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Sample records for account outcome measurements

  1. Distance Education in a Cost Accounting Course: Instruction, Interaction, and Multiple Measures of Learning Outcomes

    Clement C. Chen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Students in online and traditional classroom sections of an intermediate-level cost accounting course responded to a survey about their experiences in the course. Specifically, several items related to the instruction and learning outcomes were addressed. Additionally, student examination performance in the two types of sections was compared. The results suggest that students in both learning environments generally rated the instruction, professor/student interaction, and learning outcomes at a high level. However, where differences in satisfaction levels exist, the ratings generally were higher among students in the traditional classroom. Examination performance was comparable on 14 of 18 topic areas with the traditional method producing better comprehension in three of the remaining four areas. While student learning, instruction, and interaction between students and with the instructor were good in the online sections, the results suggest that the traditional learning approach provided a level of richness to the student learning experience that was not matched in the online approach. Overall, the survey results have implications for course design going forward, regardless of course delivery method.

  2. Evaluation of accountability measurements

    The New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) is programmatically responsible to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) for providing independent review and evaluation of accountability measurement technology in DOE nuclear facilities. This function is addressed in part through the NBL Safegaurds Measurement Evaluation (SME) Program. The SME Program utilizes both on-site review of measurement methods along with material-specific measurement evaluation studies to provide information concerning the adequacy of subject accountability measurements. This paper reviews SME Program activities for the 1986-87 time period, with emphasis on noted improvements in measurement capabilities. Continued evolution of the SME Program to respond to changing safeguards concerns is discussed

  3. Performance measurement: the new accountability.

    Martin, L L; Kettner, P M

    1997-01-01

    Over the years, "accountability" in the human services has focused upon issues such as the legal framework, organizational management, financial responsibility, political concerns, and client inputs and expectations. Within the past decade, the meaning of "accountability" has been extended to the more dynamic organizational functions of "efficiency" and " effectiveness." Efficiency and effectiveness increasingly must be put to the tests of performance measurement and outcome evaluation. Forces outside the social work profession, including, among others, federal expectations and initiatives and the increased implementation of the concept of managed care, will ensure that efficiency and effectiveness will be central and highlighted concerns far into the future. This "new accountability" is demanded by the stakeholders in the nonprofit sector and by federal requirements built into the planning, funding, and implementation processes for nonprofits and for-profits alike. PMID:10166757

  4. Outcome measurements in orthopedic

    Bhandari, Mohit; Petrisor, Brad; Schemitsch, Emil

    2007-01-01

    The choice of outcome measure in orthopedic clinical research studies is paramount. The primary outcome measure for a study has several implications for the design and conduct of the study. These include: 1) sample size determination, 2) internal validity, 3) compliance and 4) cost. A thorough knowledge of outcome measures in orthopedic research is paramount to the conduct of a quality study. The decision to choose a continuous versus dichotomous outcome has important implications for sample ...

  5. FINANCIAL OUTCOME BETWEEN ACCOUNTING AND FISCALITY

    Florentina Moisescu; Hij Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The tax result does not reflect the real financial performance of a company but rather shows a result of taxation which is to determine the size of tax for a company. Therefore, in Romanian accounting there are a lot of different ways which are used to obtain an `embellished` accounting result due to a large variety of accounting policies and methods which allows the company to choose the desired outcome. In our county, the main goal of an enterprise seems to be either the decrease of the fin...

  6. FINANCIAL OUTCOME BETWEEN ACCOUNTING AND FISCALITY

    Florentina Moisescu; Hij Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The tax result does not reflect the real financial performance of a company but rather shows a result of taxation which is to determine the size of tax for a company. Therefore, in Romanian accounting there are a lot of different ways which are used to obtain an `embellished` accounting result due to a large variety of accounting policies and methods which allows the company to choose the desired outcome. In our county, the main goal of an enterprise seems to be either the decrease of the fi...

  7. Why Measure Outcomes?

    Kuhn, John E

    2016-01-01

    The concept of measuring the outcomes of treatment in health care was promoted by Ernest Amory Codman in the early 1900s, but, until recently, his ideas were generally ignored. The forces that have advanced outcome measurement to the forefront of health care include the shift in payers for health care from the patient to large insurance companies or government agencies, the movement toward assessing the care of populations not individuals, and the effort to find value (or cost-effective treatments) amid rising healthcare costs. No ideal method exists to measure outcomes, and the information gathered depends on the reason the outcome information is required. Outcome measures used in research are best able to answer research questions. The methods for assessing physician and hospital performance include process measures, patient-experience measures, structure measures, and measures used to assess the outcomes of treatment. The methods used to assess performance should be validated, be reliable, and reflect a patient's perception of the treatment results. The healthcare industry must measure outcomes to identify which treatments are most effective and provide the most benefit to patients. PMID:27049223

  8. FINANCIAL OUTCOME BETWEEN ACCOUNTING AND FISCALITY

    Florentina Moisescu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The tax result does not reflect the real financial performance of a company but rather shows a result of taxation which is to determine the size of tax for a company. Therefore, in Romanian accounting there are a lot of different ways which are used to obtain an `embellished` accounting result due to a large variety of accounting policies and methods which allows the company to choose the desired outcome. In our county, the main goal of an enterprise seems to be either the decrease of the financial result in order to avoid payment of a bigger tax to the state tax authority or the postponement of it, while companies from other countries want a financial result as big as possible so that they can attract investors.

  9. Education Funding and Student Outcomes: A Conceptual Framework for Measurement of the Alignment of State Education Finance and Academic Accountability Policies

    Knoeppel, Robert C.; Della Sala, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    The conceptualization and measurement of education finance equity and adequacy has engaged researchers for more than three decades. At the same time, calls for increased academic accountability and higher student achievement in K-12 public education have reached new levels at both the national and state levels. Aligning these represents an…

  10. Measuring Learning Outcomes in Auditing Education

    Holm, Claus; Steenholdt, Niels

    2003-01-01

    The ability to provide sensible measures for learning outcomes in accounting education is under increased scrutiny. In this paper we use a learner perspective in auditing education, which reflects that some students taking accounting classes also are provided with on-the-job training in accounting...... firms. Hence knowledge about learning outcomes for different groups of students is essential information for educators as well as the accounting profession. This paper extends prior research on the role of declarative and procedural knowledge in performing auditing tasks. Measuring learning outcomes is...... a complex matter requiring sensible measures for both declarative knowledge (ability to verbalize pertinent facts or processes) and procedural knowledge (intellectual skills). The study uses a multitude of measures based on a hierarchical separation of intellectual skills originally suggested by...

  11. FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING OUTSOURCING OUTCOMES IN A CASE COMPANY

    Halmeenmäki, Juuso

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was conducted by the request of the Case Company’s Finance services. The subject was to find all the outcomes of the outsourcing the Finance and Accounting services have aroused. Based on those findings, suggestions were made for the Case Company in order to improve their performance. The focus of the thesis was in outcomes that are more related on performing instead of numeric outcomes. In order to find the outcomes there were four semi-structured theme interviews conducted. ...

  12. Retrodiction of Generalised Measurement Outcomes

    Chefles, Anthony; Sasaki, Masahide

    2002-01-01

    If a generalised measurement is performed on a quantum system and we do not know the outcome, are we able to retrodict it with a second measurement? We obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for perfect retrodiction of the outcome of a known generalised measurement, given the final state, for an arbitrary initial state. From this, we deduce that, when the input and output Hilbert spaces have equal (finite) dimension, it is impossible to perfectly retrodict the outcome of any fine-grained...

  13. Measuring Learning Outcomes in Auditing Education

    Holm, Claus; Steenholdt, Niels

    The ability to provide sensible measures for learning outcomes in accounting education is under increased scrutiny. In this paper we use a learner perspective in auditing education, which reflects that some students taking accounting classes also are provided with on-the-job training in accounting...... firms. Hence knowledge about learning outcomes for different groups of students is essential information for educators as well as the accounting profession. Sensible measures are needed by educators in order to (1) chose teaching methods matching prerequisite skills among a heterogeneous student body......, (2) assess the need for de-learning existing knowledge (i.e., cleaning the slate), and (3) being able to set up challenging yet fair exams for the total student body. This paper extends prior research on the role of declarative and procedural knowledge in performing auditing tasks. Measuring learning...

  14. Introducing the representational measurement project in accounting

    Saratiel Weszerai, Musvoto

    2011-01-01

    This study introduces a representational measurement (a theory that establishes measurement in the social sciences) perspective to the accounting concept of measurement. Accounting studies have long sought to establish foundations (theory) of measurement in accounting without success. This is because the accounting concept of measurement is based on the axioms of quantity which ultimately result in the classical theory of measurement and are not suitable for social science disciplines such as...

  15. Risks factoring business: accounting measurement

    Z.V. Gutsaylyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper carried out the identification of risk factors for the development of possible accounting software management. Studied theoretical and methodological aspects of the risk classification of factoring operations in the part of the risk assessment factors. It is proposed to consider the risks factors as the risk that is acceptable controlled by accounting instruments and the risks that can not be taken into account in the accounting records. To minimize the risk factor, accounting-driven tools, a method of self-insurance, which is a factor in the creation of provision for factoring transactions designed to cover unexpected expenses and losses. Provision for factoring factor will establish more stable conditions of financial activity and avoid the fluctuations of profit factor in relation to the writing off of losses on factoring operatsіyam.Developed proposals allow for further research to improve the organizational and methodological basis of accounting and analysis of information as a basis for providing risk management factor, particularly in terms of improving the evaluation questions such risks and their qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  16. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING MEASUREMENT: INSTRUMENTATION AND CALIBRATION

    Salvary, Stanley C. W.

    2005-01-01

    In its Conceptual Framework (CF), the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has not identified the observable phenomena and was not able to identify a single measurement property in financial accounting. While identifying aspects of the observable phenomena in financial accounting, the FASB has indicated that there are five measurement attributes which are used in financial accounting and the result is a mixed-attributes model. Lacking a critical underlying theory, the FASB’s Conceptual...

  17. CLINICAL OUTCOME MEASURES OF PSORIASIS

    E. Berardesca

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Several tools have been introduced in clinical trials to quantify the severity and the response to a given therapeutic regimen of both psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Each method present specific advantages and limitations. Here we will discuss some of the most popular clinical outcome measures of both psoriasis (Psoriasis Severity Index, Physician Global Assessment, National Psoriasis Fundation-Psoriasis Score, Dermatology Life Quality Index and psoriatic arthritis (American College Rheumatology response criteria, Psoriatic Arthritis Response Criteria. Key words: Psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, outcome

  18. Routine outcome measures in Canada.

    Kisely, Steve; Adair, Carol E; Lin, Elizabeth; Marriott, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Canada is a federal country of 10 provinces and three territories. High level information on mental health conditions and service use has mostly been generated from administrative data collected by provinces and territories. These include four major types - hospital admissions and discharges, physician billings, ambulatory care services, and drug databases. At the national level, the Canadian Institute for Health Information brings together this information to produce indicators of outcome. Although these data provide information on patient and health system characteristics, they do not capture the full spectrum of formal and informal mental healthcare. These include changes in health status, functioning, community integration and quality of life. As a result, some jurisdictions have begun to implement more standardized measures of outcome such as the clinician-rated Health of the Nation Outcome Scales or the inpatient Resident Assessment Instrument - Mental Health. In this paper we provide an overview of mental-health-related data sources in Canada, highlight some of the more progressive practices beginning to emerge, and conclude with some thoughts about how the routine measurement and reporting of mental health outcomes in Canada might be advanced including efforts at engaging both clinicians and decision-makers. PMID:25738745

  19. CLINICAL OUTCOME MEASURES OF PSORIASIS

    E. Berardesca; Bonifati, C

    2011-01-01

    Several tools have been introduced in clinical trials to quantify the severity and the response to a given therapeutic regimen of both psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Each method present specific advantages and limitations. Here we will discuss some of the most popular clinical outcome measures of both psoriasis (Psoriasis Severity Index, Physician Global Assessment, National Psoriasis Fundation-Psoriasis Score, Dermatology Life Quality Index) and psoriatic arthritis (American College Rheu...

  20. Educational Testing as an Accountability Measure

    Ydesen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    continued use in contemporary educational settings. Accountability measures and practices serve as a way to govern schools; by analysing the history of accountability as the concept has been practised in the education sphere, the article will discuss both pros and cons of such a methodology, particularly as......This article reveals perspectives based on experiences from twentieth-century Danish educational history by outlining contemporary, test-based accountability regime characteristics and their implications for education policy. The article introduces one such characteristic, followed by an empirical...... analysis of the origins and impacts of test-based accountability measures applying both top-down and bottom-up perspectives. These historical perspectives offer the opportunity to gain a fuller understanding of this contemporary accountability concept and its potential, appeal, and implications for...

  1. Accounting Education: A Comparative Study of Perception of Learning Outcomes in Traditional and Online Delivery Systems

    Connor, Chun-Mei Lee

    2009-01-01

    As of 2007, over 20% of all higher education students in the U.S took at least one online course (Allen & Seaman, 2008), and over 200 universities offered some measure of online accounting courses (National Center for Education Statistics, 2008).This study compared the student learning outcomes of traditional and online delivery styles in…

  2. Social Prerequisites and Outcomes of Accountable Curriculum in Higher

    Mohammadreza Nili

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractHigher education system(HES is a social institution that has long been set up to accomplish threemissions education, research and service, but during recent years entrepreneurship has been added to itsmissions. Curriculum is the most important component and subsystem of HES and has been thought of as theheart of higher education (HE, because it is the most fundamental means that provides students withknowledge, experience and skills to supply services to the society. The curriculum which can accomplishideals and missions of universities, organizational (of the university and social (of the employers and thesociety is called accountable curriculum (AC. The main goal of this research was explanation ofprerequisites and social outcomes of higher education accountable curriculum (HEAC. To do the researchdescriptive survey method was used and in order to collect the needed data interview and questionnaireinstruments were utilized.The sample of the study which the questionnaire was distributed in, included faculty members and graduatestudents of university of Isfahan, Technical University of Isfahan, and Medical University of Isfahan andalso employers and administrators of the companies of Isfahan city. The participants of the sample wereal1ocated using stratified random sampling. The questionnaire surveyed the sample's viewpoints aboutprerequisites and outcomes of the AC in the field of social services. The collected data were analyzed atdescriptive and inferential levels using SPSS. The findings of T-test revealed that the mean of the sample'sviewpoints about the explained prerequisites and outcomes had been more than the hypothetical (theoreticalmean of the population (p≤0/001. The multivariate variance analysis( MANOVA of the data showed thatthere hadn't been significant difference among viewpoints of faculties, and employers in respect ofprerequisites of HEAC, but there had been significant difference between their views about expected

  3. Measurement control program for nuclear material accounting

    A measurement control program for nuclear material accounting monitors and controls the quality of the measurments of special nuclear material that are involved in material balances. The quality is monitored by collecting data from which the current precision and accuracy of measurements can be evaluated. The quality is controlled by evaluations, reviews, and other administrative measures for control of selection or design of facilities, equipment and measurement methods and the training and qualification of personnel who perform SNM measurements. This report describes the most important elements of a program by which management can monitor and control measurement quality

  4. Responsiveness of Clinical Outcome Measures

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    Background The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is one of two standardised functional health measurement scales (HMS) recommended. Despite extensive psychometric testing, little is known about HMS behaviour and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in subgroups of LBP patients. Moreover...... in the primary (PrS) and secondary sectors (SeS) of the Danish health care system. The prospective acceptable outcome study. A method for estimating LBP patients' view of an acceptable change before treatment begins (MCIDpre was developed and compared to a well established retrospective method of determining...... measurement error and 1.5-4.5 times larger compared to the MCIDpost. Furthermore, the MCIDpre was almost comparable to patients' post-treatment acceptable change, but only for the pain scale. Conclusion The Danish version of the ODI is a reliable, valid and responsive HMS which is psychometrically more...

  5. The International Dermatology Outcome Measures Group

    Gottlieb, Alice B; Levin, Adriane A; Armstrong, April W;

    2015-01-01

    As quality standards are increasingly in demand throughout medicine, dermatology needs to establish outcome measures to quantify the effectiveness of treatments and providers. The International Dermatology Outcome Measures Group was established to address this need. Beginning with psoriasis, the...

  6. Measuring Learning Outcomes. A Learner Perspective in Auditing Education

    Holm, Claus; Steenholdt, Niels

    2000-01-01

    The ability to provide sensible measures for learning outcomes in accounting education is under increased scrutiny. In this paper we use a learner perspective in auditing education which reflects that some students taking accounting classes also are provided with on-the-job training in accounting...... firms. Hence knowledge about learning outcomes for different groups of students is essential information for educators as well as the accounting profession. Sensible measures are needed by educators in order to (1) chose teaching methods matching prerequisite skills among a heterogenous student body, (2......) assess the need for de-learning existing knowledge (i.e., cleaning the slate), and (3) be able to set up challenging yet fair exams for the total student body. Assessing learning outcomes for the purpose of knowledge management plays a major role in accounting firms too. Knowledge transfer among auditors...

  7. Measuring Learning Outcomes. A Learner Perspective in Auditing Education

    Holm, Claus; Steenholdt, Niels

    The ability to provide sensible measures for learning outcomes in accounting education is under increased scrutiny. In this paper we use a learner perspective in auditing education which reflects that some students taking accounting classes also are provided with on-the-job training in accounting...... firms. Hence knowledge about learning outcomes for different groups of students is essential information for educators as well as the accounting profession. Sensible measures are needed by educators in order to (1) chose teaching methods matching prerequisite skills among a heterogenous student body, (2......) assess the need for de-learning existing knowledge (i.e., cleaning the slate), and (3) be able to set up challenging yet fair exams for the total student body. Assessing learning outcomes for the purpose of knowledge management plays a major role in accounting firms too. Knowledge transfer among auditors...

  8. Outcome measures in inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    Fransen, Jaap; van Riel, Piet LCM

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory rheumatic diseases are generally multifaceted disorders and, therefore, measurement of multiple outcomes is relevant to most of these diseases. Developments in outcome measures in the rheumatic diseases are promoted by the development of successful treatments. Outcome measurement will increasingly deal with measurement of low levels of disease activity and avoidance of disease consequences. It is an advantage for patient management and knowledge transfer if the same outcomes are ...

  9. Measuring social firm performance by accounting

    Ph D Professor Nicolaescu Cristina; Ph D Lecturer Tagaduan Diana

    2010-01-01

    If the accounting measurement of economic performance has a lot of techniques and tools we can not say the same for the other two objectives, environmental and social. On the assumption of maximizing benefits, the question arises whether social enterprises reach performance levels similar to those of financial performance are not as interested in social responsibility aspect.

  10. Measurement outcomes from hip simulators.

    de Villiers, Danielle; Shelton, Julia C

    2016-05-01

    Simulation of wear in total hip replacements has been recognised as an important factor in determining the likelihood of clinical success. However, accurate measurement of wear can be problematic with factors such as number and morphology of wear particles produced as well as ion release proving more important in the biological response to hip replacements than wear volume or wear rate alone. In this study, hard-on-hard (CoCr alloy, AgCrN coating) and hard-on-soft (CoCr alloy and CrN coating on vitamin E blended highly cross-linked polyethylene) bearing combinations were tested in an orbital hip simulator under standard and some adverse conditions. Gravimetric wear rates were determined for all bearings, with cobalt and where applicable, silver release determined throughout testing. Isolation of wear particles from the lubricating fluid was used to determine the influence of different bearing combinations and wear conditions on particle morphology. It was found that cobalt and silver could be measured in the lubricating fluid even when volumetric wear was not detectable. In hard-on-hard bearings, Pearson's correlation of 0.98 was established between metal release into the lubricating fluid and wear volume. In hard-on-soft bearings, coating the head did not influence the polyethylene wear rates measured under standard conditions but did influence the cobalt release; the diameter influenced both polyethylene wear and cobalt release, and the introduction of adverse testing generated smaller polyethylene particles. While hip simulators can be useful to assess the wear performance of a new material or design, measurement of other outcomes may yield greater insight into the clinical behaviour of the bearings in vivo. PMID:26888886

  11. Measurement of outcome in rheumatic diseases.

    Wright, V

    1985-01-01

    In the assessment of outcome in rheumatic diseases a number of factors must be taken into account. It is important to make an accurate diagnosis, so that the response to treatment is not confused by heterogeneity of the population. The meaning of outcome needs to be defined. The quality of life over a prolonged period is just as important as the ultimate outcome. Subjective symptoms are important to the patient. Pain is the most important, followed by disability and then stiffness. Despite at...

  12. ESPRESSO: taking into account assessment errors on outcome and exposures in power analysis for association studies

    Gaye, Amadou; Burton, Thomas W. Y.; Burton, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Very large studies are required to provide sufficiently big sample sizes for adequately powered association analyses. This can be an expensive undertaking and it is important that an accurate sample size is identified. For more realistic sample size calculation and power analysis, the impact of unmeasured aetiological determinants and the quality of measurement of both outcome and explanatory variables should be taken into account. Conventional methods to analyse power use closed-...

  13. Effect size for dichotomous outcome measures

    Yuanjia WANG; Naihua DUAN

    2011-01-01

    @@ Effect size for continuous outcome measures was discussed in our previous column[1].In this column we discuss several widely used effect size measures for dichotomous (Yes/No) outcome measures such as mortality,relapse,cure,discontinuation of treatment,and so forth.

  14. Comparison of Healthcare Quality Outcomes Between Accountable Care Organizations and Physician Group Practices.

    Singh, Sukhchain; Khosla, Sandeep; Sethi, Ankur

    2015-01-01

    Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) were created under the Affordable Care Act to deliver better quality of care at reduced cost compare with the traditional fee-for-service model. But their effectiveness in achieving healthcare quality metrics is unclear. We analyzed ACO and physician group practice (PGP) performance rates for the single coronary artery disease measure and four diabetes mellitus measures now publicly reported on the Medicare Physician Compare Web site for program year 2012. There was no statistically significant difference in reported quality measures between ACOs and PGPs. Our study shows that PGPs can achieve outcomes at par with ACOs. PMID:26223106

  15. Hospital Quality Initiative - Outcome Measures

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In the interest of promoting high-quality, patient-centered care and accountability, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and Hospital Quality...

  16. Corporate Governance, Accounting Measures and Market Value

    Tuanye Yu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at finding out the interaction effects between corporate governance, accounting measures (BVE and NI and market value, we suggest three pathways of market value transmission pathway: performance pathway, direct pathway and capital maintenance pathway, with Partial Least Square (PLS regression model we analyze the relationship between corporate governance mechanisms, Book Value of Equity (BVE, Net Income (NI and Market Value of Equity (MVE basing on a sample of manufacture companies in China A share market from 2007 to 2011. Result shows that most corporate mechanisms which have significant relationships with BVE and NI are significantly related with MVE simultaneously, validating the transmission pathway hypothesis. As for the corporate mechanisms whose significance directions are different among NI, BVE and MVE, we explain them from the perspective of basic features of the variances themselves, the efficiency of transmission pathway and influence direction.

  17. Measuring Inclusive Education Outcomes in Alberta, Canada

    Loreman, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This study details the results of a review of the academic and public sector literature on measuring inclusive education in large systems. It highlights some outcomes drawn from the international literature on inclusion that might be indicative of the presence and quality of inclusive education in an effort to develop a set of outcomes for…

  18. Physician outcome measurement: review and proposed model.

    Siha, S

    1998-01-01

    As health care moves from a free-for-service environment to a capitated arena, outcome measurements must change. ABC Children's Medical Center is challenged with developing comprehensive outcome measures for an employed physician group. An extensive literature review validates that physician outcomes must move beyond revenue production and measure all aspects of care delivery. The proposed measurement model for this physician group is a trilogy model. It includes measures of cost, quality, and service. While these measures can be examined separately, it is imperative to understand their integration in determining an organization's competitive advantage. The recommended measurements for the physician group must be consistent with the overall organizational goals. The long-term impact will be better utilization of resources. This will result in the most cost effective, quality care for the health care consumer. PMID:10339092

  19. Medical specialty boards can help measure graduate medical education outcomes.

    Peterson, Lars E; Carek, Peter; Holmboe, Eric S; Puffer, James C; Warm, Eric J; Phillips, Robert L

    2014-06-01

    U.S. graduate medical education (GME) training institutions are under increasing scrutiny to measure program outcomes as a demonstration of accountability for the sizeable funding they receive from the federal government. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) is a potential agent of measuring GME accountability but has no interaction with physicians after residency training is completed. American Board of Medical Specialty (ABMS) member boards interact with physicians throughout their careers through maintenance of certification (MOC) and are a potential source of valuable data on physician competency and quality of care, both of which could be used to measure GME accountability.The authors propose that ABMS boards and the ACGME deepen their existing relationship to better assess residency training outcomes. ABMS boards have a wealth of data on physicians collected as a by-product of MOC and business operations. Further, many ABMS boards collect practice demographics and scope-of-practice information through MOC enrollment surveys or recertification examination questionnaires. These data are potentially valuable in helping residencies know what their graduates are doing in practice. Part 4 of MOC generally involves assessment of the quality of care delivered in practice, and ABMS boards could share these deidentified data with the ACGME and residency programs to provide direct feedback on the practice outcomes of graduates.ABMS member boards and the ACGME should broaden their long-standing relationship to further develop shared roles and data-sharing mechanisms to better inform residencies and the public about GME training outcomes. PMID:24871232

  20. Measuring participation outcomes in rehabilitation medicine

    van der Zee, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    We developed the Utrecht Scale for Evaluation of Rehabilitation-Participation (USER-Participation) to fulfill the need for a generic measurement instrument to assess outcomes of outpatient rehabilitation programmes. The USER-Participation assesses three aspects of participation, thereby measuring bo

  1. Outcome-Based Education and Student Learning in Managerial Accounting in Hong Kong

    Lui, Gladie; Shum, Connie

    2012-01-01

    Although Outcome-based Education has not been successful in public education in several countries, it has been successful in the medical fields in higher education in the U.S. The author implemented OBE in her Managerial Accounting course in H.K. Intended learning outcomes were mapped again Bloom's Cognitive Domain. Teaching and learning…

  2. Measuring Gambling Outcomes Among College Students

    Neighbors, Clayton; Lostutter, Ty W.; Larimer, Mary E.; Takushi, Ruby Y.

    2002-01-01

    The present research describes the proposal and validation of three gambling outcome measures, the Gambling Quantity and Perceived Norms Scale (GQPN), the Gambling Problem Index (GPI), and the Gambling Readiness to Change Questionnaire (GRTC). The study consisted of 560 undergraduate college students who completed a survey including the newly constructed measures and other measures designed to assess convergent validity. Results confirmed good reliability and convergent validity of all three ...

  3. Accounting System and Financial Performance Measurements

    Halíř, Zbyněk

    2011-01-01

    The paper concerns measuring and reporting of financial performance of an enterprise. Currently increasing emphasis is placed on performance measurement and management. Within performance measurement and management in general the role of financial performance is becoming increasingly important. The paper is concerned with measuring and reporting of financial performance of an enterprise primarily from manager’s point of view. In its first part it deals primarily with the connection between th...

  4. Testing Multiple Outcomes in Repeated Measures Designs

    Lix, Lisa M.; Sajobi, Tolulope

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates procedures for controlling the familywise error rate (FWR) when testing hypotheses about multiple, correlated outcome variables in repeated measures (RM) designs. A content analysis of RM research articles published in 4 psychology journals revealed that 3 quarters of studies tested hypotheses about 2 or more outcome…

  5. Measuring the safeguards value of material accountability

    Material accountability (MA) activities focus on providing after-the-fact indication of diversion or theft of special nuclear material (SNM). MA activities include maintaining records for tracking nuclear material and conducting periodic inventories and audits to ensure that loss has not occurred. This paper presents a value model concept for assessing the safeguards benefits of MA activities and for comparing these benefits to those provided by physical protection (PP) and material control (MC) components. The model considers various benefits of MA, which include: 1) providing information to assist in recovery of missing material, 2) providing assurance that physical protection and material control systems have been working, 3) defeating protracted theft attempts, and 4) properly resolving causes of and responding appropriately to anomalies of missing material and external alarms (e.g., hoax). Such a value model can aid decision-makers in allocating safeguards resources among PP, MC, and MA systems

  6. Measuring participation outcomes in rehabilitation medicine

    Zee, C.H. van der

    2013-01-01

    We developed the Utrecht Scale for Evaluation of Rehabilitation-Participation (USER-Participation) to fulfill the need for a generic measurement instrument to assess outcomes of outpatient rehabilitation programmes. The USER-Participation assesses three aspects of participation, thereby measuring both objective and subjective participation. The reproducibility of the USER-Participation was assessed in the heterogeneous sample, with generally satisfactory results. ICC values were good for the ...

  7. Methods for Measuring the Impairment of Accounts Receivable

    Bunea-Bontaº Cristina Aurora

    2013-01-01

    Accounts receivable consists of amounts from customers. Companies are required to make ongoing estimates related to the collectability of accounts receivables and to maintain an allowance for estimated losses due to customers’ inability to make the payments. Changes in economic conditions, in collection efforts or in trade credit policies may cause differences in estimates of uncollectible accounts. The article reviews the methods for measuring the impairment of accounts receivable: percentag...

  8. Measuring and Assessing the Quality and Usefulness of Accounting Information

    Gergana Tsoncheva

    2014-01-01

    High quality accounting information is of key importance for a large number of users, as it influences the quality of the decisions made. Providing high quality and useful accounting information is a prerequisite for the efficiency of the enterprise. Usefulness is determined by the quality of accounting information. Measuring and assessing the quality and usefulness of accounting information are of particular importance, as these activities will not only enhance the quality of economic decisi...

  9. BUSINESS FLUCTUATIONS AND FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING MEASUREMENT: HISTORICAL COMMENTS

    Stanley C. W. Salvary

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses a theme in an historical setting that financial accounting measurement contributes to: (1) retardation of national economic growth by the failure of financial accounting to provide for the replacement of capital goods in its measurement process; and (2) the business cycle owing to the illusory profits reported in financial statements. The author explores the issues and concludes that the arguments against accounting are based upon misunderstandings.

  10. Integrated Productivity Accounts: Contributions to the Measurement of Capital

    MacDonald, Ryan; Gu, Wulong; Baldwin, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Measures of productivity are derived by comparing outputs and inputs. The System of National Accounts (SNA) in Canada provides a useful framework for organizing the information required for comparisons of this type. Integrated systems of economic accounts provide coherent, consistent alternate estimates of the various concepts that can be used to measure productivity.

  11. Korean Clinic Based Outcome Measure Studies

    Jongbae Park

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence based medicine has become main tools for medical practice. However, conducting a highly ranked in the evidence hierarchy pyramid is not easy or feasible at all times and places. There remains a room for descriptive clinical outcome measure studies with admitting the limit of the intepretation. Aims: Presents three Korean clinic based outcome measure studies with a view to encouraging Korean clinicians to conduct similar studies. Methods: Three studies are presented briefly here including 1 Quality of Life of liver cancer patients after 8 Constitutional acupuncture; 2 Developing a Korean version of Measuring yourself Medical Outcome profile (MYMOP; and 3 Survey on 5 Shu points: a pilot In the first study, we have included 4 primary or secondary liver cancer patients collecting their diagnostic X-ray film and clinical data f개m their hospital, and asked them to fill in the European Organization Research and Treatment of Cancer, Quality of Life Questionnaire before the commencement of the treatment. The acupuncture treatment is set up format but not disclosed yet. The translation and developing a Korean version of outcome measures that is Korean clinician friendly has been sought for MYMOP is one of the most appropriate one. The permission was granted, the translation into Korean was done, then back translated into English only based on the Korean translation by the researcher who is bilingual in both languages. The back translation was compared by the original developer of MYMOP and confirmed usable. In order to test the existence of acupoints and meridians through popular forms of Korean acupuncture regimes, we aim at collecting opinions from 101 Korean clinicians that have used those forms. The questions asked include most effective symptoms, 5 Shu points, points those are least likely to use due to either adverse events or the lack of effectiveness, theoretical reasons for the above proposals, proposing outcome measures

  12. Prevention validation and accounting platform: a framework for establishing accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs.

    Kim, S; McLeod, J H; Williams, C; Hepler, N

    2000-01-01

    The field of substance abuse prevention has neither an overarching conceptual framework nor a set of shared terminologies for establishing the accountability and performance outcome measures of substance abuse prevention services rendered. Hence, there is a wide gap between what we currently have as data on one hand and information that are required to meet the performance goals and accountability measures set by the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 on the other. The task before us is: How can we establish the accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs and transform the field of prevention into prevention science? The intent of this volume is to serve that purpose and accelerate the processes of this transformation by identifying the requisite components of the transformation (i.e., theory, methodology, convention on terms, and data) and by introducing an open forum called, Prevention Validation and Accounting (PREVA) Platform. The entire PREVA Platform (for short, the Platform) is designed as an analytic framework, which is formulated by a collectivity of common concepts, terminologies, accounting units, protocols for counting the units, data elements, and operationalizations of various constructs, and other summary measures intended to bring about an efficient and effective measurement of process input, program capacity, process output, performance outcome, and societal impact of substance abuse prevention programs. The measurement units and summary data elements are designed to be measured across time and across jurisdictions, i.e., from local to regional to state to national levels. In the Platform, the process input is captured by two dimensions of time and capital. Time is conceptualized in terms of service delivery time and time spent for research and development. Capital is measured by the monies expended for the delivery of program activities during a fiscal or reporting period. Program capacity is captured

  13. HB-Line Material Control and Accountability Measurements at SRS

    Presently, HB-Line work at the Savannah River Site consists primarily of the stabilization and packaging of nuclear materials for storage and the characterization of materials for disposition in H-Area. In order to ensure compliance with Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) Regulations, accountability measurements are performed throughout the HB-Line processes. Accountability measurements are used to keep track of the nuclear material inventory by constantly updating the amount of material in the MBAs (Material Balance Area) and sub-MBAs. This is done by subtracting the amount of accountable material that is added to a process and by adding the amount of accountable material that is put back in storage. A Physical Inventory is taken and compared to the ''Book Value'' listed in the Nuclear Material Accounting System. The difference (BPID) in the Book Inventory minus the Physical Inventory of a sub-account for bulk material must agree within the measurement errors combined in quadrature to provide assurance that nuclear material is accounted for. This work provides an overview of HB-Line processes and accountability measurements. The Scrap Recovery Line and Neptunium-237/Plutonium-239 Oxide Line are described and sampling and analyses for Phase II are provided. Recommendations for improvements are provided to improve efficiency and cost effectiveness

  14. Accounting and economic measures: an integrated theory of capital budgeting

    Carlo Alberto Magni

    2009-01-01

    Accounting measures are traditionally considered not significant from an economic point of view. In particular, accounting rates of return are often regarded economically meaningless or, at the very best, poor surrogates for the IRR, which is held to be “the” economic yield. Likewise, residual income does not enjoy, in general, periodic consistency with the project NPV, so residual income maximization is not equivalent to NPV maximization. This paper shows that the opposition accounting/econo...

  15. Value Measurement and Disclosures in Fair Value Accounting

    2013-01-01

    Value measurement and disclosures in accounting is further effort and method to objectively determine quality of financial reporting which have continued for many decades. Quality characteristics are the bedrock on which accounting theories are formulated, since it is important to prepare and present financial statement with a view to meeting its objectives. Although, this study is literature approach, having explored rationale for fair value accounting, IFRS 13 sets out a framework for measu...

  16. Implications of the homomorphism definition of measurement  on accounting measurement theory

    Saratiel Wedzerai Musvoto

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the principles of the representational theory of measurement with accounting practices to decipher the reasons creating a gap between accounting measurement practices and the scientific practices of measurement. Representational measurement establishes measurement in social scientific disciplines such as accounting. The discussion in this study focuses on the need for accounting to provide principled arguments to justify its status as a measurement discipline. The argument...

  17. Measure against Measure: Responsibility versus Accountability in Education

    Senechal, Diana

    2013-01-01

    In education policy, practice, and discussion, we find ourselves caught between responsibility--fidelity to one's experience, conscience, and discernment--and a narrow kind of accountability. In order to preserve integrity, we (educators and leaders) must maintain independence of thought while skillfully articulating our work to the outside world.…

  18. Online versus Face-to-Face Accounting Education: A Comparison of CPA Exam Outcomes across Matched Institutions

    Morgan, John Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Programmatic-level comparisons are made between the certified public accountant (CPA) exam outcomes of two types of accounting programs: online or distance accounting programs and face-to-face or classroom accounting programs. After matching programs from each group on student selectivity at admission, the two types of programs are compared on CPA…

  19. 42 CFR 410.146 - Diabetes outcome measurements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diabetes outcome measurements. 410.146 Section 410.146 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.146 Diabetes outcome measurements. (a)...

  20. Moving Beyond "Good/Bad" Student Accountability Measures: Multiple Perspectives of Accountability.

    Capper, Colleen A.; Hafner, Madeline M.; Keyes, Maureen W.

    2001-01-01

    Examines three student accountability measures (standardized tests, performance-based assessment, and structural assessment) through two different theoretical perspectives: structural functionalism and feminist poststructuralism. Educators can use various kinds of assessments in ways that maintain the status quo or support equity and justice for…

  1. A new approach for measuring human resource accounting

    Esmat Bavali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Significance of identifying human resource competency in organizations and the necessity for valuating human resource in accounting persuade many researchers to design a conceptual model for measuring human resource accounting. This study, first, examines dimensions of various valuation models of human resource and then they are compared with Goleman individual and social competency indicators. Next, individual, organizational and social competency indicators are designed through developing Goleman model. Finally, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and experts’ ideas in human resource accounting in superior universities of the world are used to classify the indicators; and the conceptual model of measuring human resource accounting is designed based on guidelines of management and human capital development vice-presidency and inspiring effort rate of return method.

  2. Standardized Outcome Measurement for Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: Consensus From the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM)

    McNamara, Robert L.; Spatz, Erica S.; Kelley, Thomas A; Stowell, Caleb J; Beltrame, John; Heidenreich, Paul; Tresserras, Ricard; Jernberg, Tomas; Chua, Terrance; Morgan, Louise; Panigrahi, Bishnu; Rosas Ruiz, Alba; Rumsfeld, John S.; Sadwin, Lawrence; Schoeberl, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) outcomes consistently improve when they are routinely measured and provided back to physicians and hospitals. However, few centers around the world systematically track outcomes, and no global standards exist. Furthermore, patient-centered outcomes and longitudinal outcomes are under-represented in current assessments. Methods and Results: The nonprofit International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) convened an international Working ...

  3. Delivering On Accountable Care: Lessons From A Behavioral Health Program To Improve Access And Outcomes.

    Clarke, RM; Jeffrey, J; Grossman, M.; Strouse, T; Gitlin, M.; Skootsky, SA

    2016-01-01

    Patients with behavioral health disorders often have worse health outcomes and have higher health care utilization than patients with medical diseases alone. As such, people with behavioral health conditions are important populations for accountable care organizations (ACOs) seeking to improve the efficiency of their delivery systems. However, ACOs have historically faced numerous barriers in implementing behavioral health population-based programs, including acquiring reimbursement, recruiti...

  4. A new approach for measuring human resource accounting

    Esmat Bavali; Iman Jokar

    2014-01-01

    Significance of identifying human resource competency in organizations and the necessity for valuating human resource in accounting persuade many researchers to design a conceptual model for measuring human resource accounting. This study, first, examines dimensions of various valuation models of human resource and then they are compared with Goleman individual and social competency indicators. Next, individual, organizational and social competency indicators are designed through developing G...

  5. Creative accounting practices and measurement methods: Evidence from Turkey

    Ozkaya, Ata

    2014-01-01

    A fiscal rule imposed when the budget is not transparent yields more creative accounting to circumvent it and less fiscal adjustment, generating hidden deficits/debts in public sector. This study focuses on creative accounting practices of governments and adds to the literature by measuring hidden debts of the Turkish public sector ranging from the period 1989 to 2010. Accordingly, the author shows that the IMF has been misinformed, indeed has been misled by the Turkish authorities regarding ...

  6. Conceptualization and measurement of key account management orientation

    Gounaris, Spiros; Tzempelikos, Nektarios

    2012-01-01

    Even though the importance of Key Account Management (KAM) in building long term buyer-seller relationships is widely recognized in literature this long term perspective of KAM lacks appropriate empirical examination. The purpose of this study is to propose a conceptualization of Key Account Management Orientation (KAMO) as well as to derive an empirical based measure of it. In doing so, we first establish the construct through qualitative research and then using quantitative data from 304 pe...

  7. Preliminary concepts for materials measurement and accounting in critical facilities

    Preliminary concepts are presented for improved materials measurement and accounting in large critical facilities. These concepts will be developed as part of a study that will emphasize international safeguarding of critical facilities. The major safeguards problem is the timely verification of in-reactor inventory during periods of reactor operation. This will require a combination of measurement, statistical sampling, and data analysis techniques. Promising techniques include integral measurements of reactivity and other reactor parameters that are sensitive to the total fissile inventory, and nondestructive assay measurements of the fissile material in reactor fuel drawers and vault storage canisters coupled with statistical sampling plans tailored for the specific application. The effectiveness of proposed measurement and accounting strategies will be evaluated during the study

  8. Measuring the Transition; A User's Viewon National Accounts in Russia

    Vincent Koen

    1994-01-01

    As Russia’s transition unfolds, the traditional national accounts concepts and reporting mechanisms become increasingly inadequate. As a result, the margin of error associated with basic price and quantity estimates widens substantially. A selection of key measurement and interpretation issues is discussed here, in operational rather than in methodological terms.

  9. Financial accounting effects of tax aggressiveness : Contracting and measurement

    De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Sansing, R.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines a setting in which a tax-reporting decision is delegated to a firm's tax manager. Using financial accounting measures of tax expense to evaluate the tax manager allows the firm to efficiently attain the level of tax avoidance it prefers, despite the fact that the consequences of

  10. Measuring Learning Outcomes. Evolution of Cognitive Skills among Graduate Students in Auditing

    Holm, Claus; Steenholdt, Niels

    -the-job training environment is pivotal for recruiting and design of supervision, and in the end for the expected "succesrate" in retaining (valuable) employees. Prior research suggests that scripts or schemas provide a useful manner to organize "data in memory" for accounting contexts. I.e., when faced with the......The ability to provide sensible measures for learning outcomes in accounting education is under increased scrutiny. Students taking accounting classes are often also provided with on-the-job training in accounting firms. Hence knowledge about learning outcomes for different groups of students is...... essential information for educators as well as the accounting profession. Sensible measures is needed by educators in order to (1) chose teaching methods matching prerequisite skills among a heterogenous student body, (2) assess the need for de-learning existing knowledge (i.e., cleaning the slate), and (3...

  11. Volume measurement study for large scale input accountancy tank

    Large Scale Tank Calibration (LASTAC) facility, including an experimental tank which has the same volume and structure as the input accountancy tank of Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) was constructed in Nuclear Material Control Center of Japan. Demonstration experiments have been carried out to evaluate a precision of solution volume measurement and to establish the procedure of highly accurate pressure measurement for a large scale tank with dip-tube bubbler probe system to be applied to the input accountancy tank of RRP. Solution volume in a tank is determined from substitution the solution level for the calibration function obtained in advance, which express a relation between the solution level and its volume in the tank. Therefore, precise solution volume measurement needs a precise calibration function that is determined carefully. The LASTAC calibration experiments using pure water showed good result in reproducibility. (J.P.N.)

  12. The Impact of Merit Pay on Research Outcomes for Accounting Professors

    Campbell, Annhenrie; Lindsay, David H.; Garner, Don E.; Tan, Kim B.

    2010-01-01

    Merit pay for professors to encourage better teaching, research and service is controversial. Its effectiveness can be examined empirically. In this study, the existence of a merit plan and ACT scores of incoming freshmen were strongly associated with measurable research outcomes. Additional study is needed to test the association with the other…

  13. Contracts, Performance Measurement and Accountability in the Public Sector

    Drewry, Gavin; Greve, Carsten; Tanquerel, Thierry

    This book addresses issues to do with public accountability, audit and performance measurement that are both highly topical and of crucial importance to the theory and practice of public administration in an era of contractualized public management. The literature on public sector contracting...... - covering both 'hard' agreements (ones that are legally enforceable) and 'soft' agreements (enforced by negotiation and mutual trust) - has been growing for some time and the present book adds a primarily European perspective on contracting, performance-based management and accountability. One important...... aspect of this study is its recognition that those responsible for monitoring public services, and holding them to account, have had - to an increasing extent - to reconcile tensions between, on the one hand, the need for strong oversight and, on the other, the encouragement of innovation and risk in an...

  14. Making the Best Match: Selecting Outcome Measures for Clinical Trials and Outcome Studies

    Coster, Wendy J.

    2013-01-01

    Selecting an appropriate outcome measure is a critical step in designing valid and useful clinical trials and outcome studies. This selection process needs to extend beyond examining basic psychometric properties to consider additional features of instruments that may affect their validity and utility for the study’s purpose. This article discusses these additional factors and their potential impact on outcome measurement. Guidelines are proposed to help clinical researchers and consumers of ...

  15. Impact/outcome measures for libraries

    Roswitha Poll

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Libraries today document their performance for the most part only in data of input and output (e.g. size of the collection, number of issues, of reference answers etc.. If they do more, they evaluate the quality and user-orientation of their services by applying performance indicators or user satisfaction surveys. Data of high use or high user satisfaction seem to indicate that users benefit from the library's services. But in demonstrating the library's value to the financing authorities or the public it would be much more effective if libraries could show a direct impact/outcome of their services on their users. Such outcome might be either a monetary value attributed to one case of use, or the impact on the users' skills and knowledge, their information literacy. Quite a number of projects in different countries have tested methods to catch this 'outcome'. They have tried to assess the value assigned by the population to certain library services, to find a connection between success in studies or research and library use, to assess the library's impact on students' information literacy, to explore the information behaviour of groups in order to specify the library's role in information research and information delivery. The paper describes the different starting points for assessing outcome of library services.

  16. Patient-reported outcome measures after total knee arthroplasty

    Ramkumar, P. N.; Harris, J D; Noble, P. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A lack of connection between surgeons and patients in evaluating the outcome of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has led to the search for the ideal patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) to evaluate these procedures. We hypothesised that the desired psychometric properties of the ideal outcome tool have not been uniformly addressed in studies describing TKA PROMS. Methods A systematic review was conducted investigating one or more facets of patient-reported scores for measuring prim...

  17. Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) initiative: protocol for an international Delphi study to achieve consensus on how to select outcome measurement instruments for outcomes included in a ‘core outcome set’

    Prinsen, Cecilia A C; Vohra, Sunita; Rose, Michael R.; King-Jones, Susanne; Ishaque, Sana; Bhaloo, Zafira; Adams, Denise; Terwee, Caroline B

    2014-01-01

    Background The Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) initiative aims to facilitate the development and application of ‘core outcome sets’ (COS). A COS is an agreed minimum set of outcomes that should be measured and reported in all clinical trials of a specific disease or trial population. The overall aim of the Core Outcome Measurement Instrument Selection (COMIS) project is to develop a guideline on how to select outcome measurement instruments for outcomes included in a COS...

  18. Sensitivity of Outcome Measures for Treatments of Generalized Social Phobia.

    Taylor, Steven; Woody, Sheila; McLean, Peter D.; Koch, William J.

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity of five measures of outcomes of treatment for generalized social phobia was studied with 60 people diagnosed with generalized social phobia. Outcome measures were completed before and after treatment and three months later, and effect sizes were computed. Results support the usefulness of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (S.…

  19. Patient-reported outcome measures for asthma : a systematic review

    Worth, Allison; Hammersley, Victoria; Knibb, Rebecca; Flokstra-de-Blok, Bertine; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Walker, Samantha; Dubois, Anthony E J; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are measures of the outcome of treatment(s) reported directly by the patient or carer. There is increasing international policy interest in using these to assess the impact of clinical care. AIMS: To identify suitably validated PROMs for asthma a

  20. Learning Outcomes across Disciplines and Professions: Measurement and Interpretation

    Caspersen, Joakim; Frølich, Nicoline; Karlsen, Hilde; Aamodt, Per Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Learning outcomes of higher education are a quality tool in a changing higher education landscape but cannot be seen as neutral measures across professions and disciplines. Survey results from graduates and recent graduates indicate that prevailing measures of learning outcomes yield the same result within and across disciplinary and professional…

  1. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) - a water accounting procedure for complex river basins based on satellite measurements

    Karimi, P.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Molden, D.

    2012-11-01

    Coping with the issue of water scarcity and growing competition for water among different sectors requires proper water management strategies and decision processes. A pre-requisite is a clear understanding of the basin hydrological processes, manageable and unmanageable water flows, the interaction with land use and opportunities to mitigate the negative effects and increase the benefits of water depletion on society. Currently, water professionals do not have a common framework that links hydrological flows to user groups of water and their benefits. The absence of a standard hydrological and water management summary is causing confusion and wrong decisions. The non-availability of water flow data is one of the underpinning reasons for not having operational water accounting systems for river basins in place. In this paper we introduce Water Accounting Plus (WA+), which is a new framework designed to provide explicit spatial information on water depletion and net withdrawal processes in complex river basins. The influence of land use on the water cycle is described explicitly by defining land use groups with common characteristics. Analogous to financial accounting, WA+ presents four sheets including (i) a resource base sheet, (ii) a consumption sheet, (iii) a productivity sheet, and (iv) a withdrawal sheet. Every sheet encompasses a set of indicators that summarize the overall water resources situation. The impact of external (e.g. climate change) and internal influences (e.g. infrastructure building) can be estimated by studying the changes in these WA+ indicators. Satellite measurements can be used for 3 out of the 4 sheets, but is not a precondition for implementing WA+ framework. Data from hydrological models and water allocation models can also be used as inputs to WA+.

  2. International Accounting Convergence in the Field of Fair Value Measurement

    Diana Cozma Ighian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The investors’ desire for high-quality, internationally comparable financial information that is useful for decision-making in increasingly global capital markets imposed an international convergence, the ultimate goal of which is a single set of international accounting standards that companies worldwide would use for both domestic and cross-border financial reporting. The guidance, set out in IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement and the update to Topic 820 (formerly referred to as SFAS 157, completes a major project of the boards’ joint work to improve IFRSs and US GAAP and to bring about their convergence. This article describes the controversial history of fair value measurement and the main novelties in the field of fair value measurement, arising from the international convergence process.

  3. Learning edge momentum: a new account of outcomes in CS1

    Robins, Anthony

    2010-03-01

    Compared to other subjects, the typical introductory programming (CS1) course has higher than usual rates of both failing and high grades, creating a characteristic bimodal grade distribution. In this article, I explore two possible explanations. The conventional explanation has been that learners naturally fall into populations of programmers and non-programmers. A review of decades of research, however, finds little or no evidence to support this account. I propose an alternative explanation, the learning edge momentum (LEM) effect. This hypothesis is introduced by way of a simulated model of grade distributions, and then grounded in the psychological and educational literature. LEM operates such that success in acquiring one concept makes learning other closely linked concepts easier (whereas failure makes it harder). This interaction between the way that people learn and the tightly integrated nature of the concepts comprising a programming language creates an inherent structural bias in CS1, which drives students towards extreme outcomes.

  4. PERFORMANCE METRICS: AN OVERVIEW OF ECOLOGICAL "OUTCOME" MEASUREMENT AT EPA

    The terms "Accountability" and "Outcome" are becoming ubiquitous in government agencies. The impetus for demonstrating results from government-sponsored research and regulation comes from Congress (e.g., statutes like the Government Performance Results Act of 1993 and reports fro...

  5. Measuring Learning Outcomes in Higher Education: Motivation Matters

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Bridgeman, Brent; Adler, Rachel M.

    2012-01-01

    With the pressing need for accountability in higher education, standardized outcomes assessments have been widely used to evaluate learning and inform policy. However, the critical question on how scores are influenced by students' motivation has been insufficiently addressed. Using random assignment, we administered a multiple-choice test and an…

  6. Knee instruments and rating scales designed to measure outcomes

    Rodríguez Merchán, E. Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the knee instruments and rating scales that are designed to measure outcomes are revised. Although the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form can be used as a general knee measure, no instrument is currently universally applicable across the spectrum of knee disorders and patient groups. Clinicians and researchers looking to use a patient-based score for measurement of outcomes must consider the specific patient population in which it has been evaluat...

  7. Using Learning Outcome Measures to assess Doctoral Nursing Education

    Raup, Glenn H.; King, Jeff; Hughes, Romana J.; Faidley, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    Education programs at all levels must be able to demonstrate successful program outcomes. Grades alone do not represent a comprehensive measurement methodology for assessing student learning outcomes at either the course or program level. The development and application of assessment rubrics provides an unequivocal measurement methodology to ensure a quality learning experience by providing a foundation for improvement based on qualitative and quantitatively measurable, aggregate course and p...

  8. Technology development for nuclear material measurement and accountability

    Hong, Jong Sook; Lee, Byung Doo; Cha, Hong Ryul; Lee, Yong Duk; Choi, Hyung Nae; Nah, Won Woo; Park, Hoh Joon; Lee, Yung Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    The measurement techniques for Pu samples and spent fuel assembly were developed in support of the implementation of national inspection responsibility under the Atomic Energy Act promulgated in 1994 and a computer program was also developed to assess the total nuclear material balance by facility declared records. The results of plutonium isotopic determination by gamma-ray spectrometry with high resolution germanium detector with peak analysis codes (FRAM and MGA codes) were approached to within 1% {approx} 2% of error from chemical analysis values by mass spectrometry. A gamma-ray measurement system for underwater spent nuclear fuels was developed and tested successfully. The falsification of facility and state records can be traced with the help of the developed computer code against declared reports submitted by the concerned state. This activity eventually resulted in finding the discrepancy of accountability records. 18 figs, 20 tabs, 27 refs. (Author).

  9. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) - a water accounting procedure for complex river basins based on satellite measurements

    Karimi, P.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Molden, D.

    2013-07-01

    Coping with water scarcity and growing competition for water among different sectors requires proper water management strategies and decision processes. A pre-requisite is a clear understanding of the basin hydrological processes, manageable and unmanageable water flows, the interaction with land use and opportunities to mitigate the negative effects and increase the benefits of water depletion on society. Currently, water professionals do not have a common framework that links depletion to user groups of water and their benefits. The absence of a standard hydrological and water management summary is causing confusion and wrong decisions. The non-availability of water flow data is one of the underpinning reasons for not having operational water accounting systems for river basins in place. In this paper, we introduce Water Accounting Plus (WA+), which is a new framework designed to provide explicit spatial information on water depletion and net withdrawal processes in complex river basins. The influence of land use and landscape evapotranspiration on the water cycle is described explicitly by defining land use groups with common characteristics. WA+ presents four sheets including (i) a resource base sheet, (ii) an evapotranspiration sheet, (iii) a productivity sheet, and (iv) a withdrawal sheet. Every sheet encompasses a set of indicators that summarise the overall water resources situation. The impact of external (e.g., climate change) and internal influences (e.g., infrastructure building) can be estimated by studying the changes in these WA+ indicators. Satellite measurements can be used to acquire a vast amount of required data but is not a precondition for implementing WA+ framework. Data from hydrological models and water allocation models can also be used as inputs to WA+.

  10. Measuring Outcomes for Children Late Placed for Adoption.

    Rushton, Alan

    1998-01-01

    Describes the selection of outcome measures used by the Maudsley Family Research team to assess outcomes--across a broad range of developmental dimensions--of permanent placement for children and adolescents. Developed a package of instruments to examine child emotional, cognitive, social, and academic development; attachment; and self-esteem, for…

  11. The Development of NOAA Education Common Outcome Performance Measures (Invited)

    Baek, J.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Education Council has embarked on an ambitious Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) project that will allow it to assess education program outcomes and impacts across the agency, line offices, and programs. The purpose of this internal effort is to link outcome measures to program efforts and to evaluate the success of the agency's education programs in meeting the strategic goals. Using an outcome-based evaluation approach, the NOAA Education Council is developing two sets of common outcome performance measures, environmental stewardship and professional development. This presentation will examine the benefits and tradeoffs of common outcome performance measures that collect program results across a portfolio of education programs focused on common outcomes. Common outcome performance measures have a few benefits to our agency and to the climate education field at large. The primary benefit is shared understanding, which comes from our process for writing common outcome performance measures. Without a shared and agreed upon set of definitions for the measure of an outcome, the reported results may not be measuring the same things and would incorrectly indicate levels of performance. Therefore, our writing process relies on a commitment to developing a shared set of definitions based on consensus. We hope that by taking the time to debate and coming to agreement across a diverse set of programs, the strength of our common measures can indicate real progress towards outcomes we care about. An additional benefit is that these common measures can be adopted and adapted by other agencies and organizations that share similar theories of change. The measures are not without their drawbacks, and we do make tradeoffs as part of our process in order to continue making progress. We know that any measure is necessarily a narrow slice of performance. A slice that may not best represent the unique and remarkable contribution

  12. The International Dermatology Outcome Measures initiative as applied to psoriatic disease outcomes

    Gottlieb, Alice B; Armstrong, April W; Christensen, Robin;

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, access to care is the number one issue facing our patients with dermatological conditions. In part, this is because we do not have outcome measures that are useful in clinical practice and available in databases where payers and governmental agencies can compare the performa......, payers, and pharmaceutical scientists. As reported herein, the group's goal is to develop outcome measures in dermatology that address the needs of all involved....

  13. Outcome measures in neuromuscular disease: is the world still flat?

    Lunn, Michael P; Van den Bergh, Peter Y K

    2015-09-01

    Valid, responsive, and meaningful outcome measures for the measurement of the impairment, activity limitations, and quality of life in patients with neuromuscular disease are crucial to identify the natural history of disease and benefits of therapy in clinical practice and trials. Although understanding of many aspects of neuromuscular diseases has advanced dramatically, the development of outcome measures has received less attention. The scales developed from Rasch theory by the PeriNomS Group represent the biggest significant shift in thought in neuromuscular outcome measures for decades. There remain problems with many of them, and further developments are required. However, incorporating them into our outcome sets for daily use and in clinical trials will lead to the more efficient capture of meaningful change and will result in better assessment of individuals and groups of patients in both clinical trials and neurological practice. PMID:26114965

  14. Observer bias in randomized clinical trials with measurement scale outcomes

    Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Emanuelsson, Frida;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical trials are commonly done without blinded outcome assessors despite the risk of bias. We wanted to evaluate the effect of nonblinded outcome assessment on estimated effects in randomized clinical trials with outcomes that involved subjective measurement scales. METHODS: We...... conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials with both blinded and nonblinded assessment of the same measurement scale outcome. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, HighWire Press and Google Scholar for relevant studies. Two...... investigators agreed on the inclusion of trials and the outcome scale. For each trial, we calculated the difference in effect size (i.e., standardized mean difference between nonblinded and blinded assessments). A difference in effect size of less than 0 suggested that nonblinded assessors generated more...

  15. Importance of outcomes Measurement of CSR programmes - Case Nokia

    Talvitie-Sirén, Reeta

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Objectives of the Thesis The objective of the thesis was to find out how companies measure the societal and business outcomes of their CSR activities as well as to find out the reasons why outcomes measurement is considered important. The focus was on the societal aspect of CSR, and all programmes studied were community related CSR programmes. The programmes studied were categorised according to a framework of CSR action types modified from Halme and Laurila (2009). A fourth cate...

  16. Patient-reported outcome measures for asthma: a systematic review

    Worth, Allison; Hammersley, Victoria; Knibb, Rebecca; Flokstra-de-Blok, Bertine; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Walker, Samantha; Dubois, Anthony E J; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are measures of the outcome of treatment(s) reported directly by the patient or carer. There is increasing international policy interest in using these to assess the impact of clinical care. Aims: To identify suitably validated PROMs for asthma and examine their potential for use in clinical settings. Methods: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science databases from 1990 onwards to identify PROMs for asthma. These were ...

  17. Measuring outcomes in craniofacial and pediatric plastic surgery.

    Wong, Karen W Y; Forrest, Christopher R; Goodacre, Tim E E; Klassen, Anne F

    2013-04-01

    This article discusses the measurement of outcomes in craniofacial and pediatric plastic surgery, using examples of craniosynostosis and cleft lip and/or palate (CLP). The challenges in measuring the standard outcomes of function, aesthetics, and health-related quality of life are discussed, along with the importance of developing evidence and studying quality improvement in this specialty. The need to define specific and comprehensive goals is discussed with a focus on patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Examples from the development of the CLEFT-Q, a PRO instrument for patients with CLP, are provided to support the need to seek the patient perspective. PMID:23506771

  18. Seeing Like a Stakeholder: Measures of International NGO Accountability

    Williams, Shannon Adair

    2012-01-01

    International development nongovernmental organizations (INGOs) are a particularly good example of how transnational accountability commitments present challenges to producing credible accounts to diverse and at times competing stakeholder groups. This dissertation examines accountability at the intersections of power and knowledge production. I argue that the concept is necessarily a political and epistemic practice regulating human action through demands for its representation. Three assump...

  19. Theoretical conditions for validity in accounting performance measurement

    Nørreklit, Hanne; Nørreklit, Lennart; Mitchell, Falconer

    2007-01-01

    The concept of truth is a foundation upon which the accounting profession has built its reputation. The need for truth in accounting is enshrined in ethical codes, accounting regulations, authoritative texts and, of course, the auditor's assignation of a "true and fair view"....

  20. Accounting for the measures taken to manage company’s activity risks

    Вигівська, Ірина Миколаївна

    2015-01-01

    Measures taken to manage company’s business activity risks and their influence on accounting system have been considered in the article. Peculiarities of accounting reflection and tax accounting for the transactions on insuring entrepreneurial risks have been determined.

  1. Observer bias in randomized clinical trials with measurement scale outcomes

    Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Emanuelsson, Frida;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical trials are commonly done without blinded outcome assessors despite the risk of bias. We wanted to evaluate the effect of nonblinded outcome assessment on estimated effects in randomized clinical trials with outcomes that involved subjective measurement scales. METHODS: We...... conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials with both blinded and nonblinded assessment of the same measurement scale outcome. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, HighWire Press and Google Scholar for relevant studies. Two...... optimistic estimates of effect. We pooled the differences in effect size using inverse variance random-effects meta-analysis and used metaregression to identify potential reasons for variation. RESULTS: We included 24 trials in our review. The main meta-analysis included 16 trials (involving 2854 patients...

  2. Accountability Measures: A Comparison by Type and State.

    Mize, Rita M.

    This paper provides a survey of accountability-related activities in states outside of California, summarizes the variables used, provides information on the advantages and disadvantages of various accountability systems, and suggests some policy recommendations that have been made in other states implementing performance-based funding. This…

  3. Implications of the crisis of objectivity in accounting measurement on the development of finance theory

    Saratiel Wedzerai Musvoto

    2011-01-01

    Studies in accounting measurement indicate the absence of empirical relational structures that should form the basis for accounting measurement. This suggests the lack of objectivity of accounting information. Landmarks in the development of finance theory indicate the use of accounting measurement information as a basis for their development. This indicates that subjective accounting information is incorporated in finance theory. Consequently, this questions the status of finance as a univer...

  4. Entanglement-assisted guessing of complementary measurement outcomes

    Berta, M; Coles, P.J.; Wehner, S.D.C.

    2014-01-01

    Heisenberg's uncertainty principle implies that if one party (Alice) prepares a system and randomly measures one of two incompatible observables, then another party (Bob) cannot perfectly predict the measurement outcomes. This implication assumes that Bob does not possess an additional system that is entangled to the measured one; indeed, the seminal paper of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) showed that maximal entanglement allows Bob to perfectly win this guessing game. Although not in co...

  5. Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)--development of a self-administered outcome measure

    1998-01-01

    recreation function, and knee-related quality of life. In this clinical study, the KOOS proved reliable, responsive to surgery and physical therapy, and valid for patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The KOOS meets basic criteria of outcome measures and can be used to evaluate the...

  6. Disability outcome measures in multiple sclerosis clinical trials

    Cohen, Jeffrey A; Reingold, Stephen C; Polman, Chris H;

    2012-01-01

    Many of the available disability outcome measures used in clinical trials of multiple sclerosis are insensitive to change over time, inadequately validated, or insensitive to patient-perceived health status or quality of life. Increasing focus on therapies that slow or reverse disability...... progression makes it essential to refine existing measures or to develop new tools. Major changes to the expanded disability status scale should be avoided to prevent the loss of acceptance by regulators as a measure for primary outcomes in trials that provide substantial evidence of effectiveness. Rather, we......, and measurement of biomarkers, show promise as adjuncts to the current disability measures, but are insufficiently validated to serve as substitutes. A collaborative approach that involves academic experts, regulators, industry representitives, and funding agencies is needed to most effectively develop disability...

  7. Measuring patient knowledge of asthma: a systematic review of outcome measures.

    Pink, J.; Pink, K.; Elwyn, G.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma self-management education is a key component of international guidelines. No gold standard patient centred outcome measure exists for asthma knowledge. Our aim was to identify high-quality, validated, and reliable outcome measures suitable for use in either the research or clinica

  8. Outcome instruments to measure frailty: a systematic review

    Vries, N.M. de; Staal, J.B.; Ravensberg, C.D. van; Hobbelen, J.S.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Frailty is one of the greatest challenges for healthcare professionals. The level of frailty depends on several interrelated factors and can change over time while different interventions seem to be able to influence the level of frailty. Therefore, an outcome instrument to measure frailty with soun

  9. Conceptualizing Outcome and Impact Measures for Intelligence Services

    Gainor, Rhiannon; Bouthillier, France

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this qualitative, exploratory study is to clarify ambiguous concepts in intelligence services literature specifically related to measurement of intelligence outcomes and impact. Method: Face to face interviews were held with five subject experts from various intelligence fields and countries regarding their…

  10. Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation – Outcome Measure

    Trujillo, Adriana; Feixas, Guillem; Bados, Arturo; García-Grau, Eugeni; Salla, Marta; Medina, Joan Carles; Montesano, Adrián; Soriano, José; Medeiros-Ferreira, Leticia; Cañete, Josep; Corbella, Sergi; Grau, Antoni; Lana, Fernando; Evans, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this paper is to assess the reliability and validity of the Spanish translation of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation – Outcome Measure, a 34-item self-report questionnaire that measures the client’s status in the domains of Subjective well-being, Problems/Symptoms, Life functioning, and Risk. Method Six hundred and forty-four adult participants were included in two samples: the clinical sample (n=192) from different mental health and primary care centers; and the nonclinical sample (n=452), which included a student and a community sample. Results The questionnaire showed good acceptability and internal consistency, appropriate test–retest reliability, and acceptable convergent validity. Strong differentiation between clinical and nonclinical samples was found. As expected, the Risk domain had different characteristics than other domains, but all findings were comparable with the UK referential data. Cutoff scores were calculated for clinical significant change assessment. Conclusion The Spanish version of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation – Outcome Measure showed acceptable psychometric properties, providing support for using the questionnaire for monitoring the progress of Spanish-speaking psychotherapy clients.

  11. IBADAN KNEE/HIP OSTEOARTHRITIS OUTCOME MEASURE: PROCESS OF DEVELOPMENT

    A.C. Odole; Odunaiya, N A; Akinpelu, A.O

    2013-01-01

    The development of instruments for the assessment of therapeutic intervention has been an age long practice. However, many of the published instruments do not have detailed information on how the instruments were developed. It is necessary for authors to provide detailed (step by step) information on how measuring scales/instruments are developed. The Ibadan Knee/Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Measure (IKHOAM) was developed as a Nigerian-environment and culture-friendly instrument for the assessm...

  12. OMERACT: An international initiative to improve outcome measurement in rheumatology

    Simon Lee; Brooks Peter; Boers Maarten; Tugwell Peter; Strand Vibeke; Idzerda Leanne

    2007-01-01

    Abstract OMERACT is the acronym for an international, informally organized network initiated in 1992 aimed at improving outcome measurement in rheumatology. Chaired by an executive committee, it organizes consensus conferences in a 2-yearly cycle that circles the globe. Data driven recommendations are prepared and updated by expert working groups. Recommendations include core sets of measures for most of the major rheumatologic conditions. Since 2002 patients have been actively engaged in the...

  13. Partnership Versus Public Ownership of Accounting Firms: Exploring RelativePerformance, Performance Measurement and Measurement Issues

    Mark E Pickering

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite theoretical arguments that partnerships are the most efficient ownership form for professional service firms (PSFs, PSFs are increasingly moving to other ownership structures, such as publicly listed companies (PLCs. Research on the comparative performance of PSF, PLCs and partnerships is sparse with conflicting results suggesting that some segments of PSFs are moving to a less efficient form. This study explores the performance of two Australian accounting PLCs compared to a sample of similar sized mid tier accounting firms. The accounting PLCs achieved substantially higher revenue growth rates but lower productivity than the partnership sample. Measurement issues were identified in the use of closing resource numbers and different treatment of reporting merger and acquisition revenues which may partially explain the underperformance of publicly owned PSFs in prior studies. The need for research at a more detailed level exploring the market and service focus, organisational structures, resources utilised and resource costs across different PSF ownership forms is suggested.

  14. Treatment Outcome Package: Measuring and facilitating multidimensional change.

    Boswell, James F; Kraus, David R; Castonguay, Louis G; Youn, Soo Jeong

    2015-12-01

    The Treatment Outcome Package (TOP; D. R. Kraus, Seligman, & Jordan, 2005) is a multidimensional routine progress and outcome measure developed for use in diverse naturalistic practice settings. In this article, we (a) provide a brief review and summary of the extant psychometric and research support for the TOP, (b) provide examples of the TOP's use in clinical training and practice, and (c) discuss the implications of the TOP for future psychotherapy training, research, and practice. In particular, we focus on the implications of risk-adjusted progress monitoring for systems of care and mental health care decision making. PMID:26641372

  15. Measurement of Outcomes of Upper Limb Reconstructive Surgery for Tetraplegia.

    Sinnott, K Anne; Dunn, Jennifer A; Wangdell, Johanna; Johanson, M Elise; Hall, Andrew S; Post, Marcel W

    2016-06-01

    Reconstructive arm/hand surgery for tetraplegia is performed to improve arm/hand function and therefore personal well-being for individuals who accept such elective surgeries. However, changes at an impairment level do not always translate into functional or quality of life changes. Therefore, multiple outcome tools should be used that incorporate sufficient responsiveness to detect changes in arm/hand function, activity and participation, and quality of life of the individuals involved. This narrative review aims to assist clinicians to choose the most appropriate tools to assess the need for reconstructive surgery and to evaluate its outcomes. Our specific objectives are (1) to describe aspects to consider when choosing a measure and (2) to describe the measures advised by an international therapist consensus group established in 2007. All advised measures are appraised in terms of the underlying construct, administration, and clinical relevance to arm/hand reconstructions. Essentially there are currently no criterion standard measures to evaluate the consequences of reconstructive arm/hand surgery. However, with judicious use of available measures it is possible to ensure the questions asked or tasks completed are relevant to the surgical reconstruction(s) undertaken. Further work in this field is required. This would be best met by immediate collaboration between 2 outcome's tool developers and by analysis of pre- and postoperative data already held in various international sites, which would allow further evaluation of the measures already in use, or components thereof. PMID:27233592

  16. Analysis of repeated outcome measures from longitudinal studies

    Yuanjia WANG; Naihua DUAN

    2011-01-01

    @@ In many clinical studies repeated measurements of an outcome are collected over time.For example,in an 8-week study of treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder,the severity of the disorder may be measured weekly using the Yale-Brown-Obsessive-Compulsive-Disorder-Scale (YBOCS).For each study participant who completes the study,there will be nine repeated measures of YBOCS (a baseline assessment plus eight assessments during the course of treatment).Such a study in which participants are followed and measured repeatedly over time is called a longitudinal study and the resulting data are called longitudinal data.

  17. Prevention Validation and Accounting Platform: A Framework for Establishing Accountability and Performance Measures of Substance Abuse Prevention Programs.

    Kim, Sehwan; McLeod, Jonnie H.; Williams, Charles; Hepler, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    Faced with the absence of a conceptual framework and the terminology for establishing evaluation criteria in the substance abuse prevention services field, this special issue is devoted to exploring the topics of accountability and performance measures. It discusses the requisite components (i.e., theory, methodology, convention on terms, data)…

  18. Guest Editorial: Implementing outcome measures- The military physical therapists perspective

    COL (Ret Paul D. Stoneman, PhD, MPT, DPT, OCS, SCS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Outcome measures are a necessary part of rehabilitation. Various methods and measures have been used to assess patient progress and as criteria for discharge from inpatient care, routine outpatient care, and long-term rehabilitation in a variety of patient populations for many years. In the sports medicine setting, outcome measures become especially important in determining when injured athletes are able to return to the playing field. In a military setting, similar to sports medicine, the use of outcome measures is necessary to help determine when the patient is able to return to duty or deploy. In the case of servicemembers with traumatic limb loss, the ultimate goal for many is to return to Active Duty as a "tactical athlete" and member of today's Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard. Determining the functional level and ability to meet the demands they may face is a challenge for the military healthcare system (MHCS and more specifically for the providers rehabilitating servicemembers with major limb loss.

  19. Measuring the Value of Research: A Generational Accounting Approach

    Robert Hofmeister

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a generational accounting approach to valuating research. Based on the flow of scientific results, a value-added (VA) index is developed that can, in principle, be used to assign a monetary value to any research result and, by aggregation, on entire academic disciplines or sub-disciplines. The VA-index distributes the value of all applications that embody research to the works of research which the applications directly rely on, and further to the works of research of prev...

  20. The Influence of School Ability Measures on Accounting Competencies: A Path Analysis

    Cimafranca, Jan Linster; Capuyan, Beverly; Cabilla, Fabien; Cansancio, Angelique; Villaflor-Balacy, Garnette Mae

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the level of school ability measures and accounting competencies of fourth year BS in Accounting Technology students of UM Digos College. It also investigates which of the two school ability measures such as verbal and non-verbal significantly influence to accounting competencies. Quantitative correlational research was used, and primary data were gathered through the use of Accounting Competency Test questionnaire distributed to 32 fourth year BSAT students for the...

  1. Measures in forensic psychiatry : Risk monitoring and structured outcome assessment

    Sturidsson, Knut

    2007-01-01

    Background: Violent offenders suffering from a major mental disorder (MMD) are sometimes publicly portrayed as particularly dangerous. In reality however, only a small fraction of those inflicted with a MMD do commit any violent offence. The present thesis focuses on means to monitor risk of violence and to some extent measure the content and outcome of forensic psychiatric care. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate forensic psychiatric risk assessments from a b...

  2. Measuring the Outcome of Biomedical Research: A Systematic Literature Review

    Thonon, Frédérique; Boulkedid, Rym; Delory, Tristan; Rousseau, Sophie; Saghatchian, Mahasti; van Harten, Wim; O’Neill, Claire; Alberti, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Background There is an increasing need to evaluate the production and impact of medical research produced by institutions. Many indicators exist, yet we do not have enough information about their relevance. The objective of this systematic review was (1) to identify all the indicators that could be used to measure the output and outcome of medical research carried out in institutions and (2) enlist their methodology, use, positive and negative points. Methodology We have searched 3 databases ...

  3. Health Beliefs and Culture: Essential Considerations for Outcome Measurement

    Kamaldeep Bhui; Sokratis Dinos

    2008-01-01

    Culture is linked to the way emotions, mental distress, social problems, and physical illness are perceived, experienced, and expressed. Beliefs about what constitutes illness and what can be done about it vary considerably across cultures. Defining mental health and measuring mental health outcomes have been the focus of academics and mental health professionals across a number of disciplines from psychiatry and psychology to anthropology and sociology. Mental health diagnostic constructs an...

  4. D-outcome measurement for a nonlocality test

    Son, W.; Lee, Jinhyoung; Kim, M. S.

    2003-01-01

    For the purpose of the nonlocality test, we propose a general correlation observable of two parties by utilizing local $d$-outcome measurements with SU($d$) transformations and classical communications. Generic symmetries of the SU($d$) transformations and correlation observables are found for the test of nonlocality. It is shown that these symmetries dramatically reduce the number of numerical variables, which is important for numerical analysis of nonlocality. A linear combination of the co...

  5. Outcomes 'out of africa': the selection and implementation of outcome measures for palliative care in Africa

    Downing Julia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background End-of-life care research across Africa is under-resourced and under-developed. A central issue in research in end-of-life care is the measurement of effects and outcomes of care on patients and families. Little is known about the experiences of health professionals' selection and implementation of outcome measures (OM in clinical care, research, audit, or teaching in Africa. Methods An online survey was undertaken of those using outcome measures across the region, as part of the PRISMA project. A questionnaire addressing the use of OMs was developed for a similar survey in Europe and adapted for Africa. Participants were sampled through the contacts database of APCA. Invitation emails were sent out in January 2010 and reminders in February 2010. Results 168/301 invited contacts (56% from 24 countries responded, with 78 respondents having previously used OM (65% in clinical practice, 12% in research and 23% for both. Main reasons for not using OM were a lack of guidance/training on using and analysing OM, with 49% saying that they would use the tools if this was provided. 40% of those using OM in clinical practice used POS, and 80% used them to assess, evaluate and monitor change. The POS was also the main tool used in research, with the principle criteria for use being validation in Africa, access to the tool and time needed to complete it. Challenges to the use of tools were shortage of time and resources, lack of guidance and training for the professionals, poor health status of patients and complexity of OM. Researchers also have problems analysing OM data. The APCA African POS was the most common version of the POS used, and was reported as a valuable tool for measuring outcomes. Respondents indicated the ideal outcome tool should be short, multi-dimensional and easy to use. Conclusion This was the first survey on professionals' views on OM in Africa. It showed that the APCA African POS was the most frequently OM used

  6. THE IMPACT OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS (AIS) ON PERFORMANCE MEASURES WITH VALUE RELEVANCE OF AUDITORS’ COMMUNICATIONS

    Emadeldin Mahmoud Ali Eid

    2014-01-01

    The auditor's report the final outcome of the audit process and also is a way of communication linking the auditor with parties benefiting from the audit process, due to the importance of the report came the idea of doing research addresses the role of the auditor's report in narrowing the gap of expectation between auditors and users of accounting information systems and diagnose cons of this report is to shorten the expectation gap between auditors and accounting information systems.

  7. THE IMPACT OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS (AIS) ON PERFORMANCE MEASURES WITH VALUE RELEVANCE OF AUDITORS’ COMMUNICATIONS

    Emadeldin Mahmoud Ali Eid

    2014-01-01

    The auditor's report the final outcome of the audit process and also is a way of communication linking the auditor with parties benefiting from the audit process, due to the importance of the report came the idea of ??doing research addresses the role of the auditor's report in narrowing the gap of expectation between auditors and users of accounting information systems and diagnose cons of this report is to shorten the expectation gap between auditors and accounting information systems.

  8. Volunteers in Circles of Support and Accountability : Job demands, job resources, and outcome

    Höing, M.A.; Vogelvang, B.; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In Circles of Support and Accountability (CoSA), volunteers support a medium- to high-risk sex offender in his process toward desistance by developing a long-term empathic relationship. More knowledge is needed about the impact of this work on volunteers themselves. In a sample of 40 Dutch CoSA volu

  9. Going beyond Career Plateau: Using Professional Plateau To Account for Work Outcomes.

    Lee, Patrick Chang Boon

    2003-01-01

    Survey responses from 170 of 300 engineers working in Singapore revealed that significant variance in career satisfaction, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions was accounted for by professional plateau, the point at which individuals find their jobs unchallenging with few opportunities for professional development. (Contains 33 references.)…

  10. Accounting for Outcomes in Participatory Urban Governance Through State-Civil-Society Synergies

    Antonio Postigo

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, Latin America has been home to a large number of experiences in local participatory governance. Drawing on spatial conceptualisations of participation and models of state-society synergy, this article explores how power dynamics within and between civil society and the state have shaped the emergence, evolution and outcomes of participatory budgeting processes in three Latin American cities: Porto Alegre, Montevideo and Mexico City. In line with polity-centred analy...

  11. RECOVERABLE COST: THE BASIS OF A GENERAL THEORY OF FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING MEASUREMENT

    Salvary, Stanley C. W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses a very profound question concerning financial accounting. Is financial accounting measurement. as represented by diverse valuation rules. hodgepodge or is it logically developed? Salvary [1985. p.28. Chap. IV] advances and provides a theoretical development of the concept of 'recoverable cost' as the measurement property observed in (underlying) financial accounting measurement. Sa/vary [1989, pp.50-51] maintains that 'recoverable cost' is the center of 'economic gravity'...

  12. Pelvic Floor Disorders Registry: Study Design and Outcome Measures.

    Weber LeBrun, Emily; Adam, Rony A; Barber, Matthew D; Boyles, Sarah Hamilton; Iglesia, Cheryl B; Lukacz, Emily S; Moalli, Pamela; Moen, Michael D; Richter, Holly E; Subak, Leslee L; Sung, Vivian W; Visco, Anthony G; Bradley, Catherine S

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic floor disorders affect up to 24% of adult women in the United States, and many patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) choose to undergo surgical repair to improve their quality of life. While a variety of surgical repair approaches and techniques are utilized, including mesh augmentation, there is limited comparative effectiveness and safety outcome data guiding best practice. In conjunction with device manufacturers, federal regulatory organizations, and professional societies, the American Urogynecologic Society developed the Pelvic Floor Disorders Registry (PFDR) designed to improve the quality of POP surgery by facilitating quality improvement and research on POP treatments. The PFDR will serve as a resource for surgeons interested in benchmarking and outcomes data and as a data repository for Food and Drug Administration-mandated POP surgical device studies. Provider-reported clinical data and patient-reported outcomes will be collected prospectively at baseline and for up to 3 years after treatment. All data elements including measures of success, adverse events, and surgeon characteristics were identified and defined within the context of the anticipated multifunctionality of the registry, and with collaboration from multiple stakeholders. The PFDR will provide a platform to collect high-quality, standardized patient-level data from a variety of nonsurgical (pessary) and surgical treatments of POP and other pelvic floor disorders. Data from this registry may be used to evaluate short- and longer-term treatment outcomes, patient-reported outcomes, and complications, as well as to identify factors associated with treatment success and failure with the overall goal of improving the quality of care for women with these conditions. PMID:26825404

  13. The importance of outcome measurement in quality assurance.

    Bauman, M K

    1991-04-01

    Quality assurance in health care has been an evolutionary process, beginning thousands of years ago with expressions of concern about how to care for other human beings properly. Perhaps the most notable of these expressions were those recorded by Hippocrates in his discourses on medical ethics. In more recent times, we easily are able to trace the evolution of quality assurance beliefs from emphases placed first on structure, then on process, then on a combination of structure and process, to now when we see a gradual awakening to the importance of a third element, patient outcomes. Quality, in any endeavor, does not just happen. It is, rather, the result of trial and error, practice, and hard work. In short, it is the result of learning, and hand-in-hand with learning goes communicating. By taking patient outcomes into consideration, we create a feedback system, a communication process conducive to learning in that it effectively opens up the avenues joining the three elements of health care: (1) structure, (2) process, and (3) patient outcome. We live in an era of fast-paced change where time is a precious commodity; we cannot, especially in the health care industry, afford to waste it. In seeking to formulate a systematic approach to quality assurance, focusing on only one of the three components of health care identified to date would be foolish. Effective change is based on effective communication, and from years of experience, it is clear that the best approach to high quality assurance is one that takes all elements into account.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2045443

  14. Nuclear materials control and accountability criteria for upgrades measures

    As a result of major political and societal changes in the past several years, methods of nuclear material control may no longer be as effective as in the past in Russia, the Newly Independent States (NIS), and the Baltic States (BS). The objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Material Protection, Control, and Accounting Program (MPC and A) is to reduce the threat of nuclear proliferation by collaborating with Russia, NIS, and BS governments to promote western-style MPC and A. This cooperation will improve the MPC and A on all weapons useable nuclear materials and will establish a sustainable infrastructure to provide future support and maintenance for these technology-based improvements. Nuclear materials of proliferation concern include materials of the types and quantities that can be most easily and directly used in a nuclear weapon. Sabotage of nuclear material is an event of great concern and potentially disastrous consequences to both the US and the host country. However, sabotage is currently beyond the scope of program direction and cannot be used to justify US-funded MPC and A upgrades. Judicious MPC and A upgrades designed to protect against insider and outsider theft scenarios would also provide addition, although not comprehensive, protection against saboteurs. This paper provides some suggestions to establish consistency in prioritizing system-enhancement efforts at nuclear material facilities. The suggestions in this paper are consistent with DOE policy and directions and should be used as a supplement to any policy directives issued by NN-40, DOE Russia/NIS Task Force

  15. Patient-reported outcome measures in arthroplasty registries.

    Rolfson, Ola; Eresian Chenok, Kate; Bohm, Eric; Lübbeke, Anne; Denissen, Geke; Dunn, Jennifer; Lyman, Stephen; Franklin, Patricia; Dunbar, Michael; Overgaard, Søren; Garellick, Göran; Dawson, Jill

    2016-07-01

    The International Society of Arthroplasty Registries (ISAR) Steering Committee established the Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) Working Group to convene, evaluate, and advise on best practices in the selection, administration, and interpretation of PROMs and to support the adoption and use of PROMs for hip and knee arthroplasty in registries worldwide. The 2 main types of PROMs include generic (general health) PROMs, which provide a measure of general health for any health state, and specific PROMs, which focus on specific symptoms, diseases, organs, body regions, or body functions. The establishment of a PROM instrument requires the fulfillment of methodological standards and rigorous testing to ensure that it is valid, reliable, responsive, and acceptable to the intended population. A survey of the 41 ISAR member registries showed that 8 registries administered a PROMs program that covered all elective hip or knee arthroplasty patients and 6 registries collected PROMs for sample populations; 1 other registry had planned but had not started collection of PROMs. The most common generic instruments used were the EuroQol 5 dimension health outcome survey (EQ-5D) and the Short Form 12 health survey (SF-12) or the similar Veterans RAND 12-item health survey (VR-12). The most common specific PROMs were the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS), the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), the Oxford Hip Score (OHS), the Oxford Knee Score (OKS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), and the University of California at Los Angeles Activity Score (UCLA). PMID:27168175

  16. Performance Measurement of Mutual Funds, Hedge Funds, and Institutional Accounts

    Russ Wermers

    2011-01-01

    This review describes several important recent advances in the measurement of the performance of actively managed portfolios. For returns-based performance evaluation, we discuss several innovations, such as conditional performance evaluation, Bayesian approaches, and a new multiple-testing approach—the false-discovery rate. For portfolio holdings–based performance evaluation, our discussion ranges from extensions of the standard Daniel, Grinblatt, Titman, and Wermers (DGTW) stock return adju...

  17. Patient population management: taking the leap from variance analysis to outcomes measurement.

    Allen, K M

    1998-01-01

    Case managers today at BCHS have a somewhat different role than at the onset of the Collaborative Practice Model. They are seen throughout the organization as: Leaders/participants on cross-functional teams. Systems change agents. Integrating/merging with quality services and utilization management. Outcomes managers. One of the major cross-functional teams is in the process of designing a Care Coordinator role. These individuals will, as one of their functions, assume responsibility for daily patient care management activities. A variance tracking program has come into the Utilization Management (UM) department as part of a software package purchased to automate UM work activities. This variance program could potentially be used by the new care coordinators as the role develops. The case managers are beginning to use a Decision Support software, (Transition Systems Inc.) in the collection of data that is based on a cost accounting system and linked to clinical events. Other clinical outcomes data bases are now being used by the case manager to help with the collection and measurement of outcomes information. Hoshin planning will continue to be a framework for defining and setting the targets for clinical and financial improvements throughout the organization. Case managers will continue to be involved in many of these system-wide initiatives. In the words of Galileo, 1579, "You need to count what's countable, measure what's measurable, and what's not measurable, make measurable." PMID:9601411

  18. Validation of the Focus on the Outcomes of Communication under Six outcome measure

    Thomas-Stonell, Nancy; Oddson, Bruce; Robertson, Bernadette; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to establish the construct validity of the Focus on the Outcomes of Communication Under Six (FOCUS©),a tool designed to measure changes in communication skills in preschool children. Method Participating families' children (n=97; 68 males, 29 females; mean age 2y 8mo; SD 1.04y, range 10mo–4y 11mo) were recruited through eight Canadian organizations. The children were on a waiting list for speech and language intervention. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Que...

  19. Rethinking the going concern assumption as a pre–condition for accounting measurement

    Saratiel Wedzerai Musvoto; Daan G. Gouws

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the principles of the going concern concept against the principles of representational measurement to determine if it is possible to establish foundations of accounting measurement with the going concern concept as a precondition. Representational measurement theory is a theory that establishes measurement in social scientific disciplines such as accounting. The going concern assumption is prescribed as one of the preconditions for measuring the attributes of the elements ...

  20. A Kernel-based Account of Bibliometric Measures

    Ito, Takahiko; Shimbo, Masashi; Kudo, Taku; Matsumoto, Yuji

    The application of kernel methods to citation analysis is explored. We show that a family of kernels on graphs provides a unified perspective on the three bibliometric measures that have been discussed independently: relatedness between documents, global importance of individual documents, and importance of documents relative to one or more (root) documents (relative importance). The framework provided by the kernels establishes relative importance as an intermediate between relatedness and global importance, in which the degree of `relativity,' or the bias between relatedness and importance, is naturally controlled by a parameter characterizing individual kernels in the family.

  1. THE PERFORMANCE OF THE ECONOMIC ENTITY MEASURED THROUGH ACCOUNTING INFORMATION

    Marius Cristian Milos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The users of financial statements need information regarding the resources of an economic entity and also data regarding the way in which the entity’s management is using resources. This information helps users to quantify efficiency and performance within an entity. There are many stakeholders who do show interest in an entity’s financial reports, including existing and potential investors, employees, lenders, suppliers, customers, regulators and other government agencies and not the least the common citizens. The main purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of the performance measurement and to discuss possible reporting methods. Performance is a concept that raises many questions regarding the most accurate way or the best method for quantifying and reporting performance at the company level .So if financial performance indicators are considered to offer an accurate image of the situation of a company, the modern approach which focuses also on non-financial indicators offers new perspectives upon performance measurement, which may be really expressive and also based on simplicity.

  2. No Pipe Dream: Achieving Care That Is Accountable for Cost, Quality, and Outcomes.

    Terrell, Grace E

    2016-01-01

    The April 2015 passage of the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act is accelerating the move of the US health care industry from traditional fee-for-service provider payments to alternative payment methods that are focused on value rather than volume of services. Medicaid, private employers, and consumer groups are also developing similar payment models. Learning from the experience of the 27 early accountable care organizations in North Carolina, such as Cornerstone Health Care, will help to accelerate the transformation that will be necessary across the health care delivery ecosystem in our state. PMID:27422949

  3. Outcome measures in MMN revisited: further improvement needed.

    Pruppers, Mariëlle H J; Draak, Thomas H P; Vanhoutte, Els K; Van der Pol, W-Ludo; Gorson, Kenneth C; Léger, Jean-Marc; Nobile-Orazio, Eduardo; Lewis, Richard A; van den Berg, Leonard H; Faber, Catharina G; Merkies, Ingemar S J

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to provide an overview of the outcome measures (OMs) applied in clinical trials in multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) and to determine the responsiveness of a core set of selected OMs as part of the peripheral neuropathy outcome measures standardization (PeriNomS) study. The following OMs were serially applied in 26 patients with newly diagnosed or relapsing MMN, receiving intravenous immunoglobulin (assessments: T0/T3/T12 months): 14 muscle pairs MRC (Medical Research Council) scale, the Neuropathy Impairment Scale motor-subset, a self-evaluation scale, grip strength, and MMN-RODS© (Rasch-built overall disability scale). All data, except the grip strength, were subjected to Rasch analyses before determining responsiveness. For grip strength, responsiveness was examined using a combined anchor- (SF-36 question-2) and distribution-based (½ × SD) minimum clinically important difference (MCID) techniques, determining the proportion of patients exceeding both the identified cut-offs. For the remaining scales, the magnitude of change for each patient on each scale was determined using the MCID related to the individual SE (responder definition: MCID-SE ≥ 1.96). Overall, a great assortment of measures has been used in MMN trials with different responsiveness definitions. For the selected OMs, responsiveness was poor and only seen in one fourth to one third of the patients, the grip strength being more responsive. Despite the efforts taken to standardize outcome assessment, further clinimetric responsiveness studies are needed in MMN. PMID:26115442

  4. Learning disability and epilepsy. 1, towards common outcome measures.

    Kerr, M P; Espie, C A

    1997-10-01

    A major component of the population of people who have epilepsy are people with a learning disability. As a group, such individuals often have complex epilepsy which is refractory to treatment. Current available measures to assess the outcomes of therapeutic interventions in epilepsy are based on seizure frequency, seizure severity and quality-of-life measures, but have not been validated in people with a learning disability. Thus, we do not know if such measures of outcome serve the needs of this group. This review examines how able we are to assess the efficacy of our interventions to control epilepsy in people with learning disability. It is suggested that a standard data set is necessary as the basis of the assessment of any therapeutic intervention. Central components of this data set would encompass a definition of important characteristics of an individual, a description of their epilepsy and an assessment of the impact of their condition on both their own and their carer's health. The approach to obtaining this information should employ a methodology which can allow for environmental influences. PMID:9663796

  5. Problems with the Measurement of Banking Services in a National Accounting Framework

    Diewert, Erwin; Fixler, Dennis; Zieschang, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    The paper considers some of the problems associated with the indirectly measured components of financial service outputs in the System of National Accounts (SNA), termed FISIM (Financial Intermediation Services Indirectly Measured). The paper utilizes a user cost and supplier benefit approach to the determination of the value of various financial services in the banking sector. The present paper also attempts to integrate the balance sheet accounts in the SNA with the usual flow accounts. An ...

  6. Accounting for the risk of extreme outcomes in an integrated assessment of climate change

    The potential for climate catastrophes, represented by 'fat-tailed' distributions on consequences, has attracted much attention recently. To date, however, most integrated assessment models have either been largely deterministic or deterministic with ex-post sensitivity analysis. The conclusions of such analyses are likely to differ from those employing models that accurately characterize society's joint preferences concerning time and risk, especially when distributions are fat-tailed. Using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model adapted from Nordhaus's DICE model, we show that failing to accurately account for risk can lead to substantial underestimation of the net benefits of greenhouse gas abatement. A robust finding of our analysis is that a lenient 'policy ramp' emissions reduction strategy is preferable over a more aggressive strategy-such as that advocated by the Stern Review-only if the model does not account for uncertainty about the climate system, the carbon cycle and economic damages, and specifies a consumption discount rate that is counterfactually higher than the historical global weighted average cost of capital of 4.0%. In the debate over uncertainty and time discounting, our results imply that what matters most in climate change assessment is the inclusion and particular specification of uncertainty rather than the precise choice of discount rate.

  7. Accounting for the risk of extreme outcomes in an integrated assessment of climate change

    Gerst, Michael D.; Borsuk, Mark E. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755-8000 (United States); Howarth, Richard B. [Environmental Studies Program, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755-6182 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    The potential for climate catastrophes, represented by 'fat-tailed' distributions on consequences, has attracted much attention recently. To date, however, most integrated assessment models have either been largely deterministic or deterministic with ex-post sensitivity analysis. The conclusions of such analyses are likely to differ from those employing models that accurately characterize society's joint preferences concerning time and risk, especially when distributions are fat-tailed. Using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model adapted from Nordhaus's DICE model, we show that failing to accurately account for risk can lead to substantial underestimation of the net benefits of greenhouse gas abatement. A robust finding of our analysis is that a lenient 'policy ramp' emissions reduction strategy is preferable over a more aggressive strategy - such as that advocated by the Stern Review - only if the model does not account for uncertainty about the climate system, the carbon cycle and economic damages, and specifies a consumption discount rate that is counterfactually higher than the historical global weighted average cost of capital of 4.0%. In the debate over uncertainty and time discounting, our results imply that what matters most in climate change assessment is the inclusion and particular specification of uncertainty rather than the precise choice of discount rate. (author)

  8. Directly measured secondhand smoke exposure and COPD health outcomes

    Balmes John

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although personal cigarette smoking is the most important cause and modulator of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, secondhand smoke (SHS exposure could influence the course of the disease. Despite the importance of this question, the impact of SHS exposure on COPD health outcomes remains unknown. Methods We used data from two waves of a population-based multiwave U.S. cohort study of adults with COPD. 77 non-smoking respondents with a diagnosis of COPD completed direct SHS monitoring based on urine cotinine and a personal badge that measures nicotine. We evaluated the longitudinal impact of SHS exposure on validated measures of COPD severity, physical health status, quality of life (QOL, and dyspnea measured at one year follow-up. Results The highest level of SHS exposure, as measured by urine cotinine, was cross-sectionally associated with poorer COPD severity (mean score increment 4.7 pts; 95% CI 0.6 to 8.9 and dyspnea (1.0 pts; 95% CI 0.4 to 1.7 after controlling for covariates. In longitudinal analysis, the highest level of baseline cotinine was associated with worse COPD severity (4.7 points; 95% CI -0.1 to 9.4; p = 0.054, disease-specific QOL (2.9 pts; -0.16 to 5.9; p = 0.063, and dyspnea (0.9 pts; 95% CI 0.2 to 1.6 pts; p Conclusion Directly measured SHS exposure appears to adversely influence health outcomes in COPD, independent of personal smoking. Because SHS is a modifiable risk factor, clinicians should assess SHS exposure in their patients and counsel its avoidance. In public health terms, the effects of SHS exposure on this vulnerable subpopulation provide a further rationale for laws prohibiting public smoking.

  9. Variance in Broad Reading Accounted for by Measures of Reading Speed Embedded within Maze and Comprehension Rate Measures

    Hale, Andrea D.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Wilhoit, Brian; Ciancio, Dennis; Morrow, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Maze and reading comprehension rate measures are calculated by using measures of reading speed and measures of accuracy (i.e., correctly selected words or answers). In sixth- and seventh-grade samples, we found that the measures of reading speed embedded within our Maze measures accounted for 50% and 39% of broad reading score (BRS) variance,…

  10. Measurement Bases for Acquisitions and Mergers in Financial Accounting and in Commercial Law

    Vomáčková, Hana

    2011-01-01

    In association with transactions involving businesses, acquisitions and mergers, etc., commercial law stipulates the new measurement of business assets and thus also net business assets. Similarly, financial accounting stipulates the new measurement of assets, liabilities and net assets with an impact on the amount and structure of equity. It is a principal question as to whether the new measurement bases required by both commercial law and financial accounting are in principal identical. Pra...

  11. Performance of an accountability measurement system at an operating fuel reprocessing facility

    The ICPP has been engaged for 25 years in the recovery of uranium from spent reactor fuels. In concert with the reprocessing activity, an accountability measurements system has been operated throughout the history of the ICPP. The structure and functions of the accountability measurements system are presented. Its performance is evaluated in order to illustrate the relation of analytical methodology to the overall measurements system. 6 figures, 5 tables

  12. Vision and vision-related outcome measures in multiple sclerosis.

    Balcer, Laura J; Miller, David H; Reingold, Stephen C; Cohen, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Visual impairment is a key manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis is a common, often presenting manifestation, but visual deficits and structural loss of retinal axonal and neuronal integrity can occur even without a history of optic neuritis. Interest in vision in multiple sclerosis is growing, partially in response to the development of sensitive visual function tests, structural markers such as optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and quality of life measures that give clinical meaning to the structure-function correlations that are unique to the afferent visual pathway. Abnormal eye movements also are common in multiple sclerosis, but quantitative assessment methods that can be applied in practice and clinical trials are not readily available. We summarize here a comprehensive literature search and the discussion at a recent international meeting of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes assessment in clinical practice and therapeutic trials in multiple sclerosis. PMID:25433914

  13. Exploring the Implementation and Use of Outcome Measurement in Practice: A Qualitative Study

    Skeat, J.; Perry, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Outcome measurement is important to clinical practice--yet outcome many speech and language therapists find it difficult to apply measures in practice, and not all clinicians and services have been able to implement and/or use outcome measurement successfully. To date there has been little research to explain why implementation is…

  14. Ischemic Stroke: Risk Stratification, Warfarin Teatment and Outcome Measure

    Srikanth Kaithoju

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a focal neurological syndrome of vascular basis, which may be due to ischemic thrombo-embolism or intra-cerebral haemorrhage. This condition has to be treated on emergency basis as it may cause an irreversible neurological damage. Warfarin has been a widely used oral anti-coagulant in treating ischemic stroke patients. This review highlights the benefits and challenges of warfarin treatment in stroke patients and discusses about the importance of risk stratification scores & bleeding scores in estimating the bleeding risk associated with warfarin treatment. This review also highlights the use of stroke outcome measures in identifying the patients with post-stroke disabilities to provide patient specific treatment.

  15. SEIZURE SEVERITY AS AN ALTERNATIVE MEASURE OF OUTCOME IN EPILEPSY

    Koraliya S. Todorova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Seizure severity emerges as an important aspect of epilepsy. This is most relevant in refractory patients in whom complete remission of seizures is unlikely and reduced seizure severity may be a significant determinant of psychosocial well-being with a consequent improvement in quality of life (QOL. Thus a valid measure of seizure severity can serve both as an indicator of clinical outcome and as an evaluation tool of the interaction between seizures and the psychosocial complications of epilepsy.After a brief review of the most frequently used scales measuring seizure severity in adults with epilepsy we have explored the relationship between seizure severity and QOL in a set of 103 patients. Two self-evaluation questionnaires were applied: the Seizure Severity Questionnaire (SSQ and the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory (QOLIE-31. The severity of the coexisting depression, an important confounder in the relationship between seizure severity and QOL, was assessed by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17.All domains of the Quality-of-Life in Epilepsy Inventory (QOLIE-31 correlated highly significantly with seizure severity (p≤0.01. The correlation was strong for the Overall score (r=-0.70; p≤0.001 and the Seizure worry domain (r=-0.71; p≤0.001. When the potentially confounding effect of depression was controlled for, the regression of seizure severity with the QOLIE-31 Overall score (P=0.001; R²=0.56 and the Seizure worry domain (P=0.001; R²=0.50 remained significant. These findings indicate that seizure severity is strongly associated with QOL in epilepsy and could be used as an alternative indicator of outcome in clinical research.

  16. Measuring the Alignment between States' Finance and Accountability Policies: The Opportunity Gap

    Della Sala, Matthew R.; Knoeppel, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The research described in this paper expands on attempts to conceptualize, measure, and evaluate the degree to which states have aligned their finance systems with their respective accountability policies. State education finance and accountability policies serve as levers to provide equal educational opportunities for all students--scholars have…

  17. Water Accounting Plus (WA+ – a water accounting procedure for complex river basins based on satellite measurements

    D. Molden

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Coping with the issue of water scarcity and growing competition for water among different sectors requires proper water management strategies and decision processes. A pre-requisite is a clear understanding of the basin hydrological processes, manageable and unmanageable water flows, the interaction with land use and opportunities to mitigate the negative effects and increase the benefits of water depletion on society. Currently, water professionals do not have a common framework that links hydrological flows to user groups of water and their benefits. The absence of a standard hydrological and water management summary is causing confusion and wrong decisions. The non-availability of water flow data is one of the underpinning reasons for not having operational water accounting systems for river basins in place. In this paper we introduce Water Accounting Plus (WA+, which is a new framework designed to provide explicit spatial information on water depletion and net withdrawal processes in complex river basins. The influence of land use on the water cycle is described explicitly by defining land use groups with common characteristics. Analogous to financial accounting, WA+ presents four sheets including (i a resource base sheet, (ii a consumption sheet, (iii a productivity sheet, and (iv a withdrawal sheet. Every sheet encompasses a set of indicators that summarize the overall water resources situation. The impact of external (e.g. climate change and internal influences (e.g. infrastructure building can be estimated by studying the changes in these WA+ indicators. Satellite measurements can be used for 3 out of the 4 sheets, but is not a precondition for implementing WA+ framework. Data from hydrological models and water allocation models can also be used as inputs to WA+.

  18. Development of core outcome sets in hidradenitis suppurativa: systematic review of outcome measure instruments to inform the process.

    Ingram, J R; Hadjieconomou, S; Piguet, V

    2016-08-01

    The recent hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) Cochrane review identified outcome measure heterogeneity as an important issue to address when designing future HS trials. Our objective was to follow the Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) roadmap, by performing a systematic review of HS outcome measure instruments to inform the development of an HS core outcome set. We performed a systematic review to identify validation evidence for outcome measure instruments used in HS randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and assessed the methodological quality of all HS outcome measure validity studies using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. The 12 RCTs included in the Cochrane review utilized 30 outcome measure instruments, including 16 physician-reported instruments, 11 patient-reported instruments and three composite measures containing elements of both. Twenty-seven (90%) of the instruments lacked any validation data. Two further instruments have been developed and partially validated. Of the seven studies meeting our inclusion criteria, six were of 'fair' or 'poor' methodological quality, in part because most of the studies were not primarily designed for instrument validation. The HiSCR instrument is supported by good-quality validation data, but there are gaps, including assessment of internal consistency, inter-rater reliability and minimal clinically important difference, and convergent validity fell below the acceptable range for some comparisons. Multiple, usually unvalidated, outcome measure instruments have been used in HS RCTs. Where validation evidence is available there are issues of low methodological quality or incomplete validity assessment and so, currently, no instruments can be fully recommended. PMID:26873867

  19. Outcome Measures for Clinical Trials in Interstitial Lung Diseases

    Lammi, Matthew R.; Baughman, Robert P.; Birring, Surinder S.; Russell, Anne-Marie; Ryu, Jay H.; Scholand, Marybeth; Distler, Oliver; LeSage, Daphne; Sarver, Catherine; Antoniou, Katerina; Highland, Kristin B.; Kowal-Bielecka, Otylia; Lasky, Joseph A.; Wells, Athol U.; Saketkoo, Lesley Ann

    2015-01-01

    The chronic fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are a group of heterogeneous pulmonary parenchymal disorders described by radiologic and histological patterns termed usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). These include idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and those related to connective tissue disease (CTD) and are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Beyond the importance of establishing an appropriate diagnosis, designing optimal clinical trials for IIPs has been fraught with difficulties in consistency of clinical endpoints making power analyses, and the establishment of efficacy and interpretation of results across trials challenging. Preliminary recommendations, developed by rigorous consensus methods, proposed a minimum set of outcome measures, a ‘core set’, to be incorporated into future clinical trials (Saketkoo et al, THORAX. 2014.). This paper sets out to examine the candidate instruments for each domain (Dyspnea, Cough, Health Related Quality of Life, Imaging, Lung Physiology and Function, Mortality). Candidate measures that were not selected as well as measures that were not available for examination at the time of the consensus process will also be discussed. PMID:27019654

  20. Applications of bulk measurement techniques for the near-real-time accounting system at the BNFP

    Nuclear materials accountancy at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP) is based primarily on bulk measurement of aqueous solutions containing uranium, plutonium, and fission products. Since 1973, Allied-General Nuclear Services (AGNS) has been adapting volume measurement and measurement control techniques at the various key measurement points within the plant. Starting in 1977, AGNS has been incorporating these measurement activities into a computerized nuclear materials control and accounting system (CNMCAS). This paper presents the major features of the measurement systems and describes the results of plant-scale testing of the system using unirradiated natural uranium. The results of these tests indicate that total uncertainties of about 0.2% of throughput (2 sigma level) can be achieved for conventional accounting and about 2.0% of hold-up can be achieved for in-process inventory estimates. These results are based on measurement of almost 500 MTU of throughput over 130 operating days

  1. Recognition and Measurement Obstacles of the Conceptual Framework of Financial Accounting Underlying E-commerce Business

    Sana’a NM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable growth in electronic commerce constitutes another new challenge for the accounting profession in its effort to meet the rapid and continuing revolution of information changes. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the important obstacles facing corporations working in the business of E-commerce. This study also aims to investigate the production of accounting information as related to level three (recognition and measurements of the conceptual framework underlying financial accounting. Therefore, to achieve the primary objectives of this study the researcher has developed a questionnaire that has been distributed to Jordanian external auditors. A total of 77 questionnaires were distributed; however, only 71 questionnaires were suitable for the analysis. A sample t- test was used to test the hypotheses of the study. The main results of the study revealed high arithmetic mean related to the obstacles of the accounting concepts (principles, assumptions, and constraints at level three of the conceptual framework that underlies financial accounting. This requires attention in the preparation of the financial reports of a corporation operating in E-commerce Business. Moreover, the research concludes that the obstacles are connected, interdependent and interrelated with each other. Therefore, the accounting principle obstacles have implications over the application of accounting assumptions and constraints. Consequently, the researcher recommends the need to make changes in the concepts of recognition and measurements in the conceptual framework that underlies financial accounting. This is to ensure the qualitative characteristics of accounting information for E-commerce business corporations.

  2. The Measurement of Banking Services in the System of National Accounts

    Diewert, Erwin; Fixler, Dennis; Zieschang, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    The paper considers some of the problems associated with the indirectly measured components of financial service outputs in the System of National Accounts (SNA), termed FISIM (Financial Intermediation Services Indirectly Measured). The paper characterizes FISIM by a user cost and supplier benefit approach determining the price and quantity of various financial services in the banking sector. We examine the need for FISIM in the context of plausible alternative accounting schemes that could b...

  3. Outcome measures for primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    Seror, Raphaèle; Bootsma, Hendrika; Bowman, Simon J; Dörner, Thomas; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Mariette, Xavier; Ramos-Casals, Manel; Ravaud, Philippe; Theander, Elke; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Vitali, Claudio

    2012-08-01

    Lymphocytic infiltration of different exocrine and non-exocrine epithelia is the pathological hallmark of primary Sjögren's syndrome, whereas involvement of salivary and lachrymal glands with the clinical counterpart of dry eye and dry mouth are the predominant features of the disease, together with fatigue and musculoskeletal pain. In addition, systemic manifestations, like arthritis, skin vasculitis, peripheral neuropathy, glomerulonephritis, may also be present in a consistent number of patients. As result, clinical features in SS can be divided into two facets: the benign subjective but disabling manifestations such as dryness, pain and fatigue, and the systemic manifestations. In the past decades, a core set of domains, which included sicca symptoms, objective measurements of tear and saliva production, fatigue, quality of life, disease activity and damage was indicated as essential for outcome assessment in this disorder. Afterwards, great efforts have been made to develop valid tools for the assessment of different domains. Specific questionnaires such as the Profile of Fatigue and Discomfort (PROFAD) and Sicca Symptoms Inventory (SSI) have been proposed as dedicated tools for the evaluation of patients symptoms, whereas different composite indexes have been suggested for the assessment of disease activity and damage. Some of these preliminary studies served as bases of an international project supported by EULAR, aimed at developing two consensus disease activity indexes: the EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Patients Reported Index (ESSPRI), and the EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI), a systemic activity index to assess systemic manifestations. A detailed and critical review of all these indexes is provided in this article. Both EULAR indexes showed, in recent studies, to be feasible, valid, and reliable instruments. After their final validation, which is currently in process, they could be used as consensus outcome criteria in therapeutic

  4. Quantifying prosthetic gait deviation using simple outcome measures

    Kark, Lauren; Odell, Ross; McIntosh, Andrew S; Simmons, Anne

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To develop a subset of simple outcome measures to quantify prosthetic gait deviation without needing three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA). METHODS: Eight unilateral, transfemoral amputees and 12 unilateral, transtibial amputees were recruited. Twenty-eight able-bodied controls were recruited. All participants underwent 3DGA, the timed-up-and-go test and the six-minute walk test (6MWT). The lower-limb amputees also completed the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire. Results from 3DGA were summarised using the gait deviation index (GDI), which was subsequently regressed, using stepwise regression, against the other measures. RESULTS: Step-length (SL), self-selected walking speed (SSWS) and the distance walked during the 6MWT (6MWD) were significantly correlated with GDI. The 6MWD was the strongest, single predictor of the GDI, followed by SL and SSWS. The predictive ability of the regression equations were improved following inclusion of self-report data related to mobility and prosthetic utility. CONCLUSION: This study offers a practicable alternative to quantifying kinematic deviation without the need to conduct complete 3DGA. PMID:27335814

  5. Novel mechanisms, treatments, and outcome measures in childhood sleep.

    Colonna, Annalisa; Smith, Anna B; Pal, Deb K; Gringras, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disorders and sleep of insufficient duration and quality are on the increase due to changes in our lifestyle, particularly in children and adolescents. Sleep disruption is also more common in children with medical conditions, compounding their difficulties. Recent studies have focused on new mechanisms that explain how learning and cognitive performance depend on a good night's sleep. Growing alongside this latest understanding is an innovative new field of non-drug interventions that improve sleep architecture, with resulting cognitive improvements. However, we need to rigorously evaluate such potentially popular and self-administered sleep interventions with equally state-of-the-art outcome measurement tools. Animated hand-held games, that incorporate embedded sleep-dependent learning tasks, promise to offer new robust methods of measuring changes in overnight learning. Portable computing technology has the potential to offer practical, inexpensive and reliable tools to indirectly assess the quality of sleep. They may be adopted in both clinical and educational settings, providing a unique way of monitoring the effect of sleep disruption on learning, leading also to a radical rethink of how we manage chronic diseases. PMID:26029140

  6. Novel mechanisms, treatments and outcome measures in childhood sleep

    Annalisa eColonna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disorders and sleep of insufficient duration and quality are on the increase due to changes in our lifestyle, particularly in children and adolescents. Sleep disruption is also more common in children with medical conditions, compounding their difficulties. Recent studies have focused on new mechanisms that explain how learning and cognitive performance depend on a good night’s sleep. Growing alongside this latest understanding is an innovative new field of non-drug interventions that improve sleep architecture, with resulting cognitive improvements. However, we need to rigorously evaluate such potentially popular and self-administered sleep interventions with equally state-of-the-art outcome measurement tools. Animated hand-held games, that incorporate embedded sleep-dependent learning tasks, promise to offer new robust methods of measuring changes in overnight learning. Portable computing technology has the potential to offer practical, inexpensive and reliable tools to indirectly assess the quality of sleep. They may be adopted in both clinical and educational settings, providing a unique way of monitoring the effect of sleep disruption on learning, leading also to a radical rethink of how we manage chronic diseases.

  7. Ultrasound as an Outcome Measure in Gout. A Validation Process by the OMERACT Ultrasound Working Group

    Terslev, Lene; Gutierrez, Marwin; Schmidt, Wolfgang A;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the work performed by the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Ultrasound (US) Working Group on the validation of US as a potential outcome measure in gout. METHODS: Based on the lack of definitions, highlighted in a recent literature review on US as an outcome tool in...

  8. Towards global consensus on outcome measures for atopic eczema research : Results of the HOME II meeting

    Schmitt, Jochen; Spuls, Phyllis; Boers, Maarten; Thomas, Kim; Chalmers, Joanne; Roekevisch, Evelien; Schram, Mandy; Allsopp, Richard; Aoki, Valeria; Apfelbacher, Christian; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; Bruin-Weller, Marjolein; Charman, Carolyn; Cohen, Arnon; Dohil, Magdalene; Flohr, Carsten; Furue, Masutaka; Gieler, Uwe; Hooft, Lotty; Humphreys, Rosemary; Ishii, Henrique Akira; Katayama, Ichiro; Kouwenhoven, Willem; Langan, Sinéad; Lewis-Jones, Sue; Merhand, Stephanie; Murota, Hiroyuki; Murrell, Dedee F; Nankervis, Helen; Ohya, Yukihiro; Oranje, Arnold; Otsuka, Hiromi; Paul, Carle; Rosenbluth, Yael; Saeki, Hidehisa; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Stalder, Jean-Francois; Svensson, Ake; Takaoka, Roberto; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Weidinger, Stephan; Wollenberg, Andreas; Williams, Hywel

    2012-01-01

    The use of nonstandardized and inadequately validated outcome measures in atopic eczema trials is a major obstacle to practising evidence-based dermatology. The Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative is an international multiprofessional group dedicated to atopic eczema outcomes r

  9. Using Cross-Cultural Dimensions Exercises to Improve and Measure Learning Outcomes in International Business Courses

    Zainuba, Mohamed; Rahal, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes an approach for using cross-cultural dimensions exercises to improve and measure learning outcomes in international business courses. The following key issues are highlighted: (a) what are the targeted learning outcomes to be assessed, (b) how to measure the accomplishment of these learning outcomes, (c) the input measures…

  10. Hepatology may have problems with putative surrogate outcome measures

    Gluud, Christian; Brok, Jesper; Gong, Yan;

    2007-01-01

    faster or more often, are cheaper, and/or are less invasively achieved than the clinical outcome. In practice, validation is surprisingly often overlooked, especially if a biologic plausible rationale is proposed. Surrogate outcomes must be validated before use. The first step in validation is to...... predicts the intervention's effect on the clinical outcome. In hepatology a number of putative surrogate outcomes are used both in clinical research and in clinical practice without having been properly validated. Sustained virological response to interferons and ribavirin in patients with chronic...

  11. Water Accounting Plus (WA+ – a water accounting procedure for complex river basins based on satellite measurements

    P. Karimi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Coping with water scarcity and growing competition for water among different sectors requires proper water management strategies and decision processes. A pre-requisite is a clear understanding of the basin hydrological processes, manageable and unmanageable water flows, the interaction with land use and opportunities to mitigate the negative effects and increase the benefits of water depletion on society. Currently, water professionals do not have a common framework that links depletion to user groups of water and their benefits. The absence of a standard hydrological and water management summary is causing confusion and wrong decisions. The non-availability of water flow data is one of the underpinning reasons for not having operational water accounting systems for river basins in place. In this paper, we introduce Water Accounting Plus (WA+, which is a new framework designed to provide explicit spatial information on water depletion and net withdrawal processes in complex river basins. The influence of land use and landscape evapotranspiration on the water cycle is described explicitly by defining land use groups with common characteristics. WA+ presents four sheets including (i a resource base sheet, (ii an evapotranspiration sheet, (iii a productivity sheet, and (iv a withdrawal sheet. Every sheet encompasses a set of indicators that summarise the overall water resources situation. The impact of external (e.g., climate change and internal influences (e.g., infrastructure building can be estimated by studying the changes in these WA+ indicators. Satellite measurements can be used to acquire a vast amount of required data but is not a precondition for implementing WA+ framework. Data from hydrological models and water allocation models can also be used as inputs to WA+.

  12. Evaluating complementary and alternative medicine interventions: in search of appropriate patient-centered outcome measures

    Mallory Devon

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central to the development of a sound evidence base for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM interventions is the need for valid, reliable and relevant outcome measures to assess whether the interventions work. We assessed the specific needs for a database that would cover a wide range of outcomes measures for CAM research and considered a framework for such a database. Methods The study was a survey of CAM researchers, practitioners and students. An online questionnaire was emailed to the members of the Canadian Interdisciplinary Network for CAM Research (IN-CAM and the CAM Education and Research Network of Alberta (CAMera. The majority of survey questions were open-ended and asked about outcome measures currently used, outcome measures' assessment criteria, sources of information, perceived barriers to finding outcome measures and outcome domains of importance. Descriptive quantitative analysis and qualitative content analysis were used. Results One hundred and sixty-four completed surveys were received. Of these, 62 respondents reported using outcome measures in their CAM research and identified 92 different specific outcomes. The most important barriers were the fact that, for many health concepts, outcome measures do not yet exist, as well as issues related to accessibility of instruments. Important outcome domains identified included physical, psychological, social, spiritual, quality of life and holistic measures. Participants also mentioned the importance of individualized measures that assess unique patient-centered outcomes for each research participant, and measures to assess the context of healing and the process of healing. Conclusion We have developed a preliminary framework that includes all components of health-related outcomes. The framework provides a foundation for a larger, comprehensive collection of CAM outcomes. It fits very well in a whole systems perspective, which requires an expanded set of

  13. Measuring, comparing and improving clinical outcomes in gastrointestinal cancer surgery

    Henneman, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, hospital variation concerning various surgical outcomes is illustrated, thereby exploring the usability of these outcomes for hospital comparisons, both from a clinical and methodological point of view. Moreover, the studies provide insight in risk factors for adverse events in colorectal and oesophageal cancer surgery, focusing on the mechanism behind postoperative complications leading to mortality or not.

  14. Measuring Networking as an Outcome Variable in Undergraduate Research Experiences.

    Hanauer, David I; Hatfull, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose, present, and validate a simple survey instrument to measure student conversational networking. The tool consists of five items that cover personal and professional social networks, and its basic principle is the self-reporting of degrees of conversation, with a range of specific discussion partners. The networking instrument was validated in three studies. The basic psychometric characteristics of the scales were established by conducting a factor analysis and evaluating internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha. The second study used a known-groups comparison and involved comparing outcomes for networking scales between two different undergraduate laboratory courses (one involving a specific effort to enhance networking). The final study looked at potential relationships between specific networking items and the established psychosocial variable of project ownership through a series of binary logistic regressions. Overall, the data from the three studies indicate that the networking scales have high internal consistency (α = 0.88), consist of a unitary dimension, can significantly differentiate between research experiences with low and high networking designs, and are related to project ownership scales. The ramifications of the networking instrument for student retention, the enhancement of public scientific literacy, and the differentiation of laboratory courses are discussed. PMID:26538387

  15. Outcome-Driven Thresholds for Home Blood Pressure Measurement International Database of HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome

    Niiranen, T. J.; Asayama, K.; Thijs, L; Johansson, J K; Ohkubo, T.; Kikuya, M; Boggia, J.; Hozawa, A.; Sandoya, E.; Stergiou, G. S.; Tsuji, I; Jula, A. M.; Imai, Y.; Staessen, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    The lack of outcome-driven operational thresholds limits the clinical application of home blood pressure (BP) measurement. Our objective was to determine an outcome-driven reference frame for home BP measurement. We measured home and clinic BP in 6470 participants (mean age, 59.3 years; 56.9% women; 22.4% on antihypertensive treatment) recruited in Ohasama, Japan (n=2520); Montevideo, Uruguay (n=399); Tsurugaya, Japan (n=811); Didima, Greece (n=665); and nationwide in Finland (n=2075). In mul...

  16. Topical understandings of nuclear material measurement · accountancy and quality assurance

    Nuclear material measurement is an important measure to determine the amount of nuclear material of each stage such as receipt, shipment, inventory and hold-up. The material accountancy based on the material balance among the measurements is a measure to control of nuclear material. The material accountancy, from the technical aspect, can be used as promising measures for purposes from operator's level to state's level such as the nuclear safety, property control and environmental preservation other than safeguards measures only to conclude no diversion of nuclear material. This paper discusses various purposes of nuclear material measurements and clarifies the certain function such as quality assurance to be expected at each purpose. Based on the discussion, critical points for the quality assurance of each stage are studied. (author)

  17. Profit Sharing Investment Accounts--Measurement and Control of Displaced Commercial Risk (DCR) in Islamic Finance

    (1) Sundararajan, V.

    2011-01-01

    The paper highlights some of the key issues and gaps in the supervision of Islamic Banks, and in particular, addresses the supervisory implications of the role of investment account management. One of the key issues in Islamic banking is how to measure and manage the sharing of returns and risks between shareholders and investment account holders (IAH), so that such risk sharing can become an effective tool of risk management in Islamic finance. A methodology for estimating such risk sharing ...

  18. Recognition and Measurement Obstacles of the Conceptual Framework of Financial Accounting Underlying E-commerce Business

    Sana’a NM

    2016-01-01

    The remarkable growth in electronic commerce constitutes another new challenge for the accounting profession in its effort to meet the rapid and continuing revolution of information changes. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the important obstacles facing corporations working in the business of E-commerce. This study also aims to investigate the production of accounting information as related to level three (recognition and measurements) of the conceptual framework unde...

  19. Improving the measurement of banking services in the UK National Accounts

    Leonidas Akritidis

    2007-01-01

    Defines the UK methodology in calculating and allocating FISIM, describing the changes to the National Accounts.This article was first released on the National Statistics website to coincide with the launch by the Office for National Statistics of the experimental statistics release and transmission to the European Commission of new estimates reflecting changes to the way that FinancialIntermediation Services Indirectly Measured (FISIM) is treated in the UK National Accounts.The article defin...

  20. Experimental evaluation of nonclassical correlations between measurement outcomes and target observable in a quantum measurement

    Iinuma, Masataka; Suzuki, Yutaro; Nii, Taiki; Kinoshita, Ryuji; Hofmann, Holger F.

    2016-03-01

    In general, it is difficult to evaluate measurement errors when the initial and final conditions of the measurement make it impossible to identify the correct value of the target observable. Ozawa proposed a solution based on the operator algebra of observables which has recently been used in experiments investigating the error-disturbance trade-off of quantum measurements. Importantly, this solution makes surprisingly detailed statements about the relations between measurement outcomes and the unknown target observable. In the present paper, we investigate this relation by performing a sequence of two measurements on the polarization of a photon, so that the first measurement commutes with the target observable and the second measurement is sensitive to a complementary observable. While the initial measurement can be evaluated using classical statistics, the second measurement introduces the effects of quantum correlations between the noncommuting physical properties. By varying the resolution of the initial measurement, we can change the relative contribution of the nonclassical correlations and identify their role in the evaluation of the quantum measurement. It is shown that the most striking deviation from classical expectations is obtained at the transition between weak and strong measurements, where the competition between different statistical effects results in measurement values well outside the range of possible eigenvalues.

  1. The Accounting concept of measurement and the thin line between representational measurement theory and the classical theory of measurement

    Charmaine Scrimnger-Christian; S. Wedzerai Musvoto

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss a possible way forward in accounting measurement. It also highlights the importance of understanding the lack of appreciation given by the accounting researchers to the distinction between representation measurement theory and the axioms of quantity on which the classical theory of measurement is based. For long, research in measurement theory has classified representational measurement as nothing but applications of the axioms of quantity. It was belie...

  2. Measures of between-cluster variability in cluster randomized trials with binary outcomes.

    Thomson, Andrew; Hayes, Richard; Cousens, Simon

    2009-05-30

    Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) are increasingly used to evaluate the effectiveness of health-care interventions. A key feature of CRTs is that the observations on individuals within clusters are correlated as a result of between-cluster variability. Sample size formulae exist which account for such correlations, but they make different assumptions regarding the between-cluster variability in the intervention arm of a trial, resulting in different sample size estimates. We explore the relationship for binary outcome data between two common measures of between-cluster variability: k, the coefficient of variation and rho, the intracluster correlation coefficient. We then assess how the assumptions of constant k or rho across treatment arms correspond to different assumptions about intervention effects. We assess implications for sample size estimation and present a simple solution to the problems outlined. PMID:19378266

  3. Account for uncertainties of control measurements in the assessment of design margin factors

    The paper discusses the feasibility of accounting for uncertainties of control measurements in estimation of design margin factors. The feasibility is also taken into consideration proceeding from the fact how much the processed measured data were corrected by a priori calculated data of measurable parameters. The possibility and feasibility of such data correction is demonstrated by the authors with the help of Bayes theorem famous in mathematical statistics. (Authors)

  4. Realization of continuous-outcome measurements on finite dimensional quantum systems

    Chiribella, G.; D'Ariano, G. M.; Schlingemann, D. M.

    2007-01-01

    This note contains the complete mathematical proof of the main Theorem of the paper "How continuous measurements in finite dimension are actually discrete" (quant-ph/0702068), thus showing that in finite dimension any measurement with continuous set of outcomes can be simply realized by randomizing some classical parameter and conditionally performing a measurement with finite outcomes.

  5. The Impact of Corporate Governance on Financial Performance: (Measured using Accounting and Value-Added based Measures): Evidence from Malaysia

    Abdul Aziz, Khairul Annuar

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to test empirically which measure, an accounting based financial performance measure such as Return on Equity, Price to Earnings Ratio, Earnings Per Share and Return on Capital Employed; or value-added based financial performance measures such as Economic Value Added and Market Value Added; is more closely related with Corporate Governance Compliance. This paper also aims to study the level of Corporate Governance Compliance of the Smaller Companies listed on the KLSE, the mea...

  6. Optimal measurement uncertainties for materials accounting in a fast breeder reactor spent-fuel reprocessing plant

    Optimization techniques are used to calculate measurement uncertainties for materials accountability instruments in a fast breeder reactor spent-fuel reprocessing plant. Optimal measurement uncertainties are calculated so that performance goals for detecting materials loss are achieved while minimizing the total instrument development cost. Improved materials accounting in the chemical separations process (111 kg Pu/day) to meet 8-kg plutonium abrupt (1 day) and 40-kg plutonium protracted (6 months) loss-detection goals requires: process tank volume and concentration measurements having precisions less than or equal to 1%; accountability and plutonium sample tank volume measurements having precisions less than or equal to 0.3%, short-term correlated errors less than or equal to 0.04%, and long-term correlated errors less than or equal to 0.04%; and accountability and plutonium sample tank concentration measurements having precisions less than or equal to 0.4%, short-term correlated errors less than or equal to 0.1%, and long-term correlated errors less than or equal to 0.05%

  7. Results on Differential and Dependent Measurement Error of the Exposure and the Outcome Using Signed Directed Acyclic Graphs

    VanderWeele, Tyler J; Hernán, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement error in both the exposure and the outcome is a common problem in epidemiologic studies. Measurement errors in the exposure and the outcome are said to be independent of each other if the measured exposure and the measured outcome are statistically independent conditional on the true exposure and true outcome (and dependent otherwise). Measurement error is said to be nondifferential if measurement of the exposure does not depend on the true outcome conditional on the true exposure...

  8. Measurement and accounting of the minor actinides produced in nuclear power reactors

    Because of their value as nuclear fuels and their impact on long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste, measurement and accounting for minor actinides (MAs) produced in nuclear power reactors are becoming significant issues. This report attempts to put the issues in perspective by reviewing the commercial nuclear fuel cycle with emphasis on reprocessing plants and key measurement points therein. Radiation signatures and characteristics are compared and contrasted for special nuclear materials (SNMs) and MAs. Also, inventories and relative amounts of SNMs and MAs are generally described for irradiated nuclear fuel and reprocessing plants. The bulk of the report describes appropriate measurement technologies, capabilities, and development needs to satisfy material accounting requirements for MAs, with emphasis on adaptation of current technologies. Recommendations for future systems studies and development of measurement methods are also included. 38 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs

  9. Measurement and accounting of the minor actinides produced in nuclear power reactors

    Stewart, J.E.; Walton, R.B.; Phillips, J.R.; Hsue, S.T.; Eccleston, G.W.; Menlove, H.O.; Davidson, J.M.; Stanbro, W.D.

    1996-01-01

    Because of their value as nuclear fuels and their impact on long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste, measurement and accounting for minor actinides (MAs) produced in nuclear power reactors are becoming significant issues. This report attempts to put the issues in perspective by reviewing the commercial nuclear fuel cycle with emphasis on reprocessing plants and key measurement points therein. Radiation signatures and characteristics are compared and contrasted for special nuclear materials (SNMs) and MAs. Also, inventories and relative amounts of SNMs and MAs are generally described for irradiated nuclear fuel and reprocessing plants. The bulk of the report describes appropriate measurement technologies, capabilities, and development needs to satisfy material accounting requirements for MAs, with emphasis on adaptation of current technologies. Recommendations for future systems studies and development of measurement methods are also included. 38 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Evaluating Performance Measurement Systems in Nonprofit Agencies: The Program Accountability Quality Scale (PAQS).

    Poole, Dennis L.; Nelson, Joan; Carnahan, Sharon; Chepenik, Nancy G.; Tubiak, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Developed and field tested the Performance Accountability Quality Scale (PAQS) on 191 program performance measurement systems developed by nonprofit agencies in central Florida. Preliminary findings indicate that the PAQS provides a structure for obtaining expert opinions based on a theory-driven model about the quality of proposed measurement…

  11. Nuclear Material Accountancy Assessment Technical Measures in Nuclear Centrifuge Enrichment Facility

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear material accountancy assessment is the main technical measures for nuclear materials regulatory. It is an important basis to detect theft, loss and the illegal diversion of nuclear material. In order to implement the control of nuclear materials for nuclear facilities,

  12. Measuring the Academic Self-Efficacy of First-Year Accounting Students

    Byrne, Marann; Flood, Barbara; Griffin, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This study measured the levels of academic self-efficacy of first-year accounting students. It also investigated whether there were any gender differences and the extent to which efficacy levels explained variation in academic performance. Overall the analysis revealed that many students lacked the confidence to participate fully in the academic…

  13. Estimation of the thermal diffusion coefficient in fusion plasmas taking frequency measurement uncertainties into account

    Berkel, van M.; Zwart, H.J.; Hogeweij, G.M.D.; Vandersteen, G.; Brand, van den H.; Baar, de M.R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the estimation of the thermal diffusivity from perturbative experiments in fusion plasmas is discussed. The measurements used to estimate the thermal diffusivity suffer from stochastic noise. Accurate estimation of the thermal diffusivity should take this into account. It will be show

  14. 77 FR 18298 - Improvements to the Compliance, Safety, Accountability (CSA) Motor Carrier Safety Measurement...

    2012-03-27

    ...FMCSA announces planned improvements to the Carrier Safety Measurement System (SMS) which was implemented in December 2010 as part of the Agency's broader Compliance, Safety, Accountability (CSA) initiative. A preview of these improvements will be available to motor carriers and law enforcement on March 27, 2012. The system changes are scheduled to be available to the public in July 2012.......

  15. Creating an Assistive Technology Outcomes Measurement System: Validating the Components

    Edyburn, Dave L.; Smith, Roger O.

    2004-01-01

    The topic of assistive technology (AT) outcomes has only recently received attention in the professional literature. As a result, there is a considerable void in the profession's ability to address contemporary questions about the value and use of AT. The purpose of this article is to highlight the theory, development, and research efforts of the…

  16. Measuring Student Satisfaction from the Student Outcomes Survey. Technical Paper

    Fieger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Student Outcomes Survey is an annual national survey of vocational education and training (VET) students. Since 1995, participants have been asked to rate their satisfaction with different aspects of their training, grouped under three main themes: teaching, assessment, and generic skills and learning experiences. While the composition of the…

  17. Outcome Measures of Triple Board Graduates, 1991-2003

    Warren, Marla J.; Dunn, David W.; Rushton, Jerry

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe program outcomes for the Combined Training Program in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Pediatrics, and Psychiatry (Triple Board Program). Method: All Triple Board Program graduates to date (1991-2003) were asked to participate in a 37-item written survey from February to April 2004. Results: The response rate was 80.7%. Most…

  18. Quality of life as an outcome measure in surgical oncology

    Langenhoff, B S; Krabbe, P F; Wobbes, T; Ruers, T J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in assessing the impact of a disease and the effect of a treatment on a patient's life, expressed as health-related quality of life (HRQoL). HRQoL assessment can provide essential outcome information for cancer surgery. METHODS: The core of this review is deri

  19. ON FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING MEASUREMENT: A RECONSIDERATION OF SFAC 5 BY THE FASB IS NEEDED

    Salvary, Stanley C. W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper attempts to reinforce by means of social theory the procedure and property (attribute) of financial accounting measurement advanced by Salvary [1985,1989,1992]. The procedure entails estimating the amount of cash flows derivable from existing investment projects; and the measurement property (attribute) is identified as recoverable cost. The 'cash-in and cash-out' principle establishes financial capital maintenance as the appropriate capital maintenance concept to be followed in th...

  20. Accounting for posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity with pre- and posttrauma measures

    Ogle, Christin M.; Rubin, David C.; Siegler, Ilene C.

    2016-01-01

    attachment and factors related to the current trauma memory, such as self-rated severity, event centrality, frequency of involuntary recall, and physical reactions to the memory, accounted for symptom severity better than did measures of pretrauma factors. In an analysis restricted to prospective measures...... assessed before the trauma, the total variance explained decreased from 56% to 16%. Results support a model of PTSD in which characteristics of the current trauma memory promote the development and maintenance of PTSD symptoms....

  1. Estimation of the thermal diffusion coefficient in fusion plasmas taking frequency measurement uncertainties into account

    van Berkel, M; Zwart, H.J.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Vandersteen, G.; van den Brand, H.; M.R. de Baar; ASDEX Upgrade team

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the estimation of the thermal diffusivity from perturbative experiments in fusion plasmas is discussed. The measurements used to estimate the thermal diffusivity suffer from stochastic noise. Accurate estimation of the thermal diffusivity should take this into account. It will be shown that formulas found in the literature often result in a thermal diffusivity that has a bias (a difference between the estimated value and the actual value that remains even if more measurements a...

  2. Transactional stress and coping theory in accounting for psychological states measures

    V. Buško

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines a relative predictive value of some stable individual attributes and the processes of cognitive appraisals and coping with stress in accounting for specific components of anxiety state measures. Self-report instruments for the measurement of selected psychological constructs, i.e. perceived incompetence, externality, stress intensity and duration, situation-specific coping strategies, and the two anxiety state components, were taken in a sample of 449 male military basics t...

  3. Possible clinical outcome measures for clinical trials in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Goldman, Myla D.; Motl, Robert W.; Rudick, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease with both clinical and pathological heterogeneity. The complexity of the MS population has offered challenges to the measurement of MS disease progression in therapeutic trials. The current standard clinical outcome measures are relapse rate, Expanded Disability Severity Scale (EDSS), and the MS Functional Composite (MSFC). These measures each have strengths and some weakness. Two additional measures, the six-minute walk and accelerometry, show promise in augmenting current measures. MS therapeutics is a quickly advancing field which requires sensitive clinical outcome measures that can detect small changes in disability that reliably reflect long-term changes in sustained disease progression in a complex population. A single clinical outcome measure of sustained disease progression may remain elusive. Rather, an integration of current and new outcome measures may be most appropriate and utilization of different measures depending on the MS population and stage of the disease may be preferred. PMID:21179614

  4. Proposed outcome measures for prospective clinical trials in juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis

    Heiligenhaus, Arnd; Foeldvari, Ivan; Edelsten, Clive;

    2012-01-01

    To develop a set of core outcome measures for use in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and longitudinal observational studies in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis.......To develop a set of core outcome measures for use in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and longitudinal observational studies in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis....

  5. Nonprofit Organizations and Outcome Measurement: From Tracking Program Activities to Focusing on Frontline Work

    Benjamin, Lehn M.

    2012-01-01

    Why do we continue to see evidence that nonprofit staff feel like outcome measurement is missing important aspects of their work? Based on an analysis of over 1,000 pages of material in 10 outcome measurement guides and a focused literature review of frontline work in three types of nonprofit organizations, this article shows that existing outcome…

  6. Measuring Outcomes of United Way-Funded Programs: Expectations and Reality

    Hendricks, Michael; Plantz, Margaret C.; Pritchard, Kathleen J.

    2008-01-01

    In 1996, United Way of America (UWA) developed and began disseminating the most widely used approach to program outcome measurement in the nonprofit sector. Today an estimated 450 local United Ways encourage approximately 19,000 local agencies they fund to measure outcomes. The authors first describe and then assess the strengths and limitations…

  7. Vision and vision-related outcome measures in multiple sclerosis

    Balcer, Laura J; Miller, David H; Reingold, Stephen C;

    2015-01-01

    to the afferent visual pathway. Abnormal eye movements also are common in multiple sclerosis, but quantitative assessment methods that can be applied in practice and clinical trials are not readily available. We summarize here a comprehensive literature search and the discussion at a recent international meeting......Visual impairment is a key manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis is a common, often presenting manifestation, but visual deficits and structural loss of retinal axonal and neuronal integrity can occur even without a history of optic neuritis. Interest in vision in multiple...... of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes...

  8. A Healthy Bottom Line: Healthy Life Expectancy as an Outcome Measure for Health Improvement Efforts

    Stiefel, Matthew C; Perla, Rocco J; Zell, Bonnie L

    2010-01-01

    Context: Good health is the most important outcome of health care, and healthy life expectancy (HLE), an intuitive and meaningful summary measure combining the length and quality of life, has become a standard in the world for measuring population health.

  9. Unseeded Large Scale PIV measurements accounting for capillary-gravity waves phase speed

    Benetazzo,; Gamba,; M.,; Barbariol,; F,

    2016-01-01

    Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV) is widely recognized as a reliable method to measure water surface velocity field in open channels and rivers. LSPIV technique is based on a camera view that frames the water surface in a sequence, and image-processing methods to compute water surface displacements between consecutive frames. Using LSPIV, high flow velocities, as for example flood conditions, were accurately measured, whereas determinations of low flow velocities is more challenging, especially in absence of floating seeding transported by the flow velocity. In fact, in unseeded conditions, typical surface features dynamics must be taken into account: besides surface structures convected by the current, capillary-gravity waves travel in all directions, with their own dynamics. Discrimination between all these phenomena is here discussed, providing a new method to distinguish and to correct unseeded LSPIV measurements associated with wavy structures, accounting for their phase speed magnitude and ...

  10. Developing a Valid Patient-Reported Outcome Measure

    Rothrock, NE; Kaiser, KA; Cella, D

    2011-01-01

    Many aspects of patients’ experiences with illness, medication, and health care are best captured from patient-reported outcomes (PROs). In this article, we describe the process for constructing quality PRO instruments, from conceptual model development through instrument validation. We also discuss PROs as clinical trial end points and the potential of PRO data for aiding clinicians and patients in choosing from among multiple therapeutic options. Finally, we provide an overview of some exis...

  11. Pelvic Floor Disorders Registry: Study Design and Outcome Measures.

    Weber LeBrun, E; Adam, RA; Barber, MD; Boyles, SH; Iglesia, CB; Lukacz, ES; Moalli, P; Moen, MD; Richter, HE; Subak, LL; Sung, VW; Visco, AG; Bradley, CS

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic floor disorders affect up to 24% of adult women in the United States, and many patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) choose to undergo surgical repair to improve their quality of life. While a variety of surgical repair approaches and techniques are utilized, including mesh augmentation, there is limited comparative effectiveness and safety outcome data guiding best practice. In conjunction with device manufacturers, federal regulatory organizations, and professional societies, the...

  12. Measuring management success for protected species: Looking beyond biological outcomes

    Kathryn D Bisack

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the ocean ecosystem, including the human component, is such that a single fishery may require multiple policy instruments to support recovery and conservation of protected species, in addition to those for fisheries management. As regulations multiply, the need for retrospective analysis and evaluation grows in order to inform future policy. To accurately evaluate policy instruments, clear objectives and their link to outcomes are necessary, as well as identifying criteria to evaluate outcomes. The Northeast United States sink gillnet groundfish fishery provides a case study of the complexity of regulations and policy instruments implemented under the Marine Mammal Protection Act and the Endangered Species Act to address bycatch of marine mammals. The case study illustrates a range of possible objectives for the policy instruments including biological, economic, social-normative and longevity factors. We highlight links between possible objectives, outcomes and criteria for the four factors, as well as areas for consideration when undertaking ex-post analyses. To support learning from past actions, we call for a coordinated effort involving multiple disciplines and jurisdictions to undertake retrospective analyses and evaluations of key groups of policy instruments used for protected species.

  13. Relationship between the Veterans Healthcare Administration hospital performance measures and outcomes

    Robbins RA; Gerkin R; Singarajah CU

    2011-01-01

    Health care organizations have been using performance measures to compare hospitals. However, it is unclear if compliance with these performance measures results in better healthcare outcomes. We examined compliance with acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, pneumonia and surgical process of care measures with traditional outcome measures including mortality rates, morbidity rates, length of stay and readmission rates using the Veterans Healthcare Administration Quality and S...

  14. Deterrent Measures and Cheating Behaviour of Accounting Undergraduates in Tertiary Institutions in Lagos Nigeria

    Semiu Babatunde Adeyemi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Accountants serve in management positions where they influence the preparation of financial statements or areactually involved in their preparation. Also the public relies on accountants to attest to the truth and fairness offinancial statements as external auditors. However, the unfolding events all over the world in the recent past andcurrently, have put the accounting profession on the defence as regards members’ integrity, honesty andobjectivity in the discharge of their responsibilities. High profile corporate failures that have led to the credibilitycrisis in financial reporting are reported in many parts of the world. In order to address the credibility crisis infinancial reporting, it is necessary, at least partly, to revisit the framework within which professional accountantsare produced with a view to attacking ethical violations, most especially cheating behaviour, which could lead tofuture ethical problems. The accounting profession draws substantial portion of its prospective professionalaccountants from the accounting students of tertiary institutions, whose ethical disposition while in the universityor polytechnic could affect their future professional career if not properly directed. The aim of this study is to findout the extent of the participation of the Accounting Students in different forms of cheating, their reasons forcheating and what they perceived as factors that could curb the practice of cheating. The study adopted surveyresearch method and the instrument of survey was the research questionnaire. The study found that someAccounting Students were involved in cheating in their academic activities in tertiary institutions in Lagos State.It is also found that some deterrent measures could be effective in curbing cheating behaviour, if properly applied.

  15. Longitudinal evaluation of patient-reported outcomes measurement information systems measures in pediatric chronic pain.

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Carle, Adam; Barnett, Kimberly; Goldschneider, Kenneth R; Sherry, David D; Mara, Constance A; Cunningham, Natoshia; Farrell, Jennifer; Tress, Jenna; DeWitt, Esi Morgan

    2016-02-01

    The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) initiative is a comprehensive strategy by the National Institutes of Health to support the development and validation of precise instruments to assess self-reported health domains across healthy and disease-specific populations. Much progress has been made in instrument development, but there remains a gap in the validation of PROMIS measures for pediatric chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the construct validity and responsiveness to change of 7 PROMIS domains for the assessment of children (ages: 8-18) with chronic pain--Pain Interference, Fatigue, Anxiety, Depression, Mobility, Upper Extremity Function, and Peer Relationships. The PROMIS measures were administered at the initial visit and 2 follow-up visits at an outpatient chronic pain clinic (CPC; N = 82) and at an intensive amplified musculoskeletal pain day-treatment program (N = 63). Aim 1 examined construct validity of PROMIS measures by comparing them with corresponding "legacy" measures administered as part of usual care in the CPC sample. Aim 2 examined sensitivity to change in both CPC and amplified musculoskeletal pain samples. Longitudinal growth models showed that PROMIS' Pain Interference, Anxiety, Depression, Mobility, Upper Extremity, and Peer Relationship measures and legacy instruments generally performed similarly with slightly steeper slopes of improvement in legacy measures. All 7 PROMIS domains showed responsiveness to change. Results offered initial support for the validity of PROMIS measures in pediatric chronic pain. Further validation with larger and more diverse pediatric pain samples and additional legacy measures would broaden the scope of use of PROMIS in clinical research. PMID:26447704

  16. Prospective evaluation of outcome measures in free-flap surgery.

    Kelly, John L

    2004-08-01

    Free-flap failure is usually caused by venous or arterial thrombosis. In many cases, lack of experience and surgical delay also contribute to flap loss. The authors prospectively analyzed the outcome of 57 free flaps over a 28-month period (January, 1999 to April, 2001). The setting was a university hospital tertiary referral center. Anastomotic technique, ischemia time, choice of anticoagulant, and the grade of surgeon were recorded. The type of flap, medications, and co-morbidities, including preoperative radiotherapy, were also documented. Ten flaps were re-explored (17 percent). There were four cases of complete flap failure (6.7 percent) and five cases of partial failure (8.5 percent). In patients who received perioperative systemic heparin or dextran, there was no evidence of flap failure (p = .08). The mean ischemia time was similar in flaps that failed (95 +\\/- 29 min) and in those that survived (92 +\\/- 34 min). Also, the number of anastomoses performed by trainees in flaps that failed (22 percent), was similar to the number in flaps that survived (28 percent). Nine patients received preoperative radiotherapy, and there was complete flap survival in each case. This study reveals that closely supervised anastomoses performed by trainees may have a similar outcome to those performed by more senior surgeons. There was no adverse effect from radiotherapy or increased ischemia time on flap survival.

  17. Testing of Value Relevance of Accounting Measures Based on IFRS in Borsa Istanbul Equity Market

    ULUSAN, Hikmet; Ata, H. Ali

    2014-01-01

    This study is to examine whether firms listed on “Borsa Istanbul Equity Market” have shown in the value relevance of accounting measures presented according to International Financial Reporting Standards and any difference in the value relevance specific to the firm features for the period 2009-2011. This research is based on Ohlson’s (1995) price regression model which assumes there is a linear relationship between stock price and shareholders’ equity book value, and income. Furthermore, the...

  18. Principles of epistemological accountability with methodological implications for measuring, assessing, and profiling human resilience

    Almedom, Astier M; David O'Byrne; Anne Jerneck

    2015-01-01

    We propose two fundamental principles of epistemological accountability with critical methodological implications for studies designed to measure, assess, and/or profile human psychosocial resilience. Firstly, researchers involved in human psychosocial resilience studies owe it to the individuals and communities that they engage to disclose their motives and possible misreadings of the situations they enter, albeit with good intentions. Secondly, researchers and those individuals researched n...

  19. The good governance indicators of the millennium challenge account: How many dimensions are really being measured?

    Knoll, Martin; Zloczysti, Petra

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the validity of the perception-based governance indicators used by the US Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) for aid allocation decisions. By conducting Explanatory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of data from 1996 to 2009, we find that although the MCA purports to measure seven distinct dimensions of governance, only two discrete underlying dimensions, the perceived 'participatory dimension of governance' and the perceived 'overall quality of governance,' can be identifi...

  20. A generalized maximum entropy stochastic frontier measuring productivity accounting for spatial dependency

    Valerien Pede; Axel Tonini

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a stochastic frontier model accounting for spatial dependency is developed using generalized maximum entropy estimation. An application is made for measuring total factor productivity in European agriculture. The empirical results show that agricultural productivity growth in Europe is driven by upward movements of technology over time through technological developments. Results are then compared for a situation in which spatial dependency in the technical inefficiency effects ...

  1. Overview of outcome measurement for adults using social care services and support

    Netten, Ann

    2011-01-01

    What is meant by outcome inevitably varies depending on the context and scope of what is under consideration. This review discusses the measurement of outcome for individuals and their carers for research purposes, particularly the type of research which evaluates the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of social care for adults and which has implications for social care practice. The review discusses what is meant by outcome in social care, presenting a model that describes different ‘types...

  2. Overview report of the international workshop on the near-real-time accountancy measure

    After establishing the process and accountancy data-base for a 1000 t HM/a reference reprocessing facility, the workshop developed simulation models for the sequential generation of data for throughput and inventory of plutonium in the process material balance area (MBA). A well defined set of boundary conditions and parameter values for measurement uncertainties and loss patterns was established, on the basis of which a number of sequential statistical test procedures was evaluated. One important condition for the application of the NRTA measure was the stipulation that routinely measured Pu inventories in process tanks only, would be used, since more than 95% of Pu inventories in the process MBA are in these tanks. About 12 kg of Pu, expected to be the normal inventory in six pulse columns, was assumed to be constant. In spite of the simplifications made and the fact that mainly simulated data were used, these investigations permit the conclusion that the NRTA measure provides a greater sensitivity in terms of the amounts which can be detected and the timeliness of detection, than the conventional material accountancy. Since measurements are restricted to process tanks only, routinely available measurement techniques can be used. (orig.)

  3. Relationship outcomes as measurement criteria to assist communication strategists to manage organisational relationships

    E. Botha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonfinancial assets like relationships are increasingly important to managers. Communication managers in particular are focusing on measuring and managing organisational relationships as a means to quantify the return on investment (ROI of public relations and communication strategies. Measuring relationships offers communication managers a way to evaluate its contribution to the organisation. A commonly agreed upon definition of these relationships, however, does not exist. If we consider communication management is a managerial function, it must first refine its instruments of measurement. This study looks at the three-stage model of organisational relationships (relationship antecedents, maintenance strategies and relationship outcomes proposed by Grunig & Huang (2000 to firstly review the development of the model. Secondly, the study takes an in-depth look at each relationship outcomes of trust, commitment, satisfaction and control mutuality. Lastly, we assess the reliability and validity of the use of current relationship outcome measures through a survey of 154 organisational relationships. Previous studies that have utilized these outcomes in the measurement of organisational relationships do not discuss the possible interaction (or relationship among these outcomes. This study contributes to current literature by both providing an improved framework for the measurement of relationship outcomes and hypothesizing about how these outcomes interact with one another. It also discusses the managerial implications of managing relationships through the constant measurement of trust, commitment, satisfaction and control mutuality

  4. Physical outcome measure for critical care patients following intensive care discharge

    Devine, H.; MacTavish, P.; Quasim, T.; Kinsella, J; Daniel, M; McPeake, J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the most suitable physical outcome measures to be used with critical care patients following discharge. ICU survivors experience physical problems such as reduced exercise capacity and intensive care acquired weakness. NICE guideline ‘Rehabilitation after critical illness’ (1) recommends the use of outcome measures however does not provide any specific guidance. A recent Cochrane review noted wide variability in measures...

  5. Patient-reported outcome measures for hip preservation surgery—a systematic review of the literature

    Ramisetty, N; Kwon, Y.; Mohtadi, N.

    2015-01-01

    Hip preservation surgery is rapidly advancing and patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures are becoming an integral part of measuring treatment effectiveness. Traditionally the modified Harris hip score has been used as the main outcome measure. More recently, new PRO tools in the field have been developed. We performed a systematic review of the English literature from MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and SPORTDiscus databases to identify the PRO tools used in h...

  6. Development of a simulation program to study error propagation in the reprocessing input accountancy measurements

    A physical model and a computer program have been developed to simulate all the measurement operations involved with the Isotopic Dilution Analysis technique currently applied in the Volume - Concentration method for the Reprocessing Input Accountancy, together with their errors or uncertainties. The simulator is apt to easily solve a number of problems related to the measurement sctivities of the plant operator and the inspector. The program, written in Fortran 77, is based on a particular Montecarlo technique named ''Random Sampling''; a full description of the code is reported

  7. Synthesis and review: delivering on conservation promises: the challenges of managing and measuring conservation outcomes

    Growing threats and limited resources have always been the financial realities of biodiversity conservation. As the conservation sector has matured, however, the accountability of conservation investments has become an increasingly debated topic, with two key topics being driven to the forefront of the discourse: understanding how to manage the risks associated with our conservation investments and demonstrating that our investments are making a difference through evidence-based analyses. A better understanding of the uncertainties associated with conservation decisions is a central component of managing risks to investments that is often neglected. This focus issue presents both theoretical and applied approaches to quantifying and managing risks. Furthermore, transparent and replicable approaches to measuring impacts of conservation investments are noticeably absent in many conservation programs globally. This focus issue contains state of the art conservation program impact evaluations that both demonstrate how these methods can be used to measure outcomes as well as directing future investments. This focus issue thus brings together current thinking and case studies that can provide a valuable resource for directing future conservation investments. (paper)

  8. Synthesis and review: delivering on conservation promises: the challenges of managing and measuring conservation outcomes

    Adams, Vanessa M.; Game, Edward T.; Bode, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Growing threats and limited resources have always been the financial realities of biodiversity conservation. As the conservation sector has matured, however, the accountability of conservation investments has become an increasingly debated topic, with two key topics being driven to the forefront of the discourse: understanding how to manage the risks associated with our conservation investments and demonstrating that our investments are making a difference through evidence-based analyses. A better understanding of the uncertainties associated with conservation decisions is a central component of managing risks to investments that is often neglected. This focus issue presents both theoretical and applied approaches to quantifying and managing risks. Furthermore, transparent and replicable approaches to measuring impacts of conservation investments are noticeably absent in many conservation programs globally. This focus issue contains state of the art conservation program impact evaluations that both demonstrate how these methods can be used to measure outcomes as well as directing future investments. This focus issue thus brings together current thinking and case studies that can provide a valuable resource for directing future conservation investments.

  9. Indicators as an Instrument of Measurement in Management Accounting in Logistics Enterprises in Poland

    Justyna Dobroszek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to present the extent to which indicators applied by logistics providers in Poland measure logistics-related processes and performance in the context of implementing the concept of management accounting in the enterprises that were researched. Methodology: The research methods used by the authors included a literature review of mainly German and Polish publications and survey research conducted in 2011–2013 among logistics enterprises in Poland. This study served as the basis for verifying four hypotheses and formulating conclusions. Findings: The main results of this study showed that management accounting systems are implemented in about half of then logistics providers in Poland covered by the survey. 75% of all enterprises conducted indicator analysis to evaluate logistics processes, costs and performance, and 90% of the indicators used by these enterprises were of a financial nature. Research limitations: The main limitation of the research was associated with conducting the survey. The low return rate of completed questionnaires did not allow for a detailed analysis of the undertaken subject to be conducted. Moreover, the research results cannot be generalized to all logistics companies in Poland. Originality: The study was the first review of the application of indicators in logistics companies in Poland in relation to the implementation of the management accounting concept. The study provides knowledge about how Polish logistics enterprises use indicators as an important management accounting instrument.

  10. A Systematic Review of Outcome Measurements and Quality of Studies Evaluating Fixed Tooth-Supported Restorations

    Rajnikant Patel, D.; O'Brien, T; Petrie, A.; Petridis, H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to review clinical studies of fixed tooth-supported prostheses, and to assess the quality of evidence with an emphasis on the assessment of the reporting of outcome measurements. Multiple hypotheses were generated to compare the effect of study type on different outcome modifiers and to compare the quality of publications before and after January 2005.

  11. The National Outcomes Measurement System for Pediatric Speech-Language Pathology

    Mullen, Robert; Schooling, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA's) National Outcomes Measurement System (NOMS) was developed in the late 1990s. The primary purpose was to serve as a source of data for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who found themselves called on to provide empirical evidence of the functional outcomes associated with their…

  12. Measuring the Quality of VET Using the Student Outcomes Survey. Occasional Paper

    Lee, Wang-Sheng; Polidano, Cain

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this report is to examine the potential use of information from the Student Outcomes Survey, including the use of student course satisfaction information and post-study outcomes, as a means of determining markers of training quality. In an analysis of the student course satisfaction measures, the authors found there are very small…

  13. Assessing the Psychological Changes of Gifted Students Attending a Residential High School with an Outcome Measurement

    Rollins, Marlon R.; Cross, Tracy L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the psychological changes that 272 students experienced while attending a residential school for gifted adolescents in the Midwest. This article shares the quantitative portion of a mixed-methods study. Outcome measurement data from the Youth Outcome Questionnaire Self-Report 2.0 (YOQ-SR) tracked students' level of…

  14. Consensus for tinnitus patient assessment and treatment outcome measurement : Tinnitus Research Initiative meeting, Regensburg, July 2006

    Langguth, B.; Goodey, R.; Azevedo, A.; Bjorne, A.; Cacace, A.; Crocetti, A.; Del Bo, L.; De Ridder, D.; Diges, I.; Elbert, T.; Flor, H.; Herraiz, C.; Ganz Sanchez, T.; Eichhammer, P.; Figueiredo, R.; Hajak, G.; Kleinjung, T.; Landgrebe, M.; Londero, A.; Lainez, M. J. A.; Mazzoli, M.; Meikle, M. B.; Melcher, J.; Rauschecker, J. P.; Sand, P. G.; Struve, M.; Van de Heyning, P.; Van Dijk, P.; Vergara, R.; Langguth, B; Hajak, G; Kleinjung, T; Cacace, A; Moller, AR

    2007-01-01

    There is widespread recognition that consistency between research centres in the ways that patients with tinnitus are assessed and outcomes following interventions are measured would facilitate more effective co-operation and more meaningful evaluations and comparisons of outcomes. At the first Tinn

  15. Treatment of patients with hand osteoarthritis : outcome measures, patient satisfaction, and economic evaluation

    Marks, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the limitations in daily life, outcome measures, clinical outcomes with the emphasis on patient satisfaction, and economic aspects of the treatment of hand osteoarthritis (OA). Patients with hand OA report severe restrictions in daily life, in particular in

  16. Health outcomes in diabetics measured with Minnesota Community Measurement quality metrics

    Takahashi PY

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Paul Y Takahashi,1 Jennifer L St Sauver,2 Lila J Finney Rutten,2 Robert M Jacobson,3 Debra J Jacobson,2 Michaela E McGree,2 Jon O Ebbert1 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Primary Care Internal Medicine, 2Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic Robert D and Patricia E Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, 3Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Division of Community Pediatrics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Objective: Our objective was to understand the relationship between optimal diabetes control, as defined by Minnesota Community Measurement (MCM, and adverse health outcomes including emergency department (ED visits, hospitalizations, 30-day rehospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU stay, and mortality. Patients and methods: In 2009, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of empaneled Employee and Community Health patients with diabetes mellitus. We followed patients from 1 September 2009 until 30 June 2011 for hospitalization and until 5 January 2014 for mortality. Optimal control of diabetes mellitus was defined as achieving the following three measures: low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol <100 mg/mL, blood pressure <140/90 mmHg, and hemoglobin A1c <8%. Using the electronic medical record, we assessed hospitalizations, ED visits, ICU stays, 30-day rehospitalizations, and mortality. The chi-square or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to compare those with and without optimal control. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the associations between optimal diabetes mellitus status and each outcome. Results: We identified 5,731 empaneled patients with diabetes mellitus; 2,842 (49.6% were in the optimal control category. After adjustment, we observed that non-optimally controlled patients had higher risks for hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR] 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00–1.23, ED visits (HR 1.15; 95% CI 1.06–1.25, and mortality (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.09–1

  17. Accounting for the speed shear in wind turbine power performance measurement

    Wagner, Rozenn

    The power curve of a wind turbine is the primary characteristic of the machine as it is the basis of the warranty for it power production. The current IEC standard for power performance measurement only requires the measurement of the wind speed at hub height and the air density to characterise the...... the vertical wind shear and the turbulence intensity. The work presented in this thesis consists of the description and the investigation of a simple method to account for the wind speed shear in the power performance measurement. Ignoring this effect was shown to result in a power curve dependant on...... the scatter in the power curve. A power curve defined in terms of this equivalent wind speed would be less dependant on the shear than the standard power curve. The equivalent wind speed method was then experimentally validated with lidar measurements. Two equivalent wind speed definitions were...

  18. Accounting for the speed shear in wind turbine power performance measurement

    Wagner, R.

    2010-04-15

    The power curve of a wind turbine is the primary characteristic of the machine as it is the basis of the warranty for it power production. The current IEC standard for power performance measurement only requires the measurement of the wind speed at hub height and the air density to characterise the wind field in front of the turbine. However, with the growing size of the turbine rotors during the last years, the effect of the variations of the wind speed within the swept rotor area, and therefore of the power output, cannot be ignored any longer. Primary effects on the power performance are from the vertical wind shear and the turbulence intensity. The work presented in this thesis consists of the description and the investigation of a simple method to account for the wind speed shear in the power performance measurement. Ignoring this effect was shown to result in a power curve dependant on the shear condition, therefore on the season and the site. It was then proposed to use an equivalent wind speed accounting for the whole speed profile in front of the turbine. The method was first tested with aerodynamic simulations of a multi-megawatt wind turbine which demonstrated the decrease of the scatter in the power curve. A power curve defined in terms of this equivalent wind speed would be less dependant on the shear than the standard power curve. The equivalent wind speed method was then experimentally validated with lidar measurements. Two equivalent wind speed definitions were considered both resulting in the reduction of the scatter in the power curve. As a lidar wind profiler can measure the wind speed at several heights within the rotor span, the wind speed profile is described with more accuracy than with the power law model. The equivalent wind speed derived from measurements, including at least one measurement above hub height, resulted in a smaller scatter in the power curve than the equivalent wind speed derived from profiles extrapolated from measurements

  19. Comparing measures of racial/ethnic discrimination, coping, and associations with health-related outcomes in a diverse sample.

    Benjamins, Maureen R

    2013-10-01

    Discrimination is detrimental to health behaviors and outcomes, but little is known about which measures of discrimination are most strongly related to health, if relationships with health outcomes vary by race/ethnicity, and if coping responses moderate these associations. To explore these issues, the current study assessed race/ethnic differences in five measures of race/ethnic discrimination, as well as emotional and behavioral coping responses, within a population-based sample of Whites, African Americans, Mexicans, and Puerto Ricans (n = 1,699). Stratified adjusted logistic regression models were run to examine associations between the discrimination measures and mental, physical, and health behavior outcomes and to test the role of coping. Overall, 86 % of the sample reported discrimination. Puerto Ricans were more likely than Mexicans and Whites to report most types of discrimination but less likely than Blacks. Discrimination was most strongly related to depression and was less consistently (or not) associated with physical health and health behaviors. Differences by measure of discrimination and respondent race/ethnicity were apparent. No support was found to suggest that coping responses moderate the association between discrimination and health. More work is needed to understand the health effects of this widespread social problem. In addition, interventions attempting to reduce health disparities need to take into account the influence of discrimination. PMID:23430374

  20. Upper Limb Outcome Measures Used in Stroke Rehabilitation Studies: A Systematic Literature Review

    Santisteban, Leire; Térémetz, Maxime; Bleton, Jean-Pierre; Baron, Jean-Claude; Maier, Marc A.; Lindberg, Påvel G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Establishing which upper limb outcome measures are most commonly used in stroke studies may help in improving consensus among scientists and clinicians. Objective In this study we aimed to identify the most commonly used upper limb outcome measures in intervention studies after stroke and to describe domains covered according to ICF, how measures are combined, and how their use varies geographically and over time. Methods Pubmed, CinHAL, and PeDRO databases were searched for upper limb intervention studies in stroke according to PRISMA guidelines and477 studies were included. Results In studies 48different outcome measures were found. Only 15 of these outcome measures were used in more than 5% of the studies. The Fugl-Meyer Test (FMT)was the most commonly used measure (in 36% of studies). Commonly used measures covered ICF domains of body function and activity to varying extents. Most studies (72%) combined multiple outcome measures: the FMT was often combined with the Motor Activity Log (MAL), the Wolf Motor Function Test and the Action Research Arm Test, but infrequently combined with the Motor Assessment Scale or the Nine Hole Peg Test. Key components of manual dexterity such as selective finger movements were rarely measured. Frequency of use increased over a twelve-year period for the FMT and for assessments of kinematics, whereas other measures, such as the MAL and the Jebsen Taylor Hand Test showed decreased use over time. Use varied largely between countries showing low international consensus. Conclusions The results showed a large diversity of outcome measures used across studies. However, a growing number of studies used the FMT, a neurological test with good psychometric properties. For thorough assessment the FMT needs to be combined with functional measures. These findings illustrate the need for strategies to build international consensus on appropriate outcome measures for upper limb function after stroke. PMID:27152853

  1. Measuring Networking as an Outcome Variable in Undergraduate Research Experiences

    Hanauer, David I.; Hatfull, Graham

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes, presents, and validates a simple survey instrument to measure student conversational networking. The tool covers both personal and professional social networks and may be significant for exploring issues of retention and the development of scientific literacy.

  2. Outcome Measurement in Economic Evaluations of Public Health Interventions: a Role for the Capability Approach?

    Lorgelly, Paula K; Lawson, Kenny D.; Fenwick, Elisabeth A.L.; Briggs, Andrew H

    2010-01-01

    Public health interventions have received increased attention from policy makers, and there has been a corresponding increase in the number of economic evaluations within the domain of public health. However, methods to evaluate public health interventions are less well established than those for medical interventions. Focusing on health as an outcome measure is likely to underestimate the impact of many public health interventions. This paper provides a review of outcome measures in public h...

  3. Quantum interferometry with binary-outcome measurements in the presence of phase diffusion

    Feng, X. M.; Jin, G. R.; Yang, W.

    2014-01-01

    Optimal measurement scheme with an efficient data processing is important in quantum-enhanced interferometry. Here we prove that for a general binary outcome measurement, the simplest data processing based on inverting the average signal can saturate the Cram\\'{e}r-Rao bound. This idea is illustrated by binary outcome homodyne detection, even-odd photon counting (i.e., parity detection), and zero-nonzero photon counting that have achieved super-resolved interferometric fringe and shot-noise l...

  4. Routine measurement of outcomes in Australia's public sector mental health services

    Pirkis, Jane; Burgess, Philip; Coombs, Tim; Clarke, Adam; Jones-Ellis, David; Dickson, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    Objective This paper describes the Australian experience to date with a national 'roll out' of routine outcome measurement in public sector mental health services. Methods Consultations were held with 123 stakeholders representing a range of roles. Results Australia has made an impressive start to nationally implementing routine outcome measurement in mental health services, although it still has a long way to go. All States/Territories have established data collection systems, although some ...

  5. Measuring Social Capital as an Outcome of Service Learning

    D'Agostino, Maria J.

    2010-01-01

    Service-learning has been put forth as one of the proposed solutions to increasing social capital. However, service-learning research has not significantly addressed the impact of service learning on social capital. Unlike most previous studies, this research used quantitative analysis to measure the effect of university service-learning programs…

  6. Transactional stress and coping theory in accounting for psychological states measures

    V. Buško

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines a relative predictive value of some stable individual attributes and the processes of cognitive appraisals and coping with stress in accounting for specific components of anxiety state measures. Self-report instruments for the measurement of selected psychological constructs, i.e. perceived incompetence, externality, stress intensity and duration, situation-specific coping strategies, and the two anxiety state components, were taken in a sample of 449 male military basics trainees, ranging in age from 18-27. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the set of predictors employed could account for statistically, as well as theoretically and practically a significant part of variance in cognitive anxiety component (45,5%, and in visceral-emotional component (32,2% of the anxiety state. The extent of anxiety reactions assessed by both scales could primarily be explained by general perception of personal incompetence, as a relatively stable dimension of general self-concept. Of the ways of coping examined, reinterpretation of stressful events was the only strategy contributing to low level, whereas passivization, wishful thinking, and seeking social support contributed to higher levels of anxiety measured by both scales. The results give partial support to the basic hypotheses on the mediating role of coping in the relationships among particular components of the stress and coping models.

  7. How to simplify the analytics for input-output accountability measurements in a reprocessing plant

    An analytical approach to high-performance uranium and plutonium accountancy measurements in reprocessing input and output solutions is presented, which provides larger operational simplicity than the conventionally applied chemical methods. The proposed alternative is based on energy-dispersive absorption edge and fluorescence X-ray spectrometry, using the proven and reliable K-edge densitometry technique as reference method. Two X-ray densitometers developed for accurate and reliable uranium and plutonium analysis in both the feed and product solutions are described. Practical experiences and results from their performance evaluation on actual process solutions from a reprocessing plant are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  8. Outcome Measures in Tele-Rehabilitation and Virtual Reality for Stroke Survivors: Protocol for a Scoping Review

    Veras, Mirella; Kairy, Dahlia; Rogante, Marco; Giacomozzi, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increased interest about tele-rehabilitation, virtual reality and outcome measures for stroke rehabilitation, surprisingly little research has been done to map and summarize the most common outcome measures used in tele-rehabilitation. For this review, we propose to conduct a systematic search of the literature that reports outcome measures used in tele-rehabilitation or virtual reality for stroke rehabilitation. Specific objectives include: 1) to identify the outcome measures use...

  9. Use of the measure your medical outcome profile (MYMOP2 and W-BQ12 (Well-Being outcomes measures to evaluate chiropractic treatment: an observational study

    Polus Barbara I

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to assess the use of the Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile (MYMOP2 and W-BQ12 well-being questionnaire for measuring clinical change associated with a course of chiropractic treatment. Methods Chiropractic care of the patients involved spinal manipulative therapy (SMT, mechanically assisted techniques, soft tissue therapy, and physiological therapeutic devices. Outcome measures used were MYMOP2 and the Well-Being Questionnaire 12 (W-BQ12. Results Statistical and clinical significant changes were demonstrated with W-BQ12 and MYMOP2. Conclusions The study demonstrated that MYMOP2 was responsive to change and may be a useful instrument for assessing clinical changes among chiropractic patients who present with a variety of symptoms and clinical conditions.

  10. Refining estimates of public health spending as measured in national health expenditure accounts: the Canadian experience.

    Ballinger, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    The recent focus on public health stemming from, among other things, severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian flu has created an imperative to refine health-spending estimates in the Canadian Health Accounts. This article presents the Canadian experience in attempting to address the challenges associated with developing the needed taxonomies for systematically capturing, measuring, and analyzing the national investment in the Canadian public health system. The first phase of this process was completed in 2005, which was a 2-year project to estimate public health spending based on a more classic definition by removing the administration component of the previously combined public health and administration category. Comparing the refined public health estimate with recent data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development still positions Canada with the highest share of total health expenditure devoted to public health than any other country reporting. The article also provides an analysis of the comparability of public health estimates across jurisdictions within Canada as well as a discussion of the recommendations for ongoing improvement of public health spending estimates. The Canadian Institute for Health Information is an independent, not-for-profit organization that provides Canadians with essential statistics and analysis on the performance of the Canadian health system, the delivery of healthcare, and the health status of Canadians. The Canadian Institute for Health Information administers more than 20 databases and registries, including Canada's Health Accounts, which tracks historically 40 categories of health spending by 5 sources of finance for 13 provincial and territorial jurisdictions. Until 2005, expenditure on public health services in the Canadian Health Accounts included measures to prevent the spread of communicable disease, food and drug safety, health inspections, health promotion, community mental health programs, public

  11. Measure of Information Content of Remotely Sensed Images Accounting for Spatial Correlation

    ZHANG Ying

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A measure is proposed based on the information theory and geostatistics to evaluate information content in remotely sensed images. The method is based on the additive noise model and maximum mutual information.These factors affecting the information content have been taken into account, such as noise, spatial correlation and so on. It is suitable for measuring the information content in optical images that have robust spatial correlation with different land cover types. An experiment was performed on a Landsat TM image with three different kinds of land cover types (city, farmland and mountain. The result shows that city has the most information content. It also proves that there is a log positive correlation between information content and the variance of the images.

  12. Material accountancy measurement techniques in dry-powdered processing of nuclear spent fuels

    The paper addresses the development of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICPMS), thermal ionization-mass spectrometry (TIMS), alpha-spectrometry, and gamma spectrometry techniques for in-line analysis of highly irradiated (18 to 64 GWD/T) PWR spent fuels in a dry-powdered processing cycle. The dry-powdered technique for direct elemental and isotopic accountancy assay measurements was implemented without the need for separation of the plutonium, uranium and fission product elements in the bulk powdered process. The analyses allow the determination of fuel burn-up based on the isotopic composition of neodymium and/or cesium. An objective of the program is to develop the ICPMS method for direct fissile nuclear materials accountancy in the dry-powdered processing of spent fuel. The ICPMS measurement system may be applied to the KAERI DUPIC (direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) experiment, and in a near-real-time mode for international safeguards verification and non-proliferation policy concerns

  13. Capturing Psychologists' Work in Integrated Care: Measuring and Documenting Administrative Outcomes.

    Kearney, Lisa K; Smith, Clifford A; Pomerantz, Andrew S

    2015-12-01

    With the expansion of integrated primary care and the increased focus on fiscal sustainability, it is critical for clinical managers of these innovative systems to have practical methods for measuring administrative outcomes. Administrative outcomes will assist leadership in the development of efficient, streamlined clinics to provide services to the primary care population. Additionally, administrative measures can be utilized to provide information to assist in guiding resource utilization and management decisions. Several administrative outcomes are suggested for integrated primary care managers to consider for application, including: clinic utilization measures, integrated care administrative measures, wait time and access metrics, and productivity monitors. Effective utilization of these measures can help office managers and clinic leadership not only to maximize patient care, but also to enhance essential business operations, which increase the long-term sustainability of integrated primary care programs. PMID:26645090

  14. 48 CFR 9904.412 - Cost accounting standard for composition and measurement of pension cost.

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.412 Cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting...

  15. How measurement artifacts affect cerebral autoregulation outcomes: A technical note on transfer function analysis.

    Meel-van den Abeelen, Aisha S S; de Jong, Daan L K; Lagro, Joep; Panerai, Ronney B; Claassen, Jurgen A H R

    2016-05-01

    Cerebral autoregulation (CA) is the mechanism that aims to maintain adequate cerebral perfusion during changes in blood pressure (BP). Transfer function analysis (TFA), the most reported method in literature to quantify CA, shows large between-study variability in outcomes. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of measurement artifacts in this variation. Specifically, the role of distortion in the BP and/or CBFV measurementon TFA outcomes was investigated. The influence of three types of artifacts on TFA outcomes was studied: loss of signal, motion artifacts, and baseline drifts. TFA metrics of signals without the simulated artifacts were compared with those of signals with artifacts. TFA outcomes scattered highly when more than 10% of BP signal or over 8% of the CBFV signal was lost, or when measurements contained one or more artifacts resulting from head movement. Furthermore, baseline drift affected interpretation of TFA outcomes when the power in the BP signal was 5 times the power in the LF band. In conclusion, loss of signal in BP and loss in CBFV, affects interpretation of TFA outcomes. Therefore, it is vital to validate signal quality to the defined standards before interpreting TFA outcomes. PMID:26935320

  16. THE USE OF FAIR VALUE ACCOUNTING, BUSINESS OUTCOMES, AND INVESTOR CONFIDENCE FOR SELECTED ROMANIAN AND TURKISH FIRMS

    Ibrahim Mert

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The purpose of this quantitative, correlative, and survey-based study was to determinewhether the use of fair value accounting by publicly-listed companies in Turkey and Romania wasassociated with significant variation in investors‘ (1) optimism about increases in the company‘sstock price, (2) likelihood of buying more stock, and (3) evaluation of the company‘s transparency.After controlling for company size, industry, and geographic location, it was found that the use offair value ...

  17. Estimation of the thermal diffusion coefficient in fusion plasmas taking frequency measurement uncertainties into account

    In this paper, the estimation of the thermal diffusivity from perturbative experiments in fusion plasmas is discussed. The measurements used to estimate the thermal diffusivity suffer from stochastic noise. Accurate estimation of the thermal diffusivity should take this into account. It will be shown that formulas found in the literature often result in a thermal diffusivity that has a bias (a difference between the estimated value and the actual value that remains even if more measurements are added) or have an unnecessarily large uncertainty. This will be shown by modeling a plasma using only diffusion as heat transport mechanism and measurement noise based on ASDEX Upgrade measurements. The Fourier coefficients of a temperature perturbation will exhibit noise from the circular complex normal distribution (CCND). Based on Fourier coefficients distributed according to a CCND, it is shown that the resulting probability density function of the thermal diffusivity is an inverse non-central chi-squared distribution. The thermal diffusivity that is found by sampling this distribution will always be biased, and averaging of multiple estimated diffusivities will not necessarily improve the estimation. Confidence bounds are constructed to illustrate the uncertainty in the diffusivity using several formulas that are equivalent in the noiseless case. Finally, a different method of averaging, that reduces the uncertainty significantly, is suggested. The methodology is also extended to the case where damping is included, and it is explained how to include the cylindrical geometry. (paper)

  18. Accounting for Outcome Misclassification in Estimates of the Effect of Occupational Asbestos Exposure on Lung Cancer Death

    Edwards, Jessie K.; Stephen R Cole; Chu, Haitao; Olshan, Andrew F.; Richardson, David B.

    2013-01-01

    In studies of the health effects of asbestos, lung cancer death is subject to misclassification. We used modified maximum likelihood to explore the effects of outcome misclassification on the rate ratio of lung cancer death per 100 fiber-years per milliliter of cumulative asbestos exposure in a cohort study of textile workers in Charleston, South Carolina, followed from 1940 to 2001. The standard covariate-adjusted estimate of the rate ratio was 1.94 (95% confidence interval: 1.55, 2.44), and...

  19. A Systematic Review of Outcome Measurements and Quality of Studies Evaluating Fixed Tooth-Supported Restorations

    Patel, Devangkumar Rajnikant; O'Brien, Tim; Petrie, Aviva; Petridis, Haralampos

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this systematic review was to review clinical studies of fixed tooth-supported prostheses, and to assess the quality of evidence with an emphasis on the assessment of the reporting of outcome measurements. Multiple hypotheses were generated to compare the effect of study type on different outcome modifiers and to compare the quality of publications before and after January 2005. Materials and Methods An electronic search was conducted using specific databases (MEDLINE v...

  20. Surrogacy assessment using principal stratification when surrogate and outcome measures are multivariate normal

    Conlon, Anna S. C.; Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Elliott, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    In clinical trials, a surrogate outcome variable (S) can be measured before the outcome of interest (T) and may provide early information regarding the treatment (Z) effect on T. Using the principal surrogacy framework introduced by Frangakis and Rubin (2002. Principal stratification in causal inference. Biometrics 58, 21–29), we consider an approach that has a causal interpretation and develop a Bayesian estimation strategy for surrogate validation when the joint distribution of potential...

  1. Single-outcome information gain of qubit measurements on different state ensembles

    We calculate the single-outcome information gain of quantum measurements on a completely unknown qubit state randomly chosen from different state ensembles. It is shown that the information gain decreases when the ensemble size increases. We obtain analytic single-outcome information gain formulas for continuous equatorial and spherical state ensembles, which show that the states in the former ensemble are relatively easier to identify. The squared fidelity between post-measurement state and pre-measurement state is also calculated, and the qualitative tradeoff relations between information gain and fidelity are illustrated by our results. (paper)

  2. Possible clinical outcome measures for clinical trials in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Goldman, Myla D.; Motl, Robert W.; Rudick, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease with both clinical and pathological heterogeneity. The complexity of the MS population has offered challenges to the measurement of MS disease progression in therapeutic trials. The current standard clinical outcome measures are relapse rate, Expanded Disability Severity Scale (EDSS), and the MS Functional Composite (MSFC). These measures each have strengths and some weakness. Two additional measures, the six-minu...

  3. What outcome measures should be developed for pre-hospital care?: results of a consensus event

    Turner, Janette; Coster, Joanne; Wilson, Richard; Phung, Viet-Hai; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The PhOEBE (Pre-hospital Outcomes for Evidence Based Evaluation) project is a 5-year research programme which aims to develop new ways of measuring the performance, quality and impact of ambulance service care. As part of this programme we conducted 2 systematic reviews to identify potential measures and held a consensus event to prioritise these measures. Methods: Actual or potential measures or indicators for assessing ambulance service performance or quality of care were ide...

  4. Plant Measurement, Sampling and Analysis for Accountancy Purposes with Particular Reference to Separation Plants at Windscale

    All figures for special materials accountancy purposes contain one or more of three parameters, namely plant measurement, sampling and analysis. For plant measurements it is best to use weighings wherever possible, e.g. the plutonium in the feed to the New Separation Plant is based on the weight of uranium rods fed. Methods used for measuring volumes are discussed, e.g. (a) pneumercator, and (b) tracer method using radioactive caesium. Judged accuracies and precisions of each method are given. The sampling of solutions in a batch process is done by using evacuated tubes after thorough homogenization of the solution. For ''flowing'' streams, where high accuracy is required, a continuous sampler has been devised and is used on the feed to the New Separation Plant. Drilling of metal ingots is the normal sampling method at Windscale, whereas for other solids the method is to homogenize as far as possible (e.g. a Y cone blender is used for plutonium oxide) and then sample. For the chemical analysis, the precision required of the method depends on the number of determinations in each accounting period. Thus a large number of analyses are required for an accurate but imprecise method. It may be more economical to use fewer determinations with a more precise method. Methods for determining plutonium are discussed in detail, e.g. (a) radiochemistry, (b) colorimetrically using thoronol, (c) plutonium separation, complexing with EDTA and back titration of the excess EDTA, (d) titrimetry (e) isotope dilution followed by mass spectrometry and (f) differential spectrometry. Methods for determining uranium are outlined, e.g. (a) gravimetry as U3O8, (b) ether extraction followed by gravimetry or colorimetry, (c) titrimetry, (d) isotope dilution followed by mass spectrometry and (e) enrichment determination by mass spectrometry or line shift emission spectrography. With all accounting methods standards are used to give quality control and to show any inaccuracy which requires to be

  5. A quantitative approach to the effects of social policy measures. An application to Portugal, using Social Accounting Matrices

    Santos, Susana

    2010-01-01

    The impacts of policy measures on transfers between government and households will be quantified using Social Accounting Matrices (SAMs). The System of National Accounts (SNA) will be the main source used for the construction of the numerical version of these matrices, which will then form the basis for two algebraic versions. One version will consist of accounting multipliers, and structural path analysis will also be used for its decomposition. The other version will be a so-called SAM-b...

  6. The Benchmarking Capacity of a General Outcome Measure of Academic Language in Science and Social Studies

    Mooney, Paul; Lastrapes, Renée E.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of research evaluating the technical merits of general outcome measures of science and social studies achievement is growing. This study targeted criterion validity for critical content monitoring. Questions addressed the concurrent criterion validity of alternate presentation formats of critical content monitoring and the measure's…

  7. Outcomes Measurement in Voice Disorders: Application of an Acoustic Index of Dysphonia Severity

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Roy, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to assess the ability of an acoustic model composed of both time-based and spectral-based measures to track change following voice disorder treatment and to serve as a possible treatment outcomes measure. Method: A weighted, four-factor acoustic algorithm consisting of shimmer, pitch sigma, the ratio of…

  8. Outcome Classification of Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Mri Brain Measures.

    Akshoomoff, Natacha; Lord, Catherine; Lincoln, Alan J.; Courchesne, Rachel Y.; Carper, Ruth A.; Townsend, Jeanne; Courchesne, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that a combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain measures obtained during early childhood distinguish children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from typically developing children and is associated with functional outcome. Method: Quantitative MRI technology was used to measure gray and white matter…

  9. Fatigue is a reliable, sensitive and unique outcome measure in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Minnock, Patricia

    2009-12-01

    Fatigue is an important symptom in patients with RA. Measurement of fatigue in clinical trials and in clinical practice requires scales that are reproducible, sensitive to change and practical. This study examined the reliability and sensitivity to change of fatigue and its relative independence as an outcome measure in RA.

  10. A Systematic Review of Studies That Aim to Determine Which Outcomes to Measure in Clinical Trials in Children

    Sinha, Ian; Jones, Leanne; Smyth, Rosalind L; Williamson, Paula R

    2008-01-01

    Background In clinical trials the selection of appropriate outcomes is crucial to the assessment of whether one intervention is better than another. Selection of inappropriate outcomes can compromise the utility of a trial. However, the process of selecting the most suitable outcomes to include can be complex. Our aim was to systematically review studies that address the process of selecting outcomes or outcome domains to measure in clinical trials in children. Methods and Findings We searche...

  11. Accounting for baseline differences and measurement error in the analysis of change over time.

    Braun, Julia; Held, Leonhard; Ledergerber, Bruno

    2014-01-15

    If change over time is compared in several groups, it is important to take into account baseline values so that the comparison is carried out under the same preconditions. As the observed baseline measurements are distorted by measurement error, it may not be sufficient to include them as covariate. By fitting a longitudinal mixed-effects model to all data including the baseline observations and subsequently calculating the expected change conditional on the underlying baseline value, a solution to this problem has been provided recently so that groups with the same baseline characteristics can be compared. In this article, we present an extended approach where a broader set of models can be used. Specifically, it is possible to include any desired set of interactions between the time variable and the other covariates, and also, time-dependent covariates can be included. Additionally, we extend the method to adjust for baseline measurement error of other time-varying covariates. We apply the methodology to data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study to address the question if a joint infection with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus leads to a slower increase of CD4 lymphocyte counts over time after the start of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:23900718

  12. ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND OPTIONS ON THE RECOGNITION, MEASUREMENT AND DERECOGNITION OF INVENTORIES IN PUBLIC SECTOR ENTITIES

    CRISTINA OTILIA ȚENOVICI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International accounting harmonization focuses on improving and reducing the differences between national accounting regulations concerning accounting rules and principles, of general interest, likely to determine the comparability of information in financial statements of institutions, respectively to reduce differences among accounting regulations of different countries. The reference system for drafting accounting policies allows alternatives for accounting registration and assessment, respectively different methods of assessing the patrimony, the result and financial position. The choice of an accounting option is determined by the need to provide a clear financial image on the position and performance of the institution. Thus, for stock assessment they choose the accounting policy likely to provide relevant, reliable, neutral, prudent and complete information in all significant respects by means of with the financial statements.

  13. International target values 2010 for achievable measurement uncertainties in nuclear material accountancy

    Dias, Fabio C., E-mail: fabio@ird.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, Silvio G. de; Renha Junior, Geraldo, E-mail: silvio@abacc.org.b, E-mail: grenha@abacc.org.b [Agencia Brasileiro-Argentina de Contabilidade e Controle de Materiais Nucleares (ABACC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The International Target Values (ITVs) are reasonable uncertainty estimates that can be used in judging the reliability of measurement techniques applied to industrial nuclear and fissile materials subject to accountancy and/or safeguards verification. In the absence of relevant experimental estimates, ITVs can also be used to select measurement techniques and calculate sample population during the planning phase of verification activities. It is important to note that ITVs represent estimates of the 'state-of-the-practice', which should be achievable under routine measurement conditions affecting both facility operators and safeguards inspectors, not only in the field, but also in laboratory. Tabulated values cover measurement methods used for the determination of volume or mass of the nuclear material, for its elemental and isotopic assays, and for its sampling. The 2010 edition represents the sixth revision of the International Target Values (ITVs), issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as a Safeguards Technical Report (STR-368). The first version was released as 'Target Values' in 1979 by the Working Group on Techniques and Standards for Destructive Analysis (WGDA) of the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA) and focused on destructive analytical methods. In the latest 2010 revision, international standards in estimating and expressing uncertainties have been considered while maintaining a format that allows comparison with the previous editions of the ITVs. Those standards have been usually applied in QC/QA programmes, as well as qualification of methods, techniques and instruments. Representatives of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) participated in previous Consultants Group Meetings since the one convened to establish the first list of ITVs released in 1993 and in subsequent revisions

  14. Four converging measures of temporal discounting and their relationships with intelligence, executive functions, thinking dispositions, and behavioral outcomes

    Alexandra G Basile

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Temporal discounting is the tendency to devalue temporally distant rewards. Past studies have examined the k-value, the indifference point, and the area under the curve as dependent measures on this task. The current study included these three measures and a fourth measure, called the interest rate total score. The interest rate total score was based on scoring only those items in which the delayed choice should be preferred given the expected return based on simple interest rates. In addition, associations with several individual difference measures were examined including intelligence, executive functions (inhibition, working memory, and set-shifting, thinking dispositions (Need for Cognition and Consideration of Future Consequences and engagement in substance use and gambling behavior. A staircase temporal discounting task was examined in a sample of 99 university students. Replicating previous studies, temporal discounting increased with longer delays to reward and decreased with higher reward magnitudes. A hyperbolic function accounted for variance in temporal discounting better than an exponential function. Reaction time at the indifference point was significantly longer than at the other choice points. The four dependent measures of temporal discounting were all significantly correlated and were also significantly associated with our individual difference measures. That is, the tendency to wait for a larger delayed reward on all of the temporal discounting measures was associated with higher intelligence, higher executive functions and more consideration of future consequences. Associations between our measures of temporal discounting and outcomes related to substance use and gambling behavior were modest in our university sample.

  15. Discrepancies between patient-reported outcome measures when assessing urinary incontinence or pelvic-prolapse surgery

    Larsen, Michael Due; Lose, Gunnar; Guldberg, Rikke;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: In order to assess the outcome following surgery for urinary incontinence (UI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) the importance of patient-reported outcome measures, in addition to the clinical objective measures, has been recognised. The International Consultation...... on Incontinence has initiated the development and evaluation of disease-specific questionnaires (ICIQ) to compare the patient's degree of improvement. Alternatively, the Patient's Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I score) with an inherent before-after assessment has been widely accepted in recent studies...

  16. Materials accounting in a fast-breeder-reactor fuels-reprocessing facility: optimal allocation of measurement uncertainties

    This report describes the conceptual design of a materials accounting system for the feed preparation and chemical separations processes of a fast breeder reactor spent-fuel reprocessing facility. For the proposed accounting system, optimization techniques are used to calculate instrument measurement uncertainties that meet four different accounting performance goals while minimizing the total development cost of instrument systems. We identify instruments that require development to meet performance goals and measurement uncertainty components that dominate the materials balance variance. Materials accounting in the feed preparation process is complicated by large in-process inventories and spent-fuel assembly inputs that are difficult to measure. To meet 8 kg of plutonium abrupt and 40 kg of plutonium protracted loss-detection goals, materials accounting in the chemical separations process requires: process tank volume and concentration measurements having a precision less than or equal to 1%; accountability and plutonium sample tank volume measurements having a precision less than or equal to 0.3%, a shortterm correlated error less than or equal to 0.04%, and a long-term correlated error less than or equal to 0.04%; and accountability and plutonium sample tank concentration measurements having a precision less than or equal to 0.4%, a short-term correlated error less than or equal to 0.1%, and a long-term correlated error less than or equal to 0.05%. The effects of process design on materials accounting are identified. Major areas of concern include the voloxidizer, the continuous dissolver, and the accountability tank

  17. Accountability measurement precision and accuracy values: How good is good enough?

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5633.3A requires that the desired levels of precision and accuracy be established for accountability measurements, that the magnitude of these uncertainties be minimized for major contributors to the limit of error for inventory differences (LEID), and that methods be selected, validated, and qualified that are capable of providing the desired levels. In an effort to consistently determine the desired precision and accuracy levels for measurements within each of the nuclear material processing facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a series of sensitivity studies were performed. To validate the current uncertainties as the goals, variance-propagated LEID models were used to determine the sensitivity of the LEID to each uncertainty value, using a nominal increase in the LEID as a figure-of-merit. These sensitivity studies provided the threshold values that each uncertainty needs to be held below. Engineering judgment and operational experiences were combined to qualitatively determine the need for improvement for each uncertainty. This paper describes the methodology of the sensitivity study, gives examples of the threshold values generated, and discusses the benefits of this approach in the approval process for proposed method changes

  18. Utility of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure as an admission and outcome measure in interdisciplinary community-based geriatric rehabilitation

    Larsen, Anette Enemark; Carlsson, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    as an admission and outcome measure in an interdisciplinary geriatric rehabilitation context in Denmark. Eighteen occupational and physiotherapists administered the COPM among elderly citizens. Of 185 citizens referred to the study, 152 were admitted to rehabilitation based on health indices, and 124 completed...

  19. Health economics research into supporting carers of people with dementia: a systematic review of outcome measures.

    Jones, Carys; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Hounsome, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Advisory bodies, such as the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) in the UK, advocate using preference based instruments to measure the quality of life (QoL) component of the quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Cost per QALY is used to determine cost-effectiveness, and hence funding, of interventions. QALYs allow policy makers to compare the effects of different interventions across different patient groups. Generic measures may not be sensitive enough to fully capture the QoL effects for certain populations, such as carers, so there is a need to consider additional outcome measures, which are preference based where possible to enable cost-effectiveness analysis to be undertaken. This paper reviews outcome measures commonly used in health services research and health economics research involving carers of people with dementia. An electronic database search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) and Health Technology Assessment database. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they included an outcome measure for carers of people with dementia. 2262 articles were identified. 455 articles describing 361 studies remained after exclusion criteria were applied. 228 outcome measures were extracted from the studies. Measures were categorised into 44 burden measures, 43 mastery measures, 61 mood measures, 32 QoL measures, 27 social support and relationships measures and 21 staff competency and morale measures. The choice of instrument has implications on funding decisions; therefore, researchers need to choose appropriate instruments for the population being measured and the type of intervention undertaken. If an instrument is not sensitive enough to detect changes in certain populations, the effect of an intervention may be underestimated, and hence

  20. The role of cost accounting in the university performance measurement in Portugal

    Marques, Maria da Conceição da Costa

    2010-01-01

    Cost accounting is aimed at emphasising those elements of costs and profits of original importance to the management board of an organizational unit. Therefore, cost accounting was initially understood as mere collector of costs and profits, using the traditional system of costing everything, a budget with a limited base. Originally, it was designed to calculate real costs with the aim to determine the results. In public organizations, the aim of cost accounting, costs or management, c...

  1. Outcome measures and scar aesthetics in minimally invasive video-assisted parathyroidectomy.

    Casserly, Paula

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the scar outcome of video-assisted parathyroidectomy (VAP) with traditional bilateral cervical exploration (BCE) using previously validated scar assessment scales, and to examine the feasibility of introducing VAP into a general otolaryngology-head and neck practice. DESIGN: A retrospective review of medical records from a prospectively obtained database of patients and long-term follow-up of scar analysis. PATIENTS: The records of 60 patients undergoing parathyroidectomy were reviewed: 29 patients underwent VAP and 31 patients underwent an open procedure with BCE. The groups were matched for age and sex. A total of 46 patients were followed up to assess scar outcome. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was a comparison of patient and observer scar satisfaction between VAP and traditional BCE using validated scar assessment tools: the Patient Scar Assessment Scale and the Manchester Scar Scale. The secondary outcomes were to retrospectively evaluate our results with VAP and to assess the suitability of introducing this technique into a general otolaryngology-head and neck practice. RESULTS: The average scar length in the VAP group was 1.7 cm, and the average scar length in the BCE group was 4.3 cm. The patients in the BCE group scored higher than the patients in the VAP group on the Manchester Scar Scale (P < .01) and on the Patient and Observer Scar Scales (P = .02), indicating a worse scar outcome. The mean operative time in the VAP group was 41 minutes compared with 115 minutes in the open procedure BCE group. There was no difference between the 2 groups in terms of postoperative complications. CONCLUSIONS: Video-assisted parathyroidectomy is a safe and feasible procedure in the setting of a general otolaryngology-head and neck practice, with outcomes and complication rates that are comparable to those of traditional bilateral neck exploration. Both patient and observer analysis demonstrated that VAP was associated with a more

  2. Measurement of Educational Progress in the Context of Local Demographics: Using General Outcome Measurement as a Basis for the Development and Use of Local Norms

    Koehler-Hak, Kathrine M.

    2014-01-01

    General outcome measurement, a specific type of formative evaluation, can be used to assess progress toward long-term academic goals. Curriculum-based measurement is a widely used type of general outcome measurement. When used to develop local norms, curriculum-based measurement data are helpful in making individual student and systems-level…

  3. Clinical Utility of the Modified Stroop Task as a Treatment Outcome Measure: Questions Raised

    Ball, Jillian R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Touyz, Stephen W.; Griffiths, Rosalyn A.; Beumont, Pierre J. V.

    2004-01-01

    Data from an outpatient treatment trial for anorexia nervosa were examined to gain preliminary insights as to whether the modified Stroop colour-naming task might offer a useful measure of treatment outcome. It was hypothesised that interference for eating-, weight- and shape-related words on a modified version on the Stroop colour-naming task…

  4. A Measurement Feedback System (MFS) Is Necessary to Improve Mental Health Outcomes

    Bickman, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    The importance of measurement feedback system (MFS) for the improvement of mental health services for youths is discussed. As feedback obtained from clients and families is subject to distortions, a standardized MFS including clinical processes, contexts, outcomes, and feedback to clinicians and supervisors is necessary for improvement in quality…

  5. A "Learning Platform" Approach to Outcome Measurement in Fragile X Syndrome: A Preliminary Psychometric Study

    Hall, S. S.; Hammond, J. L.; Hirt, M.; Reiss, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Clinical trials of medications to alleviate the cognitive and behavioural symptoms of individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) are now underway. However, there are few reliable, valid and/or sensitive outcome measures available that can be directly administered to individuals with FXS. The majority of assessments employed in clinical…

  6. Development of an Outcome Measurement Tool for a Teen Parent Wraparound Program

    Fries, Derrick; Carney, Karen J.; Blackman-Urteaga, Laura; Savas, Sue Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article chronicles the search for and development of an outcome measurement tool for teen parents receiving community-based wraparound services. The criteria for selecting functional assessment tools available in the literature is presented along with the barriers experienced in using two of these well-cited tools. The rationale for in-house…

  7. Side Effects of Minocycline Treatment in Patients with Fragile X Syndrome and Exploration of Outcome Measures

    Utari, Agustini; Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Rivera, Susan M.; Schneider, Andrea; Hagerman, Randi J.; Faradz, Sultana M. H.; Ethell, Iryna M.; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2010-01-01

    Minocycline can rescue the dendritic spine and synaptic structural abnormalities in the fragile X knock-out mouse. This is a review and preliminary survey to document side effects and potential outcome measures for minocycline use in the treatment of individuals with fragile X syndrome. We surveyed 50 patients with fragile X syndrome who received…

  8. National Outcome Measures for Early Childhood Development: Development of an Indicator-Based Reporting Framework

    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Council of Australian Governments released the National Early Childhood Development Strategy, Investing in the Early Years in July 2009 (COAG 2009). One of the key reform priorities in the strategy is to build better information and a solid evidence base, and establishing national outcome measures for early childhood development has been…

  9. Method and timing of tumor volume measurement for outcome prediction in cervical cancer using magnetic resonance imaging

    , which accounted for the majority of patients (55%). Tumor regression rate (fast vs. slow) obtained during mid-RT (45-50 Gy), which could only be appreciated by 3D ROI volumetry, had the best outcome prediction rate for local control (84% vs. 22%, p<0.0001) and disease-free survival (63% vs. 20%, p=0.0005). Within the difficult to classify intermediate pre-RT size group, slow ROI-based regression rate predicted all treatment failures (local control rate: 0% vs. 91%, p<0.0001; disease-free survival: 0% vs. 73%, p<0.0001). Mid-RT regression rate based on simple diameter measurement did not predict outcome. The early-RT and post-RT measurements were least useful with either measuring method. Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that for the prediction of treatment outcome in cervical cancer, initial tumor volume can be estimated by simple diameter-based measurement obtained from film hard copies. When initial tumor volume is in the intermediate size range, ROI volumetry and an additional MRI during RT are needed to quantitatively analyze tumor regression rate for the prediction of treatment outcome

  10. POINT OF MAXIMUM WIDTH: A NEW MEASURE FOR ANTHROPOMETRIC OUTCOMES IN PATIENTS WITH SAGITTAL SYNOSTOSIS

    Gangopadhyay, Noopur; Shah, Manjool; Skolnick, Gary B; Patel, Kamlesh B; Naidoo, Sybill D.; Woo, Albert S.

    2014-01-01

    The aesthetic success of sagittal synostosis reconstruction is measured by cephalic index (CI). This limited measure does not fully account for the abnormal head shape in sagittal synostosis. In this retrospective study, we investigate a new objective measure, point of maximum width (PMW) of the skull from a vertex view, to determine where the head is widest for children with sagittal synostosis as compared to normal controls. Preoperative CT scans of 27 children with sagittal synostosis and ...

  11. An International Standard Set of Patient-Centered Outcome Measures After Stroke

    Salinas, Joel; Sprinkhuizen, Sara M.; Ackerson, Teri; Bernhardt, Julie; Davie, Charlie; George, Mary G.; Gething, Stephanie; Kelly, Adam G.; Lindsay, Patrice; Liu, Liping; Martins, Sheila C.O.; Morgan, Louise; Norrving, Bo; Ribbers, Gerard M.; Silver, Frank L.; Smith, Eric E.; Williams, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Value-based health care aims to bring together patients and health systems to maximize the ratio of quality over cost. To enable assessment of healthcare value in stroke management, an international standard set of patient-centered stroke outcome measures was defined for use in a variety of healthcare settings. Methods— A modified Delphi process was implemented with an international expert panel representing patients, advocates, and clinical specialists in stroke outcomes, stroke registers, global health, epidemiology, and rehabilitation to reach consensus on the preferred outcome measures, included populations, and baseline risk adjustment variables. Results— Patients presenting to a hospital with ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage were selected as the target population for these recommendations, with the inclusion of transient ischemic attacks optional. Outcome categories recommended for assessment were survival and disease control, acute complications, and patient-reported outcomes. Patient-reported outcomes proposed for assessment at 90 days were pain, mood, feeding, selfcare, mobility, communication, cognitive functioning, social participation, ability to return to usual activities, and health-related quality of life, with mobility, feeding, selfcare, and communication also collected at discharge. One instrument was able to collect most patient-reported subdomains (9/16, 56%). Minimum data collection for risk adjustment included patient demographics, premorbid functioning, stroke type and severity, vascular and systemic risk factors, and specific treatment/care-related factors. Conclusions— A consensus stroke measure Standard Set was developed as a simple, pragmatic method to increase the value of stroke care. The set should be validated in practice when used for monitoring and comparisons across different care settings. PMID:26604251

  12. Improving the science of health informatics by using validated instruments and outcome measures

    Scott, Philip; Brown, Angela W.; Friedman, Charles P; Wyatt, Jeremy C; Georgiou, Andrew; Eisenstein, Eric L.

    2014-01-01

    Health informatics does not have well-established instruments and outcome variables to measure efficacy and effectiveness. We report on a structured literature review of measurement practice in the evaluation of clinical decision support systems. A series of brief presentations introduces a workshop session about how to influence methodological practice in the field. We aim to elicit and elaborate suggestions for how to achieve the validation of at least a core set of health informatics measu...

  13. Interviewing to develop Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) measures for clinical research: eliciting patients’ experience

    Brédart, Anne; Marrel, Alexia; Abetz-Webb, Linda; Lasch, Kathy; Acquadro, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures must provide evidence that their development followed a rigorous process for ensuring their content validity. To this end, the collection of data is performed through qualitative interviews that allow for the elicitation of in-depth spontaneous reports of the patients’ experiences with their condition and/or its treatment. This paper provides a review of qualitative research applied to PRO measure development. A clear definition of what is a qualitative...

  14. Prediction of Treatment Outcome with Bioimpedance Measurements in Breast Cancer Related Lymphedema Patients

    Kim, Leesuk; Jeon, Jae Yong; Sung, In Young; Jeong, Soon Yong; Do, Jung Hwa; Kim, Hwa Jung

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the usefulness of bioimpedance measurement for predicting the treatment outcome in breast cancer related lymphedema (BCRL) patients. Method Unilateral BCRL patients who received complex decongestive therapy (CDT) for 2 weeks (5 days per week) were enrolled in this study. We measured the ratio of extracellular fluid (ECF) volume by using bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS), and single frequency bioimpedance analysis (SFBIA) at a 5 kHz frequency before treatment....

  15. Outcome measures for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: clinical and neurofunctional assessment in children

    Pagliano, Emanuela; Moroni, Isabella; Baranello, Giovanni; Magro, Anita; Marchi, Alessia; Bulgheroni, Sara; Ferrarin, Maurizio; Pareyson, Davide

    2011-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common inherited neuromuscular disorder, presenting with symptoms often occurring since childhood, and showing a progressive course. At present, there are no valid and reliable measures for evaluation of impairment and disability in the pediatric population. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of outcome measures, commonly used in adult patients, in CMT children. We report the results of a comprehensive evaluation of 21 children ...

  16. Assessment of murine lung mechanics outcome measures: alignment with those made in asthmatics

    Walker, Julia K. L.; Kraft, Monica; Fisher, John T

    2013-01-01

    Although asthma is characterized as an inflammatory disease, recent reports highlight the importance of pulmonary physiology outcome measures to the clinical assessment of asthma control and risk of asthma exacerbation. Murine models of allergic inflammatory airway disease have been widely used to gain mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis of asthma; however, several aspects of murine models could benefit from improvement. This review focuses on aligning lung mechanics measures made in mi...

  17. Prioritising outcomes measures for ambulance service care: a three stage consensus study

    Coster, Joanne; Turner, Janette; Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Wilson, Richard; Phung, Viet-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Background Historically ambulance care quality and performance has been measured by response times rather than clinical need or effectiveness. This limits the evidence about the effectiveness of the care the ambulance service provides. The Pre-hospital Outcomes for Evidence Based Evaluation (PhOEBE) project is a 5 year research programme which aims to develop new ways of measuring the performance, quality and impact of ambulance service care that better reflect the care provided. Meth...

  18. [Methodological Approaches to the Organization of Counter Measures Taking into Account Landscape Features of Radioactively Contaminated Territories].

    Kuznetsov, V K; Sanzharova, N I

    2016-01-01

    Methodological approaches to the organization of counter measures are considered taking into account the landscape features of the radioactively contaminated territories. The current status and new requirements to the organization of counter measures in the contaminated agricultural areas are analyzed. The basic principles, objectives and problems of the formation of counter measures with regard to the landscape characteristics of the territory are presented; also substantiated are the organization and optimization of the counter measures in radioactively contaminated agricultural landscapes. PMID:27245009

  19. Accounting and Accounting Policy

    Demidenko Leonid P.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers essence and contents of accounting policy. Its provides information with respect to main aspects of formation and application of accounting policy in Ukraine. It studies the structure of regulations on accounting policy that were developed in a company. It specifies correlation of accounting policy and organisation of accounting. It explains the determining role of the top manager and chief accountant in formation of accounting policy of a company. It identifies regulati...

  20. Current measures of metabolic heterogeneity within cervical cancer do not predict disease outcome

    Brooks Frank J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study evaluated the intra-tumoral heterogeneity observed in the uptake of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG in pre-treatment positron emission tomography (PET scans of cancers of the uterine cervix as an indicator of disease outcome. This was done via a novel statistic which ostensibly measured the spatial variations in intra-tumoral metabolic activity. In this work, we argue that statistic is intrinsically non-spatial, and that the apparent delineation between unsuccessfully- and successfully-treated patient groups via that statistic is spurious. Methods We first offer a straightforward mathematical demonstration of our argument. Next, we recapitulate an assiduous re-analysis of the originally published data which was derived from FDG-PET imagery. Finally, we present the results of a principal component analysis of FDG-PET images similar to those previously analyzed. Results We find that the previously published measure of intra-tumoral heterogeneity is intrinsically non-spatial, and actually is only a surrogate for tumor volume. We also find that an optimized linear combination of more canonical heterogeneity quantifiers does not predict disease outcome. Conclusions Current measures of intra-tumoral metabolic activity are not predictive of disease outcome as has been claimed previously. The implications of this finding are: clinical categorization of patients based upon these statistics is invalid; more sophisticated, and perhaps innately-geometric, quantifications of metabolic activity are required for predicting disease outcome.

  1. KMS fusion system resource accounting and performance measurement system for RSX11M V3.2

    Version 3.2 of the KMS FUSION accounting system is aimed at providing the user of RSX11M V3.2 with a versatile tool for measuring the performance of the operating system, tuning the system, and providing sufficient usage statistics so that the system manager can implement chargeback accounting if it is required by the installation. Sufficient hooks are provided so that the intrepid user can expand the system substantially beyond what is currently provided

  2. Quantum Superpositions and the Representation of Physical Reality Beyond Measurement Outcomes and Mathematical Structures

    de Ronde, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we intend to discuss the importance of providing a physical representation of quantum superpositions which goes beyond the mere reference to mathematical structures and measurement outcomes. This proposal goes in the opposite direction of the orthodox project which attempts to "bridge the gap" between the quantum formalism and common sense "classical reality" --precluding, right from the start, the possibility of interpreting quantum superpositions through non-classical notions. We will argue that in order to restate the problem of interpretation of quantum mechanics in truly ontological terms we require a radical revision of the problems and definitions addressed within the orthodox literature. On the one hand, we will discuss the need of providing a formal redefinition of superpositions which captures their contextual character. On the other hand, we attempt to replace the focus on the measurement problem, which concentrates on the justification of measurement outcomes from "weird" superposed ...

  3. A hierarchy of patient-reported outcome measures for meta-analysis of knee osteoarthritis trials

    Juhl, Carsten Bogh; Lund, Hans; Guyatt, GH;

    2010-01-01

    Title A hierarchy of patient-reported outcome measures for meta-analysis of knee osteoarthritis trials: empirical evidence from a survey of high impact journals Objective To develop a prioritized list for extracting patient-reported outcomes (PROs) measuring pain and disability for meta-analyses in...... during activity (VAS); 3. Pain during walking (VAS); 4. General knee pain (VAS); 5. Pain at rest (VAS); 6. Other composite pain scales; 7. Other single item measures. Disability: 1. WOMAC (subscale ‘function’); 2. SF-36 (subscale ‘physical function’); 3. Physical composite score – (SF-36); 4. Other...... composite disability scores. Conclusions As choosing the most favorable PROs from individual trials can overestimate the effect compared to a systematic approach, using a prioritized list as presented in this study is recommended to reduce reviewer's likelihood of biased selection of PROs in meta-analyses....

  4. Development and initial validation of the ibadan knee/hip osteoarthritis outcome measure

    A. O. Akinpelu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Development of outcome measures remains a focus of health research in the 21st century. Outcome measures originally developed for the Nigerian environment are very rare. The aims of this study were to develop an outcome measure for management of hip and knee arthritic conditions, and to investigate the validity and responsiveness of it. Methods: The Ibadan Knee/Hip Osteoarthritis Measure (IKHOAMwas developed from other measures found in literature, as well as complaints of attending patients. Forty nine patients with pain from knee and/or hip osteoarthritis, the OA group (OAG and 49 individuals without knee or hip pain, the pain-free group (PFG were assessed, using the IKHOAM. The OAG was assessed on IKHOAM and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS before and after a 6-week physiotherapy programme. Results: Significant differences between IKHOAM scores of the OAG and PFG and between IKHOAM scores of OAG pre and post 6-week physiotherapy programme, as well as the significant negative correlations between changes in IKHOAM and VAS scores of OAG before and after the 6-week physiotherapy programme were demonstrated. Conclusion: IKHOAM demonstrated initial criteria towards validity and responsiveness and may be used in a Nigerian population of OA knee/hip individuals and similar environments.

  5. Accounting for uncertainty in volumes of seabed change measured with repeat multibeam sonar surveys

    Schimel, Alexandre C. G.; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Hulands, Lachlan; Kennedy, David M.

    2015-12-01

    Seafloors of unconsolidated sediment are highly dynamic features; eroding or accumulating under the action of tides, waves and currents. Assessing which areas of the seafloor experienced change and measuring the corresponding volumes involved provide insights into these important active sedimentation processes. Computing the difference between Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) obtained from repeat Multibeam Echosounders (MBES) surveys has become a common technique to identify these areas, but the uncertainty in these datasets considerably affects the estimation of the volumes displaced. The two main techniques used to take into account uncertainty in volume estimations are the limitation of calculations to areas experiencing a change in depth beyond a chosen threshold, and the computation of volumetric confidence intervals. However, these techniques are still in their infancy and, as a result, are often crude, seldom used or poorly understood. In this article, we explored a number of possible methodological advances to address this issue, including: (1) using the uncertainty information provided by the MBES data processing algorithm CUBE, (2) adapting fluvial geomorphology techniques for volume calculations using spatially variable thresholds and (3) volumetric histograms. The nearshore seabed off Warrnambool harbour - located in the highly energetic southwest Victorian coast, Australia - was used as a test site. Four consecutive MBES surveys were carried out over a four-months period. The difference between consecutive DEMs revealed an area near the beach experiencing large sediment transfers - mostly erosion - and an area of reef experiencing increasing deposition from the advance of a nearby sediment sheet. The volumes of sediment displaced in these two areas were calculated using the techniques described above, both traditionally and using the suggested improvements. We compared the results and discussed the applicability of the new methodological improvements

  6. Correlated probit analysis of repeatedly measured ordinal and continuous outcomes with application to the Health and Retirement Study.

    Grigorova, D; Gueorguieva, R

    2016-10-15

    The Health and Retirement Study was designed to evaluate changes in health and labor force participation during and after the transition from working to retirement. Every 2 years, participants provided information about their self-rated health (SRH), body mass index (BMI), smoking status, and other characteristics. Our goal was to assess the effects of smoking and gender on trajectories of change in BMI and SRH over time. Joint longitudinal analysis of outcome measures is preferable to separate analyses because it allows to account for the correlation between the measures, to test the effects of predictors while controlling type I error, and potentially to improve efficiency. However, because SRH is an ordinal measure while BMI is continuous, formulating a joint model and parameter estimation is challenging. A joint correlated probit model allowed us to seamlessly account for the correlations between the measures over time. Established estimating procedures for such models are based on quasi-likelihood or numerical approximations that may be biased or fail to converge. Therefore, we proposed a novel expectation-maximization algorithm for parameter estimation and a Monte Carlo bootstrap approach for standard errors approximation. Expectation-maximization algorithms have been previously considered for combinations of binary and/or continuous repeated measures; however, modifications were needed to handle combinations of ordinal and continuous responses. A simulation study demonstrated that the algorithm converged and provided approximately unbiased estimates with sufficiently large sample sizes. In the Health and Retirement Study, male gender and smoking were independently associated with steeper deterioration in self-rated health and with lower average BMI. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27222058

  7. Fair value or cost-based measurement for PPE and IP: evidence from accounting practice under IFRS

    Fonseca, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Some standards permit a choice between different measurement bases. IAS 16 and IAS 40 allow entities to choose between fair value and cost-based measurement for property, plant and equipment (PPE) and investment property (IP), respectively. This study analyzes the accounting practice concerning measurement of PPE and IP after recognition, under IFRS. The sample was extracted from stock exchange listed European companies included in the S&P Europe 350 Index. Data was hand collec...

  8. Measuring common standards and equal responsibility-sharing in EU asylum outcome data

    Luc Bovens; Chlump Chatkupt; Laura Smead

    2012-01-01

    We construct novel measures to assess (i) the extent to which European Union member states are using common standards in recognizing asylum seekers and (ii) the extent to which the responsibilities for asylum applications, acceptances and refugee populations are equally shared among the member states, taking into account population size, gross domestic product (GDP) and GDP expressed in purchasing power parity (GDP-PPP). We track the progression of these measures since the implementation of t...

  9. Outcome measures of interventions in the study of children of substance-abusing parents.

    Kumpfer, K L

    1999-05-01

    Children of substance-abusing parents, including children of alcoholics (COAs), are one of the highest risk groups of youth for substance-abuse problems. For both genetic and family environmental reasons, COAs and children of drug abusers are very vulnerable to becoming alcohol or other drug abusers.1,2 With drug use rates increasing in the past 7 years,3 prevention practitioners must work harder to identify and evaluate effective ways to prevent future substance abuse in these at-risk children. Most prevention programs designed specifically for COAs or children of drug abusers have struggled with identifying, attracting, maintaining, and measuring outcomes. This article focuses on general and unique measurement methods and instrument problems in prevention interventions for children of substance-abusing parents. Part I covers the need for improved measurement in research and practice with children of substance-abusing parents and recommended measures for different hypothesized outcome variables. Part II covers considerations in selecting measures, and Part III covers how to select measures. This article concludes with recommendations to improve measurement in research and practice. PMID:10224200

  10. Do SF-36 summary scores work as outcome measures in chronic functional disorders?

    Schröder, Andreas; Ørnbøl, Eva; Fink, Per

    Background SF-36 Physical and Mental Component Summaries (PCS and MCS) are increasingly used as main measures of outcome in clinical trials. Yet, studies in different patient populations have demonstrated serious problems in interpreting these summary scores. We are conducting a randomised contro...... with interacting physical and mental health problems. One may benefit from using other scoring methods such as the RAND-36 HSI to validate the results.......Background SF-36 Physical and Mental Component Summaries (PCS and MCS) are increasingly used as main measures of outcome in clinical trials. Yet, studies in different patient populations have demonstrated serious problems in interpreting these summary scores. We are conducting a randomised...... controlled trial on cognitive behavioural therapy in patients with severe and chronic functional disorders. Based on a pilot study and baseline data, we have assessed the performance of the summary scores. Aim To demonstrate problems in the orthogonal factor solution for PCS and MCS and to assess other...

  11. Adjustment as process and outcome: Measuring adjustment to HIV in Uganda.

    Martin, Faith; Russell, Steve; Seeley, Janet

    2016-05-01

    'Adjustment' in health refers to both processes and outcomes. Its measurement and conceptualisation in African cultures is limited. In total, 263 people living with HIV and receiving anti-retroviral therapy in clinics in Uganda completed a translated Mental Adjustment to HIV Scale, depression items from the Hopkins checklist and demographic questions. Factor analysis revealed four Mental Adjustment to HIV factors of active coping, cognitive-social adjustment, hopelessness and denial/avoidance. Correlations with depression supported the Mental Adjustment to HIV's validity and the importance of active adjustment, while the role of cognitive adjustment was unclear. Factors were process or outcome focussed, suggesting a need for theory-based measures in general. PMID:25030794

  12. Measuring Performance for Accountability of a Small Social Economy Organization: The Case of an Independent School

    Steven M. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a result of a joint project in social economy research between a community partner-an independent school-and academic partners. The school is a democratic organization, run by teachers and parents. The goal of the project was to find ways to improve communication and reporting about general performance of the school as part of the school's accountability to its members. Starting from lessons of the balanced scorecard approach for non-profits, we describe the process of development of survey-based measures for the particular organization. The direction of the tool development and subsequent organizational changes were carried out in a participatory process between the school's staff, the parents, and the board. We identify the limitations and challenges of this process, and outline its successes to draw lessons for other similar democratic organizations. / Cet article est le produit d'un projet conjoint de recherche sur l'économie sociale entre un partenaire communautaire-une école privée-et des partenaires académiques. L'école est une organisation démocratique dirigée par des enseignants et des parents. Le but de ce projet était de trouver des façons d'améliorer la communication et la reddition de compte en ce qui a trait au rendement général de l'école comme faisant partie de la responsabilité de l'école envers ses membres. En commençant par des leçons sur l'approche de tableau de bord équilibré pour les organismes sans but lucratif, nous abordons le processus de l'élaboration de mesures fondées sur des enquêtes pour l'organisation particulière. L'orientation du développement d'outils et des changements organisationnels subséquents ont été déterminés lors d'un processus participatif entre le personnel de l'école, les parents et la direction. Nous établissons les limites et les défis de cette façon de procéder et en soulignons les réussites pour tirer des leçons qui serviront à d

  13. Measurement properties of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): A systematic review.

    Abma, Inger L; van der Wees, Philip J; Veer, Vik; Westert, Gert P; Rovers, Maroeska

    2016-08-01

    This systematic review summarizes the evidence regarding the quality of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) validated in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We performed a systematic literature search of all PROMs validated in patients with OSA, and found 22 measures meeting our inclusion criteria. The quality of the studies was assessed using the consensus-based standards for the selection of health status measurement instruments (COSMIN) checklist. The results showed that most of the measurement properties of the PROMs were not, or not adequately, assessed. For many identified PROMs there was no involvement of patients with OSA during their development or before the PROM was tested in patients with OSA. Positive exceptions and the best current candidates for assessing health status in patients with OSA are the sleep apnea quality of life index (SAQLI), Maugeri obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (MOSAS) questionnaire, Quebec sleep questionnaire (QSQ) and the obstructive sleep apnea patient-oriented severity index (OSAPOSI). Even though there is not enough evidence to fully judge the quality of these PROMs as outcome measure, when interpreted with caution, they have the potential to add value to clinical research and clinical practice in evaluating aspects of health status that are important to patients. PMID:26433776

  14. Outcome measures for routine use in dementia services: some practical considerations.

    Higginson, I J; Jefferys, P. M.; Hodgson, C S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To work with specialist community teams to assess the practicality and acceptability of identified outcome measures for routine use in dementia services. SETTING: Seven specialist dementia services: four multidisciplinary teams, a specialist service for carers, a community psychiatric nurse team, and a day hospital. SUBJECTS: 20 members of staff from the specialist dementia services including psychiatry, community psychiatric nursing, social work, occupational therapy, Admiral nur...

  15. Training working memory and fluid intelligence in older adults: developing measures and exploring outcomes

    Hynes, Sin?ad

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates computerised cognitive training in older adults, with a focus on training working memory and fluid intelligence. A series of studies is reported, with two broad aims. The first was to develop and validate outcome measures appropriate for use in this population, and the second was to examine whether established gains in cognitive functioning generalised to everyday life. In relation to the first aim, two studies were conducted which concerned the development of a se...

  16. Development and Validation of the Keele Musculoskeletal Patient Reported Outcome Measure (MSK-PROM)

    Hill, JC; Thomas, E.; Hill, S.; Foster, NE; van der Windt, DA

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a patient report outcome measure (PROM) for clinical practice that can monitor health status of patients with a range of musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders. METHODS: Constructs for inclusion in the MSK-PROM were identified from a consensus process involving patients with musculoskeletal conditions, clinicians, purchasers of healthcare services, and primary care researchers. Psychometric properties of the brief tool, including face and construct validity, repeat...

  17. Development and Validation of the Keele Musculoskeletal Patient Reported Outcome Measure (MSK-PROM)

    Hill, Jonathan C.; Elaine Thomas; Susan Hill; Foster, Nadine E; van der Windt, Danielle A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a patient report outcome measure (PROM) for clinical practice that can monitor health status of patients with a range of musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders. Methods Constructs for inclusion in the MSK-PROM were identified from a consensus process involving patients with musculoskeletal conditions, clinicians, purchasers of healthcare services, and primary care researchers. Psychometric properties of the brief tool, including face and construct validity, repeatab...

  18. Cross-national reliability of clinician-rated outcome measures in child and adolescent mental health services

    Hanssen-Bauer, Ketil; Gowers, Simon; Aalen, Odd O;

    2007-01-01

    Clinician-rated measures are in extensive use as routine outcome measures in child and adolescent mental health services. We investigated cross-national differences and inter-rater reliability of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA), the Children's Global...

  19. Outcome measures in studies on the use of oxytocin for the treatment of delay in labour: A systematic review.

    Begley, Cecily M

    2014-07-01

    to identify primary and secondary outcome measures in randomised trials, and systematic reviews of randomised trials, measuring effectiveness of oxytocin for treatment of delay in the first and second stages of labour, and to identify any positive health-focussed outcomes used.

  20. Four converging measures of temporal discounting and their relationships with intelligence, executive functions, thinking dispositions, and behavioral outcomes.

    Basile, Alexandra G; Toplak, Maggie E

    2015-01-01

    Temporal discounting is the tendency to devalue temporally distant rewards. Past studies have examined the k-value, the indifference point, and the area under the curve as dependent measures on this task. The current study included these three measures and a fourth measure, called the interest rate total score, which differentiated good from poor choices. The interest rate total score was based on scoring only those items in which the delayed choice should be preferred given the expected return based on simple interest rates. In addition, associations with several individual difference measures were examined including intelligence, executive functions (inhibition, working memory, and set-shifting), thinking dispositions [Need for Cognition and Consideration of Future Consequences (CFCs)] and engagement in substance use and gambling behavior. A staircase temporal discounting task was examined in a sample of 99 university students. Replicating previous studies, temporal discounting increased with longer delays to reward and decreased with higher reward magnitudes. A hyperbolic function accounted for more variance in temporal discounting than an exponential function. Reaction time at the indifference point was significantly longer than at the other choice points. The four dependent measures of temporal discounting were all significantly correlated and were also significantly associated with our individual difference measures. That is, the tendency to wait for a larger delayed reward on all of the temporal discounting measures was associated with higher intelligence, higher executive functions, and more CFCs. Associations between our measures of temporal discounting and outcomes related to substance use and gambling behavior were modest in our university sample. PMID:26097462

  1. Patient-Reported Outcome Measures-What Data Do We Really Need?

    Lyman, Stephen; Hidaka, Chisa

    2016-06-01

    The Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services has recently announced the inclusion of several patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), including the abbreviated Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for joint replacement (HOOS, JR and KOOS, JR) for the purpose of quality assessment in total hip and total knee replacement (THR and TKR). Historically, Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services and other agencies have used measures of process (eg, % vaccinated) or adverse events (eg, infection rates, readmission rates) for quality assessment. However, the use of PROMs has become a priority based on stated goals by the National Quality Strategy and Institute of Medicine for a more patient-centered approach. Here, we review several general health and joint-specific PROMs, which have been extensively used in research to assess treatment efficacy and discuss their relevance to the new criteria for quality assessment, particularly for THR and TKR. Although we expect HOOS, JR and KOOS, JR to yield much useful information in the near term, these surveys are likely an interim solution. In the future, we anticipate that novel measurement platforms, such as wearable technologies or patient-specific surveys, may open new and exciting avenues of research to discover which types of data-perhaps not previously available-best represent patient quality of life and satisfaction after THR, TKR, or other orthopedic procedures. PMID:27157278

  2. Repeated measures of body mass index and risk of health related outcomes.

    Claessen, Heiner; Brenner, Hermann; Drath, Christoph; Arndt, Volker

    2012-03-01

    Most studies examining the association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality neglected changes in weight over time, which may have led to underestimation of the true association. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between BMI and health related outcomes while accounting for variations of BMI over time. The association between BMI and both mortality and occupational disability was examined in a follow-up of 5,554 male construction workers in Württemberg/Germany, who participated at least two times in routine occupational health examinations between 1986 and 2005. Using Cox proportional hazards model with time dependent variables, hazard ratios were calculated with normal weight (<25 kg/m²) as reference after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Overall, an U-shaped association between baseline BMI and mortality (370 events) as well as occupational disability (658 events) was observed, with lowest risk at BMI levels between 25 and 30 kg/m². Men with a baseline BMI ≥ 30 kg/m² experienced a 10% higher mortality and disability risk than normal weight men. The association between BMI and occupational disability became stronger after accounting for temporal variability of BMI with a significant increased risk of 1.26 (95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.56) among obese men. In contrast, the association between BMI and mortality did not materially change after accounting for time dependent effects. Stable obesity as defined by a BMI of 30 kg/m² and above increases risk of disability in male construction workers. Accounting for changes of BMI over time is crucial for disclosing full impact of obesity. PMID:22388768

  3. Educational Testing as an Accountability Measure: Drawing on Twentieth-Century Danish History of Education Experiences

    Ydesen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This article reveals perspectives based on experiences from twentieth-century Danish educational history by outlining contemporary, test-based accountability regime characteristics and their implications for education policy. The article introduces one such characteristic, followed by an empirical analysis of the origins and impacts of test-based…

  4. Parents' Experiences as Predictors of State Accountability Measures of Schools' Facilitation of Parent Involvement

    Elbaum, Batya; Blatz, Erin T.; Rodriguez, Raymond J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain which dimensions of parents' experiences with schools are most strongly associated with parents' perceptions that schools are or are not facilitating parent involvement as mandated by the federal accountability system under the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Participants were 92 parents…

  5. Measuring the Effect of Distance Education on the Learning Experience: Teaching Accounting via PictureTel.

    Harnar, Michael A.; Brown, Scott W.; Mayall, Hayley J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a distance education instrument developed to assess students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in a college-level accounting course presented via distance education using compressed video called PictureTel. Results indicated that specific items, related to instructor characteristics, could be used to predict students' choices about…

  6. Balance, tax and accounting aspects of measures for flue gas desulphurisation and nitric oxide reduction

    1987-01-19

    The subsequent fitting of flue gas cleansing equipment to existing power plants and the construction of new plants conforming to environmental protection legislation, pose a number of questions on the execution of various aspects of accounting. The work study group 'Applied Economics' of the VDEW hopes that this article contributes to a reasonable assessment of topical questions.

  7. 77 FR 31066 - Improvements to the Compliance, Safety, Accountability (CSA) Motor Carrier Safety Measurement...

    2012-05-24

    ... published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316). Public Participation: The http://www...-Mail: bryan.price@dot.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On March 27, 2012, (77 FR 18298), FMCSA... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Improvements to the Compliance, Safety, Accountability...

  8. Measuring intangibles: Managing intangibles for tangible outcomes in research and innovation

    Knowledge sharing is critical to the success and survival of companies in knowledge intensive industries. It is essential to effectively measure knowledge creation and sharing to facilitate good investment decision making in knowledge management initiatives. This paper will focus on the identification of intangible benefits, the cause and effect relationships, and the applicability of existing metrics to these intangibles. The premise is that existing measurements may not apply. The development of new metrics for managing intangible assets to obtain tangible outcomes is a necessity. (author)

  9. Materials measurement and accounting in an operating plutonium conversion and purification process. Phase I. Process modeling and simulation

    A model of an operating conversion and purification process for the production of reactor-grade plutonium dioxide was developed as the first component in the design and evaluation of a nuclear materials measurement and accountability system. The model accurately simulates process operation and can be used to identify process problems and to predict the effect of process modifications

  10. Materials measurement and accounting in an operating plutonium conversion and purification process. Phase I. Process modeling and simulation. [PUCSF code

    Thomas, C.C. Jr.; Ostenak, C.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Dayem, H.A.; Kern, E.A.

    1981-04-01

    A model of an operating conversion and purification process for the production of reactor-grade plutonium dioxide was developed as the first component in the design and evaluation of a nuclear materials measurement and accountability system. The model accurately simulates process operation and can be used to identify process problems and to predict the effect of process modifications.

  11. The performance of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales as measures of clinical severity.

    Müller, Mario; Vandeleur, Caroline; Weniger, Godehard; Prinz, Susanne; Vetter, Stefan; Egger, Stephan T

    2016-05-30

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) against other measures of functioning and mental health in a full three-year cohort of admissions to a psychiatric hospital. A sample of N=1719 patients (35.3% females, aged 17-78 years) was assessed using observer-rated measures and self-reports of psychopathology at admission. Self-reports were available from 51.7% of the sample (34.4% females, aged 17-76 years). Functioning and psychopathology were compared across five ICD-10 diagnostic groups: substance use disorders, schizophrenia and psychotic disorders, affective disorders, anxiety/somatoform disorders and personality disorders. Associations between the measures were examined, stratifying by diagnostic subgroup. The HoNOS were strongly linked to other measures primarily in psychotic disorders (except for the behavioral subscale), while those with substance use disorders showed rather poor links. Those with anxiety/somatoform disorders showed null or only small associations. This study raises questions about the overall validity of the HoNOS. It seems to entail different levels of validity when applied to different diagnostic groups. In clinical practice the HoNOS should not be used as a stand-alone instrument to assess outcome but rather as part of a more comprehensive battery including diagnosis-specific measures. PMID:27137958

  12. Cerebral atrophy as outcome measure in short-term phase 2 clinical trials in multiple sclerosis

    Cerebral atrophy is a compound measure of the neurodegenerative component of multiple sclerosis (MS) and a conceivable outcome measure for clinical trials monitoring the effect of neuroprotective agents. In this study, we evaluate the rate of cerebral atrophy in a 6-month period, investigate the predictive and explanatory value of other magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures in relation to cerebral atrophy, and determine sample sizes for future short-term clinical trials using cerebral atrophy as primary outcome measure. One hundred thirty-five relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients underwent six monthly MRI scans from which the percentage brain volume change (PBVC) and the number and volume of gadolinium (Gd)-enhancing lesions, T2 lesions, and persistent black holes (PBH) were determined. By means of multiple linear regression analysis, the relationship between focal MRI variables and PBVC was assessed. Sample size calculations were performed for all patients and subgroups selected for enhancement or a high T2 lesion load at baseline. A significant atrophy occurred over 6 months (PBVC = -0.33%, SE = 0.061, p < 0.0001). The number of baseline T2 lesions (p = 0.024), the on-study Gd-enhancing lesion volume (p = 0.044), and the number of on-study PBHs (p = 0.003) were associated with an increased rate of atrophy. For a 50% decrease in rate of atrophy, the sample size calculations showed that approximately 283 patients per arm are required in an unselected sampled population and 185 patients per arm are required in a selected population. Within a 6-month period, significant atrophy can be detected and on-study associations of PBVC and PBHs emphasizes axonal loss to be a driving mechanism. Application as primary outcome measure in short-term clinical trials with feasible sample size requires a potent drug to obtain sufficient power. (orig.)

  13. Prediction of responders for outcome measures of Locomotor Experience Applied Post Stroke trial

    Bruce H. K. Dobkin, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Locomotor Experience Applied Post Stroke rehabilitation trial found equivalent walking outcomes for body weight-supported treadmill plus overground walking practice versus home-based exercise that did not emphasize walking. From this large database, we examined several clinically important questions that provide insights into recovery of walking that may affect future trial designs. Using logistic regression analyses, we examined predictors of response based on a variety of walking speed-related outcomes and measures that captured disability, physical impairment, and quality of life. The most robust predictor was being closer at baseline to the primary outcome measure, which was the functional walking speed thresholds of 0.4 m/s (household walking and 0.8 m/s (community walking. Regardless of baseline walking speed, a younger age and higher Berg Balance Scale score were relative predictors of responding, whether operationally defined by transitioning beyond each speed boundary or by a continuous change or a greater than median increase in walking speed. Of note, the cutoff values of 0.4 and 0.8 m/s had no particular significance compared with other walking speed changes despite their general use as descriptors of functional levels of walking. No evidence was found for any difference in predictors based on treatment group.

  14. In vivo electrical conductivity measurements during and after tumor electroporation: conductivity changes reflect the treatment outcome

    Electroporation is the phenomenon in which cell membrane permeability is increased by exposing the cell to short high-electric-field pulses. Reversible electroporation treatments are used in vivo for gene therapy and drug therapy while irreversible electroporation is used for tissue ablation. Tissue conductivity changes induced by electroporation could provide real-time feedback of the treatment outcome. Here we describe the results from a study in which fibrosarcomas (n = 39) inoculated in mice were treated according to different electroporation protocols, some of them known to cause irreversible damage. Conductivity was measured before, within the pulses, in between the pulses and for up to 30 min after treatment. Conductivity increased pulse after pulse. Depending on the applied electroporation protocol, the conductivity increase after treatment ranged from 10% to 180%. The most significant conclusion from this study is the fact that post-treatment conductivity seems to be correlated with treatment outcome in terms of reversibility.

  15. In vivo electrical conductivity measurements during and after tumor electroporation: conductivity changes reflect the treatment outcome

    Ivorra, Antoni; Al-Sakere, Bassim; Rubinsky, Boris; Mir, Lluis M.

    2009-10-01

    Electroporation is the phenomenon in which cell membrane permeability is increased by exposing the cell to short high-electric-field pulses. Reversible electroporation treatments are used in vivo for gene therapy and drug therapy while irreversible electroporation is used for tissue ablation. Tissue conductivity changes induced by electroporation could provide real-time feedback of the treatment outcome. Here we describe the results from a study in which fibrosarcomas (n = 39) inoculated in mice were treated according to different electroporation protocols, some of them known to cause irreversible damage. Conductivity was measured before, within the pulses, in between the pulses and for up to 30 min after treatment. Conductivity increased pulse after pulse. Depending on the applied electroporation protocol, the conductivity increase after treatment ranged from 10% to 180%. The most significant conclusion from this study is the fact that post-treatment conductivity seems to be correlated with treatment outcome in terms of reversibility.

  16. In vivo electrical conductivity measurements during and after tumor electroporation: conductivity changes reflect the treatment outcome

    Ivorra, Antoni [Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Bioengineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Al-Sakere, Bassim; Mir, Lluis M [UMR 8121 CNRS-Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif 94805 (France); Rubinsky, Boris [Department of Bioengineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Graduate Program in Biophysics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: antoni.ivorra@gmail.com

    2009-10-07

    Electroporation is the phenomenon in which cell membrane permeability is increased by exposing the cell to short high-electric-field pulses. Reversible electroporation treatments are used in vivo for gene therapy and drug therapy while irreversible electroporation is used for tissue ablation. Tissue conductivity changes induced by electroporation could provide real-time feedback of the treatment outcome. Here we describe the results from a study in which fibrosarcomas (n = 39) inoculated in mice were treated according to different electroporation protocols, some of them known to cause irreversible damage. Conductivity was measured before, within the pulses, in between the pulses and for up to 30 min after treatment. Conductivity increased pulse after pulse. Depending on the applied electroporation protocol, the conductivity increase after treatment ranged from 10% to 180%. The most significant conclusion from this study is the fact that post-treatment conductivity seems to be correlated with treatment outcome in terms of reversibility.

  17. MEASURING THE EFFECTS OF IFRS ADOPTION IN ROMANIA ON THEVALUE RELEVANCE OF ACCOUNTING DATA

    Irina-Doina Pascan

    2014-01-01

    In Romania, the entities listed on a regulated market must prepare their individualfinancial statements in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)starting with the financial year 2012. Since the IFRSs are considered high-quality accountingstandards, IFRS adoption should lead to improvement of the quality of financial reporting. In thispaper, we analyze the effect of mandatory IFRS introduction in Romania on accounting quality.Our main objective is to empirically...

  18. Normalisation models for accounting for fat content in stable isotope measurements in salmonid muscle tissue

    Abrantes, K.G.; Semmens, J. M.; Lyle, J.M.; Nichols, P D

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis is increasingly used in ecological studies. Because lipid content influences d13C, lipids should be removed from lipid-rich samples before d13C analysis. To account for differences in d13C arising from differences in lipid content, relationships between lipid content, C:N ratio and ?d13C with lipid removal can be used to normalise lipid content to uniform levels. We investigate these relationships for salmonid muscle and evaluate the suitability of previously published...

  19. Measuring Performance for Accountability of a Small Social Economy Organization: The Case of an Independent School

    Smith, Steven M; Sonja Novkovic; John Maddocks

    2011-01-01

    This article is a result of a joint project in social economy research between a community partner-an independent school-and academic partners. The school is a democratic organization, run by teachers and parents. The goal of the project was to find ways to improve communication and reporting about general performance of the school as part of the school's accountability to its members. Starting from lessons of the balanced scorecard approach for non-profits, we describe the process of develop...

  20. THE RELEVANCE OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION IN MEASURING THE PERFORMANCE OF CREDIT INSTITUTIONS

    Ioan Dumitru Motoniu

    2010-01-01

    Modern society require to managers of the organizations to use both technology and knowledge to take necessary decisions in order to ensure the performance and long-term sustainability of the organization. Accounting information provided by financial statements is one of the most decisive factors in future decision making on credit institutions, but also the most important information system reflecting the result of decisions taken by managers. The present resear...

  1. Alzheimer's disease biomarkers as outcome measures for clinical trials in MCI

    Caroli, Anna; Prestia, Annapaola; Wade, Sara; Chen, Kewei; Ayutyanont, Napatkamon; Landau, Susan M.; Madison, Cindee M.; Haense, Cathleen; Herholz, Karl; Reiman, Eric M.; Jagust, William J.; Frisoni, Giovanni B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Aim of this study was to compare the performance and power of the best-established diagnostic biological markers as outcome measures for clinical trials in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods MRI, FDG-PET markers, and ADAS-COG were compared in terms of effect size and statistical power over different followup periods in two MCI groups, selected from ADNI dataset based on CSF (abnormal CSF Aβ1-42 concentration - ABETA+) or MRI evidence of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) (positivity to hippocampal atrophy - HIPPO+). Biomarkers progression was modeled through mixed effect models. Scaled slope was chosen as measure of effect size. Biomarkers power was estimated using simulation algorithms. Results Seventy-four ABETA+ and 51 HIPPO+ MCI patients were included in the study. Imaging biomarkers of neurodegeneration, especially MR measurements, showed highest performance. For all biomarkers and both MCI groups, power increased with increasing follow-up time, irrespective of biomarker assessment frequency. Conclusions These findings provide information about biomarker enrichment and outcome measurements that could be employed to reduce MCI patient samples and treatment duration in future clinical trials. PMID:25437302

  2. Development and Validation of the Keele Musculoskeletal Patient Reported Outcome Measure (MSK-PROM.

    Jonathan C Hill

    Full Text Available To develop and validate a patient report outcome measure (PROM for clinical practice that can monitor health status of patients with a range of musculoskeletal (MSK disorders.Constructs for inclusion in the MSK-PROM were identified from a consensus process involving patients with musculoskeletal conditions, clinicians, purchasers of healthcare services, and primary care researchers. Psychometric properties of the brief tool, including face and construct validity, repeatability and responsiveness were assessed in a sample of patients with musculoskeletal pain consulting physiotherapy services in the United Kingdom (n=425.The consensus process identified 10 prioritised domains for monitoring musculoskeletal health status: pain intensity, quality of life, physical capacity, interference with social/leisure activities, emotional well-being, severity of most difficult thing, activities and roles, understanding independence, and overall impact. As the EuroQol (EQ-5D-5L is a widely adopted PROMs tool and covers the first four domains listed, to reduce patient burden to a minimum the MSK-PROM was designed to capture the remaining six prioritised domains which are not measured by the EQ-5D-5L. The tool demonstrated excellent reliability, construct validity, responsiveness and acceptability to patients and clinicians for use in clinical practice.We have validated a brief patient reported outcome measure (MSK-PROM for use in clinical practice to measure musculoskeletal health status and monitor outcomes over time using domains that are meaningful to patients and sensitive to change. Further work will establish whether the MSK-PROM is useful in other musculoskeletal healthcare settings.

  3. 会计计量的十大“硬伤”%The Top Ten Flaws of Accounting Measurement

    尉然

    2011-01-01

    会计这门经济学科是社会经济发展产物,并随着社会经济发展而发展。2008年金融危机已暴露出现行会计计量弊端,因此,在后金融危机时代,如何进一步完善、推动会计理论发展,以适应社会经济发展需要,是会计界必然面对的问题。%in 2008 the financial crisis has exposed presents good accountant the measurement malpractice.Therefore,after the financial crisis time,how to further consummate,promote the accounting theory development,meets the socio-economic development need,is question which accountant faces inevitably.

  4. Comparative Responsiveness of Pain Outcome Measures Among Primary Care Patients With Musculoskeletal Pain

    Krebs, Erin E.; Bair, Matthew J.; Damush, Teresa M.; Tu, Wanzhu; Wu, Jingwei; Kroenke, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Background Comparative responsiveness data are needed to inform choices about pain outcome measures. Objectives To compare responsiveness of pain intensity, pain-related function, and composite measures, using data from a randomized trial and observational study. Research Design Analysis of responsiveness. Subjects A total of 427 adults with persistent back, hip, or knee pain were recruited from primary care. Methods Participants completed Brief Pain Inventory, Chronic Pain Grade (CPG), Roland disability, SF-36 bodily pain, and pain global rating of change measures. We used the global rating as the anchor for standardized response mean and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. We used the distribution-based standard error of measurement to estimate minimally important change. To assess responsiveness to the trial intervention, we evaluated standardized effect size statistics stratified by trial arm. Results All measures were responsive to global improvement and all had fair-to-good accuracy in discriminating between participants with and without improvement. SF bodily pain was less responsive than other measures in several analyses. The 3-item PEG was similarly responsive to full Brief Pain Inventory scales. CPG and SF bodily pain were less responsive to the trial intervention and did not perform well among participants with hip/knee pain. Agreement between anchor and distribution-based methods was modest. Conclusions If a brief measure is desired, the 3-item PEG is more responsive than the SF bodily pain scale. CPG and SF bodily pain scales may be relatively poor choices for trial outcome assessment. Both anchor and distribution-based methods should be considered when determining clinically important change. PMID:20856144

  5. The barriers and facilitators to routine outcome measurement by allied health professionals in practice: a systematic review

    Duncan Edward AS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allied Health Professionals today are required, more than ever before, to demonstrate their impact. However, despite at least 20 years of expectation, many services fail to deliver routine outcome measurement in practice. This systematic review investigates what helps and hinders routine outcome measurement of allied health professionals practice. Methods A systematic review protocol was developed comprising: a defined search strategy for PsycINFO, MEDLINE and CINHAL databases and inclusion criteria and systematic procedures for data extraction and quality appraisal. Studies were included if they were published in English and investigated facilitators and/or barriers to routine outcome measurement by allied health professionals. No restrictions were placed on publication type, design, country, or year of publication. Reference lists of included publications were searched to identify additional papers. Descriptive methods were used to synthesise the findings. Results 960 papers were retrieved; 15 met the inclusion criteria. Professional groups represented were Physiotherapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech and Language Therapy. The included literature varied in quality and design. Facilitators and barriers to routine outcome measurement exist at individual, managerial and organisational levels. Key factors affecting professionals’ use of routine outcome measurement include: professionals’ level of knowledge and confidence about using outcome measures, and the degree of organisational and peer-support professionals received with a view to promoting their work in practice. Conclusions Whilst the importance of routinely measuring outcomes within the allied health professions is well recognised, it has largely failed to be delivered in practice. Factors that influence clinicians’ ability and desire to undertake routine outcome measurement are bi-directional: they can act as either facilitators or barriers. Routine outcome

  6. Financial advantages. Preventative measures ensure the health of your accounts receivable.

    Duda, Michelle

    2009-11-01

    Running a dental practice is no small task; from staying on the leading edge of new medical developments and products, to monitoring ever-changing dental insurance plans, to simply overseeing the fundamental day-to-day operations. But there is one area of your practice that can be streamlined to significantly improve your cash flow, minimize delinquencies and optimize fiscal operations. Your accounts receivable and collections can be economically and efficiently managed by a savvy combination of internal efforts and the partnership of a third party resource. PMID:20041573

  7. International Accounting: Proposed Changes to IAS 39 - Measurement Issues: Die Änderungsvorschlage des IASB

    Matthias Kropp

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the subsequent measurement of financial instruments under IAS/IFRS. After giving an overview of the general approaches to the subsequent measurement of financial instruments and some background on the development of IAS 39, this paper first deals with the current provisions of IAS 39. The paper then presents and discusses the proposed changes to subsequent measurement as suggested by the Exposure Draft on proposed amendments to IAS 32 „Financial Instruments: Disclosure a...

  8. Judicial accountability in the US State Courts
    Measuring court performance

    Richard Y. Schauffler

    2007-01-01

    Current efforts at performance measurement in the state courts are described, situated in a global and historical context, using the framework of Pollitt and Bouckaert (2000). The structure of state courts in the US is described, with attention given to structural issues that affect implementation of performance measurement at the state and local levels. The history of prior attempts at court performance measurement is reviewed, along with current efforts in several states to implement perfor...

  9. Outcome Rating Scale and Session Rating Scale in Psychological Practice: Clinical Utility of Ultra-Brief Measures

    Campbell, Alistair; Hemsley, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    The validity and reliability of the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) and the Session Rating Scale (SRS) were evaluated against existing longer measures, including the Outcome Questionnaire-45, Working Alliance Inventory, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Quality of Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and General Self-efficacy Scale. The measures…

  10. MEASURES TO IMPROVE THE OUTCOME OF ABRUPTIO PLACENTA IN A TERTIARY REFERRAL CENTRE

    Vijaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM To analyze the outcome of 135 patients admitted with Abruptio Placenta during a period of 9 months managed at Tertiary Referral Centre, Modern Govt. Maternity Hospital, Petalburz, Hyderabad, Telangana State. MATERIALS AND METHODS A study of 135 cases of Abruptio Placenta over a period of 9 months at a tertiary level referral centre. They were analyzed regarding age, parity, socio economic status, period of gestation, antenatal care, management of Abruption and maternal and fetal outcome, and the measures to improve the condition were analyzed. RESULTS Abruptio placenta is a dreadful threat to maternal and fetal life. In our study unbooked cases were 110(81.48%, Hypertension is the main risk factor almost in 90(66.66% cases, 65% of them were between 28-36 weeks of GA, and 6 were grandmultis, 6 cases ended up with HELLP syndrome with DIC. All these 6 cases were near misses, 5 unbooked cases had eclampsia. One case of unbooked eclampsia had abruption DIC and could not be saved as it was the late referral. Total number of vaginal deliveries were 66(48.88% and total no. of abdominal deliveries were 67(49.62% in this LSCS 66 and one hysterotomy. IUD at the time of admission total were 100(74%. CONCLUSION To improve the outcome in Abruptio Placentae Good antenatal care, Educating the patient, Strengthening the Primary Health Centers in identifying the risk factors like Pre-eclampsia thereby avoiding eclampsia. Regular antenatal checkups timely delivery and availability of blood and blood products with good Neonatal care unit will help in improving the outcome of Abruptio.

  11. Determination of corrective factors for an ultrasonic flow measuring method in pipes accounting for perturbations

    By current ultrasonic flow measuring equipment (UFME) the mean velocity is measured for one or two measuring paths. This mean velocity is not equal to the velocity averaged over the flow cross-section, by means of which the flow rate is calculated. This difference will be found already for axially symmetrical, fully developed velocity profiles and, to a larger extent, for disturbed profiles varying in flow direction and for nonsteady flow. Corrective factors are defined for steady and nonsteady flows. These factors can be derived from the flow profiles within the UFME. By mathematical simulation of the entrainment effect the influence of cross and swirl flows on various ultrasonic measuring methods is studied. The applied UFME with crossed measuring paths is shown to be largely independent of cross and swirl flows. For evaluation in a computer of velocity network measurements in circular cross-sections the equations for interpolation and integration are derived. Results of the mathematical method are the isotach profile, the flow rate and, for fully developed flow, directly the corrective factor. In the experimental part corrective factors are determined in nonsteady flow in a measuring plane before and in form measuring planes behind a perturbation. (orig./RW)

  12. A comparison of Graham and Piotroski investment models using accounting information and efficacy measurement

    Nusrat Jahan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine the investment models of Benjamin Graham and Joseph Piotroski and compare the efficacy of these two models by running backtest, using screening rules and ranking systems built in Portfolio 123. Using different combinations of screening rules and ranking systems, we also examine the performance of Piotroski and Graham investment models. We find that the combination of Piotroski and Graham investment models performs better than S&P 500. We also find that the Piotroski screening with Graham ranking generates the highest average annualized return among different combinations of screening rules and ranking systems analyzed in this paper. Overall, our results show a profound impact of accounting information on investor’s decision making.

  13. Modeling Verdict Outcomes Using Social Network Measures: The Watergate and Caviar Network Cases.

    Víctor Hugo Masías

    Full Text Available Modelling criminal trial verdict outcomes using social network measures is an emerging research area in quantitative criminology. Few studies have yet analyzed which of these measures are the most important for verdict modelling or which data classification techniques perform best for this application. To compare the performance of different techniques in classifying members of a criminal network, this article applies three different machine learning classifiers-Logistic Regression, Naïve Bayes and Random Forest-with a range of social network measures and the necessary databases to model the verdicts in two real-world cases: the U.S. Watergate Conspiracy of the 1970's and the now-defunct Canada-based international drug trafficking ring known as the Caviar Network. In both cases it was found that the Random Forest classifier did better than either Logistic Regression or Naïve Bayes, and its superior performance was statistically significant. This being so, Random Forest was used not only for classification but also to assess the importance of the measures. For the Watergate case, the most important one proved to be betweenness centrality while for the Caviar Network, it was the effective size of the network. These results are significant because they show that an approach combining machine learning with social network analysis not only can generate accurate classification models but also helps quantify the importance social network variables in modelling verdict outcomes. We conclude our analysis with a discussion and some suggestions for future work in verdict modelling using social network measures.

  14. Modeling Verdict Outcomes Using Social Network Measures: The Watergate and Caviar Network Cases.

    Masías, Víctor Hugo; Valle, Mauricio; Morselli, Carlo; Crespo, Fernando; Vargas, Augusto; Laengle, Sigifredo

    2016-01-01

    Modelling criminal trial verdict outcomes using social network measures is an emerging research area in quantitative criminology. Few studies have yet analyzed which of these measures are the most important for verdict modelling or which data classification techniques perform best for this application. To compare the performance of different techniques in classifying members of a criminal network, this article applies three different machine learning classifiers-Logistic Regression, Naïve Bayes and Random Forest-with a range of social network measures and the necessary databases to model the verdicts in two real-world cases: the U.S. Watergate Conspiracy of the 1970's and the now-defunct Canada-based international drug trafficking ring known as the Caviar Network. In both cases it was found that the Random Forest classifier did better than either Logistic Regression or Naïve Bayes, and its superior performance was statistically significant. This being so, Random Forest was used not only for classification but also to assess the importance of the measures. For the Watergate case, the most important one proved to be betweenness centrality while for the Caviar Network, it was the effective size of the network. These results are significant because they show that an approach combining machine learning with social network analysis not only can generate accurate classification models but also helps quantify the importance social network variables in modelling verdict outcomes. We conclude our analysis with a discussion and some suggestions for future work in verdict modelling using social network measures. PMID:26824351

  15. Modeling Verdict Outcomes Using Social Network Measures: The Watergate and Caviar Network Cases

    2016-01-01

    Modelling criminal trial verdict outcomes using social network measures is an emerging research area in quantitative criminology. Few studies have yet analyzed which of these measures are the most important for verdict modelling or which data classification techniques perform best for this application. To compare the performance of different techniques in classifying members of a criminal network, this article applies three different machine learning classifiers–Logistic Regression, Naïve Bayes and Random Forest–with a range of social network measures and the necessary databases to model the verdicts in two real–world cases: the U.S. Watergate Conspiracy of the 1970’s and the now–defunct Canada–based international drug trafficking ring known as the Caviar Network. In both cases it was found that the Random Forest classifier did better than either Logistic Regression or Naïve Bayes, and its superior performance was statistically significant. This being so, Random Forest was used not only for classification but also to assess the importance of the measures. For the Watergate case, the most important one proved to be betweenness centrality while for the Caviar Network, it was the effective size of the network. These results are significant because they show that an approach combining machine learning with social network analysis not only can generate accurate classification models but also helps quantify the importance social network variables in modelling verdict outcomes. We conclude our analysis with a discussion and some suggestions for future work in verdict modelling using social network measures. PMID:26824351

  16. Managerial Use of Discounted Cash-Flow or Accounting Performance Measures: Evidence from the U.K. Life Insurance Industry

    Klumpes, Paul J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Owing to the increasing prevalence of value-based methodologies and the competitive and political pressures faced by the industry to improve its performance, the U.K. life insurance industry provides an interesting environment in which to examine whether senior management uses accounting vs. projected cash-flow-based financial performance measures for both managerial performance evaluation and strategic budgetary planning and control purposes. A survey is employed to examine what economic and...

  17. Contributions to the measurement and management of intellectual capital: an accounting perspective

    Pires, Rui A.R.; Alves, Maria C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Intellectual capital (IC) represents a set of strategic assets, with an intangible nature, which contributes to the creation of competitive advantages and sustainable value, therefore should be identified, measure managed and published by organizations.

  18. Empirical Examination of Traditional Accounting Measures and EVA: A Study of Financial Experts in India

    Mengi, Tania; Bhatia, Dr. B S

    2014-01-01

    Increased awareness among the investors has forced the companies to focus on shareholder wealth maximization. This has generated the need to have performance measurement tool which would help to know whether value has been created or destroyed. So the present study tries to explore the perception of experts/knowledgeable persons in the field of finance regarding the use of traditional measures and EVA as predictors of MVA. The study also examines the factors that affect the investment strateg...

  19. A review of the psychometric properties of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS family of measures

    Dodson Sarity

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales was developed to routinely measure outcomes for adults with mental illness. Comparable instruments were also developed for children and adolescents (the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents and older people (the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales 65+. All three are being widely used as outcome measures in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. There is, however, no comprehensive review of these instruments. This paper fills this gap by reviewing the psychometric properties of each. Method Articles and reports relating to the instruments were retrieved, and their findings synthesised to assess the instruments' validity (content, construct, concurrent, predictive, reliability (test-retest, inter-rater, sensitivity to change, and feasibility/utility. Results Mostly, the instruments perform adequately or better on most dimensions, although some of their psychometric properties warrant closer examination. Conclusion Collectively, the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales family of measures can assess outcomes for different groups on a range of mental health-related constructs, and can be regarded as appropriate for routinely monitoring outcomes.

  20. Measuring and reporting quality of life outcomes in clinical trials in cystic fibrosis: a critical review

    Hart Anna

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Good quality clinical trials are essential to inform the best cystic fibrosis (CF management and care, by determining and comparing the effectiveness of new and existing therapies and drug delivery systems. The formal inclusion of quality of life (QoL as an outcome measure in CF clinical trials is becoming more common. Both an appropriate QoL measure and sound methodology are required in order to draw valid inferences about treatments and QoL. A review was undertaken of randomised controlled trials in cystic fibrosis where QoL was measured. EMBASE, MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science were searched to locate all full papers in the English language reporting randomised controlled trials in cystic fibrosis, published between January 1991 and December 2004. All Cochrane reviews published before December 2004 were hand searched. Papers were included if the authors had reported that they had measured QoL or well being in the trial. 16 trials were identified. The interventions investigated were: antibiotics (4; home versus hospital administration of antibiotics (1; steroids (1; mucolytic therapies (6; exercise (3 and pancreatic enzymes (1. Not one trial evaluated in this review provided conclusive results concerning QoL. This review highlights many of the pitfalls of QoL measurement in CF clinical trials and provides constructive information concerning the design and reporting of trials measuring QoL.

  1. Validation of a core outcome measure for palliative care in Africa: the APCA African Palliative Outcome Scale

    Moll Tony

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the burden of progressive incurable disease in Africa, there is almost no evidence on patient care or outcomes. A primary reason has been the lack of appropriate locally-validated outcome tools. This study aimed to validate a multidimensional scale (the APCA African Palliative Outcome Scale in a multi-centred international study. Methods Validation was conducted across 5 African services and in 3 phases: Phase 1. Face validity: content analysis of qualitative interviews and cognitive interviewing of POS; Phase 2. Construct validity: correlation of POS with Missoula-Vitas Quality of Life Index (Spearman's rank tests; Phase 3. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha calculated twice using 2 datasets, test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients calculated for 2 time points and time to complete (calculated twice using 2 datasets. Results The validation involved 682 patients and 437 family carers, interviewed in 8 different languages. Phase 1. Qualitative interviews (N = 90 patients; N = 38 carers showed POS items mapped well onto identified needs; cognitive interviews (N = 73 patients; N = 29 carers demonstrated good interpretation; Phase 2. POS-MVQoLI Spearman's rank correlations were low-moderate as expected (N = 285; Phase 3. (N = 307, 2nd assessment mean 21.2 hours after first, SD 7.2 Cronbach's Alpha was 0.6 on both datasets, indicating expected moderate internal consistency; test-retest found high intra-class correlation coefficients for all items (0.78-0.89; median time to complete 7 mins, reducing to 5 mins at second visit. Conclusions The APCA African POS has sound psychometric properties, is well comprehended and brief to use. Application of this tool offers the opportunity to at last address the omissions of palliative care research in Africa.

  2. [Standards and outcome measures in cardiovascular rehabilitation. Position paper GICR/IACPR].

    Griffo, Raffaele; Ambrosetti, Marco; Furgi, Giuseppe; Carlon, Roberto; Chieffo, Carmine; Favretto, Giuseppe; Febo, Oreste; Corrà, Ugo; Fattirolli, Francesco; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Greco, Cesare; Piepoli, Massimo F; Temporelli, Pier Luigi; Tramarin, Roberto; Urbinati, Stefano

    2012-12-01

    Despite major improvements in diagnostics and interventional therapies, cardiovascular diseases remain a major health care and socio-economic problem in Italy. Costs and resources required are increasing in close correlation to both the improved quality of care and to the population ageing. There is an overwhelming evidence of the efficacy of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in terms of reduction in morbidity and mortality after acute cardiac events. CR services are by definition multi-factorial and comprehensive. Furthermore, systematic analysis and monitoring of the process of delivery and outcomes is of paramount importance. The aim of this position paper promoted by the Italian Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation (GICR-IACPR) is to provide specific recommendations to assist CR staff in the design, evaluation and development of their care delivery organization. The position paper should also assist health care providers, insurers, policy makers and consumers in the recognition of the quality of care requirements, standards and outcome measure, quality and performance indicators, and professional competence involved in such organization and programs. The position paper i) include comprehensive CR definition and indications, ii) describes priority criteria based on the clinical risk for admission to both inpatient or outpatient CR, and iii) defines components and technological, structural and organizing requirements for inpatient or outpatient CR services, with specific indicators and standards, performance measures and required professional skills. A specific chapter is dedicated to the requirements for highly specialized CR services for patients with more advanced cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23659104

  3. Study on Measurement of Human Resource Accounting%关于人力资源会计计量的研究

    林春玉

    2013-01-01

      Human resource accounting includes the measurement of human resources and human resources value measurement. Purpose is to provide the enterprise human resources change information to the enterprise and the outside world.%  人力资源会计包括人力资源的计量和人力资源价值的计量。目的是将企业人力资源变化的信息提供给企业和外界有关人士使用。

  4. Accounting for randomness in measurement and sampling in studying cancer cell population dynamics.

    Ghavami, Siavash; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Lahouti, Farshad; Ullah, Mukhtar; Linnebacher, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Knowing the expected temporal evolution of the proportion of different cell types in sample tissues gives an indication about the progression of the disease and its possible response to drugs. Such systems have been modelled using Markov processes. We here consider an experimentally realistic scenario in which transition probabilities are estimated from noisy cell population size measurements. Using aggregated data of FACS measurements, we develop MMSE and ML estimators and formulate two problems to find the minimum number of required samples and measurements to guarantee the accuracy of predicted population sizes. Our numerical results show that the convergence mechanism of transition probabilities and steady states differ widely from the real values if one uses the standard deterministic approach for noisy measurements. This provides support for our argument that for the analysis of FACS data one should consider the observed state as a random variable. The second problem we address is about the consequences of estimating the probability of a cell being in a particular state from measurements of small population of cells. We show how the uncertainty arising from small sample sizes can be captured by a distribution for the state probability. PMID:25257023

  5. An evaluation of accounting-based finding costs as efficiency measures for oil and gas exploration

    The authors have operationalized firm-specific exploration efficiency as the difference between a firm-specific intercept estimated in a fixed-effects panel data Cobb-Douglas production frontier model and the maximum firm-specific intercept estimated in that model. The production model was estimated during two different time periods, 1982--1985 and 1989--1992, allowing efficiency to vary intertemporally. This efficiency estimate served as a benchmark against which they compared various measures of inverse finding costs. They assumed that the degree of association with an efficiency benchmark is an important attribute of any finding cost measure and that, further, the degree of association may be used as a metric for choosing between alternative finding cost measures. Accordingly, they evaluated the cross-sectional statistical association between estimated efficiency and alternative inverse finding cost measures. They discovered that the inverse finding cost measure that exhibited the strongest association with efficiency during the two time periods was a three-year moving-average finding cost which included exploration plus development expenditures as costs and reserve extensions and additions plus revisions as the units added

  6. Achievements in mental health outcome measurement in Australia: Reflections on progress made by the Australian Mental Health Outcomes and Classification Network (AMHOCN

    Burgess Philip

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia’s National Mental Health Strategy has emphasised the quality, effectiveness and efficiency of services, and has promoted the collection of outcomes and casemix data as a means of monitoring these. All public sector mental health services across Australia now routinely report outcomes and casemix data. Since late-2003, the Australian Mental Health Outcomes and Classification Network (AMHOCN has received, processed, analysed and reported on outcome data at a national level, and played a training and service development role. This paper documents the history of AMHOCN’s activities and achievements, with a view to providing lessons for others embarking on similar exercises. Method We conducted a desktop review of relevant documents to summarise the history of AMHOCN. Results AMHOCN has operated within a framework that has provided an overarching structure to guide its activities but has been flexible enough to allow it to respond to changing priorities. With no precedents to draw upon, it has undertaken activities in an iterative fashion with an element of ‘trial and error’. It has taken a multi-pronged approach to ensuring that data are of high quality: developing innovative technical solutions; fostering ‘information literacy’; maximising the clinical utility of data at a local level; and producing reports that are meaningful to a range of audiences. Conclusion AMHOCN’s efforts have contributed to routine outcome measurement gaining a firm foothold in Australia’s public sector mental health services.

  7. Unmet reproductive health needs among women in some West African countries: a systematic review of outcome measures and determinants

    Ayanore, Martin Amogre; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying relevant measures of women’s reproductive health needs is critical to improve women’s chances of service utilization. The study aims to systematically review and analyze the adequacy of outcome measures and determinants applied in previous studies for assessing women reproductive health needs across West Africa. Methods Evidence on outcomes and determinants of unmet reproductive health needs among women of childbearing age in diverse multicultural, religious, and ethnic...

  8. Association of psychological status and patient-reported physical outcome measures in joint arthroplasty: a lack of divergent validity

    Giesinger, Johannes M; Kuster, Markus S.; Behrend, Henrik; Giesinger, Karlmeinrad

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcome measures have become a well-recognised part of outcome assessment in orthopaedic surgery. These questionnaires claim to measure joint-specific dimensions like pain, function in activities of daily living, joint awareness or stiffness. Interference of the patient’s psychological status with these orthopaedic questionnaires however may make accurate interpretation difficult. Methods We recruited 356 patients after unilateral, primary THA or TKA and performed ...

  9. Comparing Measures of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination, Coping, and Associations with Health-Related Outcomes in a Diverse Sample

    Benjamins, Maureen R.

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination is detrimental to health behaviors and outcomes, but little is known about which measures of discrimination are most strongly related to health, if relationships with health outcomes vary by race/ethnicity, and if coping responses moderate these associations. To explore these issues, the current study assessed race/ethnic differences in five measures of race/ethnic discrimination, as well as emotional and behavioral coping responses, within a population-based sample of Whites, ...

  10. The barriers and facilitators to routine outcome measurement by allied health professionals in practice: a systematic review

    Duncan Edward AS; Murray Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Allied Health Professionals today are required, more than ever before, to demonstrate their impact. However, despite at least 20 years of expectation, many services fail to deliver routine outcome measurement in practice. This systematic review investigates what helps and hinders routine outcome measurement of allied health professionals practice. Methods A systematic review protocol was developed comprising: a defined search strategy for PsycINFO, MEDLINE and CINHAL datab...

  11. Entanglement, weak values, and the precise inference of joint measurement outcomes for non-commuting observable pairs

    Botero, Alonso

    2007-01-01

    The problem of inferring the outcome of a simultaneous measurement of two non-commuting observables is addressed. We show that for certain pairs with dense spectra, precise inferences of the measurement outcomes are possible in pre-and post-selected ensembles, and if the selections involve entangled states with some other system. We show that the problem is related to the problem of assigning weak values to a continuous family of operators, and give explicit examples where this problem is sol...

  12. Health-related quality of life, satisfaction, and economic outcome measures in studies of prostate cancer screening and treatment, 1990-2000.

    McNaughton-Collins, Mary; Walker-Corkery, Elizabeth; Barry, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    the 198 included papers, there were 161 primary data papers categorized as follows: randomized trial (n = 28), nonrandomized trial (n = 13), prospective or retrospective cohort study (n = 55), case-control study (n = 0), cross-sectional study (n = 63), and meta-analysis (n = 2). The remaining 37 papers were economic and decision analytic papers. Among the 149 primary data papers that contained patient outcome data, there were 42 standard instruments used, accounting for 44% (179 of 410) of the measures overall. Almost three-quarters (71%) of papers included one, two, or three outcomes measures of all types (standard and nonstandard); three papers included seven outcomes measures, and one paper included nine. Over the 11-year time period, there was a nonstatistically significant trend toward more frequent use of standardized QOL instruments and a statistically significant trend toward increased reporting of race (P = .003). Standardization of measurement of health-related QOL, satisfaction with care, and economic cost effect among men screened and treated for prostate cancer is needed. A core set of similar questions, both generic and disease-specific, should ideally be asked in every study, although investigators should be encouraged to include additional question sets as appropriate to individual studies to get a more complete picture of how patients screened and treated for this condition are doing over time. PMID:15504921

  13. Accounting for the speed shear in wind turbine power performance measurement

    Wagner, Rozenn; Courtney, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The power curve of a wind turbine is the primary characteristic of the machine as it is the basis of the warranty for it power production. The current IEC standard for power performance measurement only requires the measurement of the wind speed at hub height and the air density to characterise the wind field in front of the turbine. However, with the growing size of the turbine rotors during the last years, the effect of the variations of the wind speed within the swept rotor area, and there...

  14. A multi-year methane inversion using SCIAMACHY, accounting for systematic errors using TCCON measurements

    Houweling, S.; Krol, M.C.; Bergamaschi, P.; Frankenberg, C.; Dlugokencky, E.J.; Morino, I.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the use of total column CH4 (XCH4) retrievals from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument for quantifying large-scale emissions of methane. A unique data set from SCIAMACHY is available spanning almost a decade of measurements, covering a period when the global CH4 growth rate sh

  15. Accountability for After-School Care: Devising Standards and Measuring Adherence to Them.

    Beckett, Megan; Hawken, Angela; Jacknowitz, Alison

    As the number of after-school programs has expanded, states are increasingly interested in information that helps in the design, selection, and management of such programs. With the sponsorship of Stone Soup Child Care Programs in California, the RAND Child Policy Project and the Promising Practices Network was commissioned to measure adherence of…

  16. Analyzing Repeated Measures Data on Individuals Nested within Groups: Accounting for Dynamic Group Effects

    Bauer, Daniel J.; Gottfredson, Nisha C.; Dean, Danielle; Zucker, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers commonly collect repeated measures on individuals nested within groups such as students within schools, patients within treatment groups, or siblings within families. Often, it is most appropriate to conceptualize such groups as dynamic entities, potentially undergoing stochastic structural and/or functional changes over time. For…

  17. Demonstration of an automated electromanometer for measurement of solution in accountability vessels in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (part II)

    This report describes the results of an operational field test of the automated electromanometer system installed at the input accountability vessel (251V10) and the plutonium product accountability vessel (266V23) in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant. This system has been in use since September 1979 when it was installed in the PNC plant by BNL as part of Task-E, one of the thirteen tasks, in the Tokai Advanced Safeguards Technology Exercise (TASTEX) program. The first report on the progress of this task was published by S. Suda, et al., in the Proceedings of the INMM 22nd Annual Meeting. In this paper, further results of measurement and data analysis are shown. Also, the reliability and applicability of this instrument for accountability, safeguards, and process control purposes are investigated using the data of 106 batches for 251V10 and 40 batches for 266V23 obtained during two campaigns in 1981. There were small but significant differences relative to the plant's measurements for both vessels of 251V10 and 266V23; however, the difference for 251V10 was slightly decreased in the latest vessel calibration. Initially, there were many spurious signals originating with the raw data caused by a software error in the system. However, almost normal conditions were obtained after corrections of the program were made

  18. Birth outcome measures and prenatal exposure to 4-tert-octylphenol.

    Lv, Shenliang; Wu, Chunhua; Lu, Dasheng; Qi, Xiaojuan; Xu, Hao; Guo, Jianqiu; Liang, Weijiu; Chang, XiuLi; Wang, Guoquan; Zhou, Zhijun

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to 4-tert-octylphenol (tOP) has been linked with adverse health outcomes in animals and humans, while epidemiological studies about associations between prenatal exposure to tOP and fetal growth are extremely limited. We measured urinary tOP concentrations in 1100 pregnant women before their delivery, and examined whether tOP levels were associated with birth outcomes, including weight, length, head circumference and ponderal index at birth. tOP could be detected in all samples, and the median uncorrected and creatinine-corrected tOP concentrations were 0.90 μg/L (range from 0.25 to 20.05 μg/L) and 1.33 μg/g creatinine (range from 0.15 to 42.49 μg/g creatinine), respectively. Maternal urinary log-transformed tOP concentrations were significantly negatively associated with adjusted birth weight [β (g) = -126; 95% confidence interval (CI): -197, -55], birth length [β (cm) = -0.53; 95% CI:-0.93, -0.14], and head circumference [β (cm) = -0.30; 95% CI: -0.54, -0.07], respectively. Additionally, considering sex difference, these significant negative associations were also found among male neonates, while only higher maternal tOP concentrations were associated with a significant decrease in birth weight among female neonates. This study suggested significant negative associations between maternal urinary tOP concentrations and neonatal sizes at birth, and they differed by neonatal sex. Further epidemiological studies are required to more fully elaborate the associations between prenatal tOP exposure and birth outcomes. PMID:26840518

  19. Accounting for the speed shear in wind turbine power performance measurement

    Wagner, Rozenn; Courtney, Michael; Gottschall, Julia; Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter

    2011-01-01

    describe an experiment in which wind speed profiles were measured in front of a multimegawatt turbine using a ground–based pulsed lidar. Ignoring the vertical shear was shown to overestimate the kinetic energy flux of these profiles, in particular for those deviating significantly from a power law profile....... As a consequence, the power curve obtained for these deviant profiles was different from that obtained for the ‘near power law’ profiles. An equivalent wind speed based on the kinetic energy derived from the measured wind speed profile was then used to plot the performance curves. The curves obtained...... uncertainty and improve the annual energy production estimation. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  20. Industry-based methodological approaches to the measurement of Creative Industries: a theoretical and empirical account

    Sara Santos Cruz; Aurora A.C. Teixeira

    2012-01-01

    The rising interest in the creative economy has encouraged several authors both in the political and academic spheres to focus on creative industries and cultural activities and assess their effects on regional and national development. The issue of measurement has, however, limited the analysis considerably. Despite progress at the theoretical and empirical levels, there is a generalized lack of clear definitions and estimations as to what represents cultural activities and creative industri...

  1. Beyond FEV1 in COPD: a review of patient-reported outcomes and their measurement

    Jones, Paul; Miravitlles, Marc; van der Molen, Thys; Kulich, Karoly

    2012-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) present with a variety of symptoms and pathological consequences. Although primarily viewed as a respiratory disease, COPD has both pulmonary and extrapulmonary effects, which have an impact on many aspects of physical, emotional, and mental well-being. Traditional assessment of COPD relies heavily on measuring lung function, specifically forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). However, the evidence suggests that FEV1 is a relatively poor correlate of symptoms such as breathlessness and the impact of COPD on daily life. Furthermore, many consequences of the disease, including anxiety and depression and the ability to perform daily activities, can only be described and reported reliably by the patient. Thus, in order to provide a comprehensive view of the effects of interventions in clinical trials, it is essential that spirometry is accompanied by assessments using patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments. We provide an overview of patient-reported outcome concepts in COPD, such as breathlessness, physical functioning, and health status, and evaluate the tools used for measuring these concepts. Particular attention is given to the newly developed instruments emerging in response to recent regulatory guidelines for the development and use of PROs in clinical trials. We conclude that although data from the development and validation of these new PRO instruments are emerging, to build the body of evidence that supports the use of a new instrument takes many years. Furthermore, new instruments do not necessarily have better discriminative or evaluative properties than older instruments. The development of new PRO tools, however, is crucial, not only to ensure that key COPD concepts are being reliably measured but also that the relevant treatment effects are being captured in clinical trials. In turn, this will help us to understand better the patient’s experience of the disease. PMID:23093901

  2. Using qualitative methods for generating patient reported outcome measures and patient reported experience measures for pre-hospital care of stroke and heart attack

    Togher, Fiona; Davy, Zowie; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2012-01-01

    The problem: Current health policy emphasises patient experience, together with effectiveness and safety, as key components of quality of care. As a consequence, Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) and Patient Reported Experience Measures (PREMs) are increasingly being seen as important, whether by providers, commissioners, regulators or service users themselves for assessing quality of care; by researchers for evaluating the outcomes of specific interventions; and also by clinicians fo...

  3. Beyond FEV1 in COPD: a review of patient-reported outcomes and their measurement

    Jones P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Paul Jones,1 Marc Miravitlles,2 Thys van der Molen,3 Karoly Kulich41Division of Clinical Science, University of London, London, UK; 2Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clínic, Ciber de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Barcelona, Spain; 3Department of Primary Care, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands; 4Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, SwitzerlandAbstract: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD present with a variety of symptoms and pathological consequences. Although primarily viewed as a respiratory disease, COPD has both pulmonary and extrapulmonary effects, which have an impact on many aspects of physical, emotional, and mental well-being. Traditional assessment of COPD relies heavily on measuring lung function, specifically forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1. However, the evidence suggests that FEV1 is a relatively poor correlate of symptoms such as breathlessness and the impact of COPD on daily life. Furthermore, many consequences of the disease, including anxiety and depression and the ability to perform daily activities, can only be described and reported reliably by the patient. Thus, in order to provide a comprehensive view of the effects of interventions in clinical trials, it is essential that spirometry is accompanied by assessments using patient-reported outcome (PRO instruments. We provide an overview of patient-reported outcome concepts in COPD, such as breathlessness, physical functioning, and health status, and evaluate the tools used for measuring these concepts. Particular attention is given to the newly developed instruments emerging in response to recent regulatory guidelines for the development and use of PROs in clinical trials. We conclude that although data from the development and validation of these new PRO instruments are emerging, to build the body of evidence that supports the use of a new instrument takes many years. Furthermore, new

  4. New language outcome measures for Mandarin speaking children with hearing loss

    Xueman Liu; Jill de Villiers; Wendy Lee; Chunyan Ning; Eric Rolfhus; Teresa Hutchings; Fan Jiang; Yiwen Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:The paper discusses recent evidence on the assessment of language outcomes in children with hearing loss acquiring oral language. Methods: Research emphasizes that language tests must be specific enough to capture subtle deficits in vocabulary and grammar learning at different developmental ages. The Diagnostic Receptive and Expressive Assessment of Mandarin (DREAM) was carefully designed to be a comprehensive standardized Mandarin assessment normed in Mainland China. Results:This paper summarizes the evidence-based item design process and validity and reliability results of DREAM. A pilot study reported here shows that DREAM provided detailed information about hearing impaired children's language abilities and can be used to aid intervention planning to maximize progress. Conclusion: DREAM represents an example of translational science, transferring methods from empirical studies of language acquisition in research environments into applied domains such as assessment and intervention. Research on outcomes in China will advance significantly with the availability of evidence-based comprehensive language tests that measure a sufficient age range of skills, are normed on Mandarin speaking children in mainland China, and are designed to capture features central to Mandarin language acquisition.

  5. Prospective clinical trial comparing outcome measures between Furlow and von Langenbeck Palatoplasties for UCLP.

    Williams, William N; Seagle, M Brent; Pegoraro-Krook, Maria Ines; Souza, Telma V; Garla, Luis; Silva, Marcos L; Machado Neto, José S; Dutka, Jeniffer C R; Nackashi, John; Boggs, Steve; Shuster, Jonathan; Moorhead, Jacquelyn; Wharton, William; Graciano, Maria I G; Pimentel, Maria C; Feniman, Mariza; Piazentin-Penna, Silvia H A; Kemker, Joseph; Zimmermann, Maria C; Bento-Gonçalvez, Cristina; Borgo, Hilton; Marques, Ilza L; Martinelli, Angela P M C; Jorge, José C; Antonelli, Patrick; Neves, Josiane F A; Whitaker, Melina E

    2011-02-01

    The goal of this prospective randomized clinical trial was to compare 2 cohorts of standardized cleft patients with regard to functional speech outcome and the presence or absence of palatal fistulae. The 2 cohorts are randomized to undergo either a conventional von Langenbeck repair with intravelar velarplasty or the double-opposing Z-plasty Furlow procedure. A prospective 2 × 2 × 2 factorial clinical trial was used in which each subject was randomly assigned to 1 of 8 different groups: 1 of 2 different lip repairs (Spina vs. Millard), 1 of 2 different palatal repair (von Langenbeck vs. Furlow), and 1 of 2 different ages at time of palatal surgery (9-12 months vs. 15-18 months). All surgeries were performed by the same 4 surgeons. A cul-de-sac test of hypernasality and a mirror test of nasal air emission were selected as primary outcome measures for velopharyngeal function. Both a surgeon and speech pathologist examined patients for the presence of palatal fistulae. In this study, the Furlow double-opposing Z-palatoplasty resulted in significantly better velopharyngeal function for speech than the von Langenbeck procedure as determined by the perceptual cul-de-sac test of hypernasality. Fistula occurrence was significantly higher for the Furlow procedure than for the von Langenbeck. Fistulas were more likely to occur in patients with wider clefts and when relaxing incisions were not used. PMID:21042188

  6. Using a Brief Parent-Report Measure to Track Outcomes for Children and Teens with ADHD.

    McCarthy, Alyssa; Asghar, Sunna; Wilens, Timothy; Romo, Stephanie; Kamin, Hayley; Jellinek, Michael; Murphy, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) is a widely used, parent-completed measure of children's emotional and behavioral functioning. Previous research has shown that the PSC and its subscales are responsive to patient progress over the course of psychiatric treatment. In this naturalistic study, parents and clinicians of 1736 patients aged 17 or younger completed standardized measures at intake and 3-month follow-up appointments. We assessed the 5-item PSC Attention Subscale (PSC-AS) as a longitudinal measure of attention-related symptoms in routine outpatient psychiatry treatment. Secondarily, we compared PSC-AS scores with clinician-reported diagnoses, psychomotor excitation symptoms, and overall functioning. Change scores on the PSC-AS were larger among patients with ADHD diagnoses than those with non-ADHD diagnoses. Comparisons between PSC-AS scores and clinician reports also showed acceptable levels of agreement. Given its effectiveness in tracking attention-related symptoms, the PSC may be particularly useful as a quality assurance or treatment outcome measure for clinicians treating ADHD. PMID:26271346

  7. A multi-year methane inversion using SCIAMACHY, accounting for systematic errors using TCCON measurements

    S. Houweling

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the use of total column CH4 (XCH4 retrievals from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument for quantifying large scale emissions of methane. A unique data set from SCIAMACHY is available spanning almost a decade of measurements, covering a period when the global CH4 growth rate showed a marked transition from stable to increasing mixing ratios. The TM5 4DVAR inverse modelling system has been used to infer CH4 emissions from a combination of satellite and surface measurements for the period 2003–2010. In contrast to earlier inverse modelling studies, the SCIAMACHY retrievals have been corrected for systematic errors using the TCCON network of ground based Fourier transform spectrometers. The aim is to further investigate the role of bias correction of satellite data in inversions. Methods for bias correction are discussed, and the sensitivity of the optimized emissions to alternative bias correction functions is quantified. It is found that the use of SCIAMACHY retrievals in TM5 4DVAR increases the estimated inter-annual variability of large-scale fluxes by 22% compared with the use of only surface observations. The difference in global methane emissions between two year periods before and after July 2006 is estimated at 27–35 Tg yr−1. The use of SCIAMACHY retrievals causes a shift in the emissions from the extra-tropics to the tropics of 50 ± 25 Tg yr−1. The large uncertainty in this value arises from the uncertainty in the bias correction functions. Using measurements from the HIPPO and BARCA aircraft campaigns, we show that systematic errors are a main factor limiting the performance of the inversions. To further constrain tropical emissions of methane using current and future satellite missions, extended validation capabilities in the tropics are of critical importance.

  8. Accounting students and communication apprehension: a study of Spanish and UK students

    Arquero, J. L.; Hassall, T.; Joyce, J; Donoso, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Accounting is about measuring and communicating. Accounting bodies and employers have expressed opinions, which have been supported by research results, advocating that greater emphasis is placed on the development of communication skills throughout the education and training of accountants. Consequently, an increasing number of accounting programmes now include communication skills as educational objectives or learning outcomes, and have integrated activities into the curriculum specifically...

  9. Measuring energy rebound effect in the Chinese economy: An economic accounting approach

    Estimating the magnitude of China's economy-wide rebound effect has attracted much attention in recent years. Most existing studies measure the rebound effect through the additional energy consumption from technological progress. However, in general technological progress is not equivalent to energy efficiency improvement. Consequently, their estimation may be misleading. To overcome the limitation, this paper develops an alternative approach for estimating energy rebound effect. Based on the proposed approach, China's economy-wide energy rebound effect is revisited. The empirical result shows that during the period 1981–2011 the rebound effects in China are between 30% and 40%, with an average value of 34.3%. - Highlights: • This paper develops an alternative approach for estimating energy rebound effect. • The proposed approach is based on the multilevel–hierarchical (M–H) IDA model. • The energy rebound effects in China are estimated between 30% and 40%

  10. Definitions and outcome measures for bullous pemphigoid: Recommendations by an international panel of experts

    Murrell, Dedee F.; Daniel, Benjamin S.; Joly, Pascal; Borradori, Luca; Amagai, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Takashi; Caux, Frédéric; Marinovic, Branka; Sinha, Animesh A.; Hertl, Michael; Bernard, Philippe; Sirois, David; Cianchini, Giuseppe; Fairley, Janet A.; Jonkman, Marcel F.; Pandya, Amit G.; Rubenstein, David; Zillikens, Detlef; Payne, Aimee S.; Woodley, David; Zambruno, Giovanna; Aoki, Valeria; Pincelli, Carlo; Diaz, Luis; Hall, Russell P.; Meurer, Michael; Mascaro, Jose M.; Schmidt, Enno; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Zone, John; Swerlick, Robert; Mimouni, Daniel; Culton, Donna; Lipozencic, Jasna; Bince, Benjamin; Grando, Sergei A.; Bystryn, Jean-Claude; Werth, Victoria P.

    2011-01-01

    Our scientific knowledge of bullous pemphigoid (BP) has dramatically progressed in recent years. However, despite the availability of various therapeutic options for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, only a few multicenter controlled trials have helped to define effective therapies in BP. A major obstacle in sharing multicenter-based evidences for therapeutic efforts is the lack of generally accepted definitions for the clinical evaluation of patients with BP. Common terms and end points of BP are needed so that experts in the field can accurately measure and assess disease extent, activity, severity, and therapeutic response, and thus facilitate and advance clinical trials. These recommendations from the International Pemphigoid Committee represent 2 years of collaborative efforts to attain mutually acceptable common definitions for BP and proposes a disease extent score, the BP Disease Area Index. These items should assist in the development of consistent reporting of outcomes in future BP reports and studies. PMID:22056920

  11. Behavioral outcome measures used for human neural stem cell transplantation in rat stroke models

    Matthew B. Jensen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, leading to the development of various stroke models to test new treatments, most commonly in the rat. Human stroke trials focus on disability, related primarily to neurological deficits. To better model the clinical application of these treatments, many behavioral tests have been developed using the rat stroke model. We performed a systematic review of all the behavioral outcome measures used in published studies of human neural stem cell transplantation in rat stroke models. The reviewed tests include motor, sensory, cognitive, activity, and combination tests. For each test, we give a brief description, trace the origin of the test, and discuss test performance in the reviewed studies. We conclude that while many behavioral tests are available for this purpose, there does not appear to be consensus on an optimal testing strategy.

  12. Number of patients needed to discriminate between subgroups in patient reported outcome measures

    Paulsen, Aksel

    2011-01-01

    analysis of variance. The hypothetical number of subjects needed to find the significant difference in PRO mean value between groups (assuming a significance level of 5 % and a power of 85 % to detect differences between the actual groups in our current study) was estimated for each PRO subscales with......Background: Patient reported outcome-measures (PROs) are increasingly used in orthopedics. Information on number of patients needed in different settings is warranted. Aim: To assess the number of patients needed for different PROs to discriminate between subgroups of age, gender, and diagnosis...... sample size calculations or by power calculations and simulated ANOVA F tests, depending on the number of groups. Results: To discriminate between gender, the least number needed to find a statistically significant difference in mean sum score in each group was 298 (OHS) while HOOS QoL required the most...

  13. Total Knee Arthroplasty in Younger Patients Evaluated by Alternative Outcome Measures

    Klit, Jakob; Jacobsen, Steffen; Rosenlund, Signe; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Troelsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    sexual life. Questionnaires including Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and SF-36 were evaluated preoperatively and three, six, and twelve months postoperatively. OKS and SF-36 showed significant improvements. However, patient satisfaction and fulfillment of personal expectations did not reflect these scores......In this prospective multicenter study we included subjects younger than 60 years of age and scheduled for primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The study assessed patients’ overall satisfaction, fulfillment of pre-operative expectations, the effect on socioeconomic parameters, and quality of....... Overall, TKA did not affect the patients’ socioeconomic status, and overall, patients did not experience impairment of sexual life, but decreased frequency and negative affection of sexual practice should be anticipated. Alternative outcome measurements of TKA surgery not focusing on implants and surgical...

  14. Behavioral, Brain Imaging and Genomic Measures to Predict Functional Outcomes Post - Bed Rest and Spaceflight

    Mulavara, A. P.; DeDios, Y. E.; Gadd, N. E.; Caldwell, E. E.; Batson, C. D.; Goel, R.; Seidler, R. D.; Oddsson, L.; Zanello, S.; Clarke, T.; Peters, B.; Cohen, H. S.; Reschke, M.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    retrospective study, leveraging data already collected from relevant ongoing or completed bed rest and spaceflight studies. These data will be combined with predictor metrics that will be collected prospectively (as described for behavioral, brain imaging and genomic measures) from these returning subjects to build models for predicting post-mission (bed rest - non-astronauts or space flight - astronauts) adaptive capability as manifested in their outcome measures. To date we have completed a study on 15 normal subjects with all of the above measures. In this presentation we will discuss the optimized set of tests for predictive metrics to be used for evaluating post mission adaptive capability as manifested in their outcome measures. Comparisons of model performance will allow us to better design and implement sensorimotor adaptability training countermeasures against decrements in post-mission adaptive capability that are customized for each crewmember's sensory biases, adaptive capacity, brain structure and functional capacities, and genetic predispositions. The ability to customize adaptability training will allow more efficient use of crew time during training and will optimize training prescriptions for astronauts to ensure expected outcomes.

  15. PETCO2 measurement and feature extraction of capnogram signals for extubation outcomes from mechanical ventilation

    Capnography is a continuous and noninvasive method for carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, and it has become the standard of care for basic respiratory monitoring for intubated patients in the intensive care unit. In addition, it has been used to adjust ventilatory parameters during mechanical ventilation (MV). However, a substantial debate remains as to whether capnography is useful during the process of weaning and extubation from MV during the postoperative period. Thus, the main objective of this study was to present a new use for time-based capnography data by measuring the end-tidal CO2 pressure (PETCO2), partial pressure of arterial CO2 (PaCO2) and feature extraction of capnogram signals before extubation from MV to evaluate the capnography as a predictor of outcome extubation in infants after cardiac surgery. Altogether, 82 measurements were analysed, 71.9% patients were successfully extubated, and 28.1% met the criteria for extubation failure within 48 h. The ROC-AUC analysis for quantitative measure of the capnogram showed significant differences (p < 0.001) for: expiratory time (0.873), slope of phase III (0.866), slope ratio (0.923) and ascending angle (0.897). In addition, the analysis of PETCO2 (0.895) and PaCO2  (0.924) obtained 30 min before extubation showed significant differences between groups. The PETCO2 mean value for success and failure extubation group was 39.04 mmHg and 46.27 mmHg, respectively. It was also observed that high CO2 values in patients who had returned MV was 82.8  ±  21 mmHg at the time of extubation failure. Thus, PETCO2 measurements and analysis of features extracted from a capnogram can differentiate extubation outcomes in infant patients under MV, thereby reducing the physiologic instability caused by failure in this process. (paper)

  16. A Portfolio Analysis Tool for Measuring NASAs Aeronautics Research Progress toward Planned Strategic Outcomes

    Tahmasebi, Farhad; Pearce, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Description of a tool for portfolio analysis of NASA's Aeronautics research progress toward planned community strategic Outcomes is presented. The strategic planning process for determining the community Outcomes is also briefly described. Stakeholder buy-in, partnership performance, progress of supporting Technical Challenges, and enablement forecast are used as the criteria for evaluating progress toward Outcomes. A few illustrative examples are also presented.

  17. An Outcome-Based Assessment and Improvement System for Measuring Student Performance and Course Effectiveness

    Anwar, M. A.; Ahmed, Naseer; Al Ameen, Abdurahem Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of students' expected performance and course effectiveness play a vital role in determining the course contribution toward meeting the program's learning objectives or outcomes. The success of any course not only requires a well-designed syllabus with clearly defined course learning outcomes and the use of appropriate outcome-based…

  18. Measuring Family Outcomes Early Intervention: Findings from a Large-Scale Assessment

    Raspa, Melissa; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Olmsted, Murrey G.; Nelson, Robin; Robinson, Nyle; Simpson, Mary Ellen; Guillen, Chelsea; Houts, Renate

    2010-01-01

    This article reports data from a large-scale assessment using the Family Outcomes Survey with families participating in early intervention. The study was designed to determine how families describe themselves with regard to outcomes achieved, the extent to which outcomes are interrelated, and the extent to which child, family, and program factors…

  19. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    Koch, Alexander K.; Nafziger, Julia

    2011-01-01

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating...

  20. Development of a self-assessed consumer recovery outcome measure: my voice, my life.

    Gordon, Sarah E; Ellis, Pete M; Siegert, Richard J; Walkey, Frank H

    2013-05-01

    We report the development of a self-assessed consumer recovery outcome measure by way of a consumer led and focused iterative process, informed by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The process began with a deliberately over-inclusive preliminary measure of 127 items, based on 12 presumptive domains derived from the recovery literature and consumer consultation, being piloted with over 500 mental health consumers. The full 504 participant data set was randomly split into two discrete sets of 300 and 204 to provide one for the initial exploratory factor analysis and another (of independence) for the subsequent confirmatory factor analysis and reliability estimation. Analyses identified and confirmed (using the separate data sets) a robust factor structure, with 11 distinct and relatively independent factors (relationships; day-to-day life; culture; physical health; quality of life; mental health; recovery; hope and empowerment; spirituality; resources; and satisfaction with services) underlying one substantial principal construct (that we refer to as consumer recovery). The measure was refined to 65 items, between three and ten items for each of the 11 domains, the reliabilities for which are uniformly high. PMID:22426650

  1. Evaluation of Diverse Community Asthma Interventions: Balancing Health Outcomes with Developing Community Capacity for Evidence-Based Program Measurement.

    Woodhouse, Lynn D; Livingood, William C; Toal, Russ; Keene, DeAnna; Hines, Robert B; Tedders, Stuart; Charles, Simone M; Lawrence, Raymona H; Gunn, Laura H; Williams, Natalie; Kellum, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The challenge of evaluating community asthma management programs is complicated by balancing the emphasis on health outcomes with the need to build community process capacity for conducting and monitoring evidence-based programs. The evaluation of a Georgia Childhood Asthma Management Program, a Healthcare Georgia Foundation-supported initiative for multiple diverse programs and settings, provides an example of an approach and the results that address this challenge. A "developmental evaluation" approach was applied, using mixed methods of quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis, to assess the progress of community asthma prevention programs in building community within the context of: where the community is starting, community-level systems changes, and the community's progress toward becoming more outcome measurement oriented and evidence based. Initial evaluation efforts revealed extensive mobilization of community assets to manage childhood asthma. However, there were minimal planned efforts to assess health outcomes and systems changes, and the lack of a logic model-based program design linking evidence-based practices to outcomes. Following developmental technical assistance within evaluation efforts, all programs developed logic models, linking practices to outcomes with data collection processes to assess progress toward achieving the selected outcomes. This developmental approach across diverse projects and communities, along with a quality improvement benchmarking approach to outcomes, created a focus on health status outcome improvement. Specifically, this approach complemented an emphasis on an improved community process capacity to identify, implement, and monitor evidence-based asthma practices that could be used within each community setting. PMID:25658512

  2. A systematic review of studies that aim to determine which outcomes to measure in clinical trials in children.

    Ian Sinha

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In clinical trials the selection of appropriate outcomes is crucial to the assessment of whether one intervention is better than another. Selection of inappropriate outcomes can compromise the utility of a trial. However, the process of selecting the most suitable outcomes to include can be complex. Our aim was to systematically review studies that address the process of selecting outcomes or outcome domains to measure in clinical trials in children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched Cochrane databases (no date restrictions in December 2006; and MEDLINE (1950 to 2006, CINAHL (1982 to 2006, and SCOPUS (1966 to 2006 in January 2007 for studies of the selection of outcomes for use in clinical trials in children. We also asked a group of experts in paediatric clinical research to refer us to any other relevant studies. From these articles we extracted data on the clinical condition of interest, description of the method used to select outcomes, the people involved in the selection process, the outcomes selected, and limitations of the method as defined by the authors. The literature search identified 8,889 potentially relevant abstracts. Of these, 70 were retrieved, and 25 were included in the review. These studies described the work of 13 collaborations representing various paediatric specialties including critical care, gastroenterology, haematology, psychiatry, neurology, respiratory paediatrics, rheumatology, neonatal medicine, and dentistry. Two groups utilised the Delphi technique, one used the nominal group technique, and one used both methods to reach a consensus about which outcomes should be measured in clinical trials. Other groups used semistructured discussion, and one group used a questionnaire-based survey. The collaborations involved clinical experts, research experts, and industry representatives. Three groups involved parents of children affected by the particular condition. CONCLUSIONS: Very few studies address the

  3. Operationalising the capability approach for outcome measurement in mental health research.

    Simon, Judit; Anand, Paul; Gray, Alastair; Rugkåsa, Jorun; Yeeles, Ksenija; Burns, Tom

    2013-12-01

    Amartya Sen's multidimensional capability approach focuses on the importance of freedoms to be or do things people have reason to value. It is an alternative to standard utilitarian welfarism, the theoretical approach to quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and cost-utility analyses. Despite the limitations of the utility approach in capturing non-health benefits and broader welfare inequalities, there have been very limited applications of the capability approach in the mental health context where these issues are imperative. We report the development and application of a multidimensional instrument, the OxCAP-MH, which aims to operationalise the capability approach for outcome measurement in mental health research. The study was carried out as part of an ongoing programme on community coercion experienced by service users with severe and enduring mental illness being treated using Community Treatment Orders. Capabilities data were collected at baseline in the OCTET RCT for 333 'revolving door' mental health service users who were in involuntary hospital treatment at the time of recruitment in England (2008-2011). The research focused on the identification of capabilities domains most affected by mental illness and their association with socio-demographic and clinical factors and other measures of well-being such as the EQ-5D and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scales. The OxCAP-MH item response rate was 90%-68%. There were significant correlations between service users' overall capability scores and the GAF, EQ-5D VAS and EQ-5D-3L utilities (corr = 0.249, 0.514, 0.415, respectively). The most affected capability domains were: 'Daily activities', 'Influencing local decisions', 'Enjoying recreation', 'Planning one's life' and 'Discrimination'. Age had a mixed effect, while female service users and those with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia or longer illness duration reported significantly lower capability scores. The results support the feasibility and

  4. Comparing frailty measures in their ability to predict adverse outcome among older residents of assisted living

    Hogan David B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have directly compared the competing approaches to identifying frailty in more vulnerable older populations. We examined the ability of two versions of a frailty index (43 vs. 83 items, the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS frailty criteria, and the CHESS scale to accurately predict the occurrence of three outcomes among Assisted Living (AL residents followed over one year. Methods The three frailty measures and the CHESS scale were derived from assessment items completed among 1,066 AL residents (aged 65+ participating in the Alberta Continuing Care Epidemiological Studies (ACCES. Adjusted risks of one-year mortality, hospitalization and long-term care placement were estimated for those categorized as frail or pre-frail compared with non-frail (or at high/intermediate vs. low risk on CHESS. The area under the ROC curve (AUC was calculated for select models to assess the predictive accuracy of the different frailty measures and CHESS scale in relation to the three outcomes examined. Results Frail subjects defined by the three approaches and those at high risk for decline on CHESS showed a statistically significant increased risk for death and long-term care placement compared with those categorized as either not frail or at low risk for decline. The risk estimates for hospitalization associated with the frailty measures and CHESS were generally weaker with one of the frailty indices (43 items showing no significant association. For death and long-term care placement, the addition of frailty (however derived or CHESS significantly improved on the AUC obtained with a model including only age, sex and co-morbidity, though the magnitude of improvement was sometimes small. The different frailty/risk models did not differ significantly from each other in predicting mortality or hospitalization; however, one of the frailty indices (83 items showed significantly better performance over the other measures in predicting long

  5. Estimating recruitment rates for routine use of patient reported outcome measures and the impact on provider comparisons.

    Hutchings, A; Neuburger, J; van der Meulen, J; Black, N.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The routine use of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) aims to compare providers as regards the clinical need of their patients and their outcome. Simple methods of estimating recruitment rates based on aggregated data may be inaccurate. Our objectives were to: use patient-level linked data to evaluate these estimates; produce revised estimates of national and providers' recruitment rates; and explore whether or not recruitment bias exists. METHODS Case study based on pa...

  6. Measuring Patient-Reported Outcomes in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: An Overview of Instruments Developed to Date

    Irina Cleemput; Fabienne Dobbels

    2007-01-01

    Improvements in organ preservation methods, immunosuppressive regimens and general post-transplant care have resulted in an increased life expectancy and a continually decreasing morbidity after solid organ transplantation. As attention gradually moves towards improving subjective patient outcomes, the use of patient-reported outcome measures (PROs) thus becomes increasingly important in post-transplant patient management. This paper provides a brief systematic overview of the transplant-spec...

  7. Unraveling the Differential Effects of Motivational and Skills, Social, and Self-Management Measures from Traditional Predictors of College Outcomes

    Robbins, Steven B.; Allen, Jeff; Casillas, Alex; Peterson, Christina Hamme; Le, Huy

    2006-01-01

    The authors report on a large-scale study examining the effects of self-reported psychosocial factors on 1st-year college outcomes. Using a sample of 14,464 students from 48 institutions, the authors constructed hierarchical regression models to measure the predictive validity of the Student Readiness Inventory, a measure of psychosocial factors.…

  8. Improving the Accuracy of Satellite Sea Surface Temperature Measurements by Explicitly Accounting for the Bulk-Skin Temperature Difference

    Castro, Sandra L.; Emery, William J.

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this research was to determine whether the accuracy of satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST) could be improved by explicitly accounting for the complex temperature gradients at the surface of the ocean associated with the cool skin and diurnal warm layers. To achieve this goal, work centered on the development and deployment of low-cost infrared radiometers to enable the direct validation of satellite measurements of skin temperature. During this one year grant, design and construction of an improved infrared radiometer was completed and testing was initiated. In addition, development of an improved parametric model for the bulk-skin temperature difference was completed using data from the previous version of the radiometer. This model will comprise a key component of an improved procedure for estimating the bulk SST from satellites. The results comprised a significant portion of the Ph.D. thesis completed by one graduate student and they are currently being converted into a journal publication.

  9. Cognitive and typing outcomes measured simultaneously with slow treadmill walking or sitting: implications for treadmill desks.

    Michael J Larson

    Full Text Available This study compared cognitive (attention, learning, and memory and typing outcomes during slow treadmill walking or sitting. Seventy-five healthy individuals were randomly assigned to a treadmill walking group (n=37; 23 female or sitting group (n=38; 17 female.The treadmill walking group completed a series of tests while walking at 1.5 mph. The sitting group performed the same tests while sitting at a standard desk. Tests performed by both groups included: the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and a modified version of the Paced Auditory Serial Attention Test. In addition, typing performance was evaluated.Participants in the treadmill walking group performed worse on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test for total learning than the sitting group; the main effect was significant (F(1,73=4.75, p=0.03, ηp2=0.06; however, short- and long-delay recall performance did not differ between groups (p>0.05. For the Paced Auditory Serial Attention Test, total number of correct responses was lower in the treadmill walking group relative to the sitting group; the main effect was significant (F(1,73=4.97, p=0.03, ηp2=0.06. The performance of both groups followed the same learning slope (Group x Trial interactions were not significant for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and Paced Auditory Serial Attention Test. Individuals in the treadmill walking group performed significantly worse for all measures of typing (p<0.05.Walking on a treadmill desk may result in a modest difference in total learning and typing outcomes relative to sitting, but those declines may not outweigh the benefit of the physical activity gains from walking on a treadmill.

  10. Cognitive, neurophysiological, neurological and psychosocial outcomes in early-treated PKU-patients: a start toward standardized outcome measurement across development.

    van Spronsen, F J; Huijbregts, S C J; Bosch, A M; Leuzzi, V

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a concise summary of findings from outcome studies in early-treated phenylketonuria (PKU). The paper should not be considered as an extensive review of the many different outcome measures that have been used in PKU-research, but as an attempt to integrate such findings so that they will be of additional value for day to day monitoring of PKU-patients and may direct future research to fill the present gaps of knowledge. Neurological, neuropsychological, neurophysiological, neuroimaging, quality of life, and psychosocial findings will be discussed in the context of their potential contributions to lifelong follow-up and treatment of PKU-patients being summarized in statements. PMID:22018724

  11. Risk constraint measures developed for the outcome-based strategy for tank waste management

    This report is one of a series of supporting documents for the outcome-based characterization strategy developed by PNNL. This report presents a set of proposed risk measures with risk constraint (acceptance) levels for use in the Value of Information process used in the NCS. The characterization strategy has developed a risk-based Value of Information (VOI) approach for comparing the cost-effectiveness of characterizing versus mitigating particular waste tanks or tank clusters. The preference between characterizing or mitigating in order to prevent an accident depends on the cost of those activities relative to the cost of the consequences of the accident. The consequences are defined as adverse impacts measured across a broad set of risk categories such as worker dose, public cancers, ecological harm, and sociocultural impacts. Within each risk measure, various open-quotes constraint levelsclose quotes have been identified that reflect regulatory standards or conventionally negotiated thresholds of harm to Hanford resources and values. The cost of consequences includes the open-quotes costs close-quote of exceeding those constraint levels as well as a strictly linear costing per unit of impact within each of the risk measures. In actual application, VOI based-decision making is an iterative process, with a preliminary low-precision screen of potential technical options against the major risk constraints, followed by VOI analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of gathering additional information and to select a preferred technical option, and finally a posterior screen to determine whether the preferred option meets all relevant risk constraints and acceptability criteria

  12. Renal masses measuring under 2 cm: Pathologic outcomes and associations with MRI features

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B., E-mail: Andrew.Rosenkrantz@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Wehrli, Natasha E. [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Melamed, Jonathan [Department of Pathology, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Taneja, Samir S. [Department of Urology, Division of Urologic Oncology, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Shaikh, Mohammed B. [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate pathologic outcomes and associations with MRI features in small renal masses measuring up to 20 mm Methods: 86 patients (61 ± 13 years; 45 M/41F) with 92 renal masses measuring up to 20 mm that underwent MRI prior to tissue diagnosis were included. Two radiologists independently evaluated all masses for microscopic lipid, hemorrhage, T2-hyperintensity, T2-homogeneity, cystic/necrotic areas, hypervascularity, enhancement homogeneity, circumscribed margins, and predominantly exophytic location. These MRI features, as well as patient age, gender, and history of RCC, were compared with pathologic findings using Fisher's exact test, unpaired t-test, and multivariate logistic regression. Results: 26.1% (24/92) of masses under 2 cm were benign, only 32.6% (30/92) were clear-cell RCC, and only 7.6% (7/92) were high-grade. Among 16 masses measuring up to 1 cm, only 12.5% (2/16) were clear-cell RCC, and none was high-grade. Within the entire cohort, no MRI or clinical feature showed a significant difference between benign and malignant lesions (p ≥ 0.053). However, for both readers, clear-cell RCC exhibited a significantly higher frequency of T2-hyperintensity, cystic/necrotic areas, and hypervascularity, and a significantly lower frequency of hemorrhage, T2-homogeneity, and enhancement homogeneity (p < 0.001–0.036). Hypervascularity was a significant independent predictor of clear-cell RCC for both readers (p = 0.002–0.007), as was T2-hyperintensity for reader 2 (p = 0.007). Conclusion: A substantial fraction of small renal masses were benign, and when malignant, largely exhibited indolent pathologic characteristics, particularly when measuring under 1 cm Although small benign and malignant masses could not be differentiated on MRI, hypervascularity showed a significant independent association with clear-cell RCC in comparison with other lesions.

  13. Risk constraint measures developed for the outcome-based strategy for tank waste management

    Harper, B.L.; Gajewski, S.J.; Glantz, C.L. [and others

    1996-09-01

    This report is one of a series of supporting documents for the outcome-based characterization strategy developed by PNNL. This report presents a set of proposed risk measures with risk constraint (acceptance) levels for use in the Value of Information process used in the NCS. The characterization strategy has developed a risk-based Value of Information (VOI) approach for comparing the cost-effectiveness of characterizing versus mitigating particular waste tanks or tank clusters. The preference between characterizing or mitigating in order to prevent an accident depends on the cost of those activities relative to the cost of the consequences of the accident. The consequences are defined as adverse impacts measured across a broad set of risk categories such as worker dose, public cancers, ecological harm, and sociocultural impacts. Within each risk measure, various {open_quotes}constraint levels{close_quotes} have been identified that reflect regulatory standards or conventionally negotiated thresholds of harm to Hanford resources and values. The cost of consequences includes the {open_quotes}costs{close_quote} of exceeding those constraint levels as well as a strictly linear costing per unit of impact within each of the risk measures. In actual application, VOI based-decision making is an iterative process, with a preliminary low-precision screen of potential technical options against the major risk constraints, followed by VOI analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of gathering additional information and to select a preferred technical option, and finally a posterior screen to determine whether the preferred option meets all relevant risk constraints and acceptability criteria.

  14. Non-self-sufficiency as a primary outcome measure in ALS trials.

    Marin, Benoît; Bianchi, Elisa; Pupillo, Elisabetta; Lunetta, Christian; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Chiò, Adriano; Preux, Pierre Marie; Beghi, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to assess non-self-sufficiency (NSS) in ALS as an outcome measure in therapeutic trials. Using data from the control arm of two randomized trials and an observational study, associations between NSS (score ≤2 in the ALSFRS-R items for swallowing, cutting food and handling utensils, or walking) and the total ALSFRS-R score, forced vital capacity (FVC), and survival at selected time-points until death or 48 weeks, were assessed. These measures were used as surrogates of relevant functional impairment. Of 82 self-sufficient (SS) patients at baseline, 32 (39.0%) became NSS at four weeks and increased to 72 (87.8%) at the end of follow-up. A significant association was found between NSS, ALSFRS-R score and FVC at 24, 36 and 48 weeks. Thirty-four subjects died (41.5%). Compared to SS patients (median survival, 27.9 months), individuals becoming NSS at four weeks were at increased risk to die (median survival, 23.6 months, p = 0.02). NSS status at four weeks predicted survival even after adjustment for ALSFRS-R total score, age, gender, site of onset, disease duration, BMI, and FVC. 'Walking' was the only predictor of survival when adjusting for all covariates. In conclusion, NSS status is a possible endpoint to investigate short-term efficacy of treatments of ALS. PMID:26470831

  15. Proposed Criteria for Appraising Goal Attainment Scales Used as Outcome Measures in Rehabilitation Research.

    Krasny-Pacini, Agata; Evans, Jonathan; Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Chevignard, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) is a method for writing personalized evaluation scales to quantify progress toward defined rehabilitation goals. In the published literature, GAS methodology is used with different levels of rigor, ranging from precisely written GAS scales that ensure minimal bias and explicitly describe 5 levels of goal attainment to subjective ratings of goal attainment by adjectives (eg, worse/better than expected), which are transformed into a T score, wrongly giving the reader the impression of a truly standardized, interval scale. A drawback of GAS methodology is that it is highly dependent on the ability of the GAS setting team/person to generate valid, reliable, and meaningful scales; therefore, reliability and validity of GAS scales are idiosyncratic to each study. The aims of this article were to (1) increase awareness of potential sources of bias in GAS processes; (2) propose GAS quality appraisal criteria, allowing judgment of the quality of GAS methodology in individual rehabilitation studies; and (3) propose directions to improve GAS implementation to increase its reliability and validity as a research measurement tool. Our proposed quality appraisal criteria are based on critical appraisal of GAS literature and published GAS validity studies that have demonstrated that precision, validity, and reliability can be obtained when using GAS as an outcome measure in clinical trials. We recommend that authors using GAS report accurately how GAS methodology was used based on these criteria. PMID:26343173

  16. The case for an international patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS®) initiative.

    Alonso, Jordi; Bartlett, Susan J; Rose, Matthias; Aaronson, Neil K; Chaplin, John E; Efficace, Fabio; Leplège, Alain; Lu, Aiping; Tulsky, David S; Raat, Hein; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Revicki, Dennis; Terwee, Caroline B; Valderas, Jose M; Cella, David; Forrest, Christopher B

    2013-01-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) play an increasingly important role in clinical practice and research. Modern psychometric methods such as item response theory (IRT) enable the creation of item banks that support fixed-length forms as well as computerized adaptive testing (CAT), often resulting in improved measurement precision and responsiveness. Here we describe and discuss the case for developing an international core set of PROs building from the US PROMIS® network.PROMIS is a U.S.-based cooperative group of research sites and centers of excellence convened to develop and standardize PRO measures across studies and settings. If extended to a global collaboration, PROMIS has the potential to transform PRO measurement by creating a shared, unifying terminology and metric for reporting of common symptoms and functional life domains. Extending a common set of standardized PRO measures to the international community offers great potential for improving patient-centered research, clinical trials reporting, population monitoring, and health care worldwide. Benefits of such standardization include the possibility of: international syntheses (such as meta-analyses) of research findings; international population monitoring and policy development; health services administrators and planners access to relevant information on the populations they serve; better assessment and monitoring of patients by providers; and improved shared decision making.The goal of the current PROMIS International initiative is to ensure that item banks are translated and culturally adapted for use in adults and children in as many countries as possible. The process includes 3 key steps: translation/cultural adaptation, calibration, and validation. A universal translation, an approach focusing on commonalities, rather than differences across versions developed in regions or countries speaking the same language, is proposed to ensure conceptual equivalence for all items. International item

  17. Can community change be measured for an outcomes-based initiative? A comparative case study of the success by 6 initiative.

    Minich, Lisa; Howe, Steven; Langmeyer, Daniel; Corcoran, Kevin

    2006-12-01

    One of the challenges facing nonprofit organizations today is the demand for measurable results. Increasingly, these organizations are focusing less on program outputs and program outcomes in favor of community outcomes or changes demonstrated in the larger community. Success by 6(R) is a popular United Way initiative that emphasizes defining and measuring community outcomes. In this paper, we describe our work with 24 Success by 6(R) initiatives around the country. It is clear that not all of these initiatives are measuring community outcomes. Of those initiatives that are experiencing some success measuring community outcomes, similar measurement strategies are reported. Additionally, our experience suggests several United Way employees express dissatisfaction with the logic model as a framework for defining and measuring community outcomes although no preferred alternative model is identified. Evaluators working with community-wide initiatives must find ways to communicate the differences between program and community outcomes to key stakeholders and funders. PMID:17004126

  18. Entanglement, weak values, and the precise inference of joint measurement outcomes for non-commuting observable pairs

    The problem of inferring the outcome of a simultaneous measurement of two non-commuting observables is addressed. We show that for certain pairs with dense spectra, precise inferences of the measurement outcomes are possible in pre- and postselected ensembles, and if the selections involve entangled states with some other system. We show that the problem is related to the problem of assigning weak values to a continuous family of operators, and give explicit examples where this problem is solvable. A quantum-optical experiment is suggested and some foundational implications are briefly discussed.

  19. Using the bootstrap to establish statistical significance for relative validity comparisons among patient-reported outcome measures

    Deng, Nina; Allison, Jeroan J; Fang, Hua Julia; Ash, Arlene S.; Ware, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Relative validity (RV), a ratio of ANOVA F-statistics, is often used to compare the validity of patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. We used the bootstrap to establish the statistical significance of the RV and to identify key factors affecting its significance. Methods Based on responses from 453 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients to 16 CKD-specific and generic PRO measures, RVs were computed to determine how well each measure discriminated across clinically-defined groups ...

  20. Using performance measures and indicators to assess the quality of customer service provided to the Marine Corps by the Defense Finance and Accounting Service

    Bass, Keith Wayne

    1995-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is uniimited This thesis identifies the potential for using performance measures and indicators to assess the quality of customer service provided to the Marine Corps by the Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS) in the functional areas of finance and accounting. Five functional areas were analyzed in the study; Military Pay, Civilian Pay, Travel Payments, Contractor and Vendor Pay, and General Accounting. Key personnel from Headquarters Mar...

  1. Simplifications in analyzing positron emission tomography data: effects on outcome measures

    Initial validation studies of new radiotracers generally involve kinetic models that require a measured arterial input function. This allows for the separation of tissue binding from delivery and blood flow effects. However, when using a tracer in a clinical setting, it is necessary to eliminate arterial blood sampling due to its invasiveness and the extra burden of counting and analyzing the blood samples for metabolites. In some cases, it may also be necessary to replace dynamic scanning with a shortened scanning period some time after tracer injection, as is done with FDG (F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose). These approximations represent loss of information. In this work, we considered several questions related to this: (1) Do differences in experimental conditions (drug treatments) or populations affect the input function, and what effect, if any, does this have on the final outcome measure? (2) How do errors in metabolite measurements enter into results? (3) What errors are incurred if the uptake ratio is used in place of the distribution volume ratio? (4) Is one- or two-point blood sampling any better for FDG data than the standardized uptake value? and (5) If blood sampling is necessary, what alternatives are there to arterial blood sampling? The first three questions were considered in terms of data from human dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) studies under conditions of baseline and drug pretreatment. Data from [11C]raclopride studies and those from the norepinephrine transporter tracer (S,S)-[11C]O-methyl reboxetine were used. Calculation of a metabolic rate for FDG using the operational equation requires a measured input function. We tested a procedure based on two blood samples to estimate the plasma integral and convolution that occur in the operational equation. There are some tracers for which blood sampling is necessary. Strategies for brain studies involve using the internal carotids in estimating the radioactivity after correcting for partial

  2. Measuring the Early Adulthood Outcomes of Young Adults with Disabilities: Developing Constructs Using NLTS2 Data

    Shogren, Karrie A.; Shaw, Leslie A.; Little, Todd D.

    2016-01-01

    Secondary data analysis was used to develop and examine disability-related differences in outcome constructs from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2. Findings suggest that outcome constructs could be created that represented key elements of quality of life domains including social relationships, financial independence, financial…

  3. Research Challenges: Implementing Standardized Outcome Measures in a Decentralized, Community-Based Residential Treatment Program

    Butler, Linda S.; Little, Liza; Grimard, Andre R.

    2009-01-01

    With residential treatment services under pressure to produce outcome data, the process of executing research in such settings presents considerable challenges. This paper describes how a large, decentralized, community-based residential treatment program in southern and central Maine designed and implemented a research outcome process study using…

  4. Patient-reported outcome measures in nonmelanoma skin cancer of the face: a systematic review.

    Bates, A S; Davis, C R; Takwale, A; Knepil, G J

    2013-06-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy in the western world, with an incidence of 98,000 in the U.K. Since 2009 the Department of Health (DoH) has collected patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) data following four common surgical procedures. However, a DoH PROM for NMSC does not exist. A systematic review of questionnaires published on patient concerns due to NMSC of the face was conducted. Keywords relevant to PROMs, NMSC and the facial region were comprehensively searched in medical databases. Inclusion criteria stipulated that questionnaires from relevant papers recruited patients with NMSC for both the item formulation and subsequent validation. Questionnaires were then discussed by a multispecialty skin cancer research team. Initially 2548 papers were found; after exclusion criteria were applied, 73 articles were retrieved. Four patient questionnaires for NMSC featured adequate development and validation according to the inclusion criteria. The Facial Skin Cancer Index (FSCI) was the only PROM specific to facial NMSC. Additional questionnaires identified included the Skin Cancer Quality of Life Impact Tool, Skindex, and Dermatology Life Quality Index. There is a scarcity of data relating to NMSC PROMs and appearance concerns. Only one questionnaire--the FSCI--was specific to patients with facial NMSC. We recommend nationally standardized data collection from patients with NMSC in order to create an evidence-based validated PROM for patients with facial skin cancer. PMID:23387431

  5. Relationship between changes in coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden measured by intravascular ultrasound and cardiovascular disease outcomes: a systematic literature review.

    Forbes, Carol; Quek, Ruben G W; Deshpande, Sohan; Worthy, Gill; Ross, Janine; Kleijnen, Jos; Gandra, Shravanthi R; Kassahun, Helina; Wong, Nathan D; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    Objective Evidence from coronary imaging studies suggests an association between increased atherosclerotic plaque burden and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes. A systematic review was performed to evaluate the relationship between coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden changes measured by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and CVD outcomes. Research design and methods Rigorous systematic review methodology was used to identify prospective studies of any design assessing the relationship between atherosclerotic plaque volume (percentage or total atheroma volume [PAV or TAV]) changes and CVD outcomes, using multivariable analyses. Main outcome measures CVD outcomes including major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs). Results Literature searches from inception to February 2015 retrieved 6958 records after de-duplication. From these four studies (14 papers) were included. One study reported a significantly lower rate of CVD outcomes associated with a greater reduction in PAV (hazard ratio [HR] 0.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.07-0.83). One study reported that large plaque volume was significantly associated with a greater risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) (HR 1.73, 95% CI: 1.02-2.96). Similarly, a third study reported a significant increase in MACE with an increase in baseline PAV (HR 1.51, 95% CI: 1.06-2.51). Only one potentially inadequately powered Japanese study did not find a statistically significant relationship between PAV changes and MACE. Conclusions The current evidence suggests an independent and statistically significant association between increases in coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden measured by IVUS and greater long-term risk of future CVD outcomes. However, this evidence comes from a limited number of studies which mainly focus on Japanese populations and populations after PCI. Further large prospective studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:26949994

  6. Assessing methods for measurement of clinical outcomes and quality of care in primary care practices

    Green Michael E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate the appropriateness of potential data sources for the population of performance indicators for primary care (PC practices. Methods This project was a cross sectional study of 7 multidisciplinary primary care teams in Ontario, Canada. Practices were recruited and 5-7 physicians per practice agreed to participate in the study. Patients of participating physicians (20-30 were recruited sequentially as they presented to attend a visit. Data collection included patient, provider and practice surveys, chart abstraction and linkage to administrative data sets. Matched pairs analysis was used to examine the differences in the observed results for each indicator obtained using multiple data sources. Results Seven teams, 41 physicians, 94 associated staff and 998 patients were recruited. The survey response rate was 81% for patients, 93% for physicians and 83% for associated staff. Chart audits were successfully completed on all but 1 patient and linkage to administrative data was successful for all subjects. There were significant differences noted between the data collection methods for many measures. No single method of data collection was best for all outcomes. For most measures of technical quality of care chart audit was the most accurate method of data collection. Patient surveys were more accurate for immunizations, chronic disease advice/information dispensed, some general health promotion items and possibly for medication use. Administrative data appears useful for indicators including chronic disease diagnosis and osteoporosis/ breast screening. Conclusions Multiple data collection methods are required for a comprehensive assessment of performance in primary care practices. The choice of which methods are best for any one particular study or quality improvement initiative requires careful consideration of the biases that each method might introduce into the results. In this study, both patients and providers were

  7. Process Accounting

    Gilbertson, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Standard utilities can help you collect and interpret your Linux system's process accounting data. Describes the uses of process accounting, standard process accounting commands, and example code that makes use of process accounting utilities.

  8. Blue cone monochromacy: visual function and efficacy outcome measures for clinical trials.

    Xunda Luo

    Full Text Available Blue Cone Monochromacy (BCM is an X-linked retinopathy caused by mutations in the OPN1LW / OPN1MW gene cluster, encoding long (L- and middle (M-wavelength sensitive cone opsins. Recent evidence shows sufficient structural integrity of cone photoreceptors in BCM to warrant consideration of a gene therapy approach to the disease. In the present study, the vision in BCM is examined, specifically seeking clinically-feasible outcomes for a future clinical trial.BCM patients (n = 25, ages 5-72 were studied with kinetic and static chromatic perimetry, full-field sensitivity testing, and eye movement recordings. Vision at the fovea and parafovea was probed with chromatic microperimetry.Kinetic fields with a Goldmann size V target were generally full. Short-wavelength (S- sensitive cone function was normal or near normal in most patients. Light-adapted perimetry results on conventional background lights were abnormally reduced; 600-nm stimuli were seen by rods whereas white stimuli were seen by both rods and S-cones. Under dark-adapted conditions, 500-nm stimuli were seen by rods in both BCM and normals. Spectral sensitivity functions in the superior retina showed retained rod and S-cone functions in BCM under dark-adapted and light-adapted conditions. In the fovea, normal subjects showed L/M-cone mediation using a 650-nm stimulus under dark-adapted conditions, whereas BCM patients had reduced sensitivity driven by rod vision. Full-field red stimuli on bright blue backgrounds were seen by L/M-cones in normal subjects whereas BCM patients had abnormally reduced and rod-mediated sensitivities. Fixation location could vary from fovea to parafovea. Chromatic microperimetry demonstrated a large loss of sensitivity to red stimuli presented on a cyan adapting background at the anatomical fovea and surrounding parafovea.BCM rods continue to signal vision under conditions normally associated with daylight vision. Localized and retina-wide outcome measures were

  9. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) and how to select an outcome measurement instrument

    Mokkink, Lidwine B; Prinsen, Cecilia A C; Bouter, Lex M; de Vet, Henrica C. W.; Terwee, Caroline B

    2016-01-01

    Background: COSMIN (COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments) is an initiative of an international multidisciplinary team of researchers who aim to improve the selection of outcome measurement instruments both in research and in clinical practice by developing tools for selecting the most appropriate available instrument. Method: In this paper these tools are described, i.e. the COSMIN taxonomy and definition of measurement properties; the COSMIN checkli...

  10. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory of...... endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition is...

  11. Outcome measures in immune-mediated neuropathies: the need to standardize their use and to understand the clinimetric essentials.

    van Nes, Sonja I; Faber, Catharina G; Merkies, Ingemar S J

    2008-06-01

    Peripheral neurological disorders like neuropathies may cause impairments (such as weakness and sensory deficits), which may lead to problems in daily life and social functioning with a possible decrement in quality of life expectations. Choosing the proper outcome measure to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of an intervention at one of these levels of outcome should therefore be considered as fundamental to the design of randomized trials in peripheral neurological disorders. However, these choices are dependent not only on the proposed research purposes but also, and perhaps more importantly, on the fulfillment of the scientific needs of these measures. With an increasing demand for accuracy, a thorough and comprehensive evaluation of an outcome measure is needed to determine its simplicity, communicability, validity, reliability, and responsiveness before being clinically applicable, techniques that are being captured by the science of clinimetrics. Most neurologists are still unfamiliar with these rigorous methodological essentials or overlook some of them in their trial preparations because these are considered time consuming and mind numbing. This review will highlight, against the background of the international classification framework and clinimetric needs for outcome measures, the selected scales applied in published randomized controlled trials in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, multifocal motor neuropathy, and gammopathy-related neuropathies. The need for comparison responsiveness studies between equally valid and reliable measures and to standardize their use is emphasized in these conditions. Finally, specific recommendations are given to move from classic to modern clinimetric approach when constructing, evaluating, and selecting outcome measures using new methods like Rasch analysis, accentuating the need of shifting toward a more modern era. PMID:18601658

  12. A Tool for Measuring NASA's Aeronautics Research Progress Toward Planned Strategic Community Outcomes

    Tahmasebi, Farhad; Pearce, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Description of a tool for portfolio analysis of NASA's Aeronautics research progress toward planned community strategic Outcomes is presented. For efficiency and speed, the tool takes advantage of a function developed in Excels Visual Basic for Applications. The strategic planning process for determining the community Outcomes is also briefly discussed. Stakeholder buy-in, partnership performance, progress of supporting Technical Challenges, and enablement forecast are used as the criteria for evaluating progress toward Outcomes. A few illustrative examples of using the tool are also presented.

  13. Monitoring rheumatoid arthritis using an algorithm based on patient-reported outcome measures: a first step towards personalised healthcare

    Hendrikx, J.; Fransen, J.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this proof of concept study was to evaluate alerts generated by a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM)-based algorithm for monitoring patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The algorithm was constructed using an example PROM score of an equally weighted mea

  14. The Effect of the Least Preferred Co-Worker Measure on School Outcomes in Lebanon's Educational System.

    Theodory, George C.

    1981-01-01

    Tests Fiedler's contingency theory by examining the relationship between 14 Lebanese secondary school principals' style (as measured by the Least Preferred Co-worker instrument) and school outcomes (teacher satisfaction and student academic achievement). The theory postulates that if the leader's style and situational control are adequately…

  15. Testing the Q-DIO as an instrument to measure the documented quality of nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes

    Müller-Staub, M.; Lunney, M.; Lavin, M.A.; Needham, I.; Odenbreit, M.; Achterberg, T. van

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe pilot testing of Quality of Diagnoses, Interventions and Outcomes (Q-DIO), an instrument to measure quality of nursing documentation. DESIGN: Instrument testing was performed using a random, stratified sample of 60 nursing documentations representing hospital nursing with and wi

  16. Outcome Measurement Using Naturalistic Language Samples: A Feasibility Pilot Study Using Language Transcription Software and Speech and Language Therapy Assistants

    Overton, Sarah; Wren, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate aim of intervention for children with language impairment is an improvement in their functional language skills. Baseline and outcome measurement of this is often problematic however and practitioners commonly resort to using formal assessments that may not adequately reflect the child's competence. Language sampling,…

  17. General Education Courses at the University of Botswana: Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action in Measuring Course Outcomes

    Garg, Deepti; Garg, Ajay K.

    2007-01-01

    This study applied the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Technology Acceptance Model to measure outcomes of general education courses (GECs) under the University of Botswana Computer and Information Skills (CIS) program. An exploratory model was validated for responses from 298 students. The results suggest that resources currently committed to…

  18. A critical discourse analysis of the attitudes of occupational therapists and physiotherapists towards the systematic use of standardised outcome measurement

    Jaeger Pedersen, Tonny; Kaae Kristensen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate discourses relating to the implementation of standardised outcome measurement within rehabilitation practise. METHOD: It is a critical discourse analysis of texts in professional occupational therapist (OT) and physiotherapist (PT) journals, along with transcriptions from ......, deliberate and conscious reflections in local settings are needed. It is necessary to go beyond normal and familiar professional reflections. To this end, newcomers' opinions are valuable....

  19. An Analysis on Application of Fair Value Measurement in Both Financial Accounting and Tax Accounting%财务会计与税务会计中的公允价值辨析

    张孝光

    2014-01-01

    学术界和实务界对公允价值的争论从其诞生至今就一直没有平息过,从被寄予很大希望到被冠以“金融危机的帮凶”,公允价值饱受质疑。财务会计与税务会计在实务中都运用了公允价值进行计量,在某些方面存在着区别和联系。文章从财务会计和税务会计两大会计分支角度对公允价值的定义、运用等方面进行辨析,分析其应用异同及其在财务会计和税务会计中谨慎性的体现。%The debate on fair value in both academics and practitioners has not yet stopped since its birth. From being placed the great hope to being dubbed the“accomplices of financial crisis”,fair value measurement has been questioned. Both finan-cial accounting and tax accounting apply fair value measurement in their practice, however, there are some differences and connections in some aspects. This paper conducts an analysis on the definition and application of fair value,its similarities and differences in the application,and the prudential reflection in financial accounting and tax accounting,from the perspective of two major accounting branches:financial accounting and tax accounting.

  20. Measuring student engagement in science classrooms: An investigation of the contextual factors and longitudinal outcomes

    Spicer, Justina Judy

    This dissertation includes three separate but related studies that examine the different dimensions of student experiences in science using data from two different datasets: the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), and a dataset constructed using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). This mixed-dataset approach provides a unique perspective on student engagement and the contexts in which it exists. Engagement is operationalized across the three studies using aspects of flow theory to evaluate how the challenges in science classes are experienced at the student level. The data provides information on a student's skill-level and efficacy during the challenge, as well as their interest level and persistence. The data additionally track how situations contribute to optimal learning moments, along with longitudinal attitudes and behaviors towards science. In the first part of this study, the construct of optimal moments is explored using in the moment data from the ESM dataset. Several different measures of engagement are tested and validated to uncover relationships between various affective states and optimal learning experiences with a focus on science classrooms. Additional analyses include investigating the links between in the moment engagement (situational), and cross-situational (stable) measures of engagement in science. The second part of this dissertation analyzes the ESM data in greater depth by examining how engagement varies across students and their contextual environment. The contextual characteristics associated with higher engagement levels are evaluated to see if these conditions hold across different types of students. Chapter three more thoroughly analyzes what contributes to students persisting through challenging learning moments, and the variation in levels of effort put forth when facing difficulty while learning in science. In chapter four, this dissertation explores additional outcomes associated with student engagement in science

  1. Education for All? Measuring Pro-Poor Educational Outcomes in Developing Countries

    Harttgen, Kenneth; Klasen, Stephan; Misselhorn, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Achieving progress in education is of fundamental importance for human development. Low levels of access to the education system and in educational outcomes in developing countries are often accompanied by high inequality between countries and within countries between population subgroups. This paper analyzes differences in improvements in the access to the education system and in educational outcomes across the welfare distribution between and within countries, and also by gender and regions...

  2. Scoping review of patient- and family-oriented outcomes and measures for chronic pediatric disease

    Khangura, Sara D; Karaceper, Maria D.; Trakadis, Yannis; Mitchell, John J.; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Tingley, Kylie; Coyle, Doug; Grosse, Scott D.; Kronick, Jonathan B; Laberge, Anne-Marie; Little, Julian; Prasad, Chitra; Sikora, Lindsey; Siriwardena, Komudi; Sparkes, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background Improvements in health care for children with chronic diseases must be informed by research that emphasizes outcomes of importance to patients and families. To support a program of research in the field of rare inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), we conducted a broad scoping review of primary studies that: (i) focused on chronic pediatric diseases similar to IEM in etiology or manifestations and in complexity of management; (ii) reported patient- and/or family-oriented outcomes; and...

  3. Unequal incomes, unequal outcomes? Economic inequality and measures of well-being: summary of observations and recommendations

    Groshen, Erica L.; Chinhui Juhn; James A. Orr; Barbara L. Walter

    1999-01-01

    This is a summary of the proceedings of the conference "Unequal incomes, unequal outcomes? Economic inequality and measures of well-being." The conference was held at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York on May 7, 1999. The conference was organized to focus on the evolution of more direct measures of the material well-being of Americans. Of particular concern was the impact of income inequality on trends in health, housing, and crime victimization. Conference participants also examined some o...

  4. A Pilot Randomized Trial Evaluating Lymphedema Self-Measurement with Bioelectrical Impedance, Self-Care Adherence, and Health Outcomes

    Ridner, Sheila H.; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Doersam, Jennifer K.; Rhoten, Bethany Andrews; Schultze, Benjamin S.; Dietrich, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Less than half of breast cancer survivors with lymphedema perform self-care as directed. Effective lymphedema self-care is required to obtain acceptable health outcomes. Self-Regulation Theory suggests that objective self-measurement of physiological conditions is necessary to promote self-regulation/self-care. Bioelectric Impedance Spectroscopy (BIS) represents a potential self-measurement method for arm lymphedema. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the impact of arm...

  5. Accountability for Services for Young Children with Disabilities and the Assessment of Meaningful Outcomes: The Role of the Speech-Language Pathologist

    Hebbeler, Kathleen; Rooney, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes the federal accountability requirements related to young children with disabilities and the contribution of the speech-language pathologist (SLP) to provide these data through the use of authentic, functional assessments. Method: The article summarizes recent state and federal developments related to assessment for…

  6. Shareholder and creditor legal rights and the outcome model of dividends. Economics Finance & Accounting Working Paper Series N225-12

    O'Connor, Thomas; Byrne, Julie

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 22,374 firms from 35 countries, we examine the role of creditor rights, shareholder rights, and corporate governance in determining corporate dividend policy. We find that, while all three variables play a significant role in determining both the likelihood and the dividend amount, the effect of country-level creditor rights dominate. In subsequent analysis, we show that the outcome model is most effective in countries with strong creditor rights. When creditor rights are weak...

  7. Cognitive and outcome measures seem sub-optimal in children with cochlear implants - A cross-sectional study

    Udholm, Nichlas; Aaberg, Kirsten; Bloch, Chanett;

    2016-01-01

    's cognitive abilities to the outcomes of CI in terms of hearing and speech performance. STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional cognitive testing of children with CIs. SETTING: West Danish CI Centre, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 58 CI children underwent postoperative cognitive evaluation......OBJECTIVE: This study investigates whether cognition as a single variable significantly influences the hearing and speech outcomes of children with cochlear implants (CIs). More specifically, it identifies various types of cognitive disorders among children with CI, comparing these children....... Cognitive tests included Bayley Scales of Infant Development (Bayley-III), Snijders-Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test Revised (SON-R) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), depending on the age of the child. Outcome measures of hearing and speech capacity after CI consisted...

  8. An Outcome Measure of Functionality and Pain in Patients with Low Back Disorder: A Validation Study of the Iranian version of Low Back Outcome Score

    Nayeb Aghaei, Hossein; Azhari, Shirzad; Shazadi, Sohrab; Khayat Kashany, Hamid; Mohammadi, Hassan Reza; Montazeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Purpose This study aimed to cross-culturally translate and validate the low back outcome score (LBOS) in Iran. Overview of Literature Lumbar disc hernia (LDH) is the most common diagnoses of low back pain and imposes a heavy burden on both individual and society. Instruments measuring patient reported outcomes should satisfy cetain psychometric properties. Methods The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the original questionnaire was performed using Beaton's guideline. A total of 163 patients with LDH were asked to respond to the questionnaire at three points in time: preoperative and twice within 1-week interval after surgery assessments. The Oswestry disabilty index (ODI) was also completed. The internal consistency, test-retest, convergent validity, and responsiveness to change were assessed. Responsiveness to change also was assessed comparing patients' pre- and postoperative scores. Results The mean age of the cohort was 49.8 years (standard deviation=10.1). The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the LBOS at preoperative and postoperative assessments ranged from 0.77 to 0.79, indicating good internal consistency. Test-retest reliability as performed by intraclass correlation coefficient was found to be 0.82 (0.62–0.91). The instrument discriminated well between sub-groups of patients who differed in the Finneson-Cooper score. The ODI correlated strongly with the LBOS score, lending support to its good convergent validity (r=––0.83; pmeasure of back pain treatment evaluation among LDH patients.

  9. Outcome measures in spinal cord injury: recent assessments and recommendations for future directions

    Alexander, M S; Anderson, K D; Biering-Sørensen, Fin;

    2009-01-01

    Study design:Review by the spinal cord outcomes partnership endeavor (SCOPE), which is a broad-based international consortium of scientists and clinical researchers representing academic institutions, industry, government agencies, not-for-profit organizations and foundations. Objectives:Assessme......Study design:Review by the spinal cord outcomes partnership endeavor (SCOPE), which is a broad-based international consortium of scientists and clinical researchers representing academic institutions, industry, government agencies, not-for-profit organizations and foundations. Objectives...... (improvement in functional outcome or quality of life) being achieved as a result of a therapeutic intervention. Conclusion:Significant progress has been made, but further validation studies are required to identify the most appropriate tools for specific targets in a human SCI study or clinical trial....

  10. ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS INTERDEPENDENCES - EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE

    Nino Serdarević

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents empirical evidence on applied analysis interdependences with created accounting policies and estimates within Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH private commercial entities, in specific, targeting practice oriented relevance of financial indicators, non-financial indicators, enterprise resource planning and management account-ting insight frequencies. Recently, standard setters (International Accounting Standards Board and International Federation of Accountants have published outcomes of an internationally organized research on financial reports usefulness, recommending enforced usage of enterprise relevant information, non-financial indicators and risks implications in assets and liabilities positions. These imply litigation and possible income smoothening. In regard to financial reporting reliability, many authors suggest accounting conservatism as a measure to compose risk assessment and earnings response ratio. Author argues that recently suggested financial management measures involving cash and assets management, liquidity ratios and turns do not directly imply accounting information quality, prior computed within applied accounting conservatism.

  11. Optimising the prescription of prosthetic technologies (opptec): Outcome measures for evidence based prosthetic practice and use

    Ryall, Dr Nicola

    2010-01-01

    This study provided a forum for patients and service providers to voice their opinions in what they believe to be the important predictors and outcomes involved in successful rehabilitation following limb loss. To develop a consensus on the most important outcomes and factors to address for both the lower limb and upper limb prosthetic prescription process, the above data relating to lower limb and upper prosthetics were subsequently used in the next phase of the research involving two Delphi surveys of 23 and 53 experts within the lower limb and upper limb amputation and prosthetic field respectively, including users, service providers and researchers.\\r\

  12. Fair value accounting

    Shamkuts, Volha, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is devoted to fair value accounting. Fair value accounting implies that assets and liabilities get measured and reported in firm´s financial statements at their market value. The purpose of the thesis is to analyze the conceptual foundations of fair value accounting. The thesis is organized in the following way. First, origins and development of fair value accounting are discussed. Second, overview of fair value accounting is presented. The overview includes de...

  13. Incorporating longitudinal pediatric patient-centered outcome measurement into the clinical workflow using a commercial electronic health record: a step toward increasing value for the patient.

    Carberry, Kathleen; Landman, Zachary; Xie, Michelle; Feeley, Thomas; Henderson, John; Fraser, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Patient-centered outcomes measurement provides healthcare organizations with crucial information for increasing value for patients; however, organizations have struggled to obtain outcomes data from electronic health record (EHR) systems. This study describes how Texas Children's Hospital customized a commercial EHR system and assembled a cross-functional team to capture outcomes data using existing functionality. Prior to its installation and customization, no surgical subspecialties besides the congenital heart and transplant surgery groups conducted prospective, patient outcomes measurement, but by 2015, the outcomes of over 1300 unique patients with supracondylar fractures, cleft lip and/or palate, or voiding dysfunction had been tracked. Key factors for integrating outcomes measurement into the clinical workflow include ongoing communication between cross-functional teams composed of clinicians and technical professionals, an iterative design process, organizational commitment, and prioritizing measurement as early as possible during EHR optimization. PMID:26377989

  14. Reproducibility, and age, body-weight and gender dependency of candidate skeletal muscle MRI outcome measures in healthy volunteers

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can potentially meet the pressing need for objective, sensitive, reproducible outcome measures in neuromuscular disease trials. We tested, in healthy volunteers, the consistency, reliability and sensitivity to normal inter-subject variation of MRI methods targeted to lower limb muscle pathology to inform the design of practical but comprehensive MRI outcome measure protocols for use in imminent patient studies. Forty-seven healthy volunteers, age 21-81 years, were subject at 3T to three-point Dixon fat-fraction measurement, T1-relaxometry, T2-relaxometry and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) imaging at mid-thigh and mid-calf level bilaterally. Fifteen subjects underwent repeat imaging at 2 weeks. Mean between-muscle fat fraction and T2 differences were small, but significant (p 2 correlated positively, and MTR negatively with subject age in both the thigh and calf, with similar significant correlations with weight at thigh level only (p < 0.001 to p < 0.05). Scan-rescan and inter-observer intra-class correlation coefficients ranged between 0.62-0.84 and 0.79-0.99 respectively. Quantitative lower-limb muscle MRI using readily implementable methods was sensitive enough to demonstrate inter-muscle differences (small in health), and correlations with subject age and weight. In combination with high reliability, this strongly supports the suitability of these methods to provide longitudinal outcome measures in neuromuscular disease treatment trials. (orig.)

  15. Child-responsive Accountability: Lessons from social accountability

    Lena Thu Phuong Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    This paper links the concept and practice of accountability with child rights, by asking: (1) What accountability means when children are the rights holders, and whose role is it to exact that accountability? (2) What are the assumptions underpinning social accountability, and how can they be revised from the child-rights perspective? (3) How do social and political dynamics at community and national levels, often not linked to child rights issues, shape accountability outcomes? The paper is ...

  16. Using Action Verbs as Learning Outcomes: Applying Bloom's Taxonomy in Measuring Instructional Objectives in Introductory Psychology

    Nevid, Jeffrey S.; McClelland, Nate

    2013-01-01

    We used a set of action verbs based on Bloom's taxonomy to assess learning outcomes in two college-level introductory psychology courses. The action verbs represented an acronym, IDEA, comprising skills relating to identifying, defining or describing, evaluating or explaining, and applying psychological knowledge. Exam performance demonstrated…

  17. Development and Validation of a Multifactorial Treatment Outcome Measure for Eating Disorders.

    Anderson, Drew A.; Williamson, Donald A.; Duchmann, Erich G.; Gleaves, David H.; Barbin, Jane M.

    1999-01-01

    Developed a brief self-report inventory to evaluate treatment outcome for anorexia and bulimia nervosa, the Multifactorial Assessment of Eating Disorders, and evaluated the instrument in a series of studies involving 1,054 women. Results support a stable factor structure and satisfactory reliability and validity, and establish normative data. (SLD)

  18. The case for an international patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS®) initiative

    J. Alonso; S.J. Bartlett; M. Rose; N.K. Aaronson; J. Chaplin; F. Efficace; A. Leplège; L.U. Aiping; D.S. Tulsky; H. Raat; U. Ravens-Sieberer; D. Revicki; C.B. Terwee; J.M. Valderas; D. Cella; C.B. Forrest

    2013-01-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) play an increasingly important role in clinical practice and research. Modern psychometric methods such as item response theory (IRT) enable the creation of item banks that support fixed-length forms as well as computerized adaptive testing (CAT), often resulting in

  19. The case for an international patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS®) initiative

    J. Alonso (Jordi); S.J. Bartlett (Susan); M. Rose (Matthias); N.K. Aaronson (Neil); J.E. Chaplin (John); F. Efficace (Fabio); A. Leplège (Alain); A. LU (Aiping); D.S. Tulsky (David); H. Raat (Hein); U. Ravens-Sieberer (Ulrike); D. Revicki (Dennis); C.B. Terwee (Caroline); J.M. Valderas (Jose); D. Cella (David); C.B. Forrest (Christopher)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPatient-reported outcomes (PROs) play an increasingly important role in clinical practice and research. Modern psychometric methods such as item response theory (IRT) enable the creation of item banks that support fixed-length forms as well as computerized adaptive testing (CAT), often r

  20. Feasibility of 4 patient-reported outcome measures in a registry setting

    Paulsen, Aksel; Pedersen, Alma B; Overgaard, Søren;

    2012-01-01

    -6, or 10-11 years previously were randomly selected from the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register and sent 2 PRO questionnaires: 1 generic (EuroQoL-5D or SF-12 health survey) and 1 disease-specific (hip dysfunction and osteoarthritis outcome score (HOOS) or Oxford 12-item hip score). We compared response rates...

  1. Measuring the Effect of Probation and Parole Officers on Labor Market Outcomes and Recidivism

    Andersen, Lars Højsgaard; Wildeman, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Use a unique dataset to pair probation and parole officers and their clients in Denmark in 2002-2009 to identify causal effects of these officers on labor market outcomes and recidivism. Methods: To identify these effects, we rely on data from all probationers and parolees in Copenhag...

  2. Increasing disparities between resource inputs and outcomes, as measured by certain health deliverables, in biomedical research.

    Bowen, Anthony; Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-09-01

    Society makes substantial investments in biomedical research, searching for ways to better human health. The product of this research is principally information published in scientific journals. Continued investment in science relies on society's confidence in the accuracy, honesty, and utility of research results. A recent focus on productivity has dominated the competitive evaluation of scientists, creating incentives to maximize publication numbers, citation counts, and publications in high-impact journals. Some studies have also suggested a decreasing quality in the published literature. The efficiency of society's investments in biomedical research, in terms of improved health outcomes, has not been studied. We show that biomedical research outcomes over the last five decades, as estimated by both life expectancy and New Molecular Entities approved by the Food and Drug Administration, have remained relatively constant despite rising resource inputs and scientific knowledge. Research investments by the National Institutes of Health over this time correlate with publication and author numbers but not with the numerical development of novel therapeutics. We consider several possibilities for the growing input-outcome disparity including the prior elimination of easier research questions, increasing specialization, overreliance on reductionism, a disproportionate emphasis on scientific outputs, and other negative pressures on the scientific enterprise. Monitoring the efficiency of research investments in producing positive societal outcomes may be a useful mechanism for weighing the efficacy of reforms to the scientific enterprise. Understanding the causes of the increasing input-outcome disparity in biomedical research may improve society's confidence in science and provide support for growing future research investments. PMID:26283360

  3. Using performance measures to evaluate programmatic outputs and outcomes in the Department of Energy's environmental restoration program

    Over the last year, a revolution has occurred in the use of performance measures in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). The performance measures range from traditional cost and schedule performance criteria to strategic measures of program outcomes. Each area of performance measurement has resulted (or is resulting) in a different approach for evaluating performance using a different set of performance criteria. Although some data elements cross cut the groups, each of the approaches focuses on different data collection process. The Office of Environmental Restoration is attempting to link these groups together through a unified system of performance measurement. This paper will define and discuss each type of performance measurement and its supporting systems or approaches

  4. A contingency model of strategy, performance measurement systems and management accounting practices: an empirical investigation in English local authorities. Volume 1 of 2

    Simm, Alexa Louise

    2010-01-01

    Contingency based research has been used extensively within the area of accounting control (Chapman, 1997; Chenhall, 2003; Gerdin and Greeve, 2004), though there is a lacuna of contingency research within not-for-profit organisations (Chenhall, 2003), particularly in the UK. The study?s overall research question is how strategic typology, resource-based capabilities, contemporary performance measurement techniques (CPMTs) and contemporary management accounting practices (CMAPs) affect the per...

  5. Material control in nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. Part II. Accountability, instrumntation, and measurement techniques in fuel fabrication facilities, P.O.1236909. Final report

    This report describes the measurement techniques, the instrumentation, and the procedures used in accountability and control of nuclear materials, as they apply to fuel fabrication facilities. Some of the material included has appeared elswhere and it has been summarized. An extensive bibliography is included. A spcific example of application of the accountability methods to a model fuel fabrication facility which is based on the Westinghouse Anderson design

  6. Internet Accounting

    Pras, Aiko; Beijnum, van Bert-Jan; Sprenkels, Ron; Párhonyi, Robert

    2001-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to Internet accounting and discusses the status of related work within the IETF and IRTF, as well as certain research projects. Internet accounting is different from accounting in POTS. To understand Internet accounting, it is important to answer questions like

  7. Predictive Validity of Callous-unemotional Traits Measured in Early Adolescence with Respect to Multiple Antisocial Outcomes

    McMahon, Robert J.; Witkiewitz, Katie; Kotler, Julie S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the predictive validity of youth callous-unemotional (CU) traits, as measured in early adolescence (grade 7) by the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001), in a longitudinal sample (N = 754). Antisocial outcomes, assessed in adolescence and early adulthood, included self-reported general delinquency from 7th grade through 2-years post-high school; self-reported serious crimes through 2-years post-high school, juvenile and adult arrest records th...

  8. Classifying Patients with Chronic Pelvic Pain into Levels of Biopsychosocial Dysfunction Using Latent Class Modeling of Patient Reported Outcome Measures

    Bradford W. Fenton; Grey, Scott F.; Krystel Tossone; Michele McCarroll; von Gruenigen, Vivian E.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain affects multiple aspects of a patient’s physical, social, and emotional functioning. Latent class analysis (LCA) of Patient Reported Outcome Measures Information System (PROMIS) domains has the potential to improve clinical insight into these patients’ pain. Based on the 11 PROMIS domains applied to n=613 patients referred for evaluation in a chronic pelvic pain specialty center, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to identify unidimensional superdomains. Latent pro...

  9. Cerebellar Alterations and Gait Defects as Therapeutic Outcome Measures for Enzyme Replacement Therapy in α-Mannosidosis

    Damme, Markus; Stroobants, Stijn; Walkley, Steven U.; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; D'Hooge, Rudi; Fogh, Jens; Saftig, Paul; Lübke, Torben; Blanz, Judith

    2011-01-01

    α-Mannosidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disease with accumulation of undegraded mannosyl-linked oligosaccharides in cells throughout the body, most notably in the CNS. This leads to a broad spectrum of neurological manifestations, including progressive intellectual impairment, disturbed motor functions and cerebellar atrophy. To develop therapeutic outcome measures for enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) that could be used for human patients, a gene knockout model of α-mannosidosis in mice wa...

  10. Guest Editorial: Rehabilitation Research and Development state-of-the-art conference on outcome measures in rehabilitation

    Timothy R. Elliott, PhD, ABPP

    2012-01-01

    In January 2010, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Office of Research and Development brought clinical, scientific, and policy experts from a variety of professions to Miami, Florida, for a 3-day State-of-the-Art (SOTA) Conference on outcome measures in rehabilitation. The need for such a SOTA is obvious in light of the clinical complexity and long-term nature of injuries incurred by service personnel returning from international conflicts, combined with the ongoing commitment to aging...

  11. Clinical Evaluation of a Mobile Sensor-Based Gait Analysis Method for Outcome Measurement after Knee Arthroplasty

    Tilman Calliess; Raphael Bocklage; Roman Karkosch; Michael Marschollek; Henning Windhagen; Mareike Schulze

    2014-01-01

    Clinical scores and motion-capturing gait analysis are today’s gold standard for outcome measurement after knee arthroplasty, although they are criticized for bias and their ability to reflect patients’ actual quality of life has been questioned. In this context, mobile gait analysis systems have been introduced to overcome some of these limitations. This study used a previously developed mobile gait analysis system comprising three inertial sensor units to evaluate daily activities and sport...

  12. Three-dimensional, Full-sized, Silicone-based, Facial Replicas for Teaching Outcome Measures in Acne

    Tan, Jerry K. L.; Tang, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Background: The scientific integrity of outcome measurements is dependent upon reproducibility and accuracy. In acne assessments, there is no current gold standard for accuracy in lesion counting and global grading. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create facial acne replicas for use in acne training and for evaluation of rater accuracy. Methods: Two full-sized, three-dimensional, silicone-based, facial replicas with predetermined acne lesion type and number were created. Their teach...

  13. Measuring appetite with the simplified nutritional appetite questionnaire identifies hospitalised older people at risk of worse health outcomes

    Pilgrim, A.L.; Baylis, D; Jameson, K.A; Cooper, C; Sayer, A.A.; Robinson, S. M.; Roberts, H. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Poor appetite is commonly reported by older people but is rarely measured. The Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ) was validated to predict weight loss in community dwelling older adults but has been little used in hospitals. We evaluated it in older women on admission to hospital and examined associations with healthcare outcomes. Design: Longitudinal observational with follow- up at six months. Setting: Female acute Medicine for Older People wards at a U...

  14. Implementing Outcome Measures Within an Enhanced Palliative Care Day Care Model.

    Kilonzo, Isae

    2015-04-23

    Specialist palliative care day care (SPDC) units provide an array of services to patients and their families and can increase continuity of care between inpatient and homecare settings. A multidisciplinary teamwork approach is emphasized, and different models of day care exist. Depending on the emphasis of care, the models can be social, medical, therapeutic, or mixed. We describe our experience of introducing an enhanced therapeutic specialist day care model and using both patient- and carer-rated tools to monitor patient outcomes.

  15. Outcome measures to evaluate new technology for tonsillectomy: preliminary experience with Coblation

    Shah, Udayan K.; Puchalski, Robert; Briggs, Marianne; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Galinkin, Jeffrey

    2001-05-01

    Evaluating the benefits of new surgical technologies does not end with the observation of successful instrument-to- tissue interaction. The impact of new technologies in medicine today is also gauged by improvements in patients' daily activities and performance. We present our outcomes assessment tool for judging the value of applying a novel tonsillectomy technique, plasma- mediated ablation using Coblation technology. Plasma- mediated ablation (PMA) achieves soft tissue resection in the oropharynx by energizing protons to break bonds. Less heat is released, allowing for less thermal injury, and possibly less pain, than with tonsillectomy performed using electrocautery alone. Children undergoing tonsillectomy by PMA, were evaluated using our outcomes-based scale, which asked families to report the degree of interruption of normal activities for the patient and their family during the post-tonsillectomy recovery period. A preliminary review of several outcomes assessments exemplify the benefits and limitations of this tool. The tracking of valuable data is weighed against the limitations of a short time course relative to the duration of disability, and a poor response rate. Future work aims to improve this data collection tool to allow application to other new technologies in otolaryngology.

  16. Pilot Study to Evaluate Hearing Aid Service Delivery Model and Measure Benefit Using Self-Report Outcome Measures Using Community Hearing Workers in a Developing Country

    Emerson, Lingamdenne Paul; Job, Anand; Abraham, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    Hearing loss is a major handicap in developing countries with paucity of trained audiologists and limited resources. In this pilot study trained community health workers were used to provide comprehensive hearing aid services in the community. One hundred and eleven patients were fitted with semi-digital hearing aid and were evaluated over a period of six months. They were assessed using self-report outcome measure APHAB. Results show that trained CHWs are effective in detecting disabling hea...

  17. Internet Accounting

    Pras, Aiko; Beijnum, van, B.J.; Sprenkels, Ron; Párhonyi, Robert

    2001-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to Internet accounting and discusses the status of related work within the IETF and IRTF, as well as certain research projects. Internet accounting is different from accounting in POTS. To understand Internet accounting, it is important to answer questions like ¿what is being paid for¿ and ¿who is being paid¿. With respect to the question ¿what is being paid for¿ a distinction can be made between transport accounting and content accounting. Transport acco...

  18. Health status as a measure of outcome of disease and treatment

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis addresses a number of related topics in health status measurement in the evaluation of the effects of disease and of medical care. Its main objectives are: I. To provide a general overview of the field of descriptive health status measurement. 2. To compare the contents and the relative performance of a number of currently available measures for descriptive health status measurement, to demonstrate applications of descriptive health status measurement and to discuss th...

  19. Accountability: new challenges, new forms

    C. van Woerkum; N. Aarts

    2012-01-01

    The general call for more accountability, affecting all western institutions, has reached the communication professionals as well. How can they cope with this new challenge? The danger is that they focus mainly on outcomes, so on performative accountability, whereas decisional accountability, meanin

  20. Systematic review to identify and appraise outcome measures used to evaluate childhood obesity treatment interventions (CoOR): evidence of purpose, application, validity, reliability and sensitivity.

    Bryant, Maria; Ashton, Lee; Brown, Julia; Jebb, Susan; Wright, Judy; Roberts, Katharine; Nixon, Jane

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lack of uniformity in outcome measures used in evaluations of childhood obesity treatment interventions can impede the ability to assess effectiveness and limits comparisons across trials. OBJECTIVE To identify and appraise outcome measures to produce a framework of recommended measures for use in evaluations of childhood obesity treatment interventions. DATA SOURCES Eleven electronic databases were searched between August and December 2011, including MEDLINE; MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations; EMBASE; PsycINFO; Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC); Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED); Global Health, Maternity and Infant Care (all Ovid); Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (EBSCOhost); Science Citation Index (SCI) [Web of Science (WoS)]; and The Cochrane Library (Wiley) - from the date of inception, with no language restrictions. This was supported by review of relevant grey literature and trial databases. REVIEW METHODS Two searches were conducted to identify (1) outcome measures and corresponding citations used in published childhood obesity treatment evaluations and (2) manuscripts describing the development and/or evaluation of the outcome measures used in the childhood intervention obesity evaluations. Search 1 search strategy (review of trials) was modelled on elements of a review by Luttikhuis et al. (Oude Luttikhuis H, Baur L, Jansen H, Shrewsbury VA, O'Malley C, Stolk RP, et al. Interventions for treating obesity in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;1:CD001872). Search 2 strategy (methodology papers) was built on Terwee et al.'s search filter (Terwee CB, Jansma EP, Riphagen II, de Vet HCW. Development of a methodological PubMed search filter for finding studies on measurement properties of measurement instruments. Qual Life Res 2009;18:1115-23). Eligible papers were appraised for quality initially by the internal project team. This was followed by an external

  1. Clinical Evaluation of a Mobile Sensor-Based Gait Analysis Method for Outcome Measurement after Knee Arthroplasty

    Tilman Calliess

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Clinical scores and motion-capturing gait analysis are today’s gold standard for outcome measurement after knee arthroplasty, although they are criticized for bias and their ability to reflect patients’ actual quality of life has been questioned. In this context, mobile gait analysis systems have been introduced to overcome some of these limitations. This study used a previously developed mobile gait analysis system comprising three inertial sensor units to evaluate daily activities and sports. The sensors were taped to the lumbosacral junction and the thigh and shank of the affected limb. The annotated raw data was evaluated using our validated proprietary software. Six patients undergoing knee arthroplasty were examined the day before and 12 months after surgery. All patients reported a satisfactory outcome, although four patients still had limitations in their desired activities. In this context, feasible running speed demonstrated a good correlation with reported impairments in sports-related activities. Notably, knee flexion angle while descending stairs and the ability to stop abruptly when running exhibited good correlation with the clinical stability and proprioception of the knee. Moreover, fatigue effects were displayed in some patients. The introduced system appears to be suitable for outcome measurement after knee arthroplasty and has the potential to overcome some of the limitations of stationary gait labs while gathering additional meaningful parameters regarding the force limits of the knee.

  2. Monitoring Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease: Chest imaging and patient-related outcome measures

    Tepper, Leonie

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a severe, life-shortening genetic disease with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, affecting 70,000 patients in the EU and USA. The most prevalent clinical manifestation is structural lung disease. Structural lung disease is the main cause of morbidity in CF and accounts for 85% of the deaths in CF patients (1). Important for the pathogenesis of structural lung disease are genetic mutations on chromosome 7 encoding for the CF transm...

  3. Effectiveness of Home Visits in Pregnancy as a Public Health Measure to Improve Birth Outcomes.

    Kayoko Ichikawa

    Full Text Available Birth outcomes, such as preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW, and small for gestational age (SGA, are crucial indicators of child development and health.To evaluate whether home visits from public health nurses for high-risk pregnant women prevent adverse birth outcomes.In this quasi-experimental cohort study in Kyoto city, Japan, high-risk pregnant women were defined as teenage girls (range 14-19 years old, women with a twin pregnancy, women who registered their pregnancy late, had a physical or mental illness, were of single marital status, non-Japanese women who were not fluent in Japanese, or elderly primiparas. We collected data from all high-risk pregnant women at pregnancy registration interviews held at a public health centers between 1 July 2011 and 30 June 2012, as well as birth outcomes when delivered from the Maternal and Child Health Handbook (N = 964, which is a record of prenatal check-ups, delivery, child development and vaccinations. Of these women, 622 women were selected based on the home-visit program propensity score-matched sample (pair of N = 311 and included in the analysis. Data were analyzed between January and June 2014.In the propensity score-matched sample, women who received the home-visit program had lower odds of preterm birth (odds ratio [OR], 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.98 and showed a 0.55-week difference in gestational age (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.92 compared to the matched controlled sample. Although the program did not prevent LBW and SGA, children born to mothers who received the program showed an increase in birth weight by 107.8 g (95% CI: 27.0 to 188.5.Home visits by public health nurses for high-risk pregnant women in Japan might be effective in preventing preterm birth, but not SGA.

  4. Does progressive resistance strength training as additional training have any measured effect on functional outcomes in older hospitalized patients?

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Andersen, Christina W.; Pedersen, Sigrid F;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of progressive resistance strength training as additional training measured on functional outcomes in older hospitalized patients. DESIGN: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Department of Geriatric Rehabilitation in university hospital...... treatment group were treated in groups with progressive resistance strength training in addition to standard care. Progressive resistance strength training of the lower extremities was performed in three sets of 12-15 repetitions, intensity 60-70% of one repetition maximum, in four 50-minute sessions per...... = 0.05). Analysis by the mixed-effects model showed that the treatment group improved more than the control group in all outcome variables. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that for older hospitalized patients progressive resistance strength training as additional training may have an effect compared...

  5. Waiting for attention and care: birthing accounts of women in rural Tanzania who developed obstetric fistula as an outcome of labour

    Mselle Lilian T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstetric fistula is a physically and socially disabling obstetric complication that affects about 3,000 women in Tanzania every year. The fistula, an opening that forms between the vagina and the bladder and/or the rectum, is most frequently caused by unattended prolonged labour, often associated with delays in seeking and receiving appropriate and adequate birth care. Using the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of care (AAAQ concept and the three delays model, this article provides empirical knowledge on birth care experiences of women who developed fistula after prolonged labour. Methods We used a mixed methods approach to explore the birthing experiences of women affected by fistula and the barriers to access adequate care during labour and delivery. Sixteen women were interviewed for the qualitative study and 151 women were included in the quantitative survey. All women were interviewed at the Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation Tanzania in Dar es Salaam and Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza. Results Women experienced delays both before and after arriving at a health facility. Decisions on where to seek care were most often taken by husbands and mothers-in-law (60%. Access to health facilities providing emergency obstetric care was inadequate and transport was a major obstacle. About 20% reported that they had walked or were carried to the health facility. More than 50% had reported to a health facility after two or more days of labour at home. After arrival at a health facility women experienced lack of supportive care, neglect, poor assessment of labour and lack of supervision. Their birth accounts suggest unskilled birth care and poor referral routines. Conclusions This study reveals major gaps in access to and provision of emergency obstetric care. It illustrates how poor quality of care at health facilities contributes to delays that lead to severe birth injuries, highlighting the need

  6. creative accounting

    Horák, Matěj

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the very actual issue, which is creative accounting. The main goal is to provide a comprehensive view on the issue of creative accounting and clarify this concept. The topic is characterized in detail in the introductory part, followed by a description of the most frequently used techniques with specific examples. The thesis continues with a description of the accounting scandals that are associated with creative accounting (e.g. Enron, Parmalat, Olympus). Part...

  7. Management Accounting

    John Burns; Martin Quinn; Liz Warren; João Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Overview of the BookThe textbook comprises six sections which together represent a comprehensive insight into management accounting its technical attributes, changeable wider context, and the multiple roles of management accountants. The sections cover: (1) an introduction to management accounting, (2) how organizations account for their costs, (3) the importance of tools and techniques which assist organizational planning and control, (4) the various dimensions of making business decisions,...

  8. Creative Accounting

    LI Lin

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation studies the area of creative accounting. The investigation of the literature review initially concerns about the definition, motivations, existence and effect and the involved accounting standards of creative accounting Based upon that, the qualitative research is going to be carried through, with the Finance and Investment students of Nottingham University as participants, in order to capture information of views on creative accounting. Then the important part of the ...

  9. Accounting outsourcing

    Richtáriková, Paulína

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with accounting outsourcing and provides a comprehensive explanation of the topic. At first the thesis defines basic concepts (outsourcing, insourcing, offshoring and outplacement) and describes differences between the accounting outsourcing and outsourcing of other business activities. The emphasis is put on a decision whether or not to implement the accounting outsourcing. Thus the thesis describes main reasons why to implement the accounting outsourcing and risks that are ...

  10. The Daily Activity Report (DAR) a Novel Measure of Functional Outcome for Serious Mental Illness.

    Velligan, Dawn I; Mintz, Jim; Sierra, Cynthia; Martin, Mona L; Fredrick, Megan; Maglinte, Gregory A; Corey-Lisle, Patricia K

    2016-05-01

    The assessment of real-world functional outcomes in clinical trials for medications targeting negative symptoms and cognitive impairment is extremely important. We tested the psychometric properties of the Daily Activity Report (DAR), a novel assessment of productive daily activity. We administered the DAR and additional assessments of functional outcome, functional capacity, cognition and symptomatology to 50 individuals with schizophrenia at 2 time points, 1 month apart and to 25 healthy controls. The DAR records a person's daily activity for 7 consecutive days based upon phone calls made 3 times a day. A total score and scores in 3 domains; instrumental activities (ie, independent living), social and work or school related activities are generated for the DAR. Inter-item consistency was high 0.89-0.94 for each domain and 0.88 overall. Test-retest reliability across 1 month for the total DAR score was 0.67,Psmart phone technology with automatic scoring is the next step. PMID:26712856

  11. Accounting standards

    B. Stellinga

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed companie

  12. Reproducibility, and age, body-weight and gender dependency of candidate skeletal muscle MRI outcome measures in healthy volunteers

    Morrow, Jasper M.; Reilly, Mary M.; Hanna, Michael G. [UCL Institute of Neurology, Medical Research Council Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, Department of Molecular Neuroscience, London (United Kingdom); Sinclair, Christopher D.J.; Yousry, Tarek A.; Thornton, John S. [UCL Institute of Neurology, Medical Research Council Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, Department of Molecular Neuroscience, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Neurology, Neuroradiological Academic Unit, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, London (United Kingdom); Fischmann, Arne [University of Basel Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Basel (Switzerland)

    2014-07-15

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can potentially meet the pressing need for objective, sensitive, reproducible outcome measures in neuromuscular disease trials. We tested, in healthy volunteers, the consistency, reliability and sensitivity to normal inter-subject variation of MRI methods targeted to lower limb muscle pathology to inform the design of practical but comprehensive MRI outcome measure protocols for use in imminent patient studies. Forty-seven healthy volunteers, age 21-81 years, were subject at 3T to three-point Dixon fat-fraction measurement, T{sub 1}-relaxometry, T{sub 2}-relaxometry and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) imaging at mid-thigh and mid-calf level bilaterally. Fifteen subjects underwent repeat imaging at 2 weeks. Mean between-muscle fat fraction and T{sub 2} differences were small, but significant (p < 0.001). Fat fraction and T{sub 2} correlated positively, and MTR negatively with subject age in both the thigh and calf, with similar significant correlations with weight at thigh level only (p < 0.001 to p < 0.05). Scan-rescan and inter-observer intra-class correlation coefficients ranged between 0.62-0.84 and 0.79-0.99 respectively. Quantitative lower-limb muscle MRI using readily implementable methods was sensitive enough to demonstrate inter-muscle differences (small in health), and correlations with subject age and weight. In combination with high reliability, this strongly supports the suitability of these methods to provide longitudinal outcome measures in neuromuscular disease treatment trials. (orig.)

  13. Dynamic patient data bases: the foundation of an integrated approach to outcome measures for the healthcare professionals.

    Kwok, H K; Stevens, N

    1995-01-01

    In recent years there has been a tremendous need among healthcare professionals to assess the effectiveness, efficiency, and appropriateness of the patient care services being provided through criteria-based outcome and program evaluation. Although the need for a tool which could evaluate the effectiveness of patient care is widely recognized, such an undertaking has been severely limited due to the lack of any automated means to collect and analyze patient data on a routine, continuous basis within a clinical setting. We have developed and implemented at Mineral Springs Hospital, Banff, Alberta an integrated and automated hospital information system that not only continuously collects administrative, financial, and patient data, but also contains an intelligent component for automated outcome measure and program evaluation. The system collects various non-duplicated data elements from each routine work process within the facility on a continuous basis. Through the creation of a dynamic patient database, data is transformed into information--a powerful decision support tool. The system provides flexible user-defined reports in patient-specific resource utilization, direct and/or indirect specific financial costs, result reporting of each intervention, service provided and user-defined criteria-based outcome, and program evaluation. The system design incorporates expert rules, dynamic data entry forms, quantitative models, and user-defined access control. Using information derived from the dynamic common database, managers and front-line clinicians can easily evaluate and modify management decisions or careplans on a macro or micro level. An external review is planned to evaluate whether the system has helped the assessment of effectiveness, efficiency and appropriateness of healthcare services being provided at the hospital. The fundamental concept behind the system design is that the patient is the center of activity for data collection. The system provides the

  14. Using Evidence for Teacher Education Program Improvement and Accountability: An Illustrative Case of the Role of Value-Added Measures

    Plecki, Margaret L.; Elfers, Ana M.; Nakamura, Yugo

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors consider what can be learned from limited forms of evidence, for purposes of accountability and improvement of teacher education programs. They begin with a review of recent research on how evidence has been used to examine the effectiveness of teacher preparation and development. Using empirical evidence from a state…

  15. Developing a patient-centered outcome measure for complementary and alternative medicine therapies I: defining content and format

    Ritenbaugh Cheryl

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients receiving complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies often report shifts in well-being that go beyond resolution of the original presenting symptoms. We undertook a research program to develop and evaluate a patient-centered outcome measure to assess the multidimensional impacts of CAM therapies, utilizing a novel mixed methods approach that relied upon techniques from the fields of anthropology and psychometrics. This tool would have broad applicability, both for CAM practitioners to measure shifts in patients' states following treatments, and conventional clinical trial researchers needing validated outcome measures. The US Food and Drug Administration has highlighted the importance of valid and reliable measurement of patient-reported outcomes in the evaluation of conventional medical products. Here we describe Phase I of our research program, the iterative process of content identification, item development and refinement, and response format selection. Cognitive interviews and psychometric evaluation are reported separately. Methods From a database of patient interviews (n = 177 from six diverse CAM studies, 150 interviews were identified for secondary analysis in which individuals spontaneously discussed unexpected changes associated with CAM. Using ATLAS.ti, we identified common themes and language to inform questionnaire item content and wording. Respondents' language was often richly textured, but item development required a stripping down of language to extract essential meaning and minimize potential comprehension barriers across populations. Through an evocative card sort interview process, we identified those items most widely applicable and covering standard psychometric domains. We developed, pilot-tested, and refined the format, yielding a questionnaire for cognitive interviews and psychometric evaluation. Results The resulting questionnaire contained 18 items, in visual analog scale format

  16. Explaining Differences in Learning Outcomes in Auditing Education

    Holm, Claus; Steenholdt, Niels

    processes) and procedural knowledge (intellectual skills). The performance of 75 graduate accounting students representing both types of schema is examined. The findings suggest that differences in learning outcomes may be attributed to differences in student background and prior knowledge (auditing......In this paper we use a learner perspective on learning outcomes which reflects that some students taking accounting classes are also provided with on-the-job training in accounting firms. Hence knowledge about learning outcomes for different groups of students is essential information for educators...... as well as the accounting profession. This paper extends prior research on the role of declarative and procedural knowledge in performing auditing tasks. Measuring learning outcomes is a complex matter requiring sensible measures for both declarative knowledge (ability to verbalize pertinent facts or...

  17. The Problem of Financial Accounting Measurement in Italian Accounting Thought between the 19th and the 20th Century From “Exchange Value” to “Historical Cost”

    Gonnella, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    The main subject of the paper is the theory of accounting measurement as observed in its historical development. More notably, the research concerns theoretical concepts of such discipline, as developed by the Italian doctrine in a very specific age, that is, between the second half of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century, i.e. from the theorization of the “exchange value rule” to the theorization of the “historical cost principle”. As it was impossible to examin...

  18. Disagreements in meta-analyses using outcomes measured on continuous or rating scales: observer agreement study

    Tendal, Britta; Higgins, Julian P T; Jüni, Peter; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Trelle, Sven; Nüesch, Eveline; Wandel, Simon; Jørgensen, Anders W; Gesser, Katarina Margareta; Ilsøe-Kristensen, Søren; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2009-01-01

    differed less than 0.1 in their point estimates or confidence intervals. RESULTS: The agreement was 53% at trial level and 31% at meta-analysis level. Including all pairs, the median disagreement was SMD=0.22 (interquartile range 0.07-0.61). The experts agreed somewhat more than the PhD students at trial...... the reviews but to the protocols, where the relevant outcome was highlighted. The agreement was analysed at both trial and meta-analysis level, pairing the observers in all possible ways (45 pairs, yielding 2025 pairs of trials and 450 pairs of meta-analyses). Agreement was defined as SMDs that...... level (61% v 46%), but not at meta-analysis level. Important reasons for disagreement were differences in selection of time points, scales, control groups, and type of calculations; whether to include a trial in the meta-analysis; and data extraction errors made by the observers. In 14 out of the 100...

  19. Evaluating digital libraries in the health sector. Part 2: measuring impacts and outcomes.

    Cullen, Rowena

    2004-03-01

    This is the second part of a two-part paper which explores methods that can be used to evaluate digital libraries in the health sector. Part 1 focuses on approaches to evaluation that have been proposed for mainstream digital information services. This paper investigates evaluative models developed for some innovative digital library projects, and some major national and international electronic health information projects. The value of ethnographic methods to provide qualitative data to explore outcomes, adding to quantitative approaches based on inputs and outputs is discussed. The paper concludes that new 'post-positivist' models of evaluation are needed to cover all the dimensions of the digital library in the health sector, and some ways of doing this are outlined. PMID:15023204

  20. Examining the Minimal Important Difference of Patient-reported Outcome Measures for Individuals with Knee Osteoarthritis

    Mills, Kathryn A G; Naylor, Justine M; Eyles, Jillian P;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of different analytical methods, baseline covariates, followup periods, and anchor questions when establishing a minimal important difference (MID) for individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Second, to propose MID for improving and worsening on the Knee...... injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from 272 patients with knee OA undergoing a multidisciplinary nonsurgical management strategy. The magnitude and rate of change as well as the influence of baseline covariates were examined for...... 5 KOOS subscales over 52 weeks. The MID for improving and worsening were investigated using 4 anchor-based methods. RESULTS: Waitlisted for joint replacement and exhibiting unilateral/bilateral symptoms influenced change in KOOS over time. Generally, low correlations between anchors and KOOS change...