an average MAR within 20%-40% of the average rate derived from the merger trees of dark matter halos extracted from N-body simulations. The MAR of galaxy clusters has been the topic of numerous detailed numerical and theoretical investigations, but so far it has remained inaccessible to measurements in the real universe. Since the measurement of the mass profile of clusters beyond their virial radius can be performed with the caustic technique applied to dense redshift surveys of the cluster outer regions, our result suggests that measuring the mean MAR of a sample of galaxy clusters is actually feasible. We thus provide a new potential observational test of the cosmological and structure formation models.

  14. Line Emission from Optically Thick RelativisticAccretion Tori

    Fuerst, Steven V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Mullard Space Sci. Lab.; Wu, Kinwah; /Mullard Space Sci. Lab.

    2007-09-14

    We calculate line emission from relativistic accretion tori around Kerr black holes and investigate how the line profiles depend on the viewing inclination, spin of the central black hole, parameters describing the shape of the tori, and spatial distribution of line emissivity on the torus surface. We also compare the lines with those from thin accretion disks. Our calculations show that lines from tori and lines from thin disks share several common features. In particular, at low and moderate viewing inclination angles they both have asymmetric double-peaked profiles with a tall, sharp blue peak and a shorter red peak which has an extensive red wing. At high viewing inclination angles they both have very broad, asymmetric lines which can be roughly considered as single-peaked. Torus and disk lines may show very different red and blue line wings, but the differences are due to the models for relativistic tori and disks having differing inner boundary radii. Self-eclipse and lensing play some role in shaping the torus lines, but they are effective only at high inclination angles. If inner and outer radii of an accretion torus are the same as those of an accretion disk, their line profiles show substantial differences only when inclination angles are close to 90{sup o}, and those differences are manifested mostly at the central regions of the lines instead of the wings.

  15. Accretion discs around black holes two dimensional, advection cooled flows

    Igumenshchev, I V; Abramowicz, M A; Igumenshchev, Igor V; Chen, Xingming; Abramowicz, Marek Artur

    1995-01-01

    Two-dimensional accretion flows near black holes have been investigated by time-dependent hydrodynamical calculations. We assume that the flow is axisymmetric and that radiative losses of internal energy are negligible, so that the disc is geometrically thick and hot. Accretion occurs due to the overflow of the effective potential barrier near the black hole, similar to the case of the Roche lobe overflowing star in a binary system. We make no pre-assumptions on the properties of the flow, instead our models evolve self-consistently from an initially non-accreting state. The viscosity is due to the the small-scale turbulence and it is described by the \\alpha-viscosity prescription. We confirm earlier suggestions that viscous accretion flows are convectively unstable. We found that the instability produces transient eddies of various length-scales. The eddies contribute to the strength of the viscosity in the flow by redistributing the angular momentum. They also introduce low amplitude oscillatory variations ...

  16. Unipolar outflows and global meridional circulations in rotating accretion flows

    Igumenshchev, I V

    1999-01-01

    Using two-dimensional simulations of non-radiative viscous rotating black hole accretion flows, we show that the flows with alpha~0.1-0.3 self-organize to form stationary unipolar or bipolar outflows accompanied by global meridional circulations. The required energy comes, with efficiency implications are discussed.

  17. Accretion Disks Phase Transitions 2-D or not 2-D?

    Abramowicz, M A; Igumenshchev, I V; Abramowicz, Marek Artur; Bjornsson, Gunnlaugur; Igumenshchev, Igor V.

    2000-01-01

    We argue that the proper way to treat thin-thick accretion-disk transitions should take into account the 2-D nature of the problem. We illustrate the physical inconsistency of the 1-D vertically integrated approach by discussing a particular example of the convective transport of energy.

  18. Chemical tracers of episodic accretion in low-mass protostars

    Visser, Ruud; Jorgensen, Jes K

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Accretion rates in low-mass protostars can be highly variable in time. Each accretion burst is accompanied by a temporary increase in luminosity, heating up the circumstellar envelope and altering the chemical composition of the gas and dust. This paper aims to study such chemical effects and discusses the feasibility of using molecular spectroscopy as a tracer of episodic accretion rates and timescales. Methods: We simulate a strong accretion burst in a diverse sample of 25 spherical envelope models by increasing the luminosity to 100 times the observed value. Using a comprehensive gas-grain network, we follow the chemical evolution during the burst and for up to 10^5 yr after the system returns to quiescence. The resulting abundance profiles are fed into a line radiative transfer code to simulate rotational spectra of C18O, HCO+, H13CO+, and N2H+ at a series of time steps. We compare these spectra to observations taken from the literature and to previously unpublished data of HCO+ and N2H+ 6-5 from th...

  19. Warped accretion disks and the unification of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Nayakshin, S

    2004-01-01

    Orientation of parsec-scale accretion disks in AGN is likely to be nearly random for different black hole feeding episodes. Since AGN accretion disks are unstable to self-gravity on parsec scales, star formation in these disks will create young stellar disks, similar to those recently discovered in our Galactic Center. The disks blend into the quasi-spherical star cluster enveloping the AGN on time scales much longer than a likely AGN lifetime. Therefore, the gravitational potential within the radius of the black hole influence is at best axi-symmetric rather than spherically symmetric. Here we show that as a result, a newly formed accretion disk will be warped. For the simplest case of a potential resulting from a thin stellar ring, we calculate the disk precession rates, and the time dependent shape. We find that, for a realistic parameter range, the disk becomes strongly warped in few hundred orbital times. We suggest that this, and possibly other mechanisms of accretion disk warping, have a direct relevan...

  20. MAGNETICALLY REGULATED GAS ACCRETION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALACTIC DISKS

    Disk galaxies are in hydrostatic equilibrium along their vertical axis. The pressure allowing for this configuration consists of thermal, turbulent, magnetic, and cosmic-ray components. For the Milky Way the thermal pressure contributes ∼10% of the total pressure near the plane, with this fraction dropping toward higher altitudes. Out of the rest, magnetic fields contribute ∼1/3 of the pressure to distances of ∼3 kpc above the disk plane. In this Letter, we attempt to extrapolate these local values to high-redshift, rapidly accreting, rapidly star-forming disk galaxies and study the effect of the extra pressure sources on the accretion of gas onto the galaxies. In particular, magnetic field tension may convert a smooth cold-flow accretion to clumpy, irregular star formation regions and rates. The infalling gas accumulates on the edge of the magnetic fields, supported by magnetic tension. When the mass of the infalling gas exceeds some threshold mass, its gravitational force cannot be balanced by magnetic tension anymore, and it falls toward the disk's plane, rapidly making stars. Simplified estimations of this threshold mass are consistent with clumpy star formation observed in SINS, UDF, GOODS, and GEMS surveys. We discuss the shortcomings of pure hydrodynamic codes in simulating the accretion of cold flows into galaxies, and emphasize the need for magnetohydrodynamic simulations.