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Sample records for accompanying orbital grease

  1. Lubrication greases for nuclear reactors

    Lubricating greases are essential components of many machines used in nuclear power plants. Where these machines are subject to radiation the life of the grease will be reduced due to deterioration of the components of the grease. According to the chemical nature of the grease used a greater or lesser resistance to radiation will be observed. Tests and techniques to evaluate the performance of greases before and after irradiation are described. The results of these tests show that conventional premium greases will resist comparatively low levels of irradiation, whilst greases formulated from correctly selected components can tolerate quite high levels of radiation permitting the machines they lubricate to attain their designed service lives

  2. Grease lubrication in rolling bearings

    Lugt, Piet M

    2012-01-01

    The definitive book on the science of grease lubrication for roller and needle bearings in industrial and vehicle engineering. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings provides an overview of the existing knowledge on the various aspects of grease lubrication (including lubrication systems) and the state of the art models that exist today. The book reviews the physical and chemical aspects of grease lubrication, primarily directed towards lubrication of rolling bearings. The first part of the book covers grease composition, properties and rheology, including thermal

  3. The mechanisms of the specific effects accompanying the reflection and transmission of a light beam carrying the orbital angular momentum

    The reflection and transmission of a paraxial light beam carrying the intrinsic orbital angular momentum (IOAM) at the plane interface of two isotropic transparent media are considered. The physical explanations of the IOAM-dependent effects accompanying this process are given. These effects are as follows: the changes of the IOAM after the beam's reflection and transmission and the IOAM-stipulated changes of the intensity distribution inside the secondary beams; the latter effects entail the specific shifts of the centers of gravity of the secondary beams in the direction perpendicular to the plane of incidence

  4. Recovery and pre-treatment of fats, oil and grease from grease interceptors for biodiesel production

    Montefrio, Marvin Joseph; Xinwen, Tai; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip [Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, EA-03-12, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2010-10-15

    Fats, oil and grease (FOG) can be recovered efficiently from grease interceptors for biodiesel production. FOG is susceptible to hydrolysis because of its inherent high moisture content and the presence of lipases associated with food residuals in the grease interceptors. This study reveals that the FFA content of FOG derived from grease interceptors did not exceed 8% (w/w) due to constant influx of fresh FOG from wastewater. However, if the FOG is allowed to hydrolyze without dilution, the FFA content can reach 15% (w/w) in more than 20 days. Experiments were conducted to optimize reaction parameters for the esterification of FOG prior to the conventional alkali-catalyzed biodiesel production process. Sulphuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) was a more efficient catalyst than Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} in reducing the acid value to {<=}1 mg KOH/g under identical reaction conditions. At reaction temperatures of {<=}50 C, only H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was capable of reaching the recommended acid value within 24 h. The optimum methanol to FFA ratio for an H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-catalyzed reaction was 20:1, whereas for Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} it was above 26:1. Esterification occurred under static, non-mixed conditions, although conversion rates were low. The rate of conversion increased with mixing speed, with a 200 rpm orbital shaking speed as optimum. (author)

  5. Effects of Hydrocarbon-Based Grease on Rapid Prototype Material Used for Grease Retention Shrouds

    Zakrajsek, Andrew J.; Valco, Daniel J.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of hydrocarbon-based greases on specific rapid prototype (RP) materials used to fabricate grease retention shrouds (GRS) were explored in this study. Grease retention shrouds are being considered as a way to maintain adequate grease lubrication at the gear mesh in a prototype research transmission system. Due to their design and manufacturing flexibility, rapid prototype materials were chosen for the grease retention shrouds. In order to gain a better understanding of the short and long term effects grease pose on RP materials, research was conducted on the interaction of hydrocarbon-based grease with RP materials. The materials used in this study were durable polyamide (nylon), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), and WaterClear 10120. Testing was conducted using Mobilgrease 28 and Syn-Tech 3913G grease (gear coupling grease). These greases were selected due to their regular use with mechanical components. To investigate the effect that grease has on RP materials, the following methods were used to obtain qualitative and quantitative data: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), interference profilometer measurements, digital camera imaging, physical shape measurement, and visual observations. To record the changes in the RP materials due to contact with the grease, data was taken before and after the grease application. Results showed that the WaterClear 10120 RP material provided the best resistance to grease penetration as compared to nylon and ABS RP materials. The manufacturing process, and thus resulting surface conditions of the RP material, played a key role in the grease penetration properties and resilience of these materials.

  6. Environmentally adjusted oil and grease

    With the intention of maintaining healthy environment in our rivers Vattenfall in 1988 initiated a project called 'Environmentally friendly oils'. The goal was to find oils for bearings and hydraulic systems that would cause less negative environmental effects and still maintain a good technical function. Based on the results of the project it is recommended, for both economical and environmental reasons, to change to synthetic oil in bearings and to hydraulic oil made of white oil in regulating systems. The change may be carried out in connection to other work on the system in question. Special care is recommended when cleaning the system from old oil and dirt. In order to maintain the high quality of the oil, also during manufacturing and assembling, one should follow the recommendations outlined in the report. In bearings where used grease leaks into the river, a grease made of white oil should be used. The quality of the rubber sealings must be adapted to the oil used, in order to secure a good function. In order to bring down the number of products and to create an open market some additional changes is necessary in the specifications of oil. Further research regarding oil and sealing is planned. (3 refs.)

  7. 7 CFR 2902.31 - Greases.

    2010-01-01

    ... a protective anti-rust film, as a release agent on gaskets or seals of tank closures, or on machine... Greases. (a) Definitions. (1) Lubricants composed of oils thickened to a semisolid or solid consistency using soaps, polymers or other solids, or other thickeners. (2) Greases for which preferred...

  8. The ROF+ methodology for grease life testing

    Lugt, P.M.; Kommer, van den, T.; Lindgren, H.; Deinhofer, L.

    2013-01-01

    Very often, the service life of grease lubricated rolling bearings is determined by the so called “grease life”. This can be tested on R0F test rigs, which have been available for this since more than 40 years. Recently, this technology has been updated and is now called R0F+. The R0F+ can be used as a reference for grease life/relubrication intervals or as a research tool. In this paper a description of the test rig and the test methodology will be given. Also the reliability of the rig will...

  9. Psychosocial Accompaniment

    Mary Watkins

    2015-01-01

    This essay advocates for a paradigm shift in psychology toward the activity and ethics of accompaniment. Accompaniment requires a reorientation of the subjectivity, interpersonal practices, and critical understanding of the accompanier so that (s)he can stand alongside others who desire listening, witnessing, advocacy, space to develop critical inquiry and research, and joint imagination and action to address desired and needed changes. The idea of “accompaniment” emerged in liberation theolo...

  10. The Development and Application of Automotive CVJ Grease

    Zong Ming; Ouyang Qiu

    2006-01-01

    The development trend of the CVJ (constant velocity joint) greases is briefly introduced in this paper. Based on the evaluation of various base stocks, thickeners and additives, the formulation and manufacture of the long-life CVJ grease is finalized. Bench tests and vehicle performance evaluation tests tive CVJ. This grease features an outstanding low and high temperature performance, extreme pressure,anti-corrosion and anti-rust properties equivalent to those of similar overseas greases. Compared with the traditional MoS2 containing lithium based CVJ grease, the performance of the new grease is much better.

  11. STUDIES OF GREASE SLUDGE AND LABORATORY ANALYSES OF WATER SEPARATED FROM GREASE SLUDGE

    Ojalammi, Risto

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis was to make analysis for water separated from grease sludge. Lassila Tikanoja Oyj (L&T) is collecting grease sludge, also called fat oil and grease (FOG), from interceptors of restaurants and hospitals and transporting it to further treatment to biogas facility. Distances are long and transportation costs are very high because of small loads. L&T is aiming to decrease the expenses, hence they built a separation tank as a temporary storage. In the separation tan...

  12. Influence of grease formulation on thrust bearings power loss

    Cousseau, Tiago; Graça, Beatriz M.; Campos, A.; Seabra, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The minimization of the power loss and the use of the biodegradable greases have attracting considerable attention. To compare the energetic performance of biodegradable lubricant greases, power loss tests were performed on a modified four-ball machine. A correlation between the grease formulation and rheology was established with its energetic performance

  13. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report

    San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; URS Corporation; Biofuels, Blackgold; Carollo Engineers

    2013-01-30

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities have typically been limited to the role of accepting wastewater, treating it to required levels, and disposing of its treatment residuals. However, a new view is emerging which includes wastewater treatment facilities as regional resource recovery centers. This view is a direct result of increasingly stringent regulations, concerns over energy use, carbon footprint, and worldwide depletion of fossil fuel resources. Resources in wastewater include chemical and thermal energy, as well as nutrients, and water. A waste stream such as residual grease, which concentrates in the drainage from restaurants (referred to as Trap Waste), is a good example of a resource with an energy content that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. If left in wastewater, grease accumulates inside of the wastewater collection system and can lead to increased corrosion and pipe blockages that can cause wastewater overflows. Also, grease in wastewater that arrives at the treatment facility can impair the operation of preliminary treatment equipment and is only partly removed in the primary treatment process. In addition, residual grease increases the demand in treatment materials such as oxygen in the secondary treatment process. When disposed of in landfills, grease is likely to undergo anaerobic decay prior to landfill capping, resulting in the atmospheric release of methane, a greenhouse gas (GHG). This research project was therefore conceptualized and implemented by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) to test the feasibility of energy recovery from Trap Waste in the form of Biodiesel or Methane gas. The research goals are given below: To validate technology performance; To determine the costs and benefits [including economic, socioeconomic, and GHG emissions reduction] associated with co-locating this type of operation at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP); To develop a business case or model for replication of the

  14. Orbiting.

    Halford, Sarah Juliette

    2013-01-01

    I always knew I was from another planet. Earth was my home, yes, I liked hamburgers and roller coasters, but there was still an orbit in me that seemed out of place. My imaginative orbit felt like it didn't to spin the "normal" way. As a performer I spent more time alienating myself and judging how different I felt, rather than owning the creative space I lived in and applying it to my craft. My past three years at UC San Diego have been the perfect atmosphere for my artist self. I have been ...

  15. Efficient two-step synthesis of biodiesel from greases

    In this paper, we report the use of a series of diarylammonium catalysts that are highly effective in catalyzing the esterification of the FFA present in greases (12 – 50 wt% FFA). At a catalyst loading of 2-3 mol%, high conversions of FFA to esters (95 - 99%) were achieved by treating the greases ...

  16. Third cranial nerve palsy (ptosis, diplopia accompanied by orbital swelling: case report of unusual clinical presentation of giant cell arteritis associated with polymyalgia rheumatica

    Prassede Bravi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionGiant cell arteritis (GCA is the most common systemic vasculitis in older individuals, characterized by granulomatosus inflammation of the wall of large and medium-sized arteries. The wide spectrum of arterial sites involved leads to ischemia of different organs resulting in a wide range of clinical signs and symptoms. Temporal artery is commonly involved (temporal arteritis. Unusual patterns of presentation, such as extraocular motility disorders and orbital swelling, may be early and transient manifestations of GCA and precede the permanent visual loss due to ischemic optic neuropathy.Case reportWe describe a patient with uncommon manifestations of GCA consisting of transient recurrent diplopia, ptosis, orbital swelling together with more typical clinical features of the disease such as musculoskeletal manifestations (polymyalgia rheumatica and facial pain: all signs and symptoms promptly resolved under corticosteroid therapy without relapse.Conclusions A high level of suspicion of GCA in individuals over the age of 50 years is needed to prevent the development of severe complications. Clinicians should be aware of uncommon manifestations of the disease such as head–neck swelling and ophthalmoplegia: management guidelines have stated that prompt administration of adequate dose of corticosteroids as soon as ocular manifestations of GCA are noted may almost totally prevent blindness.

  17. Eco-Friendly Multipurpose Lubricating Greases from Vegetable Residual Oils

    Ponnekanti Nagendramma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly multipurpose grease formulation has been synthesized by using Jatropha vegetable residual oil with lithium soap and multifunctional additive. The thus obtained formulation was evaluated for its tribological performance on a four-ball tribo-tester. The anti-friction and anti-wear performance characteristics were evaluated using standard test methods. The biodegradability and toxicity of the base oil was assessed. The results indicate that the synthesized residual oil grease formulation shows superior tribological performance when compared to the commercial grease. On the basis of physico-chemical characterization and tribological performance the vegetable residual oil was found to have good potential for use as biodegradable multipurpose lubricating grease. In addition, the base oils are biodegradable and non toxic.

  18. Removing Fats, Oils and Greases from Grease Trap by Hybrid AOPs (Ozonation and Sonication)

    Kwiatkowski, Michal Piotr; Satoh, Saburoh; Yamabe, Chobei; Ihara, Satoshi; Nieda, Masanori

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the electrical energy for the environmental applications using AOPs (advanced oxidation processes) combined with ozonation and sonication to remove the FOG (fats, oils and greases) from wastewater of the sewage system. This study focused on FOG removal from a grease trap using the hybrid AOPs. Fatty acids (linoleic, oleic, stearic and palmitic acids) were used as representative standards of FOG. The studies were conducted experimentally in a glass reactor under various operational conditions. The oxidation efficiency using the combination of the ozonation and sonication was determined by the KI dosimetry method and the calorimetry method. Fatty acids concentration were measured by GC/MS. The local reaction field of the high temperature and high pressure, so-called hot spot, was generated by the quasi-adiabatic collapse of bubbles produced in the water under sonication, which is called cavitation phenomenon. Mixing the ozone bubbles into the water under acoustic cavitation, the formation of OH radicals increased. The mechanical effect of acoustic cavitation such as microstreaming and shock waves have an influence on the probability of reactions of ozone and radicals with fatty acids.

  19. Producing biodiesel from yellow greases with high free fatty acids

    Amrani Mahacine

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a diesel replacement fuel that is manufactured from vegetable oils recycled cooking greases and oils or animal fats. Biodiesel offers many advantages because it is renewable, nontoxic, biodegradable, and suitable for sensitive environments. It can also be used in most diesel equipments with no or only minor modifications. These yellow greases contain great quantities of free fatty acids which form soaps in the presence of alkaline catalyst. Pretreatments of the raw material with acid catalysts are necessary to avoid the soap formation. The transesterification of yellow greases is supplemented in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. The greatest production of biodiesel corresponds to molar flows of 4.985 kmol.hr-1 of methyl oleate, and 4.658 kmol.hr-1 of methyl butyrate.

  20. 9 CFR 316.15 - Marking outside containers of inedible grease, etc.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking outside containers of inedible grease, etc. 316.15 Section 316.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... outside containers of inedible grease, etc. (a) Outside containers of inedible grease, inedible tallow,...

  1. Lubricating grease shear flow and boundary layers in a concentric cylinder configuration

    Li, J.X.; Westerberg, L.G.; Höglund, E.; Lugt, P.M.; Baart, P.

    2014-01-01

    Grease is extensively used to lubricate various machine elements such as rolling bearings, seals, and gears. Understanding the flow dynamics of grease is relevant for the prediction of grease distribution for optimum lubrication and for the migration of wear and contaminant particles. In this study,

  2. 7 CFR 2902.24 - Graffiti and grease removers.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Graffiti and grease removers. 2902.24 Section 2902.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.24 Graffiti and...

  3. Consistency-dependent optical properties of lubricating grease studied by terahertz spectroscopy

    The optical properties of four kinds of lubricating greases (urea, lithium, extreme pressure lithium, molybdenum disulfide lithium greases) with different NLGL (National Lubricant Grease Institute of America) numbers were investigated using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Greases with different NLGL grades have unique spectral features in the terahertz range. Comparison of the experimental data with predictions based on Lorentz—Lorenz theory exhibited that the refractive indices of each kind of lubricating grease were dependent on the their consistency. In addition, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a libricant additive shows strong absorption from 0.2 to 1.4 THz, leading to higher absorption of MoS2-lithium grease than that of lithium grease. (general)

  4. Consistency-dependent optical properties of lubricating grease studied by terahertz spectroscopy

    Tian Lu; Miao Qing; Zhang Cun-Lin; Zhou Qing-Li; Zhao Kun; Shi Yu-Lei; Zhao Dong-Mei; Zhao Song-Qing; Zhao Hui; Bao Ri-Ma; Zhu Shou-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The optical properties of four kinds of lubricating greases (urea, lithium, extreme pressure lithium, molybdenum disulfide lithium greases) with different NLGL (National Lubricant Grease Institute of America) numbers were investigated using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Greases with different NLGL grades have unique spectral features in the terahertz range. Comparison of the experimental data with predictions based on Lorentz-Lorenz theory exhibited that the refractive indices of each kind of lubricating grease were dependent on the their consistency. In addition,molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a libricant additive shows strong absorption from 0.2 to 1.4 THz, leading to higher absorption of MoS2-1ithium grease than that of lithium grease.

  5. Study on thermal effects & sulfurized additives, in lubricating greases

    Shah, Ami Atul

    Lithium Base grease constitutes about 50% of market. The greases are developed to be able to work in multiple working conditions and have longer working life. Greases with extreme pressure additives and anti-wear additives have been developed as a solution to many of the applications. These developed greases are tested under ASTM D2266 testing conditions to meet the requirements. The actual working conditions, although, differ than the real testing conditions. The loading, speed and temperature conditions can be more harsh, or fluctuating in nature. The cyclic nature of the parameters cannot be directly related to the test performance. For this purpose studies on the performance under spectrum loading, variable speed and fluctuating temperature must be performed. This study includes tests to understand the effect of thermal variation on some of the most commonly used grease additives that perform well under ASTM D2266 testing conditions. The studied additives include most widely used industrial extreme pressure additive MoS2. Performance of ZDDP which is trying to replace MoS2 in its industrial applications has also been studied. The tests cover study of extreme pressure, anti-wear and friction modifier additives to get a general idea on the effects of thermal variation in three areas. Sulphur is the most common extreme pressure additive. Sulphur based MoS 2 is extensively used grease additive. Study to understand the tribological performance of this additive through wear testing and SEM/EDX studies has been done. This performance is also studied for other metallic sulfides like WS2 and sulphur based organic compound. The aim is to study the importance of the type of bond that sulphur shares in its additive's structure on its performance. The MoS2 film formation is found to be on the basis of the FeS formation on the substrate and protection through sacrificial monolayer deposition of the MoS2 sheared structure. The free Mo then tends to oxidise. An attempt to

  6. How Much Inflation is Necessary to Grease the Wheels?

    Kim, Jinill; RUGE-MURCIA, Francisco J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies Tobin's proposition that inflation "greases" the wheels of the labor market. The analysis is carried out using a simple dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model with asymmetric wage adjustment costs. Optimal inflation is determined by a benevolent government that maximizes the households' welfare. The Simulated Method of Moments is used to estimate the nonlinear model based on its second-order approximation. Econometric results indicate that nominal wages are downwardly...

  7. REMOVAL OF OIL AND GREASE FROM AN OIL REFINERY EFFLUENT

    S.Naseri

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research performed during 1993-1994, the effluent of Behran Oil Refmery, in south of Tehran, which produces different types of industrial oil and greases, was studied and 3 methods of gravity separation, coagulation and flocculation and dissolved air flotation were investigated. In the first phase of the survey, the quality and quantity of the effluent were determined. This showed an average daily flow rate of 302 m3, pH 9.03, and average concentration of 314.84, 3330, 200, 1726 and 34.5 mg/l, respectively for oil, COD, SS, TS and furfural. In the second phase, the efficiency of abovementioned treatment methods were as follows: Applying gravity separation with the detention time of 180 mm, removal percentages for COD, SS and greases were 30.3%, 52.5% and 49.6%, respectively. Applying coagulation and flocculation following gravity separation different coagulants (alum, lime and ferric chloride were used and their treatment efficiencies were evaluated. Lime showed the highest efficiency of 64% and 85.4%, for grease and COD removal, respectively in pH 11. Dissolved air flotation (DAF, which was conducted in the pressure of 3 bars, showed average removal percentages of 9l.96% and 79.17%, for the oil and COD, respectively. So, this system may be chosen as the most efficient one in oil and grease removal producing an effluent which may be fed to a biological treatment unit to remove other pollutants such as ROD and COD.

  8. Eco-Friendly Multipurpose Lubricating Greases from Vegetable Residual Oils

    Ponnekanti Nagendramma; Prashant Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Environmentally friendly multipurpose grease formulation has been synthesized by using Jatropha vegetable residual oil with lithium soap and multifunctional additive. The thus obtained formulation was evaluated for its tribological performance on a four-ball tribo-tester. The anti-friction and anti-wear performance characteristics were evaluated using standard test methods. The biodegradability and toxicity of the base oil was assessed. The results indicate that the synthesized residual oil ...

  9. The potential of restaurant trap grease as biodiesel feedstock

    Parichart Hasuntree

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using restaurant trap grease as feedstock in the production of biodiesel via acid catalyzed esterificationis explored in this study. Sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst for the esterification reaction of free fatty acid (FFA andmethanol. The FFA levels of restaurant trap greases were reduced from 60.38±2.22 mg KOH/g to 11.60±1.60 mgKOH/g whenconditions for biodiesel production are as follow: methanol-to-FFA ratio of 5:1, 5 wt.% H2SO4, and a reaction temperature at60°C with a reaction time of 60 min. During the acid-catalyzed esterification, the percentage of methyl esters resulting fromconversion of FFA in the obtained product was 83.59±1.51% based on the result of 1H NMR analysis. Data obtained from the23 full factorial designs revealed that methanol-to-FFA ratio term had the most significant effect on the percentage of methylesters, followed by the H2SO4 concentration. Conversely, reaction time between 1 and 3 hours had no significant effect on theesterification of trap greases.

  10. PERFECTION OF COMPRESSORS OF HIGH AND AVERAGE PRODUCTIVITY WITH GREASING AND WITHOUT GREASING FOR COMPRESSION OF CARBON DIOXIDE

    Ворошилов, И. В.; Барко, А. В.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide are finds the wide application in three kinds: liquid high and low pressure, dry ice. For its manufacture in such kind it is necessary to use the piston compressors with three or four steps of compression. Dry condensation are applied to improvement of quality made carbon dioxide in compressors in vapors of cylinder–piston and rod–gasket. Mechanisms of compressors’ movement have system of greasing with limited oil supply. Compressors are created for work with the increased numb...

  11. Oil and Grease Removal from Industrial Wastewater Using New Utility Approach

    H. S. Abd El-Gawad

    2014-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to investigate oil and grease pollution that may pollute fresh water and influence aquatic environment. Then removal of oil and grease from manufacturing wastewater befall essential but common techniques not enough. Enzyme and adsorption units representing major developed new laboratory were selected to assess the water quality and humiliation prospective of oil and grease from wastewater. Several components and environmental variables that were dissolved oxyge...

  12. Removal of Oil and Grease as Emerging Pollutants of Concern (EPC) in Wastewater Stream

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater characteristics, which depend on wastewater source, are increasingly becoming more toxic in recent times. The concentrations of oil and grease in wastewater streams have been observed to increase in wastewater stream with increasing adverse effects on the ecology. This results from the increasing use of oil and grease in high-demanded oil-processed foods, establishment and expansion of oil mills and refineries worldwide, as well as indiscriminate discharge of oil and grease into th...

  13. Study on radiation-induced deterioration of grease at high temperature, 1

    As a series of the studies on radiation-induced deterioration of grease at high temperature, this report presents a test method of thermal aging of greases which can be applied to the test of greases under the γ-irradiation at elevated temperatures. The grease properties (penetration, free acid, oil separation) are affected by an amount of base oil evaporated from the grease at high temperature. The base oil evaporation depends on depth of a vessel and thickness of the greases in the vessel for test. As results of the investigation of the evaporation of oil in relation to the shape the vessel and the thickness of the grease, the amount of evaporated oil when 17 mm deep glass vessel and 6 mm thick grease was equivalent to that observed by a test conducted using a JIS K-2220, B method. It was found that the sample vessel need to be put on the lid when the several kinds of grease samples are heated in the same oven at same time. (author)

  14. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1104 Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and...

  15. Removal of oil, grease, and suspended solids from produced water with ceramic crossflow microfiltration

    In this paper results of studies of two onshore and two offshore pilot plants that use ceramic crossflow microfiltration (CCFM) to separate oil, grease, and suspended solids from produced water are discussed. The method is capable of producing permeate quality with < =5 mg/L (detection limit) of dispersed oil and grease and <1 mg/L of suspended solids

  16. Comparative Studies on Low Noise Greases Operating under High Temperature Oxidation Conditions

    Xiong Chunhua; Mi Hongying; Feng Qiang; Wu Baojie

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation induction time (OIT) testing by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to evaluate the oxidation resistance of lubricating greases. Under the high temperature condition, bearing noise was detected when grease passed the initial stable stage of oxidation. The chemical and physical structure of grease samples before and after high tem-perature oxidation were also analyzed by FT-IR spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), then the effects of oxidation at high temperature on bearing noise were investigated. It is found out that for lithium greases, oxidation of base oil and thickener is the main reason responsible for the increasing bearing noise. As regards the polyurea greases, the change of ifber microstructure at high temperature is the main reason for the increasing bearing noise.

  17. Oil and Grease Removal from Industrial Wastewater Using New Utility Approach

    H. S. Abd El-Gawad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to investigate oil and grease pollution that may pollute fresh water and influence aquatic environment. Then removal of oil and grease from manufacturing wastewater befall essential but common techniques not enough. Enzyme and adsorption units representing major developed new laboratory were selected to assess the water quality and humiliation prospective of oil and grease from wastewater. Several components and environmental variables that were dissolved oxygen, bacteriology measure, flow rate and adsorption material amount studied to assess the removal performance of oil and grease. The results elucidated significant variations among different tests which influenced microbial necessary role of oxidation declining develop biological treatment process reached to 72%. The study stressed out natural material (zeolite that enhanced organic reduction under optimal conditions. These conditions were closer spacing and high length of adsorbing unit that led to increase oil and grease contact period with adsorbent and added to increase performance removal reached to 99%.

  18. Accelerated Testing of UH-60 Viscous Bearings for Degraded Grease Fault

    Dykas, Brian; Hood, Adrian; Krantz, Timothy; Klemmer, Marko

    2015-01-01

    An accelerated aging investigation of critical aviation bearings lubricated with MIL-PRF- 81322 grease was conducted to derive an understanding of the mechanisms of grease degradation and loss of lubrication over time. The current study focuses on UH-60 Black Hawk viscous damper bearings supporting the tail rotor driveshaft, which were subjected to more than 5800 hours of testing in a heated environment to accelerate the deterioration of the grease. The mechanism of grease degradation is a reduction in the oil/thickener ratio rather than the expected chemical degradation of grease constituents. Over the course of testing, vibration and temperature monitoring of bearings was conducted and trends for failing bearings are presented.

  19. Study on Preparation and Properties of Grease Based on Ultraifne Bentonite Powder

    Wang Jing; Guo Xiaochuan; Jiang Mingjun; He Yan

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility for preparation of ultraifne bentonite powder by different milling methods was studied. And the comparison of comprehensive performance between ultraifne bentonite grease and traditional bentonite grease was also investigated. The results indicated that the statistic Z-average size of ultraifne bentonite prepared by sand milling was 250 nm with a narrow size distribution and the lattice structure of ultraifne bentonite maintained good character despite a slight distortion occasioned. The mechanical stability, colloid stability, antiwear ability and friction-reducing property of ultraifne bentonite grease were superior to the traditional one.

  20. Use of Bio-Amp, a commercial bio-additive for the treatment of grease trap wastewater containing fat, oil, and grease.

    Tang, Hao L; Xie, Yuefeng F; Chen, Yen-Chih

    2012-11-01

    This research investigated the application of Bio-Amp, a commercial bio-additive for the treatment of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) in a grease trap, and evaluated potential impacts of treated effluent on downstream collection system and treatment processes. Results show that after Bio-Amp treatment, FOG deposit formation was reduced by 40%, implicating a potential reduction of sewer line blockages. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and total fatty acids were reduced by 39%, 33%, 56%, and 59%, respectively, which represents an overall loading reduction of 9% COD, 5% TN and 40% TP received by the treatment plant from all the dining halls. On the other hand, readily biodegradable COD fractions significantly increased, which implies a potential improvement on Bio-P removal. Overall, the results showed that application of Bio-Amp in grease trap provides potential reduction of sewer line blockages, and can also alleviate downstream treatment burden. PMID:22989634

  1. Formulation of a grease from spent bleaching earth, waste cooking oil and fumed silica as additives

    The study is to formulate new multi-purpose grease from industrial wastes. In this study we intent to use waste cooking oil and spent bleaching earth as a main ingredients for the grease formulation. Additives such as fumed silica, molybdenum disulphide and other type of additives are introduced to improve the properties of the grease. The best percentage of waste cooking oil, spent bleaching earth and additives added is determined (w/w) during this study to produces the best consistency through penetration test based on NGLI standard. Other properties being determined include drop point, oxidation stability, and oil separation test through ASTM method. From result obtained, some necessary modification and additives addition into spent bleaching earth and waste cooking oil can produce new multi-purpose based grease that can be commercialized. (author)

  2. DESIGN OF A TRAP GREASE UPGRADER FOR BIOFUEL PROCESSING - PHASE I

    This project provides capstone senior design experience to several teams of engineering undergraduates at Drexel University through the technical and economic evaluation of a trap grease to biodiesel conversion process. The project incorporates two phases: Phase I characteri...

  3. Radioisotope studies on the paradox in dispersion and agglomeration of sewage greases discharged from ocean outfalls

    Experiments have been undertaken in the ocean off Sydney, Australia to monitor the movement and the dispersion of sewage solids. These solids were labelled with a radioisotope, gold-198 prior to ocean discharge. The labelled material was followed at sea using submersible scintillation detectors. Lateral and vertical dispersion coefficients were determined. The experiments showed that under some conditions the labelled sewage grease dispersed and under others the grease agglomerated. This variation is explained in terms of non-conservative processes

  4. Evaluation of different polyolefins as rheology modifier additives in lubricating grease formulations

    Highlights: → Evaluation of different polyolefins as modifiers of the rheological properties and mechanical stability of lithium lubricating greases. → The type of polymer, molecular weight, cristallinity degree and vinyl acetate content influences the rheological and thermal response of lubricating greases. → The crystallinity degree, mainly dependent on the nature of the polymer, is the most highly influencing parameter on the rheology of lubricating greases. → The rheological modification exerted by EVA copolymers mainly depends on the vinyl acetate content. - Abstract: The purpose of the present work is to evaluate the effect that different polyolefins, used as additives in small proportions, exert on the rheological properties of standard lithium lubricating greases. Grease formulations containing several polyolefins, differing in nature and molecular weight, were manufactured and rheologically characterized. The influence of the type of polymer, molecular weight, crystallinity degree and vinyl acetate content has been analyzed. Small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) and viscous flow measurements, as well as calorimetric (DSC) and thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis, were carried out. In general, the addition of polymers such as HDPE, LDPE, LLDPE and PP to lithium lubricating greases significantly increases the values of the rheological parameters analyzed, consistency and mechanical stability. However, the use of polyolefins as rheology modifiers does not significantly affect the friction coefficient determined in a tribological contact. The crystallinity degree, mainly dependent on the nature of the polymer, has been found the most highly influencing parameter on the rheology of the lubricating greases studied. However, the rheological modification exerted by EVA copolymers mainly depends on the vinyl acetate content. Thus, a negative effect in both apparent viscosity and linear viscoelastic functions of greases was obtained when polymer vinyl acetate

  5. Comparison of endotoxin and particle bounce in Marple cascade samplers with and without impaction grease.

    Kirychuk, Shelley P; Reynolds, Stephen J; Koehncke, Niels; Nakatsu, J; Mehaffy, John

    2009-01-01

    The health of persons engaged in agricultural activities are often related or associated with environmental exposures in their workplace. Accurately measuring, analyzing, and reporting these exposures is paramount to outcomes interpretation. This paper describes issues related to sampling air in poultry barns with a cascade impactor. Specifically, the authors describe how particle bounce can affect measurement outcomes and how the use of impaction grease can impact particle bounce and laboratory analyses such as endotoxin measurements. This project was designed to (1) study the effect of particle bounce in Marple cascade impactors that use polyvinyl chloride (PVC) filters; (2) to determine the effect of impaction grease on endotoxin assays when sampling poultry barn dust. A pilot study was undertaken utilizing six-stage Marple cascade impactors with PVC filters. Distortion of particulate size distributions and the effects of impaction grease on endotoxin analysis in samples of poultry dust distributed into a wind tunnel were studied. Although there was no significant difference in the overall dust concentration between utilizing impaction grease and not, there was a greater than 50% decrease in the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) values when impaction grease was not utilized. There was no difference in airborne endotoxin concentration or endotoxin MMAD between filters treated with impaction grease and those not treated. The results indicate that particle bounce should be a consideration when sampling poultry barn dust with Marple samplers containing PVC filters with no impaction grease. Careful consideration should be given to the utilization of impaction grease on PVC filters, which will undergo endotoxin analysis, as there is potential for interference, particularly if high or low levels of endotoxin are anticipated. PMID:19437284

  6. AN ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESSING STRATEGY FOR IMPROVING TRIBOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF AISI 316 STAINLESS STEEL UNDER GREASE LUBRICATION

    JIAOJUAN ZOU; MAOLIN LI; NAIMING LIN; XIANGYU ZHANG; LIN QIN; BIN TANG

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the tribological performance of AISI 316 stainless steel (316 SS) under grease lubrication, electrochemical processing was conducted on it to obtain a rough (surface texturing-like) surface by making use of the high sensitivity of austenitic stainless steel to pitting corrosion in Cl--rich environment. Numerous corrosion pits or micro-ditches acted as micro-reservoirs on the obtained surface. While the grease could offer consistent lubrication, and then improve the tribolo...

  7. Oil, grease and used petroleum oil management and environmental economic issues

    Z. Pawlak; T. Rauckyte; A. Oloyede

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper undertakes to answer the question of how used petroleum oil and grease enter groundwater or to the drain becoming both environmental and economic problems to utility companies.Design/methodology/approach: Laboratory methodology was based on modern instrumentation validated further with experimental investigation. Petroleum-contaminated soil samples were analyzed for oil and grease (O/G) content, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and volatile aromatic compounds: benzene, ...

  8. A solvent-free approach to extract the lipid fraction from sewer grease for biodiesel production.

    Tu, Qingshi; Wang, Jingjing; Lu, Mingming; Brougham, Andrew; Lu, Ting

    2016-08-01

    Fats, oils and greases (FOG) are the number one cause of sewer pipe blockage and have been mostly disposed of as a waste until recently. This study investigated a low cost and environmentally friendly approach to extract the lipid fraction (fatty acids and glycerides for biodiesel production) from sewer grease (SG), i.e., FOGs obtained from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The lipid fraction of the sewer grease was primarily in the form of free fatty acid (FFA), at 20.7wt%. An innovative solvent-free extraction approach was developed using waste cooking oil (WCO) to overcome the challenges of emulsion, impurities and high moisture content of the sewer grease. A 95% extraction yield of sewer grease was achieved under the optimum operating condition of 3.2:1 WCO-SG ratio (wt/wt), 70°C and 240min. In addition, the reusability of the WCO was also investigated. WCO can be used two to three times for sewer grease extraction with more than 90% extraction efficiency. PMID:27256783

  9. The Field-Dependent Rheological Properties of Magnetorheological Grease Based on Carbonyl-Iron-Particles

    Mohamad, N.; Mazlan, S. A.; Ubaidillah; Choi, Seung-Bok; Nordin, M. F. M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents dynamic viscoelastic properties of magnetorheological (MR) grease under variation of magnetic fields and magnetic particle fractions. The tests to discern the field-dependent properties are undertaken using both rotational and oscillatory shear rheometers. As a first step, the MR grease is developed by dispersing the carbonyl iron (CI) particles into grease medium with a mechanical stirrer. Experimental data are obtained by changing the magnetic field from 0 to 0.7 T at room temperature of 25 °C. It is found that a strong Payne effect limits the linear viscoelastic region of MR grease at strains above 0.1%. The results exhibit a high dynamic yield stress which is equivalent to Bingham plastic rheological model, and show relatively good MR effect at high shear rate of 2000 s‑1. In addition, high dispersion of the magnetic particles and good thermal properties are proven. The results presented in this work directly indicate that MR grease is a smart material candidate that could be widely applicable to various fields including vibration control.

  10. An Electrochemical Processing Strategy for Improving Tribological Performance of Aisi 316 Stainless Steel Under Grease Lubrication

    Zou, Jiaojuan; Li, Maolin; Lin, Naiming; Zhang, Xiangyu; Qin, Lin; Tang, Bin

    2014-12-01

    In order to improve the tribological performance of AISI 316 stainless steel (316 SS) under grease lubrication, electrochemical processing was conducted on it to obtain a rough (surface texturing-like) surface by making use of the high sensitivity of austenitic stainless steel to pitting corrosion in Cl--rich environment. Numerous corrosion pits or micro-ditches acted as micro-reservoirs on the obtained surface. While the grease could offer consistent lubrication, and then improve the tribological performance of 316 SS. Tribological behaviors of raw 316 SS and the treated sample were measured using a reciprocating type tribometer sliding against GCr15 steel counterpart under dry and grease lubrication conditions. The results showed that the mass losses of the two samples were in the same order of magnitude, and the raw sample exhibited lower friction coefficient in dry sliding. When the tests were conducted under grease lubrication condition, the friction coefficients and mass losses of the treated sample were far lower than those of the raw 316 SS. The tribological performance of 316 SS under grease lubrication was drastically improved after electrochemical processing.

  11. Performance of High-Speed Grease Lubricated Hybrid Ceramic Ball Bearing

    李秀娟; 王黎钦; 古乐

    2004-01-01

    To simplify the lubricating system for high-speed bearings and improve its reliability, grease lubricated high-speed hybrid ceramic bearings were theoretically and experimentally researched.Bearings with an outer race of 62 mm and eleven 9.525-mm balls were investigated.Traction coefficient and flash temperature between the bearing races and the balls were calculated and the results show that the traction coefficient of Si3N4 hybrid ceramic bearings is 74% that of the steel AISI 440B ones at 30 000 r/min and 1750 N, and the flash temperature of the hybrid bearings is 49% that of steel ones.Simulating the high-speed bearing rotational conditions, the grease lubricated hybrid ceramic ball bearings were tested and the results show that the power consumption of hybrid ceramic bearing lubricated by grease D at 24 000 r/min and axial load 1750 N is 80% that of steel ones.

  12. Influence of Base Oil Polarity on the Transient Shear Flow of Biodegradable Lubricating Greases

    Martin Fiedler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study is to elucidate the physical mechanisms influencing the transient flow behavior of lubricating greases based on biogenic oleochemicals from a polarity point of view. This includes the mutually interacting influence of base oil polarity and thickening agents on the rheologically-measured mechanical structural degradation in transient shear flow. Due to the high temperature dependence of Keesom forces in the background of polar-active bond mechanisms, the analysis of the transient flow response as a function of temperature allows to attribute the observed influences to differences in base oil polarity. In general, clay-thickened greases show a greater tendency to be rheologically influenced by base oil polarities than soap-thickened lubricating greases.

  13. Design of the GLARE tool. A grease lubrication apparatus for research and education

    The GLARE: Grease Lubrication Apparatus for Research and Education was designed as a fourth year thesis project with the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT). The purpose of the apparatus is to train Ontario Power Generation Nuclear (OPGN) staff to properly lubricate bearings with grease and to help detect early equipment failures. Proper re-lubrication is critical to the nuclear industry as equipment may be inaccessible for long periods of time. A secondary purpose for the tool is for UOIT research and undergraduate laboratories.This abstract provides an overview of the project and its application to the nuclear industry. (author)

  14. Rheological Properties of Extreme Pressure Greases Measured Using a Process Control Rheometer

    Glasscock, Julie; Smith, Robin S.

    2012-01-01

    A new process control rheometer (PCR) designed for use in industrial process flows has been used to measure the rheological properties of three extreme-pressure greases. The rheometer is a robust yet sensitive instrument designed to operate in an industrial processing environment in either in......-line or on-line configurations. The PCR was able to measure the rheological properties including the elastic modulus, viscous modulus, and complex viscosity of the greases which in an industrial flow application could be used as variables in a feedback system to control the process and the quality of the...

  15. Free fatty acids degradation in grease trap purification using ozone bubbling and sonication

    Piotr Kwiatkowski, Michal; Satoh, Saburoh; Fukuda, Shogo; Yamabe, Chobei; Ihara, Satoshi; Nieda, Masanori

    2013-02-01

    The oil and fat were treated at first by only ozone bubbling and it was confirmed that the collection efficiency of them became 98.4% when the aeration was used. It showed that the aeration method in a grease trap cleared the standard value of 90% and there was no worry on the oil and fat outflow from a grease trap. The characteristics of sonication process were studied for free fatty acids degradation. The free saturated fatty acids are the most hard-degradable compounds of the fats, oils and greases (FOGs) in the grease trap. The influence of various parameters such as immersion level of an ultrasound probe in the liquid and bubbling of various gases (Ar, O2, air, O3) on the sonochemical and energy efficiency of the sonication process was investigated. The most effective degradation treatment method for saturated free fatty acids was the combination of sonication and low flow rate argon bubbling. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  16. Analysis of lasalocid residues in grease and fat using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Clark, Susan B; Storey, Joseph M; Carr, Justin R; Madson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A method for the determination of lasalocid, an antibiotic and coccidiostat, in grease and fat is described. The manufacture of lasalocid produces a grease-like residue as a waste byproduct. Recently this byproduct has been shown to have been illegally introduced into the animal feed chain. Therefore, a quantitative and confirmatory procedure to analyse for lasalocid in this matrix is needed. A portion of grease/oil sample was extracted into hexane-washed acetonitrile, and a portion of the extract was then applied to a carboxylic acid solid-phase extraction (SPE) column for concentration and clean-up. The SPE column was washed with additional hexane-washed acetonitrile and ethyl acetate/methanol, after which lasalocid was eluted with 10% ammoniated methanol. The eluate was evaporated to dryness, redissolved in (1:1) acetonitrile-water and filtered through a PTFE syringe filter. Confirmation and quantitation of lasalocid in the final extract employed a triple quadrupole LC-MS/MS. The method was applied to grease and oil samples containing from 0.02 to 34,000 mg kg(-1) of lasalocid. PMID:26054429

  17. Effects of Atomic Oxygen and Grease on Outgassing and Adhesion of Silicone Elastomers for Space Applications

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Puleo, Bernadette J.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of silicone elastomers for seals used in docking and habitat systems for future space exploration vehicles is being conducted at NASA. For certain missions, NASA is considering androgynous docking systems where two vehicles each having a seal would be required to: dock for a period of time, seal effectively, and then separate with minimum push-off forces for undocking. Silicone materials are generally chosen for their wide operating temperatures and low leakage rates. However silicone materials are often sticky and usually exhibit considerable adhesion when mated against metals and silicone surfaces. This paper investigates the adhesion unit pressure for a space rated silicone material (S0383-70) for either seal-on-seal (SoS) or seal-on-aluminum (SoAl) operation modes in the following conditions: as-received, after ground-based atomic-oxygen (AO) pre-treatment, after application of a thin coating of a space-qualified grease (Braycote 601EF), and after a combination of AO pre-treatment and grease coating. In order of descending adhesion reduction, the AO treatment reduced seal adhesion the most, followed by the AO plus grease pre-treatment, followed by the grease treatment. The effects of various treatments on silicone (S0383-70 and ELA-SA-401) outgassing properties were also investigated. The leading adhesion AO pretreatment reduction led to a slight decrease in outgassing for the S0383-70 material and virtually no change in ELA-SA-401 outgassing.

  18. On the normal stress effect in grease-lubricated bearing seals

    Baart, P.; Lugt, P.M.; Prakash, B.

    2014-01-01

    The film formation in lip seals, due to the non-Newtonian rheology of the lubricant, has been a topic of speculation. Earlier work suggests that normal stresses in grease would be favorable for the film buildup between the seal lip and shaft or bearing ring. In the current article, we evaluate this

  19. Rheological Properties of Extreme Pressure Greases Measured Using a Process Control Rheometer

    Glasscock, Julie; Smith, Robin S.

    2012-01-01

    A new process control rheometer (PCR) designed for use in industrial process flows has been used to measure the rheological properties of three extreme-pressure greases. The rheometer is a robust yet sensitive instrument designed to operate in an industrial processing environment in either in...

  20. Removal of Oil and Grease as Emerging Pollutants of Concern (EPC in Wastewater Stream

    Alade Abass O

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater characteristics, which depend on wastewater source, are increasingly becoming more toxic in recent times. The concentrations of oil and grease in wastewater streams have been observed to increase in wastewater stream with increasing adverse effects on the ecology. This results from the increasing use of oil and grease in high-demanded oil-processed foods, establishment and expansion of oil mills and refineries worldwide, as well as indiscriminate discharge of oil and grease into the water drains, domestically and industrially. This study reports the applications, efficiencies and challenges of the wastewater treatment techniques currently employed in the removal of oil and grease from the industrial wastewater and municipal water stream. The results shows that the concentrations of oil and grease injected into the ecosystem are of higher environmental impact and this needs to be given the desired attention. The desired development for effective removal of oil and grease as emerging pollutants of concern (EPC in wastewater stream are thus proposed. ABSTRAK: Ciri-ciri air sisa, bergantung kepada punca air sisa tersebut, menjadi semakin toksik akhir-akhir ini. Kepekatan minyak dan gris dalam air sisa anak sungai dilihat makin bertambah dalam air sisa anak sungai dengan bertambahnya kesan negatif ke atas ekologi. Ini disebabkan oleh peningkatan penggunaan minyak dan gris dalam makanan berproses yang tinggi permintaannya, penubuhan dan perkembangan kilang pertroleum dan loji penapisan di seluruh dunia. Minyak dan gris juga dibuang sewenang-wenangnya ke dalam parit air, dari kalangan domestik dan industry. Kajian ini membentangkan tentang aplikasi, keberkesanan dan teknik cabaran rawatan air buangan yang kini digunakan dalam pembuangan minyak dan gris dari air sisa industry dan air sungai perbandaran. Keputusan menunjukkan kepekatan minyak dan gris yang wujud dibuang ke dalam ekosistem mempunyai impak yang lebih tinggi terhadap persekitaran

  1. Frictional properties of lubrication greases with the addition of nickel nanoparticles in pneumatic cylinder

    Chang, Ho; Lan, Chou-Wei; Guo, Jia-Bin

    2011-12-01

    This paper studies the influence of addition of 100 nm diameter nickel nano-particles on the friction properties of synthetic grease (Li base, VG100) in pneumatic cylinder. The friction force test of pneumatic cylinder equipment measures the frictional force between seal and cylinder bore in pneumatic cylinders. The lubricants with addition of nickel nano-particles were used for lubricating the contact interface between seal and cylinder bore. The friction force test equipment employ a load cell force sensor to measure the friction force between seals and cylinder bores. Results obtained from experimental tests are compared to determine the friction force between seals and cylinder bore in pneumatic cylinders. The study leads to the conclusion that the addition of nickel nano-particles to synthetic grease results in a decrease in friction force between seals and cylinder bores in pneumatic cylinder. This tribological behavior is closely related to the deposition of nano-particles on the rubbing surfaces

  2. Interaction of Chloroprene and Nitrile- Butadiene Rubber with Lubricating Greases and Base Oils

    2006-01-01

    The present communication addresses compatibility of two synthetic rubber types, chloroprene and nitrilebutadiene ones, with a number of base oils of petroleum origin and lubricating greases produced thereof. Four base oils,including three naphthenic products with varying degrees of refining and one paraffinic product,were compared with each other in terms of their effect on the rubbers. Degenerative changes occurring in the rubbers on contact with the oils and greases were studied using accelerated ageing tests. Alterations in rubber parameters, such as hardness, weight and glass transition temperature, caused by interaction with oil were monitored. The main physicochemical mechanisms standing behind the changes observed in the rubber properties were found to be (i) migration of plasticizer from rubber into the oil phase, (ii) absorption of oil by rubber,and (iii) oxidation of rubber. An increase in glass transition temperature (Tg) of rubber aged in a base oil or grease was considered as an indirect indication that the plasticizer had migrated out of rubber;the plasticizer accumulation in the oil phase being directly confirmed by gas chromatography. In order to suppress the plasticizer migration, oil additivation with dioctyl adipate (DOA), a common plasticizer used in rubber formulations, was attempted. However, the BOA-additivated oils, while reducing plasticizer migration, were found to cause more swelling than the original oils in the case of chloroprene rubber. As an alternative, replacement of BOA by an alkylated aryl phosphate in nitrile- butadiene rubber formulations was considered, but it did not solve the problem either.The results of this study suggest conclusively that the type of rubber, the plasticizer, and the base oil are all the crucial parameters that should be considered when matching rubber with oil in real- life applications. Interaction of rubber with base oils and with greases produced thereof is largely controlled by (i) solvency of the

  3. Experimental preliminary exploration on determining grease thickness simulated by paraffin in petroleum pipelines

    1.25 MeV γ-ray of 60Co Compton scattering coefficient in the simple of paraffin,are measured by γ-ray energy spectrum analysis in two determining means. At the same experimental condition, we have used this scattering coefficient to determining grease thickness simulated by paraffin. The result show the average relative difference is about 1.29% for the best group. (authors)

  4. Process grease : a possible feedstock for biodiesel production / Roelof Jacobus Venter.

    Venter, Roelof Jacobus

    2013-01-01

    The utilisation of waste process grease (WPG) as feedstock for biodiesel production was investigated in this study. WPG is a lubrication oil used in the metalworking industry and is considered a hazardous waste material. WPG contains vegetable oil and animal fat which are used as base oils in the lubricant formulation. Three different production routes were followed to produce biodiesel using WPG as feedstock. The first production route involved the conventional two-step production proces...

  5. Orbital maneuvers and space rendezvous

    Butikov, Eugene I.

    2015-12-01

    Several possibilities of launching a space vehicle from the orbital station are considered and compared. Orbital maneuvers discussed in the paper can be useful in designing a trajectory for a specific space mission. The relative motion of orbiting bodies is investigated on examples of spacecraft rendezvous with the space station that stays in a circular orbit around the Earth. An elementary approach is illustrated by an accompanying simulation computer program and supported by a mathematical treatment based on fundamental laws of physics and conservation laws. Material is appropriate for engineers and other personnel involved in space exploration, undergraduate and graduate students studying classical physics and orbital mechanics.

  6. Study on radiation-induced degradation of grease at high temperature, 2

    This report presents the test results on thermal degradation, radiation degradation and radiation-thermal combined degradation of several greases. The degradation test was composed of the following these different combinations; (1) the simultaneous aging by irradiation at higher temperature, (2) the sequential aging by thermal aging after irradiation, and (3) the inverse sequential aging by irradiation after thermal aging. The radiation resistance of the greases was evaluated by changes in penetration, in weight loss (amount of volatilized and/or evaporated base oil), and in molecular weight of base oil. In the irradiation at high temperature, the properties of all greases changed remarkably and the mode of changes was roughly classified into two types; (1) hardening at an early stage of aging and (2) softening initially and then hardening. It was confirmed that the hardening was caused by the evaporation or crosslinking of the base oil, and the softening was caused by the destruction of gel structure. The synergistic effect was found in the radiation-thermal combined degradation. (author)

  7. Electrical pitting of grease-lubricated rolling and sliding bearings: a comparative study

    The electrical pitting of grease-lubricated rolling and sliding bearings were tested. Subsequently, various conclusive findings arose from the tests. The various tests included testing for: typical wear modes and mechanisms, wear debris morphology, the results of various experiments, the results relating to experiments undertaken at temperatures and the typical bearing worn surfaces. Using different techniques, this study methodically assessed the effects of electrical currents and mechanical parameters combined with grease-lubricated rolling and sliding bearings. The grease-lubricated bearings were tested using the AC field. Typical characteristics or morphologies of electrical pitting wear particles were observed. In addition, the electrical pitting wear regimes, which corresponded to the respective physical responses, such as bearing housing temperatures, worn surfaces and the morphology of wear debris were anticipated. Thus, from the experiments undertaken, different wear regimes were revealed. These were dependant on the test parameters. Each stage produced wear particles, which were supported the belief that morphology had taken place at each stage.

  8. Characterisation of FOGs in grease trap waste from the processing of chickens in Thailand.

    Nitayapat, Nuttakan; Chitprasert, Pakamon

    2014-06-01

    Industrial firms that kill and process chickens generate wastewater that contains fat, oil, and grease (FOG). The FOGs are located in the fatty waste that is collected by floatation in grease traps. Chemical and physical characterisation of FOGs would provide useful information that would help in the development of methods designed to decrease the extent of pollution caused by disposal of the waste and to utilise commercially some of its lipid constituents. Employing these methods would enhance the profitability and competitive potential of these commercial organisations. Samples of grease trap waste from 14 firms in central Thailand have been examined. Due to the very different schemes of waste management employed by these firms, the physical appearance of their fatty wastes showed considerable variation. The chemical and physical properties of the FOGs present in these wastes showed considerable variation also. Large amounts of free fatty acids (10-70% as oleic acid) were detected in most of the 14 wastes and palmitic, cis-9-oleic, cis,cis-9,12-linoleic, stearic, and palmitoleic acids were the predominant species of free and esterified acids. Most of the FOGs were solid at temperatures below 40 °C. Many of them contained traces of heavy metals (Cu and Pb) and some contained traces of the pesticides dimethoate and cypermethrin. The content of these potentially hazardous substances would have to be considered very carefully before discarding the fatty wastes and during the development of methods designed to isolate their potentially profitable lipid constituents. PMID:24095036

  9. Oil, grease and used petroleum oil management and environmental economic issues

    Z. Pawlak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper undertakes to answer the question of how used petroleum oil and grease enter groundwater or to the drain becoming both environmental and economic problems to utility companies.Design/methodology/approach: Laboratory methodology was based on modern instrumentation validated further with experimental investigation. Petroleum-contaminated soil samples were analyzed for oil and grease (O/G content, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH, and volatile aromatic compounds: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX and naphthalene. Gas chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS was used to analyse BTEX and naphthalene analytes.Findings: The results show that total petroleum hydrocarbon fraction (TPH accounted for oil and grease (O/G and the ratio of [TPH]/[O/G] ranged from 12% to 50%. The results of volatile organic fraction (BTEX accounted for only a small part of total TPH and the ratio of [BTEX]/[TPH] ranged below 1%. The concentration of four samples for TPH test exceeded the regulatory limit of 500 ppm for hydrocarbons. The gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID method appear to offer the best basis for standard TPH test in soil and groundwater verification of site cleanup.Research limitations/implications: In the future it will be possible to apply the procedures to other more complicated cases e.g. used oil containing more than 1000 ppm total halogens, which is regulated as hazardous waste.Practical implications: Promising directions for adaptation of appropriate pre-treatment standard processes for recycling programs, pollution prevention and reduction of maintenance cost.Originality/value: The gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID methods appear to offer the best hope for standard TPH test in soil and groundwater verification of site cleanup. Implementation of management standards and a permit policy for O/G and used oil generators will be issued to each facility.

  10. A batch-fabricated laser-micromachined PDMS actuator with stamped carbon grease electrodes

    In this note, we report on the development of a batch-fabricated laser-micromachined elastomeric cantilever actuator composed of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) bilayer (active/inactive) and soft-lithographically patterned conductive carbon grease electrodes. The described unimorph structure has a low actuation voltage and large out-of-plane displacement. For a 4 mm long, 1 mm wide, and 80 µm thick actuator, an out-of-plane displacement of 1.2 mm and a maximum force of 25 µN were measured using 450 V actuation voltage. (technical note)

  11. Penentuan Kadar Lemak (Oil Grease) Pada Limbah Cair Kelapa Sawit Dengan Metode Gravimetri

    Simanjuntak, Megawati

    2010-01-01

    The determination of oil grease degree has been done to wastewater of oil palm in land application which is being production by Pabrik Kelapa Sawit Rambutan PT.Perkebunan Nusantara III (Persero) Tebing Tinggi with gravimetri methode is separated by soxhletation with some phase that is extraction and destillation. The results is got showned that rate wastewater which is being production by PKS (Pabrik Kelapa Sawit) Rambutan are between 5801 – 5935,9 mg/l. The value still obeyed the standart of...

  12. Review of inservice inspections of greased tendons in prestressed-concrete containments

    Prestressed-concrete containments in the United States using greased prestressing tendons are inspected periodically to ensure structural integrity and to identify and correct problem areas before they become critical. An analysis of the available utility inspection data and an evaluation of the current and proposed guidelines were conducted to provide a measure of the reliability of the inspection process. Comments from utility and industry personnel were factored into the analysis. The results indicated that the majority of the few incidences of problems or abnormalities which occurred were minor in nature and did not threaten the structural integrity of the containment

  13. 19 CFR 148.4 - Accompanying articles.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accompanying articles. 148.4 Section 148.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS General Provisions § 148.4 Accompanying articles. (a) Generally. Articles shall be considered as accompanying a passenger or brought in by him if the...

  14. Performance of heterogeneous ZrO2 supported metaloxide catalysts for brown grease esterification and sulfur removal.

    Kim, Manhoe; DiMaggio, Craig; Yan, Shuli; Wang, Huali; Salley, Steven O; Ng, K Y Simon

    2011-02-01

    In order to achieve a viable biodiesel industry, new catalyst technology is needed which can process a variety of less expensive waste oils, such as yellow grease and brown grease. However, for these catalysts to be effective for biodiesel production using these feedstocks, they must be able to tolerate higher concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA), water, and sulfur. We have developed a class of zirconia supported metaloxide catalysts that achieve high FAME yields through esterification of FFAs while simultaneously performing desulfurization and de-metallization functions. In fact, methanolysis, with the zirconia supported catalysts, was more effective for desulfurization than an acid washing process. In addition, using zirconia supported catalysts to convert waste grease, high in sulfur content, resulted in a FAME product that could meet the in-use ASTM diesel fuel sulfur specification (<500 ppm). Possible mechanisms of desulfurization and de-metallization by methanolysis were proposed to explain this activity. PMID:21078551

  15. Biodiesel Production from Waste Edible Oils and Grease Containing Free Fatty Acids

    Huang Fenghong; Guo Pingmei; Huang Qingde

    2005-01-01

    Till now, most part of the biodiesel is produced from the refined vegetable oils using methanol as feedstock in the presence of an alkali catalyst. However, large amount of waste edible oils and grease are available. The difficulty with alkali-catalyzed esterification of these oils is that they often contain large amount of free fatty acids (FFA), polymers and decomposition products. These free fatty acids can quickly react with the alkali catalyst to produce soaps that inhibit the separation of the ester and glycerine. An esterification and transesterification process is developed to convert the high FFA oil to its monoesters. The first step, the acidcatalyzed esterification with glycerine and these FFA reduces the FFA content of the oil and grease to less than3%, and then an azeotropic distillation solvent is used to remove the water. The major factors affecting the conversion efficiency of the process such as glycerol to free fatty acid molar ratio, catalyst amount, reaction temperature and reaction duration are analyzed. The second step, alkali-catalyzed transesterification process converts the products of the first step to its monoesters and glycerol, and then the glycerol is recycled for utilization in the first step. Technical indicators of the biodiesel product can meet the ASTM 6751 standard.

  16. Development and evaluation of emulsifying systems of the material grease from Brazilian flora

    Douglas Dourado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Oils and butter of seed from Brazilian biodiversity are extending the range of innovative products for cosmetics development. They have a fat potential similar to skin composition, leading to the improved performance of these product. Aims: Improve the emulsions spreadability through prior screening of grease composition and studying the viscosity, and the emulsions accelerated stability. Methods: Emulsions were formulated using oils from semiarid plants from Bahia: Syagrus coronate, Pachira retusa, and Pachira aquatica, so as to compare them with oils already standard in the production of cosmetics. Spreadability and stability tests were made comparing the results. The same criteria were used with Amazon seed butter: Virola surinamensis, Butyrospermum parkii, Astrocaryum murumuru, Theobroma cacao and Theobroma grandiflorum. For the emulsions screening and performance, a system was developed for oil/ butter, following tests of accelerated stability, viscosity, and spreadability. Results: The combined system of spreadability was optimized using screening. Emollients containing oleic and palmitic acids, and light chain fatty acids obtained good spreadability. The oil emulsion containing Pachira retusa and Virola surinamensis butter had a higher viscosity. Conclusions: With high content of fatty acids such as oleic, palmitic or the light chain fatty acids obtain an appropriated appearance, texture, and spreadability for cosmetic use. Thus, oils with a low fatty acid content may be combined with butter that have a high fatty acid content and vice-versa. Analyzing and strategically combining grease composition, one can optimize the performance of cosmetic formulations.

  17. Research on anti-contact fatigue performance of grease containing nano SbSbS4 particles

    ZHANG Feng; SONG Bao-yu; QU Jian-jun; LIU Wei-min

    2005-01-01

    Effects of nano SbSbS4particles on contact fatigue life of a steel ball were evaluated on a self-made ball-rod contact fatigue tester. The anti-fatigue mechanisms of SbSbS4 additive were analyzed by means of SEM and EDAX. It was shown that, when the grease contained SbSbS4, contact fatigue life was improved compared with that of base grease. Nanoparticle absorption action, nanoparticle infiltration action, and extreme pressure and anti-friction performance, explained why SbSbS4 increased the contact fatigue life of the steel ball tested.

  18. High-energy discrete processing in technology of extraction of wool grease

    O. Kunyk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Existing ways of extraction of wool grease have the high cost price and are not harmless. For increase of efficiency of extraction of wool grease in work application high-discrete processing (HDP wool-washing water is offered. Materials and methods.Determination of conductivity, RedOx-potential, temperature, pH and the total number of lipid-water ions was carried out using a combined tester Combo HI 98129 («HANNA Instruments». Concentration of free radicals was determined by titration method. Viscosity change of washwater under the influence of HDP was investigated by the method of measurement by an Ostwald. Influence of duration of the HDP to change the surface tension of the wash water was measured by counting drops. Resultsand discussion.As a result of HDP, there is a change of physical and chemical properties of the wash water, namely: reduction of conductivity wool-washing water (from 2969 µS/cm to 2837 µS/cm and the total ion content (1487 mg/l to 1298 mg/l, increased pH environment (8.35 to 9.40, temperature (from 18°C to 43°C and RedOx-capacity (from 60 mV to 93 mV. This is because HDP helps create areas of high concentration of mechanical energy, which leads to a high impact strength and high pressure. Temperature rise in turn affects the hydrogen bonds, with the collapse cluster complexes of water and hydration shells around ions with the formation of free radicals, which means, that the presence of chemical reactions in the water. Reduced viscosity (with 1,034·10-3 Ns/m 2 to 0,903·10-3 Ns/m 2 and surfacetension (from 39.86 cN/m to 37.56 cN/m of wash water under the influence of the HDP is due to breaking of hydrogen bonds of water associates and the weakening of the forces of attraction between the molecules within the clusters and in the surface layer – structural changes of water. The most important chemical and structural changes occur in the washings at 180 with the processing time. Conclusions. Under the

  19. Biodegradation of waste greases and biochemical properties of a novel lipase from Pseudomonas synxantha PS1.

    Cai, Xianghai; Chen, Siqi; Yang, Hong; Wang, Wei; Lin, Lin; Shen, Yaling; Wei, Wei; Wei, Dong-Zhi

    2016-07-01

    A lipase-producing bacterial strain was isolated from oil-well-produced water in Shengli oilfield (Shandong province, China) and was identified as Pseudomonas synxantha by 16S rDNA sequence analysis (named Pseudomonas synxantha PS1). Strain PS1 showed a maximum lipase activity of 10.8 U/mL after culturing for 48 h at 30 °C, with lactose (4 g/L) as carbon source, tryptone (8 g/L) as nitrogen source, olive oil (0.5%, v/v) as inductor, and the initial pH 8.0. Meanwhile, the lipase gene from P. synxantha PS1 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 with the vector pET28a. The novel gene (lipPS1) has an open reading frame of 1425 bp and encodes a 474 aa lipase (LipPS1) sharing the most identity (87%) with the lipase in Pseudomonas fluorescens. LipPS1 preferably acted on substrates with a long chain (C10-C18) of fatty acids. The optimum pH and temperature of the recombinant enzyme were 8.0 and 40 °C, respectively, towards the optimum substrate p-nitrophenyl palmitate. The LipPS1 showed remarkable stability under alkaline conditions and was stable at pH 7.0-10.0 (retaining more than 60% activity). From the organic solvents tests, the lipase was activated by 15% (v/v) methanol (112%), 15% ethanol (127%), and 15% n-butyl alcohol (116%). LipPS1 presented strong biodegradability of waste grease; 93% of waste grease was hydrolyzed into fatty acid after 12 h at 30 °C. This is the first report of the lipase activity and lipase gene obtained from P. synxantha (including wild strain and recombinant strain) and of the recombinant LipPS1 with the detailed enzymatic properties. Also a preliminary study of the biodegradability of waste greases shows the potential value in industry applications. PMID:27321682

  20. Orbital pseudotumor

    ... Names Idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome (IOIS) Images Skull anatomy References Goodlick TA, Kay MD, Glaser JS, Tse DT, Chang WJ. Orbital disease and neuro-ophthalmology. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane’s ...

  1. Pre-treatment of high oil and grease pet food industrial wastewaters using immobilized lipase hydrolyzation

    Wastewaters generating from pet food industries contain high concentration of oil and grease (O and G), which is difficult to treat through conventional biological treatment systems. In this study, the hydrolysis of O and G originating from pet food industrial wastewater was evaluated. Candida rugosa lipase was immobilized in calcium alginate beads and applied in the hydrolysis experiment. Results showed that approximately 50% of the O and G was hydrolyzed due to the enzyme activity. A significant increment in COD and VFA production was also observed. The immobilized lipase activity was confirmed with p-nitrophenyl palmitate (pNPP) before and after O and G hydrolysis. During the 3-day experiment, approximately 65% of the beads were recovered and after the hydrolysis, approximately 70% of the enzyme activity remained in the beads. This study shows the potential of immobilized lipase as a pre-treatment step in biological treatment of pet food manufacturing wastewater

  2. Orbital Ordering Induced by Direct Coulomb Repulsion

    HUANG Yuan-Yie; ZHANG Yu-Heng

    2011-01-01

    We consider the covalence characters of the 3d electron with the eg orbital freedoms and put forward a new mechanism of the orbital ordering (OO) based on the direct coulomb repulsion in this article. The results show that the orbital-orbital interaction (OO-I) between the adjacent ions in 180-degree configuration is dominated by the superexchange energy accompanied by a weak orbital-spin coupling, and the OO-I in 90-degree configuration is monitored by the oxygen on-site coulomb repulsion. The ferro-OO is the stable ground state for the one-dimensional chain in the case of the 90-degree configuration.

  3. Orbital velocity

    Modestino, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    The trajectory and the orbital velocity are determined for an object moving in a gravitational system, in terms of fundamental and independent variables. In particular, considering a path on equipotential line, the elliptical orbit is naturally traced, verifying evidently the keplerian laws. The case of the planets of the solar system is presented.

  4. The use of chromatogenic chemistry for the conception and realization of cellulosic materials, barrier to water, greases and gas.

    Stinga, Nicoleta Camelia

    2008-01-01

    Chromatogenic chemistry is a new chemical process which allows the molecular grafting of cellulosic materials with long chain fatty acids. In this study, it was applied to design and realize cellulosic materials with barrier properties required for food packaging (barrier to water, greases, gas ...). In a first step, to deepen our understanding of the mechanism of the grafting reaction of cellulosic materials, a simple test, the “Droplet Surface Migrating Test” was developed for viewing the p...

  5. Nanoclays for polymer nanocomposites, paints, inks, greases and cosmetics formulations, drug delivery vehicle and waste water treatment

    Hasmukh A Patel; Rajesh S Somani; Hari C Bajaj; Raksh V Jasra

    2006-04-01

    An overview of nanoclays or organically modified layered silicates (organoclays) is presented with emphasis placed on the use of nanoclays as the reinforcement phase in polymer matrices for preparation of polymer/layered silicates nanocomposites, rheological modifier for paints, inks and greases, drug delivery vehicle for controlled release of therapeutic agents, and nanoclays for industrial waste water as well as potable water treatment to make further step into green environment. A little amount of nanoclay can alter the entire properties of polymers, paints, inks and greases to a great extent by dispersing 1nm thick layered silicate throughout the matrices. The flexibility of interlayer spacing of layered silicates accommodates therapeutic agents which can later on be released to damaged cell. Because the release of drugs in drug-intercalated layered materials is controllable, these new materials have a great potential as a delivery host in the pharmaceutical field. The problem of clean water can be solved by treating industrial and municipal waste water with organoclays in combination with other sorbents like activated carbon and alum. Organoclays have proven to be superior to any other water treatment technology in applications where the water to be treated contains substantial amounts of oil and grease or humic acid.

  6. Mechanism of Friction and Wear in MoS2 and ZDDP/F-PTFE Greases under Spectrum Loading Conditions

    Sujay D. Bagi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two different greases formulated using MoS2 and a combination of ZDDP and functionalized PTFE (F-PTFE were examined under spectrum loading conditions where loads, frequency, and duration of the steps were treated as variables. Combination of ZDDP and F-PTFE were synergistic resulting in a significant reduction in the wear and friction under spectrum loading condition. Decreasing the time step during the ramp up and ramp down cycles resulted in larger wear for the grease containing MoS2 particles in comparison to ZDDP/F-PTFE in grease. The tribofilm formed on the surface was analyzed using various characterization techniques like SEM, EDS, and Stereo Optical Microscopy. Tribofilms from MoS2 additives had extensive amounts of abrasive and adhesive wear and showed the formation of MoS2 on the surface on the other hand the tribofilms from ZDDP/F-PTFE had smaller amounts of severe wear and exhibited patchy tribofilms of Zn-phosphates as well as sulfides of Zn and Fe.

  7. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal wastewater sludge with restaurant grease trap waste.

    Razaviarani, Vahid; Buchanan, Ian D; Malik, Shahid; Katalambula, Hassan

    2013-07-15

    The maximum feasible loading rate of grease trap waste (GTW) to the municipal wastewater sludge (MWS) was investigated using two 1300 L pilot-scale (1200 L active volume) digesters under mesophilic conditions at a 20 day solids retention time. During the co-digestion, the test reactor received a mixture of GTW and MWS while the control reactor received only MWS. The test digester loading was increased incrementally to a maximum of 280% of the control digester COD loading. The highest feasible GTW loading was determined to be 23% and 58% in terms of its total 1.58 kg VS/(m(3) d) and 3.99 kg COD/(m(3) d) loadings, respectively. This test digester COD loading represented 240% of the control digester COD loading. At this loading, test digester biogas production was 67% greater than that of the control. During the test digester quasi steady state loading period when VS from GTW represented 19% of its total VS loading, the test digester COD and VS removal rates were 2.5 and 1.5 fold those of the control digester, respectively. The test digester biogas production declined markedly when the percentage of VS from GTW in its feed was increased to 30% of its total VS loading. Causes of the reduced biogas production were investigated and attributed to inhibition due to long chain fatty acid accumulation. PMID:23583789

  8. Pretreatment of yellow grease for efficient production of fatty acid methyl esters

    Diaz-Felix, Walterio; Riley, Mark R.; Zimmt, Werner [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Shantz Building, Room 403, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kazz, Michael [Zelen Environmental, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel comprised of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) derived from vegetable oils or animal fats. Comparisons between biodiesel and petroleum-based diesel have shown biodiesel to be effective in reducing exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, particulate matter, and sulfur dioxide. While there are advantages of biodiesel over the traditional petroleum based diesel, biodiesel commercialization is limited by production cost that is dominated by the price of the feedstock (soybean oil). Yellow grease has the potential to be an effective feedstock with lower cost, but the chemical composition of these oils is variable depending on the source of collection and differs from that of virgin oil due to the presence of free fatty acids (FFA). Esterification has been previously demonstrated to reduce the FFA levels of YG; however, large quantities of methanol were required to drive the reaction to high yield. Methanol usage for processing and FFA content are the main factors affecting the economics of FAME production from YG. In this study, the relationship between composition and process variables was systematically studied. The effect of FFA ranging from 2% to 32% (w/w) was studied at three different molar ratios of methanol to FFA (4.5:1, 9:1, 18:1) and was found to have a non-linear relationship. Data obtained from this full factorial screening was used to develop a predictive statistical model to forecast the conversion based on initial FFA level and proportion of alcohol applied for esterification. (author)

  9. Life-Cycle Assessment of Biodiesel Produced from Grease Trap Waste.

    Hums, Megan E; Cairncross, Richard A; Spatari, Sabrina

    2016-03-01

    Grease trap waste (GTW) is a low-quality waste material with variable lipid content that is an untapped resource for producing biodiesel. Compared to conventional biodiesel feedstocks, GTW requires different and additional processing steps for biodiesel production due to its heterogeneous composition, high acidity, and high sulfur content. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is used to quantify greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy demand, and criteria air pollutant emissions for the GTW-biodiesel process, in which the sensitivity to lipid concentration in GTW is analyzed using Monte Carlo simulation. The life-cycle environmental performance of GTW-biodiesel is compared to that of current GTW disposal, the soybean-biodiesel process, and low-sulfur diesel (LSD). The disposal of the water and solid wastes produced from separating lipids from GTW has a high contribution to the environmental impacts; however, the impacts of these processed wastes are part of the current disposal practice for GTW and could be excluded with consequential LCA system boundaries. At lipid concentrations greater than 10%, most of the environmental metrics studied are lower than those of LSD and comparable to soybean biodiesel. PMID:26811919

  10. Analysis of grease contamination influence on the internal radial clearance of ball bearings by thermographic inspection

    Mišković Žarko Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors influencing ball bearings service life is its internal radial clearance. However, this parameter is also very complex because it depends on applied radial load and ball bearings dimensions, surface finish and manufacturing materials. Thermal condition of ball bearings also significantly affects internal radial clearance. Despite many researches performed in order to find out relevant facts about different aspects of ball bearings thermal behaviour, only few of them are dealing with the real working conditions, where high concentration of solid contaminant particles is present. That’s why the main goal of research presented in this paper was to establish statistically significant correlation between ball bearings temperatures, their working time and concentration of contaminant particles in their grease. Because of especially difficult working conditions, the typical conveyor idlers bearings were selected as representative test samples and appropriate solid particles from open pit coal mines were used as artificial contaminants. Applied experimental methodology included thermographic inspection, as well as usage of custom designed test rig for ball bearings service life testing. Finally, by obtained experimental data processing in advanced software, statistically significant mathematical correlation between mentioned bearings characteristics was determined and applied in commonly used internal radial clearance equation. That is the most important contribution of performed research - the new equation and methodology for ball bearings internal clearance determination which could be used for eventual improvement of existing bearings service life equations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35029 i br. TR14033

  11. REMOVAL OF OIL AND GREASE FROM THE WASTEWATER OF RAILROAD REPAIR SHOP

    Z.Johari

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research have been to determine the wastewater quality of a typical railroad repair workshop and to find a way to reduce the concentrations of present contaminants especially oil and grease. The mean concentrations of oil, COD and SS in the wastewater studied were 287.69, 775.85 and 28723, respectively with average daily discharge to be 30-35 m3. Three successive treatment processes were used and the results showed the first stage was gravity flotation with 90 minutes retention time. Removal efficiencies achieved for COD, SS and oil were determined 43%, 49.4% and 55.5% respectively. The second stage of treatment was coagulation either lime or ferric chloride could be used for this purpose at PHs of 9 and 6. COD and oil removals by lime treatment were 76.6% and 84.4%. The final stage of treatment was DAF at 3 atmospheric pressure, by which 92.5%, 89.5%, 89.92% and 88% removals were achieved for oil, SS and COD, respectively.

  12. Isolation of Bacterial Strain for Biodegradation of Fats, Oil and Grease

    Fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposition is one of the major problems that harm the environment and cause dissatisfaction for human. Uncontrolled and un-pre-treated FOG removal from the kitchen could lead to its accumulation in the piping system. Problems include the interference of fat with the aerobic microorganisms that are responsible in treating the wastewater by reducing oxygen transfer rates and for anaerobic microorganisms; their efficiency could also be reduced due to the reduction of the transport of soluble substrates to the bacterial biomass. Biodegradation could be one of the effective means to treat FOG. The main objective of this study is to isolate bacterial strains from the FOG waste and identify the strains that are capable in biodegrading FOG waste. FOG sample was collected from a sewer manhole. Enrichment technique was applied, followed by isolation of bacterial strains to determine which strain is able to degrade the FOG deposition. Some morphology for the bacterial strain was done to determine its characteristics. (author)

  13. Foreign body orbital cyst

    Yazdanfard, Younes; Heegard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.;

    2001-01-01

    Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology......Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology...

  14. A review on hydrolytic enzymes in the treatment of wastewater with high oil and grease content.

    Cammarota, M C; Freire, D M G

    2006-11-01

    Wastewater from dairies and slaughterhouses contains high levels of fats and proteins that present low biodegradability. A large number of pretreatment systems are employed to remove oil and grease (O&G) to prevent a host of problems that may otherwise arise in the biological process, and reduce the efficiency of the treatment station. Problems caused by excessive O&G include a reduction in the cell-aqueous phase transfer rates, a sedimentation hindrance due to the development of filamentous microorganisms, development and flotation of sludge with poor activity, clogging and the emergence of unpleasant odors. Therefore the application of a pretreatment to hydrolyze and dissolve lipids may improve the biological degradation of fatty wastewaters, accelerating the process and improving time efficiency. However thus far, only a few studies describing the degradation of fats and oils by alkaline/acid/enzymatic hydrolysis have been reported; the treatment of effluents from several origins is a new and promising application for lipases. Among the strains that produce the hydrolytic enzymes studied, the fungus Penicillium restrictum is a particularly promising one. When cultivated in low-cost solid medium composed of agro-industrial waste, P. restrictum produces a pool of hydrolases capable of degrading the most complex organic compounds. This degradation enables a considerable increase in organic matter removal efficiency to be realized, which results in the attainment of a high-quality effluent in the subsequent biological treatment stage. Consequently, there is presently a wide variety of ongoing scientific investigation in the field of developing enzymatic hydrolysis processes to precede traditional biological treatment. PMID:16621527

  15. A review on hydrolytic enzymes in the treatment of wastewater with high oil and grease content

    Cammarota, M.C. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). School of Chemistry; Freire, D.M.G. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Institute of Chemistry

    2006-11-15

    Wastewater from dairies and slaughterhouses contains high levels of fats and proteins that present low biodegradability. A large number of pretreatment systems are employed to remove oil and grease (OandG) to prevent a host of problems that may otherwise arise in the biological process, and reduce the efficiency of the treatment station. Problems caused by excessive OandG include a reduction in the cell-aqueous phase transfer rates, a sedimentation hindrance due to the development of filamentous microorganisms, development and flotation of sludge with poor activity, clogging and the emergence of unpleasant odors. Therefore the application of a pretreatment to hydrolyze and dissolve lipids may improve the biological degradation of fatty wastewaters, accelerating the process and improving time efficiency. However thus far, only a few studies describing the degradation of fats and oils by alkaline/acid/enzymatic hydrolysis have been reported; the treatment of effluents from several origins is a new and promising application for lipases. Among the strains that produce the hydrolytic enzymes studied, the fungus Penicillium restrictum is a particularly promising one. When cultivated in low-cost solid medium composed of agro-industrial waste, P. restrictum produces a pool of hydrolases capable of degrading the most complex organic compounds. This degradation enables a considerable increase in organic matter removal efficiency to be realized, which results in the attainment of a high-quality effluent in the subsequent biological treatment stage. Consequently, there is presently a wide variety of ongoing scientific investigation in the field of developing enzymatic hydrolysis processes to precede traditional biological treatment. (author)

  16. Novice Collaboration in Solo and Accompaniment Improvisation

    Hansen, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how non-musicians engaged in a solo-accompaniment music improvisation relationship. Seven user teams interacted with two electronic music instruments integrated in two pen tablets. One instrument was a melody instrument and the other a chord instru-ment. The study was done in order to understand how future shared electronic music instruments can be de-signed to encourage non-musicians to engage in social action through music improvisation. A combination of quantitative...

  17. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    Yeliz Bilir; Erkan Gokce; Banu Ozturk; Faik Alev Deresoy; Ruken Yuksekkaya; Emel Yaman

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity...

  18. Use of evolutionary operation (EVOP) factorial design technique to develop a bioprocess using grease waste as a substrate for lipase production.

    Kumar, Sunil; Katiyar, Nitin; Ingle, Priyanka; Negi, Sangeeta

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a bioprocess using EVOP-factorial design technique employing grease waste as a substrate for the production of lipase. A newly isolated fungal strain of Penicillium chrysogenum was explored for the fermentation process. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) was carried out using grease waste and Czapek-dox medium, supplemented with wheat bran. The yield of lipase was 38 U/ml when SSF was carried out at 32 °C for 8 days and grease:wheat bran:Czapek-dox media in 1:1:2 (w/w/v). Different physicochemical parameters affecting the production of lipase were optimized through evolutionary operation (EVOP) factorial design technique and after optimization yield was enhanced up to 46 U/ml at 30 °C, pH 7.0 with 1:1:2 (w/w/v) grease waste:wheat bran:Czapek-dox media. Industrial grease waste has never been reported before for the production of industrially important lipase enzyme. PMID:21292479

  19. Novice Collaboration in Solo and Accompaniment Improvisation

    Hansen, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    in order to understand how future shared electronic music instruments can be de-signed to encourage non-musicians to engage in social action through music improvisation. A combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis was used to find characteristics in co-expression found in a solo......This study investigates how non-musicians engaged in a solo-accompaniment music improvisation relationship. Seven user teams interacted with two electronic music instruments integrated in two pen tablets. One instrument was a melody instrument and the other a chord instru-ment. The study was done...

  20. Solutions manual to accompany Fundamentals of calculus

    Morris, Carla C

    2015-01-01

    Solutions Manual to Accompany Fundamentals of Calculus the text that encourages students to use power, quotient, and product rules for solutions as well as stresses the importance of modeling skills.  In addition to core integral and differential calculus coverage, the core book features finite calculus, which lends itself to modeling and spreadsheets.  Specifically, finite calculus is applied to marginal economic analysis, finance, growth, and decay.  Includes: Linear Equations and Functions The Derivative Using the Derivative Exponential and Logarithmic

  1. Severe Hypoglycemia Accompanied with Thyroid Crisis

    Yuki Nakatani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 32-year-old Japanese women with severe hypoglycemia accompanied with thyroid crisis. She complained of dyspnea, general fatigue, and leg edema. She was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism with congestive heart failure and liver dysfunction. Soon after admission, sudden cardiopulmonary arrest occurred. She was then transferred to the intensive care unit. Her serum glucose level was 7 mg/dl. Intravenous glucose, hydrocortisone, diuretics, and continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF saved her. We considered that hypoglycemia occurred due to heart failure and liver dysfunction due to thyroid crisis.

  2. Geometric orbit datum and orbit covers

    梁科; 侯自新

    2001-01-01

    Vogan conjectured that the parabolic induction of orbit data is independent of the choice of the parabolic subgroup. In this paper we first give the parabolic induction of orbit covers, whose relationship with geometric orbit datum is also induced. Hence we show a geometric interpretation of orbit data and finally prove the conjugation for geometric orbit datum using geometric method.

  3. Preliminary experimental research to detect grease stain of petroleum pipeline by sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs gamma-ray transmission method

    Wang Shi Heng

    2002-01-01

    The experimental study on the detection of grease stain for petroleum pipeline in Karamay oil-field of Xinjiang is carried out by gamma-ray transmission method. Experimental provision consists of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs gamma radiator and NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The response of grease stain thickness of petroleum pipeline in Karamay oil-field is ln(N sub 0 /N)=0.00548 d-0.0046, and the response of paraffin thickness is ln(N sub 0 /N)=0.00522d-0.0126. The result of experiment indicates that the response of grease stain thickness is more sensitive than the response of paraffin thickness

  4. NRC Information Notice No. 93-26: Grease solidification causes molded case circuit breaker failure to close

    On March 26, 1992, an engineered safety feature actuated at the Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station Unit 2 because of the loss of output power from an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) while the loads were being transferred from UPS power to the maintenance supply power. During the transfer, the maintenance supply output circuit breaker (CB-4) failed to close causing a loss of power to the standby gas treatment system radiation monitoring cabinet, a false-high radiation signal, a group 9 primary containment isolation, the loss of a control room fire panel annunciator, and a loss of communication between the radiation monitoring system computer and non-Class 1E radiation monitors. The operator immediately took corrective action to manually close circuit breaker CB-4 and restore the UPS loads. The UPS loads lost power for approximately 12 minutes during the event. The cause of the failure of circuit breaker CB-4 to close was that the grease used at the pivot points inside the breaker had dried out and solidified. When the grease dried out, it caused increasing friction and gouging at the metal-to-metal contact areas. This friction caused the breaker to become increasingly more difficult to close, until, finally, the breaker would not close at all. The licensee located all breakers of the same make, model, and year as the one that failed and scheduled their replacement

  5. Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge and fat, oil and grease

    Highlights: → Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) with fat, oil and grease (FOG). → Co-digestion of TWAS and FOG at 64% VS increased biogas production by 137%. → FOG addition ratio at 74% of total VS caused inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process. → Micronutrients addition did not significantly improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. - Abstract: Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and fat, oil and grease (FOG) was conducted semi-continuously under mesophilic conditions. The results showed that daily methane yield at the steady state was 598 L/kg VSadded when TWAS and FOG (64% of total VS) were co-digested, which was 137% higher than that obtained from digestion of TWAS alone. The biogas composition was stabilized at a CH4 and CO2 content of 66.8% and 29.5%, respectively. Micronutrients added to co-digestion did not improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. With a higher addition of FOG (74% of total VS), the digester initially failed but was slowly self-recovered; however, the methane yield was only about 50% of a healthy reactor with the same organic loading rate.

  6. Green diesel production via catalytic hydrogenation/decarboxylation of triglycerides and fatty acids of vegetable oil and brown grease

    Sari, Elvan

    Increase in the petroleum prices, projected increases in the world's energy demand and environmental awareness have shifted the research interest to the alternative fuel technologies. In particular, green diesel, vegetable oil/animal fat/waste oil and grease derived hydrocarbons in diesel boiling range, has become an attractive alternative to biodiesel---a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, particularly due to its superior fuel properties that are similar to petroleum diesel. Hence, green diesel can be used as a drop-in fuel in the current diesel engines. The current technology for production of green diesel-hydrodeoxygenation of triglycerides and fatty acids over conventional hydrotreating catalysts suffers from fast catalyst deactivation in the absence of hydrogen combined with high temperatures and high fatty acid content in the feedstock. Additionally, excess hydrogen requirement for hydrodeoxygenation technique leads to high production costs. This thesis proposes a new technology-selective decarboxylation of brown grease, which is a mixture of fats and oils collected from waste water trap and rich in fatty acids, over a supported noble metal catalyst that overcomes the green diesel production challenges. In contrast to other feedstocks used for liquid biofuel production, brown grease is inexpensive and non-food competing feedstock, therefore the process finds solution to waste management issues, reduces the renewable fuel production cost and does not add to the global food shortage problems. Special catalyst formulations were developed to have a high activity and stability in the absence of hydrogen in the fatty acid decarboxylation process. The study shows how catalyst innovations can lead to a new technology that overcomes the process challenges. First, the effect of reaction parameters on the activity and the selectivity of brown grease decarboxylation with minimum hydrogen consumption over an activated carbon supported palladium catalyst were

  7. Treating wastewater with high oil and grease content using an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR). Filtration and cleaning assays.

    Diez, V; Ramos, C; Cabezas, J L

    2012-01-01

    An Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR) pilot plant was studied to improve certain operational conditions of AnMBRs that treat high oil and grease wastewaters discharged from a snacks factory. A comparison of its performance and behavior was made with an upflow anaerobic reactor throughout the first eight weeks of its operation. Raw snack food wastewater was characterized by oil and grease concentrations of up to 6,000 mg/l, with chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)) concentrations of up to 22,000 and 10,300 mg/l, respectively. The AnMBR achieved COD removal efficiencies of 97% at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.1 kg COD/m(3) d. The filtration flux, and the suction, backwash and relaxation times for each cycle were all varied: an 11 min filtration time involving 10 s pre-relaxation, 20 s backwash and 70 s post-relaxation was finally selected. The filtration flux for long-term operation was between 6.5 and 8.0 l/m(2) h. The study also tested physical cleaning strategies such as intensive backwashing cycles and extended relaxation mode, and different chemical cleaning methods, such as chemically enhanced backwash on air and chemical cleaning by immersion. PMID:22546801

  8. Green diesel production via catalytic hydrogenation/decarboxylation of triglycerides and fatty acids of vegetable oil and brown grease

    Sari, Elvan

    Increase in the petroleum prices, projected increases in the world's energy demand and environmental awareness have shifted the research interest to the alternative fuel technologies. In particular, green diesel, vegetable oil/animal fat/waste oil and grease derived hydrocarbons in diesel boiling range, has become an attractive alternative to biodiesel---a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, particularly due to its superior fuel properties that are similar to petroleum diesel. Hence, green diesel can be used as a drop-in fuel in the current diesel engines. The current technology for production of green diesel-hydrodeoxygenation of triglycerides and fatty acids over conventional hydrotreating catalysts suffers from fast catalyst deactivation in the absence of hydrogen combined with high temperatures and high fatty acid content in the feedstock. Additionally, excess hydrogen requirement for hydrodeoxygenation technique leads to high production costs. This thesis proposes a new technology-selective decarboxylation of brown grease, which is a mixture of fats and oils collected from waste water trap and rich in fatty acids, over a supported noble metal catalyst that overcomes the green diesel production challenges. In contrast to other feedstocks used for liquid biofuel production, brown grease is inexpensive and non-food competing feedstock, therefore the process finds solution to waste management issues, reduces the renewable fuel production cost and does not add to the global food shortage problems. Special catalyst formulations were developed to have a high activity and stability in the absence of hydrogen in the fatty acid decarboxylation process. The study shows how catalyst innovations can lead to a new technology that overcomes the process challenges. First, the effect of reaction parameters on the activity and the selectivity of brown grease decarboxylation with minimum hydrogen consumption over an activated carbon supported palladium catalyst were

  9. Wastewater transformations and fertilizer value when co-digesting differing ratios of swine manure and used cooking grease in low-cost digesters

    Lansing, Stephanie [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, 1445 Animal Sci./Ag. Eng. Bldg., College Park, MD 20742-2315 (United States); Martin, Jay F. [Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University, 590 Woody Hayes Drive, Columbus, OH 43210-1057 (United States); Botero, Raul Botero; Nogueira da Silva, Tatiana; Dias da Silva, Ederson [EARTH University, Apartado Postal 4442 - 1000, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    2010-12-15

    A nine-month co-digestion investigation was conducted in Costa Rica to optimize animal wastewater treatment, renewable energy production, and fertilizer creation using 12 Taiwanese-model, plug-flow digesters (250 L each) constructed of tubular polyethylene and PVC piping, operating without mechanical or heating components. The experiment tested three replications of four treatment groups: the control (T0), which contained only swine manure, and T2.5, T5, and T10, which contained 2.5%, 5%, and 10% used cooking grease (by volume) combined with swine manure. T2.5 had the greatest methane production (45 L d{sup -1}), a 124% increase from the control. No adverse effects were observed from co-digesting 2.5% grease in terms of organic matter removal, pathogen reduction, grease removal, and pH. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) was reduced 94.7% to 1.96 g L{sup -1}, fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli were reduced 99.2 and 97.1%, respectively, and grease removal was 99.9%. The average effluent pH (7.05) and alkalinity in T2.5 was within the optimal range for methanogens and increased significantly during the nine-month experiment, likely due to adaptation of the methanogenic organisms to the influent grease concentrations. Total nitrogen concentration decreased 34.0%, and NH{sub 4}-N increased 97.1% during digestion in T2.5, with no significant differences between T2.5 and T0. There was less phosphorus reduction with co-digestion, with 181 mg g{sup -1} of total phosphorus (TP) in T2.5 and only 90.6 mg g{sup -1} of TP in T0, resulting in lower N:P ratios in the grease treatment groups due to the greater concentration of phosphorus in the effluent. (author)

  10. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

  11. LED用低热阻硅脂的制备%Preparation of Silicone Grease with Low Thermal Resistance for LEDs

    庞文键; 陈思斌; 宋立芝; 王兵; 曾智麟

    2014-01-01

    A low thermal resistance grease for LEDs was prepared by mixing hybrid filler with appropriate sizes of AlN/Al2O3 particles as the hybrid thermal conductive fillers and methyl pheny silicone fluid. The hy-brid filler was pre-treated with self-made siloxane oligomers via solution intercalation. Effects of filler’s types, particle sizes and types and content of surface treatment agent on the thermal conductive and viscosity of sili-cone grease were investigated. The thermal conductivity of the thermally conductive silicone grease was charac-terized with LED lamp as an actual platform. Results show that the thermal conductivity and viscosity of ther-mal conductivity silicone grease keeps good balance at a total filler mass fraction of 90 . 9 % with a mass ratio of aluminum nitride(particle size of 5 μm)and alumina(particle size of 1 μm)of 2. 8:1. 0. 5% of siloxane oligomer has good treatment on the surface of mixing fillers of aluminum nitride and alumina. The viscosity of 10# silicone grease(25 ℃)is 174 Pa·s,with 1. 94 ℃/W of thermal resistance and 4. 31 W/m·K of thermal conductivity.%选用合适粒径的氮化铝和氧化铝为混杂导热填料、使用自制的硅烷低聚物为表面处理剂,以溶液插层法对混杂导热填料进行表面改性;然后与甲基苯基硅油混合制备了LED用低热阻导热硅脂。研究了导热填料的种类、粒径、表面处理剂种类及用量对导热硅脂的热导率和黏度的影响。采用LED灯作为实际测试平台表征了导热硅脂的导热性能。结果表明,当填料总质量分数为90.9%,粒径为5μm的氮化铝与粒径为1μm的氧化铝作混合填料且质量比为2.8:1时,导热硅脂的热导率和黏度有较好的平衡;使用填料质量0.5%的硅烷低聚物对氮化铝和氧化铝混合填料进行表面处理有较好的处理效果;自制10号硅脂样品的黏度(25℃)为174 Pa·s,热阻为1.94℃/W,热导率为4.31 W/m·K。

  12. Sacral perineural cyst accompanying disc herniation.

    Ju, Chang Il; Shin, Ho; Kim, Seok Won; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2009-03-01

    Although most of sacral perineural cysts are asymptomatic, some may produce symptoms. Specific radicular pain may be due to distortion, compression, or stretching of nerve root by a space occupying cyst. We report a rare case of S1 radiculopathy caused by sacral perineural cyst accompanying disc herniation. The patient underwent a microscopic discectomy at L5-S1 level. However, the patient's symptoms did not improved. The hypesthesia persisted, as did the right leg pain. Cyst-subarachnoid shunt was set to decompress nerve root and to equalize the cerebrospinal fluid pressure between the cephalad thecal sac and cyst. Immediately after surgery, the patient had no leg pain. After 6 months, the patient still remained free of leg pain. PMID:19352483

  13. Tumefactive Brain Demyelination Accompanying MADSAM Neuropathy

    Şefik Evren Erdener

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor (MADSAM neuropathy is characterized by asymmetric multifocal motor and sensory loss and conduction blocks in peripheral nerves. Peripheral demyelinating diseases may be accompanied by demyelination in central nervous system (CNS. In this report, a MADSAM patient with a solitary tumefactive demyelinating lesion in brain is presented. Neuroimaging due to a visual field defect revealed a right parietooccipital lesion, which was initially misdiagnosed as a tumor. Pathological examination showed that it was demyelinating in nature. Peripheral nervous symptoms of the patient developed two years later and she was then diagnosed with MADSAM. There was prominent clinical and electrophysiological response to steroid treatment. Tumefactive brain involvement was not previously reported for MADSAM neuropathy, although it was documented in a single case with typical chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP. CNS involvement should therefore be considered in MADSAM patients.

  14. Bilateral foveal retinoschisis accompanying unilateral peripheral retinoschisis

    Nilufer Kocak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available X-linked juvenile retinoschisis is a rare hereditary retinal disease characterized by a tangential splitting of the neurosensory retina which may cause early-onset visual impairment. Existence of the retinal neurosensory layer splitting on cross-sectional images of optical coherance tomography (OCT and the absence of leakage on fluorescein angiography (FA help confirming the diagnosis. Such diagnostic tests are also helpful in determining the management of the disease. However, most of the retinoschisis cavities remain stable and rarely extend to the posterior pole, many authors suggest laser prophylaxis to avoid the potential risk of retinal detachment due to holes in the outer retinal layer. Herein, we report a case with bilateral foveal retinoschisis accompanying unilateral peripheral retinoschisis who was evaluated with detailed ophthalmologic examination. Visual acuity, fundoscopy, OCT, and FA remained stable in the second year of follow-up after prophylactic argon laser treatment.

  15. Inflammation of the Orbit

    ... Diagnosis Treatment Medical Dictionary Additional Content Medical News Inflammation of the Orbit (Inflammatory Orbital Pseudotumor) By James ... Introduction to Eye Socket Disorders Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Inflammation of the Orbit Orbital Cellulitis Preseptal Cellulitis Tumors ...

  16. Orbit analysis

    The past fifteen years have witnessed a remarkable development of methods for analyzing single particle orbit dynamics in accelerators. Unlike their more classic counterparts, which act upon differential equations, these methods proceed by manipulating Poincare maps directly. This attribute makes them well matched for studying accelerators whose physics is most naturally modelled in terms of maps, an observation that has been championed most vigorously by Forest. In the following sections the author sketchs a little background, explains some of the physics underlying these techniques, and discusses the best computing strategy for implementing them in conjunction with modeling accelerators

  17. Orbit analysis

    Michelotti, L.

    1995-01-01

    The past fifteen years have witnessed a remarkable development of methods for analyzing single particle orbit dynamics in accelerators. Unlike their more classic counterparts, which act upon differential equations, these methods proceed by manipulating Poincare maps directly. This attribute makes them well matched for studying accelerators whose physics is most naturally modelled in terms of maps, an observation that has been championed most vigorously by Forest. In the following sections the author sketchs a little background, explains some of the physics underlying these techniques, and discusses the best computing strategy for implementing them in conjunction with modeling accelerators.

  18. Brane orbits

    Bergshoeff, Eric A., E-mail: E.A.Bergshoeff@rug.nl [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Marrani, Alessio, E-mail: Alessio.Marrani@cern.ch [Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Riccioni, Fabio, E-mail: Fabio.Riccioni@roma1.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2012-08-01

    We complete the classification of half-supersymmetric branes in toroidally compactified IIA/IIB string theory in terms of representations of the T-duality group. As a by-product we derive a last wrapping rule for the space-filling branes. We find examples of T-duality representations of branes in lower dimensions, suggested by supergravity, of which none of the component branes follow from the reduction of any brane in ten-dimensional IIA/IIB string theory. We discuss the constraints on the charges of half-supersymmetric branes, determining the corresponding T-duality and U-duality orbits.

  19. The indigenisation of Lubriplate 630-2 and development of Servo-Nuclease-2 grease for the fuelling machine of pressurised heavy water power reactors

    A new grease of NLGI-2 consistency was developed for application in nuclear environments. The evaluation consisted of both static tests employing a cobalt-60 γ-ray source and dynamic tests carried out on specially designed rigs in Fuelling Machine Vaults of RAPS. (auth.)

  20. Contribution to the study of the physical stability of the suspensions of zinc oxide, titanium dioxide and precipitated sulphur employing emulsified solid greases like vehicle

    This research evaluated the physical stability of the suspensions of zinc oxide, precipitated sulphur and titanium dioxide. By using emulsified vehicles of three solid greases: stearilic alcohol, stearic acid and beeswax. That varies the concentration of solid grease (2%, 4%, 6 %) and the velocity of agitation for the emulsified vehicle's preparation (250, 500, 750 revolutions by minutes). That got 81 suspensions, 27 for every grease employed. The following effects there were evaluated like indicators of the physical stability of the suspensions: volume of sediment, apparent viscosity, facility of resuspension. There was effected an analysis of the varying of two controlled factors to establish the importance since the statistical viewpoint of the variants of the process over the volume of the sediment. This study indicates that the selection of solid grease is an parameter which influence is significant, what supports the got data through the research. By giving as a result that the stearilic alcohol is the most competent vehicle for the preparation of these suspensions. (Author)

  1. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with grease waste: Effect of long chain fatty acids in the methane yield and its dewatering properties

    Highlights: • Thermophilic anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge and grease waste (GW) doubles methane yield. • High GW doses in the influent leads to instability and LCFA accumulation in the effluent. • GW addition promotes acetoclastic activity whilst worsening the hydrogenothrophic activity. • The mesophilic codigestion with GW performs better than the thermophilic one. - Abstract: Thermophilic co-digestion of sewage sludge with three different doses of trapped grease waste (GW) from the pre-treatment of a WWTP has been assessed in a CSTR bench-scale reactor. After adding 12% and 27% of grease waste (on COD basis), the organic loading rate increased from 2.2 to 2.3 and 2.8 kgCOD m−3 d−1 respectively, and the methane yield increased 1.2 and 2.2 times. Further GW increase (37% on COD basis) resulted in an unstable methane yield and in long chain fatty acids (LCFA) accumulation. Although this inestability, the presence of volatile fatty acids in the effluent was negligible, showing good adaptation to fats of the thermophilic biomass. Nevertheless, the presence of LCFA in the effluent worsens its dewatering properties. Specific methanogenic activity tests showed that the addition of grease waste ameliorates the acetoclastic activity in detriment of the hydrogenotrophic activity, and suggests that the tolerance to LCFA can be further enhanced by slowly increasing the addition of lipid-rich materials

  2. 复合铝基润滑脂的制备与性能研究%Study on the Preparation and Properties of Aluminum Complex Grease

    郭永刚; 董霞; 何娟

    2012-01-01

    以矿物油MVI600和轻脱油为基础油,利用硬脂酸和苯甲酸与异丙醇铝或三异丙醇三氧铝反应制备复合铝基润滑脂,探讨了基础油、硬脂酸、异丙醇铝或三异丙醇三氧铝、苯甲酸等组成及制备工艺对复合铝基润滑脂性能的影响,并通过组成和工艺条件的优化制备出性能优良的复合铝基润滑脂。其润滑脂具有良好的抗水性、胶体安定性、高温性和防锈性。%Taking mineral oil MVI600 and light deasphalted oil as base oil,aluminum complex grease was produced by stearic acid and benzoic acid reacting with aluminum isopropoxide or three isopropyl alcohol aluminum trioxide.Effects of the compositions of base oil,stearic acid,aluminum isopropoxide or three isopropyl alcohol aluminum trioxide,and benzoic acid on properties of aluminum complex grease were discussed.And the high-performance aluminum complex grease was obtained by optimizing technological conditions.The lubricating grease has good water resistance,colloidal stability,high temperature resistance and rust resistance.

  3. Onset of chaos in orbital pilot-wave dynamics

    Tambasco, Lucas; Harris, Daniel; Oza, Anand; Rosales, Rodolfo; Bush, John

    2015-11-01

    We examine the orbital dynamics of droplets self-propelling along the surface of a vibrating bath. Circular orbital motion may arise when the walking droplet is subjected to one of three external force fields, the Coriolis force, a simple harmonic force, and a Coulomb force. Particular attention is given to a theoretical characterization of the onset of chaos that accompanies the destabilization of such circular orbits.

  4. 聚脲润滑脂稠化剂结构与其性能的关系%The Relationships of Thickener Structures and Properties of Polyurea Grease

    赵改青; 张遂心; 王晓波; 刘维民

    2012-01-01

    以脂肪胺、芳香胺、脂环胺的不同组合和异氰酸酯为稠化剂,在不同的工艺条件下制备一系列的聚脲润滑脂;利用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对润滑脂皂纤维微观结构进行表征;探讨不同的稠化剂组成、不同制备工艺对聚脲润滑脂的微观结构和性能的影响.结果表明:单纯均匀颗粒状稠化剂比纤维与颗粒状复合的稠化剂所制备的聚脲脂具有更优的性能;纤维结构以单根形式存在为主的聚脲润滑脂性能优于纤维结构为多根纤维聚集为一股,各股之间交织的聚脲润滑脂.%Using aliphatic amines, aromatic amines and alicyclic amines in different combinations and isocyanate as thickeners, a series of polyurea greases were prepared with different process conditions. The soap fiber microstructure of the grease was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of different thickener composition and the preparation process on microstructure and properties of the polyurea grease were researched. The results show that polyurea grease with simple uniformly granular thickeners has better performance than that with fiber and paniculate composite thickeners. Polyurea grease with fibrous structure mainly in the form of single fiber is superior to that with fiber structure in the form of the aggregated bunch of fibers interwoven between each other.

  5. Surgical complications accompanying liver transplantation in Estonia.

    Väli, T; Tein, A; Tikk, T; Sillakivi, T

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate surgical complications accompanying the introduction of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in Estonia. Between 1999 and 2009, we performed the first 12 liver transplantations. Eight patients were males and four were females of age range 12 to 67 years. Their diagnoses were cholestatic disease (n = 5); tumor (n = 3); hepatitis C virus cirrhosis (n = 2); Budd-Chiari syndrome (n = 1); and cystic fibrosis (n = 1). Technical complications occurred in 7/12 patients. The early vascular complications in two patients were a suprahepatic vena cava lesion occurring at liver extraction, which resulted in uncontrolled suprahepatic bleeding after liver perfusion; the recipient died during transplantation. The other case displayed a right intrahepatic portal venous thrombosis, which was treated successfully with thrombolysis and anticoagulant therapy. Early biliary complications of biliary leaks occurred in three patients: two had undergone duct-to-duct reconstructions, which were treated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography that successfully managed the anastomotic and recipient cystic duct leaks with a papillotomy and stenting. In one patient with a duct-to-jejunum anastomosis, a bile leak stopped at 3 weeks but he needed surgical therapy 2 years later due to an anastomotic stricture. Severe decubitus occurred in the lumbosacral region of the subjects with operating times of 14 hours. They required necretectomy and plastic surgery. One of them with postoperative intra-abdominal hypertension also displayed wound eventration requiring reoperations. The rate of hepatic (5/12) and extrahepatic (3/12) surgical complications, as well as of 1-year survival (9/12), in our period of implementation of OLT were satisfactory to continue OLT development in Estonia. PMID:21168717

  6. Auroral pulsations and accompanying VLF emissions

    V. R. Tagirov

    Full Text Available Results of simultaneous TV observations of pulsating auroral patches and ELF-VLF-emissions in the morning sector carried out in Sodankylä (Finland on February 15, 1991 are presented. Auroral pulsating activity was typical having pulsating patches with characteristic periods of about 7 s. Narrow-band hiss emissions and chorus elements at intervals of 0.3–0.4 s formed the main ELF-VLF activity in the frequency range 1.0–2.5 kHz at the same time. The analysis of auroral images with time resolution of 0.04 s allowed perfectly separate analysis of spatial and temporal variations in the auroral luminosity. Mutual correspondence between the behaviour of the luminous auroral patches and the appearance of ELF noise type hiss emissions and VLF chorus trains was found in two intervals chosen for analysis. While the hiss emissions were associated with the appearance of luminosity inside a limited area close to the zenith, the structured VLF emissions were accompanied by rapid motion of luminosity inside the area. The spatial dimension of the pulsating area was about 45–50 km and luminosity propagated inside it with velocity of about 10–12 kms. We discuss a new approach to explain the 5–15 s auroral pulsation based on the theory of flowing cyclotron maser and relaxation characteristics of ionosphere.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions · Space plasma physics (wave-particle interactions

  7. Orbiting pairs of walking droplets

    Siefert, Emmanuel; Bush, John W. M.; Oza, Anand

    2015-11-01

    Droplets may self-propel on the surface of a vibrating fluid bath, pushed forward by their own Faraday pilot-wave field. We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the interaction of pairs of such droplets. Particular attention is given to characterizing the system's dependence on the vibrational forcing of the bath and the impact parameter of the walking droplets. Observed criteria for the capture and stability of orbital pairs are rationalized by accompanying theoretical developments. Thanks to the NSF.

  8. 16 CFR 1500.125 - Labeling requirements for accompanying literature.

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling requirements for accompanying literature. 1500.125 Section 1500.125 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL... REGULATIONS § 1500.125 Labeling requirements for accompanying literature. When any accompanying...

  9. Updates in Orbital Tumors

    Nila; F.Moeloek

    1993-01-01

    Orbital anatomy, the clinical features of orbital tumors, the recent development of the diagnosis and management of orbital tumors were described. The incidence of orbital tumors in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital in the past years were introduced. The principle of management of orbital tumors and their prognosis were discussed.

  10. Imaging of Orbital Infections

    Seyed Hassan Mostafavi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Preseptal and orbital cellulitis occur more commonly in children than adults. The history and physical examination are crucial in distinguishing between preseptal and orbital cellulitis. The orbital septum delineates the anterior eyelid soft tissues from the orbital soft tissue. Infections anterior to the orbital septum are classified as preseptal cellulitis and those posterior to the orbital septum are termed orbital cellulitis. "nRecognition of orbital involvement is important not only because of the threatened vision loss associated with orbital cellulitis but also because of the potential for central nervous system complications including cavernous sinus thrombosis, meningitis, and death. "nOrbital imaging should be obtained in all patients suspected of having orbital cellulitis. CT is preferred to MR imaging, as the orbital tissues have high con-trast and the bone can be well visualized. Orbital CT scanning allows localization of the disease process to the preseptal area, the extraconal or intraconal fat, or the subperiosteal space. Axial CT views allow evaluation of the medial orbit and ethmoid sinuses, whereas coronal scans image the orbital roof and floor and the frontal and maxillary sinuses. If direct coronal imaging is not possible, reconstruction of thin axial cuts may help the assessment of the orbital roof and floor. Potential sources of orbital cellulitis such as sinusitis, dental infection, and facial cellulitis are often detectable on CT imaging. "nIn this presentation, the imaging considerations of the orbital infections; including imaging differentiation criteria of all types of orbital infections are reviewed.

  11. Observation of lithium isotope effect accompanying electrochemical insertion of lithium into zinc

    Lithium was electrochemically inserted into zinc from the mixed solution of ethylene carbonate and methyl ethyl carbonate containing 1 M LiClO4, and the lithium isotope effect accompanying the insertion was investigated. The x value of LixZn after the electrolysis ranged from 0.013 to 0.139. The single-stage separation factor, S, ranged from 1.005 to 1.023 with the lighter isotope, 6Li, being preferentially fractionated into the zinc phase. The present results on lithium isotope effect qualitatively agreed with calculated results based on the molecular orbital theory. (author)

  12. Influences of Restaurant Waste Fats and Oils (RWFO) from Grease Trap as Binder on Rheological and Solvent Extraction Behavior in SS316L Metal Injection Molding

    Mohd Halim Irwan Ibrahim; Azriszul Mohd Amin; Rosli Asmawi; Najwa Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with rheological and solvent extraction behavior of stainless steel 316L feedstocks using Restaurant Waste Fats and Oils (RWFO) from grease traps as binder components along with Polypropylene (PP) copolymer as a backbone binder. Optimal binder formulation and effect of solvent extraction variables on green compacts are being analyzed. Four binder formulations based on volumetric ratio/weight fraction between PP and RWFO being mixed with 60% volumetric powder loading of SS31...

  13. Analysis of in-service inspection guides for post-tensioning systems in containment structures with greased tendons

    Prestressed concrete containments(PCC) are inspected periodically to ensure structural integrity and to identify and correct problems before they come critical. These inspections are conducted in accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Committee(NRC) Regulatory Guide. As experience with the surveillance mounts, the guide is revised to keep pace with technological advances in containment design and to reflect the knowledge obtained experience. In the study, an analysis of the available utility surveillance data and an evaluation of the NRC Regulatory Guide and the ASME Code are conducted. The results indicate that the average value of the lower bound defined in Regulatory Guide 1.35.1 can be less than the minimum required force level at 40 years for the existing containment and thus an acceptable alternative has to be presented to meet the allowance of the guide. Tendons in excess of the upper bound or 70% of the ultimate tensile strength of the tendon are observed. Such an occurrence indicates tendon behavior outside the tolerance band that expected, and the cause of such behavior has to be investigated. It is shown that the behavior of the predicted prestressing force with time based on assumed losses does quite different from that of the measured tendon force with time and, therefore, studies for the significant factors, such as shrinkage and creep of concrete, that influence the time-dependent losses in PCC are needed. Additional research on the long-term effects of the impurity levels on the effectiveness of the grease seems justified

  14. Improved biogas production from food waste by co-digestion with de-oiled grease trap waste.

    Wu, Li-Jie; Kobayashi, Takuro; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Li, Yu-You; Xu, Kai-Qin

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of co-digesting food waste (FW) and de-oiled grease trap waste (GTW) to improve the biogas production. A lab-scale mesophilic digester (MD), a temperature-phased anaerobic digester (TPAD) and a TPAD with recycling (TPAD-R) were synchronously operated under mono-digestion (FW) and co-digestion (FW+de-oiled GTW). Co-digestion increased the biogas yield by 19% in the MD and TPAD-R, with a biogas yield of 0.60L/g VS added. Specific methanogenic activity in the TPAD-R was much higher than that in the MD. In addition to methane, hydrogen at a yield of approximately 1mol/mol hexose was produced in the TPAD-R. Alkalinity was consumed more in the co-digestion than in mono-digestion. Co-digestion resulted in more lipid accumulation in each digester. The MD favored the degradation of lipid and conversion of long-chain fatty acids more than the TPAD and TPAD-R. PMID:26679046

  15. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be...

  16. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208 Section 93.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry § 93.208 Articles accompanying poultry....

  17. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No...

  18. 9 CFR 93.409 - Articles accompanying ruminants.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying ruminants. 93.409 Section 93.409 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.409 Articles accompanying...

  19. Accompanying coordinate expansion and recurrence relation method using a transfer relation scheme for electron repulsion integrals with high angular momenta and long contractions

    An efficient algorithm for the rapid evaluation of electron repulsion integrals is proposed. The present method, denoted by accompanying coordinate expansion and transferred recurrence relation (ACE-TRR), is constructed using a transfer relation scheme based on the accompanying coordinate expansion and recurrence relation method. Furthermore, the ACE-TRR algorithm is extended for the general-contraction basis sets. Numerical assessments clarify the efficiency of the ACE-TRR method for the systems including heavy elements, whose orbitals have long contractions and high angular momenta, such as f- and g-orbitals

  20. Harmonizing Melody with Meta-Structure of Piano Accompaniment Figure

    Yin Feng; Kui Chen; Xiang-Bin Liu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,a meta-structure of piano accompaniment figure (meta-structure for short) is proposed to harmonize a melodic piece of music so as to construct a multi-voice music.Here we approach melody harmonization with piano accompaniment as a machine learning task in a probabilistic framework.A series of piano accompaniment figures are collected from the massive existing sample scores and converted into a set of meta-structure.After the procedure of samples training,a model is formulated to generate a proper piano accompaniment figure for a harmonizing unit in the context.This model is flexible in harmonizing a melody with piano accompaniment.The experimental results are evaluated and discussed.

  1. Radiovolumetry of the orbit

    The authors present a method called ''Radiovolumetry of the orbit'' that permits the evaluation of the orbital volume from anteroposterior skull X-Rays (CALDWELL 300 position). The research was based in the determination of the orbital volume with lead spheres, in 1010 orbits of 505 dry skulls of Anatomy Museums. After the dry skulls was X-rayed six frontal orbital diameters were made, with care to correct the radiographic amplification. PEARSON correlation coeficient test was applied between the mean orbital diameter and the orbital volume. The result was r = 0,8 with P < 0,001. A table was made that permit the determination of the approximate orbital volume from the frontal orbital radiographic diameters. (author)

  2. On the orbital and internal evolution of cluster galaxies

    Iannuzzi, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Galaxies inhabiting a cluster environment experience significant evolution in their orbital motions throughout time; this is accompanied by changes in the anisotropy parameter, measuring the relative importance of radial and tangential motions for a given class of objects. Along with orbital changes, galaxies in clusters are well known to undergo severe alteration in their hot/cold gas content and star formation properties. Understanding the link between the changes in the internal properties of galaxies and their orbital motion is of crucial importance in the study of galaxy evolution, as it could unveil the primary mechanism responsible for its environmental dependence. Do the changes in the internal properties happen in parallel with those in the orbital motion? Or are the orbital features at the time of infall what determines the fate of the member galaxies? Alternatively: are the properties of galaxies at a given time related to the coeval orbital anisotropy or are they better related to the anisotropy a...

  3. Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery is an extensive collection of over 2,600 high- and moderate-resolution photographs produced by all five of the Lunar Orbiter...

  4. ASC Champ Orbit Model

    Riis, Troels; Jørgensen, John Leif

    1999-01-01

    This documents describes a test of the implementation of the ASC orbit model for the Champ satellite.......This documents describes a test of the implementation of the ASC orbit model for the Champ satellite....

  5. Orbital Tumors and Pseudotumors

    Talan-Hranilović, Jasna; Tomas, Davor

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-four orbital tumors and 4 pseudotumors diagnosed in biopsy material among 596 ophthalmic tumors examined during the 1998-2003 period are presented according to patient age and sex, tumor histology and immunohistochemistry. The most common orbital tumors were lipomas, meningiomas and lymphomas, with a peak incidence in the seventh decade of life. Most orbital tumors of childhood are distinguished from those occurring in adults. Most pediatric orbital tumors are benign (developmental cys...

  6. Endoscopic orbital decompression

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2014-01-01

    Orbital decompression surgery has been indicated in patients with compressive optic neuropathy, severe corneal exposure, cosmetic deformity due to proptosis. Traditional orbital decompression approaches were fraught with complications. With the advent of nasal endoscopes decompression is being carried out transnasally under endoscopic guidance. The entire medial wall of orbit can be taken down transnasally using nasal endoscope, and the inferior wall of orbit can be removed using the...

  7. A Case of Cluster Headache Accompanied by Myoclonus and Hemiparesis

    Yang, Ji Won; Park, Suk Gyung; Jung, In Hae; Sung, Young Hee; Park, Kee Hyung; Lee, Yeong Bae; Shin, Dong Jin; Park, Hyeon Mi

    2012-01-01

    Background Cluster headache is a primary headache disorder characterized by periodic episodes of intense headache accompanied by autonomic symptoms. We report an unusual clinical presentation of cluster headache that was preceded by myoclonus and accompanied by hemiparesis. Case Report A 26-year-old man visited hospital due to recurrent jerky movements on the left side of his face and neck area lasting 3 days. These jerky movements had disappeared spontaneously without specific treatment. On ...

  8. Critical thinking of student nurses during clinical accompaniment

    BY Uys; SM Meyer

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the methods of clinical accompaniment used by clinical facilitators in practice. The findings of the study also reflected facilitators’ perceptions regarding critical thinking and the facilitation thereof. A quantitative research design was used. A literature study was conducted to identify the methods of accompaniment that facilitate critical thinking. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire developed for that purpose. Making a content-rela...

  9. Correlation between thyroid function and nodular goiter accompanied with gallstone

    Shihong Ma; Qinjiang Liu; Xiaofeng Hou

    2014-01-01

    The-purpose-of-the-study-wass-to-explore-the-correlation-between-thyroid-function-and-nodular-goiter-accompanied-with-gal-stone.-Methods:We-col-ected-120-cases-about-nodular-goiter-accompanied-with-gal-stone-and-128-cases-about-nodular-goiter-and-establish-50-healthy-control-groups.-Detected-t-level-of-hyrotropic-hormone-(TSH),-total-tri-o-dothyronine-(TT3),-total-thyroxine-in-the-peripheral-venous-blood-of-these-cases-in-the-three-groups-by-using-electrochemilu-minescence-immunoassay,-measure-level-of-total-cholesterol-(TC),-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-(HDL-C),-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-(LDL-C)-and-total-bile-acid-(TBA)-levels-by-using-enzymic-method,-and-observed-the-changes-of-thyroid-function-and-blood-lipid-among-the-three-groups.-Results:The-serum-TT3-level-in-nodular-goiter-accompanied-with-gal-stone-group-and-the-nodular-goiter-group-was-significantly-lower-than-that-in-control-group-(P0.05).-Accordingly,-TC-and-LDL-C-level-in-nodular-goiter-accompanied-with-gal-stone-group-was-significantly-higher-than-that-in-nodular-goiter-and-control-group-(P0.05).-The-HDL-C-level-in-nodular-goiter-accompanied-with-gal-stone-group-and-control-group-was-higher-than-that-in-simple-nodular-goiter-group-(P<0.01).-Conclusion:The-originating-etiologic-factor-of-nodular-goiter-accompanied-with-gal-stone-may-be-related-to-that-the-decreased-TT3-induced-sub-clinical-hypothyroidism.

  10. Eye and orbital cavity

    Radioanatomy of eyes and orbit is described. Diseases of the orbit (developmental anomalies, inflammatory diseases, lacrimal apparatus deseases, toxoplasmosis, tumors and cysts et al.), methods of foreign body localization in the eye are considered. Roentgenograms of the orbit and calculation table for foreign body localization in spherical eyes of dissimilar diameter are presented

  11. Orbit Software Suite

    Osgood, Cathy; Williams, Kevin; Gentry, Philip; Brownfield, Dana; Hallstrom, John; Stuit, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Orbit Software Suite is used to support a variety of NASA/DM (Dependable Multiprocessor) mission planning and analysis activities on the IPS (Intrusion Prevention System) platform. The suite of Orbit software tools (Orbit Design and Orbit Dynamics) resides on IPS/Linux workstations, and is used to perform mission design and analysis tasks corresponding to trajectory/ launch window, rendezvous, and proximity operations flight segments. A list of tools in Orbit Software Suite represents tool versions established during/after the Equipment Rehost-3 Project.

  12. 高效路面油污清洗剂的研制%Development of road grease cleaning agent with high decontamination efficiency

    王文; 蔡卫权; 李玉军; 涂文辉

    2013-01-01

    A new weakly alkaline road grease cleaning agent with high decontamination efficiency was developed by choosing appropriate surfactants, auxiliary solvent and alkaline auxiliaries via analysis of the composition, properties and forming process of the road surface grease. Based on orthogonal experiment, the best ingredients and their percentage contents of AES 6%, LAS 1%, APG 4%, AEO-9 1%, mandarin oil 1.5%, triethanolamine 4% and trisodium citrate 3% were determined b further experiments of performance optimization, and its decontamination rate could reach 99.8% at dry temperature of 150℃. Comparison study of the cleaning performance between commercial multipurpose cleaning agent "Mr Muscle" for kitchen and the as-prepared road grease cleaning agent showed that the latter cleaning agent had higher comprehensive decontamination capacity, and also broad application prospect in the field of thick road grease cleaning.%通过对美食街路面油污组成、性质及形成过程进行分析,选择合适的表面活性剂、辅助溶剂和碱性助剂等原料成功地复配成弱碱性高效路面油污清洗剂.在正交实验的基础上,对所选配方进行性能优化实验,确定最佳实验配方组成分别为脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚硫酸钠6%、直链烷基苯磺酸钠1%、烷基糖苷4%、脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚1%、桔子油1.5%、三乙醇胺4%和柠檬酸三钠3%,在150℃的干燥温度下其去污力可达99.8%.与市售厨房多用清洗剂“威猛先生”清洗性能的对比研究表明,该清洗剂的综合去污能力更强,在路面稠油垢清洗领域显示出广阔的应用前景.

  13. Orbital fractures: a review

    Jeffrey M Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey M Joseph, Ioannis P GlavasDivision of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY, USA; Manhattan Eye, Ear, and Throat Hospital, New York, NY, USAAbstract: This review of orbital fractures has three goals: 1 to understand the clinically relevant orbital anatomy with regard to periorbital trauma and orbital fractures, 2 to explain how to assess and examine a patient after periorbital trauma, and 3 to understand the medical and surgical management of orbital fractures. The article aims to summarize the evaluation and management of commonly encountered orbital fractures from the ophthalmologic perspective and to provide an overview for all practicing ophthalmologists and ophthalmologists in training.Keywords: orbit, trauma, fracture, orbital floor, medial wall, zygomatic, zygomatic complex, zmc fracture, zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures 

  14. Just Greasing the Wheels?

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    We traditionally see diplomats as mediators.They build bridges between nations and they repair them when they break. During a crisis, diplomats ‘keep it cool’ and try to prevent the crisis from worsening into armed conflict. Diplomats are the men and women who keep the international system running...

  15. Greasing the Squeaking Wheel.

    Welliver, Paul W.

    1993-01-01

    This fourteenth article in a series on the principles of the AECT (Association for Educational Communications and Technology) Code of Professional Ethics focuses on the issue of equitable treatment, using an example of providing equitable computer technology in a school district. (LRW)

  16. Wanted: elbow grease

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    In Divonne-les-Bains, an association founded by former CERN personnel is restoring the oldest hydroelectric plant in France. The adventure started more than ten years ago, and now you’re invited to take part…   View of the benzole-powered thermic engine from 1907. Georges Leskens, a spritely 85-year-old, is president of the Divonnelectro association. Georges, a former electrical engineer at CERN, now has a new goal: to bring the Moulin David hydroelectric plant in Divonne-les-Bains, which he found in a derelict state in 2001, back to life. “When I entered the plant for the first time, I found several remarkable period machines… and the extent of the damage,” recalls Georges. “Among other things, the town used the building for storing salt and grit for the roads... so I don’t need to tell you what state the mechanisms were in!” Aware of the historical value of the site (see box), Georges convinced the D...

  17. Definition of Relative Orbit Elements of Spacecraft Formation Flying for Purpose of Orbit Design

    Xiao, Yelun

    Much efforts have been made to the research concerning the dynamical characteristics of spacecraft formation flying, several articles have been published including the authors' IAC papers IAF-98-A.2.06, IAA-99-IAA.11.1.09, IAA-01-IAA.11.4.08. The problem can be deduced to the issue of relative orbit motion of one satellite called accompany satellite around another called reference or central satellite, the latter being supposed to move in circular or near-circular orbit and to have equal semimajor axis as the former. It has been shown that the trajectory of relative motion is an ellipse constantly fixed to the orbital frame of the central satellite. It is known that the relative motion is completely determined by initial state of relative motion x0, y0, z0, vx0, vy0, vz0 (called parameter set 1). On the other hand the relative motion is caused by difference in eccentricity vectors and by non-coplanarity vector and influenced by the angle btw. the two vectors (called parameter set 2). Now the authors try to define relative orbit elements determining all geometrical and kinematical properties of the relative motion and having clear physical meaning similar to traditional orbit elements. Based on deep study of the dynamical characteristics we decide to define the elements as follows: (1) semimajor axis of the ellipse of relative trajectory; (2 and 3) elevation and azimuth angles of the normal determining the orientation of the relative motion plane wrt the reference orbit frame; (4) argument of latitude at epoch (initial instant) of reference satellite and (5) phase angle of the accompany satellite at epoch. These are minimum-required and independent elements. All others are secondary (or derived) parameters. For example, aspect ratio, i.e., ratio of major axis to minor axis, describing the shape of relative trajectory, is determined by elements 2 and 3, because of the inherent property that the projection of relative trajectory on reference orbit plane must be a 2

  18. Study on the Processing Technology of Complex Lithium Grease in Laboratory%复合锂基润滑脂实验室制备工艺研究

    于唯; 董元虎; 贾文; 樊龙飞

    2013-01-01

      研究实验室制备复合锂基润滑脂的加工工艺,采用单因素变化试验,分析一步法制备复合锂基润滑脂时料浓度、搅拌方式、搅拌速度、温度控制对成脂效果的影响.结果表明,在制作复合锂基润滑脂时,皂化反应前先加1/3~2/3的基础油来溶解脂肪酸,再徐徐加入氢氧化锂溶液进行皂化反应;待脂肪酸反应完全后,加入低分子二元反应完全后升温、脱水,加入剩余基础油进行高温炼制,然后冷却得到复合锂基润滑脂.制作复合锂基润滑脂的皂化应、复合反应、脱水反应、高温炼制阶段,需控制温度分别为110,110,160,220℃,控制反应时间分别为90,60,30,5 min,控制搅拌速度分别为80,80,30~60,30 r/min.%The processing technology of complex lithium grease made in laboratory was studied,and the single factor ex-periment was made to analyze the influence of reactant concentration,agitation modes,stirring speed and temperature con-trol on making lithium base grease of one-step method. Result shows that,during making lithium complex grease,first by using one-third to two-thirds of base oil to dissolve the fatty acid before saponification,the lithium hydroxide monohydrate is put all in the kettle once and slowly for saponiication. After the completion of the fatty acid’s reaction,the low molecule dimeric dibasic acid is put in. After acid completed reaction,heating to dehydrate,the remaining base oil is added in for high-temperature refining,and then cooled to get complex lithium grease. During the processes of saponification reaction, complex reaction,dehydration reaction,high-temperature refining of the grease,the control temperature needed respectively is 110,110,160 and 220℃;the control refining time needed is 90,60,30 and 5 min;and the control stirring speed respec-tively is 80,80,30 to 60 and 30 r/min.

  19. Neonatal orbital abscess

    Khalil M Al-Salem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital complications due to ethmoiditis are rare in neonates. A case of orbital abscess due to acute ethmoiditis in a 28-day-old girl is presented. A Successful outcome was achieved following antimicrobial therapy alone; spontaneous drainage of the abscess occurred from the lower lid without the need for surgery. From this case report, we intend to emphasize on eyelid retraction as a sign of neonatal orbital abscess, and to review all the available literature of similar cases.

  20. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    Burkardt Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asy...

  1. Pictorial essay: Orbital tuberculosis

    Tuberculosis of the orbit is rare, even in places where tuberculosis is endemic. The disease may involve soft tissue, the lacrimal gland, or the periosteum or bones of the orbital wall. Intracranial extension, in the form of extradural abscess, and infratemporal fossa extension has been described. This pictorial essay illustrates the imaging findings of nine histopathologically confirmed cases of orbital tuberculosis. All these patients responded to antituberculous treatment

  2. Preseptal and Orbital Cellulitis

    Emine Akçay; Gamze Dereli Can; Nurullah Çağıl

    2014-01-01

    Preseptal cellulitis (PC) is defined as an inflammation of the eyelid and surrounding skin, whereas orbital cellulitis (OC) is an inflammation of the posterior septum of the eyelid affecting the orbit and its contents. Periorbital tissues may become infected as a result of trauma (including insect bites) or primary bacteremia. Orbital cellulitis generally occurs as a complication of sinusitis. The most commonly isolated organisms are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. epid...

  3. Geometric orbit datum and orbit covers

    LIANG; Ke(

    2001-01-01

    [1]Vogan, D. , Dixmier algebras, sheets and representation theory (in Actes du colloque en I' honneur de Jacques Dixmier),Progress in Math. 92, Boston: Birkhauser Verlag, 1990, 333-397.[2]McGovern, W., Dixmier Algebras and Orbit Method, Operator Algebras, Unitary Representations and Invariant Theory,Boston: Birkhauser, 1990, 397-416.[3]Liang, K. , Parabolic inductions of nilpotent geometric orbit datum, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese) , 1996, 41 (23):2116-2118.[4]Vogan, D., Representations of Real Reductive Lie Groups, Boston-Basel-Stuttgart: Birkhauser, 1981.[5]Lustig, G., Spaltenstein, N., Induced unipotent class, J. London Math. Soc., 1997, 19. 41-52.[6]Collingwood, D. H. , McGovern, W. M. , Nilpotent Orbits in Semisimple Lie Algebras, New York: Van Nostremt Reinhold,1993.

  4. Family of Orbiters

    2008-01-01

    This image shows the paths of three spacecraft currently in orbit around Mars, as well as the path by which NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will approach and land on the planet. The t-shaped crosses show where the orbiters will be when Phoenix enters the atmosphere, while the x-shaped crosses show their location at landing time. All three orbiters, NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, NASA's Mars Odyssey and the European Space Agency's Mars Express, will be monitoring Phoenix during the final steps of its journey to the Red Planet. Phoenix will land just south of Mars's north polar ice cap.

  5. Accompanied driving in The Netherlands : who do participate and why?

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van Wijlhuizen, G.J. & Craen, S. de

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, a six year accompanied driving experiment started in the Netherlands. This questionnaire study investigated which youngsters (intend to) participate and why, with the purpose of assessing whether there is a potential self-selection bias that can be relevant for the oncoming evaluation of it

  6. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world...

  7. Bilateral retinal cyst accompanying with renal and thyroidal multiorgan cyst

    Amber Şenel; Rıfat Rasier; Alper Şengül; Erdal Yüzbaşıoğlu; Özgür Artunay; Halil Bahçecioğlu

    2011-01-01

    Although retinal cysts are commonly seen in von Hippel Lindau syndrome, bilateral retinal cysts can occasionally appear unrelated to this syndrome. Retinal cysts can be confused with retinal tumours and infectious diseases of retina. In this report we represent a patient demonstrating bilateral retinal cyst accompanying with renal and thyroidal multiorgan cysts without Von-Hippel Lindau syndrome.

  8. Dosimetric accompaniment of high technology radiation therapy. Instruction for use

    The contents of prepared guide on high technological radiation dosimetric accompaniment is discussed in scope of application of modern linear electron accelerator. The main attention is paid on dose measurements types for evaluation quality work of separate systems and devices used for patients irradiation

  9. Lateral Medullary Infarction and Accompanying Sustained Hiccup: Treatment with Gabapentin

    BERİLGEN, M Said; DEMİR, Caner Feyzi; AYDIN, Meliha; Erdoğan, Ercan

    2007-01-01

    Hiccup, which is a symptom seen during lateral medullary syndrome, appears due to sudden contraction of diaphragma and external (inspiratory) intercostal muscles and the closure of glottis. Here we present a case with lateral medullary infarction accompanied with chronic hiccup, the dramatical improvement with gabapentine and the probable related pathophysiologic mechanism.. ©2007, Firat University, Medical Faculty

  10. Food Service: Handbook to Accompany VESL Vocabulary Cards.

    Taylor, Nancy; Lenhart, Debra

    This manual is one of four self-contained components of a larger handbook designed to assist secondary and postsecondary instructors and support staff in meeting the needs of limited-English-proficiency (LEP) students in vocational training programs. Together with an accompanying set of vocational English as a second language (VESL) vocabulary…

  11. Critical thinking of student nurses during clinical accompaniment

    BY Uys

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the methods of clinical accompaniment used by clinical facilitators in practice. The findings of the study also reflected facilitators’ perceptions regarding critical thinking and the facilitation thereof. A quantitative research design was used. A literature study was conducted to identify the methods of accompaniment that facilitate critical thinking. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire developed for that purpose. Making a content-related validity judgment, and involving seven clinical facilitators in an academic institution, ensured the validity of the questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that various clinical methods of accompaniment were used. To a large extent, these methods correlated with those discussed in the literature review. The researcher further concluded that the concepts ‘critical thinking’ and ‘facilitation’ were not interpreted correctly by the respondents, and would therefore not be implemented in a proper manner in nursing practice. Furthermore, it seemed evident that tutor-driven learning realised more often than student-driven learning. In this regard, the requirement of outcomes-based education was not satisfied. The researcher is therefore of the opinion that a practical programme for the development of critical thinking skills during clinical accompaniment must be developed within the framework of outcomes-based education.

  12. 29 CFR 575.5 - Supporting data to accompany application.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supporting data to accompany application. 575.5 Section 575.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAIVER OF CHILD LABOR PROVISIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT OF 10 AND 11 YEAR OLD MINORS IN...

  13. Primary orbital non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Amit, Sonal; Purwar, Neetu; Agarwal, Asha; Kanchan, Shrivastava

    2012-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) can have extra-nodal presentation in approximately 25% of cases unlike Hodgkin's lymphoma which rarely involves extra-nodal sites. Extra-nodal lymphoma in the head and neck region is extremely rare. We report a case of 6-year-old girl who presented with medial canthus mass with proptosis, lagophthalmos and no significant loss of vision. CT findings showed an extra-conal homogenous mass lesion in the left orbit along superior and medial orbital wall with extensive destruction of surrounding tissue. Histological sections showed polymorphous population of atypical lymphoid cells accompanied by plasma cells, eosinophils and proliferation of small blood vessels with plump endothelial cells. A diagnosis of NHL was rendered. Further, immunohistochemistry confirmed the lesion as peripheral T-cell lymphoma. The lesion was aggressive in course and the patient succumbed within one-and-half  months of diagnosis. PMID:23087277

  14. GPS Satellites Orbits: Resonance

    Luiz Danilo Damasceno Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of perturbations due to resonant geopotential harmonics on the semimajor axis of GPS satellites are analyzed. For some GPS satellites, secular perturbations of about 4 m/day can be obtained by numerical integration of the Lagrange planetary equations considering in the disturbing potential the main secular resonant coefficients. Amplitudes for long-period terms due to resonant coefficients are also exhibited for some hypothetical satellites orbiting in the neighborhood of the GPS satellites orbits. The results are important to perform orbital maneuvers of GPS satellites such that they stay in their nominal orbits. Also, for the GPS satellites that are not active, the long-period effects due to the resonance must be taken into account in the surveillance of the orbital evolutions of such debris.

  15. Problems with radiation protection concerning volunteers accompanying radiological patients

    Full text: The purpose of this work is to point out, within the framework of the Radiation Protection guidelines, the irregular situation of the 'volunteer' or 'accompanying person' who accompanies anyone requiring medical treatment with ionising radiation, as well as to suggest a possible justification for such role. It should be noted that most of these persons are subject to ionising radiation without knowing anything about the effects that it could cause on them, so that their condition could be hardly considered as 'voluntary'. There are several circumstances under which the presence of accompanying persons is required, being different among them. Several examples could be mentioned such as: those who are accompanying a direct relative (family bonds), those who are acting in service during their normal work (social workers, policemen) and even those who are forced by unusual under an accidental situation. The qualitative classification that radiological protection established in society concerning radiation risks for people in general enables to set mechanisms of justification, optimisation and dose limitation for each category, being perfectly identified which of them each person belongs to. But the figure of 'accompanying person' has been excluded from such characterisation. They are subject to radiation exposure without knowing it, or without having any information concerning the potential risks. For them, no balance between the net benefit of an adequate medical treatment versus potential health detriment may be applied as for the case of a patient. Thus, their exposure could be not justified. It is not the purpose of this work to question radiological medicine or its practices, but to clarify certain aspects involving members of the public in general, patients and members of the radiological community, as well as to propose lines of action concerning this subject. We conclude that it is not the volunteer who should decide about medical actions, a role

  16. Electron vortex orbits and merger

    Pure electron plasma columns are contained inside hollow conducting cylinders in an axial magnetic field. In the 2D ExB drift approximation, an electron column is a vortex evolving in (r,θ) according to the Euler equation. First the center-of-mass orbits of two vortices sufficiently well-separated to be stable to merger are characterized. Equilibria are observed in which the vortices orbit about the center of the cylinder, with either oscillations about stable equilibria or exponential divergence away from unstable equilibria. The equilibrium positions, oscillation frequencies, and instability rates for these spatially extended vortices agree well with the predictions of point vortex theory, apparently because surface waves and shape distortions do not couple significantly to the center-of-mass motion. Next, the merger of two vortices with unequal radii is quantified. Merger is accompanied by the formation of filamentary arms, and results ultimately in an axisymmetric central core surrounded by a lower density halo. The self-energy of the merged core is found to be roughly the sum of the self-energy of the merging vortices. The fraction of the total circulation entrained into the core varies from 70% to 90% as the ratio of the initial vortex radii is varied from 1:1 to 2:1. The point-like vortex dynamics and the circulation loss with merger are both consistent with the open-quote open-quote punctuated Hamiltonian close-quote close-quote models of decaying turbulence. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  17. Visual Messages Accompanied by Music: Preschool Children’s Interpretations

    Dogani, Konstantina; Constandinidou-Semoglou, Ourania

    2016-01-01

    Within current visual culture children are continuously exposed to varieties of visual messages accompanied by music which could contribute towards their aesthetic development. However, the interaction between music and image is not always as simple as in animation where music has direct relationship to the visual message to be easily interpreted by the preschool child. Taking a semiotic approach the current paper investigates preschool child’s reception of a more sophisticated interaction be...

  18. The Raven,a Loner’s Psychological Accompanier

    商滔

    2015-01-01

    Edgar Allan Poe’s The Raven is well-known to the world for its detailed psychological descriptions in the author’s eyes of this essay.Whereas,the Raven is the only one accompanie and the best listener listening to Poe’s psychological cry for his lover.The author will try to present the scene of the sadness from Poe by employing Carl G.Jung’s theories about consciousness and unconsciousness.

  19. The Raven,a Loner’s Psychological Accompanier

    商滔

    2015-01-01

    Edgar Allan Poe’s The Raven is well-known to the world for its detailed psychological descriptions in the author’s eyes of this essay.Whereas,the Raven is the only one accompanier and the best listener listening to Poe’s psychological cry for his lover.The author will try to present the scene of the sadness from Poe by employing Carl G.Jung’s theories about consciousness and unconsciousness.

  20. Accompaniment needs of nursing students related to the dying patient

    D van Rooyen; Laing, R.; WJ Kotzé

    2005-01-01

    Nurse educators are responsible for accompanying students towards becoming capable, competent professional nurses who are a credit to themselves, their patients, colleagues and profession. Student nurses need, therefore, to be taught to render comprehensive nursing care to patients in all stages of their lives, including when they are dying. Being confronted with human suffering and death is challenging and traumatic. Those exposed to such events on a daily basis need to have a solid foundati...

  1. Real-time implementation of an interactive jazz accompaniment system

    Deshpande, Nikhil

    Modern computational algorithms and digital signal processing (DSP) are able to combine with human performers without forced or predetermined structure in order to create dynamic and real-time accompaniment systems. With modern computing power and intelligent algorithm layout and design, it is possible to achieve more detailed auditory analysis of live music. Using this information, computer code can follow and predict how a human's musical performance evolves, and use this to react in a musical manner. This project builds a real-time accompaniment system to perform together with live musicians, with a focus on live jazz performance and improvisation. The system utilizes a new polyphonic pitch detector and embeds it in an Ableton Live system - combined with Max for Live - to perform elements of audio analysis, generation, and triggering. The system also relies on tension curves and information rate calculations from the Creative Artificially Intuitive and Reasoning Agent (CAIRA) system to help understand and predict human improvisation. These metrics are vital to the core system and allow for extrapolated audio analysis. The system is able to react dynamically to a human performer, and can successfully accompany the human as an entire rhythm section.

  2. Accompaniment needs of nursing students related to the dying patient

    D Van Rooyen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Nurse educators are responsible for accompanying students towards becoming capable, competent professional nurses who are a credit to themselves, their patients, colleagues and profession. Student nurses need, therefore, to be taught to render comprehensive nursing care to patients in all stages of their lives, including when they are dying. Being confronted with human suffering and death is challenging and traumatic. Those exposed to such events on a daily basis need to have a solid foundation of self preservation to see past the pain of suffering and to bring light and hope to those in need. A young student nurse will only experience positive growth and development in these circumstances if she is also cared for and guided with understanding. The researcher utilized a qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design based on the phenomenological approach to enquiry. The following question was asked at the beginning of each unstructured phenomenological interview: “How was if for you to care for a dying or deceased patient?” The central theme identified that student nurses experience turmoil in their different relationships in their accompaniment of the dying patient. Guidelines based on the central theme and sub-themes that emerged from raw data, as well as literature, are offered as strategies to promote/enhance optimal accompaniment of student nurses caring for the dying patient.

  3. Isotopic yield in alpha accompanied ternary fission of 252Cf

    The cold ternary fission of 252Cf with 4He as light charged particle (LCP) is studied with fragments in the equatorial and collinear configuration, taking the interacting barrier as the sum of the Coulomb and proximity potential. The favorable fragment combinations are obtained from the cold valley plot and by calculating the yield for charge-minimized fragments. In both equatorial and collinear configurations, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combination 116Pd + 4He + 132Sn, which possess doubly magic nuclei 132Sn(N = 82, Z = 50). The presence of doubly or near doubly magic nuclei (132Sn, 130Sn etc.) and higher Q value plays an important role in the alpha accompanied cold ternary fission of 252Cf. The comparison of the relative yield for equatorial configuration with that of collinear configuration, points to the fact that equatorial configuration is the preferred configuration for the LCP (4He) accompanied ternary fission in 252Cf isotope. The yields obtained for the alpha accompanied cold ternary fission of 252Cf in equatorial and collinear configuration are compared with the experimental data. The emission probability of long range alpha (LRA) particle from 252Cf isotope is predicted using our formalism and is found to be in agreement with experimental value. (author)

  4. Imaging of orbital disorders.

    Cunnane, Mary Beth; Curtin, Hugh David

    2016-01-01

    Diseases of the orbit can be categorized in many ways, but in this chapter we shall group them according to etiology. Inflammatory diseases of the orbits may be infectious or noninfectious. Of the infections, orbital cellulitis is the most common and typically arises as a complication of acute sinusitis. Of the noninfectious, inflammatory conditions, thyroid orbitopathy is the most common and results in enlargement of the extraocular muscles and proliferation of the orbital fat. Idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome is another cause of inflammation in the orbit, which may mimic thyroid orbitopathy or even neoplasm, but typically presents with pain. Masses in the orbit may be benign or malignant and the differential diagnosis primarily depends on the location of the mass lesion, and on the age of the patient. Lacrimal gland tumors may be lymphomas or epithelial lesions of salivary origin. Extraocular muscle tumors may represent lymphoma or metastases. Tumors of the intraconal fat are often benign, typically hemangiomas or schwannomas. Finally, globe tumors may be retinoblastomas (in children), or choroidal melanomas or metastases in adults. PMID:27432687

  5. Harmonically excited orbital variations

    Rephrasing the equations of motion for orbital maneuvers in terms of Lagrangian generalized coordinates instead of Newtonian rectangular cartesian coordinates can make certain harmonic terms in the orbital angular momentum vector more readily apparent. In this formulation the equations of motion adopt the form of a damped harmonic oscillator when torques are applied to the orbit in a variationally prescribed manner. The frequencies of the oscillator equation are in some ways unexpected but can nonetheless be exploited through resonant forcing functions to achieve large secular variations in the orbital elements. Two cases are discussed using a circular orbit as the control case: (1) large changes in orbital inclination achieved by harmonic excitation rather than one impulsive velocity change, and (2) periodic and secular changes to the longitude of the ascending node using both stable and unstable excitation strategies. The implications of these equations are also discussed for both artificial satellites and natural satellites. For the former, two utilitarian orbits are suggested, each exploiting a form of harmonic excitation. 5 refs

  6. Reactor performance and microbial community dynamics during anaerobic co-digestion of municipal wastewater sludge with restaurant grease waste at steady state and overloading stages.

    Razaviarani, Vahid; Buchanan, Ian D

    2014-11-01

    Linkage between reactor performance and microbial community dynamics was investigated during mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of restaurant grease waste (GTW) with municipal wastewater sludge (MWS) using 10L completely mixed reactors and a 20day SRT. Test reactors received a mixture of GTW and MWS while control reactors received only MWS. Addition of GTW to the test reactors enhanced the biogas production and methane yield by up to 65% and 120%, respectively. Pyrosequencing revealed that Methanosaeta and Methanomicrobium were the dominant acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogen genera, respectively, during stable reactor operation. The number of Methanosarcina and Methanomicrobium sequences increased and that of Methanosaeta declined when the proportion of GTW in the feed was increased to cause an overload condition. Under this overload condition, the pH, alkalinity and methane production decreased and VFA concentrations increased dramatically. Candidatus cloacamonas, affiliated within phylum Spirochaetes, were the dominant bacterial genus at all reactor loadings. PMID:25265327

  7. Satellites orbits and missions

    Capderou, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Keplerian motion 1.1 Preamble 1.2 Acceleration 1.3 Central acceleration 1.4 Newtonian acceleration 1.5 Keplerian motion : trajectory and period 1.6 The three anomalies 1.7 Representation of the anomalies 1.8 Integrals of motion 1.9 Historical note on universal attraction 1.10 Annex : Ellipses Satellites on keplerian orbit 2.1 Gravitational field 2.2 The N-body and the two-body problem 2.3 Orbital parameters 2.4 Case of quasi-circular orbits 2.5 Keplerian period Satellites on real o

  8. Are Orbitals Observable?

    Peter Mulder

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss the question whether orbitals can be observed or not. I argue that the answer depends on how the terms 'orbitals' and 'observed' are understood. The fact that different authors take radically different stances on the issue is caused by their employing different uses of either of the two terms. I furthermore discuss a recent argument by Labarca and Lombardi to the effect that the orbital concept in chemistry is discontinuous with that in quantum mechanics. I argue that, quite to the contrary, there is continuity between the two.

  9. Helioseismology with Solar Orbiter

    Löptien, Björn; Birch, Aaron C.; Gizon, Laurent; Schou, Jesper; Appourchaux, Thierry; Rodríguez, Julián Blanco; Cally, Paul S.; Dominguez-Tagle, Carlos; Gandorfer, Achim; Hill, Frank; Hirzberger, Johann; Scherrer, Philip H.; Solanki, Sami K.

    2014-01-01

    The Solar Orbiter mission, to be launched in July 2017, will carry a suite of remote sensing and in-situ instruments, including the Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager (PHI). PHI will deliver high-cadence images of the Sun in intensity and Doppler velocity suitable for carrying out novel helioseismic studies. The orbit of the Solar Orbiter spacecraft will reach a solar latitude of up to 21 deg (up to 34 deg by the end of the extended mission) and thus will enable the first local helioseismol...

  10. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    Burkardt Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  11. Congenital orbital teratoma

    Shereen Aiyub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of mature congenital orbital teratoma managed with lid-sparing exenteration and dermis fat graft. This is a case report on the management of congenital orbital teratoma. A full-term baby was born in Fiji with prolapsed right globe which was surrounded by a nonpulsatile, cystic mass. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with congenital orbital teratoma. Due to limited surgical expertise, the patient was transferred to Adelaide, Australia for further management. The patient underwent a lid-sparing exenteration with frozen section control of the apical margin. A dermis fat graft from the groin was placed beneath the lid skin to provide volume. Histopathology revealed mature tissues from each of the three germ cell layers which confirmed the diagnosis of mature teratoma. We describe the successful use of demis fat graft in socket reconstruction following lid-sparing exenteration for congenital orbital teratoma.

  12. Envelopes of Cometary Orbits

    Mijajlović, Ž.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss cometary orbits from the standpoint of Nonstandard (Leibnitz analysis, a relatively new branch of mathematics. In particular, we consider parabolic cometary paths. It appears that, in a sense, every parabola is an ellipse.

  13. Partonic orbital angular momentum

    Arash, Firooz; Taghavi-Shahri, Fatemeh; Shahveh, Abolfazl

    2013-04-01

    Ji's decomposition of nucleon spin is used and the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluon are calculated. We have utilized the so called valon model description of the nucleon in the next to leading order. It is found that the average orbital angular momentum of quarks is positive, but small, whereas that of gluon is negative and large. Individual quark flavor contributions are also calculated. Some regularities on the total angular momentum of the quarks and gluon are observed.

  14. Orbital angular momentum effects

    This paper reports that in the context of the parton model description of baryon structure orbital angular momentum effects have long been considered negligible. However, recent results obtained within the framework of QCD and presented in this talk indicate that a substantial fraction of the baryon spin may be carried as orbital angular momentum of its constituents. These results are of particular relevance in the light of new data on the spin structure of the proton recently published by the EMC collaboration

  15. Orbital welding technique

    The TIG (Tungsten-inert gas) orbital welding technique is applied in all areas of pipe welding. The process is mainly used for austenitic and ferritic materials but also for materials like aluminium, nickel, and titanium alloys are commonly welded according to this technique. Thin-walled as well as thick-walled pipes are welded economically. The application of orbital welding is of particular interest in the area of maintenance of thick-walled pipes that is described in this article. (orig.)

  16. Orbital interactions in chemistry

    Albright, Thomas A; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Explains the underlying structure that unites all disciplines in chemistry Now in its second edition, this book explores organic, organometallic, inorganic, solid state, and materials chemistry, demonstrating how common molecular orbital situations arise throughout the whole chemical spectrum. The authors explore the relationships that enable readers to grasp the theory that underlies and connects traditional fields of study within chemistry, thereby providing a conceptual framework with which to think about chemical structure and reactivity problems. Orbital Interactions

  17. Mucocele Accompanied by a Traumatic Neuroma: A Case Report

    Jaafari Ashkavandi Z.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mucocele and traumatic neuroma are two lesions related to the traumatic events; however there is only one reported case in which these two entities were perceived simultaneously. The current study reported a 21-year-old man who complained of painless recurrent swelling, accompanied by paresthesia on his left lower labial mucosa. He had a previous history of similar lesion and had been treated with surgery and cauterization last year. The primary clinical impression was a recurrent mucocele. Microscopic surveys displayed a traumatic neuroma in the vicinity of a mucocele which seems to be arising from the previous surgical treatment.

  18. Marfan Syndrome Accompanied by Pituitary Adenomas: A Case Report

    Qi HUANG

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome (MFS is a dominant inherited connective tissue disease. It has variable clinical manifestations and affects a number of systems, such as the cardiovascular system, eyes, skeletal, lung, skin etc. Fibrillin-1(FBN1)gene mutations are found in approximately 90% patients. The abnormal proteins originated from the mutant gene play a dominant negative effect on normal proteins or change their susceptibility of protease, which leads to the change of connective tissue. This paper reports the clinical data of a patient with Marfan syndrome accompanied by pituitary adenomas and reviews related literatures at home and abroad, to explore its pathogenesis.

  19. Exoemission accompanying the decomposition of methanol on zinc oxide

    Krylova, I. V.

    2008-09-01

    The electronic phenomena accompanying the adsorption and dehydrogenation of methanol on zinc oxide were studied using the method of exoemission of negative charges. Postemission excited from ZnO by an electron beam was found to be suppressed by the adsorption of methanol vapor, which exhibited electron acceptor properties. Subsequent heating to temperatures close to the temperature of the beginning of methanol decomposition increased the intensity of exoemission, which was evidence of the participation of emission centers (Oδ-) in dehydrogenation. A possible mechanism of methanol decomposition with the participation of surface V s hole centers (Oδ-) of zinc oxide was suggested.

  20. Study guide to accompany computers data and processing

    Deitel, Harvey M

    1985-01-01

    Study Guide to Accompany Computer and Data Processing provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of computers and computer technology. This book presents the key benefits of using computers.Organized into five parts encompassing 19 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the evolution of modern computing systems from the earliest mechanical calculating devices to microchips. This text then introduces computer hardware and describes the processor. Other chapters describe how microprocessors are made and describe the physical operation of computers. This book discusses as w

  1. Test bank to accompany Computers data and processing

    Deitel, Harvey M

    1980-01-01

    Test Bank to Accompany Computers and Data Processing provides a variety of questions from which instructors can easily custom tailor exams appropriate for their particular courses. This book contains over 4000 short-answer questions that span the full range of topics for introductory computing course.This book is organized into five parts encompassing 19 chapters. This text provides a very large number of questions so that instructors can produce different exam testing essentially the same topics in succeeding semesters. Three types of questions are included in this book, including multiple ch

  2. Solutions manual to accompany finite mathematics models and applications

    Morris, Carla C

    2015-01-01

    A solutions manual to accompany Finite Mathematics: Models and Applications In order to emphasize the main concepts of each chapter, Finite Mathematics: Models and Applications features plentiful pedagogical elements throughout such as special exercises, end notes, hints, select solutions, biographies of key mathematicians, boxed key principles, a glossary of important terms and topics, and an overview of use of technology. The book encourages the modeling of linear programs and their solutions and uses common computer software programs such as LINDO. In addition to extensive chapters on pr

  3. Spinal hydatidosis accompanied by a secondary infection. Case report.

    Kotil, Kadir; Tatar, Zeynep; Bilge, Turgay

    2007-06-01

    Spinal hydatid disease is rarely encountered in nonendemic regions. It is a progressive disease that is associated with risks of serious morbidity. The authors report a case of an isolated primary hydatid cyst of the spine in a 34-year-old woman who presented with back pain, which had lasted for 3 months, as well as lower-extremity pain and fatigue, which had persisted for 2 months. A neurological examination yielded findings indicative of upper motor neuron involvement with complete sensory loss below the level of T-11. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine showed multiple extradural cystic lesions with an abscess formation at T-11 and involvement of the paraspinal muscles. The patient underwent spinal decompression in which stabilization and total excision of the multiple epidural and psoas abscesses and paraspinal multiloculated cysts were performed. The diagnosis of hydatid disease associated with another infection was confirmed by histopathological evaluation. Albendazole was administered during the postoperative period. Previous reports of secondary infections accompanying this disease in extraspinal locations have been published. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, there have been no publications about a secondary infection associated with hydatidosis in the spinal cord. One should bear in mind that spinal hydatidosis may be accompanied by other infections in endemic regions. Antihelminthic treatment should be administered for a long period following early decompressive surgery and adequate stabilization. PMID:17561751

  4. Behavior of Water Jet Accompanied with Air Suction

    Kawakami, Hironobu; Ishido, Tsutomu; Ihara, Akio

    In order to atomize a liquid, the authors have investigated the behavior of air-water jets. In a series of experiments, we have discovered a strange phenomenon that the water jet accompanied with air suction from the free surface has made a periodic radial splash of water drop. The purpose of the present paper is to clear out the origin of this phenomenon and the behavior of water jet accompanied with air suction. The behavior of water jet has been photographed by a digital camera aided with a flashlight and high-speed video camera. Those experiments enable us to find the origin of a periodic radial splash due to a formation of single air bubble at the flow separation region inside the nozzle and due to explosive expansion of the bubble after injected in the free space. In order to analyze the radial splash of water, we have conducted the equation of spherical liquid membrane. The numerical results obtained have been compared with the experimental results and good agreement has been obtained in radial expansion velocity.

  5. Value-sensitive clinical accompaniment in community nursing science

    Ebin Arries

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical community health facilities where undergraduate students are placed for their practical work in community nursing science are dynamic and have undergone major transformation over the past few years. In the clinical field, community nurses and undergraduate students are representative of the different races and language and ethnic groups in the South African population, with each group espousing different value systems. Both parties – students and community nurses – report that, due to these differences, value conflicts are experienced during clinical accompaniment and that this has negative effects on clinical learning in community nursing science.

    The goal of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of students with regard to value-sensitive clinical accompaniment in the community nursing environment. An exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was used. Interactions between community nurses and students during clinical accompaniment were explored for value sensitivity by means of video recordings,participant observation and focus group interviews. Data were collected by means of video recordings, participant observation and focus group interviews. The data were analysed and coded by the researcher and the external coder, using an inductive descriptive method to identify important segments of the regularity of behaviour. The focus group interviews were transcribed, analysed and coded by the researcher and the external coder, using Tesch’s steps of analysis (Creswell 1994:155–156.Lincoln and Guba’s criteria (1985:290 for trustworthiness were applied to the study.

    The general findings indicate that clinical accompaniment in community nursing is not value sensitive and, as a result, guidelines for value-sensitive clinical accompaniment need to be developed for undergraduate students in the community nursing environment. The following values (values for which guidelines need to be developed were

  6. Treatment of lingual traumatic ulcer accompanied with fungal infections

    Sella Sella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic ulcer is a common form of ulceration occured in oral cavity caused by mechanical trauma, either acute or chronic, resulting in loss of the entire epithelium. Traumatic ulcer often occurs in children that are usually found on buccal mucosa, labial mucosa of upper and lower lip, lateral tongue, and a variety of areas that may be bitten. To properly diagnose the ulcer, dentists should evaluate the history and clinical description in detail. If the lesion is allegedly accompanied by other infections, such as fungal, bacterial or viral infections, microbiological or serological tests will be required. One of the initial therapy given for fungal infection is nystatin which aimed to support the recovery and repair processes of epithelial tissue in traumatic ulcer case. Purpose: This case report is aimed to emphasize the importance of microbiological examination in suspected cases of ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection. Case: A 12-year-old girl came to the clinic of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia on June 9, 2011 accompanied with her mother. The patient who had a history of geographic tongue came with complaints of injury found in the middle of the tongue. The main diagnosis was ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection based on the results of swab examination. Case management: This traumatic ulcer case was treated with Dental Health Education, oral prophylaxis, as well as prescribing and usage instructions of nystatin. The recovery and repair processes of mucosal epithelium of the tongue then occured after the use of nystatin. Conclusion: It can be concluded that microbiological examination is important to diagnose suspected cases of ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection. The appropriate treatment such as nystatin can be given for traumatic fungal infection.Latar belakang: Ulkus traumatic merupakan bentuk umum dari ulserasi rongga mulut yang terjadi akibat trauma

  7. Orbital spacecraft resupply technology

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Tracey, T. R.; Bailey, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    The resupplying of orbital spacecraft using the Space Shuttle, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle, Orbital Transfer Vehicle or a depot supply at a Space Station is studied. The governing factor in fluid resupply designs is the system size with respect to fluid resupply quantities. Spacecraft propellant management for tankage via diaphragm or surface tension configurations is examined. The capabilities, operation, and application of adiabatic ullage compression, ullage exchange, vent/fill/repressurize, and drain/vent/no-vent fill/repressurize, which are proposed transfer methods for spacecraft utilizing tankage configurations, are described. Selection of the appropriate resupply method is dependent on the spacecraft design features. Hydrazine adiabatic compression/detonation, liquid-free vapor venting to prevent freezing, and a method for no-vent liquid filling are analyzed. Various procedures for accurate measurements of propellant mass in low gravity are evaluated; a system of flowmeters with a PVT system was selected as the pressurant solubility and quantity gaging technique. Monopropellant and bipropellant orbital spacecraft consumable resupply system tanks which resupply 3000 lb of hydrazine and 7000 lb of MMH/NTO to spacecraft on orbit are presented.

  8. Helioseismology with Solar Orbiter

    Löptien, Björn; Gizon, Laurent; Schou, Jesper; Appourchaux, Thierry; Rodríguez, Julián Blanco; Cally, Paul S; Dominguez-Tagle, Carlos; Gandorfer, Achim; Hill, Frank; Hirzberger, Johann; Scherrer, Philip H; Solanki, Sami K

    2014-01-01

    The Solar Orbiter mission, to be launched in July 2017, will carry a suite of remote sensing and in-situ instruments, including the Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager (PHI). PHI will deliver high-cadence images of the Sun in intensity and Doppler velocity suitable for carrying out novel helioseismic studies. The orbit of the Solar Orbiter spacecraft will reach a solar latitude of up to 21 deg (up to 34 deg by the end of the extended mission) and thus will enable the first local helioseismology studies of the polar regions. Here we consider an array of science objectives to be addressed by helioseismology within the baseline telemetry allocation (51 Gbit per orbit, current baseline) and within the science observing windows (baseline 3 x 10 days per orbit). A particularly important objective is the measurement of large-scale flows at high latitudes (rotation and meridional flow), which are largely unknown but play an important role in flux transport dynamos. The full range of Earth-Sun-spacecraft angles provi...

  9. Periodic orbits and TDHF phase space structure

    Hashimoto, Yukio; Iwasawa, Kazuo [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Physics; Tsukuma, Hidehiko; Sakata, Fumihiko

    1998-03-01

    The collective motion of atomic nuclei is closely coupled with the motion of nucleons, therefore, it is nonlinear, and the contents of the motion change largely with the increase of its amplitude. As the framework which describes the collective motion accompanied by the change of internal structure, time-dependent Hurtley Fock (TDHF) method is suitable. At present, the authors try to make the method for studying the large region structure in quantum system by utilizing the features of the TDHF phase space. The studies made so far are briefed. In this report, the correspondence of the large region patterns appearing in the band structure chart of three-level model with the periodic orbit group in the TDHF phase space is described. The Husimi function is made, and it possesses the information on the form of respective corresponding intrinsic state. The method of making the band structure chart is explained. There are three kinds of the tendency in the intrinsic state group. The E-T charts are made for the band structure charts to quantitatively express the large region tendency. The E-T chart and the T{sub r}-T chart are drawn for a selected characteristic orbit group. It became to be known that the large region properties of the quantum intrinsic state group of three-level model can be forecast by examining the properties of the periodic orbit group in the TDHF phase space. (K.I.)

  10. Intrinsic Spin and Orbital-Angular-Momentum Hall Effect

    S. Zhang; Yang, Z.

    2004-01-01

    A generalized definition of intrinsic and extrinsic transport coefficients is introduced. We show that transport coefficients from the intrinsic origin are solely determined by local electronic structure, and thus the intrinsic spin Hall effect is not a transport phenomenon. The intrinsic spin Hall current is always accompanied by an equal but opposite intrinsic orbital-angular-momentum Hall current. We prove that the intrinsic spin Hall effect does not induce a spin accumulation at the edge ...

  11. Experimental Study on Full Life-cycle Performance of Magnetic Greases in Sea-water%海水环境下磁脂性能的全生命周期试验研究∗

    王阳; 张秋翔; 李双喜; 蔡纪宁

    2015-01-01

    利用磁脂密封试验台,研究在海水环境中磁脂从初始状态到稳定运转直至失效的全生命周期的性能变化。采用电镜和差热反应等方法对分散剂、磁性包覆颗粒以及载液的酸值和分油进行分析,研究磁脂的变化过程,得到其变化规律和磁脂失效的判据。结果表明:磁脂的结块硬化是引起磁脂失效的主要原因;磁脂发生结块硬化时,载液的分油加剧,载液承载作用减弱,出现磁性包覆颗粒分散稀疏带并呈现扩展趋势,但磁性颗粒没有发生氧化反应,分散剂形态仍保持良好。%The change of full life⁃cycle performances of magnetic greases from the initial state to the steady state until the dead end in sea⁃water was investigated by using the magnetic grease seal test bed.By analyzing the dispersant,magnetic coated particles, and the value and oil separation of loading fluid by the methods of SEM,TEM and differential thermal a⁃nalysis,the change process of magnetic greases was researched to find out the law of change of magnetic greases and the criterion of faults prediction of the magnetic greases. The results show that cross⁃linking hardening is the main reason to lead to the invalidation of magnetic greases.When the cross⁃linking hardening happens,the oil separation of loading fluid is increased and the carrying capacity is weakened, magnetic coated particles disperse sparsely and trend to diffusion. But there is no occurrence of oxidation reactions in magnetic particles,and the shape of dispersants is remained in good condi⁃tion.

  12. Endoscopic treatment of orbital tumors

    Signorelli, Francesco; Anile, Carmelo; Rigante, Mario; Paludetti, Gaetano; Pompucci, Angelo; Mangiola, Annunziato

    2015-01-01

    Different orbital and transcranial approaches are performed in order to manage orbital tumors, depending on the location and size of the lesion within the orbit. These approaches provide a satisfactory view of the superior and lateral aspects of the orbit and the optic canal but involve risks associated with their invasiveness because they require significant displacement of orbital structures. In addition, external approaches to intraconal lesions may also require deinsertion of extraocular ...

  13. Ectopic Ureter Accompanied by Duplicated Ureter: Three Cases.

    Senel, Ufuk; Tanriverdi, Halil Ibrahim; Ozmen, Zafer; Sozubir, Selami

    2015-09-01

    We report cases of ectopic ureter accompanied by three types of ureteral duplication that had been diagnosed previously and treated for enuresis. Data from three female patients ranging in age from 1 to 10 years were evaluated. The ectopic ureter was observed on the left in one case, on the right in another and bilateral in the third case. Complete duplication was found in two cases, while the third had incomplete duplication. Ureteroneocystostomy was performed in one case and subtotal nephrectomy was carried out in the other two cases. Ureteroneocystostomy was performed for the ectopic ureter found in the opposite urinary system in one of the cases. Ectopic duplicated ureter should be considered in treatment-resistant enuresis and urinary tract infections and after a careful physical examination, imaging as well as function tests should be performed. PMID:26500949

  14. A case of multiple intracranial tuberculomas accompanied by tuberculous meningitis

    A 63-year-old man was admitted for headache and progressive drowsiness. In spite of negative results from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) stains and cultures of tuberculosis and other bacteria, CSF findings and tuberculosis-positive sputum culture led to a tentative diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis. Symptoms and neurological test results both improved remarkably during antituberculous chemotherapy. Although the brain CT scan taken on admission showed no abnormal findings, one taken two months later revealed multiple high-density areas after enhancement with a contrast medium, suggesting multiple intracranial tuberculomas accompanied by tuberculous meningitis. The size of the multiple high-density areas gradually decreased during antituberculous chemotherapy. The CT scan can clearly locate lesions, detect complications, and evaluate the effects of treatment in patients with intracranial tuberculosis. (author)

  15. Sudden synchrony leaps accompanied by frequency multiplications in neuronal activity

    Ido Kanter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A classical view of neural coding relies on temporal firing synchrony among functional groups of neurons; however the underlying mechanism remains an enigma. Here we experimentally demonstrate a mechanism where time-lags among neuronal spiking leap from several tens of milliseconds to nearly zero-lag synchrony. It also allows sudden leaps out of synchrony, hence forming short epochs of synchrony. Our results are based on an experimental procedure where conditioned stimulations were enforced on circuits of neurons embedded within a large-scale network of cortical cells in vitro and are corroborated by simulations of neuronal populations. The underlying biological mechanisms are the unavoidable increase of the neuronal response latency to ongoing stimulations and temporal or spatial summation required to generate evoked spikes. These sudden leaps in and out of synchrony may be accompanied by multiplications of the neuronal firing frequency, hence offering reliable information-bearing indicators which may bridge between the two principal neuronal coding paradigms.

  16. Intracranial hypotension accompanied by trauma. A prospective study in Japan

    To clarify the clinical characteristics of definite and non-definite diagnosis groups in intracranial hypotension accompanied by trauma (IHAT), we undertook investigations of registered patients (n=23) prospectively. The results revealed the following features of IHAT: definite diagnosis group, 4 cases; they had long periods from injury to onset (5.5±5.7 days), but these were markedly shorter than in the non-definite group; 75% of definite cases showed typical postural headache; 75% of definite cases showed dural enhancement on Gd-MRI; all 4 cases had confirmed cerebrospinal fluid (CFS) leakage based on imaging diagnosis with cervical lesions in 2 cases and cervical-thoracic lesions in 2 cases; and 6) good recovery was achieved in them by conservative therapy and blood patch, with a cure rate of 100%. These findings suggest that confirmed CFS leakage is indispensable for reaching definite diagnosis of IHAT. (author)

  17. Orbital radionuclide examinations

    Orbital abnormalities can be evaluated by dynamic scintigraphy (radionuclide angiography) and static scintigraphy (radionuclide ''scanning''). The use of en face positioning improves the visualization of orbital details. Lesions can be detected and localized most accurately if multiple tracers are used for these studies. Abnormalities can be characterized by the recognition of various angiographic flow patterns, of distinct static distribution patterns, and of differences in the accumulation of multiple radiopharmaceuticals. The results of scintigraphic examination using technetium 99m sodium pertechnetate, mercury 197 chlormerodrin, and gallium 67 citrate in a series of 57 patients are reported. (U.S.)

  18. MR imaging of edema accompanying benign and malignant bone tumors

    To evaluate the incidence, quantity, and presentation of intra- and extraosseous edema accompanying benign and malignant primary bone lesions, the magnetic resonance (MR) studies of 63 consecutive patients with histologically proven primary bone tumors were reviewed. MR scans were assessed for the presence and quantity of marrow and soft tissue edema and correlated with preoperative findings, resected specimens and follow-up data. The signal intensity and enhancement of tumor and edema prior to and after intravenous administration (if any) of gadolinium-labled diethylene triamine pentaacetate (Gd-DTPA) was analyzed. Marrow edema was encountered adjacent to 8 of 39 maglinant tumors and 14 of 24 benign lesions. Soft tissue edema was found accompanying 28 of 39 malignancies and 10 of 24 benign disorders. On enhanced T1-weighted MR images tumor and edema were difficult to differentiate. Tumor inhomogeneity made this differentiation easier on T2-weighted sequences. In 36 patients the contrast medium Gd-DTPA was used. Edema was present in 27 of these patients and the respective enhancement of tumor and edema could be compared. Edema always enhanced homogeneously, and in most cases it enhanced to a similar degree as or more than tumor. Marrow and, more specifically, soft tissue edema is a frequent finding adjacent to primary bone tumors. The mere presence and quantity of marrow and soft tissue edema are unreliable indicators of the biologic potential of a lesion. Unenhanced MR scans cannot always differentiate between tumor and edema, but the administration of Gd-DTPA is of assistance in differentiating tumor from edema. Awareness of marrow and/or soft tissue edema adjacent to bone lesions is of importance because edema can be a pitfall in the diagnostic work-up and staging prior to biopsy or surgery. (orig.)

  19. Sedna Orbit Animation

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the location of the newly discovered planet-like object, dubbed 'Sedna,' in relation to the rest of the solar system. Starting at the inner solar system, which includes the orbits of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars (all in yellow), the view pulls away through the asteroid belt and the orbits of the outer planets beyond (green). Pluto and the distant Kuiper Belt objects are seen next until finally Sedna comes into view. As the field widens the full orbit of Sedna can be seen along with its current location. Sedna is nearing its closest approach to the Sun; its 10,000 year orbit typically takes it to far greater distances. Moving past Sedna, what was previously thought to be the inner edge of the Oort cloud appears. The Oort cloud is a spherical distribution of cold, icy bodies lying at the limits of the Sun's gravitational pull. Sedna's presence suggests that this Oort cloud is much closer than scientists believed.

  20. Orbital Fluid Transfer System

    Johnston, A. S., (Nick); Ryder, Mel; Tyler, Tony R.

    1998-01-01

    An automated fluid and power interface system needs to be developed for future space missions which require on orbit consumable replenishment. Current method of fluid transfer require manned vehicles and extravehicular activity. Currently the US does not have an automated capability for consumable transfer on-orbit. This technology would benefit both Space Station and long duration satellites. In order to provide this technology the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) was developed. The AFIS project was an advanced development program aimed at developing a prototype satellite servicer for future space operations. This mechanism could transfer propellants, cryogens, fluids, gasses, electrical power, and communications from a tanker unit to the orbiting satellite. The development of this unit was a cooperative effort between Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Moog, Inc. in East Aurora, New York. An engineering model was built and underwent substantial development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). While the AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit. The lessons learned from testing the AFIS provided the foundation for the next generation fluid transfer mechanism, the Orbital Fluid Transfer System (OFTS). The OFTS project was a study contract with MSFC and Moog, Inc. The OFTS was designed for the International Space Station (ISS), but its flexible design could used for long duration satellite missions and other applications. The OFTS was designed to be used after docking. The primary function was to transfer bipropellants and high pressure gases. The other items addressed by this task included propellant storage, hardware integration, safety and control system issues. A new concept for high pressure couplings was also developed. The results of the AFIS testing provided an excellent basis for the OFTS design. The OFTS

  1. Orbital hemorrhage and eyelid ecchymosis in acute orbital myositis.

    Reifler, D M; Leder, D; Rexford, T

    1989-02-15

    We examined two patients with acute orbital myositis associated with orbital hemorrhage and eyelid ecchymosis. Both patients were young women (aged 22 and 30 years) who had painful proptosis, diplopia, and computed tomographic evidence of single extraocular muscle involvement with spillover of inflammatory edema into the adjacent orbital fat. Patient 1 showed contralateral preseptal eyelid inflammation and did not suffer an orbital hemorrhage until after an episode of vomiting. In Patient 2, the diagnosis of occult orbital varix was initially considered but an orbital exploration and a biopsy specimen showed no vascular anomaly. Both patients were treated successfully with high-dose systemic corticosteroids. Some cases of idiopathic orbital inflammation may be related to preexisting vascular anomalies or orbital phlebitis. PMID:2913803

  2. Local orbitals by minimizing powers of the orbital variance

    Jansik, Branislav; Høst, Stinne; Kristensen, Kasper;

    2011-01-01

    It is demonstrated that a set of local orthonormal Hartree–Fock (HF) molecular orbitals can be obtained for both the occupied and virtual orbital spaces by minimizing powers of the orbital variance using the trust-region algorithm. For a power exponent equal to one, the Boys localization function...... is obtained. For increasing power exponents, the penalty for delocalized orbitals is increased and smaller maximum orbital spreads are encountered. Calculations on superbenzene, C60, and a fragment of the titin protein show that for a power exponent equal to one, delocalized outlier orbitals may be...... encountered. These disappear when the exponent is larger than one. For a small penalty, the occupied orbitals are more local than the virtual ones. When the penalty is increased, the locality of the occupied and virtual orbitals becomes similar. In fact, when increasing the cardinal number for Dunning...

  3. Orbit correction algorithm for SSRF fast orbit feedback system

    LIU Ming; YIN Chongxian; LIU Dekang

    2009-01-01

    A fast orbit feedback system is designed at SSRF to suppress beam orbit disturbance within sub-micron in the bandwidth up to 100 Hz.The SVD (Singular value decomposition) algorithm is applied to calculate the inverse response matrix in global orbit correction.The number of singular eigenvalues will influence orbit noise suppression and corrector strengths.The method to choose singular eigenvalue rejection threshold is studied in this paper,and the simulation and experiment results are also presented.

  4. Unusual Sclerosing Orbital Pseudotumor Infiltrating Orbits and Maxillofacial Regions

    Huseyin Toprak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic orbital pseudotumor (IOP is a benign inflammatory condition of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. Bilateral massive orbital involvement and extraorbital extension of the IOP is very rare. We present an unusual case of IOP with bilateral massive orbital infiltration extending into maxillofacial regions and discuss its distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI features that help to exclude other entities during differential diagnoses.

  5. Characterization of extracellular polymeric substances and microbial diversity in anaerobic co-digestion reactor treated sewage sludge with fat, oil, grease.

    Yang, Zhao-Hui; Xu, Rui; Zheng, Yue; Chen, Ting; Zhao, Li-Jun; Li, Min

    2016-07-01

    Performance of co-digesters, treated of sewage sludge (SS) with fat, oil and grease (FOG), were conducted semi-continuously in two mesophilic reactors over 180days. Compared with SS mono-digestion, biogas production and TS removal efficiency of co-digestion were significantly enhanced up to 35% and 26% by adding upper limit FOG (60% on VS). Enhancement in co-digestion performance was also stimulated by the release of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which was increased 40% in both loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) than that of mono-digester. Based on high-throughput sequencing (HTS), analysis of microbial 16S rRNA gene comprehensively revealed the dynamic change of microbial community. Results showed that both bacterial and archaeal undergone an apparent succession with FOG addition, and large amount of consortium like Methanosaeta and N09 were involved in the process. Redundancy analysis showed the acetoclastic genera Methanosaeta distinctly related with biogas production and EPS degradation. PMID:27099941

  6. Bioremediation of waste cooking oil using a novel lipase produced by Penicillium chrysogenum SNP5 grown in solid medium containing waste grease.

    Kumar, Sunil; Mathur, Anisha; Singh, Varsha; Nandy, Suchismita; Khare, Sunil Kumar; Negi, Sangeeta

    2012-09-01

    The aim of present work was to bioremediate the waste cooking oil using a novel lipase produced in solid medium containing waste grease and wheat bran by Penicillium chrysogenum. Enzyme extracted with phosphate buffer was purified 10.6 and 26.28-fold after 90% ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography, respectively. The partial characterization of enzyme revealed its K(m) and V(max) value for p-nitrophenolpamitate as 0.4mM and 47.61 U/ml, respectively. The relative molecular mass of lipase was 40 kDa by SDS-PAGE and confirmed by zymogram. Purified lipase was most stable at 40°C and at 8.0 pH. Lipase activity was enhanced by metal ions such as Mg(2+), Fe(2+), Ca(2+) and non-ionic surfactant TritonX-100, while suppressed in the presence of SDS. Crude lipase was applied on cooking oil waste and the acid value was 26.92 mg/g. This showed that the enzyme could be employed for the bioremediation of used cooking oil. PMID:22770974

  7. A full-scale UASB reactor for treatment of pig and cattle slaughterhouse wastewater with a high oil and grease content

    L. A. S. Miranda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the performance of an 800m³ full-scale UASB reactor in treating meat-packing plant and slaughterhouse effluents containing high concentrations of oil and grease (O&G (413-645 mg/L, resulting in a COD/O&G ratio of 26-32%. Those macromolecules were considered responsible for the unbalance of the system resulting in a total washout of the biomass. The removal of O&G from the influent using a physicochemical system (coagulation-flocculation improved the physical characteristics of the anaerobic sludge, controlling the biomass washout. Reactor performance was significantly improved when the COD/O&G ratio influent was maintained in the 10%. The COD and O&G removal rates obtained after implantation of the physicochemical system were 70-92% and 27-58%, respectively. The specific methanogenic activity (SMA of the biomass shows towards a tendency stabilisation and adaptation to the substrate influent. Pretreatment of the influent allowed the maximum organic load to be increased (1.46 to 2.43 Kg COD/m³.d and improved the quality of the effluent.

  8. Tribological characteristics of bisphenol AF bis(diphenyl phosphate) as an antiwear additive in polyalkylene glycol and polyurea grease for significantly improved lubrication

    Zhu, Lili; Wu, Xinhu; Zhao, Gaiqing; Wang, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    A new antiwear additive of Bisphenol AF bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BAFDP) was synthesized and characterized. The tribological behaviors of the additive for polyalkylene glycol (PAG) and polyurea grease (PG) application in steel/steel contacts were evaluated on an Optimol SRV-IV oscillating reciprocating friction and wear tester at elevated temperature. The results revealed that BAFDP could drastically reduce friction and wear of sliding pairs in both PAG and also in PG at 100 °C. The tribological properties of BAFDP are superior to the normally used zinc dialkyldithiophosphate-based additive package (ZDDP) in PAG and PG. Moreover, BAFDP as additive for PAG and PG displays relatively significant tribological properties in temperature-ramp tests by performing well at 50-300 °C, indicating the excellent high temperature friction reduction and anti-wear capacity of BAFDP. XPS results showed that boundary lubrication films composed of Fe(OH)O, Fe3O4, FePO4, FeF2, FeF3, compounds containing the Psbnd O bonds, nitrogen oxide, and so forth, were formed on the worn surface, which contributed to excellent friction reduction and antiwear performance.

  9. Dual-fuel production from restaurant grease trap waste: bio-fuel oil extraction and anaerobic methane production from the post-extracted residue.

    Kobayashi, Takuro; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Maeda, Kouji; Tsuji, Tomoya; Xu, Kaiqin

    2014-10-01

    An effective way for restaurant grease trap waste (GTW) treatment to generate fuel oil and methane by the combination of physiological and biological processes was investigated. The heat-driven extraction could provide a high purity oil equivalent to an A-grade fuel oil of Japanese industrial standard with 81-93 wt% of extraction efficiency. A post-extracted residue was treated as an anaerobic digestion feedstock, and however, an inhibitory effect of long chain fatty acid (LCFA) was still a barrier for high-rate digestion. From the semi-continuous experiment fed with the residual sludge as a single substrate, it can be concluded that the continuous addition of calcium into the reactor contributed to reducing LCFA inhibition, resulting in the long-term stable operation over one year. Furthermore, the anaerobic reactor performed well with 70-80% of COD reduction and methane productivity under an organic loading rate up to 5.3g-COD/L/d. PMID:25043346

  10. Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma accompanied by portal vein tumor thrombus

    Masami Minagawa; Masatoshi Makuuchi

    2006-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)accompanied by portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) is generally poor if left untreated: a median survival time of 2.7-4.0 mo has been reported. Furthermore, while transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) has been shown to be safe in selected patients, the median survival time with this treatment is still only 3.8-9.5 mo. Systemic single-agent chemotherapy for HCC with PVTT has failed to improve the prognosis, and the response rates have been less than 20%. While regional chemotherapy with low-dose cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil or interferon and 5-fluorouracil via hepatic arterial infusion has increased the response rate, the median survival time has not exceeded 12 (range 4.5-11.8) mo.Combined treatment consisting of radiation for PVTT and TACE for liver tumor has achieved a high response rate, but the median survival rates have still been only 3.8-10.7 mo. With hepatic resection as monotherapy,the 5-year survival rate and median survival time were reportedly 4%-28.5% and 6-14 mo. The most promising results were reported for combined treatments consisting of hepatectomy and TACE, chemotherapy, or internal radiation. The reported 5-year survival rates and median survival times were 42% and 31 mo for TACE followed by hepatectomy; 36.3% and 22.1 mo for hepatectomy followed by hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy; and 56% for chemotherapy or internal radiation followed by hepatectomy.

  11. Thyroid Metastasis from Breast Carcinoma Accompanied by Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Song-I Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the thyroid gland is very rare. Recently, we experienced a case of thyroid metastasis from breast cancer accompanying a papillary thyroid. A 51-year-old female patient presented with a palpated lymph node on her left lateral neck. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy and hormonal therapy 12 years prior. Ultrasonography of the neck revealed a malignant looking nodule at the left thyroid lobe, measuring 0.9 × 0.9 cm, and several cystic nodules at the right thyroid lobe. Ultrasonography of the neck additionally revealed a malignant looking lymph node at the right level VI. Fine-needle aspiration of the left thyroid lobe resulted in a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and that of the right level VI in Hurthle cell lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy with selective dissection of the left neck node. Pathologic assessment of the specimen revealed metastatic carcinoma from the breast carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the thyroid gland is highly vascularized, metastasis of malignant tumors to the thyroid is relatively rare and detection of metastasis shows a low frequency. So a careful evaluation of thyroid tumor should be considered in a patient with a history of other malignancy.

  12. Ophthalmic manifestations of methylmalonic aciduria accompanied with homocystinuria

    Qiu-Jing Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Methylmalonicaciduia(MMAaccompanied with homocystinuria is a rare autosomal-recessive with congenital metabolic disorder of Vitamin B12. There are three subtypes, cblC, cblD, cblF, in which cblC is the most common one. The diagnostic tests are tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Tests for activity of enzyme in fibroblasts from skin, complementary assay and genetic analysis can be used to make the subtype clear. Early-onset patients, defined by onset of symptoms before the age of 1 year, may have severe ocular involvement, including visual loss, nystagmus, strabismus, retinopathy, maculopathy, optic atrophy, abnormal electroretinography. Late-onset patients, defined by onset of symptoms after the age of 4 year, rarely have ocular manifestations. The pathogenesis of the ophthalmic symptoms may be related to the high level of homocystine, oxidative stress and the abnormal development of nervous systems. The treatment for MMA accompanied with homocystinuria is mostly symptomatic based. Ophthalmic treatment is limited. Early supplement of methionine,GSH or other antioxidants may be helpful for retinopathy. There is no standard ophthalmological examination for those patients in China. It is critical to set up inter-departmental cooperation and early stage examination for the treatments and outcomes of the patients.

  13. Two cases of rectal cancer accompanied with radiation colitis

    This paper presents two cases of rectal cancer accompanied with radiation colitis. Case 1 was a 53-year-old woman, who had a history of undergoing radiation therapy for a uterine cervical cancer 11 years before. She was seen at the hospital because of constipation and pointed out a IIa-like lesion on the rectum by colonoscopy. Abdominoperineal resection was performed. The surgical specimen showed the IIa-like lesion on the rectum. Pathological findings revealed well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining of p53 showed positive cells in atrophic glands. Case 2 was a 62-year-old woman complaining of diarrhea. There was a previous history of receiving radiation therapy for a uterine cancer 20 years before. Colonoscopy showed a Borrmann type 2 cancer on the rectum. Abdominoperineal resection was performed. Histological findings revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma invading to the propria muscle. The features of radiation colitis were observed around the cancer in the two cases which provided a clue to diagnose the lesions with radiation-induced cancer. (author)

  14. Change of local social economy accompanying location of power stations

    The method of environment assessment is urgently developed to make various development plans appropriate. It is desirable to grasp synthetically direct and indirect influences to society, since various development activities are deeply related to whole local societies. The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has performed research to develop the method of synthesizing environment assessment, and this is the interim report on the development of the method for forecasting and evaluating the social influence accompanying the location of power stations. As the first approach, the development of the model to forecast the influence of location was started, using the econometric method. In this paper, the works of composing the pilot model, which was made to examine the possibility of model development, are summarized. The fundamental framework of model composition and the theoretical model for each power source and each locality were examined, and the works of making the proving models related to three points based on the theoretical model were carried out. As the result of this work of pilot model composition, the prospect of developing the econometric model for forecasting social environmental influence was obtained, and the works of developing the more versatile master model are advanced at present. (Kako, I.)

  15. Change of local social economy accompanying location of power stations

    Arai, Yasuo; Saito, Kannosuke (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))

    1982-05-01

    The method of environment assessment is urgently developed to make various development plans appropriate. It is desirable to grasp synthetically direct and indirect influences to society, since various development activities are deeply related to whole local societies. The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has performed research to develop the method of synthesizing environment assessment, and this is the interim report on the development of the method for forecasting and evaluating the social influence accompanying the location of power stations. As the first approach, the development of the model to forecast the influence of location was started, using the econometric method. In this paper, the works of composing the pilot model, which was made to examine the possibility of model development, are summarized. The fundamental framework of model composition and the theoretical model for each power source and each locality were examined, and the works of making the proving models related to three points based on the theoretical model were carried out. As the result of this work of pilot model composition, the prospect of developing the econometric model for forecasting social environmental influence was obtained, and the works of developing the more versatile master model are advanced at present.

  16. Radio rebrightening of the GRB afterglow by the accompanying supernova

    Duran, Rodolfo Barniol

    2015-01-01

    The gamma-ray burst (GRB) jet powers the afterglow emission by shocking the surrounding medium, and radio afterglow can now be routinely observed to almost a year after the explosion. Long-duration GRBs are accompanied by supernovae (SNe) that typically contain much more energy than the GRB jet. Here we consider the fact that the SN blast wave will also produce its own afterglow, which will peak at much later time (since it is non-relativistic), when the SN blast wave transitions from a coasting phase to a decelerating Sedov-Taylor phase. We predict that this component will peak generally a few tens of years after the explosion and it will outshine the GRB powered afterglow well-before its peak emission. In the case of GRB 030329, where the external density is constrained by the $\\sim 10$-year coverage of the radio GRB afterglow, the radio emission is predicted to start rising over the next decade and to continue to increase for the following decades up to a level of $\\sim 0.5$ mJy. Detection of the SN-powere...

  17. Radio rebrightening of the GRB afterglow by the accompanying supernova

    Barniol Duran, R.; Giannios, D.

    2015-12-01

    The gamma-ray burst (GRB) jet powers the afterglow emission by shocking the surrounding medium, and radio afterglow can now be routinely observed to almost a year after the explosion. Long-duration GRBs are accompanied by supernovae (SNe) that typically contain much more energy than the GRB jet. Here we consider the fact that the SN blast wave will also produce its own afterglow (supernova remnant emission), which will peak at much later time (since it is non-relativistic), when the SN blast wave transitions from a coasting phase to a decelerating Sedov-Taylor phase. We predict that this component will peak generally a few tens of years after the explosion and it will outshine the GRB powered afterglow well-before its peak emission. In the case of GRB 030329, where the external density is constrained by the ˜10-year coverage of the radio GRB afterglow, the radio emission is predicted to start rising over the next decade and to continue to increase for the following decades up to a level of ˜ mJy. Detection of the SN-powered radio emission will greatly advance our knowledge of particle acceleration in ˜0.1c shocks.

  18. SPECS: Orbital debris removal

    1991-01-01

    The debris problem has reached a stage at which the risk to satellites and spacecraft has become substantial in low Earth orbit (LEO). This research discovered that small particles posed little threat to spacecraft because shielding can effectively prevent these particles from damaging the spacecraft. The research also showed that, even though collision with a large piece of debris could destroy the spacecraft, the large pieces of debris pose little danger because they can be tracked and the spacecraft can be maneuvered away from these pieces. Additionally, there are many current designs to capture and remove large debris particles from the space environment. From this analysis, it was decided to concentrate on the removal of medium-sized orbital debris, that is, those pieces ranging from 1 cm to 50 cm in size. The current design incorporates a transfer vehicle and a netting vehicle to capture the medium-sized debris. The system is based near an operational space station located at 28.5 deg inclination and 400 km altitude. The system uses ground-based tracking to determine the location of a satellite breakup or debris cloud. These data are uploaded to the transfer vehicle, which proceeds to rendezvous with the debris at a lower altitude parking orbit. Next, the netting vehicle is deployed, tracks the targeted debris, and captures it. After expending the available nets, the netting vehicle returns to the transfer vehicle for a new netting module and continues to capture more debris in the target area. Once all the netting modules are expended, the transfer vehicle returns to the space station's orbit where it is resupplied with new netting modules from a space shuttle load. The new modules are launched by the shuttle from the ground and the expended modules are taken back to Earth for removal of the captured debris, refueling, and repacking of the nets. Once the netting modules are refurbished, they are taken back into orbit for reuse. In a typical mission, the

  19. Orbital welding technique; Orbitalschweisstechnik

    Hoeschen, W. [Kraftanlagen Nukleartechnik GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The TIG (Tungsten-inert gas) orbital welding technique is applied in all areas of pipe welding. The process is mainly used for austenitic and ferritic materials but also for materials like aluminium, nickel, and titanium alloys are commonly welded according to this technique. Thin-walled as well as thick-walled pipes are welded economically. The application of orbital welding is of particular interest in the area of maintenance of thick-walled pipes that is described in this article. (orig.) [German] Die praktische Anwendung des Wolfram-Inertgas-(WIG-)Orbitalschweissverfahrens erfolgt in allen Sparten des Rohrleitungsbaues. Vorwiegend wird das Verfahren an austenitischen und ferritischen Werkstoffen eingesetzt. Aber auch andere Werkstoffe, wie Aluminium, Nickel- und Titanlegierungen, sind gaengige Praxis. Dabei werden sowohl duenn- als auch dickwandige Rohre wirtschaftlich verschweisst. In der Instandhaltung ist die Anwendung der Orbitaltechnik fuer dickwandige Rohre von besonderem Interesse und wird hier beschrieben. (orig.)

  20. GOC: General Orbit Code

    GOC (General Orbit Code) is a versatile program which will perform a variety of calculations relevant to isochronous cyclotron design studies. In addition to the usual calculations of interest (e.g., equilibrium and accelerated orbits, focusing frequencies, field isochronization, etc.), GOC has a number of options to calculate injections with a charge change. GOC provides both printed and plotted output, and will follow groups of particles to allow determination of finite-beam properties. An interactive PDP-10 program called GIP, which prepares input data for GOC, is available. GIP is a very easy and convenient way to prepare complicated input data for GOC. Enclosed with this report are several microfiche containing source listings of GOC and other related routines and the printed output from a multiple-option GOC run

  1. Orbits of Operators

    Müller, Vladimír

    New Jersey : World Scientific, 2004 - (Aizpuru-Tomás, A.; León-Saavedra, F.), s. 53-79 ISBN 981-256-060-2. [International Course of Mathematical Analysis /1./. Cádiz (ES), 22.09.2002-27.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/03/0041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : orbits * invariant subspace problem * hypercyclic vectors Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  2. Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter

    Bender, Peter L.; Vincent, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy of solar system tests of gravitational theory could be very much improved by range and Doppler measurements to a Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter. A nearly circular orbit at roughly 2400 km altitude is assumed in order to minimize problems with orbit determination and thermal radiation from the surface. The spacecraft is spin-stabilized and has a 30 cm diameter de-spun antenna. With K-band and X-band ranging systems using a 50 MHz offset sidetone at K-band, a range accuracy of 3 cm appears to be realistically achievable. The estimated spacecraft mass is 50 kg. A consider-covariance analysis was performed to determine how well the Earth-Mercury distance as a function of time could be determined with such a Relativity Orbiter. The minimum data set is assumed to be 40 independent 8-hour arcs of tracking data at selected times during a two year period. The gravity field of Mercury up through degree and order 10 is solved for, along with the initial conditions for each arc and the Earth-Mercury distance at the center of each arc. The considered parameters include the gravity field parameters of degree 11 and 12 plus the tracking station coordinates, the tropospheric delay, and two parameters in a crude radiation pressure model. The conclusion is that the Earth-Mercury distance can be determined to 6 cm accuracy or better. From a modified worst-case analysis, this would lead to roughly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in the knowledge of the precession of perihelion, the relativistic time delay, and the possible change in the gravitational constant with time.

  3. Rhino-orbital mucormycosis

    S. D. Mathebula

    2006-01-01

    Rhino-orbital mucormycosis is a rare but life-threatening infection that generally occurs in patients with immune deficiency. As such the condition is a medical emergency. Early rec-ognition and treatment are essential because it may lead to death within a few days. Fungal in-fections of the eye are uncommon but are being seen with increasing frequency in patients with immune deficiency.

  4. Preseptal and orbital cellulitis

    Emine Akçay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Preseptal cellulitis (PC is defined as an inflammation of the eyelid and surrounding skin, whereas orbital cellulitis (OC is an inflammation of the posterior septum of the eyelid affecting the orbit and its contents. Periorbital tissues may become infected as a result of trauma (including insect bites or primary bacteremia. Orbital cellulitis generally occurs as a complication of sinusitis. The most commonly isolated organisms are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. epidermidis, Haempphilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and S. pyogenes. The method for the diagnosis of OS and PS is computed tomography. Using effective antibiotics is a mainstay for the treatment of PC and OC. There is an agreement that surgical drainage should be performed in cases of complete ophthalmoplegia or significant visual impairment or large abscesses formation. This infections are also at a greater risk of acute visual loss, cavernous sinus thrombosis, meningitis, cerebritis, endophthalmitis, and brain abscess in children. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial to control the infection. Diagnosis, treatment, management and complications of PC and OC are summarized in this manuscript. J MicrobiolInfect Dis 2014; 4(3: 123-127

  5. Treatment of orbital rhabdomyosarcoma

    From March 1973 to December 1981 embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the orbit was diagnosed in 5 children. In two children exenteration was done after a previous local radiotherapy. In one child the exenteration of the orbit was done after a primary chemo- and radiotherapy because of local progression of the tumor. In two children the exenteration was avoidable by this therapy. In four of these five children this was followed by vincristine, actinomycine D and cyclophosphamide for 16 to 24 month. After the diagnosis these four children survived until now from 31/2 to more than 8 years. They are free of treatment and free of disease. Seven months after diganosis one child died with an acute respiratory distress syndrome (at post mortem: hyaline membranes). In patients with rhabdomyosarcoma of the orbit it is ustified to avoid the mutilating exenteration by primary chemotherapy followed by irradiation of the reduced tumor. If exenteration becomes subsequently necessary the chance for survival is not diminished in our opinion. (Author)

  6. Chaos Behaviour of Molecular Orbit

    LIU Shu-Tang; SUN Fu-Yan; SHEN Shu-Lan

    2007-01-01

    Based on H(u)ckel's molecular orbit theory,the chaos and;bifurcation behaviour of a molecular orbit modelled by a nonlinear dynamic system is studied.The relationship between molecular orbit and its energy level in the nonlinear dynamic system is obtained.

  7. Developing the Sufficiency Perception Scale in the Area of Accompaniment with Piano for Candidate Music Teachers

    PİJİ, Duygu

    2013-01-01

    The music teacher’s accompanying the songs by piano in music education at schoolappears to be important regarding the development of melody, rhythm and harmony feelingsof the students. The music teacher candidates receive their knowledge and skill in the areaof piano accompaniment through the Accompaniment lesson within the Music TeachingLicense Program. In this research, with the purpose of defining the perception of sufficiencyregarding the accompaniment levels of music teacher candidates a...

  8. Hemiplegic peripheral neuropathy accompanied with multiple cranial nerve palsy

    Hirohisa Okuma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old man experienced double vision around January, 2010, followed by weakness of his left upper and lower extremities. Articulation disorders and loss of hearing in his left ear developed, and he was admitted to our hospital on February 14, 2010. Physical examination was normal, and neurological examination showed clear consciousness with no impairment of cognitive function, but with articulation disorders. Olfactory sensation was reduced. Left ptosis and left gaze palsy, complete left facial palsy, perceptive deafness of the left ear, and muscle weakness of the left trapezius muscle were observed. Paresis in the left upper and lower extremities was graded 4/5 through manual muscle testing. Sensory system evaluation revealed complete left-side palsy, including the face. Deep tendon reflexes were slightly diminished equally on both sides; no pathologic reflex was seen. No abnormality of the brain parenchyma, cerebral nerves or cervicothoracolumbar region was found on brain magnetic resonance imaging. On electroencephalogram, alpha waves in the main frequency band of 8 to 9 Hz were recorded, indicating normal findings. Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT scan showed reduced blood flow in the right inner frontal lobe and both occipital lobes. Nerve biopsy (left sural nerve showed reduction of nerve density by 30%, with demyelination. The patient also showed manifestations of multiple cranial nerve disorder, i.e., of the trigeminal nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve, and hypoglossal nerve. Whole-body examination was negative. Finally, based on ischemic brain SPECT images, spinal fluid findings and nerve biopsy results, peripheral neuropathy accompanied with multiple cranial nerve palsy was diagnosed.

  9. Fenestrations accompanied by intracranial aneurysms assessed with magnetic resonance angiography

    Zhen-Kui Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomical changes and investigate the prevalence in intracranial aneurysm with fenestrations using magnetic resonance angiography (MRA. Materials and Methods: Between June 2008 and October 2010, 4652 patients (aged 23-73 years with suspected intracranial aneurysm or other cerebrovascular diseases underwent MRA examination. MRA was performed using a three-dimensional time-of-flight technique (3D-TOF with volume rendering (VR and maximum intensity projection reconstruction methods. The presence and location of fenestrations and aneurysms was reviewed. When fenestrations were present in combination with aneurysms, we noted the relationship of the locations. The classification of fenestration accompanied by intracranial aneurysm was divided into three types according to the anatomical relationship as follows: Type I, aneurysm adjacent to but not on a fenestration; Type II, aneurysm located on the fenestration; type III, aneurysm located at a position remote from a fenestration. Results: Among the 4652 patients examined, 409 patients were defined with 412 intracranial aneurysms, and the prevalence of aneurysms was 8.8%. One hundred and forty-one patients were identified with fenestrations; 24 of these patients were confirmed with intracranial aneurysms. Seven cases were classified as type I, three as type II and 14 as type III. The prevalence of intracranial aneurysm with fenestrations was 17.0%, with significant statistical difference compared with aneurysms unaccompanied with fenestrations (P=0.0064. Conclusion: The anatomical relationship between fenestrations and intracranial aneurysms was visualized by MRA with VR, which displayed pathologies with sufficient clarity to enable diagnosis. Furthermore, the results of this study suggest that physicians should be alerted to the occurrence of intracranial aneurysm following the detection of fenestrations by MRA.

  10. 5 CFR 581.203 - Information minimally required to accompany legal process.

    2010-01-01

    ... accompany legal process. 581.203 Section 581.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Process § 581.203 Information minimally required to accompany legal process. (a) Sufficient identifying information must accompany the legal process in order to enable processing by the governmental entity...