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Sample records for accompanies pro-thymocyte proliferation

  1. Anisomycin-induced GATA-6 degradation accompanying a decrease of proliferation of colorectal cancer cell.

    Ushijima, Hironori; Horyozaki, Akiko; Maeda, Masatomo

    2016-09-01

    Transcription factor GATA-6 plays a key role in normal cell differentiation of the mesoderm and endoderm. On the other hand, GATA-6 is abnormally overexpressed in many clinical gastrointestinal cancer tissue samples, and accelerates cell proliferation or an anti-apoptotic response in cancerous tissues. We previously showed that activation of the JNK signaling cascade causes proteolysis of GATA-6. In this study, we demonstrated that anisomycin, a JNK activator, stimulates nuclear export of GATA-6 in a colorectal cancer cell line, DLD-1. Concomitantly, anisomycin remarkably inhibits the proliferation of DLD-1 cells via G2/M arrest in a plate culture. However, it did not induce apoptosis under growth arrest conditions. Furthermore, the growth of DLD-1 cells in a spheroid culture was suppressed by anisomycin. Although 5-FU showed only a slight inhibitory effect on 3D spheroid cultures, the same concentration of 5-FU together with a low concentration of anisomycin exhibited strong growth inhibition. These results suggest that the induction of GATA-6 dysfunction may be more effective for chemotherapy for colorectal cancer, although the mechanism underlying the synergistic effect of 5-FU and anisomycin remains unknown. PMID:27404124

  2. Psychosocial Accompaniment

    Mary Watkins

    2015-01-01

    This essay advocates for a paradigm shift in psychology toward the activity and ethics of accompaniment. Accompaniment requires a reorientation of the subjectivity, interpersonal practices, and critical understanding of the accompanier so that (s)he can stand alongside others who desire listening, witnessing, advocacy, space to develop critical inquiry and research, and joint imagination and action to address desired and needed changes. The idea of “accompaniment” emerged in liberation theolo...

  3. Proliferation risks

    The report gives an overview of different aspects related to safeguards of fissile materials. Existing treaties including the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and the Tlatelolco and the Rarotonga Treaties are discussed. An overview of safeguards systems for the control of fissile materials as well as the role of various authorities is given. An overall overview of proliferation risks, the physical protection of fissile materials and the trade in fissile materials is given. Finally, the status in problem countries and de facto nuclear weapon states is discussed

  4. 19 CFR 148.4 - Accompanying articles.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accompanying articles. 148.4 Section 148.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS General Provisions § 148.4 Accompanying articles. (a) Generally. Articles shall be considered as accompanying a passenger or brought in by him if the...

  5. Handling Proliferation

    Pierre Laszlo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The ethics of the chemist identify with those of the citizen, in principle. The observed perversions, such as proliferation of chemicals, stem from the values of a chemical community closed upon itself, and from the attendant identification of a mere know-how with a science. The epistemic degradation produces moral indifference.

  6. Novice Collaboration in Solo and Accompaniment Improvisation

    Hansen, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how non-musicians engaged in a solo-accompaniment music improvisation relationship. Seven user teams interacted with two electronic music instruments integrated in two pen tablets. One instrument was a melody instrument and the other a chord instru-ment. The study was done in order to understand how future shared electronic music instruments can be de-signed to encourage non-musicians to engage in social action through music improvisation. A combination of quantitative...

  7. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    Yeliz Bilir; Erkan Gokce; Banu Ozturk; Faik Alev Deresoy; Ruken Yuksekkaya; Emel Yaman

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity...

  8. Novice Collaboration in Solo and Accompaniment Improvisation

    Hansen, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    in order to understand how future shared electronic music instruments can be de-signed to encourage non-musicians to engage in social action through music improvisation. A combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis was used to find characteristics in co-expression found in a solo......This study investigates how non-musicians engaged in a solo-accompaniment music improvisation relationship. Seven user teams interacted with two electronic music instruments integrated in two pen tablets. One instrument was a melody instrument and the other a chord instru-ment. The study was done...

  9. Solutions manual to accompany Fundamentals of calculus

    Morris, Carla C

    2015-01-01

    Solutions Manual to Accompany Fundamentals of Calculus the text that encourages students to use power, quotient, and product rules for solutions as well as stresses the importance of modeling skills.  In addition to core integral and differential calculus coverage, the core book features finite calculus, which lends itself to modeling and spreadsheets.  Specifically, finite calculus is applied to marginal economic analysis, finance, growth, and decay.  Includes: Linear Equations and Functions The Derivative Using the Derivative Exponential and Logarithmic

  10. Severe Hypoglycemia Accompanied with Thyroid Crisis

    Yuki Nakatani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 32-year-old Japanese women with severe hypoglycemia accompanied with thyroid crisis. She complained of dyspnea, general fatigue, and leg edema. She was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism with congestive heart failure and liver dysfunction. Soon after admission, sudden cardiopulmonary arrest occurred. She was then transferred to the intensive care unit. Her serum glucose level was 7 mg/dl. Intravenous glucose, hydrocortisone, diuretics, and continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF saved her. We considered that hypoglycemia occurred due to heart failure and liver dysfunction due to thyroid crisis.

  11. Sacral perineural cyst accompanying disc herniation.

    Ju, Chang Il; Shin, Ho; Kim, Seok Won; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2009-03-01

    Although most of sacral perineural cysts are asymptomatic, some may produce symptoms. Specific radicular pain may be due to distortion, compression, or stretching of nerve root by a space occupying cyst. We report a rare case of S1 radiculopathy caused by sacral perineural cyst accompanying disc herniation. The patient underwent a microscopic discectomy at L5-S1 level. However, the patient's symptoms did not improved. The hypesthesia persisted, as did the right leg pain. Cyst-subarachnoid shunt was set to decompress nerve root and to equalize the cerebrospinal fluid pressure between the cephalad thecal sac and cyst. Immediately after surgery, the patient had no leg pain. After 6 months, the patient still remained free of leg pain. PMID:19352483

  12. Tumefactive Brain Demyelination Accompanying MADSAM Neuropathy

    Şefik Evren Erdener

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor (MADSAM neuropathy is characterized by asymmetric multifocal motor and sensory loss and conduction blocks in peripheral nerves. Peripheral demyelinating diseases may be accompanied by demyelination in central nervous system (CNS. In this report, a MADSAM patient with a solitary tumefactive demyelinating lesion in brain is presented. Neuroimaging due to a visual field defect revealed a right parietooccipital lesion, which was initially misdiagnosed as a tumor. Pathological examination showed that it was demyelinating in nature. Peripheral nervous symptoms of the patient developed two years later and she was then diagnosed with MADSAM. There was prominent clinical and electrophysiological response to steroid treatment. Tumefactive brain involvement was not previously reported for MADSAM neuropathy, although it was documented in a single case with typical chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP. CNS involvement should therefore be considered in MADSAM patients.

  13. Bilateral foveal retinoschisis accompanying unilateral peripheral retinoschisis

    Nilufer Kocak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available X-linked juvenile retinoschisis is a rare hereditary retinal disease characterized by a tangential splitting of the neurosensory retina which may cause early-onset visual impairment. Existence of the retinal neurosensory layer splitting on cross-sectional images of optical coherance tomography (OCT and the absence of leakage on fluorescein angiography (FA help confirming the diagnosis. Such diagnostic tests are also helpful in determining the management of the disease. However, most of the retinoschisis cavities remain stable and rarely extend to the posterior pole, many authors suggest laser prophylaxis to avoid the potential risk of retinal detachment due to holes in the outer retinal layer. Herein, we report a case with bilateral foveal retinoschisis accompanying unilateral peripheral retinoschisis who was evaluated with detailed ophthalmologic examination. Visual acuity, fundoscopy, OCT, and FA remained stable in the second year of follow-up after prophylactic argon laser treatment.

  14. Proliferation: myth or reality?

    This article analyzes the proliferation approach, its technical condition and political motivation, and the share between the myth (political deception, assumptions and extrapolations) and the reality of proliferation. Its appreciation is complicated by the irrational behaviour of some political actors and by the significant loss of the non-use taboo. The control of technologies is an important element for proliferation slowing down but an efficient and autonomous intelligence system remains indispensable. (J.S.)

  15. Surgical complications accompanying liver transplantation in Estonia.

    Väli, T; Tein, A; Tikk, T; Sillakivi, T

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate surgical complications accompanying the introduction of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in Estonia. Between 1999 and 2009, we performed the first 12 liver transplantations. Eight patients were males and four were females of age range 12 to 67 years. Their diagnoses were cholestatic disease (n = 5); tumor (n = 3); hepatitis C virus cirrhosis (n = 2); Budd-Chiari syndrome (n = 1); and cystic fibrosis (n = 1). Technical complications occurred in 7/12 patients. The early vascular complications in two patients were a suprahepatic vena cava lesion occurring at liver extraction, which resulted in uncontrolled suprahepatic bleeding after liver perfusion; the recipient died during transplantation. The other case displayed a right intrahepatic portal venous thrombosis, which was treated successfully with thrombolysis and anticoagulant therapy. Early biliary complications of biliary leaks occurred in three patients: two had undergone duct-to-duct reconstructions, which were treated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography that successfully managed the anastomotic and recipient cystic duct leaks with a papillotomy and stenting. In one patient with a duct-to-jejunum anastomosis, a bile leak stopped at 3 weeks but he needed surgical therapy 2 years later due to an anastomotic stricture. Severe decubitus occurred in the lumbosacral region of the subjects with operating times of 14 hours. They required necretectomy and plastic surgery. One of them with postoperative intra-abdominal hypertension also displayed wound eventration requiring reoperations. The rate of hepatic (5/12) and extrahepatic (3/12) surgical complications, as well as of 1-year survival (9/12), in our period of implementation of OLT were satisfactory to continue OLT development in Estonia. PMID:21168717

  16. Auroral pulsations and accompanying VLF emissions

    V. R. Tagirov

    Full Text Available Results of simultaneous TV observations of pulsating auroral patches and ELF-VLF-emissions in the morning sector carried out in Sodankylä (Finland on February 15, 1991 are presented. Auroral pulsating activity was typical having pulsating patches with characteristic periods of about 7 s. Narrow-band hiss emissions and chorus elements at intervals of 0.3–0.4 s formed the main ELF-VLF activity in the frequency range 1.0–2.5 kHz at the same time. The analysis of auroral images with time resolution of 0.04 s allowed perfectly separate analysis of spatial and temporal variations in the auroral luminosity. Mutual correspondence between the behaviour of the luminous auroral patches and the appearance of ELF noise type hiss emissions and VLF chorus trains was found in two intervals chosen for analysis. While the hiss emissions were associated with the appearance of luminosity inside a limited area close to the zenith, the structured VLF emissions were accompanied by rapid motion of luminosity inside the area. The spatial dimension of the pulsating area was about 45–50 km and luminosity propagated inside it with velocity of about 10–12 kms. We discuss a new approach to explain the 5–15 s auroral pulsation based on the theory of flowing cyclotron maser and relaxation characteristics of ionosphere.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions · Space plasma physics (wave-particle interactions

  17. 16 CFR 1500.125 - Labeling requirements for accompanying literature.

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling requirements for accompanying literature. 1500.125 Section 1500.125 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL... REGULATIONS § 1500.125 Labeling requirements for accompanying literature. When any accompanying...

  18. Director's series on proliferation

    This is an occasional publication of essays on the topics of nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile proliferation. The views represented are those of the author's. Essay topics include: Nuclear Proliferation: Myth and Reality; Problems of Enforcing Compliance with Arms Control Agreements; The Unreliability of the Russian Officer Corps: Reluctant Domestic Warriors; and Russia's Nuclear Legacy

  19. Proliferation Networks and Financing

    The objective of this study is to propose practical solutions aimed at completing and strengthening the existing arrangement for the control of nuclear proliferation through a control of financial as well as material or immaterial flows. In a first part, the author proposes a systemic analysis of networks of suppliers and demanders. He notably evokes the Khan's network and the Iraqi acquisition network during the 1993-2001 period. He also proposes a modelling of proliferation networks (supplier networks and acquisition networks) and of their interactions. In a second part, the author examines possible means and policies aimed at neutralising proliferation networks: organisation, adaptation and improvement of intelligence tools in front of proliferation networks, and means, limitations and perspectives of network neutralisation. He also briefly addresses the possibility of military action to contain proliferation flows

  20. Getting serious about proliferation

    The US needs to give a higher priority to nuclear non-proliferation, but Reagan's policies assume that proliferation is inevitable and that it is more important to be a reliable supplier than to cause trade frictions by trading only with those nations which sign the non-proliferation treaty (NPT). This undercuts US leadership and the intent of the agreement. Several bills now before Congress could help to restore US leadership by tightening export restrictions and the use of plutonium from the US

  1. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be...

  2. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208 Section 93.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry § 93.208 Articles accompanying poultry....

  3. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No...

  4. 9 CFR 93.409 - Articles accompanying ruminants.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying ruminants. 93.409 Section 93.409 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.409 Articles accompanying...

  5. Harmonizing Melody with Meta-Structure of Piano Accompaniment Figure

    Yin Feng; Kui Chen; Xiang-Bin Liu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,a meta-structure of piano accompaniment figure (meta-structure for short) is proposed to harmonize a melodic piece of music so as to construct a multi-voice music.Here we approach melody harmonization with piano accompaniment as a machine learning task in a probabilistic framework.A series of piano accompaniment figures are collected from the massive existing sample scores and converted into a set of meta-structure.After the procedure of samples training,a model is formulated to generate a proper piano accompaniment figure for a harmonizing unit in the context.This model is flexible in harmonizing a melody with piano accompaniment.The experimental results are evaluated and discussed.

  6. The nuclear proliferation; La proliferation nucleaire

    Gere, F. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France)

    1995-04-01

    In this book is detailed the beginning of nuclear military power, with the first bomb of Hiroshima, the different ways of getting uranium 235 and plutonium 239, and how the first countries (Usa, Ussr, China, United kingdom, France) got nuclear weapons. Then the most important part is reviewed with the details of non-proliferation treaty and the creation of IAEA to promote civilian nuclear power in the world and to control the use of plutonium and uranium in nuclear power plants. The cases of countries who reached the atom mastery, such Israel, South Africa, Pakistan, Iraq, North Korea, Argentina, Brazil, Iran, Algeria, Taiwan and the reasons which they wanted nuclear weapon for or why they gave up, are exposed.

  7. Cell Proliferation in Neuroblastoma

    Laura L. Stafman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, continues to carry a dismal prognosis for children diagnosed with advanced stage or relapsed disease. This review focuses upon factors responsible for cell proliferation in neuroblastoma including transcription factors, kinases, and regulators of the cell cycle. Novel therapeutic strategies directed toward these targets in neuroblastoma are discussed.

  8. Battling Nuclear Proliferation

    2007-01-01

    As the North Korean and Iranian nuclear issues develop and efforts to resolve them continue, global attention to anti-nuclear proliferation and the work of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has become even more intense. Pang Sen, Chairman of

  9. A Case of Cluster Headache Accompanied by Myoclonus and Hemiparesis

    Yang, Ji Won; Park, Suk Gyung; Jung, In Hae; Sung, Young Hee; Park, Kee Hyung; Lee, Yeong Bae; Shin, Dong Jin; Park, Hyeon Mi

    2012-01-01

    Background Cluster headache is a primary headache disorder characterized by periodic episodes of intense headache accompanied by autonomic symptoms. We report an unusual clinical presentation of cluster headache that was preceded by myoclonus and accompanied by hemiparesis. Case Report A 26-year-old man visited hospital due to recurrent jerky movements on the left side of his face and neck area lasting 3 days. These jerky movements had disappeared spontaneously without specific treatment. On ...

  10. Critical thinking of student nurses during clinical accompaniment

    BY Uys; SM Meyer

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the methods of clinical accompaniment used by clinical facilitators in practice. The findings of the study also reflected facilitators’ perceptions regarding critical thinking and the facilitation thereof. A quantitative research design was used. A literature study was conducted to identify the methods of accompaniment that facilitate critical thinking. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire developed for that purpose. Making a content-rela...

  11. Correlation between thyroid function and nodular goiter accompanied with gallstone

    Shihong Ma; Qinjiang Liu; Xiaofeng Hou

    2014-01-01

    The-purpose-of-the-study-wass-to-explore-the-correlation-between-thyroid-function-and-nodular-goiter-accompanied-with-gal-stone.-Methods:We-col-ected-120-cases-about-nodular-goiter-accompanied-with-gal-stone-and-128-cases-about-nodular-goiter-and-establish-50-healthy-control-groups.-Detected-t-level-of-hyrotropic-hormone-(TSH),-total-tri-o-dothyronine-(TT3),-total-thyroxine-in-the-peripheral-venous-blood-of-these-cases-in-the-three-groups-by-using-electrochemilu-minescence-immunoassay,-measure-level-of-total-cholesterol-(TC),-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-(HDL-C),-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-(LDL-C)-and-total-bile-acid-(TBA)-levels-by-using-enzymic-method,-and-observed-the-changes-of-thyroid-function-and-blood-lipid-among-the-three-groups.-Results:The-serum-TT3-level-in-nodular-goiter-accompanied-with-gal-stone-group-and-the-nodular-goiter-group-was-significantly-lower-than-that-in-control-group-(P0.05).-Accordingly,-TC-and-LDL-C-level-in-nodular-goiter-accompanied-with-gal-stone-group-was-significantly-higher-than-that-in-nodular-goiter-and-control-group-(P0.05).-The-HDL-C-level-in-nodular-goiter-accompanied-with-gal-stone-group-and-control-group-was-higher-than-that-in-simple-nodular-goiter-group-(P<0.01).-Conclusion:The-originating-etiologic-factor-of-nodular-goiter-accompanied-with-gal-stone-may-be-related-to-that-the-decreased-TT3-induced-sub-clinical-hypothyroidism.

  12. Non-proliferation considerations

    This paper reiterates the Indian viewpoint that consideration of ''proliferation resistance'' is outside the terms of reference of Working Group 4 as agreed at the Washington Conference. The discussions in WG4 should therefore cover only safeguards aspects. The paper goes on to critisize the various assessment factors introduced in INFCE/DEP./WG-4/104 and the various alternative technologies proposed. The Indian view is reinstated that if a country requires reprocessing based on its nuclear energy programmes and priorities, there should be no hindrance. International safeguards should be applied to all nuclear materials in all countries without discrimination or differentiation between civil and military programmes. The paper concludes that non-proliferation is essentially a political matter and has no technical solution

  13. Dexamethasone and Salbutamol Stimulate Human Lung Fibroblast Proliferation

    Pickholtz, Eran; Admon, Dan; Izhar, Uzi; Berkman, Neville; Levi-Schaffer, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    Background Asthma is characterized by bronchial hyperreactivity and airway remodeling. Subepithelial fibrosis, a feature of remodeling, is accompanied by activation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, with excessive proliferation and increased collagen, extracellular matrix protein, and profibrogenic cytokine production. Mast cells are important in the development of asthma and its fibrotic changes. Objective In this study, we aimed to investigate the direct effect of the drugs most frequently ...

  14. A Rare Cutaneous Adnexal Tumor: Malignant Proliferating Trichilemmal Tumor

    Omer Alici; Musa Kemal Keles; Alper Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Proliferating trichilemmal tumors (PTTs) are neoplasms derived from the outer root sheath of the hair follicle. These tumors, which commonly affect the scalp of elderly women, rarely demonstrate malignant transformation. Although invasion of the tumors into neighboring tissues and being accompanied with anaplasia and necrosis are accepted as findings of malignancy, histological features may not always be sufficient to identify these tumors. The clinical behavior of the tumor may be incompatib...

  15. Proliferation after the Iraq war

    This article uses the Iraq war major event to analyze the approach used by the US to fight against proliferation. It questions the decision and analysis process which has led to the US-British intervention and analyzes the consequences of the war on the proliferation of other countries and on the expected perspectives. Finally, the future of proliferation itself is questioned: do we have to fear more threat or is the virtuous circle of non-proliferation well started? (J.S.)

  16. Can we predict nuclear proliferation

    The author aims at improving nuclear proliferation prediction capacities, i.e. the capacities to identify countries susceptible to acquire nuclear weapons, to interpret sensitive activities, and to assess nuclear program modalities. He first proposes a retrospective assessment of counter-proliferation actions since 1945. Then, based on academic studies, he analyzes what causes and motivates proliferation, with notably the possibility of existence of a chain phenomenon (mechanisms driving from one program to another). He makes recommendations for a global approach to proliferation prediction, and proposes proliferation indices and indicators

  17. Non-proliferation

    The issue of Nuclear Non Proliferation has been moved to a leading place on the contemporary international security agenda. What about the situation of nuclear weapons and nuclear technology in Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Belorussia? Why did the IAEA-inspectors totally failed to discover any sign of Iraq's clandestine nuclear-weapon programme before the Gulf War? Do the NATO and their nuclear power states violate Art. VI of the Non-Proliferation-Treaty (NPT), because they are - despite the end of the cold war - not willing to renounce of the ''option of the first use of nuclear weapons''? Does the NPT establish a form of nuclear apartheid? What will be the situation if the NPT-Extension-Conference in 1995 will be unable to obtain a majority of the parties for any one extension proposal? Do we need a new international nuclear control agency with severe powers, a sort of nuclear Interpol? The Colloquium ''Saving NPT and abolishing Nuclear Weapons'', held in Stockholm in September 1992, organized by the Swedish and the German Sections of IALANA, tried to analyse some of the raised issues. (orig.)

  18. Non Proliferation of Nuclear

    Non-Proliferation Treaty of Nuclear Weapons is the international community's efforts to maintain the security of the world, in order to prevent the spread of nuclear technology and the use of nuclear weapons, promoting cooperation for the use of nuclear peaceful purposes, build mutual trust (Confidence Building Measures) as well as to achieve the ultimate goal of disarmament overall (General and Complete Disarmament). Addressing the post-WTC tragedy, 11 September 2001, the Indonesian government should set up a National Measures (National Action Plan), among others formed the National Security Council and NBC Counter Proliferation Unit, or the National Authority for Nuclear Treaty, preparing national legislation, to prevent the abuse nuclear materials for terrorist acts, prevent Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear materials, developed a National Preparedness and Emergency Response Management in the event of a nuclear accident or attack by the use of nuclear terrorism. Importance of a National Action Plan meant the existence of a national commitment in the context of compliance with treaties and conventions which have been ratified relating to safety, security, safeguards towards a general and complete disarmament, to safeguard national security and maintain peace (safeguards) international

  19. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway

  20. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway.

  1. Uncertainties in Nuclear Proliferation Modeling

    There have been various efforts in the research community to understand the determinants of nuclear proliferation and develop quantitative tools to predict nuclear proliferation events. Such systematic approaches have shown the possibility to provide warning for the international community to prevent nuclear proliferation activities. However, there are still large debates for the robustness of the actual effect of determinants and projection results. Some studies have shown that several factors can cause uncertainties in previous quantitative nuclear proliferation modeling works. This paper analyzes the uncertainties in the past approaches and suggests future works in the view of proliferation history, analysis methods, and variable selection. The research community still lacks the knowledge for the source of uncertainty in current models. Fundamental problems in modeling will remain even other advanced modeling method is developed. Before starting to develop fancy model based on the time dependent proliferation determinants' hypothesis, using graph theory, etc., it is important to analyze the uncertainty of current model to solve the fundamental problems of nuclear proliferation modeling. The uncertainty from different proliferation history coding is small. Serious problems are from limited analysis methods and correlation among the variables. Problems in regression analysis and survival analysis cause huge uncertainties when using the same dataset, which decreases the robustness of the result. Inaccurate variables for nuclear proliferation also increase the uncertainty. To overcome these problems, further quantitative research should focus on analyzing the knowledge suggested on the qualitative nuclear proliferation studies

  2. Proliferation: myth or reality?; La proliferation: mythe ou realite?

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This article analyzes the proliferation approach, its technical condition and political motivation, and the share between the myth (political deception, assumptions and extrapolations) and the reality of proliferation. Its appreciation is complicated by the irrational behaviour of some political actors and by the significant loss of the non-use taboo. The control of technologies is an important element for proliferation slowing down but an efficient and autonomous intelligence system remains indispensable. (J.S.)

  3. Accompanied driving in The Netherlands : who do participate and why?

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van Wijlhuizen, G.J. & Craen, S. de

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, a six year accompanied driving experiment started in the Netherlands. This questionnaire study investigated which youngsters (intend to) participate and why, with the purpose of assessing whether there is a potential self-selection bias that can be relevant for the oncoming evaluation of it

  4. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world...

  5. Bilateral retinal cyst accompanying with renal and thyroidal multiorgan cyst

    Amber Şenel; Rıfat Rasier; Alper Şengül; Erdal Yüzbaşıoğlu; Özgür Artunay; Halil Bahçecioğlu

    2011-01-01

    Although retinal cysts are commonly seen in von Hippel Lindau syndrome, bilateral retinal cysts can occasionally appear unrelated to this syndrome. Retinal cysts can be confused with retinal tumours and infectious diseases of retina. In this report we represent a patient demonstrating bilateral retinal cyst accompanying with renal and thyroidal multiorgan cysts without Von-Hippel Lindau syndrome.

  6. Dosimetric accompaniment of high technology radiation therapy. Instruction for use

    The contents of prepared guide on high technological radiation dosimetric accompaniment is discussed in scope of application of modern linear electron accelerator. The main attention is paid on dose measurements types for evaluation quality work of separate systems and devices used for patients irradiation

  7. Lateral Medullary Infarction and Accompanying Sustained Hiccup: Treatment with Gabapentin

    BERİLGEN, M Said; DEMİR, Caner Feyzi; AYDIN, Meliha; Erdoğan, Ercan

    2007-01-01

    Hiccup, which is a symptom seen during lateral medullary syndrome, appears due to sudden contraction of diaphragma and external (inspiratory) intercostal muscles and the closure of glottis. Here we present a case with lateral medullary infarction accompanied with chronic hiccup, the dramatical improvement with gabapentine and the probable related pathophysiologic mechanism.. ©2007, Firat University, Medical Faculty

  8. Food Service: Handbook to Accompany VESL Vocabulary Cards.

    Taylor, Nancy; Lenhart, Debra

    This manual is one of four self-contained components of a larger handbook designed to assist secondary and postsecondary instructors and support staff in meeting the needs of limited-English-proficiency (LEP) students in vocational training programs. Together with an accompanying set of vocational English as a second language (VESL) vocabulary…

  9. Critical thinking of student nurses during clinical accompaniment

    BY Uys

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the methods of clinical accompaniment used by clinical facilitators in practice. The findings of the study also reflected facilitators’ perceptions regarding critical thinking and the facilitation thereof. A quantitative research design was used. A literature study was conducted to identify the methods of accompaniment that facilitate critical thinking. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire developed for that purpose. Making a content-related validity judgment, and involving seven clinical facilitators in an academic institution, ensured the validity of the questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that various clinical methods of accompaniment were used. To a large extent, these methods correlated with those discussed in the literature review. The researcher further concluded that the concepts ‘critical thinking’ and ‘facilitation’ were not interpreted correctly by the respondents, and would therefore not be implemented in a proper manner in nursing practice. Furthermore, it seemed evident that tutor-driven learning realised more often than student-driven learning. In this regard, the requirement of outcomes-based education was not satisfied. The researcher is therefore of the opinion that a practical programme for the development of critical thinking skills during clinical accompaniment must be developed within the framework of outcomes-based education.

  10. 29 CFR 575.5 - Supporting data to accompany application.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supporting data to accompany application. 575.5 Section 575.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAIVER OF CHILD LABOR PROVISIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT OF 10 AND 11 YEAR OLD MINORS IN...

  11. The changing proliferation threat

    Sopko, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    Technological advances and new adversaries with new motives have reduced the relevancy and effectiveness of the American nonproliferation strategy that was developed during the Cold War. The Cold War`s end and the breakup of the Soviet Union have created new proliferation dangers even as they have reduced others. The familiar balance of nuclear terror that linked the superpowers and their client states for nearly 50 years in a choreographed series of confrontations has given way to a much less predictable situation, where weapons of unthinkable power appear within the grasp of those more willing to use them. Rogue nations and {open_quotes}clientless{close_quotes} states, terrorist groups, religious cults, ethnic minorities, disaffected political groups, and even individuals appear to have jointed a new arms race toward mass destruction. The author describes recent events that suggest the new trends and a serious challenge to US national security.

  12. Problems with radiation protection concerning volunteers accompanying radiological patients

    Full text: The purpose of this work is to point out, within the framework of the Radiation Protection guidelines, the irregular situation of the 'volunteer' or 'accompanying person' who accompanies anyone requiring medical treatment with ionising radiation, as well as to suggest a possible justification for such role. It should be noted that most of these persons are subject to ionising radiation without knowing anything about the effects that it could cause on them, so that their condition could be hardly considered as 'voluntary'. There are several circumstances under which the presence of accompanying persons is required, being different among them. Several examples could be mentioned such as: those who are accompanying a direct relative (family bonds), those who are acting in service during their normal work (social workers, policemen) and even those who are forced by unusual under an accidental situation. The qualitative classification that radiological protection established in society concerning radiation risks for people in general enables to set mechanisms of justification, optimisation and dose limitation for each category, being perfectly identified which of them each person belongs to. But the figure of 'accompanying person' has been excluded from such characterisation. They are subject to radiation exposure without knowing it, or without having any information concerning the potential risks. For them, no balance between the net benefit of an adequate medical treatment versus potential health detriment may be applied as for the case of a patient. Thus, their exposure could be not justified. It is not the purpose of this work to question radiological medicine or its practices, but to clarify certain aspects involving members of the public in general, patients and members of the radiological community, as well as to propose lines of action concerning this subject. We conclude that it is not the volunteer who should decide about medical actions, a role

  13. Visual Messages Accompanied by Music: Preschool Children’s Interpretations

    Dogani, Konstantina; Constandinidou-Semoglou, Ourania

    2016-01-01

    Within current visual culture children are continuously exposed to varieties of visual messages accompanied by music which could contribute towards their aesthetic development. However, the interaction between music and image is not always as simple as in animation where music has direct relationship to the visual message to be easily interpreted by the preschool child. Taking a semiotic approach the current paper investigates preschool child’s reception of a more sophisticated interaction be...

  14. The Raven,a Loner’s Psychological Accompanier

    商滔

    2015-01-01

    Edgar Allan Poe’s The Raven is well-known to the world for its detailed psychological descriptions in the author’s eyes of this essay.Whereas,the Raven is the only one accompanie and the best listener listening to Poe’s psychological cry for his lover.The author will try to present the scene of the sadness from Poe by employing Carl G.Jung’s theories about consciousness and unconsciousness.

  15. The Raven,a Loner’s Psychological Accompanier

    商滔

    2015-01-01

    Edgar Allan Poe’s The Raven is well-known to the world for its detailed psychological descriptions in the author’s eyes of this essay.Whereas,the Raven is the only one accompanier and the best listener listening to Poe’s psychological cry for his lover.The author will try to present the scene of the sadness from Poe by employing Carl G.Jung’s theories about consciousness and unconsciousness.

  16. Accompaniment needs of nursing students related to the dying patient

    D van Rooyen; Laing, R.; WJ Kotzé

    2005-01-01

    Nurse educators are responsible for accompanying students towards becoming capable, competent professional nurses who are a credit to themselves, their patients, colleagues and profession. Student nurses need, therefore, to be taught to render comprehensive nursing care to patients in all stages of their lives, including when they are dying. Being confronted with human suffering and death is challenging and traumatic. Those exposed to such events on a daily basis need to have a solid foundati...

  17. Real-time implementation of an interactive jazz accompaniment system

    Deshpande, Nikhil

    Modern computational algorithms and digital signal processing (DSP) are able to combine with human performers without forced or predetermined structure in order to create dynamic and real-time accompaniment systems. With modern computing power and intelligent algorithm layout and design, it is possible to achieve more detailed auditory analysis of live music. Using this information, computer code can follow and predict how a human's musical performance evolves, and use this to react in a musical manner. This project builds a real-time accompaniment system to perform together with live musicians, with a focus on live jazz performance and improvisation. The system utilizes a new polyphonic pitch detector and embeds it in an Ableton Live system - combined with Max for Live - to perform elements of audio analysis, generation, and triggering. The system also relies on tension curves and information rate calculations from the Creative Artificially Intuitive and Reasoning Agent (CAIRA) system to help understand and predict human improvisation. These metrics are vital to the core system and allow for extrapolated audio analysis. The system is able to react dynamically to a human performer, and can successfully accompany the human as an entire rhythm section.

  18. Accompaniment needs of nursing students related to the dying patient

    D Van Rooyen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Nurse educators are responsible for accompanying students towards becoming capable, competent professional nurses who are a credit to themselves, their patients, colleagues and profession. Student nurses need, therefore, to be taught to render comprehensive nursing care to patients in all stages of their lives, including when they are dying. Being confronted with human suffering and death is challenging and traumatic. Those exposed to such events on a daily basis need to have a solid foundation of self preservation to see past the pain of suffering and to bring light and hope to those in need. A young student nurse will only experience positive growth and development in these circumstances if she is also cared for and guided with understanding. The researcher utilized a qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design based on the phenomenological approach to enquiry. The following question was asked at the beginning of each unstructured phenomenological interview: “How was if for you to care for a dying or deceased patient?” The central theme identified that student nurses experience turmoil in their different relationships in their accompaniment of the dying patient. Guidelines based on the central theme and sub-themes that emerged from raw data, as well as literature, are offered as strategies to promote/enhance optimal accompaniment of student nurses caring for the dying patient.

  19. Isotopic yield in alpha accompanied ternary fission of 252Cf

    The cold ternary fission of 252Cf with 4He as light charged particle (LCP) is studied with fragments in the equatorial and collinear configuration, taking the interacting barrier as the sum of the Coulomb and proximity potential. The favorable fragment combinations are obtained from the cold valley plot and by calculating the yield for charge-minimized fragments. In both equatorial and collinear configurations, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combination 116Pd + 4He + 132Sn, which possess doubly magic nuclei 132Sn(N = 82, Z = 50). The presence of doubly or near doubly magic nuclei (132Sn, 130Sn etc.) and higher Q value plays an important role in the alpha accompanied cold ternary fission of 252Cf. The comparison of the relative yield for equatorial configuration with that of collinear configuration, points to the fact that equatorial configuration is the preferred configuration for the LCP (4He) accompanied ternary fission in 252Cf isotope. The yields obtained for the alpha accompanied cold ternary fission of 252Cf in equatorial and collinear configuration are compared with the experimental data. The emission probability of long range alpha (LRA) particle from 252Cf isotope is predicted using our formalism and is found to be in agreement with experimental value. (author)

  20. Nuclear proliferation: linkages and solutions

    Nuclear proliferation must be periodically re-examined as a moral as well as a practical foreign policy dilemma. The question is asked whether proliferation precludes a safe and peaceful world, or if a halt to proliferation is adequate without other arms control. The moral dilemma in foreign policy arises over the need to make practical choices which often serve one goal while sacrificing another. The ramifications of nuclear proliferation are examined and the conclusions reached that it is not an acceptable option. It is also decided that, because general disarmament steps will be more difficult to achieve, the world may have to accept a small number of nuclear arsenals as the price of state sovereignties. A high priority for making the effort to prevent proliferation is advised. 8 references

  1. Activating Effect of Benzbromarone, a Uricosuric Drug, on Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

    Chiyoko Kunishima

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzbromarone, a uricosuric drug, reportedly causes hepatic hypertrophy accompanied by proliferation of peroxisomes in rats. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying induction of peroxisome proliferation by benzbromarone, we examined binding affinity for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα and γ (PPARγ, and effects on the binding activity of PPARs with peroxisome proliferation-responsive element (PPRE and expression of the PPARs target protein. Binding affinity of benzbromarone for PPARα and PPARγ was examined by reporter gene assay. Binding activity of PPARs with PPRE was determined by electric mobility shift assay, and expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL and acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS by Western blot method. Benzbromarone displayed affinity for PPARα and PPARγ, and promoted binding of PPARs to PPRE. Furthermore, cultured cells with benzbromarone added showed upregulated expression of LPL and ACS. These results suggest that benzbromarone induces peroxisome proliferation in hepatocytes by binding to PPARs, and controls expression of proteins related to lipid metabolism.

  2. Activating effect of benzbromarone, a uricosuric drug, on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    Kunishima, Chiyoko; Inoue, Ikuo; Oikawa, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Hiromu; Komoda, Tsugikazu; Katayama, Shigehiro

    2007-01-01

    Benzbromarone, a uricosuric drug, reportedly causes hepatic hypertrophy accompanied by proliferation of peroxisomes in rats. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying induction of peroxisome proliferation by benzbromarone, we examined binding affinity for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and gamma (PPARgamma), and effects on the binding activity of PPARs with peroxisome proliferation-responsive element (PPRE) and expression of the PPARs target protein. Binding affinity of benzbromarone for PPARalpha and PPARgamma was examined by reporter gene assay. Binding activity of PPARs with PPRE was determined by electric mobility shift assay, and expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) by Western blot method. Benzbromarone displayed affinity for PPARalpha and PPARgamma, and promoted binding of PPARs to PPRE. Furthermore, cultured cells with benzbromarone added showed upregulated expression of LPL and ACS. These results suggest that benzbromarone induces peroxisome proliferation in hepatocytes by binding to PPARs, and controls expression of proteins related to lipid metabolism. PMID:18274627

  3. Mucocele Accompanied by a Traumatic Neuroma: A Case Report

    Jaafari Ashkavandi Z.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mucocele and traumatic neuroma are two lesions related to the traumatic events; however there is only one reported case in which these two entities were perceived simultaneously. The current study reported a 21-year-old man who complained of painless recurrent swelling, accompanied by paresthesia on his left lower labial mucosa. He had a previous history of similar lesion and had been treated with surgery and cauterization last year. The primary clinical impression was a recurrent mucocele. Microscopic surveys displayed a traumatic neuroma in the vicinity of a mucocele which seems to be arising from the previous surgical treatment.

  4. Marfan Syndrome Accompanied by Pituitary Adenomas: A Case Report

    Qi HUANG

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome (MFS is a dominant inherited connective tissue disease. It has variable clinical manifestations and affects a number of systems, such as the cardiovascular system, eyes, skeletal, lung, skin etc. Fibrillin-1(FBN1)gene mutations are found in approximately 90% patients. The abnormal proteins originated from the mutant gene play a dominant negative effect on normal proteins or change their susceptibility of protease, which leads to the change of connective tissue. This paper reports the clinical data of a patient with Marfan syndrome accompanied by pituitary adenomas and reviews related literatures at home and abroad, to explore its pathogenesis.

  5. Exoemission accompanying the decomposition of methanol on zinc oxide

    Krylova, I. V.

    2008-09-01

    The electronic phenomena accompanying the adsorption and dehydrogenation of methanol on zinc oxide were studied using the method of exoemission of negative charges. Postemission excited from ZnO by an electron beam was found to be suppressed by the adsorption of methanol vapor, which exhibited electron acceptor properties. Subsequent heating to temperatures close to the temperature of the beginning of methanol decomposition increased the intensity of exoemission, which was evidence of the participation of emission centers (Oδ-) in dehydrogenation. A possible mechanism of methanol decomposition with the participation of surface V s hole centers (Oδ-) of zinc oxide was suggested.

  6. Study guide to accompany computers data and processing

    Deitel, Harvey M

    1985-01-01

    Study Guide to Accompany Computer and Data Processing provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of computers and computer technology. This book presents the key benefits of using computers.Organized into five parts encompassing 19 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the evolution of modern computing systems from the earliest mechanical calculating devices to microchips. This text then introduces computer hardware and describes the processor. Other chapters describe how microprocessors are made and describe the physical operation of computers. This book discusses as w

  7. Test bank to accompany Computers data and processing

    Deitel, Harvey M

    1980-01-01

    Test Bank to Accompany Computers and Data Processing provides a variety of questions from which instructors can easily custom tailor exams appropriate for their particular courses. This book contains over 4000 short-answer questions that span the full range of topics for introductory computing course.This book is organized into five parts encompassing 19 chapters. This text provides a very large number of questions so that instructors can produce different exam testing essentially the same topics in succeeding semesters. Three types of questions are included in this book, including multiple ch

  8. Solutions manual to accompany finite mathematics models and applications

    Morris, Carla C

    2015-01-01

    A solutions manual to accompany Finite Mathematics: Models and Applications In order to emphasize the main concepts of each chapter, Finite Mathematics: Models and Applications features plentiful pedagogical elements throughout such as special exercises, end notes, hints, select solutions, biographies of key mathematicians, boxed key principles, a glossary of important terms and topics, and an overview of use of technology. The book encourages the modeling of linear programs and their solutions and uses common computer software programs such as LINDO. In addition to extensive chapters on pr

  9. Nuclear non proliferation and disarmament

    In the framework of the publication of a document on the ''weapons mastership, disarmament and non proliferation: the french action'', by the ministry of Foreign Affairs and the ministry of Defense, the French Documentation organization presents a whole document. This document describes and details the following topics: the conference on the treaty of non proliferation of nuclear weapons, the France, Usa and Non Governmental Organizations position, the threats of the proliferation, the french actions towards the disarmament, the disarmament in the world, a chronology and some bibliographic resources. (A.L.B.)

  10. RNA interference targeting raptor inhibits proliferation of gastric cancer cells

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is dysregulated in gastric cancer. The biologic function of mTORC1 in gastric carcinogenesis is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that disruption of mTORC1 function by RNA interference-mediated downregulation of raptor substantially inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation through induction of G0/G1-phase cell cycle arrest. The anti-proliferative effect was accompanied by concomitant downregulation of activator protein-1 and upregulation of Smad2/3 transcriptional activities. In addition, the expression of cyclin D3 and p21Waf1, which stabilizes cyclin D/cdk4 complex for G1-S transition, was reduced by raptor knockdown. In conclusion, disruption of mTORC1 inhibits gastric cancer cell proliferation through multiple pathways. This discovery may have an implication in the application of mTORC1-directed therapy for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  11. Spinal hydatidosis accompanied by a secondary infection. Case report.

    Kotil, Kadir; Tatar, Zeynep; Bilge, Turgay

    2007-06-01

    Spinal hydatid disease is rarely encountered in nonendemic regions. It is a progressive disease that is associated with risks of serious morbidity. The authors report a case of an isolated primary hydatid cyst of the spine in a 34-year-old woman who presented with back pain, which had lasted for 3 months, as well as lower-extremity pain and fatigue, which had persisted for 2 months. A neurological examination yielded findings indicative of upper motor neuron involvement with complete sensory loss below the level of T-11. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine showed multiple extradural cystic lesions with an abscess formation at T-11 and involvement of the paraspinal muscles. The patient underwent spinal decompression in which stabilization and total excision of the multiple epidural and psoas abscesses and paraspinal multiloculated cysts were performed. The diagnosis of hydatid disease associated with another infection was confirmed by histopathological evaluation. Albendazole was administered during the postoperative period. Previous reports of secondary infections accompanying this disease in extraspinal locations have been published. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, there have been no publications about a secondary infection associated with hydatidosis in the spinal cord. One should bear in mind that spinal hydatidosis may be accompanied by other infections in endemic regions. Antihelminthic treatment should be administered for a long period following early decompressive surgery and adequate stabilization. PMID:17561751

  12. Behavior of Water Jet Accompanied with Air Suction

    Kawakami, Hironobu; Ishido, Tsutomu; Ihara, Akio

    In order to atomize a liquid, the authors have investigated the behavior of air-water jets. In a series of experiments, we have discovered a strange phenomenon that the water jet accompanied with air suction from the free surface has made a periodic radial splash of water drop. The purpose of the present paper is to clear out the origin of this phenomenon and the behavior of water jet accompanied with air suction. The behavior of water jet has been photographed by a digital camera aided with a flashlight and high-speed video camera. Those experiments enable us to find the origin of a periodic radial splash due to a formation of single air bubble at the flow separation region inside the nozzle and due to explosive expansion of the bubble after injected in the free space. In order to analyze the radial splash of water, we have conducted the equation of spherical liquid membrane. The numerical results obtained have been compared with the experimental results and good agreement has been obtained in radial expansion velocity.

  13. Value-sensitive clinical accompaniment in community nursing science

    Ebin Arries

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical community health facilities where undergraduate students are placed for their practical work in community nursing science are dynamic and have undergone major transformation over the past few years. In the clinical field, community nurses and undergraduate students are representative of the different races and language and ethnic groups in the South African population, with each group espousing different value systems. Both parties – students and community nurses – report that, due to these differences, value conflicts are experienced during clinical accompaniment and that this has negative effects on clinical learning in community nursing science.

    The goal of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of students with regard to value-sensitive clinical accompaniment in the community nursing environment. An exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was used. Interactions between community nurses and students during clinical accompaniment were explored for value sensitivity by means of video recordings,participant observation and focus group interviews. Data were collected by means of video recordings, participant observation and focus group interviews. The data were analysed and coded by the researcher and the external coder, using an inductive descriptive method to identify important segments of the regularity of behaviour. The focus group interviews were transcribed, analysed and coded by the researcher and the external coder, using Tesch’s steps of analysis (Creswell 1994:155–156.Lincoln and Guba’s criteria (1985:290 for trustworthiness were applied to the study.

    The general findings indicate that clinical accompaniment in community nursing is not value sensitive and, as a result, guidelines for value-sensitive clinical accompaniment need to be developed for undergraduate students in the community nursing environment. The following values (values for which guidelines need to be developed were

  14. Treatment of lingual traumatic ulcer accompanied with fungal infections

    Sella Sella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic ulcer is a common form of ulceration occured in oral cavity caused by mechanical trauma, either acute or chronic, resulting in loss of the entire epithelium. Traumatic ulcer often occurs in children that are usually found on buccal mucosa, labial mucosa of upper and lower lip, lateral tongue, and a variety of areas that may be bitten. To properly diagnose the ulcer, dentists should evaluate the history and clinical description in detail. If the lesion is allegedly accompanied by other infections, such as fungal, bacterial or viral infections, microbiological or serological tests will be required. One of the initial therapy given for fungal infection is nystatin which aimed to support the recovery and repair processes of epithelial tissue in traumatic ulcer case. Purpose: This case report is aimed to emphasize the importance of microbiological examination in suspected cases of ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection. Case: A 12-year-old girl came to the clinic of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia on June 9, 2011 accompanied with her mother. The patient who had a history of geographic tongue came with complaints of injury found in the middle of the tongue. The main diagnosis was ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection based on the results of swab examination. Case management: This traumatic ulcer case was treated with Dental Health Education, oral prophylaxis, as well as prescribing and usage instructions of nystatin. The recovery and repair processes of mucosal epithelium of the tongue then occured after the use of nystatin. Conclusion: It can be concluded that microbiological examination is important to diagnose suspected cases of ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection. The appropriate treatment such as nystatin can be given for traumatic fungal infection.Latar belakang: Ulkus traumatic merupakan bentuk umum dari ulserasi rongga mulut yang terjadi akibat trauma

  15. Cytosolic DNA Sensor Upregulation Accompanies DNA Electrotransfer in B16.F10 Melanoma Cells.

    Znidar, Katarina; Bosnjak, Masa; Cemazar, Maja; Heller, Loree C

    2016-01-01

    In several preclinical tumor models, antitumor effects occur after intratumoral electroporation, also known as electrotransfer, of plasmid DNA devoid of a therapeutic gene. In mouse melanomas, these effects are preceded by significant elevation of several proinflammatory cytokines. These observations implicate the binding and activation of intracellular DNA-specific pattern recognition receptors or DNA sensors in response to DNA electrotransfer. In tumors, IFNβ mRNA and protein levels significantly increased. The mRNAs of several DNA sensors were detected, and DAI, DDX60, and p204 tended to be upregulated. These effects were accompanied with reduced tumor growth and increased tumor necrosis. In B16.F10 cells in culture, IFNβ mRNA and protein levels were significantly upregulated. The mRNAs for several DNA sensors were present in these cells; DNA-dependent activator of interferon regulatory factor (DAI), DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 60 (DDX60), and p204 were significantly upregulated while DDX60 protein levels were coordinately upregulated. Upregulation of DNA sensors in tumors could be masked by the lower transfection efficiency compared to in vitro or to dilution by other tumor cell types. Mirroring the observation of tumor necrosis, cells underwent a significant DNA concentration-dependent decrease in proliferation and survival. Taken together, these results indicate that DNA electrotransfer may cause the upregulation of several intracellular DNA sensors in B16.F10 cells, inducing effects in vitro and potentially in vivo. PMID:27271988

  16. Ectopic Ureter Accompanied by Duplicated Ureter: Three Cases.

    Senel, Ufuk; Tanriverdi, Halil Ibrahim; Ozmen, Zafer; Sozubir, Selami

    2015-09-01

    We report cases of ectopic ureter accompanied by three types of ureteral duplication that had been diagnosed previously and treated for enuresis. Data from three female patients ranging in age from 1 to 10 years were evaluated. The ectopic ureter was observed on the left in one case, on the right in another and bilateral in the third case. Complete duplication was found in two cases, while the third had incomplete duplication. Ureteroneocystostomy was performed in one case and subtotal nephrectomy was carried out in the other two cases. Ureteroneocystostomy was performed for the ectopic ureter found in the opposite urinary system in one of the cases. Ectopic duplicated ureter should be considered in treatment-resistant enuresis and urinary tract infections and after a careful physical examination, imaging as well as function tests should be performed. PMID:26500949

  17. A case of multiple intracranial tuberculomas accompanied by tuberculous meningitis

    A 63-year-old man was admitted for headache and progressive drowsiness. In spite of negative results from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) stains and cultures of tuberculosis and other bacteria, CSF findings and tuberculosis-positive sputum culture led to a tentative diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis. Symptoms and neurological test results both improved remarkably during antituberculous chemotherapy. Although the brain CT scan taken on admission showed no abnormal findings, one taken two months later revealed multiple high-density areas after enhancement with a contrast medium, suggesting multiple intracranial tuberculomas accompanied by tuberculous meningitis. The size of the multiple high-density areas gradually decreased during antituberculous chemotherapy. The CT scan can clearly locate lesions, detect complications, and evaluate the effects of treatment in patients with intracranial tuberculosis. (author)

  18. Sudden synchrony leaps accompanied by frequency multiplications in neuronal activity

    Ido Kanter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A classical view of neural coding relies on temporal firing synchrony among functional groups of neurons; however the underlying mechanism remains an enigma. Here we experimentally demonstrate a mechanism where time-lags among neuronal spiking leap from several tens of milliseconds to nearly zero-lag synchrony. It also allows sudden leaps out of synchrony, hence forming short epochs of synchrony. Our results are based on an experimental procedure where conditioned stimulations were enforced on circuits of neurons embedded within a large-scale network of cortical cells in vitro and are corroborated by simulations of neuronal populations. The underlying biological mechanisms are the unavoidable increase of the neuronal response latency to ongoing stimulations and temporal or spatial summation required to generate evoked spikes. These sudden leaps in and out of synchrony may be accompanied by multiplications of the neuronal firing frequency, hence offering reliable information-bearing indicators which may bridge between the two principal neuronal coding paradigms.

  19. Intracranial hypotension accompanied by trauma. A prospective study in Japan

    To clarify the clinical characteristics of definite and non-definite diagnosis groups in intracranial hypotension accompanied by trauma (IHAT), we undertook investigations of registered patients (n=23) prospectively. The results revealed the following features of IHAT: definite diagnosis group, 4 cases; they had long periods from injury to onset (5.5±5.7 days), but these were markedly shorter than in the non-definite group; 75% of definite cases showed typical postural headache; 75% of definite cases showed dural enhancement on Gd-MRI; all 4 cases had confirmed cerebrospinal fluid (CFS) leakage based on imaging diagnosis with cervical lesions in 2 cases and cervical-thoracic lesions in 2 cases; and 6) good recovery was achieved in them by conservative therapy and blood patch, with a cure rate of 100%. These findings suggest that confirmed CFS leakage is indispensable for reaching definite diagnosis of IHAT. (author)

  20. MR imaging of edema accompanying benign and malignant bone tumors

    To evaluate the incidence, quantity, and presentation of intra- and extraosseous edema accompanying benign and malignant primary bone lesions, the magnetic resonance (MR) studies of 63 consecutive patients with histologically proven primary bone tumors were reviewed. MR scans were assessed for the presence and quantity of marrow and soft tissue edema and correlated with preoperative findings, resected specimens and follow-up data. The signal intensity and enhancement of tumor and edema prior to and after intravenous administration (if any) of gadolinium-labled diethylene triamine pentaacetate (Gd-DTPA) was analyzed. Marrow edema was encountered adjacent to 8 of 39 maglinant tumors and 14 of 24 benign lesions. Soft tissue edema was found accompanying 28 of 39 malignancies and 10 of 24 benign disorders. On enhanced T1-weighted MR images tumor and edema were difficult to differentiate. Tumor inhomogeneity made this differentiation easier on T2-weighted sequences. In 36 patients the contrast medium Gd-DTPA was used. Edema was present in 27 of these patients and the respective enhancement of tumor and edema could be compared. Edema always enhanced homogeneously, and in most cases it enhanced to a similar degree as or more than tumor. Marrow and, more specifically, soft tissue edema is a frequent finding adjacent to primary bone tumors. The mere presence and quantity of marrow and soft tissue edema are unreliable indicators of the biologic potential of a lesion. Unenhanced MR scans cannot always differentiate between tumor and edema, but the administration of Gd-DTPA is of assistance in differentiating tumor from edema. Awareness of marrow and/or soft tissue edema adjacent to bone lesions is of importance because edema can be a pitfall in the diagnostic work-up and staging prior to biopsy or surgery. (orig.)

  1. The human leukemia oncogene bcr-abl abrogates the anchorage requirement but not the growth factor requirement for proliferation.

    Renshaw, M W; McWhirter, J R; Wang, J Y

    1995-01-01

    Proliferation of normal cells in a multicellular organism requires not only growth factors but also the proper attachment to the extracellular matrix. A hallmark of neoplastic transformation is the loss of anchorage dependence which usually accompanies the loss of growth factor requirement. The Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase of human leukemias is shown here to abrogate only the anchorage, not the growth factor, requirement. Bcr-Abl-transformed cells grow in soft agar but do not proliferate in serum-...

  2. Nuclear proliferation and safeguards. Summary

    This comprehensive analysis of the technological, economic, and political factors affecting the potential spread of nuclear weapons proved useful in the congressional debate which culminated in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978. The report was subsequently published commercially and has been a frequently cited reference in the literature on proliferation and nuclear power. Despite developments since 1977, the information in the OTA report is still useful to those wishing to obtain an indepth understanding of the issues. Included is an analysis of why a nation might want nuclear weapons development program and the various sources of nuclear material are discussed. The control of proliferation is considered as well as its relation to the nuclear industry

  3. Proliferation aspects of plutonium recycling

    Plutonium recycling offers benefits in an energy perspective of sustainable development, and, moreover it contributes to non-proliferation. Prior to recycling, reactor-grade plutonium from light-water reactors does not lend itself easily to the assembly of explosive nuclear devices; thereafter, practically not at all. Control systems for material security and non-proliferation should identify and adopt several categories of plutonium covering various isotopic mixtures associated with different fuel types, in order to better reflect the risks and to better focus their controls. The author proposes the adoption of three categories of plutonium. (author)

  4. Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma accompanied by portal vein tumor thrombus

    Masami Minagawa; Masatoshi Makuuchi

    2006-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)accompanied by portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) is generally poor if left untreated: a median survival time of 2.7-4.0 mo has been reported. Furthermore, while transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) has been shown to be safe in selected patients, the median survival time with this treatment is still only 3.8-9.5 mo. Systemic single-agent chemotherapy for HCC with PVTT has failed to improve the prognosis, and the response rates have been less than 20%. While regional chemotherapy with low-dose cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil or interferon and 5-fluorouracil via hepatic arterial infusion has increased the response rate, the median survival time has not exceeded 12 (range 4.5-11.8) mo.Combined treatment consisting of radiation for PVTT and TACE for liver tumor has achieved a high response rate, but the median survival rates have still been only 3.8-10.7 mo. With hepatic resection as monotherapy,the 5-year survival rate and median survival time were reportedly 4%-28.5% and 6-14 mo. The most promising results were reported for combined treatments consisting of hepatectomy and TACE, chemotherapy, or internal radiation. The reported 5-year survival rates and median survival times were 42% and 31 mo for TACE followed by hepatectomy; 36.3% and 22.1 mo for hepatectomy followed by hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy; and 56% for chemotherapy or internal radiation followed by hepatectomy.

  5. Thyroid Metastasis from Breast Carcinoma Accompanied by Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Song-I Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the thyroid gland is very rare. Recently, we experienced a case of thyroid metastasis from breast cancer accompanying a papillary thyroid. A 51-year-old female patient presented with a palpated lymph node on her left lateral neck. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy and hormonal therapy 12 years prior. Ultrasonography of the neck revealed a malignant looking nodule at the left thyroid lobe, measuring 0.9 × 0.9 cm, and several cystic nodules at the right thyroid lobe. Ultrasonography of the neck additionally revealed a malignant looking lymph node at the right level VI. Fine-needle aspiration of the left thyroid lobe resulted in a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and that of the right level VI in Hurthle cell lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy with selective dissection of the left neck node. Pathologic assessment of the specimen revealed metastatic carcinoma from the breast carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the thyroid gland is highly vascularized, metastasis of malignant tumors to the thyroid is relatively rare and detection of metastasis shows a low frequency. So a careful evaluation of thyroid tumor should be considered in a patient with a history of other malignancy.

  6. Ophthalmic manifestations of methylmalonic aciduria accompanied with homocystinuria

    Qiu-Jing Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Methylmalonicaciduia(MMAaccompanied with homocystinuria is a rare autosomal-recessive with congenital metabolic disorder of Vitamin B12. There are three subtypes, cblC, cblD, cblF, in which cblC is the most common one. The diagnostic tests are tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Tests for activity of enzyme in fibroblasts from skin, complementary assay and genetic analysis can be used to make the subtype clear. Early-onset patients, defined by onset of symptoms before the age of 1 year, may have severe ocular involvement, including visual loss, nystagmus, strabismus, retinopathy, maculopathy, optic atrophy, abnormal electroretinography. Late-onset patients, defined by onset of symptoms after the age of 4 year, rarely have ocular manifestations. The pathogenesis of the ophthalmic symptoms may be related to the high level of homocystine, oxidative stress and the abnormal development of nervous systems. The treatment for MMA accompanied with homocystinuria is mostly symptomatic based. Ophthalmic treatment is limited. Early supplement of methionine,GSH or other antioxidants may be helpful for retinopathy. There is no standard ophthalmological examination for those patients in China. It is critical to set up inter-departmental cooperation and early stage examination for the treatments and outcomes of the patients.

  7. Two cases of rectal cancer accompanied with radiation colitis

    This paper presents two cases of rectal cancer accompanied with radiation colitis. Case 1 was a 53-year-old woman, who had a history of undergoing radiation therapy for a uterine cervical cancer 11 years before. She was seen at the hospital because of constipation and pointed out a IIa-like lesion on the rectum by colonoscopy. Abdominoperineal resection was performed. The surgical specimen showed the IIa-like lesion on the rectum. Pathological findings revealed well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining of p53 showed positive cells in atrophic glands. Case 2 was a 62-year-old woman complaining of diarrhea. There was a previous history of receiving radiation therapy for a uterine cancer 20 years before. Colonoscopy showed a Borrmann type 2 cancer on the rectum. Abdominoperineal resection was performed. Histological findings revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma invading to the propria muscle. The features of radiation colitis were observed around the cancer in the two cases which provided a clue to diagnose the lesions with radiation-induced cancer. (author)

  8. Change of local social economy accompanying location of power stations

    The method of environment assessment is urgently developed to make various development plans appropriate. It is desirable to grasp synthetically direct and indirect influences to society, since various development activities are deeply related to whole local societies. The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has performed research to develop the method of synthesizing environment assessment, and this is the interim report on the development of the method for forecasting and evaluating the social influence accompanying the location of power stations. As the first approach, the development of the model to forecast the influence of location was started, using the econometric method. In this paper, the works of composing the pilot model, which was made to examine the possibility of model development, are summarized. The fundamental framework of model composition and the theoretical model for each power source and each locality were examined, and the works of making the proving models related to three points based on the theoretical model were carried out. As the result of this work of pilot model composition, the prospect of developing the econometric model for forecasting social environmental influence was obtained, and the works of developing the more versatile master model are advanced at present. (Kako, I.)

  9. Change of local social economy accompanying location of power stations

    Arai, Yasuo; Saito, Kannosuke (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))

    1982-05-01

    The method of environment assessment is urgently developed to make various development plans appropriate. It is desirable to grasp synthetically direct and indirect influences to society, since various development activities are deeply related to whole local societies. The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has performed research to develop the method of synthesizing environment assessment, and this is the interim report on the development of the method for forecasting and evaluating the social influence accompanying the location of power stations. As the first approach, the development of the model to forecast the influence of location was started, using the econometric method. In this paper, the works of composing the pilot model, which was made to examine the possibility of model development, are summarized. The fundamental framework of model composition and the theoretical model for each power source and each locality were examined, and the works of making the proving models related to three points based on the theoretical model were carried out. As the result of this work of pilot model composition, the prospect of developing the econometric model for forecasting social environmental influence was obtained, and the works of developing the more versatile master model are advanced at present.

  10. Radio rebrightening of the GRB afterglow by the accompanying supernova

    Duran, Rodolfo Barniol

    2015-01-01

    The gamma-ray burst (GRB) jet powers the afterglow emission by shocking the surrounding medium, and radio afterglow can now be routinely observed to almost a year after the explosion. Long-duration GRBs are accompanied by supernovae (SNe) that typically contain much more energy than the GRB jet. Here we consider the fact that the SN blast wave will also produce its own afterglow, which will peak at much later time (since it is non-relativistic), when the SN blast wave transitions from a coasting phase to a decelerating Sedov-Taylor phase. We predict that this component will peak generally a few tens of years after the explosion and it will outshine the GRB powered afterglow well-before its peak emission. In the case of GRB 030329, where the external density is constrained by the $\\sim 10$-year coverage of the radio GRB afterglow, the radio emission is predicted to start rising over the next decade and to continue to increase for the following decades up to a level of $\\sim 0.5$ mJy. Detection of the SN-powere...

  11. Radio rebrightening of the GRB afterglow by the accompanying supernova

    Barniol Duran, R.; Giannios, D.

    2015-12-01

    The gamma-ray burst (GRB) jet powers the afterglow emission by shocking the surrounding medium, and radio afterglow can now be routinely observed to almost a year after the explosion. Long-duration GRBs are accompanied by supernovae (SNe) that typically contain much more energy than the GRB jet. Here we consider the fact that the SN blast wave will also produce its own afterglow (supernova remnant emission), which will peak at much later time (since it is non-relativistic), when the SN blast wave transitions from a coasting phase to a decelerating Sedov-Taylor phase. We predict that this component will peak generally a few tens of years after the explosion and it will outshine the GRB powered afterglow well-before its peak emission. In the case of GRB 030329, where the external density is constrained by the ˜10-year coverage of the radio GRB afterglow, the radio emission is predicted to start rising over the next decade and to continue to increase for the following decades up to a level of ˜ mJy. Detection of the SN-powered radio emission will greatly advance our knowledge of particle acceleration in ˜0.1c shocks.

  12. Exercise-induced promotion of hippocampal cell proliferation requires beta-endorphin.

    Koehl, M; Meerlo, P; Gonzales, D; Rontal, A; Turek, F W; Abrous, D N

    2008-07-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is influenced by a variety of stimuli, including exercise, but the mechanisms by which running affects neurogenesis are not yet fully understood. Because beta-endorphin, which is released in response to exercise, increases cell proliferation in vitro, we hypothesized that it could exert a similar effect in vivo and mediate the stimulatory effects of running on neurogenesis. We thus analyzed the effects of voluntary wheel-running on adult neurogenesis (proliferation, differentiation, survival/death) in wild-type and beta-endorphin-deficient mice. In wild-type mice, exercise promoted cell proliferation evaluated by sacrificing animals 24 h after the last 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) pulse and by using endogenous cell cycle markers (Ki67 and pH(3)). This was accompanied by an increased survival of 4-wk-old BrdU-labeled cells, leading to a net increase of neurogenesis. Beta-endorphin deficiency had no effect in sedentary mice, but it completely blocked the running-induced increase in cell proliferation; this blockade was accompanied by an increased survival of 4-wk-old cells and a decreased cell death. Altogether, adult neurogenesis was increased in response to exercise in knockout mice. We conclude that beta-endorphin released during running is a key factor for exercise-induced cell proliferation and that a homeostatic balance may regulate the final number of new neurons. PMID:18263701

  13. Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Talbert, Robert J.

    2005-10-04

    A process is underway to develop mature, integrated methodologies to address nonproliferation issues. A variety of methodologies (both qualitative and quantitative) are being considered. All have one thing in common, a need for a consistent set of proliferation related data that can be used as a basis for application. One approach to providing a basis for predicting and evaluating future proliferation events is to understand past proliferation events, that is, the different paths that have actually been taken to acquire or attempt to acquire special nuclear material. In order to provide this information, this report describing previous material acquisition activities (obtained from open source material) has been prepared. This report describes how, based on an evaluation of historical trends in nuclear technology development, conclusions can be reached concerning: (1) The length of time it takes to acquire a technology; (2) The length of time it takes for production of special nuclear material to begin; and (3) The type of approaches taken for acquiring the technology. In addition to examining time constants, the report is intended to provide information that could be used to support the use of the different non-proliferation analysis methodologies. Accordingly, each section includes: (1) Technology description; (2) Technology origin; (3) Basic theory; (4) Important components/materials; (5) Technology development; (6) Technological difficulties involved in use; (7) Changes/improvements in technology; (8) Countries that have used/attempted to use the technology; (9) Technology Information; (10) Acquisition approaches; (11) Time constants for technology development; and (12) Required Concurrent Technologies.

  14. Nuclear non-Proliferation treaty

    The text of a speech is presented delivered by the State President of South Africa, Mr. F.W. de Klerk, to a joint session of Parliament on 24 March 1993, announcing developments relating to South Africa's nuclear capability and accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

  15. Developing the Sufficiency Perception Scale in the Area of Accompaniment with Piano for Candidate Music Teachers

    PİJİ, Duygu

    2013-01-01

    The music teacher’s accompanying the songs by piano in music education at schoolappears to be important regarding the development of melody, rhythm and harmony feelingsof the students. The music teacher candidates receive their knowledge and skill in the areaof piano accompaniment through the Accompaniment lesson within the Music TeachingLicense Program. In this research, with the purpose of defining the perception of sufficiencyregarding the accompaniment levels of music teacher candidates a...

  16. Hemiplegic peripheral neuropathy accompanied with multiple cranial nerve palsy

    Hirohisa Okuma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old man experienced double vision around January, 2010, followed by weakness of his left upper and lower extremities. Articulation disorders and loss of hearing in his left ear developed, and he was admitted to our hospital on February 14, 2010. Physical examination was normal, and neurological examination showed clear consciousness with no impairment of cognitive function, but with articulation disorders. Olfactory sensation was reduced. Left ptosis and left gaze palsy, complete left facial palsy, perceptive deafness of the left ear, and muscle weakness of the left trapezius muscle were observed. Paresis in the left upper and lower extremities was graded 4/5 through manual muscle testing. Sensory system evaluation revealed complete left-side palsy, including the face. Deep tendon reflexes were slightly diminished equally on both sides; no pathologic reflex was seen. No abnormality of the brain parenchyma, cerebral nerves or cervicothoracolumbar region was found on brain magnetic resonance imaging. On electroencephalogram, alpha waves in the main frequency band of 8 to 9 Hz were recorded, indicating normal findings. Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT scan showed reduced blood flow in the right inner frontal lobe and both occipital lobes. Nerve biopsy (left sural nerve showed reduction of nerve density by 30%, with demyelination. The patient also showed manifestations of multiple cranial nerve disorder, i.e., of the trigeminal nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve, and hypoglossal nerve. Whole-body examination was negative. Finally, based on ischemic brain SPECT images, spinal fluid findings and nerve biopsy results, peripheral neuropathy accompanied with multiple cranial nerve palsy was diagnosed.

  17. Fenestrations accompanied by intracranial aneurysms assessed with magnetic resonance angiography

    Zhen-Kui Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomical changes and investigate the prevalence in intracranial aneurysm with fenestrations using magnetic resonance angiography (MRA. Materials and Methods: Between June 2008 and October 2010, 4652 patients (aged 23-73 years with suspected intracranial aneurysm or other cerebrovascular diseases underwent MRA examination. MRA was performed using a three-dimensional time-of-flight technique (3D-TOF with volume rendering (VR and maximum intensity projection reconstruction methods. The presence and location of fenestrations and aneurysms was reviewed. When fenestrations were present in combination with aneurysms, we noted the relationship of the locations. The classification of fenestration accompanied by intracranial aneurysm was divided into three types according to the anatomical relationship as follows: Type I, aneurysm adjacent to but not on a fenestration; Type II, aneurysm located on the fenestration; type III, aneurysm located at a position remote from a fenestration. Results: Among the 4652 patients examined, 409 patients were defined with 412 intracranial aneurysms, and the prevalence of aneurysms was 8.8%. One hundred and forty-one patients were identified with fenestrations; 24 of these patients were confirmed with intracranial aneurysms. Seven cases were classified as type I, three as type II and 14 as type III. The prevalence of intracranial aneurysm with fenestrations was 17.0%, with significant statistical difference compared with aneurysms unaccompanied with fenestrations (P=0.0064. Conclusion: The anatomical relationship between fenestrations and intracranial aneurysms was visualized by MRA with VR, which displayed pathologies with sufficient clarity to enable diagnosis. Furthermore, the results of this study suggest that physicians should be alerted to the occurrence of intracranial aneurysm following the detection of fenestrations by MRA.

  18. 5 CFR 581.203 - Information minimally required to accompany legal process.

    2010-01-01

    ... accompany legal process. 581.203 Section 581.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Process § 581.203 Information minimally required to accompany legal process. (a) Sufficient identifying information must accompany the legal process in order to enable processing by the governmental entity...

  19. NFAT5 promotes proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells in part through regulating AQP5 expression

    Guo, Kai, E-mail: gk161@163.com [Department of Respiration, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Department of Respiration, 161th Hospital, PLA, Wuhan 430015 (China); Jin, Faguang, E-mail: jinfag@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Respiration, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China)

    2015-09-25

    The osmoregulated transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5(NFAT5), has been found to play important roles in the development of many kinds of human cancers, including breast cancer, colon carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma and melanoma. The aim of the present study was to determine whether NFAT5 is involved in the proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. We found that NFAT5 was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma cells and knockdown of NFAT5 decreased proliferation and migration of the cells, accompanied by a significant reduction in the expression of AQP5. AQP5 was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma cells and knockdown of AQP5 also inhibited proliferation and migration of the cells as knockdown of NFAT5 did. Moreover, overexpression of NFAT5 promoted proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells, accompanied by a significant increase in the expression of AQP5. These results indicate that NFAT5 plays important roles in proliferation and migration of human lung adenocarcinoma cells through regulating AQP5 expression, providing a new therapeutic option for lung adenocarcinoma therapy. - Highlights: • NFAT5 expression is higher in lung adenocarcinoma cells compared with normal cells. • NFAT5 knockdown decreases proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Knockdown of NFAT5 reduces AQP5 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Overexpression of NFAT5 promotes proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Overexpression of NFAT5 increases AQP5 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

  20. NFAT5 promotes proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells in part through regulating AQP5 expression

    The osmoregulated transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5(NFAT5), has been found to play important roles in the development of many kinds of human cancers, including breast cancer, colon carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma and melanoma. The aim of the present study was to determine whether NFAT5 is involved in the proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. We found that NFAT5 was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma cells and knockdown of NFAT5 decreased proliferation and migration of the cells, accompanied by a significant reduction in the expression of AQP5. AQP5 was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma cells and knockdown of AQP5 also inhibited proliferation and migration of the cells as knockdown of NFAT5 did. Moreover, overexpression of NFAT5 promoted proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells, accompanied by a significant increase in the expression of AQP5. These results indicate that NFAT5 plays important roles in proliferation and migration of human lung adenocarcinoma cells through regulating AQP5 expression, providing a new therapeutic option for lung adenocarcinoma therapy. - Highlights: • NFAT5 expression is higher in lung adenocarcinoma cells compared with normal cells. • NFAT5 knockdown decreases proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Knockdown of NFAT5 reduces AQP5 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Overexpression of NFAT5 promotes proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Overexpression of NFAT5 increases AQP5 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

  1. Dehydroepiandroesteron Accompanied Retinoic Acid Enhances Differentiation of P19 Embryonal Stem Cells into Neural Cells

    Hossein Azizi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dehydroepiandroesteron (DHEA is a neurosteroid with potential effect on neurogenesis,neuronal survival and proliferation of neural progenitor cells. However there is nodirect evidence for its biological effect during the differentiation of stem cell-derived neurons.The p19 line of embryonal carcinoma cells develops into neurons, astroglia and fibroblastsafter exposure to retinoic acid (RA. This study was initiated to assess the effect of DHEA onneural cells derived from p19 embryonal carcinoma stem cells.Materials and Methods: P19 cells were suspended in dulbecco’s modified eagle’s medium(DMED containing fetal bovine serum (FBS in bacterial-grade petri dishes in the presenceof RA, DHEA and RA+DHEA for 6 days. Then cells were trypsinized for dispersion and replacedin poly L- lysine (10μg/ml coated tissue culture dishes without RA and DHEA for 4days. The expression of neural markers Map-2, Tau, beta-tubulin III- clone Juj (Tuj1, astrocytemarker GFAP and the percent of neurotransmitters tyrosin hydroxylase, glutamate, serotoninand actyl cholin transferase were evaluated by flowcytometry, immunocytochemistryand RT-PCR analysis.Results: Flowcytometry analysis showed that about 63 ± 3% of the cells express neuronalmarker Tuj1 and about 5 ± 1% of the cells express tyrosine hydroxylase neurotransmittersin RA treated groups. However when RA and DHEA were added to the culture medium, Tuj1expression increased to about 74 ± 1% and tyrosine hydroxylase expression increased to23 ± 2%.Conclusion: Results showed that DHEA accompanied RA increased the number of Tuj1 anddopaminergic neurons that were derived from p19 embryonal carcinoma stem cells.

  2. Research on the dry intrusion accompanying the low vortex precipitation

    2007-01-01

    By employing the 6.7μm satellite vapor cloud images and NCEP/NCAR 1°×1° reanalysis datasets, the characteristics and mechanism of the dry intrusion, as well as its impacts on the low vortex precipitation at the Meiyu front are explored in this paper. It is found that the formation,development and maintenance of the low vortex precipitation at the Meiyu front are closely related to the evolution of the dry intrusion. The dry intrusion is characterized by high potential vorticity (PV), low humidity and cold air. The dry intrusion exhibits as an obvious dark zone on vapor cloud images, an area in which atmospheric relative humidity is lower than 60%. However, the features of the dry intrusion on the vapor images are clearer than that of the humidity field, for the former is the digital vapor cloud images with high temporal and spatial resolution, and it can be used to explore the finer characteristics of the development, evolution and supplement of the intrusion during the development of the low vortex. The dry intrusion impacts accompanying the low vortex precipitation at the Meiyu front come from all levels of the troposphere, with the strongest intrusion located at the upper troposphere. The dry and cold air intrudes the vicinity of the low vortex from the upper isentropic surface to the lower one, slanting east-ward from lower to higher level. The low vortex precipitation region is usually situated in front of the dry intrusion where the relative humidity gradient is higher. The research also reveals that the mechanism of the dry intrusion is that the high potential vorticity descends from the upper troposphere to the lower level, therefore, the dry intrusion can be used as an important index of the high PV forcing. To the west of the low vortex precipitation, the upper level northerlies descend across the isentropic surface, then the dry cold advection can trigger the instable development in the midlow troposphere. The dry intru-sion enhances the low vortex

  3. Proliferation Vulnerability Red Team report

    Hinton, J.P.; Barnard, R.W.; Bennett, D.E. [and others

    1996-10-01

    This report is the product of a four-month independent technical assessment of potential proliferation vulnerabilities associated with the plutonium disposition alternatives currently under review by DOE/MD. The scope of this MD-chartered/Sandia-led study was limited to technical considerations that could reduce proliferation resistance during various stages of the disposition processes below the Stored Weapon/Spent Fuel standards. Both overt and covert threats from host nation and unauthorized parties were considered. The results of this study will be integrated with complementary work by others into an overall Nonproliferation and Arms Control Assessment in support of a Secretarial Record of Decision later this year for disposition of surplus U.S. weapons plutonium.

  4. An approximate approach of heat transfer accompanied by phase transition

    Low temperature heat (solar energy, geothermal energy, industrial and domestic waste heat) is widely available for many applications. Energy storage of that heat is now of great importance because the key to the effective and widespread use of low temperature heat is its adaptation to the energy requirements. From this point of view, storage tanks based on the phase change principal are one interesting alternative. Phase change material (PCM) is particularly attractive due to its ability to provide a high-energy storage density and its characteristics to store heat at a constant temperature corresponding to the phase transition temperature of the heat storage material. That is why the problem of the heat transfer accompanied by phase transition is of mine interest to the practice. Heat storage system with the PCM and shell-and-tube type is analysed by Lacroix [6]. Several authors, using mathematical models of different complexity, studied this type of. latent heat storage unit. Heat-of-fusion storage materials for law temperature storage in the temperature range 0-120oC are reviewed by Abhat [5] and Reiter and Rota [4]. Hamdan and Elweer [3] have investigated a melting process of a solid phase. In the present study, the phase change problem of the PCM is analysed in another type of heat storage system. We use closed tubes (capsules) filled with PCM and the heat transfer fluid (HTF) flowing in the shell space of the heat exchanger (Fig.1). The heat process is analysed in terms of both radial and axial direction and is linked to the convective heat transfer from the HTF. As it is known [2,3] the transient heat transfer in PCM can be described by the well-known heat conduction equation applied for various phase conditions and the energy balance on the interface given by the Stephan's equation. The later determines the rate of moving of the interface and in this manner the space areas where the heat conduction equations have corresponding coefficients. The application

  5. Inverse relationship between adult hippocampal cell proliferation and synaptic rewiring in the dentate gyrus.

    Butz, Markus; Teuchert-Noodt, Gertraud; Grafen, Keren; van Ooyen, Arjen

    2008-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is a key feature of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Neurogenesis is accompanied by synaptogenesis as new cells become integrated into the circuitry of the hippocampus. However, little is known to what extent the embedding of new neurons rewires the pre-existing network. Here we investigate synaptic rewiring in the DG of gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) under different rates of adult cell proliferation caused by different rearing conditions as well as juvenile methamphetamine treatment. Surprisingly, we found that an increased cell proliferation reduced the amount of synaptic rewiring. To help explain this unexpected finding, we developed a novel model of dentate network formation incorporating neurogenesis and activity-dependent synapse formation and remodelling. In the model, we show that homeostasis of neuronal activity can account for the inverse relationship between cell proliferation and synaptic rewiring. PMID:18481284

  6. Fissile material disposition and proliferation risk

    The proliferation risk of a facility is dependent on the material attractiveness, level of safeguards, and physical protection applied to the material in conjunction with an assessment of the impact of the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment. Proliferation risk is a complementary extension of proliferation resistance. The authors believe a better determination of nuclear material proliferation can be achieved by establishing the proliferation risk for facilities that contain nuclear material. Developing a method that incorporates the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment inherent to each country enables a global proliferation assessment. In order to effectively reduce the nuclear danger, a broadly based set of criteria is needed that provides the capability to relatively assess a wide range of disposition options/facilities in different countries and still ensure a global decrease in proliferation risk for plutonium

  7. Nanoparticles for cells proliferation enhancement

    The potential of semiconductor nanoparticles as stimulator for avian mesenchyme stem cells proliferation enhancement is demonstrated. The effect is related to nanoparticles polarization due to external ultrasound field resulting in local electrical stimulation. Our preliminary results demonstrates that the number of cells have been increased by 23 % ±2%) in cell cultures under the action of external ultrasound stimulation. Morphological analysis and viability shows no differences between the control group and the group studied. These results suggest the possibility for tissue regeneration enhancement by remote stimulation of implanted semiconductor nanoparticles. (authors)

  8. Non-proliferation under revision

    At the 3rd NPT Revision Conference held in Geneva between August 27 and September 21, 1985, the member states to the Treaty reconfirmed their conviction that the agreement had become an essential part in the efforts to secure peace in the world and that is fundamental objectives continued to serve this purpose. Since the ratification in 1968 and the entering into force in 1970 of the Non-proliferation Treaty, the number of member states had risen continually to, at present, 130. In 1975, 92 states in 1980, 114 states had signed the agreement. The three nuclear weapon states, USA, UK, and USSR, are depositary states. France acts as if she had acceded to the Treaty, and the People's Republic of China as the 5th nuclear weapon state seems to take steps in the same direction by voluntarily opening nuclear installations to checks by IAEA inspectors. Incidentally, an effective framework of non-proliferation in the South American region has been created in the Treaty of Tlatelolco. 98% of all nuclear installations in the non-nuclear weapon countries are covered by IAEA safeguards. (orig.)

  9. Negative regulators of cell proliferation

    Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Cell proliferation is governed by the influence of both mitogens and inhibitors. Although cell contact has long been thought to play a fundamental role in cell cycling regulation, and negative regulators have long been suspected to exist, their isolation and purification has been complicated by a variety of technical difficulties. Nevertheless, over recent years an ever-expanding list of putative negative regulators have emerged. In many cases, their biological inhibitory activities are consistent with density-dependent growth inhibition. Most likely their interactions with mitogenic agents, at an intracellular level, are responsible for either mitotic arrest or continued cell cycling. A review of naturally occurring cell growth inhibitors is presented with an emphasis on those factors shown to be residents of the cell surface membrane. Particular attention is focused on a cell surface sialoglycopeptide, isolated from intact bovine cerebral cortex cells, which has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of an unusually wide range of target cells. The glycopeptide arrest cells obtained from diverse species, both fibroblasts and epithelial cells, and a broad variety of transformed cells. Signal transduction events and a limited spectrum of cells that are refractory to the sialoglycopeptide have provided insight into the molecular events mediated by this cell surface inhibitor.

  10. Gas Centrifuges and Nuclear Proliferation

    Albright, David

    2004-09-15

    Gas centrifuges have been an ideal enrichment method for a wide variety of countries. Many countries have built gas centrifuges to make enriched uranium for peaceful nuclear purposes. Other countries have secretly sought centrifuges to make highly enriched uranium for nuclear weapons. In more recent times, several countries have secretly sought or built gas centrifuges in regions of tension. The main countries that have been of interest in the last two decades have been Pakistan, Iraq, Iran, and North Korea. Currently, most attention is focused on Iran, Pakistan, and North Korea. These states did not have the indigenous abilities to make gas centrifuges, focusing instead on illicit and questionable foreign procurement. The presentation covered the following main sections: Spread of centrifuges through illicit procurement; Role of export controls in stopping proliferation; Increasing the transparency of gas centrifuge programs in non-nuclear weapon states; and, Verified dismantlement of gas centrifuge programs. Gas centrifuges are important providers of low enriched uranium for civil nuclear power reactors. They also pose special nuclear proliferation risks. We all have special responsibilities to prevent the spread of gas centrifuges into regions of tension and to mitigate the consequences of their spread into the Middle East, South Asia, and North Asia.

  11. Co-culture with Sertoli cells promotes proliferation and migration of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    Highlights: ► Co-culture of Sertoli cells (SCs) with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs). ► Presence of SCs dramatically increased proliferation and migration of UCMSCs. ► Presence of SCs stimulated expression of Mdm2, Akt, CDC2, Cyclin D, CXCR4, MAPKs. -- Abstract: Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) have been recently used in transplant therapy. The proliferation and migration of MSCs are the determinants of the efficiency of MSC transplant therapy. Sertoli cells are a kind of “nurse” cells that support the development of sperm cells. Recent studies show that Sertoli cells promote proliferation of endothelial cells and neural stem cells in co-culture. We hypothesized that co-culture of UCMSCs with Sertoli cells may also promote proliferation and migration of UCMSCs. To examine this hypothesis, we isolated UCMSCs from human cords and Sertoli cells from mouse testes, and co-cultured them using a Transwell system. We found that UCMSCs exhibited strong proliferation ability and potential to differentiate to other cell lineages such as osteocytes and adipocytes. The presence of Sertoli cells in co-culture significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration potential of UCMSCs (P < 0.01). Moreover, these phenotypic changes were accompanied with upregulation of multiple genes involved in cell proliferation and migration including phospho-Akt, Mdm2, phospho-CDC2, Cyclin D1, Cyclin D3 as well as CXCR4, phospho-p44 MAPK and phospho-p38 MAPK. These findings indicate that Sertoli cells boost UCMSC proliferation and migration potential.

  12. Co-culture with Sertoli cells promotes proliferation and migration of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    Zhang, Fenxi, E-mail: fxzhang0824@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, Sanquan College, Xinxiang Medical University, Henan 453003, People' s Republic of China (China); Hong, Yan; Liang, Wenmei [Department of Histology and Embryology, Guiyang Medical University, Guizhou 550004, People' s Republic of China (China); Ren, Tongming [Department of Anatomy, Sanquan College, Xinxiang Medical University, Henan 453003, People' s Republic of China (China); Jing, Suhua [ICU Center, The Third Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, Henan 453003, People' s Republic of China (China); Lin, Juntang [Stem Cell Center, Xinxiang Medical University, Henan 453003, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-culture of Sertoli cells (SCs) with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of SCs dramatically increased proliferation and migration of UCMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of SCs stimulated expression of Mdm2, Akt, CDC2, Cyclin D, CXCR4, MAPKs. -- Abstract: Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) have been recently used in transplant therapy. The proliferation and migration of MSCs are the determinants of the efficiency of MSC transplant therapy. Sertoli cells are a kind of 'nurse' cells that support the development of sperm cells. Recent studies show that Sertoli cells promote proliferation of endothelial cells and neural stem cells in co-culture. We hypothesized that co-culture of UCMSCs with Sertoli cells may also promote proliferation and migration of UCMSCs. To examine this hypothesis, we isolated UCMSCs from human cords and Sertoli cells from mouse testes, and co-cultured them using a Transwell system. We found that UCMSCs exhibited strong proliferation ability and potential to differentiate to other cell lineages such as osteocytes and adipocytes. The presence of Sertoli cells in co-culture significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration potential of UCMSCs (P < 0.01). Moreover, these phenotypic changes were accompanied with upregulation of multiple genes involved in cell proliferation and migration including phospho-Akt, Mdm2, phospho-CDC2, Cyclin D1, Cyclin D3 as well as CXCR4, phospho-p44 MAPK and phospho-p38 MAPK. These findings indicate that Sertoli cells boost UCMSC proliferation and migration potential.

  13. Study on proliferation time and response time for proliferation resistance evaluation

    'Proliferation time' is one of the proliferation resistance measures adopted by the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems International Forum (GIF) Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR and PP) evaluation methodology. A longer proliferation time would provide the international society with more time to intervene politically in order to dissuade the State from completing its nuclear weapons program. A longer proliferation time would therefore contribute to the enhancement of proliferation resistance of a given nuclear energy system. Two methods are considered for judging whether the proliferation time is long enough: 1) comparison of the proliferation times between a reference nuclear energy system and the subject system, and 2) comparison between the proliferation time and the response time, which can be defined as the time available to the international society to make a political intervention. This paper focuses on the latter method and examines how the response time can be estimated by reviewing prior incidents. (author)

  14. Cell proliferation in vitro modulates fibroblast collagenase activity

    Collagenase enzyme activity is regulated by numerous control mechanisms which prevent excessive release and activation of this protease. A primary mechanism for regulating enzyme extracellular activity may be linked to cell division, therefore they have examined the release of collagenase by fibroblasts in vitro in response to cellular proliferation. Studies were performed using fibroblasts derived from adult rat dermis maintained in DMEM containing 10% newborn calf serum, 25 mM tricine buffer, and antibiotics. Cells between subculture 10 and 19 were used with enzyme activity determined with a 14C-labelled soluble Type I collagen substrate with and without trypsin activation. Fibroblasts, trypsinized and plated at low density secreted 8.5 fold more enzyme than those cells at confluence (975 vs. 115 dpm/μg DNA). This diminution occurred gradually as the cells went from logrithmic growth towards confluence. Confluent fibroblast monolayers were scraped in a grid arrangement, stimulating the remaining cells to divide, without exposure to trypsin. Within 24-48 hr postscraping enzyme levels had increased 260-400%, accompanied by enhanced incorporation of 3H-thymidine and 3H-uridine into cell macromolecules. The burst of enzyme release began to subside 12 hr later. These results support a close relationship between fibroblast proliferation and collagenase secretion

  15. Selective cytotoxicity of benzyl isothiocyanate in the proliferating fibroblastoid cells.

    Miyoshi, Noriyuki; Uchida, Koji; Osawa, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Yoshimasa

    2007-02-01

    In the present study, experiments using presynchronization culture cells demonstrated that benzyl ITC (BITC), previously isolated from a tropical papaya fruit extract, induced the cytotoxic effect preferentially in the proliferating human colon CCD-18Co cells to the quiescent ones. Quiescent CCD-18Co cells were virtually unaffected by BITC and marginal cytotoxicity was observed at 15 microM. We observed that BITC dramatically induced the p53 phosphorylation and stabilization only in the quiescent (G(0)/G(1) phase-arrested) cells, but not significantly in the proliferating human colon CCD-18Co cells when compared with quiescent ones. We also observed ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) phosphorylation in the quiescent cells. The BITC-induced p53 phosphorylation was counteracted by caffeine treatment, implying the involvement of an ATM/ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related kinase signaling pathway. Moreover, downregulation of p53 by a siRNA resulted in the enhancement of susceptibility to undergo apoptosis by BITC. We also showed here that depletion of p53 abrogated G(0)/G(1) arrest accompanied by the declined expression of p21(waf1/cip1) and p27(kip1) in CCD-18Co cells. In conclusion, we identified p53 as a potential negative regulator of the apoptosis induction by BITC in the normal colon CCD-18Co cells through the inhibition of cell-cycle progression at the G(0)/G(1) phase. PMID:17096346

  16. RNA interference targeting raptor inhibits proliferation of gastric cancer cells

    Wu, William Ka Kei; Lee, Chung Wa [Institute of Digestive Diseases, LKS Institute of Health Sciences and Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Cho, Chi Hin [Institute of Digestive Diseases, LKS Institute of Health Sciences and Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Chan, Francis Ka Leung [Institute of Digestive Diseases, LKS Institute of Health Sciences and Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Yu, Jun, E-mail: junyu@cuhk.edu.hk [Institute of Digestive Diseases, LKS Institute of Health Sciences and Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Sung, Joseph Jao Yiu, E-mail: joesung@cuhk.edu.hk [Institute of Digestive Diseases, LKS Institute of Health Sciences and Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)

    2011-06-10

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is dysregulated in gastric cancer. The biologic function of mTORC1 in gastric carcinogenesis is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that disruption of mTORC1 function by RNA interference-mediated downregulation of raptor substantially inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation through induction of G{sub 0}/G{sub 1}-phase cell cycle arrest. The anti-proliferative effect was accompanied by concomitant downregulation of activator protein-1 and upregulation of Smad2/3 transcriptional activities. In addition, the expression of cyclin D{sub 3} and p21{sup Waf1}, which stabilizes cyclin D/cdk4 complex for G{sub 1}-S transition, was reduced by raptor knockdown. In conclusion, disruption of mTORC1 inhibits gastric cancer cell proliferation through multiple pathways. This discovery may have an implication in the application of mTORC1-directed therapy for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  17. The Effects of Harmonic Accompaniment on the Tonal Improvisations of Students in First through Sixth Grade

    Guilbault, Denise Marie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of harmonic accompaniment on the tonal improvisations of elementary school students. Specifically, this study was designed to (a) determine if the addition of a root melody accompaniment to song instruction affects the implied harmonic changes and harmonic rhythm in the tonal improvisations…

  18. 22 CFR 40.102 - Guardian required to accompany excluded alien.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guardian required to accompany excluded alien. 40.102 Section 40.102 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH... Guardian required to accompany excluded alien. INA 212(a)(9)(B) is not applicable at the time of...

  19. The Recall of Verbal Material Accompanying Semantically Well-Integrated and Semantically Poorly-Integrated Sentences.

    Rosenberg, Sheldon

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the recall of verbal material (critical material) accompanying semantically well integrated (SWI) sentences will be superior to the recall of verbal material accompanying semantically poorly integrated (SPI) sentences. This hypothesis was based upon the conclusion derived from previous research…

  20. 7 CFR 319.37-12 - Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles... Stock, Plants, Roots, Bulbs, Seeds, and Other Plant Products 1,2 § 319.37-12 Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles. A restricted article for importation into the United States shall not...

  1. 5 CFR 582.203 - Information minimally required to accompany legal process.

    2010-01-01

    ... accompany legal process. 582.203 Section 582.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL GARNISHMENT OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' PAY Service of Legal Process § 582.203 Information minimally required to accompany legal process. (a) Sufficient...

  2. 39 CFR 320.7 - Suspension for advertisements accompanying parcels or periodicals.

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension for advertisements accompanying parcels... advertisements accompanying parcels or periodicals. (a) The operation of 39 U.S.C. 601(a) (1) through (6) and § 310.2(b) (1) through (6) of this chapter is suspended on all post routes for advertisements...

  3. Artists-accompanied urban regeneration: Insights and lessons from Utrecht and Rotterdam

    Zebracki, M.M.; Smulders, L.

    2012-01-01

    Urban regeneration in Dutch cities is increasingly accompanied by the cultural sector in general and by artists in particular. This paper presents comparative case studies on current artists-accompanied urban regeneration initiated by housing corporations in Utrecht and Rotterdam. On the basis of di

  4. Proliferation resistance fuel cycle technology

    The issues of dual use in nuclear technology are analysed for nuclear fuel cycle with special focus on uranium enrichment and spent fuel reprocessing which are considered as the most sensitive components in terms of vulnerability to diversion. Technical alternatives to mitigrate the vulnerability, as has been analysed in depth during the NASAP and INFCE era in the late seventies, are reviewed to characterize the DUPIC fuel cycle alternative. On the other hand, the new realities in nuclear energy including the disposition of weapon materials as a legacy of cold war are recast in an angle of nuclear proliferation resistance and safeguards with a discussion on the concept of spent fuel standard concept and its compliance with the DUPIC fuel cycle technology. (author)

  5. Proliferation resistance fuel cycle technology

    Lee, J. S.; Ko, W. I

    1999-02-01

    The issues of dual use in nuclear technology are analysed for nuclear fuel cycle with special focus on uranium enrichment and spent fuel reprocessing which are considered as the most sensitive components in terms of vulnerability to diversion. Technical alternatives to mitigrate the vulnerability, as has been analysed in depth during the NASAP and INFCE era in the late seventies, are reviewed to characterize the DUPIC fuel cycle alternative. On the other hand, the new realities in nuclear energy including the disposition of weapon materials as a legacy of cold war are recast in an angle of nuclear proliferation resistance and safeguards with a discussion on the concept of spent fuel standard concept and its compliance with the DUPIC fuel cycle technology. (author)

  6. Romania non-proliferation policy

    Full text: Non-proliferation concept in Romania is based on the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, which was ratified in 1970. According to the Article III of the Treaty, Romania ratified in 1972, the Agreement between Romania and IAEA for the application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. In 2000 Romania ratified the Additional Protocol to contribute through increased transparency, to confidence that no undeclared nuclear activities are concealed within the declared programme or make use of elements of that programme. Under the Additional Protocol Romania understands to increase the transparency of its nuclear activities lengthways fuel cycle. Romania has a strong legal framework to control nuclear material and nuclear activities. The Law 111/1996, republished is the Law on the safe deployment of nuclear activities. CNCAN issued National Regulations for Safeguards and Physical Protection. Prospecting for uranium in Romania was initiated in 1950. Between 1962 and 1978 all the uranium ore production was stockpiled at the mine sites. In 1978 the Feldioara Powder Plant was commissioned, since then both ore stockpiles and ore exploited have been processed to uranium chemical concentrates. The Powder Plant Feldioara was conceived and built following the necessity of milling and processing the uranium ore to UO2, in concordance with the national nuclear programme in order to produce electric energy from nuclear fuel. The Nuclear Fuel Plant has capability to manufacture CANDU-6 nuclear fuel. Nuclear Fuel Plant consists of two Production areas, the Quality Assurance and Engineering Departments. There are two Production Departments: Pelleting area including granulation, pressing, sintering, pellet grinding, uranium recycling and Assembling area including components fabrication, beryllium coating, brazing, graphite coating, fuel element and bundle assembly welding. Romania's Strategy for Energy Sector is

  7. Nuclear energy and nuclear weapons proliferation

    A summary of the report dispatched in the middle of 1978 by the Atlantic Council of United States, organized by North American citizens, is presented. The report considers the relation between the production of nucleoelectric energy and the capacity of proliferation of nuclear weapons. The factors which affect the grade of proliferation risk represented by the use of nuclear energy in the world comparing this risk with the proliferation risks independently of nuclear energy, are examined. (M.C.K.)

  8. Proliferation resistance: issues, initiatives and evaluation

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The vision of a nuclear renaissance has highlighted the issue of proliferation resistance. The prospects for a dramatic growth in nuclear power may depend on the effectiveness of, and the resources devoted to, plans to develop and implement technologies and approaches that strengthen proliferation resistance. The GenIV International Forum (GIF) and others have devoted attention and resources to proliferation resistance. However, the hope of finding a way to make the peaceful uses of nuclear energy resistant to proliferation has reappeared again and again in the history of nuclear power with little practical consequence. The concept of proliferation resistance has usually focused on intrinsic (technological) as opposed to extrinsic (institutional) factors. However, if there are benefits that may yet be realized from reactors and other facilities designed to minimize proliferation risks, it is their coupling with effective safeguards and other nonproliferation measures that likely will be critical. Proliferation resistance has also traditionally been applied only to state threats. Although there are no technologies that can wholly eliminate the risk of proliferation by a determined state, technology can play a limited role in reducing state threats and perhaps in eliminating many non-state threats. These and other issues are not academic. They affect efforts to evaluate proliferation resistance, including the methodology developed by GIF's Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP) Working Group as well as the proliferation resistance initiatives that are being pursued or may be developed in the future. This paper will offer a new framework for thinking about proliferation resistance issues, including the ways the output of the methodology could be developed to inform the decisions that states, the International Atomic Energy (IAEA) and others will have to make in order to fully realize the promise of a nuclear renaissance.

  9. Modeling Nuclear Proliferation : Expanding Input Variable Sets

    Quantitative tools have been developed to analyze and nuclear proliferation events. However, the results from the current models show weaknesses in the model. This work is an attempt to improve upon existing models by adding new variables based on the understanding of nuclear proliferation scenarios. In this study, two more variables were added to existing dataset to enhance the nuclear proliferation prediction. The results showed enhancement of modeling capability for some countries, but some limitations still exist. Future work will include by adding new variables and improving database to further enhance proliferation modeling capability

  10. Strengthening the non proliferation regime: French views

    3 main issues can be identified in the French policy concerning the backing of non proliferation: 1) responding resolutely to proliferation crises, 2) reinforcing substantive efforts to prevent and impede proliferation, and 3) strengthening the non-proliferation regime. The first issue is very important because combating proliferation is vital to the security of all. Concerning the second issue, France attaches particular importance to strengthening specific measures to prevent and check proliferation. Let me mention a few proposals that we put forward: exports need to be controlled more effectively, proliferation activities have to be criminalized, or the development of proliferation-resistant technologies should be supported. Concerning the third issue it means the strengthening of the non-proliferation regime, France proposes several means: -) aiming at the universalization of the additional protocol; -) ensuring that the Agency continues to have sufficient human, financial and technical resources to fulfill its verification mission effectively; -) encouraging the IAEA to make full use of the authority available to it; -) enhancing the use of information relevant to the delivery of the IAEA mandate; and -) sharing more accurate information concerning the breaches of commitments that happen. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (A.C.)

  11. The handbook of nuclear non-proliferation

    This report analyzed international non-proliferation regime preventing from spread of nuclear weapon. This report took review from the historical background of non-proliferation regime to the recent changes and current status. It is here divided into multilateral and bilateral regime. First of all, this report dealt four multilateral treaties concluded for international non-proliferation such as NPT, NWFZ, CTBT and others. And international organization and regimes concerned with non-proliferation are also analyzed focused on UN, IAEA, ZC and NSG, regional safeguards system and international conferences. In addition, this report reviewed the nuclear cooperation agreement related with Korea which is a important tool for bilateral regime

  12. Proliferation after the Iraq war; La proliferation apres la guerre d'Irak

    Daguzan, J.F

    2004-09-15

    This article uses the Iraq war major event to analyze the approach used by the US to fight against proliferation. It questions the decision and analysis process which has led to the US-British intervention and analyzes the consequences of the war on the proliferation of other countries and on the expected perspectives. Finally, the future of proliferation itself is questioned: do we have to fear more threat or is the virtuous circle of non-proliferation well started? (J.S.)

  13. Wnt3a is critical for endothelial progenitor cell-mediated neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation

    Du, Yibin; Zhang, Shuo; Yu, Tao; Du, Gongwen; Zhang, Hui; Yin, Zongsheng

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether co-culture with bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) affects the proliferation and differentiation of spinal cord-derived neural stem cells (NSCs), and to investigate the underlying mechanism. The proliferation and differentiation of the NSCs were evaluated by an MTT cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assay, and immunofluorescence, respectively. The number of neurospheres and the number of β-tubulin III-positive cells were detected by microscopy. The wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 3a (Wnt3a)/β-catenin signaling pathway was analyzed by western blot analysis and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction to elucidate the possible mechanisms of EPC-mediated NSC proliferation and differentiation. The results revealed that co-culture with EPCs significantly induced NSC proliferation and differentiation. In addition, co-culture with EPCs markedly induced the expression levels of Wnt3a and β-catenin and inhibited the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β). By contrast, Wnt3a knockdown using a short hairpin RNA plasmid in the EPCs reduced EPC-mediated NSC proliferation and differentiation, accompanied by inhibition of the EPC-mediated expression of β-catenin, and its phosphorylation and activation of GSK-3β. Taken together, the findings of the present study demonstrated that Wnt3a was critical for EPC-mediated NSC proliferation and differentiation. PMID:27484039

  14. Cyclic mechanical strain-induced proliferation and migration of human airway smooth muscle cells: role of EMMPRIN and MMPs.

    Hasaneen, Nadia A; Zucker, Stanley; Cao, Jian; Chiarelli, Christian; Panettieri, Reynold A; Foda, Hussein D

    2005-09-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) proliferation and migration are major components of airway remodeling in asthma. Asthmatic airways are exposed to mechanical strain, which contributes to their remodeling. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) plays an important role in remodeling. In the present study, we examined if the mechanical strain of human ASM (HASM) cells contributes to their proliferation and migration and the role of MMPs in this process. HASM were exposed to mechanical strain using the FlexCell system. HASM cell proliferation, migration and MMP release, activation, and expression were assessed. Our results show that cyclic strain increased the proliferation and migration of HASM; cyclic strain increased release and activation of MMP-1, -2, and -3 and membrane type 1-MMP; MMP release was preceded by an increase in extracellular MMP inducer; Prinomastat [a MMP inhibitor (MMPI)] significantly decreased cyclic strain-induced proliferation and migration of HASM; and the strain-induced increase in the release of MMPs was accompanied by an increase in tenascin-C release. In conclusion, cyclic mechanical strain plays an important role in HASM cell proliferation and migration. This increase in proliferation and migration is through an increase in MMP release and activation. Pharmacological MMPIs should be considered in the pursuit of therapeutic options for airway remodeling in asthma. PMID:16014803

  15. SGLT1 activity in lung alveolar cells of diabetic rats modulates airway surface liquid glucose concentration and bacterial proliferation

    Oliveira, Tales Lyra; Candeia-Medeiros, Návylla; Cavalcante-Araújo, Polliane M.; Melo, Igor Santana; Fávaro-Pípi, Elaine; Fátima, Luciana Alves; Rocha, Antônio Augusto; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Machado, Ubiratan Fabres; Campos, Ruy R.; Sabino-Silva, Robinson

    2016-01-01

    High glucose concentration in the airway surface liquid (ASL) is an important feature of diabetes that predisposes to respiratory infections. We investigated the role of alveolar epithelial SGLT1 activity on ASL glucose concentration and bacterial proliferation. Non-diabetic and diabetic rats were intranasally treated with saline, isoproterenol (to increase SGLT1 activity) or phlorizin (to decrease SGLT1 activity); 2 hours later, glucose concentration and bacterial proliferation (methicillin-resistant Sthaphylococcus aureus, MRSA and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. aeruginosa) were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL); and alveolar SGLT1 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. BAL glucose concentration and bacterial proliferation increased in diabetic animals: isoproterenol stimulated SGLT1 migration to luminal membrane, and reduced (50%) the BAL glucose concentration; whereas phlorizin increased the BAL glucose concentration (100%). These regulations were accompanied by parallel changes of in vitro MRSA and P. aeruginosa proliferation in BAL (r = 0.9651 and r = 0.9613, respectively, Pearson correlation). The same regulations were observed in in vivo P. aeruginosa proliferation. In summary, the results indicate a relationship among SGLT1 activity, ASL glucose concentration and pulmonary bacterial proliferation. Besides, the study highlights that, in situations of pulmonary infection risk, such as in diabetic subjects, increased SGLT1 activity may prevent bacterial proliferation whereas decreased SGLT1 activity can exacerbate it. PMID:26902517

  16. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the thyroid with multiple cervical lymph node involvement accompanying metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma.

    Ceyran, A Bahar; Senol, Serkan; Bayraktar, Barış; Ozkanlı, Seyma; Cinel, Z Leyla; Aydın, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    A 37-year-old male case was admitted with goiter. Ultrasonography of thyroid showed a 5 cm cystic nodule in the left lobe with a 1.5 cm solid component. Fine needle aspiration biopsy revealed atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion. The patient was operated on. The pathological diagnosis was reported as papillary thyroid carcinoma. The immunohistochemical examination showed multiple foci of Langerhans cell histiocytosis involving both lobes. The patient died due to cardiac arrest with respiratory causes in the early postoperative period. Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare primary condition which involves abnormal clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in various tissues and organs. Thyroid involvement is infrequently seen. Although the etiology is unknown, genetic components may be linked to the disease. It is also associated with a family history of thyroid disease. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial tumor of the thyroid gland. Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting with papillary thyroid carcinoma is rare. The privilege of our case is langerhans cell histiocytosis of the thyroid with multiple cervical lymph node involvement accompanying cervical lymph node metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma. PMID:25349760

  17. Monitoring technology proliferation: an open source methodology for generating proliferation intelligence

    Green, Daniel M.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis develops a methodology to monitor technology proliferation. It is designed to provide proliferation intelligence on specific threat technologies and can be used to augment export controls or enhance counter proliferation initiatives. A high-te Lieutenant, United States Navy

  18. Director`s series on proliferation

    Bailey, K.C.; Price, M.E. [eds.

    1995-11-17

    This is an occasional publication of essays on the topics of nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile proliferation. The views represented are those of the author`s. Essay topics include: Nuclear Proliferation: Myth and Reality; Problems of Enforcing Compliance with Arms Control Agreements; The Unreliability of the Russian Officer Corps: Reluctant Domestic Warriors; and Russia`s Nuclear Legacy.

  19. Control of cell proliferation by Myc

    Bouchard, C; Staller, P; Eilers, M

    1998-01-01

    Myc proteins are key regulators of mammalian cell proliferation. They are transcription factors that activate genes as part of a heterodimeric complex with the protein Max. This review summarizes recent progress in understanding how Myc stimulates cell proliferation and how this might contribute to...

  20. Proliferation resistance of small modular reactors fuels

    In this paper the proliferation resistance of different types of Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) has been examined and classified with criteria available in the literature. In the first part of the study, the level of proliferation attractiveness of traditional low-enriched UO2 and MOX fuels to be used in SMRs based on pressurized water technology has been analyzed. On the basis of numerical simulations both cores show significant proliferation risks. Although the MOX core is less proliferation prone in comparison to the UO2 core, it still can be highly attractive for diversion or undeclared production of nuclear material. In the second part of the paper, calculations to assess the proliferation attractiveness of fuel in typical small sodium cooled fast reactor show that proliferation risks from spent fuel cannot be neglected. The core contains a highly attractive plutonium composition during the whole life cycle. Despite some aspects of the design like the sealed core that enables easy detection of unauthorized withdrawal of fissile material and enhances proliferation resistance, in case of open Non-Proliferation Treaty break-out, weapon-grade plutonium in sufficient quantities could be extracted from the reactor core

  1. Economic air policy for non-proliferation

    In today's world, arms proliferation is a major concern, posing a threat to international peace and security. While the concerted efforts of donor countries to formulate and pursue economic aid policies in such a way as to stem proliferation may not be decisive, they will surely contribute to a more stable international environment

  2. Safeguards and non-proliferation

    It deserves re-emphasizing that the first and most important obstacle to the proliferation of nuclear weapons is a matter of political judgement and determination. Safeguards cannot prevent a violation of obligations... any more than bank or company audits can prevent a misappropriation of funds. All they can do is expose infringements or arouse suspicions - in effect, sound the alarm. By submitting the whole of their nuclear energy sector to impartial international inspection, States can inspire great confidence on the part of the rest of the world in the exclusively peaceful nature of their programmes. Safeguards are today an essential precondition for imports of nuclear power technology, uranium fuel, and many different kinds of material for the nuclear energy sector. Without IAEA safeguards, the existing market in this sector would be unworkable. Potentially, the most important aspect of the acceptance of IAEA safeguards by nuclear-weapon States is that it shows their readiness to submit important installations within their territory to impartial inspection

  3. North Korea: a mercenary proliferator?

    After having recalled that North Korea possesses a rather advanced ballistic programme which has been started in the 1970 with the Chinese support, that North Korea is the fourth world producer of ballistic missiles, the author outlines that this country has become a major proliferator as it exports this production to different States and non-State actors. He recalls the long history of relationships between North Korea and terrorist organisations (even during the Cold War), comments the current and major support of North Korea to Hamas and Hezbollah in Gaza and in Lebanon. These relationships are then related with those these both organisations have with Syria and Iran who are in fact the relays between them and North Korea. The author explains why Hamas and Hezbollah must buy their weapons to such a far country: Iran is submitted to international sanctions, Iran and Syria want to avoid being banned from the international community for selling weapon to a terrorist (or so-said) organisation, and prices are rather competitive. If North Korea is also submitted to international sanctions, weapon smuggling seems to be institutional in this country. The author finally briefly evokes the issue of chemical weapons: North Korea possesses few thousand tonnes of these weapons, and could export them to non-state organisations

  4. The challenges of nuclear proliferation

    The author of this article first outlines that the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is a tool of domination used by nuclear powers: they can keep and even develop their own nuclear arsenal, while other countries who sign this treaty commit themselves not to try to acquire nuclear weapons. The USA and USSR kept on persuading various countries to sign this treaty, but eventually let some countries develop their military nuclear programme (Israel, Pakistan, or India). He evokes technical difficulties in the application of the Treaty, notably for the control of centrifugation activities. He outlines that the USA have now a dominant position with respect to this Treaty and its application, but that the Treaty remains a major safety element for the world. He evokes more recent and negative evolutions: the withdrawal of North Korea from the Treaty, the destruction of an Iraqi nuclear reactor by Israel (i.e. the destruction of a nuclear installation belonging to a country who signed the NPT by a country who did not sign it). He proposes an overview of the Iranian issue (history of the Iranian nuclear programme, of the nuclear crisis, of the still going on negotiations), and describes what could be the worst possible scenario

  5. Nuclear non-proliferation and global security

    The book has 16 chapters grouped into three sections - Global Security and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons -the Agenda; Nuclear Non-Proliferation Policies and Perspectives and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in Review. Apart from the Review of the Third NPT Conference all the articles were presented at the Conference on Global Security and the Future of the Non-Proliferation Treaty: a time for reassessment, held in May 1985. All are indexed separately. The Appendices include the Statement of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, a list of parties to the Treaty, those signing but not ratifying the Treaty and those neither signing nor ratifying and Appendix I and II of the Final Document of the Third Review Conference of the Parties to the NPT Treaty. (U.K.)

  6. IPSN and the mastery of proliferation risks

    Since 20 years, the French Institute of Nuclear Protection and Safety (IPSN) works for the reinforcement of the efficiency of the actions against nuclear proliferation. This dossier takes stock of the means and action developed by the IPSN in this domain: nuclear and chemical proliferation: towards a reinforced mastery of risks (status of proliferation during the last 10 years, the aim of the international and national controls, the role of IPSN); nuclear proliferation: the technical control means of the IPSN (inspection, containment/surveillance of nuclear materials (PLUM and FUNE apparatuses), the cooperation between the IPSN and the Kurchatov institute (Russia)); the action of the IPSN in the application of international controls: example of chemistry (conventions, negotiations and expertise, inspections); appendixes: nuclear materials (declaration and permission thresholds), the different steps of the nuclear weapons non-proliferation policy. (J.S.)

  7. Christoph Rothmann's discourse on the comet of 1585 an edition and translation with accompanying essays

    Granada, Miguel A; Jardine, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Christoph Rothmann's Discourse on the Comet of 1585 offers the first edition of the Latin treatise after it was published in 1619. It is accompanied by an English translation and a full introduction and commentary.

  8. Muscle progenitor cells proliferation doesn't sufficiently contribute to maintaining stretched soleus muscle mass during gravitational unloading

    Tarakina, M. V.; Turtikova, O. V.; Nemirovskaya, T. L.; Kokontcev, A. A.; Shenkman, B. S.

    Skeletal muscle work hypertrophy is usually connected with muscle progenitor satellite cells (SC) activation with subsequent incorporation of their nuclei into myofibers. Passive stretch of unloaded muscle was earlier established to prevent atrophic processes and is accompanied by enhanced protein synthesis. We hypothesized that elimination of SC proliferation capacity by γ-irradiation would partly avert stretched muscle fiber capability to maintain their size under the conditions of gravitational unloading. To assess the role of muscle progenitor (satellite) cells in development of passive stretch preventive effect SC proliferation was suppressed by local exposing to ionized radiation (2500 rad), subsequent hindlimb suspension or hindlimb suspension with concomitant passive stretch were carried out. Reduction of myofiber cross-sectional area and decrease in myonuclei number accompanying unloaded muscle atrophy were completely abolished by passive stretch both in irradiated and sham-treated animals. We conclude that SC did not make essential contribution to passive stretch preventive action under the conditions of simulated weightlessness.

  9. Which future for nuclear counter-proliferation?

    Dealing with the case of nuclear weapons possessed by nuclear states (but not eventually by terrorists), the author first identifies the constants of counter-proliferation: it is linked to interest conflicts between those who try to preserve their monopoly and those who try to acquire a new weapon either because of a threat or for reasons of regional prestige, the evolution from use to deterrence, the appearance of new actors after the USA and Russia, the role of nuclear tactical weapons, and the future of Russian weapons and know-how. He presents the international counter-proliferation context: the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the IAEA and its controls, the Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG), the nuclear-free zones, the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). He describes how and why proliferation occurs: uranium enrichment and plutonium technology, political reasons in different parts of the world. Then, he gives an overview of the proliferation status by commenting the cases of Israel, Iraq, India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Iran. He discusses the future of proliferation (involved countries, existence of a nuclear black market) and of counter-proliferation as far as Middle-East and North Korea are concerned. He tries finally to anticipate the consequences for nuclear deterrence strategy, and more particularly for Europe and France

  10. Non-proliferation and multinational enterprises

    The paper supplements CC/WG.2/9 in presenting the Japanese delegation's contribution in the areas of non-proliferation and multi-national enterprises. The paper questions whether multinational enrichment enterprises would constitute a significant non-proliferation factor, noting that the nature of the venture might create a potential for the dissemination of sensitive information. The paper also argues that a multi-national venture which was not economically competitive (with national facilities) would have questionable viability. The conclusion is that non-proliferation advantages, if any, would be a result, not an objective of such a venture

  11. Sox11 modulates neocortical development by regulating the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of cortical intermediate precursors

    Yongzhe Li; Qingsong Li; Jianjiao Wang; Yongri Zheng; Yan Zhao; Mian Guo; Yang Li; Qiuli Bao; Yu Zhang; Lizhuang Yang

    2012-01-01

    Neural precursor cells play important roles in the neocortical development,but the mechanisms of neural progenitor proliferation,neuronal differentiation,and migration,as well as patterning are still unclear.Sox11,one of SoxC family members,has been reported to be essential for embryonic and adult neurogenesis.But there is no report about the roles of Sox11 in corticogenesis.In order to investigate Sox11 function during cortical development,loss of function experiment was performed in this study.Knockdown of Sox11 by Sox11 siRNA constructs resulted in a diminished neuronal differentiation,but enhanced proliferation of intermediate progenitors.Accompanied with the high expression of Sox11 in the postmitotic neurons,but low expression of Sox11 in the dividing neural progenitors,all the observations indicate that Sox11 induces neuronal differentiation during the neocortical development.

  12. Nuclear non-proliferation and global security

    The nuclear non-proliferation treaty is currently undergoing its third formal review by its signatories. They are reviewing the treaty, assessing its effectiveness and considering how it might better be implemented. This book anticipates the work of the treaty reviewers and considers the issues facing them. It examines the whole range of issues connected with nuclear non-proliferation and the treaty. It looks at non-proliferation from the point of view of nuclear nations, non-nuclear nations and the nuclear industry. It assesses the work of the international monitoring bodies and reconsiders the place of non-proliferation in the changing balance of global nuclear power. It concludes by discussing the way forward

  13. Proliferation resistance features in nuclear reactor designs

    The paper presents a review of the main principles for technologies and materials protection from unauthorized proliferation and application to be considered in nuclear reactors designing. Nuclear power features certain operations sensitive to nuclear weapons proliferation (such as separation of uranium isotopes (enrichment), long storage of spent fuel, processing of spent fuel, plutonium and/or uranium recovery from spent fuel, storage of recovered fissile materials). Proliferation resistance is defined as a nuclear energy system characteristic that impedes the diversion or undeclared production of nuclear material, or misuse of technology with the purpose of acquiring nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. The basic principles of non-proliferation established in the INPRO international project sponsored by IAEA have been discussed as implemented for designing of the innovative nuclear energy systems based on fast lead-cooled nuclear reactors

  14. Handbook for nuclear non-proliferation

    Lee, Byung Wook; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Kwang Seok; Lee, Dong Jin; Ko, Han Seok

    1997-05-01

    This book analyzed international non-proliferation regime preventing from spread of nuclear weapon. This book took review from the historical background of non-proliferation regime to the recent changes and status. The regime, here, is divided into multilateral and bilateral regime. First of all, this book reports four multilateral treaties concluded for non-proliferation such as NPT, NWFZ, CTBT and others. Secondly, international organization and regimes concerned with non-proliferation are analyzed with emphasis of UN, IAEA, ZC and NSG, Regional Safeguards System and international conference. Finally, this book report the current circumstances of nuclear cooperation agreement related with Korea which is an important means for bilateral regime. (author). 13 tabs., 2 figs.

  15. Handbook for nuclear non-proliferation

    This book analyzed international non-proliferation regime preventing from spread of nuclear weapon. This book took review from the historical background of non-proliferation regime to the recent changes and status. The regime, here, is divided into multilateral and bilateral regime. First of all, this book reports four multilateral treaties concluded for non-proliferation such as NPT, NWFZ, CTBT and others. Secondly, international organization and regimes concerned with non-proliferation are analyzed with emphasis of UN, IAEA, ZC and NSG, Regional Safeguards System and international conference. Finally, this book report the current circumstances of nuclear cooperation agreement related with Korea which is an important means for bilateral regime. (author). 13 tabs., 2 figs

  16. Canada's nuclear non-proliferation policy

    Canada's non-proliferation safeguards policy has two objectives: 1) to promote a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime; and 2) to ensure that Canadian nuclear exports will not be used for any nuclear explosive purpose. By emphasizing the key role of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, promoting reliance upon and improvements in the IAEA safeguards system, treating nuclear weapon and non-weapon states alike, and working for new approaches covering reprocessing, Canada promotes attainment of the first objective. The second is served through the network of bilateral nuclear agreements that Canada has put into place with its partners. The Canadian objective in post-INFCE forums is to persuade the international community to devise a more effective and comprehensive non-proliferation regime into which Canada and other suppliers may subsume their national requirements

  17. Erythropoietin -induced proliferation of gastric mucosal cells

    Itoh, Kazuro; Sawasaki, Yoshio; Takeuchi, Kyoko; Kato, Shingo; Imai, Nobuhiro; Kato, Yoichiro; Shibata, Noriyuki; KOBAYASHI, MAKIO; Moriguchi, Yoshiyuki; Higuchi, Masato; Ishihata, Fumio; Sudoh, Yushi; Miura, Soichiro

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the localization of erythropoietin receptor on gastric specimens and characterize the effects of erythropoietin on the normal gastric epithelial proliferation using a porcine gastric epithelial cell culture model.

  18. Proliferation resistance features in nuclear reactor designs

    Full text: The presentation gives an overview of the fundamental principles of non-proliferation of nuclear materials and technologies in the process of designing the nuclear reactors. The nuclear power engineering includes the activities involving the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons (such as separation of uranium isotopes (enrichment), long-term storage of irradiated fuel, reprocessing of irradiated fuel by means of separation of plutonium and/or uranium wherefrom, storage of separated fissile materials). Proliferation resistance can be defined as the characteristic of a given nuclear power system which would prevent change-over or unauthorized production and use of the nuclear materials or technologies intended to possession of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosives. The basic principles of non-proliferation as formulated in the frame of IAEA-sponsored international project INPRO have been analyzed for their relevance in designing the innovative nuclear power systems based on lead-cooled fast reactors. (author)

  19. Nuclear non-proliferation: a reference handbook

    This handbook aims to give data on the current state of non-proliferation in the world. In Part One articles give an overview on non-proliferation; its history, the review conferences, nuclear power nuclear weapons, nuclear safeguards, nuclear trade control, security and physical protection of nuclear materials, nuclear weapon free zones, arms control and disarmament, nuclear testing and the current state of civil nuclear power. Even articles are indexed separately. Part Two includes the texts of the non-proliferation treaties, nuclear weapons treaties, United Nations resolutions and all the agreements and declarations relevant to the operation of non-proliferation in the early 1990s. Part Two which also includes a bibliography takes up more than three quarters of the book. (UK)

  20. Role of PKC isozymes in low-power light-stimulated proliferation of cultured skin cells

    Grossman, Nili; Kleitman, Vered; Meller, Julia; Kaufmann, Roland; Akgun, Nermin; Ruck, Angelika; Livneh, Etta; Lubart, Rachel

    2000-11-01

    Exposure of cultured skin cells to low power visible light leads to a transiently stimulated proliferation. Facilitation of this response requires the presence of active PKC, elevation of intracellular calcium, and involves reactive oxygen species. In the present study, the role of PKC(alpha) and PCK(eta) was examined using paired murine fibroblasts, differing in the level of these isozymes expression. The ability of the cells to respond to low power UVA light or HeNe laser by stimulated proliferation was correlated with an active state or overexpression of PKC(alpha) , but not PKC(eta) . A parallel response was obtained in cells that were loaded with A1PcS4 before photosensitization. Whenever this latter treatment caused a light-stimulated inhibition, it was accompanied by the intracellular calcium and photosensitizer dynamics typical of the effect of PDT on rate epithelial cells. Accordingly, added antioxidants that suppressed light-stimulated proliferation also suppressed this light-stimulated inhibition. The model systems employed in this study are the first to demonstrate the specific effect of PKC isozymes on light-stimulated proliferation, in relation to oxidative stress, and indicate their dual role in light-tissue interaction.

  1. Pyruvate carboxylase is critical for non-small-cell lung cancer proliferation.

    Sellers, Katherine; Fox, Matthew P; Bousamra, Michael; Slone, Stephen P; Higashi, Richard M; Miller, Donald M; Wang, Yali; Yan, Jun; Yuneva, Mariia O; Deshpande, Rahul; Lane, Andrew N; Fan, Teresa W-M

    2015-02-01

    Anabolic biosynthesis requires precursors supplied by the Krebs cycle, which in turn requires anaplerosis to replenish precursor intermediates. The major anaplerotic sources are pyruvate and glutamine, which require the activity of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and glutaminase 1 (GLS1), respectively. Due to their rapid proliferation, cancer cells have increased anabolic and energy demands; however, different cancer cell types exhibit differential requirements for PC- and GLS-mediated pathways for anaplerosis and cell proliferation. Here, we infused patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with uniformly 13C-labeled glucose before tissue resection and determined that the cancerous tissues in these patients had enhanced PC activity. Freshly resected paired lung tissue slices cultured in 13C6-glucose or 13C5,15N2-glutamine tracers confirmed selective activation of PC over GLS in NSCLC. Compared with noncancerous tissues, PC expression was greatly enhanced in cancerous tissues, whereas GLS1 expression showed no trend. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis of paired lung tissues showed PC overexpression in cancer cells rather than in stromal cells of tumor tissues. PC knockdown induced multinucleation, decreased cell proliferation and colony formation in human NSCLC cells, and reduced tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model. Growth inhibition was accompanied by perturbed Krebs cycle activity, inhibition of lipid and nucleotide biosynthesis, and altered glutathione homeostasis. These findings indicate that PC-mediated anaplerosis in early-stage NSCLC is required for tumor survival and proliferation. PMID:25607840

  2. Regulation of P450 4A expression by peroxisome proliferator activated receptors

    The induction of P450 4A enzymes by peroxisome proliferators (PPs) and fatty acids is mediated by the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) that binds to response elements in target genes as a heterodimer with the retinoid X receptor (RXR). The consensus sequence recognized by PPAR/RXR heterodimers, contains an imperfect direct repeat of two nuclear receptor binding motifs separated by a single nucleotide. This repeat is preceded by a conserved A/T rich sequence that is required for function. In mice, chronic exposure to PPs results in PPARα mediated liver hypertrophy, hyperplasia and carcinogenesis accompanied by a proliferation of peroxisomes. In contrast, humans exhibit a reduced sensitivity to PP pathogenesis. This could reflect >10-fold lower PPARα levels relative to mice as well as differences in targeted genes. In order to identify PPAR responsive human genes, the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, was engineered to express increased levels of PPARα. Several genes encoding rate-limiting enzymes and branch points in ketone body formation are regulated by PPARα in these cells. In contrast, significant induction by PP is not evident for peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation that is associated with peroxisome proliferation in mice. Human P450 4A11 is not expressed in dividing cultures of cells with enhanced PPARα levels, but it is expressed in confluent cultures expressing elevated amounts of PPARα

  3. Pioglitazone promotes preadipocyte proliferation by downregulating p16{sup Ink4a}

    Hasan, Arif U. [Department of Cardiorenal Cerebrovascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Ohmori, Koji, E-mail: komori@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Cardiorenal Cerebrovascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Hashimoto, Takeshi [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Kamitori, Kazuyo; Hirata, Yuko [Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Naoko; Noma, Takahisa [Department of Cardiorenal Cerebrovascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Kosaka, Hiroaki [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Tokuda, Masaaki [Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Kohno, Masakazu [Department of Cardiorenal Cerebrovascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Mechanisms for preadipocyte hyperplasia by pioglitazone, a PPAR{gamma} agonist, are shown. {yields} Pioglitazone promotes cell-cycle of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and increases their number. {yields} Pioglitazone downregulates a cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, p16{sup Ink4a}. {yields} PPAR{gamma} transrepresses p16{sup Ink4a} gene in preadipocytes, which pioglitazone enhances. -- Abstract: Pioglitazone, a synthetic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){gamma}, causes preadipocyte proliferation through a mechanism which still remains elusive. Here, to address the mechanism, we investigated the effects of PPAR{gamma} and pioglitazone on the kinetics of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, especially with p16{sup Ink4a} (p16) centered, by employing 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Pioglitazone promoted preadipocyte proliferation by increasing S and G{sub 2}/M cell-cycle entry, which was accompanied by decreased p16 mRNA expression. PPAR{gamma} overexpression along with the luciferase reporter assay confirmed that PPAR{gamma} was crucial for the downregulation of p16 mRNA transcription, and that the action was augmented by pioglitazone. Thus, pioglitazone exerted cell-cycle dependent promoting effect on preadipocyte proliferation, of which mechanisms include p16-downregulation through PPAR{gamma}.

  4. Collagen Promotes Higher Adhesion, Survival and Proliferation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Chinnapaka Somaiah

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC can differentiate into several cell types and are desirable candidates for cell therapy and tissue engineering. However, due to poor cell survival, proliferation and differentiation in the patient, the therapy outcomes have not been satisfactory. Although several studies have been done to understand the conditions that promote proliferation, differentiation and migration of MSC in vitro and in vivo, still there is no clear understanding on the effect of non-cellular bio molecules. Of the many factors that influence the cell behavior, the immediate cell microenvironment plays a major role. In this context, we studied the effect of extracellular matrix (ECM proteins in controlling cell survival, proliferation, migration and directed MSC differentiation. We found that collagen promoted cell proliferation, cell survival under stress and promoted high cell adhesion to the cell culture surface. Increased osteogenic differentiation accompanied by high active RHOA (Ras homology gene family member A levels was exhibited by MSC cultured on collagen. In conclusion, our study shows that collagen will be a suitable matrix for large scale production of MSC with high survival rate and to obtain high osteogenic differentiation for therapy.

  5. Pioglitazone promotes preadipocyte proliferation by downregulating p16Ink4a

    Highlights: → Mechanisms for preadipocyte hyperplasia by pioglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, are shown. → Pioglitazone promotes cell-cycle of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and increases their number. → Pioglitazone downregulates a cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, p16Ink4a. → PPARγ transrepresses p16Ink4a gene in preadipocytes, which pioglitazone enhances. -- Abstract: Pioglitazone, a synthetic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, causes preadipocyte proliferation through a mechanism which still remains elusive. Here, to address the mechanism, we investigated the effects of PPARγ and pioglitazone on the kinetics of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, especially with p16Ink4a (p16) centered, by employing 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Pioglitazone promoted preadipocyte proliferation by increasing S and G2/M cell-cycle entry, which was accompanied by decreased p16 mRNA expression. PPARγ overexpression along with the luciferase reporter assay confirmed that PPARγ was crucial for the downregulation of p16 mRNA transcription, and that the action was augmented by pioglitazone. Thus, pioglitazone exerted cell-cycle dependent promoting effect on preadipocyte proliferation, of which mechanisms include p16-downregulation through PPARγ.

  6. Hydrogen sulfide lowers proliferation and induces protective autophagy in colon epithelial cells.

    Ya C Wu

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H(2S is a gaseous bacterial metabolite that reaches high levels in the large intestine. In the present study, the effect of H(2S on the proliferation of normal and cancerous colon epithelial cells was investigated. An immortalized colon epithelial cell line (YAMC and a panel of colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, SW1116, HCT116 were exposed to H(2S at concentrations similar to those found in the human colon. H(2S inhibited normal and cancerous colon epithelial cell proliferation as measured by MTT assay. The anti-mitogenic effect of H(2S was accompanied by G(1-phase cell cycle arrest and the induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Cip. Moreover, exposure to H(2S led to features characteristic of autophagy, including increased formation of LC3B(+ autophagic vacuoles and acidic vesicular organelles as determined by immunofluorescence and acridine orange staining, respectively. Abolition of autophagy by RNA interference targeting Vps34 or Atg7 enhanced the anti-proliferative effect of H(2S. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that H(2S stimulated the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and inhibited the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR and S6 kinase. Inhibition of AMPK significantly reversed H(2S-induced autophagy and inhibition of cell proliferation. Collectively, we demonstrate that H(2S inhibits colon epithelial cell proliferation and induces protective autophagy via the AMPK pathway.

  7. Sweden and the making of nuclear non-proliferation: from indecision to assertiveness

    Dassen, L. van [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Peace and Conflict Research

    1998-03-01

    Swedish research on nuclear weapons started at a modest scale in 1945 but was soon expanded. By the early 1950s the research programme started to face some of the problems that were going to accompany it for the rest of its life: different priorities and cost-estimates were made by the sectors that wanted to develop nuclear energy and those working on the bomb. Moreover, an introduction of nuclear weapons would lead to a major redistribution of resources to the disadvantage of the navy and army. The public and political debates intensified during the 1950s and culminated in 1960. At first, pro-nuclear voices had been strongest but were soon challenged by interest groups, unions and peace movements. 1960, a committee within the government had established a compromise: Nuclear weapons research for production of weapons would be terminated, while research on the consequences of nuclear weapons would continue. It was a cosmetic decision that could cover for a continued research on weapons design. Nevertheless, there are some general qualities from the debates that indicate why the outcome was that Sweden signed the NPT in 1968. First, the number of interested persons, groups movements and party politicians engaged in the issue increased every time the issue came up. Secondly, the segments of society that supported the nuclear option remained roughly the same. No strong movements rallied to the defence of this position. On the other hand, the anti-nuclear wing received more and more followers. Third, there was a marked tendency by virtually all actors (except the military) to include every sign of progress in international disarmament and non-proliferation efforts as arguments against Swedish proliferation. Since 1968, the non-proliferation choice has ben manifested through Sweden``s adherence to the NPT and this has been accompanied by a strong commitment to other non-proliferation initiatives. Refs.

  8. Sweden and the making of nuclear non-proliferation: from indecision to assertiveness

    Swedish research on nuclear weapons started at a modest scale in 1945 but was soon expanded. By the early 1950s the research programme started to face some of the problems that were going to accompany it for the rest of its life: different priorities and cost-estimates were made by the sectors that wanted to develop nuclear energy and those working on the bomb. Moreover, an introduction of nuclear weapons would lead to a major redistribution of resources to the disadvantage of the navy and army. The public and political debates intensified during the 1950s and culminated in 1960. At first, pro-nuclear voices had been strongest but were soon challenged by interest groups, unions and peace movements. 1960, a committee within the government had established a compromise: Nuclear weapons research for production of weapons would be terminated, while research on the consequences of nuclear weapons would continue. It was a cosmetic decision that could cover for a continued research on weapons design. Nevertheless, there are some general qualities from the debates that indicate why the outcome was that Sweden signed the NPT in 1968. First, the number of interested persons, groups movements and party politicians engaged in the issue increased every time the issue came up. Secondly, the segments of society that supported the nuclear option remained roughly the same. No strong movements rallied to the defence of this position. On the other hand, the anti-nuclear wing received more and more followers. Third, there was a marked tendency by virtually all actors (except the military) to include every sign of progress in international disarmament and non-proliferation efforts as arguments against Swedish proliferation. Since 1968, the non-proliferation choice has ben manifested through Sweden''s adherence to the NPT and this has been accompanied by a strong commitment to other non-proliferation initiatives

  9. Nitrofen suppresses cell proliferation and promotes mitochondriamediated apoptosis in type Ⅱ pneumocytes

    Qiang-song TONG; Li-duan ZHENG; Shao-tao TANG; Guo-song JIANG; Qing-lan R UAN; Fu-qing ZENC; Ji-hua DONG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To characterize the molecular mechanisms of nitrofen-induced pulmonary hypoplasia. Methods: After administration of nitrofen to cultured type H A549 pneumocytes, cell proliferation and DNA synthesis were investigated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide colorimetry, colony forma-tion assay, flow cytometry and [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay. Apoptosis was measured by terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling, acridine orange-ethidium bromide staining and flow cytometry. Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and apoptosis-related genes was assayed by immunofluorescence, RT-PCR and Western blot. Results: Nitrofen inhibited the cell proliferation of A549 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, accompa-nied by downregulation of PCNA. As a result, the DNA synthesis of nitrofen-treated A549 cells decreased, while cell cycle was arrested at G0/G1 phase. Moreover,nitrofen induced apoptosis of A549 cells, which was not abolished by Z-Val-Aia-Asp(OCH3)- fluoromethylketone. In addition, nitrofen decreased the expression of Bcl-XL, but not of Bcl-2, Bax, and Bak, resulting in a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and the nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Meanwhile, nitrofen strongly activated the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK). Pretreatment of cells with SB203580 (5 μmol/L) blocked nitrofen-induced phosphorylation of p38-MAPK and abolished nitrofen-induced AIF translocation and apoptosis in A549 cells. Conclusion: Nitrofen suppresses the proliferation of cultured type Ⅱ pneumocytes accompanied by the downregulation of PCNA, and induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis involv-ing the activation of p38-MAPK.

  10. Adult cardiac fibroblast proliferation is modulated by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in normal and hypertrophied hearts.

    Martin, Tamara P; Lawan, Ahmed; Robinson, Emma; Grieve, David J; Plevin, Robin; Paul, Andrew; Currie, Susan

    2014-02-01

    Increased adult cardiac fibroblast proliferation results in an increased collagen deposition responsible for the fibrosis accompanying pathological remodelling of the heart. The mechanisms regulating cardiac fibroblast proliferation remain poorly understood. Using a minimally invasive transverse aortic banding (MTAB) mouse model of cardiac hypertrophy, we have assessed fibrosis and cardiac fibroblast proliferation. We have investigated whether calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ) regulates proliferation in fibroblasts isolated from normal and hypertrophied hearts. It is known that CaMKIIδ plays a central role in cardiac myocyte contractility, but nothing is known of its role in adult cardiac fibroblast function. The MTAB model used here produces extensive hypertrophy and fibrosis. CaMKIIδ protein expression and activity is upregulated in MTAB hearts and, specifically, in cardiac fibroblasts isolated from hypertrophied hearts. In response to angiotensin II, cardiac fibroblasts isolated from MTAB hearts show increased proliferation rates. Inhibition of CaMKII with autocamtide inhibitory peptide inhibits proliferation in cells isolated from both sham and MTAB hearts, with a significantly greater effect evident in MTAB cells. These results are the first to show selective upregulation of CaMKIIδ in adult cardiac fibroblasts following cardiac hypertrophy and to assign a previously unrecognised role to CaMKII in regulating adult cardiac fibroblast function in normal and diseased hearts. PMID:23881186

  11. Ghrelin inhibits proliferation and increases T-type Ca2+ channel expression in PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells

    Research highlights: → Ghrelin decreases prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells proliferation. → Ghrelin favors apoptosis in PC-3 cells. → Ghrelin increase in intracellular free Ca2+ levels in PC-3 cells. → Grelin up-regulates expression of T-type Ca2+ channels in PC-3 cells. → PC-3 cells express T-channels of the CaV3.1 and CaV3.2 subtype. -- Abstract: Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide hormone with roles in growth hormone release, food intake and cell proliferation. With ghrelin now recognized as important in neoplastic processes, the aim of this report is to present findings from a series of in vitro studies evaluating the cellular mechanisms involved in ghrelin regulation of proliferation in the PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells. The results showed that ghrelin significantly decreased proliferation and induced apoptosis. Consistent with a role in apoptosis, an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ levels was observed in the ghrelin-treated cells, which was accompanied by up-regulated expression of T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Interestingly, T-channel antagonists were able to prevent the effects of ghrelin on cell proliferation. These results suggest that ghrelin inhibits proliferation and may promote apoptosis by regulating T-type Ca2+ channel expression.

  12. To judge the degree of proliferation resistance

    This paper identified the Co-Chairman's proposals for assessing the degree of proliferation resistance. It identifies nine assessment factors which have been suggested in INFCE WG4 discussions and in the open literature as appropriate. These nine assessment factors are then considered in respect to their relative importance to the question of proliferation resistance. The paper is supported by an Appendix which gives selected extracts from the literature where the various assessment factors are discussed

  13. Nuclear power and the proliferation issue

    The purpose of the lecture is to discuss nuclear proliferation, analyse which problems are real and which are a misapprehension, and to suggest a way forward which retains the benefits of nuclear power while providing a more certain protection against undesirable proliferation. After an introductory section the lecture continues under the following headings: plutonium production and accessibility; the use of plutonium; fast reactor fuel; the interim period; conclusions. (U.K.)

  14. Proliferating trichilemmal tumor of the nose *

    Aristóteles Rosmaninho; Mónica Caetano; Ana de Oliveira; Teresa Pinto de Almeida; Manuela Selores; Rosário Alves

    2012-01-01

    Proliferating trichilemmal tumor is a rare tumor originating in the external root sheath, that is usually found in the scalp of middle-aged or elderly females. Its histologic appearance may not correlate with its clinical behavior. In addition, there are no guidelines available for the treatment of these tumors, making its management a challenge for physicians. We report the case of a 53 year-old woman with a proliferating trichilemmal tumor on her nose, which is a very uncommon location for ...

  15. Nuclear Proliferation and Authority in World Politics

    Brian Frederking; Kaitlyne Motl; Nishant Timilsina

    2009-01-01

    We apply the “security-hierarchy paradox” to nuclear proliferation. Global security requires a certain amount of hierarchy. A world in which no nuclear proliferation rules exist to constrain states, for example, would not be secure. Global security requires legitimate and authoritative rules, which we define as rules that are mutually negotiated, binding to all andwhich provide a stable social order. Too much hierarchy, however, amounts to coercion andundermines global security. Rules that ar...

  16. Skin Cell Proliferation Stimulated by Microneedles

    Liebl, Horst; Luther C. Kloth

    2012-01-01

    A classical wound may be defined as a disruption of tissue integrity. Wounds, caused by trauma from accidents or surgery, that close via secondary intention rely on the biological phases of healing, i.e., hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling (HIPR). Depending on the wound type and severity, the inflammation phase begins immediately after injury and may last for an average of 7–14 days. Concurrent with the inflammation phase or slightly delayed, cell proliferation is stimula...

  17. Supporting non proliferation and global security efforts

    CEA contributes as a major actor of France's action against nuclear proliferation and to the strengthening of nuclear security at national level as European and International levels, in particular through the support of the IAEA activities in nuclear non proliferation with the French Support Programme for the IAEA safeguards system and security with the contribution to the IAEA Nuclear Security Plan and cooperation projects with the European Commission. The CEA is a French government funded technological research organization, organized around 5 branches: Nuclear Energy, Technological Researches, Defence (DAM), Material Sciences and Life Sciences. Within the scope of its activities, CEA covers most of the research areas and techniques in nuclear non-proliferation and security. The CEA is also the advisor of the French Government on nuclear policy. Treaty monitoring and the development and implementation of non proliferation and global security programs is an important mission of DAM which rely on nuclear weapons manufacture and past testing experience. The programmes on non proliferation and global security carried out to fulfil DAM's mission cover the following areas: development of monitoring and detection methods and equipments, country profiles and nuclear stockpiles assessment, arms control instruments, proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycle, monitoring of nuclear tests, operation and maintenance of national detection capabilities and contribution to CTBT verification systems. (A.C.)

  18. Strengthening the nuclear non-proliferation regime

    Although the nuclear non-proliferation regime has enjoyed considerable success, today the regime has never been under greater threat. Three states have challenged the objectives of the NPT, and there is a technology challenge - the spread of centrifuge enrichment technology and know-how. A major issue confronting the international community is, how to deal with a determined proliferator? Despite this gloomy scenario, however, the non-proliferation regime has considerable strengths - many of which can be developed further. The regime comprises complex interacting and mutually reinforcing elements. At its centre is the NPT - with IAEA safeguards as the Treaty's verification mechanism. Important complementary elements include: restraint in the supply and the acquisition of sensitive technologies; multilateral regimes such as the CTBT and proposed FMCT; various regional and bilateral regimes; the range of security and arms control arrangements outside the nuclear area (including other WMD regimes); and the development of proliferation-resistant technologies. Especially important are political incentives and sanctions in support of non-proliferation objectives. This paper outlines some of the key issues facing the non-proliferation regime

  19. CCR1, an enzyme required for lignin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, mediates cell proliferation exit for leaf development

    Xue, Jingshi; Luo, Dexian; Xu, Deyang;

    2015-01-01

    After initiation, leaves first undergo rapid cell proliferation. During subsequent development, leaf cells gradually exit the proliferation phase and enter the expansion stage, following a basipetally ordered pattern starting at the leaf tip. The molecular mechanism directing this pattern of leaf...... intermediate in lignin biosynthesis. FeA is known to have antioxidant activity, and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ccr1 were markedly reduced. We also characterized another double mutant in CAFFEIC ACID O-METHYLTRANSFERASE (comt) and CAFFEOYL CoA 3-O-METHYLTRANSFERASE (ccoaomt), in which the FeA...... level was dramatically reduced. Cell proliferation in comt ccoaomt leaves was decreased, accompanied by elevated ROS levels, and the mutant phenotypes were partially rescued by treatment with FeA or another antioxidant (N-acetyl-L-cysteine). Taken together, our results suggest that CCR1, FeA and ROS...

  20. Managing Proliferation Issues with Iran

    particular, will continue to play a vital role in determining the extent to which Iran is able to pursue WMD options. Without a fundamental change in the regional security environment, however, there is little reason to expect changes in Iranian WMD and missile policies, and the United States, acting alone and short of war, cannot prevent Iran from ultimately developing WMD and delivery systems. Furthermore, U.S. policies that take a tougher line with Russia, China and North Korea are not likely to lead to more restraint among these potential sources of WMD and missile technology. In the absence of engagement with Iran, unilateral U.S. economic sanctions will remain the principal, if flawed, U.S. policy tool for seeking to prevent Iran from acquiring WMD. The rationale is that by discouraging trade and investment, particularly in Iran's energy sector, the government of Iran will have less revenue to pursue proliferation. Without broad international support for economic isolation, however, such an effort may hinder Iran's WMD programs, though it cannot block them. Finally, options are needed to deal with major failures in nonproliferation efforts. These options include measures to deter Iranian use of WMD, to defend against their use if deterrence fails, and to destroy Iranian WMD capabilities should the need arise

  1. Pedagogical guidelines for educational accompaniment for grieving to adults with intellectual disabilities

    Pablo RODRÍGUEZ HERRERO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It is needed a foundation and some orientations to act in loss and grief situations with adults with intellectual disabilities. In this article, through a relevant literature review, we based the educational accompaniment as a pedagogic methodology of support with three principal elements: a The conception of grief from its formative potential, b The prevention of disorders associated to grief complications, c The pedagogic intervention preferably from the tutorship or from the actuation of educators or professionals near to intellectual disabilities people. The educational accompaniment model is a proposal that can be placed on humanist models of grief since it considers both the characteristics of the grieving process and the formative possibilities of its elaboration. The article’s conclusions present some of the benefits of the educational accompaniment for adults with intellectual disabilities.

  2. Nuclear arbitration: Interpreting non-proliferation agreements

    At the core of the nuclear non-proliferation regime lie international agreements. These agreements include, inter alia, the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty, nuclear co-operation agreements and nuclear export control agreements.1 States, however, do not always comply with their obligations under these agreements. In response, commentators have proposed various enforcement mechanisms to promote compliance. The inconvenient truth, however, is that states are generally unwilling to consent to enforcement mechanisms concerning issues as critical to national security as nuclear non-proliferation.3 This article suggests an alternative solution to the non-compliance problem: interpretation mechanisms. Although an interpretation mechanism does not have the teeth of an enforcement mechanism, it can induce compliance by providing an authoritative interpretation of a legal obligation. Interpretation mechanisms would help solve the non-compliance problem because, as this article shows, in many cases of alleged non-compliance with a non-proliferation agreement, the fundamental problem has been the lack of an authoritative interpretation of the agreement, not the lack of an enforcement mechanism. Specifically, this article proposes arbitration as the proper interpretation mechanism for non-proliferation agreements. It advocates the establishment of a 'Nuclear Arbitration Centre' as an independent branch of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and recommends the gradual introduction of arbitration clauses into the texts of non-proliferation agreements. Section I begins with a discussion of international agreements in general and the importance of interpretation and enforcement mechanisms. Section II then discusses nuclear non-proliferation agreements and their lack of interpretation and enforcement mechanisms. Section III examines seven case studies of alleged non-compliance with non-proliferation agreements in order to show that the main problem in many cases

  3. Peculiarities of infectious diseases course accompanied by quinsy syndrome in children (data from children infectious hospital

    Ovchinnikova T.A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study morbidity dynamics for the period of 15 years and to determine clinical signs that accompany quinsy syndrome (diphtheria, infectious mononucleosis, scarlet fever, quinsy. Retrospective study analysis of annual reports and case-histories was carried out. 323 cases of infectious diseases accompanied by quinsy syndrome were examined. Clinical and epidemic signs of diseases were determined during the period of morbidity raise. The current clinical course of diseases was characterized in detail. The significant percentage of renal complications in case of pharyngonasal cavity lesion was shown

  4. Moderating Effect of Accompaniment on the Relationship Between Online Perceived Quality and Perceived Value

    Nozha Erragcha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to highlight the impact of the mediating effect of the perceived value on the influence of perceived quality of the purchase-site on the buying intention, Moreover; our goal is to study the moderating effect of accompaniment on the relationship between the perceived quality on perceived value web site. The data-gathering was carried out through an experimentation conducted an online-trading site for a laptop purchase. The findings reveal that the perceived quality partially influence the perceived value. The latter exerts a positive effect upon the buying intention. Accompaniment moderates the relationship between the perceived quality and the perceived value.

  5. STUDY OF THE GAMMA EMISSION PROBABILITY ACCOMPANYING THE SPONTANEOUS FISSION OF CF-252

    VANDERPLOEG, H; LAURENS, CR; BACELAR, JCS; BUDA, A; GAARDHOJE, JJ; VANTHOF, G; KALANTARNAYESTANAKI, N; VANDERWOUDE, A; ZELAZNY, Z

    1994-01-01

    A study of the gamma emission accompanying the spontaneous fission process of Cf-252 has been performed. The photon emission probability between 3 and 70 MeV and its angular dependence with respect to the fission direction were measured. These measurements were performed as a function of the mass as

  6. Light-particle multiplicity accompanying projectile breakup at 20 MeV/A

    A large-solid-angle array has been used to determine the multiplicity of Z = 1 and Z = 2 particles accompanying projectile breakup into two fragments each with 5 ≤ Z ≤ 8. The charge balance obtained shows that projectile breakup is not associated with an unusual charge transfer to the target. 13 refs., 1 fig

  7. Clinical accompaniment: the critical care nursing students’ experiences in a private hospital

    N. Tsele

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The quality of clinical accompaniment of the student enrolled for the post-basic diploma in Medical and Surgical Nursing Science: Critical Care Nursing (General is an important dimension of the educational/learning programme. The clinical accompanist/mentor is responsible for ensuring the student’s compliance with the clinical outcomes of the programme in accordance with the requirements laid down by the Nursing Education Institution and the South African Nursing Council. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of the students enrolled for a post-basic diploma in Medical and Surgical Nursing Science: Critical Care Nursing (General, in relation to the clinical accompaniment in a private hospital in Gauteng. An exploratory, descriptive and phenomenological research design was utilised and individual interviews were conducted with the ten students in the research hospital. A content analysis was conducted and the results revealed both positive and negative experiences by the students in the internal and external worlds. The recommendations include the formulation of standards for clinical accompaniment of students. the evaluation of the quality of clinical accompaniment of students and empowerment of the organisation, clinical accompanists/mentors and clinicians.

  8. Euclidean wormholes with Phantom field and Phantom field accompanied by perfect fluid

    Darabi, F.

    2010-01-01

    We study the classical Euclidean wormhole solutions for the gravitational systems with minimally coupled pure Phantom field and minimally coupled Phantom field accompanied by perfect fluid. It is shown that such solutions do exist and then the general forms of the Phantom field potential are obtained for which there are classical Euclidean wormhole solutions.

  9. 30 CFR 250.215 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP?

    2010-07-01

    ... methodologies outlined in 40 CFR part 68. ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must... Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.215 What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the...

  10. 76 FR 69738 - Revised 2011 Annual Telecommunications Reporting Worksheet (FCC Form 499-A) and Accompanying...

    2011-11-09

    ... COMMISSION Revised 2011 Annual Telecommunications Reporting Worksheet (FCC Form 499-A) and Accompanying... Competition Bureau released the revised Telecommunications Reporting Worksheet (FCC Form 499-A) and... Competition Bureau, Telecommunications Access Policy Division, at (202) 418-7400 or via the Internet...

  11. 41 CFR 101-25.110-3 - Tires accompanying new motor vehicles.

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 101-25.110-3 Section 101-25.110-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-3 Tires accompanying new motor vehicles. The tire identifications and recordkeeping regulations issued by the Department of Transportation require each...

  12. 75 FR 61489 - Renewal of Declaration Regarding Emergency Use of Doxycycline Hyclate Tablets Accompanied by...

    2010-10-05

    ... provided at 73 FR 58242 (October 6, 2008). Dated: September 24, 2010. Kathleen Sebelius, Secretary. BILLING... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Renewal of Declaration Regarding Emergency Use of Doxycycline... use of doxycycline hyclate tablets accompanied by emergency use information subject to the terms...

  13. Effects of Music Instruction with Bamboo Xylophone Accompaniment on Singing Achievement among Second-Grade Children

    Simeon, Jinky Jane C.; Ku, Agnes Chun Moi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of music instruction with bamboo xylophone as harmonic accompaniment on the singing achievement of second-grade children. Eighty children (N = 80) from four randomly selected classes in two different public schools in the city of Kota Kinabalu participated in this study and they were assigned to…

  14. A Qualitative Investigation into the Characteristics and Effects of Music Accompanying Exercise

    Priest, David-Lee; Karageorghis, Costas I.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the characteristics of music used to accompany physical exercise and investigate the effects of such music using a qualitative approach. This work underpins the further development of a theoretical structure that is still relatively new. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of…

  15. Analysis on the environmental problems accompanying the high-speed urbanization of small towns in China

    2002-01-01

    The environmental problems accompanying the rapid urbanization of many small towns like Keqiao, SHaoxing County, and their countermeasures are presented. To settle these problems rationally as well as effectively will not only conduce to boost the environmental quality and life quality of cities, but also help to promote the development of regional economy and the realization of sustainable development.

  16. Investigation of the Majoron-accompanied double-beta decay mode of [sup 76]Ge

    Beck, M.; Bensch, F.; Bockholt, J.; Heusser, G.; Hirsch, M.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.; Maier, B.; Petry, F.; Piepke, A.; Strecker, H.; Voellinger, M.; Zuber, K.; Balysh, A.; Belyaev, S.T.; Demehin, A.; Gurov, A.; Kondratenko, I.; Lebedev, V.I.; Mueller, A. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, P.O. Box 103980, 6900 Heidelberg (Germany) Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation) LNGS, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy))

    1993-05-10

    We have examined the double-beta decay mode accompanied by Majoron emission. After 223 days of measurement corresponding to about 615 kg d or 19.3 mol yr of exposure we find a lower half-life limit for this decay channel of [ital T][sub 1/2][sup 0[nu][chi

  17. 50 CFR 26.24 - Exception for entry when accompanied by refuge personnel.

    2010-10-01

    ... refuge personnel. 26.24 Section 26.24 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PUBLIC ENTRY AND USE Public Entry § 26.24 Exception for entry when accompanied by refuge personnel. A permit is not required for...

  18. Improving nuclear economics without increasing proliferation risk

    The postponement of recycle systems is an insurance against the premature plunge into widespread commercial use of plutonium, with its potential for increasing proliferation risks. We can afford to postpone the deployment process with little penalty by improving light water reactors in once-through mode (LWROT). This would make nuclear power cheaper without increasing proliferation risk. The deferral is desirable because very valuable information about the feasibility, competitiveness, and resistivity to proliferation of technologies such as advance converters, the once-through fast reactor, and the fusion-fission hybrid reactor will be learned in the next 10 years. There is a distinct possibility that, as far as nuclear energy is concerned, we can rely on LWR(OT)s with evolutionary improvements far into the future. 29 references, 2 tables

  19. Israel's position on non-proliferation

    Israel maintained that the complex international system and worldwide political tension created a situation in which comprehensive plans of disarmament could not produce any positive result. The deadlock in the field of general and complete disarmament has brought Israel to the realization that one possible way to alleviate the stalemate could be progress by stages through partial measures of disarmament. Israel's position on non-proliferation indicates that the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free-zone (NWFZ), as it relates to the Middle-East, could serve as a credible alternative to the unilateral adherence to the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapon (NPT) and an effective measure of non-proliferation in the region. (Author)

  20. Proliferation resistance assessment of thermal recycle systems

    This paper examines the major proliferation aspects of thermal recycle systems and the extent to which technical or institutional measures could increase the difficulty or detectability of misuse of the system by would-be proliferators. It does this by examining the various activities necessary to acquire weapons-usable material using a series of assessment factors; resources required, time required, detectability. It is concluded that resistance to proliferation could be improved substantially by collecting reprocessing, conversion and fuel fabrication plants under multi national control and instituting new measures to protect fresh MOX fuel. Resistance to theft at sub-national level could be improved by co-location of sensitive facilities high levels of physical protection at plants and during transportation and possibly by adding a radiation barrier to MOX prior to shipment

  1. Director`s series on proliferation

    Bailey, K.C. [ed.

    1993-09-07

    Two essays are included in this booklet. Their titles are ``The Dynamics of the NPT Extension Decision`` and ``North Korea`s Nuclear Gambit.`` The first paper discusses the conference to be held in 1995 to review the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) which will decide whether the treaty shall continue in force indefinitely, or shall be extended for an additional fixed period or periods. Topics relevant to this discussion are: Arms control issues, the nuclear test ban, the limited test ban treaty, the French nuclear testing moratorium, former Soviet nuclear weapons, Iraq, North Korea, nuclear-weapon-free zones, security, controls on nuclear weapon materials, peaceful uses of nuclear energy, safeguards, politics, and organizational and procedural issues. The second paper examines short, medium, and long term issues entailed in Korea`s nuclear proliferation. Topics considered include: Korean unification, North Korean politics, the nuclear issue as leverage, and the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty.

  2. Does programmed CTL proliferation optimize virus control?

    Wodarz, Dominik; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2005-01-01

    CD8 T-cell or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses develop through an antigen-independent proliferation and differentiation program. This is in contrast to the previous thinking, which was that continuous antigenic stimulation was required. This Opinion discusses why nature has chosen the proliferation...... program and how it compares to continuous stimulation. Although the two mechanisms should not lead to significantly different dynamics during chronic infection, they do make a difference in acute infection. We argue that programmed proliferation is better at clearance, whereas continuous stimulation is...... better at limiting acute symptoms. The 7-10 programmed cell divisions observed in vivo might be an optimization of this trade-off. We also discuss the conditions under which the program does or does not require CD4 T-cell help for clearance....

  3. Cell proliferation and differentiation in chemical leukemogenesis

    Irons, R. D.; Stillman, W. S.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    In tissues such as bone marrow with normally high rates of cell division, proliferation is tightly coordinated with cell differentiation. Survival, proliferation and differentiation of early hematopoietic progenitor cells depend on the growth factors, interleukin 3 (IL-3) and/or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and their synergism with other cytokines. We provide evidence that a characteristic shared by a diverse group of compounds with demonstrated leukemogenic potential is the ability to act synergistically with GM-CSF. This results in an increase in recruitment of a resting population of hematopoietic progenitor cells normally unresponsive to the cytokine and a twofold increase in the size of the proliferating cell population normally regarded to be at risk of transformation in leukemogenesis. These findings support the possibility that transient alterations in hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation may be an important factor in the early stages of development of leukemia secondary to chemical or drug exposure.

  4. Factors influencing the proliferation of nuclear weapons

    Although predicting that there will be more nuclear weapons in the future is safe enough, predicting how many more countries over what period of time, which ones under what circumstances, and how much more of what kind of nuclear-weapons capability for each is more difficult. Predicting what effect more will have is a related question that is even more difficult. This chapter identifies some of the factors that will determine the answers: including the supply policies of nuclear-exporting counties, the international nuclear-fuel cycle, superpower security policies, the health of the non-proliferation regime, cataclysmic events and international reaction, and preventive and preemptive strikes. The author concludes that more proliferation will only be better if we accept the greater probability of catastrophic wars in exchange for less frequent conventional conflicts, but he tempers this with the observation that the policies of governments can influence the course of proliferation

  5. Proliferation resistance criteria for fissile material disposition

    The 1994 National Academy of Sciences study open-quotes Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutoniumclose quotes defined options for reducing the national and international proliferation risks of materials declared excess to the nuclear weapons program. This report proposes criteria for assessing the proliferation resistance of these options. The criteria are general, encompassing all stages of the disposition process from storage through intermediate processing to final disposition including the facilities, processing technologies and materials, the level of safeguards for these materials, and the national/subnational threat to the materials

  6. Supervised Semantic Classification for Nuclear Proliferation Monitoring

    Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL; Cheriyadat, Anil M [ORNL; Gleason, Shaun Scott [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Existing feature extraction and classification approaches are not suitable for monitoring proliferation activity using high-resolution multi-temporal remote sensing imagery. In this paper we present a supervised semantic labeling framework based on the Latent Dirichlet Allocation method. This framework is used to analyze over 120 images collected under different spatial and temporal settings over the globe representing three major semantic categories: airports, nuclear, and coal power plants. Initial experimental results show a reasonable discrimination of these three categories even though coal and nuclear images share highly common and overlapping objects. This research also identified several research challenges associated with nuclear proliferation monitoring using high resolution remote sensing images.

  7. Invasion and Proliferation in Malignant Cells

    Svensson Månsson, Sofie

    2006-01-01

    Two key events in the oncogenic process of tumor cells are to acquire uncontrolled proliferation and invasive properties. This allows the tumor to grow and invade beyond the tissue from which the tumor cells originate. We here specifically studied p16 and ERK1/2 with special focus on and the relation to proliferation and invasion in non-melanoma skin cancer and in breast cancer. In a model system of basal cell carcinoma, we observed that tumor cells changed phenotype from a highly prol...

  8. Director`s series on proliferation

    Bailey, K.C.; Price, M.E. [eds.

    1994-12-27

    The Director`s Series on Proliferation is an occasional publication of essays on the topics of nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile proliferation. The seven papers presented in this issue cover the following topics: Should the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) be amended?; NPT extension - Legal and procedural issues; An Indonesian view of NPT review conference issues; The treaty of Tlatelolco and the NPT - Tools for peace and development; Perspectives on cut-off, weapons dismantlement, and security assurances; Belarus and NPT challenges; A perspective on the chemical weapons convention - Lessons learned from the preparatory commission.

  9. Proliferation risks; Proliferatierisico's

    Carchon, R

    1998-09-01

    The report gives an overview of different aspects related to safeguards of fissile materials. Existing treaties including the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and the Tlatelolco and the Rarotonga Treaties are discussed. An overview of safeguards systems for the control of fissile materials as well as the role of various authorities is given. An overall overview of proliferation risks, the physical protection of fissile materials and the trade in fissile materials is given. Finally, the status in problem countries and de facto nuclear weapon states is discussed.

  10. Molecular crowding defines a common origin for the Warburg effect in proliferating cells and the lactate threshold in muscle physiology.

    Alexei Vazquez

    Full Text Available Aerobic glycolysis is a seemingly wasteful mode of ATP production that is seen both in rapidly proliferating mammalian cells and highly active contracting muscles, but whether there is a common origin for its presence in these widely different systems is unknown. To study this issue, here we develop a model of human central metabolism that incorporates a solvent capacity constraint of metabolic enzymes and mitochondria, accounting for their occupied volume densities, while assuming glucose and/or fatty acid utilization. The model demonstrates that activation of aerobic glycolysis is favored above a threshold metabolic rate in both rapidly proliferating cells and heavily contracting muscles, because it provides higher ATP yield per volume density than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. In the case of muscle physiology, the model also predicts that before the lactate switch, fatty acid oxidation increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases to zero with concomitant increase in glucose utilization, in agreement with the empirical evidence. These results are further corroborated by a larger scale model, including biosynthesis of major cell biomass components. The larger scale model also predicts that in proliferating cells the lactate switch is accompanied by activation of glutaminolysis, another distinctive feature of the Warburg effect. In conclusion, intracellular molecular crowding is a fundamental constraint for cell metabolism in both rapidly proliferating- and non-proliferating cells with high metabolic demand. Addition of this constraint to metabolic flux balance models can explain several observations of mammalian cell metabolism under steady state conditions.

  11. Molecular Crowding Defines a Common Origin for the Warburg Effect in Proliferating Cells and the Lactate Threshold in Muscle Physiology

    Vazquez, Alexei; Oltvai, Zoltán N.

    2011-01-01

    Aerobic glycolysis is a seemingly wasteful mode of ATP production that is seen both in rapidly proliferating mammalian cells and highly active contracting muscles, but whether there is a common origin for its presence in these widely different systems is unknown. To study this issue, here we develop a model of human central metabolism that incorporates a solvent capacity constraint of metabolic enzymes and mitochondria, accounting for their occupied volume densities, while assuming glucose and/or fatty acid utilization. The model demonstrates that activation of aerobic glycolysis is favored above a threshold metabolic rate in both rapidly proliferating cells and heavily contracting muscles, because it provides higher ATP yield per volume density than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. In the case of muscle physiology, the model also predicts that before the lactate switch, fatty acid oxidation increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases to zero with concomitant increase in glucose utilization, in agreement with the empirical evidence. These results are further corroborated by a larger scale model, including biosynthesis of major cell biomass components. The larger scale model also predicts that in proliferating cells the lactate switch is accompanied by activation of glutaminolysis, another distinctive feature of the Warburg effect. In conclusion, intracellular molecular crowding is a fundamental constraint for cell metabolism in both rapidly proliferating- and non-proliferating cells with high metabolic demand. Addition of this constraint to metabolic flux balance models can explain several observations of mammalian cell metabolism under steady state conditions. PMID:21559344

  12. Proliferation Resistant Fuel for Pebble Bed Modular Reactors

    Proliferation of nuclear weapons produced with power reactors plutonium has always been amajor problem of the nuclear energy industry. This includes the PebbleBed Modular Reactor(PBMR), which is a specific design of a GenIV High-Temperature Reactor (HTR), mainly due to its online refueling feature, which may be misused for the production of weapons gradeplutonium. A promising approach toward preventing the proliferation of power reactorplutoniumis to denaturate the plutonium by increasing the ratio of 238Pu to total Pu in the spentfuel(1). The 238Pu isotope is characterized by a high heat rate (approximately 567 W/kg) due to thealpha decay of the 238Pu with half-life of 87.74 yr, in addition to its high spontaneous fissionneutron emission, which is higher than that of 240Pu. Thus, the presence of 238Pu in Pu considerably complicates the design and construction of nuclear weapons based on Pu, owing tothese characteristics of 238Pu. Recent papers(2,3) show that a Pu mixture is proliferation resistant given that the weight ratio of 238Pu to Pu is larger than 6%. In this paper we have studied afeasible technique for ensuring that the 238Pu to Pu ratio, in the Pu produced in PBMR, is larger than 6% during the entire fuel cycle. Contamination of the spent fuel with 238Pu may be achieved by doping the nuclear fuel witheither 241Am or 237Np(4-13). The 238Pu isotope is obtained from both 241Am and 237Np by a neutron-capture reaction and the subsequent decay of the reaction products(13).The 237Np isotopeis by itself a potential weapons grade material. However, its large critical mass of 57±4 kg(14) andthe difficulty of extracting it from irradiated fuel elements make it impractical for weapons purposes. On the other hand, the critical mass of 241Am is smaller, i.e. 34 to 45 kg. However, withdecay heat production of 114W/kg, the critical mass becomes a heat source of 3.9 to 5.1 KW,which makes 241Am unsuitable for weapons applications(3). As a result, it is a non-proliferating

  13. Non-proliferation and the nuclear industry

    There has presumably never been any doubt about the nuclear industry's fundamental support for international efforts to halt the horizontal spread of nuclear weapons. The statement of concern issued by the Uranium Institute before the Third Review Conference of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in 1985 was striking testimony to that effect. The imminence of the Fourth Review Conference is nevertheless an occasion to reflect again on some of the reasons why the industry has no prudent choice but to involve itself in non-proliferation questions. The reasons stretch along a spectrum. At one end are general and powerful arguments for the nuclear industry to share with other industries in the broad expression of social responsibility. At the other end are narrowly specific connections between non-proliferation regulations on the processing, movement, storage and use of fissionable and other nuclear materials and the practical conduct of operations in and around the civil nuclear fuel cycle. In between the two come considerations not of how non-proliferation issues directly cause specific commercial effects but of how they help, indirectly and in the longer term, to shape the social environment and political climate in which nuclear power will flourish or wither. (author)

  14. Nuclear Society and non-proliferation problems

    In the USSR Nuclear Society in 1991 the special working group on the problems of nuclear weapons non-proliferation and nuclear materials control, uniting the experts of different types (nuclear physicists, lawyers, teachers), was created. This group became the mechanism of the practical Nuclear Society activity realization in this sphere. Three milestones of the innovative activity can be specified. First Milestone. In January 1992 the Central Nuclear Society Board (of the International Public Nuclear Society Association) published a special appeal to the First Leaders of all countries - former USSR republics. This address paid a special attention to the unity of the USSR power-industrial complex, and numerous problems arisen while separating this complex, including nuclear weapons non-proliferation problems, were indicated as well. Second Milestone. In 1992 and 1993 the Nuclear Society experts issued two selection 'Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control Problems' including reviewing basic papers. In addition, materials on non-proliferation and control are published regularly in the organs. Third Milestone.In 1993 - 1997 some special scientific and technical events (conferences, workshops, meetings) allowing to analyze the joint international projects and contracts outcomes, and establish new contacts between the specialists of NIS, Baltic states and others, have been hold

  15. Liposuction: Extracellular Fat Removal Promotes Proliferation.

    Egnatchik, Robert A; DeBerardinis, Ralph J

    2016-04-21

    In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Yao et al. (2016) investigate the makeup of lipid membranes of both cancer and non-transformed cells to reveal that doubling cells preferentially use exogenous fatty acids over de novo synthesis to proliferate. PMID:27105278

  16. Developing a non-proliferation culture

    Mr. J Joly, the President of the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), said that ESARDA has been actively involved in developing and promoting safeguards for more than 35 years and he is pleased to cooperate with the IAEA and the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management in the organization of this symposium. He proposes the development of a 'non-proliferation culture' as a key principle and defines a non-proliferation culture as the characteristics and attitudes of organizations and individuals that: (i) relate to the protection against the diversion and theft of nuclear material and the provision of information about research and development related to the nuclear fuel cycle; and (ii) receive the attention warranted by their significance. According to him the non-proliferation culture has three universal features: (i) policy commitments at the State level; (ii) the organizational framework and commitments; and (iii) the attitudes and behaviour of the staff members of these organizations. These aspects should be considered as a whole, and they should demonstrate transparency with respect to States' exclusively peaceful nuclear activities and contribute to establishing confidence among States and regions of the world. He concludes that a synergy should be developed between the cultures of nuclear non-proliferation, security and safety. Each of these cultures represents a key principle and, as such, can help to establish confidence among States and regions of the world. To the public, these cultures should represent professionalism, competence and responsibility by all parties involved

  17. Non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament

    Fissionable materials are common to all nuclear weapons and controls on the production, storage, processing and use of fissionable materials provides one means to address non-proliferation and disarmament. In this article, the relevance of such controls is examined and the current situation and future prospects are assessed. (authors)

  18. Nuclear Proliferation and Authority in World Politics

    Brian Frederking

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We apply the “security-hierarchy paradox” to nuclear proliferation. Global security requires a certain amount of hierarchy. A world in which no nuclear proliferation rules exist to constrain states, for example, would not be secure. Global security requires legitimate and authoritative rules, which we define as rules that are mutually negotiated, binding to all andwhich provide a stable social order. Too much hierarchy, however, amounts to coercion andundermines global security. Rules that are not mutually negotiated, binding to all or do not provide a stable social order are not authoritative. We argue that North Korea and Iran haveattempted to build nuclear weapons because they interpret the proliferation rules to lack authority. The coercive U.S. approaches to enforcing proliferation rules – including diplomatic isolation, preemption, and regime change – have undermined the legitimacy of those rules. When the U.S. pursues less hierarchical policies, as it has recently toward North Korea, the ensuing negotiations have facilitated progress toward an agreement. When theU.S. pursues a consistently hierarchical approach, as it has toward Iran, no progress is made. Our analysis suggests that it is worth attempting a less hierarchical approach toward Iran and encourage it to accept a deal similar to the one negotiated with North Korea.

  19. Canada's nuclear non-proliferation policy

    Canada's non-proliferation and safeguards policy has two objectives: 1) to promote the emergence of a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime; and 2) to assure the Canadian people and the international community that Canadian nuclear exports will not be used for any nuclear explosive purpose. By emphasizing the key role of the NPT, by promoting reliance upon and improvements in the IAEA safeguards system, by treating nuclear weapon and non-nuclear weapon states alike regarding Canadian nuclear exports, by working for new approaches covering the sensitive phases (e.g. reprocessing) of the nuclear fuel cycle, Canada's policy promotes attainment of the first objective. The latter objective is served through the network of bilateral nuclear agreements that Canada has put into place with its nuclear partners. Those agreements provide assurance that Canada's nuclear exports are used solely for legitimate, peaceful, nuclear energy production purposes. At the same time, Canada, having formulated its non-proliferation and safeguards policy during the period 1945 to 1980, has recognized that it has gone as far as it can on its own in this field and that from this point on any further changes should be made on the basis of international agreement. The Canadian objective in post-INFCE forums such as the Committee on Assurances of Supply is to exert Canada's best efforts to persuade the international community to devise a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime into which Canada and other suppliers might subsume their national requirements

  20. Effect of chloroquine on human lymphocyte proliferation

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Flachs, H

    1986-01-01

    The effect of chloroquine on human blood mononuclear cells was studied. High concentrations of chloroquine in vitro profoundly suppressed the proliferation of mitogen- and antigen-stimulated cells, as indicated by decreased 14C-thymidine incorporation. Lower concentrations of chloroquine increase...

  1. Nuclear proliferation, a legacy of history

    The author proposes an historic perspective on nuclear proliferation. He describes how, at the beginning of the twentieth century, nuclear science was at first mobilising scientists rather than states or countries. At that time, knowledge was shared among European countries and knowledge spread through scientific publications or academic exchanges. Moreover, during the 1930's, some of these scientists decided to move to the USA. Thus, Germany lost a lot of its scientific potential. Proliferation occurred quite naturally from Los Alamos to Great-Britain, then by spies to USSR. By the end of the war, each winner country possessed some abilities. Then, the author describes how China managed to acquire nuclear technology with the support of cooperation with USSR, and based on a group of scientists and physicists who had worked with European physicists like Bohr or Joliot-Curie. The author then comments the other proliferation mechanisms despite the existence of or in parallel with the NPT and various resolutions adopted by the UNO to correct some shortcomings of the Treaty. He outlines the risk of occurrence of a crisis for the non proliferation regime as countries who signed the NPT may develop a hidden military nuclear programme (like Iran for example). The author finally outlines the role France can play within the NPT

  2. Strengthening the foundations of proliferation assessment tools.

    Rexroth, Paul E.; Saltiel, David H.; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Cleary, Virginia D.; Ng, Selena (AREVA NC, Paris, France); Greneche, Dominique (AREVA NC, Paris, France); Giannangeli, Don (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Charlton, William S. (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Ford, David (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX)

    2007-09-01

    Robust and reliable quantitative proliferation assessment tools have the potential to contribute significantly to a strengthened nonproliferation regime and to the future deployment of nuclear fuel cycle technologies. Efforts to quantify proliferation resistance have thus far met with limited success due to the inherent subjectivity of the problem and interdependencies between attributes that lead to proliferation resistance. We suggest that these limitations flow substantially from weaknesses in the foundations of existing methodologies--the initial data inputs. In most existing methodologies, little consideration has been given to the utilization of varying types of inputs--particularly the mixing of subjective and objective data--or to identifying, understanding, and untangling relationships and dependencies between inputs. To address these concerns, a model set of inputs is suggested that could potentially be employed in multiple approaches. We present an input classification scheme and the initial results of testing for relationships between these inputs. We will discuss how classifying and testing the relationship between these inputs can help strengthen tools to assess the proliferation risk of nuclear fuel cycle processes, systems, and facilities.

  3. Limiting Future Proliferation and Security Risks

    A major new technical tool for evaluation of proliferation and security risks has emerged over the past decade as part the activities of the Generation IV International Forum. The tool has been developed by a consensus group from participating countries and organizations and is termed the Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR and PP) Evaluation Methodology. The methodology defines a set of challenges, analyzes system response to these challenges, and assesses outcomes. The challenges are the threats posed by potential actors (proliferant states or sub-national adversaries). It is of paramount importance in an evaluation to establish the objectives, capabilities, resources, and strategies of the adversary as well as the design and protection contexts. Technical and institutional characteristics are both used to evaluate the response of the system and to determine its resistance against proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and terrorism threats. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of a set of measures, which thereby define the PR and PP characteristics of the system. This paper summarizes results of applications of the methodology to nuclear energy systems including reprocessing facilities and large and small modular reactors. The use of the methodology in the design phase a facility will be discussed as it applies to future safeguards concepts.

  4. Nuclear non proliferation and disarmament; Non-proliferation nucleaire et desarmement

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the framework of the publication of a document on the ''weapons mastership, disarmament and non proliferation: the french action'', by the ministry of Foreign Affairs and the ministry of Defense, the French Documentation organization presents a whole document. This document describes and details the following topics: the conference on the treaty of non proliferation of nuclear weapons, the France, Usa and Non Governmental Organizations position, the threats of the proliferation, the french actions towards the disarmament, the disarmament in the world, a chronology and some bibliographic resources. (A.L.B.)

  5. Proliferation: does the peaceful use of nuclear energy have to lead to proliferation of nuclear weapons

    The question of whether the proliferation of nuclear weapons is promoted by an increasing use of peaceful nuclear energy can be answered with a well-founded no. Even a regional renouncing of the peaceful use of nuclear energy would not reduce the worldwide problem of nuclear weapons' proliferation. Therefore, joint efforts must be aimed at promoting trust between peoples in the nuclear sphere and the political reasons for the proliferation of nuclear weapons must be reduced in order also to promote international harmony

  6. Size distributions of air showers accompanied with high energy gamma ray bundles observed at Mt. Chacaltaya

    Matano, T.; Machida, M.; Tsuchima, I.; Kawasumi, N.; Honda, K.; Hashimoto, K.; Martinic, N.; Zapata, J.; Navia, C. E.; Aquirre, C.

    1985-01-01

    Size distributions of air showers accompanied with bundle of high energy gamma rays and/or large size bursts under emulsion chambers, to study the composition of primary cosmic rays and also characteristics of high energy nuclear interaction. Air showers initiated by particles with a large cross section of interaction may develop from narrow region of the atmosphere near the top. Starting levels of air showers by particles with smaller cross section fluctuate in wider region of the atmosphere. Air showers of extremely small size accompanied with bundle of gamma rays may be ones initiated by protons at lower level after penetrating deep atmosphere without interaction. It is determined that the relative size distribution according to the total energy of bundle of gamma rays and the total burst size observed under 15 cm lead absorber.

  7. [Recurrence of thymoma accompanied with hypogammaglobulinemia 20 years after surgery: a case report].

    Naniwa, Taio; Kakihara, Hidetoshi; Zen-nami, Shuji; Tomita, Hiroshi; Sugiura, Yoshiki; Yoshinouchi, Takeo; Sato, Shigeki; Ueda, Ryuzo

    2002-03-01

    We reported a case of recurrence of localized thymoma accompanied with hypogammaglobulinemia (Good's syndrome) 20 years after surgery. A 74-year-old man was admitted to this hospital because of mediastinal tumor and chronic pulmonary infection. He had been thymectomised at the age of 55 because of spindle cell thymoma. After that, he had been asymptomatic until January 1997, when he began to have a recurrent productive cough, and low-grade fever. Laboratory findings revealed hypogammaglobulinemia. Percutaneous needle biopsy of the mediastinal tumor revealed spindle cell thymoma. Therefore, hypogammaglobulinemia with thymoma (Good's syndrome) accompanied with a chronic lower respiratory tract infection was diagnosed. Immunologic studies revealed a marked decrease of CD 20 positive cells and decreased lymphocyte activation under the stimuli of phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A. The thymoma was resected in Dec 1997, but the serum immunoglobulin showed no increase at al. PMID:11974900

  8. Photothermal and accompanied phenomena of selective nanophotothermolysis with gold nanoparticles and laser pulses

    In medical applications of laser and nanotechnology to diagnosis and treat cancer or microorganisms, understanding of lased-induced photothermal (PT) and accompanied phenomena around nanoparticles are crucial for optimization and bringing this promising technology to bedside. We analyzed the main PT-based effects in and around gold nanoparticles under action of short (nano-, pico-, and femtosecond) laser pulses with focus on photoacoustic effects due to the thermal expansion of nanoparticles and liquid around them, thermal protein denaturation, explosive liquid vaporization, melting and evaporation of nanoparticle, optical breakdown initiated by nanoparticles and accompanied to shock waves and explosion (fragmentation) of gold nanoparticles. Characteristic parameters for these processes such as the temperature and pressures levels, and laser intensity thresholds among others are summarized to provide basis for comparison of different mechanisms of selective nanophotothermolysis and diagnostics of different targets (e.g., cancer cells, bacteria, viruses)

  9. Triple Peripheral Nerve Injury Accompanying to Traumatic Brain Injury: A Case Report

    Ižlknur Can

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Secondary injuries especially extremity fractures may be seen concurrently with traumatic brain injury (TBI. Peripheral nerve damages may accompany to these fractures and may be missed out, especially in acute stage. In this case report; damage of radial, ulnar and median nerves which was developed secondarily to distal humerus fracture that could not be detected in acute stage, in a patient who had motor vehicle accident (MVA. 29-year-old male patient was admitted with weakness in the right upper extremity. 9 months ago, he had traumatic brain injury because of MVA, and fracture of distal humerus was detected in follow-ups. Upon the suspect of the peripheral nerve injury, the diagnosis was confirmed with ENMG. The patient responded well to the rehabilitation program treatment. In a TBI patient, it must be kept in mind that there might be a secondary trauma and therefore peripheral nerve lesions may accompany to TBI.

  10. Prevalence of open angle glaucoma in accompanying first degree relatives of patients with glaucoma

    Franciele Vegini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of open angle glaucoma in first-degree relatives accompanying POAG patients during routine examination in a reference hospital. METHOD: First-degree relatives of primary open angle glaucoma patients who accompanied their relatives to the glaucoma service of a reference hospital were screened for glaucoma. RESULTS: One-hundred and one first-degree relatives were examined, of which 56.4% had never had their intraocular pressure measured. 10.9% had previously been diagnosed with glaucoma, and 5.9% were newly diagnosed during this study. CONCLUSIONS: The eye examination of first-degree relatives identified a significant percentage of individuals with glaucoma. Despite being first-degree relatives of glaucoma patients, 56.4% of the companions had never had their eye pressure measured, demonstrating a lack of awareness about this disease.

  11. Pitch-informed solo and accompaniment separation towards its use in music education applications

    Cano, Estefanía; Schuller, Gerald; Dittmar, Christian

    2014-12-01

    We present a system for the automatic separation of solo instruments and music accompaniment in polyphonic music recordings. Our approach is based on a pitch detection front-end and a tone-based spectral estimation. We assess the plausibility of using sound separation technologies to create practice material in a music education context. To better understand the sound separation quality requirements in music education, a listening test was conducted to determine the most perceptually relevant signal distortions that need to be improved. Results from the listening test show that solo and accompaniment tracks pose different quality requirements and should be optimized differently. We propose and evaluate algorithm modifications to better understand their effects on objective perceptual quality measures. Finally, we outline possible ways of optimizing our separation approach to better suit the requirements of music education applications.

  12. Grain growth and thermal stability accompanying recrystallization in undercooled Ni-3at.%Sn alloy

    Chen, Z., E-mail: chenzheng1218@163.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710016 (China); Chen, Q.; Shen, C.J. [School of Material Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Liu, F. [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710016 (China)

    2015-10-15

    The grain growth and thermal stability after recrystallization in as-solidified highly undercooled Ni-3at.%Sn alloy melt were investigated. As for undercooled Ni-3at.%Sn alloy, a transition from dendritic to granular crystals occurred when ΔT≥ΔT{sup *}, which was induced by the plastic deformation of dendrites and subsequent recrystallization. On this basis, the subsequent grain growth and solute segregation accompanying recalescence were calculated by a recently proposed thermo-kinetic model, which showed close agreement with the experimental results. It is concluded that the grain growth process was interrelated to recalescence, solute trapping and solute segregation of Sn atoms captured by solute trapping, which was responsible for the reduction of grain boundary energy and improvement of thermal stability. - Highlights: • A transition from dendritic to granular crystals occurred when ΔT≥ΔT{sup *}. • The grain growth accompanying recalescence was calculated. • A close agreement with the experimental results was shown.

  13. Pentalogy of Cantrell accompanied by scoliosis and pes equinovarus deformity at 12 weeks gestation.

    Pekin, A Tazegül; Kerimoğlu, O Seçilmiş; Yilmaz, S A; Kebapcilar, A G; Bakbak, B Gencoğlu; Celik, C

    2015-01-01

    Cantrell's pentalogy (CP) is a rare syndrome characterized by defects in the lower sternum with ectopia cordis, anterior diaphragm defects, midline supraumbilical abdominal wall defects, defects in the diaphragmatic pericardium, and congenital heart disease. The authors report a 12-weeks gestation with multiple fetal anomalies suggesting the diagnosis of CP (a large thoraco-abdominal defect with herniating liver and bowel, heart deviated anteriorly with concomitant ventricular septal defect), and the 'S' shaped fetal spine due to increased lumbar lordosis and scoliosis with accompanying pes equinovarus deformity. Chorionic villus sampling was performed due to increased nuchal translucency (3.7 mm). The fetal karotype was found to be 47, XX,+21 (trisomy 21). In the literature, three scoliosis cases have been reported accompanying the CP along with multiple anomalies and one concomitant pes equinovarus deformity has been reported previously. PMID:26152022

  14. In Vitro Endothelial Cell Proliferation Assay Reveals Distinct Levels of Proangiogenic Cytokines Characterizing Sera of Healthy Subjects and of Patients with Heart Failure

    Rebecca Voltan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although myocardial angiogenesis is thought to play an important role in heart failure (HF, the involvement of circulating proinflammatory and proangiogenic cytokines in the pathogenesis and/or prognosis of HF has not been deeply investigated. By using a highly standardized proliferation assay with human endothelial cells, we first demonstrated that sera from older (mean age 52±7.6 years; n=46 healthy donors promoted endothelial cell proliferation to a significantly higher extent compared to sera obtained from younger healthy donors (mean age 29±8.6 years; n=20. The promotion of endothelial cell proliferation was accompanied by high serum levels of several proangiogenic cytokines. When we assessed endothelial cell proliferation in response to HF patients’ sera, we observed that a subset of sera (n=11 promoted cell proliferation to a significantly lesser extent compared to the majority of sera (n=18. Also, in this case, the difference between the patient groups in the ability to induce endothelial cell proliferation correlated to significant (P<0.05 differences in serum proangiogenic cytokine levels. Unexpectedly, HF patients associated to the highest endothelial proliferation index showed the worst prognosis as evaluated in terms of subsequent cardiovascular events in the follow-up, suggesting that high levels of circulating proangiogenic cytokines might be related to a worse prognosis.

  15. Does interdependence alleviate proliferation risks in Asia?

    As the extension Conference of the Non-Proliferation Treaty ended with its unlimited extension without any modification of the treaty obligation of the nuclear-weapon states to nuclear disarmament, the prospect of the regime to incorporate those suspected nuclear powers in Asia, namely India, Pakistan and Israel, has become dark. In this paper the problem of proliferation risk centred in India is analysed. It is well known that India was the first to criticize the Non-Proliferation Treaty regime as highly discriminating between the five nuclear haves and the rest. As was always the case, India's point is logically persuasive and consistent. However, it is also true that the logical or legal point of view does not always solve the problem. Therefore, we look at the regional and international political constellation in which any assertion has to be constructed. At present there is very little possibility that this region will become nuclear-free. This is because the horizontal proliferation, that has seemingly taken place here, is the result of a 'nuclear chain reaction', starting with a minor nuclear-weapon state, China. However, the economic upsurge in the region now throws the nuclear chain-reactions into the background. It has come to a standstill and the future of nuclear proliferation here will have to be decided by global nuclear disarmament, as there is no motivation on the side of the two Asian giants to agree on the reduction in their nuclear arsenals, though under American pressure, another suspected nuclear power, Pakistan, may have to give up its nuclear development plan

  16. Proliferation of luteal steroidogenic cells in cattle.

    Shin Yoshioka

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the corpus luteum (CL after ovulation is believed to be mainly due to an increase in the size of luteal cells (hypertrophy rather than an increase in their number. However, the relationship between luteal growth and the proliferation of luteal steroidogenic cells (LSCs is not fully understood. One goal of the present study was to determine whether LSCs proliferate during CL growth. A second goal was to determine whether luteinizing hormone (LH, which is known have roles in the proliferation and differentiation of follicular cells, also affects the proliferation of LSCs. Ki-67 (a cell proliferation marker was expressed during the early, developing and mid luteal stages and some Ki-67-positive cells co-expressed HSD3B (a steroidogenic marker. DNA content in LSCs isolated from the developing CL increased much more rapidly (indicating rapid growth than did DNA content in LSCs isolated from the mid CL. The cell cycle-progressive genes CCND2 (cyclin D2 and CCNE1 (cyclin E1 mRNA were expressed more strongly in the small luteal cells than in the large luteal cells. LH decreased the rate of increase of DNA in LSCs isolated from the mid luteal stage but not in LSCs from the developing stage. LH suppressed CCND2 expression in LSCs from the mid luteal stage but not from the developing luteal stage. Furthermore, LH receptor (LHCGR mRNA expression was higher at the mid luteal stage than at the developing luteal stage. The overall results suggest that the growth of the bovine CL is due to not only hypertrophy of LSCs but also an increase in their number, and that the proliferative ability of luteal steroidogenic cells decreases between the developing and mid luteal stages.

  17. Recurrent dislocation of the patella accompanying hypotrochlea of the femur and malalignment of the patella

    Horikawa, Akira; Kodama, Hiroyuki; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Yamada, Shin; Miyamoto, Seiya

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes a rare case of recurrent dislocation of the patella which was accompanied with trochlear dysplasia and malalignment of the patella in a 15-year-old girl. She complained of hemoarthrosis and recurrent patellar dislocation in the early knee flexion phase. Plain radiography and computed tomography (CT) showed patellar malalignment (quadriceps angle 20°) and severe dysplasia of the trochlea of the femur (sulcus angle 170°). Surgery was performed, consisting of trochleop...

  18. A qualitative investigation into the characteristics and effects of music accompanying exercise

    Priest, DL; Karageorghis, CI

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the characteristics of music used to accompany physical exercise and investigate the effects of such music using a qualitative approach. This work underpins the further development of a theoretical structure that is still relatively new. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of exercise participants (N = 13), seven males and six females, all with at least two years’ experience of exercising to music. An inductive content analy...

  19. Accompanying conditions in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria and urticarial vasculitis: Results of a retrospective study

    Sevgi Akarsu; Turna İlknur; Özlem Özbağçıvan; Emel Fetil

    2015-01-01

    Background and Design: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), the most common form of chronic urticaria, is characterized by spontaneous wheals and/or angioedema lasting longer than six weeks. Urticarial vasculitis (UV) is a small vessel vasculitis; but is also included in the various classification systems of chronic urticaria by some authors. The aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of accompanying conditions, and to compare the demographic, clinical and laboratory features of patie...

  20. The effect of mechanical lymph drainage accompanied with heat on lymphedema

    Valente Flávia Mariana; Guerreiro Godoy Maria de Fátima; Pereira de Godoy José Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background: Thermotherapy has been indicated by some researchers as a treatment for lymphedema. A study comparing temperatures demonstrated that a temperature of 40°C significantly increased the transportation of lymph compared to other temperatures assessed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible benefits of mechanical lymph drainage accompanied with heat in the treatment of lymphedema of the lower limbs. Methods: In a cross-over randomized study, the effect of heat on lymph ...

  1. Pedagogical guidelines for educational accompaniment for grieving to adults with intellectual disabilities

    Pablo RODRÍGUEZ HERRERO; de la Herrán Gascón, Agustín; Izuzquiza Gasset, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    It is needed a foundation and some orientations to act in loss and grief situations with adults with intellectual disabilities. In this article, through a relevant literature review, we based the educational accompaniment as a pedagogic methodology of support with three principal elements: a) The conception of grief from its formative potential, b) The prevention of disorders associated to grief complications, c) The pedagogic intervention preferably from the tutorship or from the actuation o...

  2. Modified Latarjet Procedure for Patients with Glenoid Bone Defect Accompanied with Anterior Shoulder Instability.

    Demirhan, Mehmet Selahattin; Atalar, Ata Can; Bilsel, Kerem; Eren, İlker; Çelik, Derya; Çil, Hilal

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of coracoid bone block (modified Latarjet) procedure on clinical and functional results in cases with glenoid bone defect accompanied with anterior shoulder instability. Methods: The study included 35 patients (average age: 35 years; range: 20 to 58 years) with glenoid bone defect and recurrent dislocations treated with the modified Latarjet procedure. There were 12 sports injuries, 5 post-epileptic cases and 18 recurrent an...

  3. Original compositions using contemporary classical and jazz techniques accompanied by technical analysis Vol. I

    Wijers, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    This portfolio of compositions consists of six major works and is accompanied by a technical analysis of each. Nature, the sky, astronomy, clouds and many fields of science have always fascinated me and four of the works presented here are heavily influenced by this fascination. The two remaining works are inspired by my interest in computing, computer programming and the possibilities opened up by the use of computers in composition. The first work, title Jupiter Moons Suite is a five...

  4. Leaching of gold, silver and accompanying metals from circuit boards (PCBs) waste

    Jana Ficeriová; Peter Baláž; Eberhard Gock

    2011-01-01

    Au-Ag noble metal wastes represent a wide range of waste types and forms, with various accompanying metallic elements.The presented leaching strategy for Au-Ag contained in circuit boards (PCBs) aims at gaining gold and silver in the metallic form.Application of the proposed ammonium thiosulphate leaching process for the treatment of the above mentioned Au-Ag containing wastesrepresents a practical, economic and at the same time an ecological solution. The ammonium thiosulphate based leaching...

  5. HIFI: a computer code for projectile fragmentation accompanied by incomplete fusion

    A brief summary of a model proposed to describe projectile fragmentation accompanied by incomplete fusion and the instructions for the use of the computer code HIFI are given. The code HIFI calculates single inclusive spectra, coincident spectra and excitation functions resulting from particle-induced reactions. It is a multipurpose program which can calculate any type of coincident spectra as long as the reaction is assumed to take place in two steps

  6. Brain reward deficits accompany withdrawal (hangover) from acute ethanol in rats

    Schulteis, Gery; Liu, Jian

    2006-01-01

    Withdrawal from an acute bolus injection of ethanol produces affective or emotional signs that include anxiogenic-like behavior (Gauvin et al., 1992) and conditioned place aversion (Morse et al., 2000). The current study assessed whether brain reward deficits that accompany withdrawal from chronic ethanol dependence (Schulteis et al., 1995) are also observed upon withdrawal from acute intoxication. Rats were implanted with stimulating electrodes aimed at the medial forebrain bundle in the lat...

  7. The internal bremsstrahlung accompanying the β-dacay from 185W

    The internal bremsstrahlung (IB) spectrum accompanying the β-decay from 185W radionuclide has been measured. The obtained spectrum was analyzed into its constituting gamma lines taking into account all the proper corrections. The analyzed spectrum was compared with those theoretically calculated. The experimental results for the IB probability were found to be in good agreement with theoretical calculations especially with the shape corrected modified KUB theory of Nilsson up to 357.7 keV. (author)

  8. Psycho-pedagogical accompaniment as a condition for social adaptation of inmates of children's homes

    Oksana Mishenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The research is devoted to the problem of pedagogic-psychological accompaniment of the process of social adaptation of inmates of children's homes. Essence of pedagogic-psychological support as a special kind of professional activity to create conditions conducive to the successful adaptation of the inmates of children's homes in the community. Describes the set of psycho-pedagogical conditions, optimizing the process of social adaptation of inmates of children's homes.

  9. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) Accompanied by Acute Rejection in a Post Renal Transplant Recipient

    Dohi, Kiyohiko; Eto, Takaaki; Ono, Eiji; Fukuda, Yasuhiko; Takenaka, Masaharu; Yahata, Hiroshi; Asahara, Toshimasa; Tabe, Yasuji; Marubayashi, Seiji; Ezaki, Haruo

    1984-01-01

    A kidney transplant recipient with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) accompanied by acute rejection was described. The principal symptome of the patient was massive gross hematuria. She showed thrombocytopenia, marked decrease of fibrinogen and elevation of fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) level. The patient was treated by continuous intravenous heparin infusion (total dose was 85, 800 units), and it was very effective. The symtoms due to DIC were improved on the 9th day after...

  10. Multiple Fractures in Patient with Graves' Disease Accompanied by Isolated Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

    Yi, Hyon-Seung; Kim, Ji Min; Ju, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Younghak; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Koon Soon

    2016-01-01

    Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is known to decrease bone mineral density due to deficiency of sex steroid hormone. Graves' disease is also an important cause of secondary osteoporosis. However, IHH does not preclude the development of primary hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease, leading to more severe osteoporosis rapidly. Here, we describe the first case of 35-year-old Asian female patient with IHH accompanied by Graves' disease and osteoporosis-induced multiple fractures...