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Sample records for accreting young star

  1. Accretion, winds and outflows in young stars

    Günther, Hans Moritz

    2012-01-01

    Young stars and planetary systems form in molecular clouds. For classical T Tauri stars (CTTS, F-K type precursors) the accretion disk does not reach down to the central star, but it is truncated near the co-rotation radius. The inner edge of the disk is ionized by the stellar radiation, so that the accretion stream is funneled along the magnetic field lines. On the stellar surface an accretion shock develops, which is observed over a wide wavelength range as X-ray emission, UV excess, optical veiling and optical and IR emission lines. Some of the accretion tracers, e.g. H\\alpha, can be calibrated to measure the accretion rate. This accretion process is variable on time scales of hours to years due to changing accretion rates, stellar rotation and reconfiguration of the magnetic field. Furthermore, many accreting systems also drive strong outflows which are ultimately powered by accretion. Several components could contribute to the outflows: slow, wide-angle disk winds, X-winds launched close to the inner dis...

  2. Accretion funnels onto weakly magnetized young stars

    Bessolaz, N.; Zanni, C.; Ferreira, J.; Keppens, R.; Bouvier, J.

    2007-01-01

    Aims : We re-examine the conditions required to steadily deviate an accretion flow from a circumstellar disc into a magnetospheric funnel flow onto a slow rotating young forming star. Methods : New analytical constraints on the formation of accretion funnels flows due to the presence of a dipolar stellar magnetic field disrupting the disc are derived. The Versatile Advection Code is used to confirm these constraints numerically. Axisymmetric MHD simulations are performed, where a stellar dipo...

  3. Winds and Accretion in Young Stars

    Edwards, Suzan

    2008-01-01

    Establishing the origin of accretion powered winds from forming stars is critical for understanding angular momentum evolution in the star-disk interaction region. Here, the high velocity component of accretion powered winds is launched and accreting stars are spun down, in defiance of the expected spin-up during magnetospheric accretion. T Tauri stars in the final stage of disk accretion offer a unique opportunity to study the connection between accretion and winds and their relation to stel...

  4. Accretion, winds and outflows in young stars

    Günther, H. M.

    2013-02-01

    Young stars and planetary systems form in molecular clouds. After the initial radial infall an accretion disk develops. For classical T Tauri stars (CTTS, F-K type precursors) the accretion disk does not reach down to the central star, but it is truncated near the co-rotation radius by the stellar magnetic field. The inner edge of the disk is ionized by the stellar radiation, so that the accretion stream is funneled along the magnetic field lines. On the stellar surface an accretion shock develops, which is observed over a wide wavelength range as X-ray emission, UV excess, optical veiling and optical and IR emission lines. Some of the accretion tracers, e.g. Hα, can be calibrated to measure the accretion rate. This accretion process is variable on time scales of hours to years due to changing accretion rates, stellar rotation and reconfiguration of the magnetic field. Furthermore, many (if not all) accreting systems also drive strong outflows which are ultimately powered by accretion. However, the exact driving mechanism is still unclear. Several components could contribute to the outflows: slow, wide-angle disk winds, X-winds launched close to the inner disk rim, and thermally driven stellar winds. In any case, the outflows contain material of very different temperatures and speeds. The disk wind is cool and can have a molecular component with just a few tens of km s-1, while the central component of the outflow can reach a few 100 km s-1. In some cases the inner part of the outflow is collimated to a small-angle jet. These jets have an onion-like structure, where the inner components are consecutively hotter and faster. The jets can contain working surfaces, which show up as Herbig-Haro knots. Accretion and outflows in the CTTS phase do not only determine stellar parameters like the rotation rate on the main-sequence, they also can have a profound impact on the environment of young stars. This review concentrates on CTTS in near-by star forming regions where

  5. Winds and Accretion in Young Stars

    Edwards, Suzan

    2008-01-01

    Establishing the origin of accretion powered winds from forming stars is critical for understanding angular momentum evolution in the star-disk interaction region. Here, the high velocity component of accretion powered winds is launched and accreting stars are spun down, in defiance of the expected spin-up during magnetospheric accretion. T Tauri stars in the final stage of disk accretion offer a unique opportunity to study the connection between accretion and winds and their relation to stellar spindown. Although spectroscopic indicators of high velocity T Tauri winds have been known for decades, the line of He I 10830 offers a promising new diagnostic to probe the magnetically controlled star-disk interaction and wind-launching region. The high opacity and resonance scattering properties of this line offer a powerful probe of the geometry of both the funnel flow and the inner wind that, together with other atomic and molecular spectral lines covering a wide range of excitation and ionization states, suggest...

  6. Accretion bursts in young stars driven by cluster environment

    Pfalzner, S; Tackenberg, J.; Steinhausen, M.

    2008-01-01

    The standard picture of accretion is a steady flow of matter from the disc onto the young star - a concept which assumes the star-disc system to be completely isolated. However, in a dense cluster environment star-disc systems do interact gravitationally. The aim here is to estimate the encounter-induced accretion rate in an ONC-like environment. Combining simulations of the cluster dynamics with simulations of the effect of encounters on star-disc systems we determine the likelihood and degr...

  7. Multi-dimensional structure of accreting young stars

    Geroux, C; Viallet, M; Goffrey, T; Pratt, J; Constantino, T; Folini, D; Popov, M V; Walder, R

    2016-01-01

    This work is the first attempt to describe the multi-dimensional structure of accreting young stars based on fully compressible time implicit multi-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations. One major motivation is to analyse the validity of accretion treatment used in previous 1D stellar evolution studies. We analyse the effect of accretion on the structure of a realistic stellar model of the young Sun. Our work is inspired by the numerical work of Kley \\& Lin (1996, ApJ, 461, 933) devoted to the structure of the boundary layer in accretion disks. We analyse the redistribution of accreted material with a range of values of specific entropy relative to the bulk specific entropy of the material in the accreting object's convective envelope. A primary goal is to understand whether and how accreted energy deposited onto a stellar surface is redistributed in the interior. This study focusses on the high accretion rates characteristic of FU Ori systems. We find that the highest entropy cases produce a distinctive ...

  8. Multi-dimensional structure of accreting young stars

    Geroux, C.; Baraffe, I.; Viallet, M.; Goffrey, T.; Pratt, J.; Constantino, T.; Folini, D.; Popov, M. V.; Walder, R.

    2016-04-01

    This work is the first attempt to describe the multi-dimensional structure of accreting young stars based on fully compressible time implicit multi-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations. One major motivation is to analyse the validity of accretion treatment used in previous 1D stellar evolution studies. We analyse the effect of accretion on the structure of a realistic stellar model of the young Sun. Our work is inspired by the numerical work of Kley & Lin (1996, ApJ, 461, 933) devoted to the structure of the boundary layer in accretion disks, which provides the outer boundary conditions for our simulations. We analyse the redistribution of accreted material with a range of values of specific entropy relative to the bulk specific entropy of the material in the accreting object's convective envelope. Low specific entropy accreted material characterises the so-called cold accretion process, whereas high specific entropy is relevant to hot accretion. A primary goal is to understand whether and how accreted energy deposited onto a stellar surface is redistributed in the interior. This study focusses on the high accretion rates characteristic of FU Ori systems. We find that the highest entropy cases produce a distinctive behaviour in the mass redistribution, rms velocities, and enthalpy flux in the convective envelope. This change in behaviour is characterised by the formation of a hot layer on the surface of the accreting object, which tends to suppress convection in the envelope. We analyse the long-term effect of such a hot buffer zone on the structure and evolution of the accreting object with 1D stellar evolution calculations. We study the relevance of the assumption of redistribution of accreted energy into the stellar interior used in the literature. We compare results obtained with the latter treatment and those obtained with a more physical accretion boundary condition based on the formation of a hot surface layer suggested by present multi

  9. X-Ray Spectroscopy of Accretion Shocks in Young Stars

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    2011-01-01

    High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of accreting young stars is providing new insights into the physical conditions of the shocked plasma. While young stars exhibit exceedingly active coronae (>10 MK) with highly energetic flares, the relatively low temperature ( 3 MK), high density (>1012 cm-3) accretion shock can only be clearly distinguished at high spectral resolution. The nearby Classical T Tauri star TW Hydrae was the first to show evidence of accretion using 50 ks with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG). More recently a Chandra HETG Large Program (489 ks obtained over the course of one month) on TW Hydrae has found evidence for a new type of coronal structure. In the standard model, the accreting gas shocks near the atmosphere of the star and gently settles onto the surface as it slows down and cools. On TW Hydrae the observed post-shock region is not this predicted settling flow, since its mass is 30 times the mass of material that passes through the shock. Instead the stellar atmosphere must be heated to soft X-ray emitting temperatures. Of the CTTS systems observed with the gratings on Chandra and XMM-Newton not all show the accretion shock signature; however, all of them show excess soft X-ray emission related to accretion. The production of highly charged ions in the proximity of both open and closed magnetic field lines has important implications for coronal heating, winds and jets in the presence of accretion. This work is supported by the Chandra X-ray Observatory through a NASA contract with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

  10. Fossil magnetic field of accretion disks of young stars

    Dudorov, A. E.; Khaibrakhmanov, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    We elaborate the model of accretion disks of young stars with the fossil large-scale magnetic field in the frame of Shakura and Sunyaev approximation. Equations of the MHD model include Shakura and Sunyaev equations, induction equation and equations of ionization balance. Magnetic field is determined taking into account ohmic diffusion, magnetic ambipolar diffusion and buoyancy. Ionization fraction is calculated considering ionization by cosmic rays and X-rays, thermal ionization, radiative r...

  11. Circumstellar Disks of the Most Vigorously Accreting Young Stars

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Dong, Ruobing; Vorobyov, Eduard I; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Fukagawa, Misato; Tamura, Motohide; Henning, Thomas; Dunham, Michael M; Karr, Jennifer; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Tsuribe, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Young stellar objects (YSOs) may not accumulate their mass steadily, as was previously thought, but in a series of violent events manifesting themselves as sharp stellar brightening. These events can be caused by fragmentation due to gravitational instabilities in massive gaseous disks surrounding young stars, followed by migration of dense gaseous clumps onto the star. We report our high angular resolution, coronagraphic near-infrared polarization imaging observations using the High Contrast Instrument for the Subaru Next Generation Adaptive Optics (HiCIAO) of the Subaru 8.2 m Telescope, towards four YSOs which are undergoing luminous accretion outbursts. The obtained infrared images have verified the presence of several hundred AUs scale arms and arcs surrounding these YSOs. In addition, our hydrodynamics simulations and radiative transfer models further demonstrate that these observed structures can indeed be explained by strong gravitational instabilities occurring at the beginning of the disk formation p...

  12. Vertical Structure of Magnetized Accretion Disks around Young Stars

    Lizano, S; Boehler, Y; D'Alessio, P

    2015-01-01

    We model the vertical structure of magnetized accretion disks subject to viscous and resistive heating, and irradiation by the central star. We apply our formalism to the radial structure of magnetized accretion disks threaded by a poloidal magnetic field dragged during the process of star formation developed by Shu and coworkers. We consider disks around low mass protostars, T Tauri, and FU Orionis stars. We consider two levels of disk magnetization, $\\lambda_{sys} = 4$ (strongly magnetized disks), and $\\lambda_{sys} = 12$ (weakly magnetized disks). The rotation rates of strongly magnetized disks have large deviations from Keplerian rotation. In these models, resistive heating dominates the thermal structure for the FU Ori disk. The T Tauri disk is very thin and cold because it is strongly compressed by magnetic pressure; it may be too thin compared with observations. Instead, in the weakly magnetized disks, rotation velocities are close to Keplerian, and resistive heating is always less than 7\\% of the visc...

  13. Circumstellar disks of the most vigorously accreting young stars.

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Takami, Michihiro; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Dong, Ruobing; Vorobyov, Eduard I; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Fukagawa, Misato; Tamura, Motohide; Henning, Thomas; Dunham, Michael M; Karr, Jennifer L; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Tsuribe, Toru

    2016-02-01

    Stars may not accumulate their mass steadily, as was previously thought, but in a series of violent events manifesting themselves as sharp stellar brightening. These events can be caused by fragmentation due to gravitational instabilities in massive gaseous disks surrounding young stars, followed by migration of dense gaseous clumps onto the star. Our high-resolution near-infrared imaging has verified the presence of the key associated features, large-scale arms and arcs surrounding four young stellar objects undergoing luminous outbursts. Our hydrodynamics simulations and radiative transfer models show that these observed structures can indeed be explained by strong gravitational instabilities occurring at the beginning of the disk formation phase. The effect of those tempestuous episodes of disk evolution on star and planet formation remains to be understood. PMID:26989772

  14. Accretion Disks around Young Stars: An Observational Perspective

    Ménard, F.; Bertout, C.

    Accretion disks are pivotal elements in the formation and early evolution of solar-like stars. On top of supplying the raw material, their internal conditions also regulate the formation of planets. Their study therefore holds the key to solve this long standing mystery: how did our Solar System form? This chapter focuses on observational studies of the circumstellar environment, and in particular of circumstellar disks, associated with pre-main sequence solar-like stars. The direct measurement of disk parameters poses an obvious challenge: at the distance of the typical star forming regions ( e.g. 140 pc for Taurus), a planetary system like ours (with diameter simeq50 AU out to Pluto, but excluding the Kuiper belt which could extend much farther out) subtends only 0.35''. Yet its surface brightness is low in comparison to the bright central star and high angular and high contrast imaging techniques are required if one hopes to resolve and measure these protoplanetary disks. Fortunately, capable instruments providing 0.1'' resolution or better and high contrast have been available for just about 10 years now. They are covering a large part of the electromagnetic spectrum, from the UV/Optical with HST and the near-infrared from ground-based adaptive optics systems, to the millimetric range with long-baseline radio interferometers. It is therefore not surprising that our knowledge of the structure of the disks surrounding low-mass stars has made a gigantic leap forward in the last decade. In the following pages we will attempt to describe, in a historical perpective, the road that led to the idea that most solar-like stars are surrounded by an accretion disk at one point in their early life and how, nowadays, their structural and physical parameters can be estimated from direct observations. We will follow by a short discussion of a few of the constraints available regarding the evolution and dissipation of these disks. This last topic is particularly relevant today

  15. Discovery of an Accretion-Fed Corona in an Accreting Young Star

    Wolk, Scott J.; Brickhouse, N.; Cranmer, S.; Dupree, A.; Luna, G. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    A deep (489 ks) Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating spectrum of the classical T Tauri star TW Hydrae shows a new type of coronal structure that is produced by the accretion process. In the standard model for a stellar dipole, the magnetic field truncates the disk and channels the accreting material onto the star. The He-like diagnostic lines of Ne IX provide excellent agreement with the shock conditions predicted by this model, with an electron temperature of 2.5 MK and electron density of 3 times 1012 cm-3 (see also Kastner et al. 2002). However, the standard model completely fails to predict the post-shock conditions, significantly overpredicting both the density and absorption observed at O VII. Instead the observations require a second "post-shock" component with 30 times more mass and 1000 times larger volume than found at the shock itself. We note that in the standard model, the shocked plasma is conveniently located near both closed (coronal) and open (stellar wind) magnetic structures, as the magnetic field connecting the star and disk also separates the open and closed field regions on the stellar surface. The shocked plasma thus can provide the energy to heat not only the post-shock plasma, but also adjacent regions (i.e. an "accretion-fed corona") and drive stellar material into surrounding coronal structures. These observations provide new clues to the puzzling soft X-ray excess found in accreting systems, which depends on both the presence of accretion and the level of coronal activity (Guedel and Telleschi 2007). This work is partially supported by CXO grant G07-8018X.

  16. A Deep Chandra X-ray Spectrum of the Accreting Young Star TW Hydrae

    Brickhouse, N. S.; Cranmer, S. R.; Dupree, A. K.; Luna, G. J. M.; Wolk, S.

    2010-01-01

    We present X-ray spectral analysis of the accreting young star TW Hydrae from a 489 ks observation using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating. The spectrum provides a rich set of diagnostics for electron temperature T_e, electron density N_e, hydrogen column density N_H, relative elemental abundances and velocities and reveals its source in 3 distinct regions of the stellar atmosphere: the stellar corona, the accretion shock, and a very large extended volume of warm postshock plasma. ...

  17. CSI 2264: characterizing accretion-burst dominated light curves for young stars in NGC 2264

    Based on more than four weeks of continuous high-cadence photometric monitoring of several hundred members of the young cluster NGC 2264 with two space telescopes, NASA's Spitzer and the CNES CoRoT (Convection, Rotation, and planetary Transits), we provide high-quality, multi-wavelength light curves for young stellar objects whose optical variability is dominated by short-duration flux bursts, which we infer are due to enhanced mass accretion rates. These light curves show many brief—several hours to one day—brightenings at optical and near-infrared wavelengths with amplitudes generally in the range of 5%-50% of the quiescent value. Typically, a dozen or more of these bursts occur in a 30 day period. We demonstrate that stars exhibiting this type of variability have large ultraviolet (UV) excesses and dominate the portion of the u – g versus g – r color-color diagram with the largest UV excesses. These stars also have large Hα equivalent widths, and either centrally peaked, lumpy Hα emission profiles or profiles with blueshifted absorption dips associated with disk or stellar winds. Light curves of this type have been predicted for stars whose accretion is dominated by Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities at the boundary between their magnetosphere and inner circumstellar disk, or where magneto-rotational instabilities modulate the accretion rate from the inner disk. Among the stars with the largest UV excesses or largest Hα equivalent widths, light curves with this type of variability greatly outnumber light curves with relatively smooth sinusoidal variations associated with long-lived hot spots. We provide quantitative statistics for the average duration and strength of the accretion bursts and for the fraction of the accretion luminosity associated with these bursts.

  18. Accretion onto Planetary Mass Companions of Low-Mass Young Stars

    Zhou, Yifan; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Kraus, Adam L.; Metchev, Stanimir; Cruz, Kelle

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of accretion rates onto planetary mass objects may distinguish between different planet formation mechanisms, which predict different accretion histories. In this Letter, we use \\HST/WFC3 UVIS optical photometry to measure accretion rates onto three accreting objects, GSC06214-00210 b, GQ Lup b, and DH Tau b, that are at the planet/brown dwarf boundary and are companions to solar mass stars. The excess optical emission in the excess accretion continuum yields mass accretion rates...

  19. A Deep Chandra X-Ray Spectrum of the Accreting Young Star TW Hydrae

    Brickhouse, N. S.; Cranmer, S. R.; Dupree, A. K.; Luna, G. J. M.; Wolk, S.

    2010-02-01

    We present X-ray spectral analysis of the accreting young star TW Hydrae from a 489 ks observation using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating. The spectrum provides a rich set of diagnostics for electron temperature Te , electron density Ne , hydrogen column density NH , relative elemental abundances, and velocities, and reveals its source in three distinct regions of the stellar atmosphere: the stellar corona, the accretion shock, and a very large extended volume of warm postshock plasma. The presence of Mg XII, Si XIII, and Si XIV emission lines in the spectrum requires coronal structures at ~10 MK. Lower temperature lines (e.g., from O VIII, Ne IX, and Mg XI) formed at 2.5 MK appear more consistent with emission from an accretion shock. He-like Ne IX line ratio diagnostics indicate that Te = 2.50 ± 0.25 MK and Ne = 3.0 ± 0.2 × 1012 cm-3 in the shock. These values agree well with standard magnetic accretion models. However, the Chandra observations significantly diverge from current model predictions for the postshock plasma. This gas is expected to cool radiatively, producing O VII as it flows into an increasingly dense stellar atmosphere. Surprisingly, O VII indicates Ne = 5.7+4.4 -1.2 × 1011 cm-3, 5 times lower than Ne in the accretion shock itself and ~7 times lower than the model prediction. We estimate that the postshock region producing O VII has roughly 300 times larger volume and 30 times more emitting mass than the shock itself. Apparently, the shocked plasma heats the surrounding stellar atmosphere to soft X-ray emitting temperatures and supplies this material to nearby large magnetic structures—which may be closed magnetic loops or open magnetic field leading to mass outflow. Our model explains the soft X-ray excess found in many accreting systems as well as the failure to observe high Ne signatures in some stars. Such accretion-fed coronae may be ubiquitous in the atmospheres of accreting young stars.

  20. Formation of new stellar populations from gas accreted by massive young star clusters.

    Li, Chengyuan; de Grijs, Richard; Deng, Licai; Geller, Aaron M; Xin, Yu; Hu, Yi; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André

    2016-01-28

    Stars in clusters are thought to form in a single burst from a common progenitor cloud of molecular gas. However, massive, old 'globular' clusters--those with ages greater than ten billion years and masses several hundred thousand times that of the Sun--often harbour multiple stellar populations, indicating that more than one star-forming event occurred during their lifetimes. Colliding stellar winds from late-stage, asymptotic-giant-branch stars are often suggested to be triggers of second-generation star formation. For this to occur, the initial cluster masses need to be greater than a few million solar masses. Here we report observations of three massive relatively young star clusters (1-2 billion years old) in the Magellanic Clouds that show clear evidence of burst-like star formation that occurred a few hundred million years after their initial formation era. We show that such clusters could have accreted sufficient gas to form new stars if they had orbited in their host galaxies' gaseous disks throughout the period between their initial formation and the more recent bursts of star formation. This process may eventually give rise to the ubiquitous multiple stellar populations in globular clusters. PMID:26819043

  1. Formation of new stellar populations from gas accreted by massive young star clusters

    Li, Chengyuan; de Grijs, Richard; Deng, Licai; Geller, Aaron M.; Xin, Yu; Hu, Yi; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André

    2016-01-01

    Stars in clusters are thought to form in a single burst from a common progenitor cloud of molecular gas. However, massive, old ‘globular’ clusters—those with ages greater than ten billion years and masses several hundred thousand times that of the Sun—often harbour multiple stellar populations, indicating that more than one star-forming event occurred during their lifetimes. Colliding stellar winds from late-stage, asymptotic-giant-branch stars are often suggested to be triggers of second-generation star formation. For this to occur, the initial cluster masses need to be greater than a few million solar masses. Here we report observations of three massive relatively young star clusters (1-2 billion years old) in the Magellanic Clouds that show clear evidence of burst-like star formation that occurred a few hundred million years after their initial formation era. We show that such clusters could have accreted sufficient gas to form new stars if they had orbited in their host galaxies’ gaseous disks throughout the period between their initial formation and the more recent bursts of star formation. This process may eventually give rise to the ubiquitous multiple stellar populations in globular clusters.

  2. A Deep Chandra X-ray Spectrum of the Accreting Young Star TW Hydrae

    Brickhouse, N S; Dupree, A K; Luna, G J M; Wolk, S

    2010-01-01

    We present X-ray spectral analysis of the accreting young star TW Hydrae from a 489 ks observation using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating. The spectrum provides a rich set of diagnostics for electron temperature T_e, electron density N_e, hydrogen column density N_H, relative elemental abundances and velocities and reveals its source in 3 distinct regions of the stellar atmosphere: the stellar corona, the accretion shock, and a very large extended volume of warm postshock plasma. The presence of Mg XII, Si XIII, and Si XIV emission lines in the spectrum requires coronal structures at ~10 MK. Lower temperature lines (e.g., from O VIII, Ne IX, and Mg XI) formed at 2.5 MK appear more consistent with emission from an accretion shock. He-like Ne IX line ratio diagnostics indicate that T_e = 2.50 +/- 0.25 MK and N_e = 3.0 +/- 0.2 x 10^(12) cm^(-3) in the shock. These values agree well with standard magnetic accretion models. However, the Chandra observations significantly diverge from current model pred...

  3. An X-ray Outburst from the Rapidly Accreting Young Star That Illuminates McNeil's Nebula

    Kästner, J H; Grosso, N; Weintraub, D A; Simon, T; Franck, A; Hamaguchi, K; Ozawa, H; Henden, A

    2004-01-01

    Young, low-mass stars are luminous X-ray sources whose powerful X-ray flares may exert a profound influence over the process of planet formation. The origin of such emission is uncertain. Although many or perhaps most recently formed, low-mass stars emit X-rays as a consequence of solar-like coronal activity, it has also been suggested that X-ray emission may be a direct result of mass accretion onto the forming star. Here we report X-ray imaging spectroscopy observations which reveal a factor ~50 increase in the X-ray flux from a young star that is presently undergoing a spectacular optical/IR outburst. The outburst is thought to be due to the sudden onset of a phase of rapid accretion. The coincidence of a surge in X-ray brightness with the optical/IR eruption demonstrates that strongly enhanced high-energy emission from young stars can occur as a consequence of high accretion rates. We suggest that such accretion- enhanced X-ray emission from erupting young stars may be short-lived, because intense star-di...

  4. ACCRETION ONTO PLANETARY MASS COMPANIONS OF LOW-MASS YOUNG STARS

    Measurements of accretion rates onto planetary mass objects may distinguish between different planet formation mechanisms, which predict different accretion histories. In this Letter, we use Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFC3 UVIS optical photometry to measure accretion rates onto three accreting objects, GSC 06214–00210 b, GQ Lup b, and DH Tau b, that are at the planet/brown dwarf boundary and are companions to solar mass stars. The excess optical emission in the excess accretion continuum yields mass accretion rates of 10–9-10–11 M ☉ yr–1 for these three objects. Their accretion rates are an order of magnitude higher than expected from the correlation between mass and accretion rates measured from the UV excess, which is applicable if these wide planetary mass companions formed by protostellar core fragmentation. The high accretion rates and large separation from the central star demonstrate the presence of massive disks around these objects. Models for the formation and evolution of wide planetary mass companions should account for their large accretion rates. High ratios of Hα luminosity over accretion luminosity for objects with low accretion rates suggest that searches for Hα emission may be an efficient way to find accreting planets

  5. Evidence for a correlation between mass accretion rates onto young stars and the mass of their protoplanetary disks

    Manara, C F; Testi, L; Natta, A; Alcalá, J M; Williams, J P; Ansdell, M; Miotello, A; van der Marel, N; Tazzari, M; Carpenter, J; Guidi, G; Mathews, G S; Oliveira, I; Prusti, T; van Dishoeck, E F

    2016-01-01

    A relation between the mass accretion rate onto the central young star and the mass of the surrounding protoplanetary disk has long been theoretically predicted and observationally sought. For the first time, we have accurately and homogeneously determined the photospheric parameters, the mass accretion rate, and the disk mass for an essentially complete sample of young stars with disks in the Lupus clouds. Our work combines the results of surveys conducted with VLT/X-Shooter and ALMA. With this dataset we are able to test a basic prediction of viscous accretion theory, the existence of a linear relation between the mass accretion rate onto the central star and the total disk mass. We find a correlation between the mass accretion rate and the disk dust mass, with a ratio that is roughly consistent with the expected viscous timescale when assuming an ISM gas-to-dust ratio. This confirms that mass accretion rates are related to the properties of the outer disk. We find no correlation between mass accretion rate...

  6. Evidence for a correlation between mass accretion rates onto young stars and the mass of their protoplanetary disks

    Manara, C. F.; Rosotti, G.; Testi, L.; Natta, A.; Alcalá, J. M.; Williams, J. P.; Ansdell, M.; Miotello, A.; van der Marel, N.; Tazzari, M.; Carpenter, J.; Guidi, G.; Mathews, G. S.; Oliveira, I.; Prusti, T.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2016-06-01

    A relation between the mass accretion rate onto the central young star and the mass of the surrounding protoplanetary disk has long been theoretically predicted and observationally sought. For the first time, we have accurately and homogeneously determined the photospheric parameters, mass accretion rate, and disk mass for an essentially complete sample of young stars with disks in the Lupus clouds. Our work combines the results of surveys conducted with VLT/X-Shooter and ALMA. With this dataset we are able to test a basic prediction of viscous accretion theory, the existence of a linear relation between the mass accretion rate onto the central star and the total disk mass. We find a correlation between the mass accretion rate and the disk dust mass, with a ratio that is roughly consistent with the expected viscous timescale when assuming an interstellar medium gas-to-dust ratio. This confirms that mass accretion rates are related to the properties of the outer disk. We find no correlation between mass accretion rates and the disk mass measured by CO isotopologues emission lines, possibly owing to the small number of measured disk gas masses. This suggests that the mm-sized dust mass better traces the total disk mass and that masses derived from CO may be underestimated, at least in some cases.

  7. CSI 2264: Characterizing Accretion-Burst Dominated Light Curves for Young Stars in NGC 2264

    Stauffer, John; Baglin, Annie; Alencar, Silvia H P; Rebull, Luisa; Hillenbrand, Lynne A; Venuti, Laura; Turner, Neal J; Carpenter, John; Plavchan, Peter; Findeisen, Krzysztof; Carey, Sean; Terebey, Susan; Morales-Calderón, María; Bouvier, Jerome; Micela, Giusi; Flaccomio, Ettore; Song, Inseok; Gutermuth, Rob; Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria; Whitney, Barbara; Barrado, David; Vrba, Frederick J; Covey, Kevin; Herbst, William; Furesz, Gabor; Aigrain, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Based on more than four weeks of continuous high cadence photometric monitoring of several hundred members of the young cluster NGC 2264 with two space telescopes, NASA's Spitzer and the CNES CoRoT (Convection, Rotation, and planetary Transits), we provide high quality, multi-wavelength light curves for young stellar objects (YSOs) whose optical variability is dominated by short duration flux bursts, which we infer are due to enhanced mass accretion rates. These light curves show many brief -- several hour to one day -- brightenings at optical and near-infrared (IR) wavelengths with amplitudes generally in the range 5-50% of the quiescent value. Typically, a dozen or more of these bursts occur in a thirty day period. We demonstrate that stars exhibiting this type of variability have large ultraviolet (UV) excesses and dominate the portion of the u-g vs. g-r color-color diagram with the largest UV excesses. These stars also have large Halpha equivalent widths, and either centrally peaked, lumpy Halpha emission...

  8. Non-LTE Modelling of the Structure and Spectra of the Hot Accretion Spots on the Surface of Young Stars

    Dodin, A V

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the modelling of the structure and spectra of the hot accretion spots on the surface of young stars with taking into account departures from LTE for hydrogen and helium. It has been found that the existence of the ram pressure of the in-falling gas at the outer boundary of the hot spot leads to the Stark broadening of the hydrogen line profiles up to FWHM of about 1000 km/s at the considered accretion parameters. It is shown that taking into account departures from LTE for atoms and ions of carbon and oxygen does not lead to noticeable changes in the structure of the hot spot.

  9. Chemical signatures of rocky accretion in a young solar-type star

    Spina, Lorenzo

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that newly formed planetary systems undergo processes of orbital reconfiguration and planetary migration. As a result, planets or proto-planetary objects may accrete onto the central star, being fused and mixed into its external layers. If the accreted mass is sufficiently large and the star has a sufficiently thin convective envelope, such events may result in a modification of the chemical composition of the stellar photosphere in an observable way, enhancing it with elements that were abundant in the accreted mass. Recently, the Gaia-ESO Survey observations of the 10-20 Myr old Gamma Velorum cluster have enabled the identification of a star significantly enriched in iron with respect to other cluster members. In this seminar I will present a further investigation of the abundance pattern of this star, showing that its chemical anomaly is not limited to iron, but is also present in all the refractory elements whose abundances are correlated with the condensation temperature. This finding strongly supports the hypothesis of a recent accretion of rocky material.

  10. Variable accretion processes in the young binary-star system UY Aur

    We present new K-band spectroscopy of the UY Aur binary star system. Our data are the first to show H2 emission in the spectrum of UY Aur A and the first to spectrally resolve the Brγ line in the spectrum of UY Aur B. We see an increase in the strength of the Brγ line in UY Aur A and a decrease in Brγ and H2 line luminosity for UY Aur B compared to previous studies. Converting Brγ line luminosity to accretion rate, we infer that the accretion rate onto UY Aur A has increased by 2 × 10–9 M ☉ yr–1 per year since a rate of zero was observed in 1994. The Brγ line strength for UY Aur B has decreased by a factor of 0.54 since 1994, but the K-band flux has increased by 0.9 mag since 1998. The veiling of UY Aur B has also increased significantly. These data evince a much more luminous disk around UY Aur B. If the lower Brγ luminosity observed in the spectrum of UY Aur B indicates an intrinsically smaller accretion rate onto the star, then UY Aur A now accretes at a higher rate than UY Aur B. However, extinction at small radii or mass pile-up in the circumstellar disk could explain decreased Brγ emission around UY Aur B even when the disk luminosity implies an increased accretion rate. In addition to our scientific results for the UY Aur system, we discuss a dedicated pipeline we have developed for the reduction of echelle-mode data from the ARIES spectrograph.

  11. Formation of new stellar populations from gas accreted by massive young star clusters

    Li, Chengyuan; Deng, Licai; Geller, Aaron M; Xin, Yu; Hu, Yi; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre

    2016-01-01

    Stars in star clusters are thought to form in a single burst from a common progenitor cloud of molecular gas. However, massive, old globular clusters -- with ages greater than 10 billion years and masses of several hundred thousand solar masses -- often harbour multiple stellar populations, indicating that more than one star-forming event occurred during their lifetimes. Colliding stellar winds from late-stage, asymptotic-giant-branch stars are often invoked as second-generation star-formation trigger. The initial cluster masses should be at least 10 times more massive than they are today for this to work. However, large populations of clusters with masses greater than a few million solar masses are not found in the local Universe. Here we report on three 1-2 billion-year-old, massive star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds, which show clear evidence of burst-like star formation that occurred a few hundred million years after their initial formation era. We show that such clusters could accrete sufficient gas ...

  12. Population synthesis of young isolated neutron stars: the effect of fallback disk accretion and magnetic field evolution

    Fu, Lei

    2013-01-01

    The spin evolution of isolated neutron stars (NSs) is dominatd by their magnetic fields. The measured braking indices of young NSs show that the spin-down mechanism due to magnetic dipole radiation with constant magnetic fields is inadequate. Assuming that the NS magnetic field is buried by supernova fallback matter and re-emerges after accretion stops, we carry out Monte-Carlo simulation of the evolution of young NSs, and show that most of the pulsars have the braking indices ranging from -1 to 3. The results are compatible with the observational data of NSs associated with supernova remnants. They also suggest that the initial spin periods of NSs might occupy a relatively wide range.

  13. The Gaia-ESO Survey: chemical signatures of rocky accretion in a young solar-type star

    Spina, L; Randich, S; Sacco, G G; Jeffries, R; Magrini, L; Franciosini, E; Meyer, M R; Tautvaišienė, G; Gilmore, G; Alfaro, E J; Prieto, C Allende; Bensby, T; Bragaglia, A; Flaccomio, E; Koposov, S E; Lanzafame, A C; Costado, M T; Hourihane, A; Lardo, C; Lewis, J; Monaco, L; Morbidelli, L; Sousa, S G; Worley, C C; Zaggia, S

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that newly formed planetary systems undergo processes of orbital reconfiguration and planetary migration. As a result, planets or protoplanetary objects may accrete onto the central star, being fused and mixed into its external layers. If the accreted mass is sufficiently high and the star has a sufficiently thin convective envelope, such events may result in a modification of the chemical composition of the stellar photosphere in an observable way, enhancing it with elements that were abundant in the accreted mass. The recent Gaia-ESO Survey observations of the 10-20 Myr old Gamma Velorum cluster have enabled identifying a star that is significantly enriched in iron with respect to other cluster members. In this Letter we further investigate the abundance pattern of this star, showing that its abundance anomaly is not limited to iron, but is also present in the refractory elements, whose overabundances are correlated with the condensation temperature. This finding strongly supports the hypot...

  14. Accretion disks in luminous young stellar objects

    Beltran, M T

    2015-01-01

    An observational review is provided of the properties of accretion disks around young stars. It concerns the primordial disks of intermediate- and high-mass young stellar objects in embedded and optically revealed phases. The properties were derived from spatially resolved observations and therefore predominantly obtained with interferometric means, either in the radio/(sub)millimeter or in the optical/infrared wavelength regions. We make summaries and comparisons of the physical properties, kinematics, and dynamics of these circumstellar structures and delineate trends where possible. Amongst others, we report on a quadratic trend of mass accretion rates with mass from T Tauri stars to the highest mass young stellar objects and on the systematic difference in mass infall and accretion rates.

  15. Massive Star Formation: Accreting from Companion

    X. Chen; J. S. Zhang

    2014-09-01

    We report the possible accretion from companion in the massive star forming region (G350.69–0.49). This region seems to be a binary system composed of a diffuse object (possible nebulae or UC HII region) and a Massive Young Stellar Object (MYSO) seen in Spitzer IRAC image. The diffuse object and MYSO are connected by the shock-excited 4.5 m emission, suggesting that the massive star may form through accreting material from the companion in this system.

  16. The Gaia-ESO Survey: chemical signatures of rocky accretion in a young solar-type star

    Spina, L.; Palla, F.; Randich, S.; Sacco, G.; Jeffries, R.; Magrini, L.; Franciosini, E.; Meyer, M. R.; Tautvaišienė, G.; Gilmore, G.; Alfaro, E. J.; Allende Prieto, C.; Bensby, T.; Bragaglia, A.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Costado, M. T.; Hourihane, A.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sousa, S. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that newly formed planetary systems undergo processes of orbital reconfiguration and planetary migration. As a result, planets or protoplanetary objects may accrete onto the central star, being fused and mixed into its external layers. If the accreted mass is sufficiently high and the star has a sufficiently thin convective envelope, such events may result in a modification of the chemical composition of the stellar photosphere in an observable way, enhancing it with elements that were abundant in the accreted mass. The recent Gaia-ESO Survey observations of the 10-20 Myr old Gamma Velorum cluster have enabled identifying a star that is significantly enriched in iron with respect to other cluster members. In this Letter we further investigate the abundance pattern of this star, showing that its abundance anomaly is not limited to iron, but is also present in the refractory elements, whose overabundances are correlated with the condensation temperature. This finding strongly supports the hypothesis of a recent accretion of rocky material. Based on observations made with the ESO/VLT, at Paranal Observatory, under program 188.B-3002 (The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey).

  17. Accretion properties of T Tauri stars in sigma Ori

    Gatti, T.; Natta, A.; Randich, S.; Testi, L.; Sacco, G.

    2008-01-01

    Accretion disks around young stars evolve in time with time scales of few million years. We present here a study of the accretion properties of a sample of 35 stars in the ~3 million year old star-forming region sigma Ori. Of these, 31 are objects with evidence of disks, based on their IR excess emission. We use near-IR hydrogen recombination lines (Pa_gamma) to measure their mass accretion rate. We find that the accretion rates are significantly lower in sigma Ori than in younger regions, su...

  18. Accretion torque on magnetized neutron stars

    Dai, Hai-Lang; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2006-01-01

    The conventional picture of disk accretion onto magnetized neutron stars has been challenged by the spin changes observed in a few X-ray pulsars, and by theoretical results from numerical simulations of disk-magnetized star interactions. These indicate possible accretion during the propeller regime and the spin-down torque increasing with the accretion rate. Here we present a model for the accretion torque exerted by the disk on a magnetized neutron star, assuming accretion continues even for...

  19. X-shooter spectroscopy of young stellar objects. IV. Accretion in low-mass stars and substellar objects in Lupus

    Alcalá, J. M.; Natta, A.; Manara, C. F.; Spezzi, L.; Stelzer, B.; Frasca, A.; Biazzo, K.; Covino, E.; Randich, S.; Rigliaco, E.; Testi, L.; Comerón, F.; Cupani, G.; D'Elia, V.

    2014-01-01

    We present VLT/X-shooter observations of a sample of 36 accreting low-mass stellar and substellar objects (YSOs) in the Lupus star-forming region, spanning a range in mass from ~0.03 to ~1.2 M⊙, but mostly with 0.1 M⊙accretion diagnostics, and, secondly, to investigate the accretion properties in terms of the physical properties of the central object. The accretion luminosity (Lacc), and in turn the accretion rate (Ṁacc), was derived by modelling the excess emission from the UV to the near-infrared as the continuum emission of a slab of hydrogen. We computed the flux and luminosity (Lline) of many emission lines of H , He , and Ca ii, observed simultaneously in the range from ~330 nm to 2500 nm. The luminosity of all the lines is well correlated with Lacc. We provide empirical relationships between Lacc and the luminosity of 39 emission lines, which have a lower dispersion than relationships previously reported in the literature. Our measurements extend the Paβ and Brγ relationships to Lacc values about two orders of magnitude lower than those reported in previous studies. We confirm that different methodologies of measuring Lacc and Ṁacc yield significantly different results: Hα line profile modelling may underestimate Ṁacc by 0.6 to 0.8 dex with respect to Ṁacc derived from continuum-excess measures. These differences may explain the probably spurious bi-modal relationships between Ṁacc and other YSOs properties reported in the literature. We derived Ṁacc in the range 2 × 10-12-4 × 10-8 M⊙ yr-1 and conclude that Ṁacc ∝ M⋆1.8(±0.2), with a dispersion lower by a factor of about 2 than in previous studies. A number of properties indicate that the physical conditions of the accreting gas are similar over more than 5 orders of magnitude in Ṁacc, confirming previous suggestions that the geometry of the accretion flow

  20. Massive star formation by accretion. I. Disc accretion

    Haemmerlé, L.; Eggenberger, P.; Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.; Charbonnel, C.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Massive stars likely form by accretion and the evolutionary track of an accreting forming star corresponds to what is called the birthline in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. The shape of this birthline is quite sensitive to the evolution of the entropy in the accreting star. Aims: We first study the reasons why some birthlines published in past years present different behaviours for a given accretion rate. We then revisit the question of the accretion rate, which allows us to understand the distribution of the observed pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) stars in the HR diagram. Finally, we identify the conditions needed to obtain a large inflation of the star along its pre-MS evolution that may push the birthline towards the Hayashi line in the upper part of the HR diagram. Methods: We present new pre-MS models including accretion at various rates and for different initial structures of the accreting core. We compare them with previously published equivalent models. From the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram, we deduce the accretion law that best matches the accretion history of most of the intermediate-mass stars. Results: In the numerical computation of the time derivative of the entropy, some treatment leads to an artificial loss of entropy and thus reduces the inflation that the accreting star undergoes along the birthline. In the case of cold disc accretion, the existence of a significant swelling during the accretion phase, which leads to radii ≳ 100 R⊙ and brings the star back to the red part of the HR diagram, depends sensitively on the initial conditions. For an accretion rate of 10-3M⊙ yr-1, only models starting from a core with a significant radiative region evolve back to the red part of the HR diagram. We also obtain that, in order to reproduce the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram with an accretion law deduced from the observed mass outflows in ultra-compact HII regions, the fraction of the

  1. Massive star formation by accretion I. Disc accretion

    Haemmerlé, Lionel; Meynet, Georges; Maeder, André; Charbonnel, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Massive stars likely form by accretion and the evolutionary track of an accreting forming star corresponds to what is called the birthline in the HR diagram. The shape of this birthline is quite sensitive to the evolution of the entropy in the accreting star. We first study the reasons why some birthlines published in past years present different behaviours for a given accretion rate. We then revisit the question of the accretion rate, which allows us to understand the distribution of the observed pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. Finally, we identify the conditions needed to obtain a large inflation of the star along its pre-MS evolution that may push the birthline towards the Hayashi line in the upper part of the HR diagram. We present new pre-MS models including accretion at various rates and for different initial structures of the accreting core. From the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram, we deduce the accretion law that best matches the acc...

  2. Theory of Disk Accretion onto Magnetic Stars

    Lai Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disk accretion onto magnetic stars occurs in a variety of systems, including accreting neutron stars (with both high and low magnetic fields, white dwarfs, and protostars. We review some of the key physical processes in magnetosphere-disk interaction, highlighting the theoretical uncertainties. We also discuss some applications to the observations of accreting neutron star and protostellar systems, as well as possible connections to protoplanetary disks and exoplanets.

  3. Embedded, Accreting Disks in Massive Star Formation

    Kratter, Kaitlin M; Krumholz, Mark R

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of massive star formation have made clear the important role of protostellar disks in mediating accretion. Here we describe a simple, semi-analytic model for young, deeply embedded, massive accretion disks. Our approach enables us to sample a wide parameter space of stellar mass and environmental variables, providing a means to make predictions for a variety of sources that next generation telescopes like ALMA and the EVLA will observe. Moreover we include, at least approximately, multiple mechanisms for angular momentum transport, a comprehensive model for disk heating and cooling, and a realistic estimate for the angular momentum in the gas reservoir. We make predictions for the typical sizes, masses, and temperatures of the disks, and describe the role of gravitational instabilities in determining the binarity fraction and upper mass cut-off.

  4. Probing thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars

    Keek, L.

    2008-01-01

    Neutron stars are the most compact stars that can be directly observed, which makes them ideal laboratories to study physics at extreme densities. Neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries accrete hydrogen and helium from a lower-mass companion star through Roche lobe overflow. This matter undergoes

  5. Accreting neutron stars by QFT

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    layer with thickness of 1 km then q = 1 (N1S1), the gravity from N1S1 inside and exterior will be completely shielded. Because of net nuν _{0} flux is the medium to produce and transmit gravity, q obstructed by the shielding layer lie on the density of layer matter and the section of single nucleon to electronic neutrino obtained by nuclear physics experiments is about 1.1*10 ({-) 43} cm (2) . The mass inside N1S1 for exterior has not gravity interaction, it equivalent to has not inertia as the mass vanish. The neutron star is as a empty shell thereby may rapidly rotating and has not upper limit of mass and radii by the gravity accretion of N1S1, which will influence the mechanisms of pulsars, quasars and X-rays generated. At N1S1 interior the mass for exterior has not gravity which is just we searching dark matter. The mass each part will each other shielding and gravity decrease to less than the pressure of the degenerate neutron gas. The neutron star cannot collapse into a singular point with infinite density, i.e., the black hole with infinite gravity cannot be formed or the neutron star is jest the black hole in observational meaning. By the gravity accrete of N1S1 the neutron star may enlarge its shell radii but thickness keep. Only a shell gravity may be not less than any a observed value which to be deemed as black hole. The neutron star has powerful gravity certainly accompany with great surface negative charge and it may rapidly to rotate, so that there is a powerful magnetic field surround it. The accreting neutron star is as a slowly expand empty shell with fixed thickness of 1 km, its spin period depend on its radii or total accretion mass.

  6. Probing neutron star physics using accreting neutron stars

    Patruno A.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We give an obervational overview of the accreting neutron stars systems as probes of neutron star physics. In particular we focus on the results obtained from the periodic timing of accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars in outburst and from the measurement of X-ray spectra of accreting neutron stars during quiescence. In the first part of this overview we show that the X-ray pulses are contaminated by a large amount of noise of uncertain origin, and that all these neutron stars do not show evidence of spin variations during the outburst. We present also some recent developments on the presence of intermittency in three accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars and investigate the reason why only a small number of accreting neutron stars show X-ray pulsations and why none of these pulsars shows sub-millisecond spin periods. In the second part of the overview we introduce the observational technique that allows the study of neutron star cooling in accreting systems as probes of neutron star internal composition and equation of state. We explain the phenomenon of the deep crustal heating and present some recent developments on several quasi persistent X-ray sources where a cooling neutron star has been observed.

  7. Young massive star clusters

    Zwart, Simon Portegies; Gieles, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Young massive clusters are dense aggregates of young stars that form the fundamental building blocks of galaxies. Several examples exist in the Milky Way Galaxy and the Local Group, but they are particularly abundant in starburst and interacting galaxies. The few young massive clusters that are close enough to resolve are of prime interest for studying the stellar mass function and the ecological interplay between stellar evolution and stellar dynamics. The distant unresolved clusters may be effectively used to study the star-cluster mass function, and they provide excellent constraints on the formation mechanisms of young cluster populations. Young massive clusters are expected to be the nurseries for many unusual objects, including a wide range of exotic stars and binaries. So far only a few such objects have been found in young massive clusters, although their older cousins, the globular clusters, are unusually rich in stellar exotica. In this review we focus on star clusters younger than $\\sim100$\\,Myr, m...

  8. The Final Fates of Accreting Supermassive Stars

    Umeda, Hideyuki; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The formation of supermassive stars (SMSs) via rapid mass accretion and their direct collapse into black holes (BHs) is a promising pathway for sowing seeds of supermassive BHs in the early universe. We calculate the evolution of rapidly accreting SMSs by solving the stellar structure equations including nuclear burning as well as general relativistic (GR) effects up to the onset of the collapse. We find that such SMSs have less concentrated structure than fully-convective counterpart, which is often postulated for non-accreting ones. This effect stabilizes the stars against GR instability even above the classical upper mass limit $\\gtrsim 10^5~M_\\odot$ derived for the fully-convective stars. The accreting SMS begins to collapse at the higher mass with the higher accretion rate. The collapse occurs when the nuclear fuel is exhausted only for cases with $\\dot M \\lesssim 0.1~M_\\odot~{\\rm yr}^{-1}$. With $\\dot{M} \\simeq 0.3 - 1~M_\\odot~{\\rm yr}^{-1}$, the star becomes GR-unstable during the helium-burning stage ...

  9. Accretion, Outflows, and Winds of Magnetized Stars

    Romanova, M M

    2016-01-01

    Many types of stars have strong magnetic fields that can dynamically influence the flow of circumstellar matter. In stars with accretion disks, the stellar magnetic field can truncate the inner disk and determine the paths that matter can take to flow onto the star. These paths are different in stars with different magnetospheres and periods of rotation. External field lines of the magnetosphere may inflate and produce favorable conditions for outflows from the disk-magnetosphere boundary. Outflows can be particularly strong in the propeller regime, wherein a star rotates more rapidly than the inner disk. Outflows may also form at the disk-magnetosphere boundary of slowly rotating stars, if the magnetosphere is compressed by the accreting matter. In isolated, strongly magnetized stars, the magnetic field can influence formation and/or propagation of stellar wind outflows. Winds from low-mass, solar-type stars may be either thermally or magnetically driven, while winds from massive, luminous O and B type stars...

  10. Studies of accreting and non-accreting neutron stars

    This thesis is divided into three parts. Part A is devoted to the statistical study of radio pulsars, in which the observations of nearly all known pulsars are used to study their properties such as magnetic field strengths, rotation periods, space velocities as well as their evolution in time. Part B is devoted to the modelling and understanding of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) in low-mass X-ray binaries. But, this study is mainly concerned with the accretion process in these sources, and one may hope to learn more about the neutron stars in these systems when the understanding of QPO is improved. In Part C the problem of 'super-Eddington luminosities' in X-ray burst sources is treated. The idea is that a good understanding of the burst process, which takes place directly at the surface of the neutron star, will eventually improve our understanding of the neutron stars themselves. (Auth.)

  11. X-Shooter spectroscopy of young stellar objects: IV -- Accretion in low-mass stars and sub-stellar objects in Lupus

    Alcalá, J M; Manara, C F; Spezzi, L; Stelzer, B; Frasca, A; Biazzo, K; Covino, E; Randich, S; Rigliaco, E; Testi, L; Comerón, F; Cupani, G; D'Elia, V

    2013-01-01

    We present X-Shooter/VLT observations of a sample of 36 accreting low-mass stellar and sub-stellar objects (YSOs) in the Lupus star forming region, spanning a range in mass from ~0.03 to ~1.2Msun, but mostly with 0.1Msun < Mstar < 0.5Msun. Our aim is twofold: firstly, analyse the relationship between excess-continuum and line emission accretion diagnostics, and, secondly, to investigate the accretion properties in terms of the physical properties of the central object. The accretion luminosity (Lacc), and from it the accretion rate (Macc), is derived by modelling the excess emission, from the UV to the near-IR, as the continuum emission of a slab of hydrogen. The flux and luminosity (Ll) of a large number of emission lines of H, He, CaII, etc., observed simultaneously in the range from ~330nm to 2500nm, were computed. The luminosity of all the lines is well correlated with Lacc. We provide empirical relationships between Lacc and the luminosity of 39 emission lines, which have a lower dispersion as comp...

  12. Gravitational waves from accreting neutron stars

    Bonazzola, S.; Gourgoulhon, E.

    1996-01-01

    We show that accreting neutron stars in binary systems or in Landau-Thorne-Zytkow objects are good candidates for continuous gravitational wave emission. Their gravitational radiation is strong enough to be detected by the next generation of detectors having a typical noise of 10^{-23} Hz^{-1/2}.

  13. Magnetically Accreting Isolated Old Neutron Stars

    Rutledge, R E

    2001-01-01

    Previous work on the emission from isolated old neutron stars (IONS) accreting the inter-stellar medium (ISM) focussed on gravitational capture - Bondi accretion. We propose a new class of sources which accrete via magnetic interaction with the ISM. While for the Bondi mechanism, the accretion rate decreases with increasing NS velocity, in magnetic accretors (MAGACs="magics") the accretion rate increases with increasing NS velocity. MAGACs will be produced among high velocity (~> 100 km s-1) high magnetic field (B> 1e14 G) radio pulsars - the ``magnetars'' - after they have evolved first through magnetic dipole spin-down, followed by a ``propeller'' phase (when the object sheds angular momentum on a timescale ~1e14 G; minimum velocities relative to the ISM of >25-100 km s-1, depending on B, well below the median in the observed radio-pulsar population; spin-periods of >days to years; accretion luminosities of 1e28- 1e31 ergs s-1 ; and effective temperatures kT=0.3 - 2.5 keV if they accrete onto the magnetic p...

  14. HIGHLY VARIABLE EXTINCTION AND ACCRETION IN THE JET-DRIVING CLASS I-TYPE YOUNG STAR PTF 10nvg (V2492 Cyg, IRAS 20496+4354)

    We report extensive new photometry and spectroscopy of the highly variable young stellar object PTF 10nvg (also known as IRAS 20496+4354 and V2492 Cyg), including optical and near-infrared time-series data as well as mid-infrared and millimeter data. Following the previously reported 2010 rise to RPTF ∼m5 and subsequent fade, during 2011 and 2012 the source underwent additional episodes of brightening, followed by several magnitude dimming events including prolonged faint states at RPTF ∼> 20m. The observed high-amplitude variations are largely consistent with extinction changes (ΔAV up to 30 mag) having a ∼220 day quasi-periodic signal. However, photometry measured when the source was near maximum brightness in mid-2010 as well as in late-2012 does not phase well to this period. Spectral evolution includes not only changes in the spectral slope but also correlated variation in the prominence of TiO/VO/CO bands and atomic line emission, as well as anti-correlated variation in forbidden line emission which, along with H2, dominates optical and infrared spectra at faint epochs. Notably, night-to-night variations in several forbidden doublet strengths and ratios are observed. High-dispersion spectra were obtained in a variety of photometric states and reveal time-variable line profiles. Neutral and singly ionized atomic species are likely formed in an accretion flow and/or impact while the origin of zero-velocity atomic Li I λ6707 in emission is unknown. Forbidden lines, including several rare species, exhibit blueshifted emission profiles and likely arise from an outflow/jet. Several of these lines are also seen spatially offset from the continuum source position, presumably in a shocked region of an extended jet. Blueshifted absorption components of the Na I D doublet, K I λλ7665, 7669 doublet, and the O I 7774 triplet, as well as blueshifted absorption components seen against the broad Hα and Ca II triplet emission lines, similarly are formed in the

  15. Accreting Neutron Stars and Radioactive Beam Experiments

    The nuclear processes on accreting neutron stars in X-ray binaries are related to a number of open astrophysical questions. I review these open questions, their relation to the α p, rp and crust processes, and the nuclear data needed to solve the problems. Data on very unstable proton and neutron rich nuclei are most critical, and therefore radioactive beam experiments together with progress in the theoretical understanding of nuclei far from stability are needed. (author)

  16. The Propeller Regime of Disk Accretion to a Rapidly Rotating Magnetized Star

    Romanova, M M; Koldoba, A V; Lovelace, R V E; Romanova, Marina M; Ustyugova, Galina V; Koldoba, Alexander V; Lovelace, Richard V E

    2004-01-01

    The propeller regime of disk accretion to a rapidly rotating magnetized star is investigated here for the first time by axisymmetric 2.5D magnetohydrodynamic simulations. An expanded, closed magnetosphere forms in which the magnetic field is predominantly toroidal. A smaller fraction of the star's poloidal magnetic flux inflates vertically, forming a magnetically dominated tower. Matter accumulates in the equatorial region outside magnetosphere and accretes to the star quasi-periodically through elongated funnel streams which cause the magnetic field to reconnect. The star spins-down owing to the interaction of the closed magnetosphere with the disk. For the considered conditions, the spin-down torque varies with the angular velocity of the star omega* as omega*^1.3 for fixed mass accretion rate. The propeller stage may be important in the evolution of X-ray pulsars, cataclysmic variables and young stars. In particular, it may explain the present slow rotation of the classical T Tauri stars.

  17. K2 observations of young star clusters

    Cody, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    In operation since 2014, the K2 mission is now acquiring high cadence, high precision, long time baseline on thousands of stars in the ecliptic plane. Unlike its predecessor the Kepler mission, K2 is observing a number of young to intermediate age star clusters. This provides the chance to not only look for relatively young planets, but to also study starspot evolution, accretion, and inner circumstellar disk dynamics on several month timescales. I will provide an overview of our K2 cluster photometry pipeline and highlight the variable processes evident in the first few campaigns.

  18. Episodic accretion, protostellar radiative feedback, and their role in low-mass star formation

    Stamatellos, Dimitris; Hubber, David A

    2012-01-01

    Protostars grow in mass by accreting material through their discs, and this accretion is initially their main source of luminosity. The resulting radiative feedback heats the environments of young protostars, and may thereby suppress further fragmentation and star formation. There is growing evidence that the accretion of material onto protostars is episodic rather than continuous; most of it happens in short bursts that last up to a few hundred years, whereas the intervals between these outbursts of accretion could be thousands of years. We have developed a model to include the effects of episodic accretion in simulations of star formation. Episodic accretion results in episodic radiative feedback, which heats and temporarily stabilises the disc, suppressing the growth of gravitational instabilities. However, once an outburst has been terminated, the luminosity of the protostar is low, and the disc cools rapidly. Provided that there is enough time between successive outbursts, the disc may become gravitation...

  19. Magnetic field evolution of accreting neutron stars

    Istomin, Ya N

    2016-01-01

    The flow of a matter, accreting onto a magnetized neutron star, is accompanied by an electric current. The closing of the electric current occurs in the crust of a neutron stars in the polar region across the magnetic field. But the conductivity of the crust along the magnetic field greatly exceeds the conductivity across the field, so the current penetrates deep into the crust down up to the super conducting core. The magnetic field, generated by the accretion current, increases greatly with the depth of penetration due to the Hall conductivity of the crust is also much larger than the transverse conductivity. As a result, the current begins to flow mainly in the toroidal direction, creating a strong longitudinal magnetic field, far exceeding an initial dipole field. This field exists only in the narrow polar tube of $r$ width, narrowing with the depth, i.e. with increasing of the crust density $\\rho$, $r\\propto \\rho^{-1/4}$. Accordingly, the magnetic field $B$ in the tube increases with the depth, $B\\propto...

  20. GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM FALLBACK ACCRETION ONTO NEUTRON STARS

    Piro, Anthony L. [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Thrane, Eric, E-mail: piro@caltech.edu, E-mail: eric.thrane@ligo.org [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    Massive stars generally end their lives as neutron stars (NSs) or black holes (BHs), with NS formation typically occurring at the low-mass end and collapse to a BH more likely at the high-mass end. In an intermediate regime, with a mass range that depends on the uncertain details of rotation and mass loss during the star's life, an NS is initially formed, which then experiences fallback accretion and collapse to a BH. The electromagnetic consequence of such an event is not clear. Depending on the progenitor's structure, possibilities range from a long gamma-ray burst to a Type II supernova (which may or may not be jet powered) to a collapse with a weak electromagnetic signature. Gravitational waves (GWs) provide the exciting opportunity to peer through the envelope of a dying massive star and directly probe what is occurring inside. We explore whether fallback onto young NSs can be detected by ground-based interferometers. When the incoming material has sufficient angular momentum to form a disk, the accretion spins up the NS sufficiently to produce non-axisymmetric instabilities and gravitational radiation at frequencies of {approx}700-2400 Hz for {approx}30-3000 s until collapse to a BH occurs. Using a realistic excess cross-power search algorithm, we show that such events are detectable by Advanced LIGO out to Almost-Equal-To 17 Mpc. From the rate of nearby core-collapse supernovae in the past five years, we estimate that there will be {approx}1-2 events each year that are worth checking for fallback GWs. The observation of these unique GW signatures coincident with electromagnetic detections would identify the transient events that are associated with this channel of BH formation, while providing information about the protoneutron star progenitor.

  1. X-Shooter spectroscopy of young stellar objects: II. Impact of chromospheric emission on accretion rate estimates

    Manara, C F; Rigliaco, E; Alcala, J M; Natta, A; Stelzer, B; Biazzo, K; Covino, E; Covino, S; Cupani, G; D'Elia, V; Randich, S

    2013-01-01

    Context. The lack of knowledge of photospheric parameters and the level of chromospheric activity in young low-mass pre-main sequence stars introduces uncertainties when measuring mass accretion rates in accreting (Class II) Young Stellar Objects. A detailed investigation of the effect of chromospheric emission on the estimates of mass accretion rate in young low-mass stars is still missing. This can be undertaken using samples of young diskless (Class III) K and M-type stars. Aims. Our goal is to measure the chromospheric activity of Class III pre main sequence stars to determine its effect on the estimates of accretion luminosity (Lacc) and mass accretion rate (Macc) in young stellar objects with disks. Methods. Using VLT/X-Shooter spectra we have analyzed a sample of 24 non-accreting young stellar objects of spectral type between K5 and M9.5. We identify the main emission lines normally used as tracers of accretion in Class II objects, and we determine their fluxes in order to estimate the contribution of ...

  2. Thin accretion disks around cold Bose–Einstein condensate stars

    Dănilă, Bogdan; Harko, Tiberiu; Kovács, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Due to their superfluid properties some compact astrophysical objects, like neutron or quark stars, may contain a significant part of their matter in the form of a Bose-Einstein Condensate. Observationally distinguishing between neutron/quark stars and Bose-Einstein Condensate stars is a major challenge for this latter theoretical model. An observational possibility of indirectly distinguishing Bose-Einstein Condensate stars from neutron/quark stars is through the study of the thin accretion ...

  3. FORMING AN O STAR VIA DISK ACCRETION?

    We present a study of outflow, infall, and rotation in a ∼105 L☉ star-forming region, IRAS 18360-0537, with Submillimeter Array and IRAM 30 m observations. The 1.3 mm continuum map shows a 0.5 pc dust ridge, of which the central compact part has a mass of ∼80 M☉ and harbors two condensations, MM1 and MM2. The CO (2-1) and SiO (5-4) maps reveal a biconical outflow centered at MM1, which is a hot molecular core (HMC) with a gas temperature of 320 ± 50 K and a mass of ∼13 M☉. The outflow has a gas mass of 54 M☉ and a dynamical timescale of 8 × 103 yr. The kinematics of the HMC are probed by high-excitation CH3OH and CH3CN lines, which are detected at subarcsecond resolution and unveil a velocity gradient perpendicular to the outflow axis, suggesting a disk-like rotation of the HMC. An infalling envelope around the HMC is evidenced by CN lines exhibiting a profound inverse P Cygni profile, and the estimated mass infall rate, 1.5 × 10–3 M☉ yr–1, is well comparable to that inferred from the mass outflow rate. A more detailed investigation of the kinematics of the dense gas around the HMC is obtained from the 13CO and C18O (2-1) lines; the position-velocity diagrams of the two lines are consistent with the model of a free-falling and Keplerian-like rotating envelope. The observations suggest that the protostar of a current mass ∼10 M☉ embedded within MM1 will develop into an O star via disk accretion and envelope infall.

  4. Formation of primordial supermassive stars by rapid mass accretion

    Supermassive stars (SMSs) forming via very rapid mass accretion ( M-dot ∗≳0.1 M⊙ yr−1) could be precursors of supermassive black holes observed beyond a redshift of about six. Extending our previous work, here we study the evolution of primordial stars growing under such rapid mass accretion until the stellar mass reaches 104–5 M ☉. Our stellar evolution calculations show that a star becomes supermassive while passing through the 'supergiant protostar' stage, whereby the star has a very bloated envelope and a contracting inner core. The stellar radius increases monotonically with the stellar mass until ≅ 100 AU for M * ≳ 104 M ☉, after which the star begins to slowly contract. Because of the large radius, the effective temperature is always less than 104 K during rapid accretion. The accreting material is thus almost completely transparent to the stellar radiation. Only for M * ≳ 105 M ☉ can stellar UV feedback operate and disturb the mass accretion flow. We also examine the pulsation stability of accreting SMSs, showing that the pulsation-driven mass loss does not prevent stellar mass growth. Observational signatures of bloated SMSs should be detectable with future observational facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope. Our results predict that an inner core of the accreting SMS should suffer from the general relativistic instability soon after the stellar mass exceeds 105 M ☉. An extremely massive black hole should form after the collapse of the inner core.

  5. Binary interactions with high accretion rates onto main sequence stars

    Shiber, Sagiv; Schreier, Ron; Soker, Noam

    2016-07-01

    Energetic outflows from main sequence stars accreting mass at very high rates might account for the powering of some eruptive objects, such as merging main sequence stars, major eruptions of luminous blue variables, e.g., the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae, and other intermediate luminosity optical transients (ILOTs; red novae; red transients). These powerful outflows could potentially also supply the extra energy required in the common envelope process and in the grazing envelope evolution of binary systems. We propose that a massive outflow/jets mediated by magnetic fields might remove energy and angular momentum from the accretion disk to allow such high accretion rate flows. By examining the possible activity of the magnetic fields of accretion disks, we conclude that indeed main sequence stars might accrete mass at very high rates, up to ≈ 10‑2 M ⊙ yr‑1 for solar type stars, and up to ≈ 1 M ⊙ yr‑1 for very massive stars. We speculate that magnetic fields amplified in such extreme conditions might lead to the formation of massive bipolar outflows that can remove most of the disk's energy and angular momentum. It is this energy and angular momentum removal that allows the very high mass accretion rate onto main sequence stars.

  6. Star Formation and Gas Accretion in Nearby Galaxies

    Yim, Kijeong

    2016-01-01

    In order to quantify the relationship between gas accretion and star formation, we analyse a sample of 29 nearby galaxies from the WHISP survey which contains galaxies with and without evidence for recent gas accretion. We compare combined radial profiles of FUV (GALEX) and IR 24 {\\mu}m (Spitzer) characterizing distributions of recent star formation with radial profiles of CO (IRAM, BIMA, or CARMA) and HI (WSRT) tracing molecular and atomic gas contents to examine star formation efficiencies in symmetric (quiescent), asymmetric (accreting), and interacting (tidally disturbed) galaxies. In addition, we investigate the relationship between star formation rate and HI in the outer discs for the three groups of galaxies. We confirm the general relationship between gas surface density and star formation surface density, but do not find a significant difference between the three groups of galaxies.

  7. High energy gamma rays from old accreting neutron stars

    P. Blasi(INAF Arcetri)

    1996-01-01

    We consider a magnetized neutron star with accretion from a companion star or a gas cloud around it, as a possible source of gamma rays with energy between $100$ $MeV$ and $10^{14}-10^{16}~eV$. The flow of the accreting plasma is terminated by a shock at the Alfv\\'en surface. Such a shock is the site for the acceleration of particles up to energies of $\\sim 10^{15}-10^{17}~eV$; gamma photons are produced in the inelastic $pp$ collisions between shock-accelerated particles and accreting matter...

  8. Search for planets around young stars with the radial velocity technique

    Weise, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Giant planets form in circumstellar disks around young stars. Two alternative theoretical formation concepts, disk instability and core accretion, may both apply under certain conditions, but core accretion is believed to be the main mechanism. No observational proof of the dominant process has been found thus far. Therefore, this thesis aims to detect sub-stellar companions orbiting young stars (1–100 Myr), because characteristics of young planets give input on formation processes involved. ...

  9. Accretion to a Magnetized Neutron Star in the "Propeller" Regime

    Toropina, O D; Lovelace, R V E

    2006-01-01

    We investigate spherical accretion to a rotating magnetized star in the "propeller" regime using axisymmetric resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The regime is predicted to occur if the magnetospheric radius is larger than the corotation radius and smaller than the light cylinder radius. The simulations show that accreting matter is expelled from the equatorial region of the magnetosphere and that it moves away from the star in a supersonic, disk-shaped outflow. At larger radial distances the outflow slows down and becomes subsonic. The equatorial matter outflow is initially driven by the centrifugal force, but at larger distances the pressure gradient force becomes significant. We find the fraction of the Bondi accretion rate which accretes to the surface of the star.

  10. Limiting Accretion onto Massive Stars by Fragmentation-Induced Starvation

    Peters, Thomas; /ZAH, Heidelberg; Klessen, Ralf S.; /ZAH, Heidelberg /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; /Amer. Museum Natural Hist.; Banerjee, Robi; /ZAH, Heidelberg

    2010-08-25

    Massive stars influence their surroundings through radiation, winds, and supernova explosions far out of proportion to their small numbers. However, the physical processes that initiate and govern the birth of massive stars remain poorly understood. Two widely discussed models are monolithic collapse of molecular cloud cores and competitive accretion. To learn more about massive star formation, we perform simulations of the collapse of rotating, massive, cloud cores including radiative heating by both non-ionizing and ionizing radiation using the FLASH adaptive mesh refinement code. These simulations show fragmentation from gravitational instability in the enormously dense accretion flows required to build up massive stars. Secondary stars form rapidly in these flows and accrete mass that would have otherwise been consumed by the massive star in the center, in a process that we term fragmentation-induced starvation. This explains why massive stars are usually found as members of high-order stellar systems that themselves belong to large clusters containing stars of all masses. The radiative heating does not prevent fragmentation, but does lead to a higher Jeans mass, resulting in fewer and more massive stars than would form without the heating. This mechanism reproduces the observed relation between the total stellar mass in the cluster and the mass of the largest star. It predicts strong clumping and filamentary structure in the center of collapsing cores, as has recently been observed. We speculate that a similar mechanism will act during primordial star formation.

  11. UV variability and accretion dynamics in the young open cluster NGC 2264

    Venuti, L.; Bouvier, J.; Irwin, J.; Stauffer, J. R.; Hillenbrand, L. A.; Rebull, L. M.; Cody, A. M.; Alencar, S. H. P.; Micela, G.; Flaccomio, E.; Peres, G.

    2015-09-01

    Context. Photometric variability is a distinctive feature of young stellar objects; exploring variability signatures at different wavelengths provides insight into the physical processes at work in these sources. Aims: We explore the variability signatures at ultraviolet (UV) and optical wavelengths for several hundred accreting and non-accreting members of the star-forming region NGC 2264 (~3 Myr). Methods: We performed simultaneous monitoring of u- and r-band variability for the cluster population with CFHT/MegaCam. The survey extended over two full weeks, with several flux measurements per observing night. A sample of about 750 young stars is probed in our study, homogeneously calibrated and reduced, with internally consistently derived stellar parameters. Objects span the mass range 0.1-2 M⊙; about 40% of them show evidence for active accretion based on various diagnostics (Hα, UV, and IR excesses). Results: Statistically distinct variability properties are observed for accreting and non-accreting cluster members. The accretors exhibit a significantly higher level of variability than the non-accretors, in the optical and especially in the UV. The amount of u-band variability is found to correlate statistically with the median amount of UV excess in disk-bearing objects, which suggests that mass accretion and star-disk interaction are the main sources of variability in the u band. Spot models are applied to account for the amplitudes of variability of accreting and non-accreting members, which yields different results for each group. Cool magnetic spots, several hundred degrees colder than the stellar photosphere and covering from 5 to 30% of the stellar surface, appear to be the leading factor of variability for the non-accreting stars. In contrast, accretion spots with a temperature a few thousand degrees higher than the photospheric temperature and that extend over a few percent of the stellar surface best reproduce the variability of accreting objects

  12. Formation of Primordial Supermassive Stars by Rapid Mass Accretion

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Inayoshi, Kohei; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Supermassive stars (SMSs) forming via very rapid mass accretion (Mdot >~ 0.1 Msun/yr) could be precursors of supermassive black holes observed beyond redshift of about 6. Extending our previous work, we here study the evolution of primordial stars growing under such rapid mass accretion until the stellar mass reaches 10^{4 - 5} Msun. Our stellar evolution calculations show that a star becomes supermassive while passing through the "supergiant protostar'' stage, whereby the star has a very bloated envelope and a contracting inner core. The stellar radius increases monotonically with the stellar mass, until =~ 100 AU for M_* >~ 10^4 Msun, after which the star begins to slowly contract. Because of the large radius the effective temperature is always less than 10^4 K during rapid accretion. The accreting material is thus almost completely transparent to the stellar radiation. Only for M_* >~ 10^5 Msun can stellar UV feedback operate and disturb the mass accretion flow. We also examine the pulsation stability of a...

  13. UV variability and accretion dynamics in the young open cluster NGC 2264

    Venuti, Laura; Irwin, Jonathan; Stauffer, John; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Rebull, Luisa; Cody, Ann Marie; Alencar, Silvia; Micela, Giuseppina; Flaccomio, Ettore; Peres, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We explore UV and optical variability signatures for several hundred members of NGC 2264 (3 Myr). We performed simultaneous u- and r-band monitoring over two full weeks with CFHT/MegaCam. About 750 young stars are probed; 40% of them are accreting. Statistically distinct variability properties are observed for accreting and non-accreting cluster members. The accretors exhibit a significantly higher level of variability than the non-accretors, especially in the UV. The amount of u-band variability correlates statistically with UV excess in disk-bearing objects, which suggests that accretion and star-disk interaction are the main sources of variability. Cool magnetic spots, several hundred degrees colder than the photosphere and covering from 5 to 30% of the stellar surface, appear to be the leading factor of variability for the non-accreting stars. In contrast, accretion spots, a few thousand degrees hotter than the photosphere and covering a few percent of the stellar surface, best reproduce the variability o...

  14. Polarized X-rays from accreting neutron stars

    Bhattacharya, Dipankar

    2016-07-01

    Accreting neutron stars span a wide range in X-ray luminosity and magnetic field strength. Accretion may be wind-fed or disk-fed, and the dominant X-ray flux may originate in the disk or a magnetically confined accretion column. In all such systems X-ray polarization may arise due to Compton or Magneto-Compton scattering, and on some occasions polarization of non-thermal emission from jet-like ejection may also be detectable. Spectral and temporal behaviour of the polarized X-rays would carry information regarding the radiation process, as well as of the matter dynamics - and can assist the detection of effects such as the Lense-Thirring precession. This talk will review our current knowledge of the expected X-ray polarization from accreting neutron stars and explore the prospects of detection with upcoming polarimetry missions.

  15. The physics of the accretion process in the formation and evolution of Young Stellar Objects

    Manara, C. F.

    2014-07-01

    The formation of planets is thought to happen in protoplanetary disks surrounding young stars during the first few Myrs of their pre-main-sequence evolution. In order to understand planet formation a detailed knowledge of the disk evolution process is needed. By studying the interaction of the disk with the central star, which includes accretion of matter due to viscous processes in the disk, we can constrain the physical conditions of the inner gaseous disk in which planet formation takes place. With the recent advent of the X-Shooter spectrograph, a second generation instrument of the ESO/VLT, the excess emission due to accretion in the ultraviolet can be studied simultaneously with the accretion signatures in the visible and in the near-infrared, finally giving a complete view of this phenomenon. In this Thesis I have studied various X-Shooter datasets of young stars to determine the intensity and the properties of the accretion process at various phases of disk evolution and as a function of the central star mass and age. To fully exploit the potential of the X-Shooter spectra, I have developed an innovative method of analysis to derive accretion and stellar parameters with an automatic algorithm. This is based on a set of models, composed of a set of photospheric templates of young stars that I gathered and characterized, a set of slab models, that I have coded, to reproduce the emission due to the accretion shock, and a reddening law to take into account extinction effects. This method allows to accurately determine for the first time the stellar and accretion parameters of the targets self-consistently and with no prior assumptions, a significant improvement with respect to previous studies. I have applied this methodology to determine the correct stellar parameters of two objects in the Orion Nebula Cluster that were reported in the literature to have an anomalous old age. My analysis has shown why previous investigations could not resolve the degeneracy

  16. Surface magnetic fields on two accreting T Tauri stars: CV Cha and CR Cha

    Hussain, G. A. J.; Cameron, A. Collier; Jardine, M. M.; Dunstone, N.; Velez, J. Ramirez; Stempels, H.C.; Donati, J.-F; Semel, M.; Aulanier, G.; Harries, T.; Bouvier, J.; Dougados, C.; Ferreira, J; Carter, B. D.; Lawson, W. A.

    2009-01-01

    We have produced brightness and magnetic field maps of the surfaces of CV Cha and CR Cha: two actively accreting G and K-type T Tauri stars in the Chamaeleon I star-forming cloud with ages of 3-5 Myr. Our magnetic field maps show evidence for strong, complex multi-polar fields similar to those obtained for young rapidly rotating main sequence stars. Brightness maps indicate the presence of dark polar caps and low latitude spots -- these brightness maps are very similar to those obtained for o...

  17. Star-disc interaction in galactic nuclei: orbits and rates of accreted stars

    Kennedy, Gareth F.; Meiron, Yohai; Shukirgaliyev, Bekdaulet; Panamarev, Taras; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas; Spurzem, Rainer

    2016-07-01

    We examine the effect of an accretion disc on the orbits of stars in the central star cluster surrounding a central massive black hole by performing a suite of 39 high-accuracy direct N-body simulations using state-of-the art software and accelerator hardware, with particle numbers up to 128k. The primary focus is on the accretion rate of stars by the black hole (equivalent to their tidal disruption rate for black holes in the small to medium mass range) and the eccentricity distribution of these stars. Our simulations vary not only the particle number, but disc model (two models examined), spatial resolution at the centre (characterized by the numerical accretion radius) and softening length. The large parameter range and physically realistic modelling allow us for the first time to confidently extrapolate these results to real galactic centres. While in a real galactic centre both particle number and accretion radius differ by a few orders of magnitude from our models, which are constrained by numerical capability, we find that the stellar accretion rate converges for models with N ≥ 32k. The eccentricity distribution of accreted stars, however, does not converge. We find that there are two competing effects at work when improving the resolution: larger particle number leads to a smaller fraction of stars accreted on nearly circular orbits, while higher spatial resolution increases this fraction. We scale our simulations to some nearby galaxies and find that the expected boost in stellar accretion (or tidal disruption, which could be observed as X-ray flares) in the presence of a gas disc is about a factor of 10. Even with this boost, the accretion of mass from stars is still a factor of ∼100 slower than the accretion of gas from the disc. Thus, it seems accretion of stars is not a major contributor to black hole mass growth.

  18. Deformations of Accreting Neutron Star Crusts and Gravitational Wave Emission

    Ushomirsky, Greg; Cutler, Curt; Bildsten, Lars

    2000-01-01

    Motivated by the narrow range of spin frequencies of nearly 20 accreting neutron stars, Bildsten (1998) conjectured that their spin-up had been halted by the emission of gravitational waves. He also pointed out that small nonaxisymmetric temperature variations in the accreted crust will lead to "wavy" electron capture layers, whose horizontal density variations naturally create a mass quadrupole moment. We present a full calculation of the crust's elastic adjustment to these density perturbat...

  19. Evolution of Disk Accretion

    Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Strom, Stephen E.

    1999-01-01

    We review the present knowledge of disk accretion in young low mass stars, and in particular, the mass accretion rate and its evolution with time. The methods used to obtain mass accretion rates from ultraviolet excesses and emission lines are described, and the current best estimates of mass accretion rate for Classical T Tauri stars and for objects still surrounded by infalling envelopes are given. We argue that the low mass accretion rates of the latter objects require episodes of high mas...

  20. The evidence for clumpy accretion in the Herbig Ae star HR 5999

    Perez, M. R.; Grady, C. A.; The, P. S.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of IUE high- and low-dispersion spectra of the young Herbig Ae star HR 5999 (HD 144668) covering 1978-1992 has revealed dramatic changes in the Mg II h and k (2795.5, 2802.7 A) emission profiles, changes in the column density and distribution in radial velocity of accreting gas, and flux in the Ly(alpha), O I and C IV emission lines, which are correlated with the UV excess luminosity. We also observe variability in the spectral type inferred from the UV spectral energy distribution, ranging from A5 IV-III in high state to A7 III in the low state. The trend of earlier inferred spectral type with decreasing wavelength and with increasing UV continuum flux has previously been noted as a signature of accretion disks in lower mass pre-main sequence stars (PMS) and in systems undergoing FU Orionis-type outbursts. Our data represent the first detection of similar phenomena in an intermediate mass (M equal to or greater than 2 solar mass) PMS star. Recent IUE spectra show gas accreting toward the star with velocities as high as +300 km/s, much as is seen toward beta Pic, and suggest that we also view this system through the debris disk. The absence of UV lines with the rotational broadening expected given the optical data (A7 IV, upsilon sin i = 180 plus or minus 20 km/s) for this system also suggests that most of the UV light originates in the disk, even in the low continuum state. The dramatic variability in the column density of accreting gas, consistent with clumpy accretion, such as has been observed toward beta Pic, is a hallmark of accretion onto young stars, and is not restricted to the clearing phase, since detectable amounts of accretion are present for stars, and is not restricted to the clearing phase, since detectable amounts of accretion are present for stars with 0.5 less than t(sub age) less than 2.8 Myr. The implications for models of beta Pic and similar systems are briefly discussed.

  1. Electrodynamics of disk-accreting magnetic neutron stars

    Miller, M. Coleman; Lamb, Frederick K.; Hamilton, Russell J.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the electrodynamics of magnetic neutron stars accreting from Keplerian disks and the implications for particle acceleration and gamma-ray emission by such systems. We argue that the particle density in the magnetospheres of such stars is larger by orders of magnitude than the Goldreich-Julian density, so that the formation of vacuum gaps is unlikely. We show that even if the star rotates slowly, electromotive forces (EMFs) of order 10(exp 15) V are produced by the interaction of plasma in the accretion disk with the magnetic field of the neutron star. The resistance of the disk-magnetosphere-star circuit is small, and hence these EMFs drive very large conduction currents. Such large currents are likely to produce magnetospheric instabilities, such as relativistic double layers and reconnection events, that can accelerate electrons or ions to very high energies.

  2. The multipolar magnetic fields of accreting pre-main-sequence stars: B at the inner disk, B along the accretion flow, and B at the accretion shock

    Gregory, Scott G; Hussain, Gaitee A J

    2016-01-01

    Zeeman-Doppler imaging studies have revealed the complexity of the large-scale magnetic fields of accreting pre-main-sequence stars. All have multipolar magnetic fields with the octupole component being the dominant field mode for many of the stars studied thusfar. Young accreting stars with fully convective interiors often feature simple axisymmetric magnetic fields with dipole components of order a kilo-Gauss (at least those of mass $\\gtrsim0.5\\,{\\rm M}_\\odot$), while those with substantially radiative interiors host more complex non-axisymmetric magnetic fields with dipole components of order a few 0.1 kilo-Gauss. Here, via several simple examples, we demonstrate that i). in most cases, the dipole component alone can be used to estimate the disk truncation radius (but little else); ii) due the presence of higher order magnetic field components, the field strength in the accretion spots is far in excess of that expected if a pure dipole magnetic field is assumed. (Fields of $\\sim$6$\\,{\\rm kG}$ have been mea...

  3. Formation of primordial supermassive stars by burst accretion

    Sakurai, Y; Yoshida, N; Yorke, H W

    2015-01-01

    A promising formation channel of SMBHs at redshift 6 is the so-called DC model, which posits that a massive seed BH forms through gravitational collapse of a $\\sim 10^5~M_\\odot$ SMS. We study the evolution of such a SMS growing by rapid mass accretion. In particular, we examine the impact of time-dependent mass accretion of repeating burst and quiescent phases that are expected to occur with a self-gravitating circumstellar disk. We show that the stellar evolution with such episodic accretion differs qualitatively from that expected with a constant accretion rate, even if the mean accretion rate is the same. Unlike the case of constant mass accretion, whereby the star expands roughly following $R_* \\simeq 2.6 \\times 10^3 R_\\odot (M_*/100~M_\\odot)^{1/2}$, the protostar can substantially contract during the quiescent phases between accretion bursts. The stellar effective temperature and ionizing photon emissivity increase accordingly as the star contracts, which can cause strong ionizing feedback and halt the m...

  4. Thermonuclear bursts from slowly and rapidly accreting neutron stars

    Linares, Manuel

    2012-07-01

    Models of thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars predict different ignition regimes, depending mainly on the mass accretion rate per unit area. For more than three decades, testing these regimes observationally has met with only partial success. I will present recent results from the Fermi-GBM all-sky X-ray burst monitor, which is yielding robust measurements of recurrence time of rare and highly energetic thermonuclear bursts at the lowest mass accretion rates. I will also present RXTE observations of thermonuclear bursts at high mass accretion rates, including the discovery of millihertz quasi-periodic oscillations and several bursting regimes in a neutron star transient and 11 Hz X-ray pulsar. This unusual neutron star, with higher magnetic field and slower rotation than any other known burster, showed copious bursting activity when the mass accretion rate varied between 10% and 50% of the Eddington rate. I will discuss the role of fuel composition and neutron star spin in setting the burst properties of this system, and the possible implications for the rest of thermonuclear bursters.

  5. Large-scale magnetic field in the accretion discs of young stars: the influence of magnetic diffusion, buoyancy and Hall effect

    Khaibrakhmanov, Sergey A; Parfenov, Sergey Yu; Sobolev, Andrey M

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the fossil magnetic field in the accretion and protoplanetary discs using the Shakura and Sunyaev approach. The distinguishing feature of this study is the accurate solution of the ionization balance equations and the induction equation with Ohmic diffusion, magnetic ambipolar diffusion, buoyancy and the Hall effect. We consider the ionization by cosmic rays, X-rays and radionuclides, radiative recombinations, recombinations onto dust grains, and also thermal ionization. The buoyancy appears as the additional mechanism of magnetic flux escape in the steady-state solution of the induction equation. Calculations show that Ohmic diffusion and magnetic ambipolar diffusion constraint the generation of the magnetic field inside the `dead' zones. The magnetic field in these regions is quasi-vertical. The buoyancy constraints the toroidal magnetic field strength close to the disc inner edge. As a result, the toroidal and vertical magnetic fields become comparable. The Hall effect is important in the re...

  6. Variability in the Thermal Emission from Accreting Neutron Star Transients

    Brown, Edward F.; Bildsten, Lars; Chang, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The composition of the outer 100 m of a neutron star sets the heat flux that flows outwards from the core. For an accreting neutron star in an X-ray transient, the thermal quiescent flux depends sensitively on the amount of hydrogen and helium remaining on the surface after an accretion outburst and on the composition of the underlying ashes of previous H/He burning. Because H/He has a higher thermal conductivity, a larger mass of H/He implies a shallower thermal gradient through the low dens...

  7. Gravitational Wave Heating of Stars and Accretion Disks

    Li, Gongjie; Loeb, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the electromagnetic (EM) counterpart of gravitational waves (GWs) emitted by a supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) through the viscous dissipation of the GW energy in an accretion disk and stars surrounding the SMBHB. We account for the suppression of the heating rate if the forcing period is shorter than the turnover time of the largest turbulent eddies. We find that the viscous heating luminosity in 0.1 solar mass stars can be significantly higher than their intrinsic luminosity. The relative brightening is small for accretion disks.

  8. Thin accretion disks around cold Bose-Einstein condensate stars

    Due to their superfluid properties some compact astrophysical objects, like neutron or quark stars, may contain a significant part of their matter in the form of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Observationally distinguishing between neutron/quark stars and BEC stars is a major challenge for this latter theoretical model. An observational possibility of indirectly distinguishing BEC stars from neutron/quark stars is through the study of the thin accretion disks around compact general relativistic objects. In the present paper, we perform a detailed comparative study of the electromagnetic and thermodynamic properties of the thin accretion disks around rapidly rotating BEC stars, neutron stars and quark stars, respectively. Due to the differences in the exterior geometry, the thermodynamic and electromagnetic properties of the disks (energy flux, temperature distribution, equilibrium radiation spectrum, and efficiency of energy conversion) are different for these classes of compact objects. Hence in this preliminary study we have pointed out some astrophysical signatures that may allow one to observationally discriminate between BEC stars and neutron/quark stars. (orig.)

  9. Thin accretion disks around cold Bose–Einstein condensate stars

    Due to their superfluid properties some compact astrophysical objects, like neutron or quark stars, may contain a significant part of their matter in the form of a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC). Observationally distinguishing between neutron/quark stars and BEC stars is a major challenge for this latter theoretical model. An observational possibility of indirectly distinguishing BEC stars from neutron/quark stars is through the study of the thin accretion disks around compact general relativistic objects. In the present paper, we perform a detailed comparative study of the electromagnetic and thermodynamic properties of the thin accretion disks around rapidly rotating BEC stars, neutron stars and quark stars, respectively. Due to the differences in the exterior geometry, the thermodynamic and electromagnetic properties of the disks (energy flux, temperature distribution, equilibrium radiation spectrum, and efficiency of energy conversion) are different for these classes of compact objects. Hence in this preliminary study we have pointed out some astrophysical signatures that may allow one to observationally discriminate between BEC stars and neutron/quark stars

  10. Thin accretion disks around cold Bose-Einstein condensate stars

    Danila, Bogdan [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Harko, Tiberiu [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Kovacs, Zoltan

    2015-05-15

    Due to their superfluid properties some compact astrophysical objects, like neutron or quark stars, may contain a significant part of their matter in the form of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Observationally distinguishing between neutron/quark stars and BEC stars is a major challenge for this latter theoretical model. An observational possibility of indirectly distinguishing BEC stars from neutron/quark stars is through the study of the thin accretion disks around compact general relativistic objects. In the present paper, we perform a detailed comparative study of the electromagnetic and thermodynamic properties of the thin accretion disks around rapidly rotating BEC stars, neutron stars and quark stars, respectively. Due to the differences in the exterior geometry, the thermodynamic and electromagnetic properties of the disks (energy flux, temperature distribution, equilibrium radiation spectrum, and efficiency of energy conversion) are different for these classes of compact objects. Hence in this preliminary study we have pointed out some astrophysical signatures that may allow one to observationally discriminate between BEC stars and neutron/quark stars. (orig.)

  11. Thin accretion disks around cold Bose–Einstein condensate stars

    Dănilă, Bogdan, E-mail: bogdan.danila22@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University, Kogalniceanu Street, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Harko, Tiberiu, E-mail: t.harko@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT, London (United Kingdom); Kovács, Zoltán, E-mail: kovacsz2013@yahoo.com [Max-Fiedler-Str. 7, 45128, Essen (Germany)

    2015-05-09

    Due to their superfluid properties some compact astrophysical objects, like neutron or quark stars, may contain a significant part of their matter in the form of a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC). Observationally distinguishing between neutron/quark stars and BEC stars is a major challenge for this latter theoretical model. An observational possibility of indirectly distinguishing BEC stars from neutron/quark stars is through the study of the thin accretion disks around compact general relativistic objects. In the present paper, we perform a detailed comparative study of the electromagnetic and thermodynamic properties of the thin accretion disks around rapidly rotating BEC stars, neutron stars and quark stars, respectively. Due to the differences in the exterior geometry, the thermodynamic and electromagnetic properties of the disks (energy flux, temperature distribution, equilibrium radiation spectrum, and efficiency of energy conversion) are different for these classes of compact objects. Hence in this preliminary study we have pointed out some astrophysical signatures that may allow one to observationally discriminate between BEC stars and neutron/quark stars.

  12. Star Formation in Massive Clusters via Bondi Accretion

    Murray, Norman; Chang, Philip

    2012-02-01

    Essentially all stars form in giant molecular clouds (GMCs). However, inside GMCs, most of the gas does not participate in star formation; rather, denser gas accumulates in clumps in the GMC, with the bulk of the stars in a given GMC forming in a few of the most massive clumps. In the Milky Way, these clumps have masses M cl ffM_{cl}/\\tau _{cl}, with epsilonff ≈ 0.017). However, after ~2 GMC free-fall times τGMC, the clump accretion rate accelerates rapidly; formally, the clump can accrete the entire GMC in ~3τGMC. At the same time, the star formation rate accelerates, tracking the Bondi accretion rate. If the GMC is disrupted by feedback from the largest clump, half the stars in that clump form in the final τGMC before the GMC is disrupted. The theory predicts that the distribution of effective star formation rates, measured per GMC free-fall time, is broad, ranging from ~0.001 up to 0.1 or larger and that the mass spectrum of star clusters is flatter than that of clumps, consistent with observations.

  13. Self-consistent evolution of accreting low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    Baraffe, I; Vorobyov, E I; Chabrier, G

    2016-01-01

    We present self-consistent calculations coupling numerical hydrodynamics simulations of collapsing pre-stellar cores and stellar evolution models of accreting objects. We analyse the main impact of consistent accretion history on the evolution and lithium depletion of young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. These consistent models confirm the generation of a luminosity spread in Herzsprung-Russell diagrams at ages $\\sim$ 1-10 Myr. They also confirm that early accretion can produce objects with abnormal Li depletion, as found in a previous study that was based on arbitrary accretion rates. The results strengthen that objects with anomalously high level of Li depletion in young clusters should be extremely rare. We also find that early phases of burst accretion can produce coeval models of similar mass with a range of different Li surface abundances, and in particular with Li-excess compared to the predictions of non-accreting counterparts. This result is due to a subtle competition between the effect of burst a...

  14. Accretion-induced variability links young stellar objects, white dwarfs, and black holes

    Scaringi, S; Koerding, E; Knigge, C; Vaughan, S; Marsh, T R; Aranzana, E; Dhillon, V; Barros, S C C

    2015-01-01

    The central engines of disc-accreting stellar-mass black holes appear to be scaled down versions of the supermassive black holes that power active galactic nuclei. However, if the physics of accretion is universal, it should also be possible to extend this scaling to other types of accreting systems, irrespective of accretor mass, size, or type. We examine new observations, obtained with Kepler/K2 and ULTRACAM, regarding accreting white dwarfs and young stellar objects. Every object in the sample displays the same linear correlation between the brightness of the source and its amplitude of variability (rms-flux relation) and obeys the same quantitative scaling relation as stellar-mass black holes and active galactic nuclei. We also show that the most important parameter in this scaling relation is the physical size of the accreting object. This establishes the universality of accretion physics from proto-stars still in the star-forming process to the supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies.

  15. Accretion-induced variability links young stellar objects, white dwarfs, and black holes.

    Scaringi, Simone; Maccarone, Thomas J; Körding, Elmar; Knigge, Christian; Vaughan, Simon; Marsh, Thomas R; Aranzana, Ester; Dhillon, Vikram S; Barros, Susana C C

    2015-10-01

    The central engines of disc-accreting stellar-mass black holes appear to be scaled down versions of the supermassive black holes that power active galactic nuclei. However, if the physics of accretion is universal, it should also be possible to extend this scaling to other types of accreting systems, irrespective of accretor mass, size, or type. We examine new observations, obtained with Kepler/K2 and ULTRACAM, regarding accreting white dwarfs and young stellar objects. Every object in the sample displays the same linear correlation between the brightness of the source and its amplitude of variability (rms-flux relation) and obeys the same quantitative scaling relation as stellar-mass black holes and active galactic nuclei. We also show that the most important parameter in this scaling relation is the physical size of the accreting object. This establishes the universality of accretion physics from proto-stars still in the star-forming process to the supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies. PMID:26601307

  16. Asymmetric MHD Outflows/Jets from Accreting T Tauri Stars

    Dyda, Sergei; Ustyugova, Galina V; Lii, Patrick S; Romanova, Marina M; Koldoba, Alexander V

    2015-01-01

    A large set of 2.5D MHD simulations has been carried out for axisymmetric viscous/diffusive disc accretion to rotating magnetized stars for the purpose of assessing the conditions where the outflows or jets are asymmetric relative to the equatorial plane. Observations of jets from young stellar objects reveal the asymmetric outflows from some sources. The considered initial magnetic fields are symmetric about the equatorial plane and consist of a radially distributed field threading the disc (disc-field) and a stellar dipole field. (1). For pure disc-fields the symmetry or asymmetry of the outflows is affected by the midplane plasma $\\beta$ of the disc. For the low density discs with small plasma $\\beta$ values, outflows are observed to be symmetric about the equatorial plane to within 10% over timescales of hundreds of inner disc orbits. For the denser higher $\\beta$ discs, the coupling of the upper and lower coronal plasmas is broken, and quasi-periodic field motion in the two hemispheres becomes different....

  17. Accretion rates and accretion tracers of Herbig Ae/Be stars

    Mendigutía, I; Montesinos, B; Mora, A; Muzerolle, J; Eiroa, C; Oudmaijer, R D; Merín, B

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to derive accretion rates for a sample of 38 HAeBe stars. We apply magnetospheric accretion (MA) shock modelling to reproduce the observed Balmer excesses. We look for possible correlations with the strength of the Halpha, [OI]6300, and Brgamma emission lines. The median mass accretion rate is 2 x 10^-7 Msun yr^-1 in our sample. The model fails to reproduce the large Balmer excesses shown by the four hottest stars (T* > 12000 K). We derive Macc propto M*^5 and Lacc propto L*^1.2 for our sample, with scatter. Empirical calibrations relating the accretion and the Halpha, [OI]6300, and Brgamma luminosities are provided. The slopes in our expressions are slightly shallower than those for lower mass stars, but the difference is within the uncertainties, except for the [OI]6300 line. The Halpha 10% width is uncorrelated with Macc, unlike for the lower mass regime. The mean Halpha width shows higher values as the projected rotational velocities of HAe stars increase, which agrees with MA. The accretio...

  18. PHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF THE MASS ACCRETION RATES OF PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS. IV. RECENT STAR FORMATION IN NGC 602

    We have studied the young stellar populations in NGC 602, in the Small Magellanic Cloud, using a novel method that we have developed to combine Hubble Space Telescope photometry in the V, I, and Hα bands. We have identified about 300 pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars, all of which are still undergoing active mass accretion, and have determined their physical parameters (effective temperature, luminosity, age, mass, and mass accretion rate). Our analysis shows that star formation has been present in this field over the last 60 Myr. In addition, we can recognize at least two clear, distinct, and prominent episodes in the recent past: one about 2 Myr ago, but still ongoing in regions of higher nebulosity, and one (or more) older than 30 Myr, encompassing both stars dispersed in the field and two smaller clusters located about 100'' north of the center of NGC 602. The relative locations of younger and older PMS stars do not imply a causal effect or triggering of one generation on the other. The strength of the two episodes appears to be comparable, but the episodes occurring more than 30 Myr ago might have been even stronger than the current one. We have investigated the evolution of the mass accretion rate, M-dotacc, as a function of the stellar parameters finding that log M-dotacc≅-0.6 log t + log m + c, where t is the age of the star, m is its mass, and c is a decreasing function of the metallicity

  19. Studying Young Stars with Large Spectroscopic Surveys

    Martell, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Galactic archaeology is the study of the history of star formation and chemical evolution in the Milky Way, based on present-day stellar populations. Studies of young stars are a key anchor point for Galactic archaeology, since quantities like the initial mass function and the star formation rate can be studied directly in young clusters and star forming regions. Conversely, massive spectroscopic Galactic archaeology surveys can be used as a data source for young star studies.

  20. Studying Young Stars with Large Spectroscopic Surveys

    Martell, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    Galactic archaeology is the study of the history of star formation and chemical evolution in the Milky Way, based on present-day stellar populations. Studies of young stars are a key anchor point for Galactic archaeology, since quantities like the initial mass function and the star formation rate can be studied directly in young clusters and star forming regions. Conversely, massive spectroscopic Galactic archaeology surveys can be used as a data source for young star studies.

  1. Neutron drip transition in accreting and nonaccreting neutron star crusts

    Chamel, N; Zdunik, J L; Haensel, P

    2015-01-01

    The neutron-drip transition in the dense matter constituting the interior of neutron stars generally refers to the appearance of unbound neutrons as the matter density reaches some threshold density $\\rho_\\textrm{drip}$. This transition has been mainly studied under the cold catalyzed matter hypothesis. However, this assumption is unrealistic for accreting neutron stars. After examining the physical processes that are thought to be allowed in both accreting and nonaccreting neutron stars, suitable conditions for the onset of neutron drip are derived and general analytical expressions for the neutron drip density and pressure are obtained. Moreover, we show that the neutron-drip transition occurs at lower density and pressure than those predicted within the mean-nucleus approximation. This transition is studied numerically for various initial composition of the ashes from X-ray bursts and superbursts using microscopic nuclear mass models.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Accretion-Induced Star Formation in the Tadpole Galaxy Kiso 5639

    Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Almeida, Jorge Sanchez; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana; Mendez-Abreu, Jairo; Gallagher, John S; Rafelski, Marc; Filho, Mercedes; Ceverino, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The tadpole galaxy Kiso 5639 has a slowly rotating disk with a drop in metallicity at its star-forming head, suggesting that star formation was triggered by the accretion of metal-poor gas. We present multi-wavelength HST WFC3 images of UV through I band plus Halpha to search for peripheral emission and determine the properties of various regions. The head has a mass in young stars of ~10^6 Mo and an ionization rate of 6.4x10^51 s^{-1}, equivalent to ~2100 O9-type stars. There are four older star-forming regions in the tail, and an underlying disk with a photometric age of ~1 Gyr. The mass distribution function of 61 star clusters is a power law with a slope of -1.73+-0.51. Fourteen young clusters in the head are more massive than 10^4 Mo, suggesting a clustering fraction of 30%-45%. Wispy filaments of Halpha emission and young stars extend away from the galaxy. Shells and holes in the head HII region could be from winds and supernovae. Gravity from the disk should limit the expansion of the HII region, altho...

  3. Detecting gravitational waves from accreting neutron stars

    A.L. Watts; B. Krishnan

    2009-01-01

    The gravitational waves emitted by neutron stars carry unique information about their structure and composition. Direct detection of these gravitational waves, however, is a formidable technical challenge. In a recent study we quantified the hurdles facing searches for gravitational waves from the k

  4. Profiling Young Massive Stars

    Hill, T; Cunningham, M R; Minier, V

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of spectral energy distribution analysis for 162 of the 405 sources reported in the SIMBA survey of Hill et al. (2005). The fits reveal source specific parameters including: the luminosity, mass, temperature, H$_2$ number density, the surface density and the luminosity-to-mass ratio. Each of these parameters are examined with respect to the four classes of source present in the sample. Obvious luminosity and temperature distinctions exist between the mm-only cores and those cores with methanol maser and/or radio continuum emission, with the former cooler and less luminous than the latter. The evidence suggests that the mm-only cores are a precursor to the methanol maser in the formation of massive stars. The mm-only cores comprise two distinct populations distinguished by temperature. Analysis and conclusions about the nature of the cool-mm and warm-mm cores comprising the mm-only population are drawn.

  5. Evolution of Young Neutron Star Envelopes

    Chang, P

    2004-01-01

    We extend our initial study of diffusive nuclear burning (DNB) for neutron stars (NSs) with Hydrogen atmospheres and an underlying layer of proton capturing nuclei. Our initial study showed that DNB can alter the photospheric abundance of Hydrogen on surprisingly short timescales ($10^{2-4}\\yrs$). Significant composition evolution impacts the radiated thermal spectrum from the NS as well as its overall cooling rate. In this paper, we consider the case when the rate limiting step for the H consumption is diffusion to the burning layer, rather than the local nuclear timescale. This is relevant for NSs with surface temperatures in excess of $10^6 {\\rm K}$, such as young ($<10^5$ yr) radio pulsars and accreting NSs in quiescence. When downward diffusion is the limiting rate in DNB, the rate of H consumption is suppressed by 1-2 orders of magnitude compared to a DNB estimate that assumes diffusive equilibrium. In order to apply our ongoing study to young neutron stars, we also include the important effects of s...

  6. Evidence for high accretion-rates in Weak-Line T Tauri stars?

    Littlefair, S P; Harries, T J; Retter, A; O'Toole, S J; Naylor, Tim; Harries, Tim J.; Retter, Alon

    2004-01-01

    We have discovered T Tauri stars which show startling spectral variability between observations seperated by 20 years. In spectra published by Bouvier & Appenzeller (1992) these objects showed very weak H-alpha emission, broad CaII absorption and so called ``composite spectra'', where the spectral type inferred from the blue region is earlier than that inferred from the red. We present here new spectroscopy which shows that all four stars now exhibit strong H-alpha emission, narrow CaII emission and a spectral type which is consistent at all wavelengths. We propose a scheme to understand these changes whereby the composite spectra of these stars can be explained by a period of active accretion onto the central, young star. In this scheme the composite spectrum consists of a contribution from the stellar photosphere and a contribution from a hot, optically thick, accretion component. The optically thick nature of the accretion flow explains the weakness of the H-alpha emission during this phase. Within thi...

  7. Tidally distorted accretion discs in binary stars

    Ogilvie, G. I.

    2002-03-01

    The non-axisymmetric features observed in the discs of dwarf novae in outburst are usually considered to be spiral shocks, which are the non-linear relatives of tidally excited waves. This interpretation suffers from a number of problems. For example, the natural site of wave excitation lies outside the Roche lobe, the disc must be especially hot, and most treatments of wave propagation do not take into account the vertical structure of the disc. In this paper I construct a detailed semi-analytical model of the non-linear tidal distortion of a thin, three-dimensional accretion disc by a binary companion on a circular orbit. The analysis presented here allows for vertical motion and radiative energy transport, and introduces a simple model for the turbulent magnetic stress. The m=2 inner vertical resonance has an important influence on the amplitude and phase of the tidal distortion. I show that the observed patterns find a natural explanation if the emission is associated with the tidally thickened sectors of the outer disc, which may be irradiated from the centre. According to this hypothesis, it may be possible to constrain the physical parameters of the disc through future observations.

  8. MHD instabilities in accretion mounds on neutron star binaries

    Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Mignone, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    We have numerically solved the Grad-Shafranov equation for axisymmetric static MHD equilibria of matter confined at the polar cap of neutron stars. From the equilibrium solutions we explore the stability of the accretion mounds using the PLUTO MHD code. We find that pressure driven modes disrupt the equilibria beyond a threshold mound mass. This results in formation of dynamic structures inside the mound, as matter spreads over the neutron star surface. Our results show that local variation of magnetic field will significantly affect the shape and nature of the cyclotron features observed in the spectra of High Mass X-ray Binaries.

  9. MRI-driven Accretion onto Magnetized stars: Axisymmetric MHD Simulations

    Romanova, Marina M.; Ustyugova, Galina V.; Koldoba, Alexander V.; Lovelace, Richard V. E.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first results of a global axisymmetric simulation of accretion onto rotating magnetized stars from a turbulent, MRI-driven disk. The angular momentum is transported outward by the magnetic stress of the turbulent flow with a rate corresponding to a Shakura-Sunyaev viscosity parameter alpha\\approx 0.01-0.04. The result of the disk-magnetosphere interaction depends on the orientation of the poloidal field in the disk relative to that of the star at the disk-magnetosphere boundary...

  10. Accretion, jets and winds: High-energy emission from young stellar objects

    Guenther, Hans Moritz

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the processes of high-energy emission in young stellar objects. Stars of spectral type A and B are called Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) stars in this stage, all later spectral types are termed classical T Tauri stars (CTTS). Both types are studied by high-resolution X-ray and UV spectroscopy and modeling. Three mechanisms contribute to the high-energy emission from CTTS: 1) CTTS have active coronae similar to main-sequence stars, 2) the accreted material passes through an accretion shock at the stellar surface, which heats it to a few MK, and 3) some CTTS drive powerful outflows. Shocks within these jets can heat the plasma to X-ray emitting temperatures. Coronae are already well characterized in the literature; for the latter two scenarios models are shown. The magnetic field suppresses motion perpendicular to the field lines in the accretion shock, thus justifying a 1D geometry. The radiative loss is calculated as optically thin emission. A mixture of shocked and coronal gas is fitted to X-ra...

  11. Accretion Disc Evolution in Single and Binary T Tauri Stars

    Armitage, P J; Tout, C A; Armitage, Philip J.

    1998-01-01

    We present theoretical models for the evolution of T Tauri stars surrounded by circumstellar discs. The models include the effects of pre-main-sequence stellar and time dependent disc evolution, and incorporate the effects of stellar magnetic fields acting on the inner disc. For single stars, consistency with observations in Taurus-Auriga demands that disc dispersal occurs rapidly, on much less than the viscous timescale of the disc, at roughly the epoch when heating by stellar radiation first dominates over internal viscous dissipation. Applying the models to close binaries, we find that because the initial conditions for discs in binaries are uncertain, studies of extreme mass ratio systems are required to provide a stringent test of theoretical disc evolution models. We also note that no correlation of the infra-red colours of T Tauri stars with their rotation rate is observed, in apparent contradiction to the predictions of simple magnetospheric accretion models.

  12. Interactions between exoplanets and the winds of young stars

    Vidotto A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The topology of the magnetic field of young stars is important not only for the investigation of magnetospheric accretion, but also responsible in shaping the large-scale structure of stellar winds, which are crucial for regulating the rotation evolution of stars. Because winds of young stars are believed to have enhanced mass-loss rates compared to those of cool, main-sequence stars, the interaction of winds with newborn exoplanets might affect the early evolution of planetary systems. This interaction can also give rise to observational signatures which could be used as a way to detect young planets, while simultaneously probing for the presence of their still elusive magnetic fields. Here, we investigate the interaction between winds of young stars and hypothetical planets. For that, we model the stellar winds by means of 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Although these models adopt simplified topologies of the stellar magnetic field (dipolar fields that are misaligned with the rotation axis of the star, we show that asymmetric field topologies can lead to an enhancement of the stellar wind power, resulting not only in an enhancement of angular momentum losses, but also intensifying and rotationally modulating the wind interactions with exoplanets.

  13. Hypercritical Accretion onto a Newborn Neutron Star and Magnetic Field Submergence

    Bernal, Cristian G.; Page, Dany; Lee, William H.

    2012-01-01

    We present magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations of the late post-supernova hypercritical accretion to understand its effect on the magnetic field of the new-born neutron star. We consider as an example the case of a magnetic field loop protruding from the star's surface. The accreting matter is assumed to be non magnetized and, due to the high accretion rate, matter pressure dominates over magnetic pressure. We find that an accretion envelope develops very rapidly and once it becomes con...

  14. Magnetospheric accretion on the T Tauri star BP Tauri

    Donati, J F; Gregory, S G; Petit, P; Paletou, F; Bouvier, J; Dougados, C; Ménard, F; Cameron, A C; Harries, T J; Hussain, G A J; Unruh, Y; Morin, J; Marsden, S C; Manset, N; Aurière, M; Catala, C; Alecian, E

    2008-01-01

    From observations collected with the ESPaDOnS and NARVAL spectropolarimeters, we report the detection of Zeeman signatures on the classical T Tauri star BP Tau. Circular polarisation signatures in photospheric lines and in narrow emission lines tracing magnetospheric accretion are monitored throughout most of the rotation cycle of BP Tau at two different epochs in 2006. We observe that rotational modulation dominates the temporal variations of both unpolarised and circularly polarised spectral proxies tracing the photosphere and the footpoints of accretion funnels. From the complete data sets at each epoch, we reconstruct the large-scale magnetic topology and the location of accretion spots at the surface of BP Tau using tomographic imaging. We find that the field of BP Tau involves a 1.2 kG dipole and 1.6 kG octupole, both slightly tilted with respect to the rotation axis. Accretion spots coincide with the two main magnetic poles at high latitudes and overlap with dark photospheric spots; they cover about 2%...

  15. Comptonization and QPO Origins in Accreting Neutron Star Systems

    Lee, H C; Lee, Hyong C.; Miller, Guy S.

    1997-01-01

    We develop a simple, time-dependent Comptonization model to probe the origins of spectral variability in accreting neutron star systems. In the model, soft ``seed photons'' are injected into a corona of hot electrons, where they are Compton upscattered before escaping as hard X-rays. The model describes how the hard X-ray spectrum varies when the properties of either the soft photon source or the Comptonizing medium undergo small oscillations. Observations of the resulting spectral modulations can determine whether the variability is due to (i) oscillations in the injection of seed photons, (ii) oscillations in the coronal electron density, or (iii) oscillations in the coronal energy dissipation rate. Identifying the origin of spectral variability should help clarify how the corona operates and its relation to the accretion disk. It will also help in finding the mechanisms underlying the various quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) observed in the X-ray outputs of many accreting neutron star and black hole syste...

  16. Compression of matter in the center of accreting neutron stars

    Bejger, M; Haensel, P; Fortin, M

    2011-01-01

    In order to estimate the feasibility of dense-matter phase transition, we study the evolution of central density and baryon chemical potential of accreting neutron stars. The thin-disk accretion with and without the magnetic field torque is compared with the spin-down scenario for a selection of recent equations of state. We compare the prevalent (in the recycled-pulsar context) Keplerian thin-disk model, in which the matter is accreted from the marginally-stable circular orbit, with the recent magnetic-torque model that takes into account the influence of stellar magnetic field on the effective inner boundary of the disk. Calculations are performed using a multi-domain spectral methods code in the framework of General Relativity. We consider three equations of state consistent with recently measured mass of PSR J1614-2230, 1.97+-0.04 Msun (one of them softened by the appearance of hyperons). In the case of no magnetic torque and efficient angular momentum transfer from the disk to the star, substantial centr...

  17. Photometric determination of the mass accretion rate of pre-main sequence stars. IV. Recent star formation in NGC 602

    De Marchi, Guido; Panagia, Nino

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the young stellar populations in NGC 602, in the Small Magellanic Cloud, using a novel method that we have developed to combine Hubble Space Telescope photometry in the V, I, and Halpha bands. We have identified about 300 pre-main sequence (PMS) stars, all of which are still undergoing active mass accretion, and have determined their physical parameters (effective temperature, luminosity, age, mass and mass accretion rate). Our analysis shows that star formation has been present in this field over the last 60 Myr. In addition, we can recognise at least two clear, distinct, and prominent episodes in the recent past: one about 2 Myr ago, but still ongoing in regions of higher nebulosity, and one (or more) older than 30 Myr, encompassing both stars dispersed in the field and two smaller clusters located about 100 arcsec north of the centre of NGC 602. The relative locations of younger and older PMS stars do not imply a causal effect or triggering of one generation on the other. The strength of th...

  18. The frequency of accretion disks around single stars: Chamaeleon I

    Daemgen, Sebastian; Jayawardhana, Ray; Petr-Gotzens, Monika G

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that stellar companions can influence the evolution of a protoplanetary disk. Nevertheless, previous disk surveys did not - and could not - consistently exclude binaries from their samples. We present a study dedicated to investigating the frequency of ongoing disk accretion around single stars in a star-forming region. We obtained near-infrared spectroscopy of 54 low-mass stars selected from a high-angular resolution survey in the 2-3 Myr-old Chamaeleon I region to determine the presence of Brackett-$\\gamma$ emission, taking the residual chance of undetected multiplicity into account, which we estimate to be on the order of 30%. The result is compared with previous surveys of the same feature in binary stars of the same region to provide a robust estimate of the difference between the accretor fractions of single stars and individual components of binary systems. We find Br$\\gamma$ emission among $39.5^{+14.0}_{-9.9}$% of single stars, which is a significantly higher fraction than for binary...

  19. Doppler Probe of Accretion onto a T Tauri star

    Petrov, Peter P; Herczeg, Gregory J; Stempels, Henricus C; Walter, Frederick M

    2014-01-01

    The YY Ori stars are T Tauri stars with prominent time-variable redshifted absorption components that flank certain emission lines. One of the brightest in this class is S CrA, a visual double star. We have obtained a series of high-resolution spectra of the two components during four nights with the UVES spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. We followed the spectral changes occurring in S CrA to derive the physical structure of the accreting gas. We found that both stars are very similar with regard to surface temperature, radius, and mass. Variable redshifted absorption components are particularly prominent in the SE component. During one night, this star developed a spectrum unique among the T Tauri stars: extremely strong and broad redshifted absorption components appeared in many lines of neutral and ionized metals, in addition to those of hydrogen and helium. The absorption depths of cooler, low ionization lines peak at low velocities - while more highly ionized lines have peak absorption depths at ...

  20. Young and Waltzing Binary Stars

    2001-10-01

    ADONIS Observes Low-mass Eclipsing System in Orion Summary A series of very detailed images of a binary system of two young stars have been combined into a movie . In merely 3 days, the stars swing around each other. As seen from the earth, they pass in front of each other twice during a full revolution, producing eclipses during which their combined brightness diminishes . A careful analysis of the orbital motions has now made it possible to deduce the masses of the two dancing stars . Both turn out to be about as heavy as our Sun. But while the Sun is about 4500 million years old, these two stars are still in their infancy. They are located some 1500 light-years away in the Orion star-forming region and they probably formed just 10 million years ago . This is the first time such an accurate determination of the stellar masses could be achieved for a young binary system of low-mass stars . The new result provides an important piece of information for our current understanding of how young stars evolve. The observations were obtained by a team of astronomers from Italy and ESO [1] using the ADaptive Optics Near Infrared System (ADONIS) on the 3.6-m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. PR Photo 29a/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before primary eclipse PR Photo 29b/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-primary eclipse PR Photo 29c/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after primary eclipse PR Photo 29d/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before secondary eclipse PR Photo 29e/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-secondary eclipse PR Photo 29f/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after secondary eclipse PR Video Clip 06/01 : Video of the RXJ 0529.4+0041 system Binary stars and stellar masses Since some time, astronomers have noted that most stars seem to form in binary or multiple systems. This is quite fortunate, as the study of binary stars is the only way in which it is possible to measure directly one of the most fundamental quantities of a star, its mass. The mass of a

  1. A multiwavelength study of young stars in the Elephant Trunk

    López Martí, B.; Bayo, A.; Morales Calderón, M.; Barrado, D.

    2013-05-01

    We present the results of a multiwavelength study of young stars in IC 1396A, ``the Elephant Trunk Nebula''. Our targets are selected combining optical, near-infrared and mid-infrared photometry. Near-infrared and optical spectroscopy are used to confirm their youth and to derive spectral types for these objects, showing that they are early to mid-M stars, and that our sample includes some of the lowest-mass objects reported so far in the region. The photometric and spectroscopic information is used to construct the spectral energy distributions and to study the properties of the stars (mass, age, accretion, disks, spatial location). The implications for the triggered star formation picture are discussed.

  2. Star-disc interaction in galactic nuclei: orbits and rates of accreted stars

    Kennedy, Gareth F; Shukirgaliyev, Bekdaulet; Panamarev, Taras; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas; Spurzem, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    We examine the effect of an accretion disc on the orbits of stars in the central star cluster surrounding a central massive black hole by performing a suite of 39 high-accuracy direct N-body simulations using state-of-the art software and accelerator hardware, with particle numbers up to 128k. The primary focus is on the accretion rate of stars by the black hole (equivalent to their tidal disruption rate for black holes in the small to medium mass range) and the eccentricity distribution of these stars. Our simulations vary not only the particle number, but disc model (two models examined), spatial resolution at the centre (characterised by the numerical accretion radius) and softening length. The large parameter range and physically realistic modelling allow us for the first time to confidently extrapolate these results to real galactic centres. While in a real galactic centre both particle number and accretion radius differ by a few orders of magnitude from our models, which are constrained by numerical cap...

  3. Simultaneous Spectral and Timing Observations of Accreting Neuron Stars

    Kaaret, P.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this proposal is to perform simultaneous x-ray spectral and millisecond timing observations of accreting neutron stars to further our understanding of their accretion dynamics and in the hope of using these systems as probes of the physics of strong gravitational fields. NAG5-9104 is the successor grant to NAG5-8408. Observations using the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and BeppoSAX were performed of 4U1702-429, 4U1735-44, and Cyg X-2. Unfortunately, only a small fraction of the approved observing time was obtained for the first two targets and the data are of limited scientific value. Data analysis has been completed on the observations of Cyg X-2. We discovered a correlation between the frequency of the horizontal branch oscillations (HBO) and a soft, thermal component of the x-ray spectrum likely associated with emission from the accretion disk. This correlation may place constraints on models of the oscillations. A paper based on these results appeared in the Astrophysical Journal.

  4. Young star clusters in starburst environments

    Ho, L C

    1996-01-01

    Recent high-resolution observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) reveal that young star clusters of extraordinary luminosity and compactness ("super star clusters") are commonly found in starburst systems. Cluster formation appears to be a dominant mode of star formation in starbursts. The principal properties of the young clusters are summarized. A new ultraviolet HST imaging survey of the central regions of nearby galaxies indicates that young clusters form in a wide range of environments. Circumnuclear star-forming rings, in particular, are richly populated with clusters, and several examples from recent imaging studies are discussed. There has been much speculation that super star clusters represent present-day analogs of young globular clusters. I will present evidence suggesting that at least some super star clusters indeed have masses and mass densities comparable to those of evolved globular clusters in the Milky Way.

  5. "Propeller" Regime of Disk Accretion to Rapidly Rotating Stars

    Ustyugova, G V; Lovelace, R V E; Romanova, M M

    2006-01-01

    We present results of axisymmetic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the interaction of a rapidly-rotating, magnetized star with an accretion disk. The disk is considered to have a finite viscosity and magnetic diffusivity. The main parameters of the system are the star's angular velocity and magnetic moment, and the disk's viscosity, diffusivity. We focus on the "propeller" regime where the inner radius of the disk is larger than the corotation radius. Two types of magnetohydrodynamic flows have been found as a result of simulations: "weak" and "strong" propellers. The strong propeller is characterized by a powerful disk wind and a collimated magnetically dominated outflow or jet from the star. The weak propeller have only weak outflows. We investigated the time-averaged characteristics of the interaction between the main elements of the system, the star, the disk, the wind from the disk, and the jet. Rates of exchange of mass and angular momentum between the elements of the system are derived as a function ...

  6. MHD Simulations of Magnetized Stars in the Propeller Regime of Accretion

    Lii Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accreting magnetized stars may be in the propeller regime of disc accretion in which the angular velocity of the stellar magnetosphere exceeds that of the inner disc. In these systems, the stellar magnetosphere acts as a centrifugal barrier and inhibits matter accretion onto the rapidly rotating star. Instead, the matter accreting through the disc accumulates at the disc-magnetosphere interface where it picks up angular momentum and is ejected from the system as a wide-angled outflow which gradually collimates at larger distances from the star. If the ejection rate is lower than the accretion rate, the matter will accumulate at the boundary faster than it can be ejected; in this case, accretion onto the star proceeds through an episodic accretion instability in which the episodes of matter accumulation are followed by a brief episode of simultaneous ejection and accretion of matter onto the star. In addition to the matter dominated wind component, the propeller outflow also exhibits a well-collimated, magnetically-dominated Poynting jet which transports energy and angular momentum away from the star. The propeller mechanism may explain some of the weakly-collimated jets and winds observed around some T Tauri stars as well as the episodic variability present in their light curves. It may also explain some of the quasi-periodic variability observed in cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars and other magnetized stars.

  7. Removing a Major Uncertainty in Mass and Age Determinations of Young Stars

    Huerta, Marcos; Hartigan, Patrick

    2005-08-01

    Mass and age measurements of young stars rely on the stars' placement in an HR diagram relative to pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks. Uncertainties in T_eff include a systematic error introduced by converting spectral types to T_eff according to a conversion scale derived from main-sequence stars. The advent of sophisticated synthetic spectra and modern molecular opacities offers us an opportunity to determine a new T_eff scale designed for young stars. We propose to measure T_eff for a large sample of non- accreting (weak-lined) T Tauri stars using low resolution red spectra on Goldcam. The resulting spectra will make it possible to estimate T_eff for any young star by simply finding the best spectral match with a star in our sample. This procedure will also work for accreting (classical) T Tauri stars, where weak-lined T Tauri stars are used as photospheric templates to distinguish stellar features from accretion signatures.

  8. Growth of a Protostar and a Young Circumstellar Disk with High Mass Accretion Rate onto the Disk

    Ohtani, Takuya

    2013-01-01

    The growing process of both a young protostar and a circumstellar disk is investigated. Viscous evolution of a disk around a single star is considered with a model where a disk increases its mass by dynamically accreting envelope and simultaneously loses its mass via viscous accretion onto the central star. We focus on the circumstellar disk with high mass accretion rate onto the disk $\\dot{M}=8.512c_{\\rm s}^3/G$ as a result of dynamical collapse of rotating molecular cloud core. We study the origin of the surface density distribution and the origin of the disk-to-star mass ratio by means of numerical calculations of unsteady viscous accretion disk in one-dimensional axisymmetric model. It is shown that the radial profiles of the surface density $\\Sigma$, azimuthal velocity $v_{\\phi}$, and mass accretion rate $\\dot{M}$ in the inner region approach to the quasi-steady state. Profile of the surface density distribution in the quasi-steady state is determined as a result of angular momentum transport rather than...

  9. The Eruption of the Candidate Young Star ASASSN-15qi

    Herczeg, Gregory J; Shappee, Benjamin J; Chen, Ping; Hillenbrand, Lynne A; Jose, Jessy; Kochanek, Christopher S; Prieto, Jose L; Stanek, K Z; Kaplan, Kyle; Holoein, Thomas W -S; Mairs, Steve; Johnstone, Doug; Gully-Santiago, Michael; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Smith, Martin C; Bersier, David; Mulders, Gijs D; Filippenko, Alexei V; Ayani, Kazuya; Brimacombe, Joseph; Brown, Jonathan S; Connelley, Michael; Harmanen, Jussi; Ito, Ryosuke; Kawabata, Koji S; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Takata, Koji; Yuk, Heechan; Zheng, WeiKang

    2016-01-01

    Outbursts on young stars are usually interpreted as accretion bursts caused by instabilities in the disk or the star-disk connection. However, some protostellar outbursts may not fit into this framework. In this paper, we analyze optical and near-infrared spectra and photometry to characterize the 2015 outburst of the probable young star ASASSN-15qi. The $\\sim 3.5$ mag brightening in the $V$ band was sudden, with an unresolved rise time of less than one day. The outburst decayed exponentially by 1 mag for 6 days and then gradually back to the pre-outburst level after 200 days. The outburst is dominated by emission from $\\sim10,000$ K gas. An explosive release of energy accelerated matter from the star in all directions, seen in a spectacular cool, spherical wind with a maximum velocity of 1000 km/s. The wind and hot gas both disappeared as the outburst faded and the source the source returned to its quiescent F-star spectrum. Nebulosity near the star brightened with a delay of 10-20 days. Fluorescent excitati...

  10. He-Accreting WDs: AM CVn stars with WD Donors

    Piersanti, Luciano; Tornambe', Amedeo

    2015-01-01

    We study the physical and evolutionary properties of the "WD family" of AM CVn stars by computing realistic models of IDD systems. We evaluate self-consistently both the mass transfer rate from the donor, as determined by GW emission and interaction with the binary companion, and the thermal response of the accretor to mass deposition. We find that, after the onset of mass transfer, all the considered systems undergo a strong non-dynamical He-flash. However, due to the compactness of these systems, the expanding accretors fill their Roche lobe very soon, thus preventing the efficient heating of the external layers of the accreted CO WDs. Moreover, due to the loss of matter from the systems, the orbital separations enlarge and mass transfer comes to a halt. The further evolution depends on the value of \\mdot\\, after the donors fill again their lobe. On one hand, if the accretion rate, as determined by the actual value of (M_don,M_acc), is high enough, the accretors experience several He-flashes of decreasing s...

  11. Impact of accretion on the statistics of neutron star masses

    Cheng, Z; Zhao, Y H; 10.1017/S1743921312019588

    2013-01-01

    We have collected the parameter of 38 neutron stars (NSs) in binary systems with spin periods and measured masses. By adopting the Boot-strap method, we reproduced the procedure of mass calculated for each system separately, to determine the truly mass distribution of the NS that obtained from observation. We also applied the Monte-Carlo simulation and introduce the characteristic spin period 20 ms, in order to distinguish between millisecond pulsars (MSPs) and less recycled pulsars. The mass distributions of MSPs and the less recycled pulsars could be fitted by a Gaussian function as $\\rm 1.45\\pm0.42 M_{\\odot}$ and $\\rm 1.31\\pm0.17 M_{\\odot} (\\rm with ~ 1\\sigma)$ respectively. As such, the MSP masses are heavier than those in less recycled systems by factor of $\\rm \\sim 0.13M_{\\odot}$, since the accretion effect during the recycling process.

  12. Stellar parameters and accretion rate of the transition disk star HD 142527 from X-shooter

    HD 142527 is a young pre-main-sequence star with properties indicative of the presence of a giant planet and/or a low-mass stellar companion. We have analyzed an X-Shooter/Very Large Telescope spectrum to provide accurate stellar parameters and accretion rate. The analysis of the spectrum, together with constraints provided by the spectral energy distribution fitting, the distance to the star (140 ± 20 pc), and the use of evolutionary tracks and isochrones, led to the following set of parameters: Teff = 6550 ± 100 K, log g = 3.75 ± 0.10, L*/L☉ = 16.3 ± 4.5, M*/M☉ = 2.0 ± 0.3, and an age of 5.0 ± 1.5 Myr. This stellar age provides further constraints to the mass of the possible companion estimated by Biller et al., being between 0.20 and 0.35 M☉. Stellar accretion rates obtained from UV Balmer excess modeling and optical photospheric line veiling, and from the correlations with several emission lines spanning from the UV to the near-IR, are consistent with each other. The mean value from all previous tracers is 2 (±1) × 10–7 M☉ yr–1, which is within the upper limit gas flow rate from the outer to the inner disk recently provided by Cassasus et al.. This suggests that almost all gas transferred between both components of the disk is not trapped by the possible planet(s) in between but fall onto the central star, although it is discussed how the gap flow rate could be larger than previously suggested. In addition, we provide evidence showing that the stellar accretion rate of HD 142527 has increased by a factor ∼7 on a timescale of 2 to 5 yr.

  13. Accretion Rates for T Tauri Stars Using Nearly Simultaneous Ultraviolet and Optical Spectra

    Ingleby, Laura; Herczeg, Gregory; Blaty, Alex; Walter, Frederick; Ardila, David; Alexander, Richard; Edwards, Suzan; Espaillat, Catherine; Gregory, Scott G; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Brown, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the accretion properties of 21 low mass T Tauri stars using a dataset of contemporaneous near ultraviolet (NUV) through optical observations obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and the ground based Small and Medium Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS), a unique dataset because of the nearly simultaneous broad wavelength coverage. Our dataset includes accreting T Tauri stars (CTTS) in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, $\\eta$ Chamaeleon and the TW Hydra Association. For each source we calculate the accretion rate by fitting the NUV and optical excesses above the photosphere, produced in the accretion shock, introducing multiple accretion components characterized by a range in energy flux (or density) for the first time. This treatment is motivated by models of the magnetospheric geometry and accretion footprints, which predict that high density, low filling factor accretion spots co-exist with low density, high filling factor spots. By fitting the UV and optical spectra wi...

  14. The Chamaeleon II low-mass star-forming region: radial velocities, elemental abundances, and accretion properties

    Biazzo, K; Covino, E; Frasca, A; Getman, F; Spezzi, L

    2012-01-01

    Radial velocities, elemental abundances, and accretion properties of members of star-forming regions (SFRs) are important for understanding star and planet formation. While infrared observations reveal the evolutionary status of the disk, optical spectroscopy is fundamental to acquire information on the properties of the central star and on the accretion characteristics. 2MASS archive data and the Spitzer c2d survey of the Chamaeleon II dark cloud have provided disk properties of a large number of young stars. We complement these data with spectroscopy with the aim of providing physical stellar parameters and accretion properties. We use FLAMES/UVES+GIRAFFE observations of 40 members of Cha II to measure radial velocities through cross-correlation technique, Li abundances by means of curves of growth, and for a suitable star elemental abundances of Fe, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Ni using the code MOOG. From the equivalent widths of the Halpha, Hbeta, and the HeI-5876, 6678, 7065 Angstrom emission lines, we estimate ...

  15. Supercritical accretion in the evolution of neutron star binaries and its implications

    Recently ∼2M⊙ neutron stars PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0348+0432 have been observed in neutron star-white dwarf binaries. These observations ruled out many neutron star equations of states with which the maximum neutron star mass becomes less than 2M⊙. On the other hand, all well-measured neutron star masses in double neutron star binaries are still less than 1.5M⊙. In this article we suggest that 2M⊙ neutron stars in neutron star-white dwarf binaries are the result of the supercritical accretion onto the first-born neutron star during the evolution of the binary progenitors

  16. A Survey of Chemical Separation in Accreting Neutron Stars

    Mckinven, Ryan; Medin, Zach; Schatz, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    The heavy element ashes of rp-process hydrogen and helium burning in accreting neutron stars are compressed to high density where they freeze, forming the outer crust of the star. We calculate the chemical separation on freezing for a number of different nuclear mixtures resulting from a range of burning conditions for the rp-process. We confirm the generic result that light nuclei are preferentially retained in the liquid and heavy nuclei in the solid. This is in agreement with the previous study of a 17-component mixture of rp-process ashes by Horowitz et al. (2007), but extends that result to a much larger range of compositions. We also find an alternate phase separation regime for the lightest ash mixtures which does not demonstrate this generic behaviour. With a few exceptions, we find that chemical separation reduces the expected $Q_{\\rm imp}$ in the outer crust compared to the initial rp-process ash, where $Q_{\\rm imp}$ measures the mean-square dispersion in atomic number $Z$ of the nuclei in the mixtu...

  17. Two-phase model of star formation with variable accretion rate

    The influence of a variation of the accretion rate on the bursts of star formation is considered in the framework of two-phase model of star formation including interaction of stars and molecular clouds. The star formation is induced by binary cloud collisions and by interaction of clouds and already existing stars. The estimation of parameters of the model is based on the data on the masses of stars and clouds in Galaxy. If trigger mechanism of star formation dominates the regime of damped oscillations occurs in the system with variable accretion rate. Three types of variations of the accretion rate are considered: rapid increase during the time less than the period of oscillations, slow increase during the time of two oscillations and a short burst. In all cases the oscillatory behaviour occurs

  18. Orbital elements of barium stars formed through a wind accretion scenario

    Liu, J H; Liang, Y C; Peng, Q H

    2000-01-01

    Taking the total angular momentum conservation in place of the tangential momentum conservation, and considering the square and higher power terms of orbital eccentricity e, the changes of orbital elements of binaries are calculated for wind accretion scenario. These new equations are used to quantitatively explain the observed (e,logP) properties of normal G, K giants and barium stars. Our results reflect the evolution from G, K giant binaries to barium binaries, moreover, the barium stars with longer orbital periods P>1600 days may be formed by accreting part of the ejecta from the intrinsic AGB stars through wind accretion scenario.

  19. Accreting Planets in the Habitable Zones of M-Stars Are Too Hot to Retain Liquid Water

    Ramirez, R. M.; Kopparapu, R. K.; Kasting, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies1,2 have shown that young accreting planets in the habitable zones (HZ) of pre-main sequence M-stars face major dynamical hurdles in both the retention and acquisition of volatiles. High collision rates with other bodies, short planetary formation timescales, and inefficient radial mixing are among the major problems encountered. However, another equally-important concern is the high temperatures predicted within the circumstellar disk, greatly hindering volatile delivery. We use a 1-D radiative-convective climate model to demonstrate that the fluxes received by accreting planets orbiting late K-M stars exceed the runaway greenhouse threshold. Given that M-stars are disproportionately brighter in their pre main-sequence lifetimes as compared to Sun-like stars (i.e. G-class insolation), planets orbiting M-stars are especially susceptible to the runaway, with intensity and duration increasing for cooler M-stars. Thus, accreting planetesimals in the HZs of M-stars could be too hot to maintain liquid water on their surfaces. In contrast, accreting planets located at Earth's distance (or farther) from a pre-main sequence solar analogue (i.e. G2 spectral class) receive stellar fluxes well below that of the runaway point. Our results suggest that future missions and surveys can improve their prospects of finding alien life by targeting HZ planets orbiting Sun-like stars. Moreover, our findings support recent claims that Venus may have lost its water during accretion3. REFERENCES1. Lissauer, Jack J. "Planets formed in habitable zones of M dwarf stars probably are deficient in volatiles." The Astrophysical Journal Letters 660.2 (2007): L149. 2. Raymond, Sean N., John Scalo, and Victoria S. Meadows. "A decreased probability of habitable planet formation around low-mass stars." The Astrophysical Journal 669.1 (2007): 606. 3. Hamano, Keiko, Yutaka Abe, and Hidenori Genda. "Emergence of two types of terrestrial planet on solidification of magma ocean." Nature

  20. The GALEX Nearby Young-Star Survey

    Rodriguez, David R; Kastner, Joel H; Bessel, M S; Faherty, Jacqueline K; Murphy, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    We describe a method that exploits data from the GALEX ultraviolet and WISE and 2MASS infrared source catalogs, combined with proper motions and empirical pre-main sequence isochrones, to identify candidate nearby, young, low-mass stars. Applying our method across the full GALEX- covered sky, we identify 2031 mostly M-type stars that, for an assumed age of 10 (100) Myr, all lie within ~150 (~90) pc of Earth. The distribution of M spectral subclasses among these ~2000 candidate young stars peaks sharply in the range M3-M4; these subtypes constitute 50% of the sample, consistent with studies of the M star population in the immediate solar neighborhood. We focus on a subset of 58 of these candidate young M stars in the vicinity of the Tucana-Horologium Association. Only 20 of these 58 candidates were detected in the ROSAT All-Sky X-ray Survey -- reflecting the greater sensitivity of GALEX for purposes of identifying active nearby, young stars, particularly for stars of type M4 and later. Based on statistical ana...

  1. Locating the Accretion Footprint on a Herbig Ae Star: MWC 480

    Grady, C. A.; Hamaguchi, K.; Schneider, G.; Stecklum, B.; Woodgate, B. E.; McCleary, J. E.; Williger, G. M.; Sitko, M. L.; Menard, F.; Henning, Th.; Brittain, S.; Troutmann, M.; Donehew, B.; Hines, D.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Lynch, D. K.; Russell, R. W.; Rudy, R. J.; Day, A. M.; Shenoy, A.; Wilner, D.; Silverston, M.; Bouret, J.-C.; Clampin, M.; Petre, R.

    2011-01-01

    Accretion is a fundamental process which establishes the dynamics of the protoplanetary disk and the final properties of the forming star. In solar-type stars, the star-disk coupling is determined by the magnetic field structure, which is responsible for funneling material from the disk midplane to higher latitudes on the star. Here, we use pan-chromatic data for the Herbig Ae star MWC 480 to address whether similar processes occur in intermediate-mass stars. MWC 480 has X-ray emission typical of actively accreting Herbig Ae stars, but with 5-9 x more photoelectric absorption than expected from optical and FUV data. We consider 3 sources for the absorption: the disk absorption in a wind or jet, and accretion. While we detect the disk in scattered light in are-analysis of archival HST data. the data are consistent with grazing illumination of the dust disk. We find that MWC 480's disk is stratified, geometrically thin, and is not responsible for the observed photoelectric absorption. MWC 480 drives a bipolar jet, but with a mass loss rate which is low compared to other Herbig Ae stars, where the outflow is more favorably oriented and enhanced photoelectric absorption is not seen. This excludes a jet or wind origin for the enhanced photoelectric absorption. We compare MWC 480's 0 VI emission with other Herbig Ae stars. The distribution of the emission in inclination, and lack of a correlation of profile shape and system inclination excludes equatorially-confined accretion for the FUSE Herbig Ae stars. The photoelectric absorption data further suggest that the accretion footprint on MWC 480 and other Herbig Ae stars is located at high temperate, rather than polar, latitudes. These findings support the presence of funneled accretion in MWC 480 and Herbig Ae stars, strengthening the parallel to T Tauri stars.

  2. Captured older stars as the reason for apparently prolonged star formation in young star clusters

    Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    The existence of older stars within a young star cluster can be interpreted to imply that star formation occurs on time scales longer than a free-fall time of a pre-cluster cloud core. Here the idea is explored that these older stars are not related to the star formation process forming the young star cluster but rather that the orbits of older field stars are focused by the collapsing pre-cluster cloud core. Two effects appear: The focussing of stellar orbits leads to an enhancement of the d...

  3. The effect of rotation on the stability of nuclear burning in accreting neutron stars

    Keek, L.; Langer, N.; in 't Zand, J.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen and/or helium accreted by a neutron star from a binary companion may undergo thermonuclear fusion. Different burning regimes are discerned at different mass accretion rates. Theoretical models predict helium fusion to proceed as a thermonuclear runaway for accretion rates below the Eddington limit and as stable burning above this limit. Observations, however, place the boundary close to 10% of the Eddington limit. We study the effect of rotationally induced transport processes on the...

  4. Accretion by a Neutron Star Moving at a High Kick Velocity in the Supernova Ejecta

    Xu Zhang; Ye Lu; Yong-Heng Zhao

    2007-01-01

    We suggest a two-dimensional time dependent analytic model to describe the accretion of matter onto a neutron star moving at a high speed across the ejecta left in the aftermath of a supernova explosion. The formation of a strange star resulting from the accretion is also addressed. The newborn neutron star is assumed to move outward at a kick velocity of vns ~ 103 km s-1, and the accretion flow is treated as a dust flow. When the neutron star travels across the ejecta with high speed, it sweeps up material, and when the accreted mass has reached a critical value, the neutron star will undergo a phase transition,for instance, to become a strange star. Our results show that the accretion rate decreases in a complicated way in time, not just a power law dependence: it drops much faster than the power law derived by Colpi et al. We also found that the total accreted mass and the phase transition of the neutron star depend sensitively on the velocity of supernova ejecta.

  5. X-ray deficiency on strongly accreting T Tauri stars. Comparing Orion with Taurus

    Bustamante, I.; Merín, B.; Bouy, H.; Manara, C. F.; Ribas, Á.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Depending on whether a T Tauri star accretes material from its circumstellar disk or not, different X-ray emission properties can be found. The accretion shocks produce cool heating of the plasma, contributing to the soft X-ray emission from the star. Aims: Using X-ray data from the Chandra Orion Ultra-deep Project and accretion rates that were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 photometric measurements in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), we studied the relation between the accretion processes and the X-ray emissions of a coherent sample of T Tauri sources in the region. Methods: We performed regression and correlation analyses of our sample of T Tauri stars between the X-ray parameters, stellar properties, and the accretion measurements. Results: We find that a clear anti-correlation is present between the residual X-ray luminosity and the accretion rates in our samples in Orion that is consistent with that found on the XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus molecular cloud (XEST) study. A considerable number of classified non-accreting sources show accretion rates comparable to those of classical T Tauri Stars (CTTS). Our data do not allow us to confirm the classification between classical and weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTS), and the number of WTTS in this work is small compared to the complete samples. Thus, we have used the entire samples as accretors in our analysis. We provide a catalog with X-ray luminosities (corrected from distance) and accretion measurements of an ONC T Tauri stars sample. Conclusions: Although Orion and Taurus display strong differences in their properties (total gas and dust mass, star density, strong irradiation from massive stars), we find that a similar relation between the residual X-ray emission and accretion rate is present in the Taurus molecular cloud and in the accreting samples from the ONC. The spread in the data suggests dependencies of the accretion rates and the X-ray luminosities other than the

  6. The structure of young star clusters

    Gladwin, P. P.; Kitsionas, S.; H. M. J. Boffin; Whitworth, A. P.

    1998-01-01

    We analyse and compare the clustering of young stars in Chamaeleon I and Taurus. We compute the mean surface-density of companion stars \\bar{N} as a function of angular displacement \\theta from each star. We then fit \\bar{N}(\\theta) with two simultaneous power laws. For Chamaeleon I, the exponents of the power laws are 1.97 and 0.28, with the elbow at ~0.011 degrees. For Taurus, we obtain 2.02 and 0.87, with the elbow at ~0.013 deg. For both star clusters the observational data make quite lar...

  7. Gravitational radiation and gamma-ray bursts from accreting neutron stars

    Mosquera Cuesta, H.J.; Araujo, J.C.N. de; Aguiar, O.D. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Astrofisica]. E-mail: herman@das.inpe.br; jcarlos@das.inpe.br; odylio@das.inpe.br; Horvath, J.E. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Astronomico e Geofisico]. E-mail: foton@orion.iagusp.usp.br

    2000-07-01

    It is well known that hydrodynamic instabilities can be induced in rapidly rotating low magnetic field neutron stars, which accrete mass from a companion in both high and low mass X-ray binaries. (author)

  8. Accretion Rates for T Tauri Stars Using Nearly Simultaneous Ultraviolet and Optical Spectra

    Ingleby, Laura; Calvet, Nuria; Herczeg, Gregory; Blaty, Alex; Walter, Frederick; Ardila, David; Alexander, Richard; Edwards, Suzan; Espaillat, Catherine; Gregory, Scott G.; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Brown, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the accretion properties of 21 low mass T Tauri stars using a dataset of contemporaneous near ultraviolet (NUV) through optical observations obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and the ground based Small and Medium Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS), a unique dataset because of the nearly simultaneous broad wavelength coverage. Our dataset includes accreting T Tauri stars (CTTS) in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, $\\eta$ Chamaeleon and the TW Hydra As...

  9. Are some of the luminous high-latitude stars accretion-powered runaways?

    It is well known that (1) runaway stars can be produced via supernova explosions in close binary systems, (2) most of such runaways should possess neutron star companions, and (3) neutron stars receive randomly oriented kicks of ≅ 100 to 200 km s-1 at birth. We find that this kick sometimes has the right amplitude and direction to make the neutron star fall into the runaway. Accretion onto a neutron star is a source of energy that is roughly an order of magnitude more mass efficient than nuclear burning. Thus, runaways containing neutron stars may live much longer than would normally be expected, which would allow them to travel great distances from their birthplaces during their lifetimes. Some of the early B-type stars far from the Galactic plane and the high-latitude F and G-type supergiants may be accretion-powered runaway stars

  10. Energetic outflows from young stars

    In our galaxy, stars are born in clouds of gas, bodies so cold they do not emit any radiation at the visible wavelengths. Moreover, the clouds are permeated by cosmic dust, so that the visible radiation emitted by new stars is absorbed. Radiation at the wavelengths of infrared waves and the shortest radio waves penetrate these clouds. With the development of new telescopes and equipment for the detection of radiation at those wavelengths, astronomers are now able to explore the dark clouds where stars are born. A prime probe of the conditions within star-forming clouds has turned out to be the molecule carbon monoxide (CO). In interstellar molecular clouds, CO molecules emit radiation at a wavelength of 2.6 mm. The study of such radiation has recently revealed a new and intriguing phenomena closely associated with the birth and early evolution of stars. When certain stars are in the earliest stages of their life, they appear to be associated with violent outflows of mass. In a number of instances, molecular gas is found to be flowing outward from around newly formed stars in two supersonic streams 1800 apart. The origin and nature of these energetic outflows is a mystery. (SC)

  11. TRANSITIONAL DISKS AROUND YOUNG LOW MASS STARS

    P. D'Alessio

    2009-01-01

    have been interpreted as produced by disks with inner holes, which have been classi ed as \\Transitional Disks". These disks are considered the evolutionary link between the full disks typically found around the young T Tauri and Herbig Ae stars, and the debris disks, found around some main sequence stars. In this contribution we summarize the observed/inferred characteristics of these transitional disks and also some of the models proposed to explain their peculiar geometry.

  12. The role of accretion disks in the formation of massive stars

    Kuiper, Rolf; Beuther, Henrik; Henning, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We present radiation hydrodynamics simulations of the collapse of massive pre-stellar cores. We treat frequency dependent radiative feedback from stellar evolution and accretion luminosity at a numerical resolution down to 1.27 AU. In the 2D approximation of axially symmetric simulations, it is possible for the first time to simulate the whole accretion phase of several 10^5 yr for the forming massive star and to perform a comprehensive scan of the parameter space. Our simulation series show evidently the necessity to incorporate the dust sublimation front to preserve the high shielding property of massive accretion disks. Our disk accretion models show a persistent high anisotropy of the corresponding thermal radiation field, yielding to the growth of the highest-mass stars ever formed in multi-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. Non-axially symmetric effects are not necessary to sustain accretion. The radiation pressure launches a stable bipolar outflow, which grows in angle with time as presum...

  13. Accretion onto Stars with Octupole Magnetic Fields: Matter Flow, Hot Spots and Phase Shifts

    Long, Min; Lamb, Frederick K

    2009-01-01

    Recent measurements of the surface magnetic fields of classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) and magnetic cataclysmic variables show that their magnetic fields have a complex structure. The magnetic field associated with the octupole moment may dominate the magnetic field associated with other moments in some stars, such as the CTTS V2129 Oph. Previously, we studied disc accretion onto stars with magnetic fields described by a superposition of aligned or misaligned dipole and quadrupole moments. In this paper, we present results of the first simulations of disc accretion onto stars with an \\textit {octupole} field. As examples, we consider stars with a superposition of octupole and dipole fields of different strengths and investigate matter flow around them, the shapes of hot spots on their surfaces, and the light curves produced by their rotation. We investigate two possible mechanisms for producing phase shifts in the light curves of stars with complex fields: (1) change of the star's intrinsic magnetic field and ...

  14. A M2FS Spectroscopic Study of Low-mass Young Stars in Orion OB1

    Kaleida, Catherine C.; Briceno, Cesar; Calvet, Nuria; Mateo, Mario L.; Hernandez, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Surveys of pre-main sequence stars in the ~4-10 Myr range provide a window into the decline of the accretion phase of stars and the formation of planets. Nearby star clusters and stellar associations allow for the study of these young stellar populations all the way down to the lowest mass members. One of the best examples of nearby 4-10 Myr old stellar populations is the Orion OB1 association. The CIDA Variability Survey of Orion OB1 (CVSO - Briceño et al. 2001) has used the variability properties of low-mass pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars to identify hundreds of K and M-type stellar members of the Orion OB1 association, a number of them displaying IR-excess emission and thought to be representative of more evolved disk-bearing young stars. Characterizing these young, low-mass objects using spectroscopy is integral to understanding the accretion phase in young stars. We present preliminary results of a spectroscopic survey of candidate and confirmed Orion OB1 low-mass members taken during November 2014 and February 2014 using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber Spectrograph (M2FS), a PI instrument on the Magellan Clay Telescope (PI: M. Matteo). Target fields located in the off-cloud regions of Orion were identified in the CVSO, and observed using the low and high-resolution modes of M2FS. Both low and high-resolution spectra are needed in order to confirm membership and derive masses, ages, kinematics and accretion properties. Initial analysis of these spectra reveal many new K and M-type members of the Orion OB1 association in these low extinction, off-cloud areas. These are the more evolved siblings of the youngest stars still embedded in the molecular clouds, like those in the Orion Nebula Cluster. With membership and spectroscopic indicators of accretion we are building the most comprehensive stellar census of this association, enabling us to derive a robust estimate of the fraction of young stars still accreting at a various ages, a key constraint for the end of

  15. Super-Eddington accretion in ultra-luminous neutron star binary

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2014-01-01

    We discuss properties of the ultra-luminous $X$-ray source in the galaxy M82, NuSTAR J095551+6940.8, containing an accreting neutron star. The neutron star has surface magnetic field $ B_{NS} \\approx 1.4 \\times 10^{13 } \\, {\\rm G}$ and experiences accretion rate of $9 \\times 10^{-7} M_\\odot {\\rm \\, yr}^{-1} $. The magnetospheric radius, close to the corotation radius, is $\\sim 2 \\times 10^8$ cm. The accretion torque on the neutron star is reduce well below what is expected in a simple magnetospheric accretion due to effective penetration of the stellar magnetic field into the disk beyond the corotation radius. As a result, the radiative force of the surface emission does not lead to strong coronal wind, but pushes plasma along magnetic field lines towards the equatorial disk. The neutron star is nearly an orthogonal rotator, with the angle between the rotation axis and the magnetic moment $\\geq 80$ degrees. Accretion occurs through optically thick -- geometrically thin and flat accretion "curtain", which cuts...

  16. 2-D MHD Configurations for Accretion Disks Around Magnetized Stars

    Benini, Riccardo; Montani, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    We discuss basic features of steady accretion disk morphology around magnetized compact astrophysical objects. A comparison between the standard model of accretion based on visco-resistive MHD and the plasma instabilities, like ballooning modes, triggered by very low value of resistivity, is proposed.

  17. MODELING THE STAR-FORMING UNIVERSE AT z = 2: IMPACT OF COLD ACCRETION FLOWS

    We present results of a semianalytic model (SAM) that includes cold accretion and a porosity-based prescription for star formation. We can recover the puzzling observational results of low V/σ seen in various massive disk or disk-like galaxies, if we allow 18% of the accretion energy from cold flows to drive turbulence in gaseous disks at z = 2. The increase of gas mass through cold flows is by itself not sufficient to increase the star formation rate sufficiently to recover the number density of M-dot*>120 Modot yr-1 galaxies in our model. In addition, it is necessary to increase the star formation efficiency. This can be achieved naturally in the porosity model, where star formation efficiency scales ∝σ, which scales as cloud velocity dispersion. As cold accretion is the main driver for gas velocity dispersion in our model, star formation efficiency parallels cold accretion rates and allows fast conversion into stars. At z ∼ 2, we find a space density 10-4 Mpc-3 in star-forming galaxies with M-dot*>120 Modot yr-1, in better agreement than earlier estimates from SAMs. However, the fundamental relation between M-dot* and M * is still offset from the observed relation, indicating the need for possibly more efficient star formation at high-z perhaps associated with a role for active galactic nucleus (AGN) triggering.

  18. The Early History of Stellar Spin: the Theory of Accretion onto Young Stellar Objects

    Pudritz Ralph E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of the magnetospheres of forming stars with their surrounding protostellar disks results in magnetospheric accretion flow onto the star. How is the associated angular momentum of accreting material channelled? The resolution of this issue is crucial for understanding the origin of the spins of pre main sequence stars. A significant fraction of these rotate very slowly, which indicates that an efficient angular momentum transport mechanism is at work to counteract the strong accretion spin up torques. We review the observational, theoretical, and computational advances in the field and argue that an accretion powered stellar winds together with highly time variable mass ejections from the disk/magnetosphere interface is a likely solution.

  19. A strong shallow heat source in the accreting neutron star MAXI J0556-332

    Deibel, Alex; Brown, Edward F; Page, Dany

    2015-01-01

    An accretion outburst in an X-ray transient deposits material onto the neutron star primary; this accumulation of matter induces reactions in the neutron star's crust. During the accretion outburst these reactions heat the crust out of thermal equilibrium with the core. When accretion halts, the crust cools to its long-term equilibrium temperature on observable timescales. Here we examine the accreting neutron star transient MAXI J0556-332, which is the hottest transient, at the start of quiescence, observed to date. Models of the quiescent light curve require a large deposition of heat in the shallow outer crust from an unknown source. The additional heat injected is $\\approx 4\\textrm{-}10\\,\\mathrm{MeV}$ per accreted nucleon; when the observed decline in accretion rate at the end of the outburst is accounted for, the required heating increases to $\\approx 6\\textrm{-}16\\,\\mathrm{MeV}$. This shallow heating is still required to fit the lightcurve even after taking into account a second accretion episode, uncer...

  20. On the existence of accretion-driven bursts in massive star formation

    Meyer, D M -A; Kuiper, R; Kley, W

    2016-01-01

    Accretion-driven luminosity outbursts are a vivid manifestation of variable mass accretion onto protostars. They are known as the so-called FU Orionis phenomenon in the context of low-mass protostars. More recently, this process has been found in models of primordial star formation. Using numerical radiation hydrodynamics simulations, we stress that present-day forming massive stars also experience variable accretion and show that this process is accompanied by luminous outbursts induced by the episodic accretion of gaseous clumps falling from the circumstellar disk onto the protostar. Consequently, the process of accretion-induced luminous flares is also conceivable in the high-mass regime of star formation and we propose to regard this phenomenon as a general mechanism that can affect protostars regardless of their mass and/or the chemical properties of the parent environment in which they form. In addition to the commonness of accretion-driven outbursts in the star formation machinery, we conjecture that l...

  1. Hypercritical Accretion onto a Newborn Neutron Star and Magnetic Field Submergence

    Bernal, Cristian G; Lee, William H

    2012-01-01

    We present magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations of the late post-supernova hypercritical accretion to understand its effect on the magnetic field of the new-born neutron star. We consider as an example the case of a magnetic field loop protruding from the star's surface. The accreting matter is assumed to be non magnetized and, due to the high accretion rate, matter pressure dominates over magnetic pressure. We find that an accretion envelope develops very rapidly and once it becomes convectively stable the magnetic field is easily buried and pushed into the newly forming neutron star crust. However, for low enough accretion rates the accretion envelope remains convective for an extended period of time and only partial submergence of the magnetic field occurs due to a residual field that is maintained at the interface between the forming crust and the convective envelope. In this latter case, the outcome should be a weakly magnetized neutron star with a likely complicated field geometry. In our simulatio...

  2. HYPERCRITICAL ACCRETION ONTO A NEWBORN NEUTRON STAR AND MAGNETIC FIELD SUBMERGENCE

    Bernal, Cristian G.; Page, Dany; Lee, William H., E-mail: bernalcg@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: page@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: wlee@astro.unam.mx [Departamento de Astrofisica Teorica, Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2013-06-20

    We present magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations of the late post-supernova hypercritical accretion to understand its effect on the magnetic field of the newborn neutron star. We consider as an example the case of a magnetic field loop protruding from the star's surface. The accreting matter is assumed to be non-magnetized, and, due to the high accretion rate, matter pressure dominates over magnetic pressure. We find that an accretion envelope develops very rapidly, and once it becomes convectively stable, the magnetic field is easily buried and pushed into the newly forming neutron star crust. However, for low enough accretion rates the accretion envelope remains convective for an extended period of time and only partial submergence of the magnetic field occurs due to a residual field that is maintained at the interface between the forming crust and the convective envelope. In this latter case, the outcome should be a weakly magnetized neutron star with a likely complicated field geometry. In our simulations we find the transition from total to partial submergence to occur around M-dot {approx}10 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. Back-diffusion of the submerged magnetic field toward the surface, and the resulting growth of the dipolar component, may result in a delayed switch-on of a pulsar on timescales of centuries to millennia.

  3. Finding Young Stars in IC417

    Odden, Caroline; Rebull, Luisa M.; Sanchez, Richard; Hall, Garrison; Dear, AnnaMaria; Hengel, Cassie; LaRocca, Mia; Lin, Samantha; Nix, Sabine; Sweckard, Teaghan; Wilhelm, Katie

    2016-01-01

    IC 417 is a young cluster in the constellation Auriga, towards the Galactic anti-center in the Perseus arm, at a distance of ~2.3 kpc. Previous studies suggested that there are young stars in this region; Camargo et al. (2012) identified several few-Myr-old clusters in this region from 2MASS clustering, and Jose et al. (2008) identified H-alpha excess sources. Since stars form from clouds of interstellar dust and gas, a signature of star formation is excess infrared (IR) emission, which is interpreted as evidence for circumstellar dust around young stars. We identified new candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in IC 417 by incorporating near- and mid-infrared observations from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS). Infrared excess sources were identified by using a series of color cuts in various 2MASS/WISE color-magnitude and color-color diagrams following Koenig & Leisawitz (2014). We also assembled a list of OB and H-alpha stars from the literature, including those from Jose et al. (2008), and H-alpha bright stars from the IPHAS survey (Witham et al. 2008). Starting with this compiled list of approximately 200 interesting objects in the region, we then set about checking their reliability in three ways. We inspected the POSS, 2MASS, and WISE images of the sources. We assembled and inspected spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from archival data ranging from wavelengths of 0.7 to 22 um. Finally, we created and inspected color-color and color-magnitude diagrams. We find enough new YSO candidates to more than double the number yet identified in the IC 417 region. This research was made possible through the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP) and was funded by NASA Astrophysics Data Program.

  4. The Accretion Disk of the Lithium-Depleted Young Binary St 34

    Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria; Watson, Dan M.; D'Alessio, P.; Furlan, E.; Sargent, B.; Forrest, W. J.; Uchida, K. I.; Green, J. D.; Sloan, G. C.; Chen, C. H.; Najita, J.; Kemper, F.; Herter, T. L.; Morris, P.; Barry, D. J.; Hall, P.

    2005-01-01

    We presented the infrared spectrum of the young binary system St 34 obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The IRS spectrum clearly shows excess dust emission, consistent with the suggestion of White & Hillenbrand that St 34 is accreting from a circumbinary disk. The disk emission of St 34 is low in comparison with the levels observed in typical T Tauri stars; silicate features at 10 and 20 microns are much weaker than typically seen in T Tauri stars; and excess emission is nearly absent at the shortest wavelengths observed. These features of the infrared spectrum suggest substantial grain growth (to eliminate silicate features) and possible settling of dust to the disk midplane (to reduce the continuum excess emission levels), along with a relatively evacuated inner disk, as expected due to gravitational perturbations by the binary system. Although the position of St 34 in the H-R diagram suggests an age of 8f Myr, assuming that it lies at the distance of the Taurus-Auriga molecular clouds, White & Hillenbrand could not detect any Li I absorption, which would indicate a Li depletion age of roughly 25 Myr or more. We suggest that St 34 is closer than the Taurus clouds by about 30-40 pc and has an age roughly consistent with Li depletion models. Such an advanced age would make St 34 the oldest known low-mass pre-main-sequence object with a dusty accretion disk. The persistence of optically thick dust emission well outside the binary orbit may indicate a failure to make giant planets that could effectively remove dust particles.

  5. Supercritical accretion in the evolution of neutron star binaries and its implications

    Lee, Chang-Hwan, E-mail: clee@pusan.ac.kr; Cho, Hee-Suk

    2014-08-15

    Recently ∼2M{sub ⊙} neutron stars PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0348+0432 have been observed in neutron star-white dwarf binaries. These observations ruled out many neutron star equations of states with which the maximum neutron star mass becomes less than 2M{sub ⊙}. On the other hand, all well-measured neutron star masses in double neutron star binaries are still less than 1.5M{sub ⊙}. In this article we suggest that 2M{sub ⊙} neutron stars in neutron star-white dwarf binaries are the result of the supercritical accretion onto the first-born neutron star during the evolution of the binary progenitors.

  6. X-Shooter study of accretion in $\\rho$-Ophiucus: very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    Manara, C F; Natta, A; Alcalá, J M

    2015-01-01

    We present new VLT/X-Shooter optical and NIR spectra of a sample of 17 candidate young low-mass stars and BDs in the rho-Ophiucus cluster. We derived SpT and Av for all the targets, and then we determined their physical parameters. All the objects but one have M*<0.6 Msun, and 8 have mass below or close to the hydrogen-burning limit. Using the intensity of various emission lines present in their spectra, we determined the Lacc and Macc for all the objects. When compared with previous works targeting the same sample, we find that, in general, these objects are not as strongly accreting as previously reported, and we suggest that the reason is our more accurate estimate of the photospheric parameters. We also compare our findings with recent works in other slightly older star-forming regions to investigate possible differences in the accretion properties, but we find that the accretion properties for our targets have the same dependence on the stellar and substellar parameters as in the other regions. This l...

  7. Magnetocentrifugally driven flows from young stars and disks. 1: A generalized model

    Shu, Frank; Najita, Joan; Ostriker, Eve; Wilkin, Frank; Ruden, Steven; Lizano, Susana

    1994-01-01

    We propose a generalized model for stellar spin-down, disk accretion, and truncation, and the origin of winds, jets, and bipolar outflows from young stellar objects. We consider the steady state dynamics of accretion of matter from a viscous and imperfectly conducting disk onto a young star with a strong magnetic field. For an aligned stellar magnetosphere, shielding currents in the surface layers of the disk prevent stellar field lines from penetrating the disk everywhere except for a range of radii about pi = R(sub x), where the Keplerian angular speed of rotation Omega(sub x) equals the angular speed of the star Omega(sub *). For the low disk accretion rates and high magnetic fields associated with typical T Tauri stars, R(sub x) exceeds the radius of the star R(sub *) by a factor of a few, and the inner disk is effectively truncated at a radius R(sub t) somewhat smaller than R(sub x). Where the closed field lines between R(sub t) and R(sub x) bow sufficiently inward, the accreting gas attaches itself to the field and is funneled dynamically down the effective potential (gravitational plus centrifugal) onto the star. Contrary to common belief, the accompanying magnetic torques associated with this accreting gas may transfer angular momentum mostly to the disk rather than to the star. Thus, the star can spin slowly as long as R(sub x) remains significantly greater than R(sub *). Exterior to R(sub x) field lines threading the disk bow outward, which makes the gas off the mid-plane rotate at super-Keplerian velocities. This combination drives a magnetocentrifugal wind with a mass-loss rate M(sub w) equal to a definite fraction f of the disk accretion rate M(sub D). For high disk accretion rates, R(sub x) is forced down to the stellar surface, the star is spun to breakup, and the wind is generated in a manner identical to that proposed by Shu, Lizano, Ruden, & Najita in a previous communication to this journal. In two companion papers (II and III), we develop a

  8. FUV Emission from AGB Stars: Modeling Accretion Activity Associated with a Binary Companion

    Stevens, Alyx Catherine; Sahai, Raghvendra

    2012-01-01

    It is widely believed that the late stages of evolution for Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars are influenced by the presence of binary companions. Unfortunately, there is a lack of direct observational evidence of binarity. However, more recently, strong indirect evidence comes from the discovery of UV emission in a subsample of these objects (fuvAGB stars). AGB stars are comparatively cool objects (accretion activity. We develop new models of UV emission from fuvAGB stars constrained by GALEX photometry and spectroscopy of these objects. We compare the GALEX UV grism spectra of the AGB M7 star EY Hya to predictions using the spectral synthesis code Cloudy, specifically investigating the ultraviolet wavelength range (1344-2831 Angstroms). We investigate models composed of contributions from a photoionized "hot spot" due to accretion activity around the companion, and "chromospheric" emission from collisionally ionized plasma, to fit the UV observations.

  9. X-ray deficiency on strong accreting T Tauri stars - Comparing Orion with Taurus

    Bustamante, Ignacio; Bouy, Hervé; Manara, Carlo; Ribas, Álvaro; Riviere-Marichalar, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Depending on whether a T Tauri star accretes material from its circumstellar disk or not, different X-ray emission properties can be found. The accretion shocks produce cool heating of the plasma, contributing to the soft X-ray emission from the star. Using X-ray data from the Chandra Orion Ultra-deep Project and accretion rates that were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 photometric measurements in the Orion Nebula Cluster, we studied the relation between the accretion processes and the X-ray emissions of a coherent sample of T Tauri sources in the region. We performed regression and correlation analyses of our sample of T Tauri stars between the X-ray parameters, stellar properties, and the accretion measurements. We find that a clear anti-correlation is present between the residual X-ray luminosity and the accretion rates in our samples in Orion that is consistent with that found on the XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus molecular cloud (XEST) study. We provide a catalog with X-ray lumin...

  10. Supermassive star formation via episodic accretion: protostellar disc instability and radiative feedback efficiency

    Sakurai, Y.; Vorobyov, E. I.; Hosokawa, T.; Yoshida, N.; Omukai, K.; Yorke, H. W.

    2016-06-01

    The formation of supermassive stars (SMSs) is a potential pathway to seed supermassive black holes in the early universe. A critical issue for forming SMSs is stellar UV feedback, which may limit the stellar mass growth via accretion. In this paper, we study the evolution of an accreting SMS and its UV emissivity with realistic variable accretion from a circumstellar disc. First we conduct a 2D hydrodynamical simulation to follow the protostellar accretion until the stellar mass exceeds 104 M⊙. The disc fragments by gravitational instability, creating many clumps that migrate inward to fall on to the star. The resulting accretion history is highly time-dependent: short episodic accretion bursts are followed by longer quiescent phases. We show that the disc for the direct collapse model is more unstable and generates greater variability than normal Pop III cases. Next, we conduct a stellar evolution calculation using the obtained accretion history. Our results show that, regardless of the variable accretion, the stellar radius monotonically increases with almost constant effective temperature at Teff ≃ 5000 K as the stellar mass increases. The resulting UV feedback is too weak to hinder accretion due to the low flux of stellar UV photons. The insensitivity of stellar evolution to variable accretion is attributed to the fact that time-scales of variability, ≲103 yr, are too short to affect the stellar structure. We argue that this evolution will continue until the SMS collapses to produce a black hole by the general relativistic instability after the mass reaches ≳105 M⊙.

  11. Variable X-Ray and UV emission from AGB stars: Accretion activity associated with binarity

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Sanz-Forcada, Jorge; Sánchez Contreras, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    Almost all of our current understanding of the late evolutionary stages of (1 — 8) Mʘ stars is based on single-star models. However, binarity can drastically affect late stellar evolution, producing dramatic changes in the history and geometry of mass loss that occurs in stars as they evolve off the AGB to become planetary nebulae (PNe). A variety of binary models have been proposed, which can lead to the generation of accretion disks and magnetic fields, which in turn produce the highly collimated jets that have been proposed as the primary agents for the formation of bipolar and multipolar PNe. However, observational evidence of binarity in AGB stars is sorely lacking simply these stars are very luminous and variable, invalidating standard techniques for binary detection. Using an innovative technique of searching for UV emission from AGB stars with GALEX, we have identified a class of AGB stars with far- ultraviolet excesses (fuvAGB stars), that are likely candidates for active accretion associated with a binary companion. We have carried out a pilot survey for X-ray emission from fuvAGB stars. The X-ray fluxes are found to vary in a stochastic or quasi-periodic manner on roughly hour-long times-scales, and simultaneous UV observations show similar variations in the UV fluxes. We discuss several models for the X-ray emission and its variability and find that the most likely scenario for the origin of the X-ray (and FUV) emission involves accretion activity around a main-sequence companion star, with confinement by strong magnetic fields associated with the companion and/or an accretion disk around it.

  12. Modeling The Star Forming Universe at z=2: Impact of Cold Accretion Flows

    Khochfar, S.; ~Silk, J.

    2008-01-01

    We present results of a semi-analytic model (SAM) that includes cold accretion and a porosity-based prescription for star formation. We can recover the puzzling observational results of low $V/\\sigma$ seen in various massive disk or disk-like galaxies, if we allow 18 % of the accretion energy from cold flows to drive turbulence in gaseous disks at $z=2$. The increase of gas mass through cold flows is by itself not sufficient to increase the star formation rate sufficiently to recover the numb...

  13. A CORRELATION BETWEEN STAR FORMATION RATE AND AVERAGE BLACK HOLE ACCRETION IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    We present a measurement of the average supermassive black hole accretion rate (BHAR) as a function of the star formation rate (SFR) for galaxies in the redshift range 0.25 2 Boötes multi-wavelength survey field. The SFR is estimated using 250 μm observations from the Herschel Space Observatory, for which the contribution from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) is minimal. In this sample, 121 AGNs are directly identified using X-ray or mid-IR selection criteria. We combined these detected AGNs and an X-ray stacking analysis for undetected sources to study the average BHAR for all of the star-forming galaxies in our sample. We find an almost linear relation between the average BHAR (in M☉ yr–1) and the SFR (in M☉ yr–1) for galaxies across a wide SFR range 0.85 < log SFR < 2.56: log BHAR = (– 3.72 ± 0.52) + (1.05 ± 0.33)log SFR. This global correlation between SFR and average BHAR is consistent with a simple picture in which SFR and AGN activity are tightly linked over galaxy evolution timescales

  14. Star formation and black hole accretion activity in rich local clusters of galaxies

    Bianconi, Matteo; Marleau, Francine R.; Fadda, Dario

    2016-04-01

    Context. We present a study of star formation and central black hole accretion activity of galaxies that are hosted in the two nearby (z ~ 0.2) rich galaxy clusters Abell 983 and 1731. Aims: We aim to quantify both the obscured and unobscured star formation rates, as well as the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGN) as a function of the environment in which the galaxy is located. Methods: We targeted the clusters with unprecedented deep infrared Spitzer observations (0.2 mJy at 24 micron), near-IR Palomar imaging and optical WIYN spectroscopy. The extent of our observations (~3 virial radii) covers the vast range of possible environments, from the very dense cluster centre to the very rarefied cluster outskirts and accretion regions. Results: The star-forming members of the two clusters present star formation rates that are comparable with those measured in coeval field galaxies. Analysis of the spatial arrangement of the spectroscopically confirmed members reveals an elongated distribution for A1731 with respect to the more uniform distribution of A983. The emerging picture is compatible with A983 being a fully evolved cluster, in contrast with the still actively accreting A1731. Conclusions: Analysis of the specific star formation rate reveals evidence of ongoing galaxy pre-processing along A1731's filament-like structure. Furthermore, the decrease in the number of star-forming galaxies and AGN towards the cluster cores suggests that the cluster environment is accelerating the ageing process of the galaxies and blocking further accretion of the cold gas that fuels both star formation and black hole accretion activity. The catalogue and the reduced images (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/588/A105

  15. Clumpy wind accretion in supergiant neutron star high mass X-ray binaries

    Bozzo, E.; Oskinova, L.; Feldmeier, A.; Falanga, M.

    2016-05-01

    The accretion of the stellar wind material by a compact object represents the main mechanism powering the X-ray emission in classical supergiant high mass X-ray binaries and supergiant fast X-ray transients. In this work we present the first attempt to simulate the accretion process of a fast and dense massive star wind onto a neutron star, taking into account the effects of the centrifugal and magnetic inhibition of accretion ("gating") due to the spin and magnetic field of the compact object. We made use of a radiative hydrodynamical code to model the nonstationary radiatively driven wind of an O-B supergiant star and then place a neutron star characterized by a fixed magnetic field and spin period at a certain distance from the massive companion. Our calculations follow, as a function of time (on a total timescale of several hours), the transitions of the system through all different accretion regimes that are triggered by the intrinsic variations in the density and velocity of the nonstationary wind. The X-ray luminosity released by the system is computed at each time step by taking into account the relevant physical processes occurring in the different accretion regimes. Synthetic lightcurves are derived and qualitatively compared with those observed from classical supergiant high mass X-ray binaries and supergiant fast X-ray transients. Although a number of simplifications are assumed in these calculations, we show that taking into account the effects of the centrifugal and magnetic inhibition of accretion significantly reduces the average X-ray luminosity expected for any neutron star wind-fed binary. The present model calculations suggest that long spin periods and stronger magnetic fields are favored in order to reproduce the peculiar behavior of supergiant fast X-ray transients in the X-ray domain.

  16. Observable Signatures of Classical T Tauri Stars Accreting in an Unstable Regime

    Kurosawa Ryuichi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss key observational signatures of Classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs accreting through Rayleigh-Taylor instability, which occurs at the interface between an accretion disk and a stellar magnetosphere. In this study, the results of global 3-D MHD simulations of accretion flows, in both stable and unstable regimes, are used to predict the variability of hydrogen emission lines and light curves associated with those two distinctive accretion flow patterns. In the stable regime, a redshifted absorption component (RAC periodically appears in some hydrogen lines, but only during a fraction of a stellar rotation period. In the unstable regime, the RAC is present rather persistently during a whole stellar rotation period, and its strength varies non-periodically. The latter is caused by multiple accreting streams, formed randomly due to the instability, passing across the line of sight to an observer during one stellar rotation. This results in the quasi-stationarity appearance of the RAC because at least one of the accretion stream is almost always in the line of sight to an observer. In the stable regime, two stable hot spots produce a smooth and periodic light curve that shows only one or two peaks per stellar rotation. In the unstable regime, multiple hot spots formed on the surface of the star, produce the stochastic light curve with several peaks per rotation period.

  17. The structure of young star clusters

    Gladwin, P P; Boffin, H M J; Whitworth, A P

    1998-01-01

    We analyse and compare the clustering of young stars in Chamaeleon I and Taurus. We compute the mean surface-density of companion stars \\bar{N} as a function of angular displacement \\theta from each star. We then fit exponents of the power laws are 1.97 and 0.28, with the elbow at ~0.011 degrees. For Taurus, we obtain 2.02 and 0.87, with the elbow at ~0.013 deg. For both star clusters the observational data make quite large systematic excursions from the best fitting curve in the binary regime. These excursions may be attributable to evolutionary effects of the types discussed recently by Nakajima et al. and Bate et al. In the clustering regime the data conform to the best fitting curve very well. We also calculate the box-dimensions for the two star clusters. However, the limited dynamic range makes these estimates simply descriptors of the large-scale clustering, and not admissible evidence for fractality. We also propose two algorithms for objectively generating maps of constant stellar surface-density in ...

  18. Accretion-powered pulsations in an apparently quiescent neutron star binary

    Archibald, Anne M; Patruno, Alessandro; Hessels, Jason W T; Deller, Adam T; Bassa, Cees; Janssen, Gemma H; Kaspi, Vicky M; Lyne, Andrew G; Stappers, Ben W; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P; D'Angelo, Caroline R; Wijnands, Rudy

    2014-01-01

    Accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars are an important subset of low-mass X-ray binaries in which coherent X-ray pulsations can be observed during occasional, bright outbursts (X-ray luminosity $L_X\\sim 10^{36}$ erg s$^{-1}$). These pulsations show that matter is being channeled onto the neutron star's magnetic poles. However, such sources spend most of their time in a low-luminosity, quiescent state ($L_X\\lesssim 10^{34}$ erg s$^{-1}$), where the nature of the accretion flow onto the neutron star (if any) is not well understood. Here we report that the millisecond pulsar/low-mass X-ray binary transition object PSR J1023+0038 intermittently shows coherent X-ray pulsations at luminosities nearly 100 times fainter than observed in any other accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar. We conclude that in spite of its low luminosity PSR J1023+0038 experiences episodes of channeled accretion, a discovery that challenges existing models for accretion onto magnetized neutron stars.

  19. Thermal conductivity and phase separation of the crust of accreting neutron stars

    Horowitz, C. J.; Caballero, O L; Berry, D. K.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, crust cooling times have been measured for neutron stars after extended outbursts. These observations are very sensitive to the thermal conductivity $\\kappa$ of the crust and strongly suggest that $\\kappa$ is large. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of the structure of the crust of an accreting neutron star using a complex composition that includes many impurities. The composition comes from simulations of rapid proton capture nucleosynthesys followed by electron captures. W...

  20. Symbiotic Stars as Laboratories for the Study of Accretion and Jets: A Call for Optical Monitoring

    Sokoloski, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Symbiotic binary stars typically consist of a white dwarf (WD) that accretes material from the wind of a companion red giant. Orbital periods for these binaries are on the order of years, and their relatively small optical outbursts tend to occur every few years to decades. In some symbiotics, material that is transferred from the red giant to the WD forms a disk around the WD. Thus, symbiotic stars are a bit like overgrown cataclysmic variables (CVs), but with less violent eruptions. Symbiot...

  1. On the accretion properties of young stellar objects in the L1615/L1616 cometary cloud

    Biazzo, K; Frasca, A; Zusi, M; Getman, F; Covino, E; Gandolfi, D

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of FLAMES/UVES and FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectroscopic observations of 23 low-mass stars in the L1615/L1616 cometary cloud, complemented with FORS2 and VIMOS spectroscopy of 31 additional stars in the same cloud. L1615/L1616 is a cometary cloud where the star formation was triggered by the impact of the massive stars in the Orion OB association. From the measurements of the lithium abundance and radial velocity, we confirm the membership of our sample to the cloud. We use the equivalent widths of the H$\\alpha$, H$\\beta$, and the HeI $\\lambda$5876, $\\lambda$6678, $\\lambda$7065 \\AA$ $emission lines to calculate the accretion luminosities, $L_{\\rm acc}$, and the mass accretion rates, $\\dot M_{\\rm acc}$. We find in L1615/L1616 a fraction of accreting objects ($\\sim 30\\%$), which is consistent with the typical fraction of accretors in T associations of similar age ($\\sim 3$ Myr). The mass accretion rate for these stars shows a trend with the mass of the central object similar to that found for othe...

  2. The structure of young star clusters

    Gladwin, P. P.; Kitsionas, S.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Whitworth, A. P.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we analyse and compare the clustering of young stars in Chamaeleon I and Taurus. We compute the mean surface density of companion stars N as a function of angular displacement theta from each star. We then fit N theta) with two simultaneous power laws, i.e. N(theta) ~ K_bintheta^-beta_bin + K_clutheta^-beta_clu. For Chamaeleon I, we obtain beta_bin= 1.97 +/- and beta_clu= 0.28 +/- 0.06, with the elbow at theta_elb~ 0 011 +/- 0 004. For Taurus, we obtain beta_bin= 2.02 +/- 0.04 and beta _clu= 0.87 +/- 0.01, with the elbow at theta _elb~ 0 013 +/- 0 003. For both star clusters the observational data make large (~ 5 sigma) systematic excursions from the best-fitting curve in the binary regime (theta theta_elb) the data conform to the best-fitting curve very well, but the beta_clu values we obtain differ significantly from those obtained by other workers. These differences are due partly to the use of different samples, and partly to different methods of analysis. We also calculate the box dimensions for the two star clusters: for Chamaeleon I we obtain D_box~=1.51+/-0.12, and for Taurus D_box~=1.39+/-0.01. However, the limited dynamic range makes these estimates simply descriptors of the large-scale clustering, and not admissible evidence for fractality. We propose two algorithms for objectively generating maps of constant stellar surface density in young star clusters. Such maps are useful for comparison with molecular-line and dust-continuum maps of star-forming clouds, and with the results of numerical simulations of star formation. They are also useful because they retain information that is suppressed in the evaluation of N(theta). Algorithm I (SCATTER) uses a universal smoothing length, and therefore has a restricted dynamic range, but it is implicitly normalized. Algorithm II (GATHER) uses a local smoothing length, which gives it much greater dynamic range, but it has to be normalized explicitly. Both algorithms appear to capture well the features

  3. The effect of rotation on the stability of nuclear burning in accreting neutron stars

    Keek, L; Zand, J J M in 't

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen and/or helium accreted by a neutron star from a binary companion may undergo thermonuclear fusion. At different mass accretion rates different burning regimes are discerned. Theoretical models predict helium fusion to proceed as a thermonuclear runaway for accretion rates below the Eddington limit and as stable burning above this limit. Observations, however, place the boundary close to 10% of the Eddington limit. We study the effect of rotationally induced transport processes on the stability of helium burning. For the first time detailed calculations of thin helium shell burning on neutron stars are performed using a hydrodynamic stellar evolution code including rotation and rotationally induced magnetic fields. We find that in most cases the instabilities from the magnetic field provide the dominant contribution to the chemical mixing, while Eddington-Sweet circulations become important at high rotation rates. As helium is diffused to greater depths, the stability of the burning is increased, such...

  4. An ultra-relativistic outflow from a neutron star accreting gas from a companion

    R.P. Fender; K. Wu; H. Johnston; T. Tzioumis; P.G. Jonker; R. Spencer; M. van der Klis

    2004-01-01

    Collimated relativistic outflows-also known as jets-are amongst the most energetic phenomena in the Universe. They are associated with supermassive black holes in distant active galactic nuclei, accreting stellar-mass black holes and neutron stars in binary systems and are believed to be responsible

  5. Clumpy wind accretion in supergiant neutron star high mass X-ray binaries

    Bozzo, E; Feldmeier, A; Falanga, M

    2016-01-01

    The accretion of the stellar wind material by a compact object represents the main mechanism powering the X-ray emission in classical supergiant high mass X-ray binaries and supergiant fast X-ray transients. In this work we present the first attempt to simulate the accretion process of a fast and dense massive star wind onto a neutron star, taking into account the effects of the centrifugal and magnetic inhibition of accretion ("gating") due to the spin and magnetic field of the compact object. We made use of a radiative hydrodynamical code to model the non-stationary radiatively driven wind of an O-B supergiant star and then place a neutron star characterized by a fixed magnetic field and spin period at a certain distance from the massive companion. Our calculations follow, as a function of time (on a total time scale of several hours), the transition of the system through all different accretion regimes that are triggered by the intrinsic variations in the density and velocity of the non-stationary wind. Th...

  6. Disks and Outflows Around Young Stars

    Beckwith, Steven; Staude, Jakob; Quetz, Axel; Natta, Antonella

    The subject of the book, the ubiquitous circumstellar disks around very young stars and the corresponding jets of outflowing matter, has recently become one of the hottest areas in astrophysics. The disks are thought to be precursors to planetary systems, and the outflows are thought to be a necessary phase in the formation of a young star, helping the star to get rid of angular momentum and energy as it makes its way onto the main sequence. The possible connections to planetary systems and stellar astrophysics makes these topics especially broad, appealing to generalists and specialists alike. The CD not only contains papers that could not be printed in the book but allows the authors to include a fair amount of data, often displayed as color images. The CD-ROM contains all the contributions printed in the corresponding book (Lecture Notes in Physics Vol. 465) and, in addition, those presented exclusively in digital form. Each contribution consists of a file in portable document format (PDF). The electronic version allows full-text searching within each file using Adobe's Acrobat Reader providing instructions for installation on Unix (Sun), PC and Macintosh computers, respectively. All contributions can be printed out; the color diagrams and color frames, which are printed in black and white in the book, can be viewed in color on screen.

  7. Accretion Disc Evolution in Single and Binary T Tauri Stars

    Armitage, Philip J.; C.J. Clarke; Tout, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    We present theoretical models for the evolution of T Tauri stars surrounded by circumstellar discs. The models include the effects of pre-main-sequence stellar and time dependent disc evolution, and incorporate the effects of stellar magnetic fields acting on the inner disc. For single stars, consistency with observations in Taurus-Auriga demands that disc dispersal occurs rapidly, on much less than the viscous timescale of the disc, at roughly the epoch when heating by stellar radiation firs...

  8. Magnetospheric accretion in EX Lupi

    Abraham, Peter; Kospal, Agnes; Bouvier, Jerome

    2016-08-01

    We propose to observe EX Lup, the prototype of the EXor class of young eruptive stars, in order to understand how the accretion process works in the quiescent system. Here, we request 2.6 hours of telescope time on Spitzer, to carry out a mid-infrared photometric monitoring, which we will supplement with simultaneous ground-based optical and near-infrared data. The multi-wavelength light curves will allow us to reliably separate the effects of fluctuating accretion rate from the rotation of the star. By analyzing the variations of the accretion rate we will determine whether EX Lup accretes through a few stable accretion columns or several short-lived random accretion streams. With this campaign, EX Lup will become one of the T Tauri systems where the accretion process is best understood.

  9. Jet-induced star formation by accreting black holes: impact on stellar, galaxy, and cosmic evolution

    Mirabel, Igor Felix

    2016-07-01

    Evidence that relativistic jets trigger star formation along their axis has been found associated to low redshift and high redshift accreting supermassive black holes. However, the physical processes by which jet-cloud interaction may trigger star formation has so far not been elucidated. To gain insight into this potentially important star formation mechanism during reionization, when microquasars were form prolifically before AGN, our international team is carrying out a muliwavelength study of a microquasar jet-induced star formation region in the Milky Way using data from space missions (Chandra, Integral, ISO, Herschel) and from the ground (at cm and mm wavelengths with the VLA and IRAM, and IR with Gemini and VLT). I will show that this relative nearby star forming region is an ideal laboratory to test models of jet-induced star formation elsewhere in the universe.

  10. Mergers of Magnetized Neutron Stars with Spinning Black Holes: Disruption, Accretion and Fallback

    Chawla, Sarvnipun; Anderson, Matthew; Besselman, Michael; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L.; Motl, Patrick M; Neilsen, David

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the merger of a neutron star (of compaction ratio $0.1$) in orbit about a spinning black hole in full general relativity with a mass ratio of $5:1$, allowing for the star to have an initial magnetization of $10^{12} {\\rm Gauss}$. We present the resulting gravitational waveform and analyze the fallback accretion as the star is disrupted. The evolutions suggest no significant effects from the initial magnetization. We find that only a negligible amount of matter becomes unbound; ...

  11. Anisotropy of X-ray bursts from neutron stars with concave accretion disks

    He, Chong-Chong

    2015-01-01

    Emission from neutron stars and accretion disks in low-mass X-ray binaries is not isotropic. The non-spherical shape of the disk as well as blocking of the neutron star by the disk and vice versa cause the observed flux to depend on the inclination angle of the disk with respect to the line of sight. This is of special importance for the interpretation of Type I X-ray bursts, which are powered by the thermonuclear burning of matter accreted onto the neutron star. Because part of the X-ray burst is reflected off the disk, the observed burst flux depends on the anisotropies for both direct emission from the neutron star and reflection off the disk. This influences measurements of source distance, mass accretion rate, and constraints on the neutron star equation of state. Previous studies made predictions of the anisotropy factor for the total burst flux, assuming a geometrically flat disk. Recently, detailed observations of two exceptionally long bursts (so-called superbursts) allowed for the first time for the...

  12. Shock Waves in Outflows from Young Stars

    Hartigan, Patrick

    This review focuses on physics of the cooling zones behind radiative shocks and the emission line diagnostics that can be used to infer physical conditions and mass loss rates in jets from young stars. Spatial separations of the cooling zones from the shock fronts, now resolvable with HST, and recent evidence for C-shocks have greatly increased our understanding of how shocks in outflows interact with the surrounding medium and with other material within the flow. By combining multiple epoch HST images, one can create `movies' of flows like those produced from numerical codes, and learn what kinds of instabilities develop within these systems.

  13. ENHANCED ACCRETION RATES OF STARS ON SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES BY STAR-DISK INTERACTIONS IN GALACTIC NUCLEI

    We investigate the dynamical interaction of a central star cluster surrounding a supermassive black hole (SMBH) and a central accretion disk (AD). The dissipative force acting on stars in the disk leads to an enhanced mass flow toward the SMBH and to an asymmetry in the phase space distribution due to the rotating AD. The AD is considered as a stationary Keplerian rotating disk, which is vertically extended in order to employ a fully self-consistent treatment of stellar dynamics including the dissipative force originating from star-gas ram pressure effects. The stellar system is treated with a direct high-accuracy N-body integration code. A star-by-star representation, desirable in N-body simulations, cannot be extended to real particle numbers yet. Hence, we carefully discuss the scaling behavior of our model with regard to particle number and tidal accretion radius. The main idea is to find a family of models for which the ratio of two-body relaxation time and dissipation time (for kinetic energy of stellar orbits) is constant, which then allows us to extrapolate our results to real parameters of galactic nuclei. Our model is derived from basic physical principles and as such it provides insight into the role of physical processes in galactic nuclei, but it should be regarded as a first step toward more realistic and more comprehensive simulations. Nevertheless, the following conclusions appear to be robust: the star accretion rate onto the AD and subsequently onto the SMBH is enhanced by a significant factor compared to purely stellar dynamical systems neglecting the disk. This process leads to enhanced fueling of central disks in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and to an enhanced rate of tidal stellar disruptions. Such disruptions may produce electromagnetic counterparts in the form of observable X-ray flares. Our models improve predictions for their rates in quiescent galactic nuclei. We do not yet model direct stellar collisions in the gravitational potential

  14. Quasar feedback: accelerated star formation and chaotic accretion

    Nayakshin, Sergei

    2012-01-01

    Growing Supermassive Black Holes (SMBH) are believed to influence their parent galaxies in a negative way, terminating their growth by ejecting gas out before it could turn into stars. Here we present some of the most sophisticated SMBH feedback simulations to date showing that quasar's effects on galaxies are not always negative. We find that when the ambient shocked gas cools rapidly, the shocked gas is compressed into thin cold dense shells, filaments and clumps. Driving these high density features out is much more difficult than analytical models predict since dense filaments are resilient to the feedback. However, in this regime quasars have another way of affecting the host -- by triggering a massive star formation burst in the cold gas by over-pressurising it. Under these conditions SMBHs actually accelerate star formation in the host, having a positive rather than negative effect on their host galaxies. The relationship between SMBH and galaxies is thus even more complex and symbiotic than currently b...

  15. Conditions for water ice lines and Mars-mass exomoons around accreting super-Jovian planets at 1 - 20 AU from Sun-like stars

    Heller, René

    2015-01-01

    Exomoon detections might be feasible with NASA's Kepler or ESA's upcoming PLATO mission or the ground-based E-ELT. To use observational resources most efficiently we need to know where the largest, most easily detected moons can form. We explore the possibility of large exomoons by following the movement of water (H2O) ice lines in the accretion disks around young super-Jovian planets. We want to know how different heating sources in those disks affect the H2O ice lines. We simulate 2D rotationally symmetric accretion disks in hydrostatic equilibrium around super-Jovian exoplanets. The energy terms in our semi-analytical model -- (1) viscous heating, (2) planetary illumination, (3) accretional heating, and (4) stellar illumination -- are fed by precomputed planet evolution tracks. We consider planets accreting 1 to 12 Jupiter masses at distances between 1 and 20 AU to a Sun-like star. Accretion disks around Jupiter-mass planets closer than ~4.5 AU to Sun-like stars do not feature H2O ice lines, but the most m...

  16. THE SIZES OF THE NEAREST YOUNG STARS

    We present moderate resolution (R ∼ 3575) optical spectra of 19 known or suspected members of the AB Doradus and β Pictoris Moving Groups, obtained with the DeVeny Spectrograph on the 72 inch Perkins telescope at Lowell Observatory. For four of five recently proposed members, signatures of youth such as Li I 6708 Å absorption and Hα emission further strengthen the case for youth and membership. The lack of detected lithium in the proposed β Pic member TYC 2211-1309-1 implies that it is older than all other K-type members and weakens the case for membership. Effective temperatures are determined via line ratio analyses for the 11 F, G, and early-K stars observed, and via spectral comparisons for the eight late-K and M stars observed. We assemble updated candidate membership lists for these moving groups that account for known binarity. Currently, the AB Dor Moving Group contains 127 proposed members and the β Pic Moving Group holds 77 proposed members. We then use temperature, luminosity, and distance estimates to predict angular diameters for these stars; the motivation is to identify stars that can be spatially resolved with long-baseline optical/infrared interferometers in order to improve age estimates for these groups and to constrain evolutionary models at young ages. Considering the portion of the sky accessible to northern hemisphere facilities (decl. > – 30), six stars have diameters large enough to be spatially resolved (θ > 0.4 mas) with the CHARA Array, which currently has the world's longest baseline of 331 m; this subsample includes the low-mass M2.5 member of AB Dor, GJ 393, which is likely to still be pre-main sequence. For southern hemisphere facilities (decl. < + 30), 18 stars have diameters larger than this limiting size, including the low-mass debris disk star AU Mic (0.72 mas). However, the longest baselines of southern hemisphere interferometers (160 m) are only able to resolve the largest of these, the B6 star α Gru (1.17 mas

  17. Formation of Massive Primordial Stars: Intermittent UV Feedback with Episodic Mass Accretion

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Kuiper, Rolf; Yorke, Harold W; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    We present coupled stellar evolution (SE) and 3D radiation-hydrodynamic (RHD) simulations of the evolution of primordial protostars, their immediate environment, and the dynamic accretion history under the influence of stellar ionizing and dissociating UV feedback. Our coupled SE-RHD calculations result in a wide diversity of final stellar masses covering $10~M_\\odot \\lesssim M_* \\lesssim 10^3~M_\\odot$. The formation of very massive ($\\gtrsim 250~M_\\odot$) stars is possible under weak UV feedback, whereas ordinary massive (a few $\\times 10~M_\\odot$) stars form when UV feedback can efficiently halt the accretion. Weak UV feedback occurs in cases of variable accretion, in particular when repeated short accretion bursts temporarily exceed $0.01~M_\\odot~{\\rm yr}^{-1}$, causing the protostar to inflate. In the bloated state, the protostar has low surface temperature and UV feedback is suppressed until the star eventually contracts, on a thermal adjustment timescale, to create an HII region. If the delay time betwe...

  18. The complex accretion geometry of GX339-4 as seen by NuSTAR

    Fuerst, F.; NuSTAR binaries working Group

    2015-07-01

    We present an in-depth spectral analysis of a failed outburst of GX 339-4 in 2013, as observed by NuSTAR and Swift. During this outburst, the source never left the low-hard state and our observations cover Eddington luminosity fractions between 0.9% and 6%. The high quality NuSTAR data allow us to study the weak reflection component in this state. We show that the source very likely has a complex coronal geometry, in which the parts illuminating the accretion disk have a significantly harder spectrum than the observed primary continuum. While we observe a relativistically broadened iron line, the complex corona makes it challenging to put stringent limits on the inner accretion disk radius. The measured values depend strongly on assumptions for the emissivity profile of the accretion disk and we discuss various scenarios. All models, however, clearly require inner disk radii smaller than 100 r_{g}. We compare these spectra to NuSTAR observations of a subsequent full outburst in 2015. We discuss differences in the continuum parameters possibly related to luminosity, which indicate changes in the accretion geometry.

  19. A NEW MECHANISM FOR MASS ACCRETION UNDER RADIATION PRESSURE IN MASSIVE STAR FORMATION

    During the formation of a massive star, strong radiation pressure from the central star acts on the dust sublimation front and tends to halt the accretion flow. To overcome this strong radiation pressure, it has been considered that a strong ram pressure produced by a high-mass accretion rate of 10-3 Msun yr-1 or more is needed. We reinvestigated the necessary condition to overcome the radiation pressure and found a new mechanism for overcoming it. Accumulated mass in a stagnant flow near the dust sublimation front helps the mass accretion by its weight. This mechanism relaxes the condition for the massive star formation. We call this mechanism the 'OMOSHI effect', where OMOSHI is an acronym for 'One Mechanism for Overcoming Stellar High radiation pressure by weIght'. Additionally, in Japanese, OMOSHI is a noun meaning a weight that is put on something to prevent it from moving. We investigate the generation of the OMOSHI effect using local one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. The radiation pressure and the gravitational force are connected through the gas pressure, and to sum up, the radiation pressure is balanced or overcome by the gravitational force. We also discuss the global structure and temporal variation of the accretion flow.

  20. Supermassive star formation via episodic accretion: protostellar disc instability and radiative feedback efficiency

    Sakurai, Yuya; Hosokawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yorke, Harold W

    2015-01-01

    The formation of SMSs is a potential pathway to seed SMBHs in the early universe. A critical issue for forming SMSs is stellar UV feedback, which may limit the stellar mass growth via accretion. In this paper we study the evolution of an accreting SMS and its UV emissivity under conditions of realistic variable accretion from a self-gravitating circumstellar disc. First we conduct a 2D hydrodynamical simulation to follow the long-term protostellar accretion until the stellar mass exceeds $10^4~M_\\odot$. The disc fragments due to gravitational instability, creating a number of small clumps that rapidly migrate inward to fall onto the star. The resulting accretion history is thus highly time-dependent: short episodic accretion bursts are followed by longer, relative quiescent phases. We show that the circumstellar disc for the so-called direct collapse model is more unstable and generates greater variability over shorter timescales than normal Pop III cases. We conduct a post-process stellar evolution calculati...

  1. Mergers of magnetized neutron stars with spinning black holes: disruption, accretion, and fallback.

    Chawla, Sarvnipun; Anderson, Matthew; Besselman, Michael; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L; Motl, Patrick M; Neilsen, David

    2010-09-10

    We investigate the merger of a neutron star in orbit about a spinning black hole in full general relativity with a mass ratio of 5:1, allowing the star to have an initial magnetization of 10(12)  G. We present the resulting gravitational waveform and analyze the fallback accretion as the star is disrupted. We see no significant dynamical effects in the simulations or changes in the gravitational waveform resulting from the initial magnetization. We find that only a negligible amount of matter becomes unbound; 99% of the neutron star material has a fallback time of 10 seconds or shorter to reach the region of the central engine and that 99.99% of the star will interact with the central disk and black hole within 3 hours. PMID:20867561

  2. Mergers of Magnetized Neutron Stars with Spinning Black Holes: Disruption, Accretion and Fallback

    Chawla, Sarvnipun; Besselman, Michael; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L; Motl, Patrick M; Neilsen, David

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the merger of a neutron star (of compaction ratio $0.1$) in orbit about a spinning black hole in full general relativity with a mass ratio of $5:1$, allowing for the star to have an initial magnetization of $10^{12} {\\rm Gauss}$. We present the resulting gravitational waveform and analyze the fallback accretion as the star is disrupted. The evolutions suggest no significant effects from the initial magnetization. We find that only a negligible amount of matter becomes unbound; $99\\%$ of the neutron star material has a fallback time of 10 seconds or shorter to reach the region of the central engine and that $99.99\\%$ of the star will interact with the central disk and black hole within 3 hours.

  3. The Role for the Inner Disk in Mass Accretion to the Star in the Early Phase of Star Formation

    Ohtani, Takuya; Tsuribe, Toru; Vorobyov, Eduard I

    2014-01-01

    A physical mechanism that drives FU Orionis-type outbursts is reconsidered. We study the effect of inner part of a circumstellar disk covering a region from near the central star to the radius of approximately $5$ AU (hereafter, the inner disk). Using the fluctuated mass accretion rate onto the inner disk $\\dot{M}_{\\rm out}$, we consider the viscous evolution of the inner disk and the time variability of the mass accretion rate onto the central star $\\dot{M}_{\\rm in}$ by means of numerical calculation of an unsteady viscous accretion disk in a one-dimensional axisymmetric model. First, we calculate the evolution of the inner disk assuming an oscillating $\\dot{M}_{\\rm out}$. It is shown that the time variability of $\\dot{M}_{\\rm in}$ does not coincide with $\\dot{M}_{\\rm out}$ due to viscous diffusion. Second, we investigate the properties of spontaneous outbursts with temporally constant $\\dot{M}_{\\rm out}$. Outburst occur only in a limited range of mass accretion rates onto the inner disk $10^{-10}<\\dot{M}...

  4. Angular momentum transport in accretion disk boundary layers around weakly magnetized stars

    Pessah, M.E.; Chan, C.-K.

    2013-01-01

    The standard model for turbulent shear viscosity in accretion disks is based on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. This implies that the turbulent stress must be negative and thus transport angular momentum inwards, in...... the boundary layer where the accretion disk meets the surface of a weakly magnetized star. However, this behavior is not supported by numerical simulations of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion disks, which show that angular momentum transport driven by the magnetorotational instability...... (MRI) is inefficient in disk regions where, as expected in boundary layers, the angular frequency increases with radius. Motivated by the need of a deeper understanding of the behavior of an MHD fluid in a differentially rotating background that deviates from a Keplerian profile, we study the dynamics...

  5. GR-AMRVAC code applications: accretion onto compact objects, boson stars versus black holes

    Meliani, Z.; Grandclément, P.; Casse, F.; Vincent, F. H.; Straub, O.; Dauvergne, F.

    2016-08-01

    In the close vicinity of a compact object strong gravity imprints its signature onto matter. Systems that contain at least one compact object are observed to exhibit extreme physical properties and typically emit highly energetic radiation. The nature of the compact objects that produce the strongest gravitational fields is to date not settled. General relativistic numerical simulations of fluid dynamics around black holes, neutron stars, and other compact objects such as boson stars (BSs) may give invaluable insights into this fundamental question. In order to study the behavior of fluid in the strong gravity regime of an arbitrary compact object we develop a new general relativistic hydrodynamics code. To this end we extend the existing versatile adaptive mesh refinement code MPI-AMRVAC into a general relativistic hydrodynamics framework and adapt it for the use of numerically given spacetime metrics. In the present article we study accretion flows in the vicinity of various types of BSs whose numerical metrics are calculated by the KADATH spectral solver library. We design specific tests to check the reliability of any code intending to study BSs and compare the solutions with those obtained in the context of Schwarzschild black holes. We perform the first ever general relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of gas accretion by a BS. The behavior of matter at small distances from the center of a BS differs notably from the black hole case. In particular we demonstrate that in the context of Bondi spherical accretion the mass accretion rate onto non-rotating BSs remains constant whereas it increases for Schwarzschild black holes. We also address the scenario of non-spherical accretion onto BSs and show that this may trigger mass ejection from the interior of the BS. This striking feature opens the door to forthcoming investigations regarding accretion-ejection flows around such types of compact objects.

  6. Interplay between diffusion, accretion and nuclear reactions in the atmospheres of Sirius and Przybylski's star

    Yushchenko, A; Goriely, S; Shavrina, A; Kang, Y W; Rostopchin, S; Valyavin, G; Mkrtichian, D; Hatzes, A; Lee, B C; Kim, C; Yushchenko, Alexander; Gopka, Vera; Goriely, Stephane; Shavrina, Angelina; Kang, Young Woon; Rostopchin, Sergey; Valyavin, Gennady; Mkrtichian, David; Hatzes, Artie; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Kim, Chulhee

    2006-01-01

    The abundance anomalies in chemically peculiar B-F stars are usually explained by diffusion of chemical elements in the stable atmospheres of these stars. But it is well known that Cp stars with similar temperatures and gravities show very different chemical compositions. We show that the abundance patterns of several stars can be influenced by accretion and (or) nuclear reactions in stellar atmospheres. We report the result of determination of abundances of elements in the atmosphere of hot Am star: Sirius A and show that Sirius A was contaminated by s-process enriched matter from Sirius B (now a white dwarf). The second case is Przybylski's star. The abundance pattern of this star is the second most studied one after the Sun with the abundances determined for about 60 chemical elements. Spectral lines of radioactive elements with short decay times were found in the spectrum of this star. We report the results of investigation on the stratification of chemical elements in the atmosphere of Przybylski's star ...

  7. SPATIALLY EXTENDED BRACKETT GAMMA EMISSION IN THE ENVIRONMENTS OF YOUNG STARS

    The majority of atomic hydrogen Brγ emission detected in the spectra of young stellar objects is believed to arise from the recombination regions associated with the magnetospheric accretion of circumstellar disk material onto the forming star. In this paper, we present the results of a K-band integral field unit spectroscopic study of Brγ emission in eight young protostars: CW Tau, DG Tau, Haro 6-10, HL Tau, HV Tau C, RW Aur, T Tau, and XZ Tau. We spatially resolve Brγ emission structures in half of these young stars and find that most of the extended emission is consistent with the location and velocities of the known Herbig-Haro flows associated with these systems. At some velocities through the Brγ line profile, the spatially extended emission comprises 20% or more of the integrated flux in that spectral channel. However, the total spatially extended Brγ is typically less than ∼10% of the flux integrated over the full emission profile. For DG Tau and Haro 6-10 S, we estimate the mass outflow rate using simple assumptions about the hydrogen emission region and compare this to the derived mass accretion rate. We detect extended Brγ in the vicinity of the more obscured targets in our sample and conclude that spatially extended Brγ emission may exist toward other stars, but unattenuated photospheric flux probably limits its detectability.

  8. Time-dependent, compositionally driven convection in the oceans of accreting neutron stars

    Medin, Zach

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the effect of chemical separation as matter freezes at the base of the ocean of an accreting neutron star, and the subsequent enrichment of the ocean in light elements and inward transport of heat through convective mixing. We extend the steady-state results of Medin & Cumming 2011 to transiently accreting neutron stars, by considering the time-dependent cases of heating during accretion outbursts and cooling during quiescence. Convective mixing is extremely efficient, flattening the composition profile in about one convective turnover time (weeks to months at the base of the ocean). During accretion outbursts, inward heat transport has only a small effect on the temperature profile in the outer layers until the ocean is strongly enriched in light elements, a process that takes hundreds of years to complete. During quiescence, however, inward heat transport rapidly cools the outer layers of the ocean while keeping the inner layers hot. We find that this leads to a sharp drop in surface emission...

  9. K-band spectroscopy of deeply embedded, young OB stars

    Bik, A.; Kaper, L.; Hanson, M.M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.

    2006-01-01

    We have obtained high resolution (R = 10,000) K-band spectra of candidate young massive stars deeply embedded in high-mass star-forming regions. These objects were selected from a near-infrared survey of 44 regions of high-mass star-formation (Kaper et al, 2006). In these clusters, 38 OB stars are identified whose K-band spectra are dominated by photospheric emission. In almost all those stars, the K-band spectra are indistinguishable from field stars. However, in some stars the profile of th...

  10. Hypercritical accretion onto a magnetized neutron star surface: a numerical approach

    Bernal, Cristian Giovanny; Page, Dany

    2010-01-01

    The properties of a new-born neutron star, produced in a core-collapse supernova, can be strongly affected by the possible late fallback which occurs several hours after the explosion. This accretion occurs in the regime dominated by neutrino cooling, explored initially in this context by Chevalier (1989). Here we revisit this approach in a 1D spherically symmetric model and carry out numerical simulations in 2D in an accretion column onto a neutron star considering detailed microphysics, neutrino cooling and the presence of magnetic fields in ideal MHD. We compare our numerical results to the analytic solutions and explore how the purely hydrodynamical as well as the MHD solutions differ from them, and begin to explore how this may affect the appearance of the remnant as a typical radio pulsar.

  11. Thermal conductivity and impurity scattering in the accreting neutron star crust

    Roggero, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the thermal conductivity of electrons for the strongly correlated multi-component ion plasma expected in the outer layers of neutron star's crust employing a Path Integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) approach. This allows us to isolate the low energy response of the ions and use it to calculate the electron scattering rate and the electron thermal conductivity. We find that the scattering rate is enhanced by a factor 2-4 compared to earlier calculations based on the simpler electron-impurity scattering formalism. This findings directly impacts the interpretation of thermal relaxation observed in transiently accreting neutron stars and has implications for the composition and nuclear reactions in the crust that occur during accretion.

  12. Thermal conductivity and impurity scattering in the accreting neutron star crust

    Roggero, Alessandro; Reddy, Sanjay

    2016-07-01

    We calculate the thermal conductivity of electrons for the strongly correlated multicomponent ion plasma expected in the outer layers of a neutron star's crust, employing a Path Integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) approach. This allows us to isolate the low energy response of the ions and use it to calculate the electron scattering rate and the electron thermal conductivity. We find that the scattering rate is enhanced by a factor 2-4 compared to earlier calculations based on the simpler electron-impurity scattering formalism. This finding impacts the interpretation of thermal relaxation observed in transiently accreting neutron stars, and has implications for the composition and nuclear reactions in the crust that occur during accretion.

  13. Extremes of the jet-accretion power relation of blazars, as explored by NuSTAR

    Sbarrato, T; Tagliaferri, G; Perri, M; Madejski, G M; Stern, D; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Zhang, W W

    2015-01-01

    Hard X-ray observations are crucial to study the non-thermal jet emission from high-redshift, powerful blazars. We observed two bright z>2 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in hard X-rays to explore the details of their relativistic jets and their possible variability. S5 0014+81 (at z=3.366) and B0222+185 (at z=2.690) have been observed twice by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) simultaneously with Swift/XRT, showing different variability behaviours. We found that NuSTAR is instrumental to explore the variability of powerful high-redshift blazars, even when no gamma-ray emission is detected. The two sources have proven to have respectively the most luminous accretion disk and the most powerful jet among known blazars. They are located at the extreme end of the jet-accretion disk relation previously found for gamma-ray detected blazars.

  14. Spectral variability of classical T Tauri stars accreting in an unstable regime

    Kurosawa, Ryuichi

    2013-01-01

    Classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) are variable in different time-scales. One type of variability is possibly connected with the accretion of matter through the Rayleigh-Taylor instability that occurs at the interface between an accretion disc and a stellar magnetosphere. In this regime, matter accretes in a several temporarily formed accretion streams or `tongues' which appear in random locations, and produce stochastic photometric and line variability. We use the results of global three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of matter flows in both stable and unstable accretion regimes to calculate time-dependent hydrogen line profiles and study their variability behaviours. In the stable regime, some hydrogen lines (e.g. H-beta, H-gamma, H-delta, Pa-beta and Br-gamma) show a redshifted absorption component only during a fraction of a stellar rotation period, and its occurrence is periodic. However, in the unstable regime, the redshifted absorption component is present rather persistently during a whole s...

  15. Magnetospheric accretion and spin-down of the prototypical classical T Tauri star AATau

    Donati, JF; Bouvier, J; Gregory, SG; Grankin, KN; Jardine, MM; Hussain, GAJ; Menard, F; Dougados, C; Unruh, Y; Mohanty, S; Auriere, M; Morin, J; Fares, R

    2010-01-01

    From observations collected with the ESPaDOnS & NARVAL spectropolarimeters at CFHT and TBL, we report the detection of Zeeman signatures on the prototypical classical TTauri star AATau, both in photospheric lines and accretion-powered emission lines. Using time series of unpolarized and circularly polarized spectra, we reconstruct at two epochs maps of the magnetic field, surface brightness and accretion-powered emission of AATau. We find that AATau hosts a 2-3kG magnetic dipole tilted at ~20deg to the rotation axis, and of presumably dynamo origin. We also show that the magnetic poles of AATau host large cool spots at photospheric level and accretion regions at chromospheric level. The logarithmic accretion rate at the surface of AATau at the time of our observations is strongly variable, ranging from -9.6 to -8.5 and equal to -9.2 in average (in Msun/yr); this is an order of magnitude smaller than the disc accretion rate at which the magnetic truncation radius (below which the disc is disrupted by the s...

  16. Abbott Wave-Triggered Runaway in Line-Driven Winds from Stars and Accretion Disks

    Feldmeier, Achim; Shlosman, Isaac

    2001-01-01

    Line-driven winds from stars and accretion disks are accelerated by scattering in numerous line transitions. The wind is believed to adopt a unique critical solution, out of the infinite variety of shallow and steep solutions. We study the inherent dynamics of the transition towards the critical wind. A new runaway wind mechanism is analyzed in terms of radiative-acoustic (Abbott) waves which are responsible for shaping the wind velocity law and fixing the mass loss. Three different flow type...

  17. Magnetic Field Effect on β+ Decay in the Crusts of Accreting Neutron Stars

    ZHANG Jie; LIU Men-Quan; LUO Zhi-Quan

    2007-01-01

    Based on shell model of nuclei,the influence of a high magnetic field on ββ+ decay in the crusts of accreting neutron stars is analyzed.The magnetic field effect on 54Mn is discussed.The results show that a weak magnetic field makes little effect on β+ decay but a strong magnetic field (B > 1011 G) improves β+ decay rates obviously.The conclusion derived will benefit to develop further research on nuclear astrophysics in the future.

  18. Fusion of neutron rich oxygen isotopes in the crust of accreting neutron stars

    Horowitz, C. J.; Dussan, H.; Berry, D. K.

    2007-01-01

    Fusion reactions in the crust of an accreting neutron star are an important source of heat, and the depth at which these reactions occur is important for determining the temperature profile of the star. Fusion reactions depend strongly on the nuclear charge $Z$. Nuclei with $Z\\le 6$ can fuse at low densities in a liquid ocean. However, nuclei with Z=8 or 10 may not burn until higher densities where the crust is solid and electron capture has made the nuclei neutron rich. We calculate the $S$ ...

  19. Galactic Halo Stars in Phase Space A Hint of Satellite Accretion?

    Brook, C B; Gibson, B K; Flynn, C; Brook, Chris B.; Kawata, Daisuke; Gibson, Brad K.; Flynn, Chris

    2003-01-01

    The present day chemical and dynamical properties of the Milky Way bear the imprint of the Galaxy's formation and evolutionary history. One of the most enduring and critical debates surrounding Galactic evolution is that regarding the competition between ``satellite accretion'' and ``monolithic collapse''; the apparent strong correlation between orbital eccentricity and metallicity of halo stars was originally used as supporting evidence for the latter. While modern-day unbiased samples no longer support the claims for a significant correlation, recent evidence has been presented by Chiba & Beers (2000,AJ,119,2843) for the existence of a minor population of high-eccentricity metal-deficient halo stars. It has been suggested that these stars represent the signature of a rapid (if minor) collapse phase in the Galaxy's history. Employing velocity- and integrals of motion-phase space projections of these stars, coupled with a series of N-body/Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) chemodynamical simulations, we...

  20. The First X-shooter Observations of Jets from Young Stars

    Bacciotti, Francesca; Alcala', Juan M; Nisini, Brunella; Podio, Linda; Randich, Sofia; Stelzer, Beate; Cupani, Guido

    2011-01-01

    We present the first pilot study of jets from young stars conducted with X-shooter, on ESO/VLT. As it offers simultaneous, high quality spectra in the range 300-2500 nm X-shooter is uniquely important for spectral diagnostics in jet studies. We chose to probe the accretion/ejection mechanisms at low stellar masses examining two targets with well resolved continuous jets lying on the plane of the sky, ESO-HA 574 in Chamaleon I, and Par-Lup3-4 in Lupus III. The mass of the latter is close to the sub-stellar boundary (Mstar=0.13 Msun). A large number of emission lines probing regions of different excitation are identified, position-velocity diagrams are presented and mass outflow/accretion rates are estimated. Comparison between the two objects is striking. ESO-HA 574 is a weakly accreting star for which we estimate a mass accretion rate of log(\\dot{Macc}) = -10.8 \\pm 0.5 (in Msun/yr), yet it drives a powerful jet with \\dot{Mout} ~ 1.5-2.7 10^-9 Msun/yr. These values can be reconciled with a magneto-centrifugal ...

  1. Generation of magnetic field on the accretion disk around a proto-first-star

    The generation process of a magnetic field around a proto-first-star is studied. Utilizing the recent numerical results of proto-first-star formation based on radiation hydrodynamics simulations, we assess the magnetic field strength generated by the radiative force and the Biermann battery effect. We find that a magnetic field of ∼10–9 G is generated on the surface of the accretion disk around the proto-first-star. The field strength on the accretion disk is smaller by two orders of magnitude than the critical value, above which the gravitational fragmentation of the disk is suppressed. Thus, the generated seed magnetic field hardly affect the dynamics of on-site first star formation directly, unless an efficient amplification process is taken into consideration. We also find that the generated magnetic field is continuously blown out from the disk on the outflows to the poles, that are driven by the thermal pressure of photoheated gas. The strength of the diffused magnetic field in low-density regions is ∼10–14-10–13 G at n H = 103 cm–3, which could play an important role in the next generation star formation, as well as the seeds of the magnetic field in the present-day universe.

  2. Mass accretion flows in the high-mass star forming complex NGC 6334

    Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Schilke, P.; Zernickel, A.; Schmiedeke, A.; Möller, Th.; Qin, S.-L.

    2016-05-01

    The formation of high-mass stars is one of the major topics of astrophysical research, in particular the process of accretion from large-scale clouds down to small-scale cores. We have selected the nearby, filamentary, high-mass star forming complex NGC 6334 to study the gas velocity at different scales and probe the infall rates onto the protostellar cores embedded in the NGC 6334-I and I(N) clusters. This study makes use of single-dish and interferometric submillimeter observations, complemented with 3D numerical non-LTE radiative transfer modeling. We measure a mass accretion rate of 10-5 M⊙ yr-1 throughout the filament increasing up to 10-3 M⊙ yr-1 towards the densest regions where high-mass stars are forming. At smaller scales, our 3D model is consistent with accretion rates of 10-3 M⊙ yr-1 towards the clusters, and 10-4 M⊙ yr-1 onto the protostars.

  3. The role of magnetic damping in the r-mode evolution of accreting neutron stars

    Cao, GuoJie; Zhou, Xia; Wang, Na

    2015-03-01

    The magnetic damping rate was introduced in the evolution equations of r-modes, which shows that r-modes can generate strong toroidal magnetic fields in the core of accreting millisecond pulsars inducing by differential rotation. With consideration of the coupling evolution of r-modes, spin and thermal evolution, we investigated the influence of the magnetic damping on the differential rotation of nonlinear r-modes of accreting neutron stars. We derived the coupling evolution equations of the star involving the magnetic damping rate in the framework of second-order r-mode theory. The numerical results show that the magnetic damping suppressed the nonlinear evolution of r-modes since the saturation amplitude is reduced to a great extent. In particular, because of the presence of the generated toroidal magnetic field, the spin-down of the stars is terminated and the viscous heating effects are also weakened. Moreover, we could obtain a stronger generated toroidal magnetic field in the second-order r-mode theory. The gravitational radiation may be detected by the advanced laser interferometer detector LIGO if the amount of differential rotation is small when the r-mode instability becomes active and the accretion rate is not very high.

  4. Is Main Sequence Galaxy Star Formation Controlled by Halo Mass Accretion?

    Rodriguez-Puebla, Aldo; Behroozi, Peter; Faber, S M

    2015-01-01

    It is known that the galaxy stellar-to-halo mass ratio (SHMR) is nearly independent of redshift from z=0-4. This motivates us to construct a toy model in which we assume that the SMHR for central galaxies measured at redshift z~0 is independent of redshift, which implies that the star formation rate (SFR) is determined by the halo mass accretion rate, a phenomenon we call Stellar-Halo Accretion Rate Coevolution (SHARC). Moreover, we show here that the ~0.3 dex dispersion of the halo mass accretion rate (MAR) is similar to the observed dispersion of the SFR on the main sequence. In the context of bathtub-type models of galaxy formation, SHARC leads to mass-dependent constraints on the relation between SFR and MAR. The SHARC assumption is no doubt over-simplified, but we expect it to be possibly valid for central galaxies with stellar masses of 10^9 - 10^10.5 M_sol that are on the star formation main sequence. Such galaxies represent most of the life history of M_* galaxies, and therefore most of the star forma...

  5. Differential Radial Velocities and Stellar Parameters of Nearby Young Stars

    Yelda, D P S

    2006-01-01

    Radial velocity searches for substellar mass companions have focused primarily on stars older than 1 Gyr. Increased levels of stellar activity in young stars hinders the detection of solar system analogs and therefore there has been a prejudice against inclusion of young stars in radial velocity surveys until recently. Adaptive optics surveys of young stars have given us insight into the multiplicity of young stars but only for massive, distant companions. Understanding the limit of the radial velocity technique, restricted to high-mass, close-orbiting planets and brown dwarfs, we began a survey of young stars of various ages. While the number of stars needed to carry out full analysis of the problems of planetary and brown dwarf population and evolution is large, the beginning of such a sample is included here. We report on 61 young stars ranging in age from beta Pic association (~12 Myr) to the Ursa Majoris association (~300 Myr). This initial search resulted in no stars showing evidence for companions grea...

  6. The evolution of accretion in young stellar objects: Strong accretors at 3-10 Myr

    Ingleby, Laura; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Miller, Jon; McClure, Melissa [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hernández, Jesus; Briceno, Cesar [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía (CIDA), Mérida, 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Espaillat, Catherine, E-mail: lingleby@umich.edu, E-mail: ncalvet@umich.edu, E-mail: cce@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    While the rate of accretion onto T Tauri stars is predicted to decline with age, objects with strong accretion have been detected at ages of up to 10 Myr. We analyze a sample of these old accretors, identified by having a significant U band excess and infrared emission from a circumstellar disk. Objects were selected from the ∼3 Myr σ Ori, 4-6 Myr Orion OB1b, and 7-10 Myr Orion OB1a star forming associations. We use high-resolution spectra from the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle to estimate the veiling of absorption lines and calculate extinction for our T Tauri sample. We also use observations obtained with the Magellan Echellette and, in a few cases, the SWIFT Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope to estimate the excess produced in the accretion shock, which is then fit with accretion shock models to estimate the accretion rate. We find that even objects as old as 10 Myr may have high accretion rates, up to ∼10{sup –8} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. These objects cannot be explained by viscous evolution models, which would deplete the disk in shorter timescales unless the initial disk mass is very high, a situation that is unstable. We show that the infrared spectral energy distribution of one object, CVSO 206, does not reveal evidence of significant dust evolution, which would be expected during the 10 Myr lifetime. We compare this object to predictions from photoevaporation and planet formation models and suggest that neither of these processes have had a strong impact on the disk of CVSO 206.

  7. The evolution of accretion in young stellar objects: Strong accretors at 3-10 Myr

    While the rate of accretion onto T Tauri stars is predicted to decline with age, objects with strong accretion have been detected at ages of up to 10 Myr. We analyze a sample of these old accretors, identified by having a significant U band excess and infrared emission from a circumstellar disk. Objects were selected from the ∼3 Myr σ Ori, 4-6 Myr Orion OB1b, and 7-10 Myr Orion OB1a star forming associations. We use high-resolution spectra from the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle to estimate the veiling of absorption lines and calculate extinction for our T Tauri sample. We also use observations obtained with the Magellan Echellette and, in a few cases, the SWIFT Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope to estimate the excess produced in the accretion shock, which is then fit with accretion shock models to estimate the accretion rate. We find that even objects as old as 10 Myr may have high accretion rates, up to ∼10–8 M☉ yr–1. These objects cannot be explained by viscous evolution models, which would deplete the disk in shorter timescales unless the initial disk mass is very high, a situation that is unstable. We show that the infrared spectral energy distribution of one object, CVSO 206, does not reveal evidence of significant dust evolution, which would be expected during the 10 Myr lifetime. We compare this object to predictions from photoevaporation and planet formation models and suggest that neither of these processes have had a strong impact on the disk of CVSO 206.

  8. Photometry and Polarization of the UXor Type Young Star GM Cep

    Huang, Po-Chieh; Chen, Chang-Yao; Hu, Chia-Ling; Chen, Wen-Ping

    2015-08-01

    UX Orionis stars, or UXORs, are a sub-type of Herbig Ae/be or T Tauri stars exhibiting sporadic extinction of stellar light due to circumstellar dust obscuration. GM Cep is such a UXOR in the young (~4 Myr) open cluster Trumper 37 at ~900 pc, showing prominent infrared access, H-alpha emission, and abrupt brightness variation. Here we present intense multi-color photometric monitoring from 2009 to 2015, together with the century-long photometric behavior reported in the literature, to add to the study by Chen et al. (2012) that GM Cep showed (i) sporadic brightening on a time scale of days due to young stellar accretion, (ii) occultation events, each lasting for a couple months, with a probable recurrence time of about two years, (iii) normal dust reddening as the star became redder when dimmer, (iv) the unusual “blueing” phenomena near the brightness minima when the star appeared bluer when dimmer. The occultation events may be caused by a dust clump, signifying the density inhomogeneity in a young stellar disk from grain coagulation to planetesimal formation. We present evidence of possible radial drift of the clump toward the star, stretching longer along the orbit and thinner in the line of sight. GM Cep is moderately polarized, from 4% to 9% in g, r, and i bands, with the level of polarization anticorrelated with the brightness in the bright state, during which the dust clump is back-scattering stellar light.

  9. The Three Dimensional Structure of EUV Accretion Regions in AM Herculis Stars: Modeling of EUV Photometric and Spectroscopic Observations

    Sirk, Martin M.; Steve B. Howell

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a model of the high-energy accretion region for magnetic cataclysmic variables and applied it to {\\it Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer} observations of 10 AM Herculis type systems. The major features of the EUV light curves are well described by the model. The light curves exhibit a large variety of features such as eclipses of the accretion region by the secondary star and the accretion stream, and dips caused by material very close to the accretion region. While all the observ...

  10. Discovery and Observations of ASASSN-13db, an EXor Accretion Event on a Low-Mass T Tauri Star

    Holoien, Thomas W -S; Stanek, Krzysztof Z; Kochanek, Christopher S; Shappee, B J; Zhu, Z; Sicilia-Aguilar, A; Grupe, D; Croxall, K; Adams, J; Simon, J D; McGraw, N Morell S M; Wagner, R M; Basu, U; Beacom, J F; Bersier, D; Brimacombe, J; Jencson, J; Pojmanski, G; Starrfield, S G; Szczygieł, D M; Woodward, C E

    2014-01-01

    We discuss ASASSN-13db, an EXor accretion event on the young stellar object (YSO) SDSS J051011.01$-$032826.2 (hereafter SDSSJ0510) discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN). Using archival photometric data of SDSSJ0510 we construct a pre-outburst spectral energy distribution (SED) and find that it is consistent with a low-mass class II YSO near the Orion star forming region ($d \\sim 420$ pc). We present follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations of the source after the $\\Delta V \\sim-$3.7 mag outburst that began in September 2013. These data indicate an increase in temperature and luminosity consistent with an accretion rate of $\\sim10^{-7}$ $\\rm{M}_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$, three-to-five orders of magnitude greater than in quiescence. Spectroscopic observations show a forest of narrow emission lines dominated by neutral metallic lines from Fe I and some low-ionization lines. The properties of ASASSN-13db are similar to those of the EXor prototype EX~Lupi in late 2008 during its st...

  11. EVIDENCE OF HOT HIGH VELOCITY PHOTOIONIZED PLASMA FALLING ON ACTIVELY ACCRETING T TAURI STARS

    Gómez de Castro, Ana Ines [Grupo de Investigación Complutense AEGORA and S.D. Astronomía y Geodesia, Fac. de CC Matemáticas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-01

    The He II (1640 Å) line and the resonance doublet of N V (UV1) provide a good diagnostic tool to constrain the excitation mechanism of hot (T{sub e} > 40,000 K) atmospheric/magnetospheric plasmas in T Tauri stars (TTSs). Making use of the data available in the Hubble Space Telescope archive, this work shows that there are at least two distinct physical components contributing to the radiation in these tracers: the accretion flow sliding on the magnetosphere and the atmosphere. The N V profiles in most sources are symmetric and at rest with respect to the star. The velocity dispersion of the profile increases from non-accreting (σ = 40 km s{sup –1}) to accreting (σ = 120 km s{sup –1}) TTSs, suggesting that the macroturbulence field in the line formation region decreases as the stars approach the main sequence. Evidence of the N V line being formed in a hot solar-like wind has been found in RW Aur, HN Tau, and AA Tau. The He II profile has a strong narrow component that dominates the line flux; the dispersion of this component ranges from 20 to 60 km s{sup –1}. Current data suggest that both accretion shocks and atmospheric emission might contribute to the line flux. In some sources, the He II line shows a broad and redward-shifted emission component often accompanied by semiforbidden O III] emission that has a critical electron density of ∼3.4 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup 3}. In spite of their different origins (inferred from the kinematics of the line formation region), N V and He II fluxes are strongly correlated, with only the possible exception of some of the heaviest accretors.

  12. SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SURVEY OF YOUNG STARS IN THE CHAMAELEON I STAR-FORMING REGION

    We present 5-36 μm mid-infrared spectra of 82 young stars in the ∼2 Myr old Chamaeleon I star-forming region, obtained with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). We have classified these objects into various evolutionary classes based on their spectral energy distributions and the spectral features seen in the IRS spectra. We have analyzed the mid-IR spectra of Class II objects in Chamaeleon I in detail, in order to study the vertical and radial structure of the protoplanetary disks surrounding these stars. We find evidence for substantial dust settling in most protoplanetary disks in Chamaeleon I. We have identified several disks with altered radial structures in Chamaeleon I, among them transitional disk candidates which have holes or gaps in their disks. Analysis of the silicate emission features in the IRS spectra of Class II objects in Cha I shows that the dust grains in these disks have undergone significant processing (grain growth and crystallization). However, disks with radial holes/gaps appear to have relatively unprocessed grains. We further find the crystalline dust content in the inner (∼<1-2 AU) and the intermediate (∼<10 AU) regions of the protoplanetary disks to be tightly correlated. We also investigate the effects of accretion and stellar multiplicity on the disk structure and dust properties. Finally, we compare the observed properties of protoplanetary disks in Cha I with those in slightly younger Taurus and Ophiuchus regions and discuss the effects of disk evolution in the first 1-2 Myr.

  13. ACCRETION VARIABILITY OF HERBIG Ae/Be STARS OBSERVED BY X-SHOOTER HD 31648 AND HD 163296

    Mendigutía, I.; Brittain, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Eiroa, C.; Meeus, G. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Módulo 15, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, P.O. Box 78, E-28049, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Montesinos, B. [Centro de Astrobiología, Departamento de Astrofísica (CSIC-INTA), ESAC Campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Mora, A. [GAIA Science Operations Centre, ESA, European Space Astronomy Centre, P.O. Box 78, E-28691, Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Muzerolle, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Oudmaijer, R. D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Rigliaco, E., E-mail: imendig@clemson.edu [Department of Planetary Science, Lunar and Planetary Lab, University of Arizona, 1629, E. University Boulevard, 85719, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2013-10-10

    This work presents X-Shooter/Very Large Telescope spectra of the prototypical, isolated Herbig Ae stars HD 31648 (MWC 480) and HD 163296 over five epochs separated by timescales ranging from days to months. Each spectrum spans over a wide wavelength range covering from 310 to 2475 nm. We have monitored the continuum excess in the Balmer region of the spectra and the luminosity of 12 ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared spectral lines that are commonly used as accretion tracers for T Tauri stars. The observed strengths of the Balmer excesses have been reproduced from a magnetospheric accretion shock model, providing a mean mass accretion rate of 1.11 × 10{sup –7} and 4.50 × 10{sup –7} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for HD 31648 and HD 163296, respectively. Accretion rate variations are observed, being more pronounced for HD 31648 (up to 0.5 dex). However, from the comparison with previous results it is found that the accretion rate of HD 163296 has increased by more than 1 dex, on a timescale of ∼15 yr. Averaged accretion luminosities derived from the Balmer excess are consistent with the ones inferred from the empirical calibrations with the emission line luminosities, indicating that those can be extrapolated to HAe stars. In spite of that, the accretion rate variations do not generally coincide with those estimated from the line luminosities, suggesting that the empirical calibrations are not useful to accurately quantify accretion rate variability.

  14. ACCRETION VARIABILITY OF HERBIG Ae/Be STARS OBSERVED BY X-SHOOTER HD 31648 AND HD 163296

    This work presents X-Shooter/Very Large Telescope spectra of the prototypical, isolated Herbig Ae stars HD 31648 (MWC 480) and HD 163296 over five epochs separated by timescales ranging from days to months. Each spectrum spans over a wide wavelength range covering from 310 to 2475 nm. We have monitored the continuum excess in the Balmer region of the spectra and the luminosity of 12 ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared spectral lines that are commonly used as accretion tracers for T Tauri stars. The observed strengths of the Balmer excesses have been reproduced from a magnetospheric accretion shock model, providing a mean mass accretion rate of 1.11 × 10–7 and 4.50 × 10–7 M☉ yr–1 for HD 31648 and HD 163296, respectively. Accretion rate variations are observed, being more pronounced for HD 31648 (up to 0.5 dex). However, from the comparison with previous results it is found that the accretion rate of HD 163296 has increased by more than 1 dex, on a timescale of ∼15 yr. Averaged accretion luminosities derived from the Balmer excess are consistent with the ones inferred from the empirical calibrations with the emission line luminosities, indicating that those can be extrapolated to HAe stars. In spite of that, the accretion rate variations do not generally coincide with those estimated from the line luminosities, suggesting that the empirical calibrations are not useful to accurately quantify accretion rate variability

  15. The Ocean and Crust of a Rapidly Accreting Neutron Star Implications for Magnetic Field Evolution and Thermonuclear Flashes

    Brown, E F; Brown, Edward F.; Bildsten, Lars

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the atmosphere, ocean, and crust of neutron stars accreting at rates sufficiently high (typically in excess of the local Eddington limit) to stabilize the burning of accreted hydrogen and helium. For hydrogen-rich accretion at global rates in excess of 10^-8 solar masses per year (typical of a few neutron stars), we discuss the thermal state of the deep ocean and crust and their coupling to the neutron star core, which is heated by conduction (from the crust) and cooled by neutrino emission. We estimate the Ohmic diffusion time in the hot, deep crust and find that it is noticeably shortened (to less than 10^8 yr) from the values characteristic of the colder crusts in slowly accreting neutron stars. We speculate on the implications of these calculations for magnetic field evolution in the bright accreting X-ray sources. We also explore the consequences of rapid compression at local accretion rates exceeding ten times the Eddington rate. This rapid accretion heats the atmosphere/ocean to temperat...

  16. 30 Doradus - Relating Young Stars Imaged by Spitzer and Hubble to the CO Molecular Gas Observed with ALMA

    Nayak, Omnarayani; Meixner, Margaret; Indebetouw, Remy; Sabbi, Elena; De Marchi, Guido; Panagia, Nino

    2016-01-01

    The majority of star have masses less than 8 solar mass and form in clumps that are less than 1 pc in size. The sub-parsec scales in which star formation takes place makes it difficult to resolve the effects star formation and the surrounding dense gas have on each other. The Magellanic Clouds are more active in forming high mass stars as compared to the Milky Way. The SAGE and Heritage surveys combined with the Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project provide us the opportunity to study high-mass (>15 solar masses) and low-mass (<1 solar mass) star formation. ALMA observations cover a 60 pc x 30 pc region of CO gas slightly north of the R136 cluster in 30 Doradus. We find 16 young stellar objects and about a 100 pre-main-sequence stars within the ALMA footprint. We define young stellar objects to be very early stage stars that are about 10,000 years old and whose SEDs peak in the infrared, and we use pre-main-sequence-stars to refer to slightly older stars that can be seen in the optical. I will use dendrograms to analyze both the high- and low-mass star properties with respect to the CO gas structure observed with ALMA. Preliminary results show that not all massive young stellar objects are associated with CO gas, higher mass clumps tend to form higher mass stars and are more likely to have multiple young stars, and lower mass clumps tend to not be gravitationally bound however the larger clouds are bound. Looking at the interplay between dense molecular gas and the newly forming stars in a stellar nursery will shed light on how these stars formed: monolithic collapse or competitive accretion.

  17. Star formation and black hole accretion activity in rich local clusters of galaxies

    Bianconi, Matteo; Fadda, Dario

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the star formation and central black hole accretion activity of the galaxies hosted in the two nearby (z$\\sim$0.2) rich galaxy clusters Abell 983 and 1731. Aims: We are able to quantify both the obscured and unobscured star formation rates, as well as the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGN) as a function of the environment in which the galaxy is located. Methods: We targeted the clusters with unprecedented deep infrared Spitzer observations (0.2 mJy @ 24 micron), near-IR Palomar imaging and optical WIYN spectroscopy. The extent of our observations ($\\sim$ 3 virial radii) covers the vast range of possible environments, from the very dense cluster centre to the very rarefied cluster outskirts and accretion regions. Results: The star forming members of the two clusters present star formation rates comparable with those measured in coeval field galaxies. The analysis of the spatial arrangement of the spectroscopically confirmed members reveals an elongated distribution for A1731 with re...

  18. Magnetically Controlled Accretion on the Classical T Tauri Stars GQ Lupi and TW Hydrae

    Johns-Krull, C M; Valenti, J A; Jeffers, S V; Piskunov, N E; Kuchukhov, O; Makaganiuk, V; Stempels, H C; Snik, F; Keller, C; Rodenhuis, M

    2013-01-01

    We present high spectral resolution ($R\\approx108,000$) Stokes $V$ polarimetry of the Classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) GQ Lup and TW Hya obtained with the polarimetric upgrade to the HARPS spectrometer on the ESO 3.6 m telescope. We present data on both photospheric lines and emission lines, concentrating our discussion on the polarization properties of the \\ion{He}{1} emission lines at 5876 \\AA\\ and 6678 \\AA. The \\ion{He}{1} lines in these CTTSs contain both narrow emission cores, believed to come from near the accretion shock region on these stars, and broad emission components which may come from either a wind or the large scale magnetospheric accretion flow. We detect strong polarization in the narrow component of the two \\ion{He}{1} emission lines in both stars. We observe a maximum implied field strength of $6.05 \\pm 0.24$ kG in the 5876 \\AA\\ line of GQ Lup, making it the star with the highest field strength measured in this line for a CTTS. We find field strengths in the two \\ion{He}{1} lines that are c...

  19. Young ``Dipper" Stars in Upper Sco and Oph Observed by K2

    Ansdell, M.; Gaidos, E.; Rappaport, S. A.; Jacobs, T. L.; LaCourse, D. M.; Jek, K. J.; Mann, A. W.; Wyatt, M. C.; Kennedy, G.; Williams, J. P.; Boyajian, T. S.

    2016-01-01

    We present ten young (≲10 Myr) late-K and M dwarf stars observed in K2 Campaign 2 that host protoplanetary disks and exhibit quasi-periodic or aperiodic dimming events. Their optical light curves show ˜10-20 dips in flux over the 80-day observing campaign with durations of ˜0.5-2 days and depths of up to ˜40%. These stars are all members of the ρ Ophiuchus (˜1 Myr) or Upper Scorpius (˜10 Myr) star-forming regions. To investigate the nature of these “dippers” we obtained: optical and near-infrared spectra to determine stellar properties and identify accretion signatures; adaptive optics imaging to search for close companions that could cause optical variations and/or influence disk evolution; and millimeter-wavelength observations to constrain disk dust and gas masses. The spectra reveal Li i absorption and Hα emission consistent with stellar youth (<50 Myr), but also accretion rates spanning those of classical and weak-line T Tauri stars. Infrared excesses are consistent with protoplanetary disks extending to within ˜10 stellar radii in most cases; however, the sub-millimeter observations imply disk masses that are an order of magnitude below those of typical protoplanetary disks. We find a positive correlation between dip depth and WISE-2 (Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer-2) excess, which we interpret as evidence that the dipper phenomenon is related to occulting structures in the inner disk, although this is difficult to reconcile with the weakly accreting aperiodic dippers. We consider three mechanisms to explain the dipper phenomenon: inner disk warps near the co-rotation radius related to accretion; vortices at the inner disk edge produced by the Rossby Wave Instability; and clumps of circumstellar material related to planetesimal formation.

  20. Mapping the circumstellar environment of a young very low mass star

    Bozhinova, Inna; Scholz, Alexander; Wood, Kenneth; Starkey, David; Horne, Keith

    2015-10-01

    Young stellar objects exhibit variability due to surface features on the star, star-disk interaction, and inhomogenities in the inner disk. Over recent years, multi-band monitoring campaigns have proven to be an effective tool to map the complex environment of young stars and to investigate the physical processes associated with the formation of planets. Here we propose to use Spitzer, combined with ground-based telescopes, to monitor a young very low mass star simultaneous in the mid-infrared and optical. Our target has shown persistent high-level variability over more than a decade of optical monitoring. Our aim is to map the geometry of the inner disk and the accretion flow, for the first time for an object with a mass of only 0.1 Msol. There are clear indications that accretion and disk evolution are dependent on the mass of the central object. By targeting a very low mass star we can explore the physical processes in the inner disk in an extreme parameter regime. We plan to apply two different strategies to obtain spatial constraints. We will monitor over the rotational timescale of several days, to obtain azimuthal information about hot spots on the stellar surface and structures in the inner disk material. In addition, we will derive the inner radius of the disk by measuring the delay between optical and mid-infrared variations ('light echos') over timescales of one hour. In total, we ask for 10 hours of Spitzer/IRAC 4.5mu observing, spread over ten days. Guaranteed time at ground-based telescope will provide the simultaneous optical data. Our team combines the expertise for monitoring campaigns, radiative transfer modeling, and light echo modeling.

  1. A Correlation between Star Formation Rate and Average Black Hole Accretion in Star-forming Galaxies (Proceeding of IAUS304: Multiwavelength AGN Surveys and Studies)

    Chen, Chien-Ting J

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of recent studies on the co-evolution of galaxies and the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) using Herschel far-infrared and Chandra X-ray observations in the Bo\\"otes survey region. For a sample of star-forming (SF) galaxies, we find a strong correlation between galactic star formation rate and the average SMBH accretion rate in SF galaxies. Recent studies have shown that star formation and AGN accretion are only weakly correlated for individual AGN, but this may be due to the short variability timescale of AGN relative to star formation. Averaging over the full AGN population yields a strong linear correlation between accretion and star formation, consistent with a simple picture in which the growth of SMBHs and their host galaxies are closely linked over galaxy evolution time scales.

  2. A signature of chemical separation in the cooling curves of transiently accreting neutron stars

    Medin, Zach

    2013-01-01

    We show that convection driven by chemical separation can significantly affect the cooling curves of accreting neutron stars after they go into quiescence. We calculate the thermal relaxation of the neutron star ocean and crust including the thermal and compositional fluxes due to convection. After the inward propagating cooling wave reaches the base of the neutron star ocean, the ocean begins to freeze, driving chemical separation. The resulting convection transports heat inward, giving much faster cooling of the surface layers than found assuming the ocean cools passively. The light curves including convection show a rapid drop in temperature weeks after outburst. Identifying this signature in observed cooling curves would constrain the temperature and composition of the ocean as well as offer a real time probe of the freezing of a classical multicomponent plasma.

  3. A SIGNATURE OF CHEMICAL SEPARATION IN THE COOLING LIGHT CURVES OF TRANSIENTLY ACCRETING NEUTRON STARS

    Medin, Zach [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Cumming, Andrew, E-mail: zmedin@lanl.gov, E-mail: cumming@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2014-03-01

    We show that convection driven by chemical separation can significantly affect the cooling light curves of accreting neutron stars after they go into quiescence. We calculate the thermal relaxation of the neutron star ocean and crust including the thermal and compositional fluxes due to convection. After the inward propagating cooling wave reaches the base of the neutron star ocean, the ocean begins to freeze, driving chemical separation. The resulting convection transports heat inward, giving much faster cooling of the surface layers than found assuming the ocean cools passively. The light curves including convection show a rapid drop in temperature weeks after outburst. Identifying this signature in observed cooling curves would constrain the temperature and composition of the ocean as well as offer a real time probe of the freezing of a classical multicomponent plasma.

  4. A SIGNATURE OF CHEMICAL SEPARATION IN THE COOLING LIGHT CURVES OF TRANSIENTLY ACCRETING NEUTRON STARS

    We show that convection driven by chemical separation can significantly affect the cooling light curves of accreting neutron stars after they go into quiescence. We calculate the thermal relaxation of the neutron star ocean and crust including the thermal and compositional fluxes due to convection. After the inward propagating cooling wave reaches the base of the neutron star ocean, the ocean begins to freeze, driving chemical separation. The resulting convection transports heat inward, giving much faster cooling of the surface layers than found assuming the ocean cools passively. The light curves including convection show a rapid drop in temperature weeks after outburst. Identifying this signature in observed cooling curves would constrain the temperature and composition of the ocean as well as offer a real time probe of the freezing of a classical multicomponent plasma

  5. ASTRO-H White Paper - Stars -- Accretion, Shocks, Charge Exchanges and Magnetic Phenomena

    Tsuboi, Y; Audard, M; Hamaguchi, K; Leutenegger, M A; Maeda, Y; Mori, K; H,; Murakami,; Sugawara, Y; Tsujimoto, M

    2014-01-01

    X-ray emission from stars has origins as diverse as the stars themselves: accretion shocks, shocks generated in wind-wind collisions, or release of magnetic energy. Although the scenarios responsible for X-ray emission are thought to be known, the physical mechanisms operating are in many cases not yet fully understood. Full testing of many of these mechanisms requires high energy resolution, large effective area, and coverage of broad energy bands. The loss of the X-ray calorimeter spectrometer on board ASTRO-E2 was a huge blow to the field; it would have provided a large sample of high resolution spectra of stars with high signal-to-noise ratio. Now, with the advent of the ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Spectrometer and Hard X-ray Imager, we will be able to examine some of the hot topics in stellar astrophysics and solve outstanding mysteries.

  6. Carbon synthesis in steady-state hydrogen and helium burning on accreting neutron stars

    Superbursts from accreting neutron stars probe nuclear reactions at extreme densities (ρ ≈ 109 g cm–3) and temperatures (T > 109 K). These bursts (∼1000 times more energetic than type I X-ray bursts) are most likely triggered by unstable ignition of carbon in a sea of heavy nuclei made during the rapid proton capture process (rp-process) of regular type I X-ray bursts (where the accumulated hydrogen and helium are burned). An open question is the origin of sufficient amounts of carbon, which is largely destroyed during the rp-process in X-ray bursts. We explore carbon production in steady-state burning via the rp-process, which might occur together with unstable burning in systems showing superbursts. We find that for a wide range of accretion rates and accreted helium mass fractions large amounts of carbon are produced, even for systems that accrete solar composition. This makes stable hydrogen and helium burning a viable source of carbon to trigger superbursts. We also investigate the sensitivity of the results to nuclear reactions. We find that the 14O(α, p)17F reaction rate introduces by far the largest uncertainties in the 12C yield.

  7. Carbon production on accreting neutron stars in a new regime of stable nuclear burning

    Keek, L

    2015-01-01

    Accreting neutron stars exhibit Type I X-ray bursts from both frequent hydrogen/helium flashes as well as rare carbon flashes. The latter (superbursts) ignite in the ashes of the former. Hydrogen/helium bursts, however, are thought to produce insufficient carbon to power superbursts. Stable burning could create the required carbon, but this was predicted to only occur at much larger accretion rates than where superbursts are observed. We present models of a new steady-state regime of stable hydrogen and helium burning that produces pure carbon ashes. Hot CNO burning of hydrogen heats the neutron star envelope and causes helium to burn before the conditions of a helium flash are reached. This takes place when the mass accretion rate is around 10% of the Eddington limit: close to the rate where most superbursts occur. We find that increased heating at the base of the envelope sustains steady-state burning by steepening the temperature profile, which increases the amount of helium that burns before a runaway can...

  8. The dynamical evolution of accreted star clusters in the Milky Way

    Miholics, Meghan; Webb, Jeremy J.; Sills, Alison

    2016-02-01

    We perform N-body simulations of star clusters in time-dependant galactic potentials. Since the Milky Way was built up through mergers with dwarf galaxies, its globular cluster population is made up of clusters formed both during the initial collapse of the Galaxy and in dwarf galaxies that were later accreted. Throughout a dwarf Milky Way merger, dwarf galaxy clusters are subject to a changing galactic potential. Building on our previous work, we investigate how this changing galactic potential affects the evolution of a cluster's half-mass radius. In particular, we simulate clusters on circular orbits around a dwarf galaxy that either falls into the Milky Way or evaporates as it orbits the Milky Way. We find that the dynamical evolution of a star cluster is determined by whichever galaxy has the strongest tidal field at the position of the cluster. Thus, clusters entering the Milky Way undergo changes in size as the Milky Way tidal field becomes stronger and that of the dwarf diminishes. We find that ultimately accreted clusters quickly become the same size as a cluster born in the Milky Way on the same orbit. Assuming their initial sizes are similar, clusters born in the Galaxy and those that are accreted cannot be separated based on their current size alone.

  9. Highly efficient star formation in NGC 5253 possibly from stream-fed accretion.

    Turner, J L; Beck, S C; Benford, D J; Consiglio, S M; Ho, P T P; Kovács, A; Meier, D S; Zhao, J-H

    2015-03-19

    Gas clouds in present-day galaxies are inefficient at forming stars. Low star-formation efficiency is a critical parameter in galaxy evolution: it is why stars are still forming nearly 14 billion years after the Big Bang and why star clusters generally do not survive their births, instead dispersing to form galactic disks or bulges. Yet the existence of ancient massive bound star clusters (globular clusters) in the Milky Way suggests that efficiencies were higher when they formed ten billion years ago. A local dwarf galaxy, NGC 5253, has a young star cluster that provides an example of highly efficient star formation. Here we report the detection of the J = 3→2 rotational transition of CO at the location of the massive cluster. The gas cloud is hot, dense, quiescent and extremely dusty. Its gas-to-dust ratio is lower than the Galactic value, which we attribute to dust enrichment by the embedded star cluster. Its star-formation efficiency exceeds 50 per cent, tenfold that of clouds in the Milky Way. We suggest that high efficiency results from the force-feeding of star formation by a streamer of gas falling into the galaxy. PMID:25788096

  10. Spectroscopic signatures of magnetospheric accretion in Herbig Ae/Be stars. I. The case of HD101412

    Schöller, M; Cahuasqui, J A; Drake, N A; Hubrig, S; Petr-Gotzens, M G; Savanov, I S; Wolff, B; Gonzalez, J F; Mysore, S; Ilyin, I; Jarvinen, S P; Stelzer, B

    2016-01-01

    Models of magnetically-driven accretion and outflows reproduce many observational properties of T Tauri stars. This concept is not well established for the more massive Herbig Ae/Be stars. We intend to examine the magnetospheric accretion in Herbig Ae/Be stars and search for rotational modulation using spectroscopic signatures, in this first paper concentrating on the well-studied Herbig Ae star HD101412. We used near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the magnetic Herbig Ae star HD101412 to test the magnetospheric character of its accretion disk/star interaction. We reduced and analyzed 30 spectra of HD101412, acquired with the CRIRES and X-shooter spectrographs installed at the VLT (ESO, Chile). The spectroscopic analysis was based on the He I lambda 10,830 and Pa gamma lines, formed in the accretion region. We found that the temporal behavior of these diagnostic lines in the near-infrared spectra of HD101412 can be explained by rotational modulation of line profiles generated by accreting gas with a pe...