WorldWideScience

Sample records for acclimatization

  1. Acclimatization to cold in humans

    Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Greenleaf, John E.

    1989-01-01

    This review focuses on the responses and mechanisms of both natural and artificial acclimatization to a cold environment in mammals, with specific reference to human beings. The purpose is to provide basic information for designers of thermal protection systems for astronauts during intra- and extravehicular activities. Hibernation, heat production, heat loss, vascular responses, body insulation, shivering thermogenesis, water immersion, exercise responses, and clinical symptoms and hypothermia in the elderly are discussed.

  2. Acclimatization of micropropagated Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae) plants

    Rodrigues Paulo Hercílio Viegas; Lima Ana Maria Liner Pereira; Ambrosano Gláucia Maria B.; Dutra Maria de Fátima Batista

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the behavior of micropropagated heliconia seedlings during the acclimatization process using different substrates and shade levels, seedlings of H. bihai (Lobster Claw I) were planted in plastic trays using the substrates: washed sand, vermiculite (medium texture), and PlantMax® Horticultura, and shade cloths with percentages of 0% (full sun), 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% of shade in relation to full sun. Best results were obtained for washed sand and PlantMax substrates at sh...

  3. Acclimatization and leaf anatomy of micropropagated fig plantlets

    Chrystiane Fráguas Chirinéa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of micropropagated plants during and after acclimatization is a limiting process to plant establishment. There is little information on how the anatomy of vegetative organs of Ficus carica can be affected by culture conditions and acclimatization. The present research aimed to study the effects of time on culture medium and substrates during the acclimatization of fig tree plantlets produced in vitro, characterizing some leaf anatomy aspects of plantlets cultured in vitro and of fig trees produced in field. Plantlets previously multiplied in vitro were separated and transferred into Wood Plant Medium (WPM where they were kept for 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Different substrates were tested and studies on leaf anatomy were performed in order to compare among plantlets grown in vitro, plantlets under 20, 40 and 60 days of acclimatization, and field grown plants. Keeping plantlets for 30 days in WPM allowed better development in Plantmax during acclimatization. Field grown plants presented higher number of stomata, greater epicuticular wax thickness and greater leaf tissue production compared to in vitro ones. The leaf tissues of in vitro plantlets show little differentiation and have great stomata number compared with acclimatized plants, which reduce the number of stomata during the acclimatization process.

  4. Biochemical Aspects of Acclimatization of Man to High Altitude Stress

    K. K. Srivastava

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the biochemical aspects of acclimatization of human body to high altitude with particular reference to the adaptive changes in Skeletal muscles, hepatic function, adrenal function and carbohydrate metabolism.

  5. In vitro germination and acclimatization of cambui tree type seedlings

    Ana da Silva Lédo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few reports in literature on the in vitro behavior of cambui tree (Myrciaria tenella O. Berg and acclimatization conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of culture media on in vitro germination and the effect of different substrates on the acclimatization of two Myrciaria tenella types. The study was carried out at the Embrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros Laboratory of Plant Tissue Culture, Aracaju, SE. Seeds were extracted from fruits of two Myrciaria tenella types: Orange and Purple Types. The seeds were inoculated in the following culture media: T1 - MS medium + 30g L -1 sucrose, T2 - 1/2 MS medium + 15g L -1 sucrose and T3 - control without MS salts. To study the effect of substrates on acclimatization, seedlings were transferred to plastic containers with capacity of 300cm 3 containing the following sterilized substrates: S1 - soil and powdered coconut husk - SPC (1:1 by volume; S2 - soil, washed sand and powdered coconut husk - SAPC (1:1:1 by volume and S3 - Biomix (r commercial substrate - SC. The medium without MS salts promoted 100% in vitro germination and 1/2 MS medium greater development of seedlings. All substrates studied are suitable for acclimatization of seedlings germinated in vitro. Myrciaria tenella of yellow type showed greater vigor during acclimatization.

  6. Biophysical and Physiological Basis of Human Cold Acclimatization

    Bal Krishna

    1968-05-01

    Full Text Available On exposure to cold, the problem is to maintain internal temperature of the human body in the presence of an increased thermal gradient between the core and the external environment. The ability to maintain homeothermy in the cold environment is enhanced in the acclimatized man. Superimposed upon the adaptive responses of the whole body to cold exposure are the adaptive responses of the extermities to avoid severe cold injury. The two major methods of adjustment to cold exposure are metabolic adjustments and peripheral cooling. Metabolic adjustment involve an increase in heat production in response to a cold stress such as shivering and non shivering thermogenesis and voluntary muscular activity. Peripheral cooling reduce the loss of heat from the skin by effectively increasing the thickness of relatively cooler peripheral tissues. The available literature on human cold acclimatization has been surveyed with a view to explain the biophysical and physiological mechanisms involved in the process of acclimatization.

  7. Altitude acclimatization. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    Mauk, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography of citations to the international literature covers aspects of altitude acclimatization. Included are articles concerning high altitude environments, hypoxia, heart function and hemodynamic responses, physical exercise, human tolerances and reactions, physiological responses, and oxygen consumption. This updated bibliography contains 164 citations, 35 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  8. Temperature effects on copepod egg hatching: does acclimatization matter?

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Drillet, Guillaume; Kozmér, A.;

    2010-01-01

    This report investigates female sizes, egg sizes and egg hatching rates in relation to temperature for the near-shore calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa cultured at 6, 9, 14 and 24°C for several generations to achieve acclimatization. Inverse size relationships of eggs and females were revealed with...... increasing temperature. Eggs produced at 6°C were 85 ± 4 µm in diameter, but decreased to 80 ± 3 µm at 24°C. Female cephalothorax length was 840 ± 52 and 692 ± 39 µm at 9 and 24°C, respectively. Parallel hatching experiments were performed between non-acclimatized and acclimatized cultures across a range of...... temperatures reflecting natural conditions in Danish waters. A greater fraction of eggs enter quiescence as temperature declines. Eggs were able to hatch at temperatures as low as 1.5°C. Final egg hatching success increased with temperature. Acclimatization of the copepods resulted in a lower maximum hatching...

  9. Parental Effect of Long Acclimatization on Thermal Tolerance of Juvenile Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Wang, Qing-lin; Yu, Shan-Shan; Dong, Yun-wei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the thermal resistance of marine invertebrates to elevated temperatures under scenarios of future climate change, it is crucial to understand parental effect of long acclimatization on thermal tolerance of offspring. To test whether there is parental effect of long acclimatization, adult sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus) from the same broodstock were transplanted southward and acclimatized at high temperature in field mesocosms. Four groups of juvenile sea cucumbers whose par...

  10. Polymorphism profiling of nine high altitude relevant candidate gene loci in acclimatized sojourners and adapted natives

    Tomar, Arvind; Malhotra, Seema; Sarkar, Soma

    2015-01-01

    Background Sea level sojourners, on ascent to high altitude, undergo acclimatization through integrated physiological processes for defending the body against oxygen deprivation while the high altitude natives (resident population) are adapted to the prevailing hypobaric hypoxic condition through natural selection. Separating the acclimatization processes from adaptive changes and identifying genetic markers in lowlanders that may be beneficial for offsetting the high altitude hypoxic stress,...

  11. In vitro development and acclimatization of dendezeiro (Elaeis guineensis

    Marlúcia Souza Souza Pádua

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and almond from the dendezeiro, oil palmbelonging to the Elaeis genus,are widely used for the production of cookingoils or for the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.In the last decade, this oil palm also emerged as a promising source for commercialbiofuel production. This study evaluated the effect of different culture media, MS (MURASHIGUE AND SKOOG and Y3 (EEUWENSand carbohydrates duringin vitro germination of zygotic embryos, the effect of growth regulators GA3, NAA and BA Ponin vitro seedling development, and the survival rate of acclimatized seedlingsof Manicoré hybrid (Elaeis oleifera x E. guineensis. Zygotic embryos were inoculated on MS and modified Y3 media, supplemented with different sucrose concentrations (30, 45, and 60 gL-1 or sorbitol (36 gL-1, and the germination rate was evaluated after 30 days. Subsequently, seedlings were transferred to modified Y3 culture medium supplemented with differentGA3 concentrations (3.5 and 7 mgL-1 or without it, combined or not with 1 mgL-1 of NAA, 5 mgL-1 of BAP.The highest germinationpercentage of germinated embryos (92% was observed in MS medium supplemented with 36 gL-1 sorbitol. Culture media supplemented with growth regulatorsGA3, NAA and BAP promoted greater shoot lengththan control media. Rooted seedlings showed high survival percentage (85% during acclimatization.

  12. Acclimatization of tissue cultured plantlets: from laboratory to land.

    Chandra, Sheela; Bandopadhyay, Rajib; Kumar, Vijay; Chandra, Ramesh

    2010-09-01

    The ultimate success of micropropagation on a commercial scale depends on the ability to transfer plants out of culture on a large scale, at low cost and with high survival rates. During field transfer the in vitro grown plantlets are unable to compete with soil microbes and to cope with the environmental conditions. The in vitro culture conditions result in the plantlets with altered morphology, anatomy and physiology. In order to increase growth and reduce mortality in plantlets at the acclimatisation stage, efforts are focused on the control of both physical and chemical environment and biohardening of micropropagated plantlets. This review describes the abiotic and biotic stresses and current developing methods for the acclimatization of microshoots. PMID:20455074

  13. In vitro propagation and acclimatization of genipapo accessions

    Francielen Paola de Sa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Genipapo is a species with an intermediate seed storage behavior, and its germination is slow and asynchronous; therefore the tissue culture is an alternative strategy for the propagation in large-scale. This study aimed to evaluate three genipapo accessions at different micropropagation stages (adventitious shoot induction, in vitro rooting and acclimatization. Genipapo nodal segments from the Sabinópolis (AS, Cruz das Almas (CZA and Núcleo Bandeirante (NB accessions were used and inoculated in culture media with 0 and 1.0 mg L-1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP. Different indole-3-butyric acid (IBA concentrations were tested for in vitro rooting. Subsequently, the effect of two substrates on the seedling development of three genipapo accessions was assessed. The molecular characterization of accessions was performed using 15 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR primers, and genotype clustering was performed based on genetic dissimilarity using the Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA. Culture media supplementation with 1.0 mg L-1 BAP favors the development of adventitious shoots and promotes a higher callogenesis percentage, leaf number and feasibility at 90 days of in vitro culture. The immersion of the basal portion of shoots for 20 seconds in all IBA solutions induces the rhizogenesis in the genipapo accessions at 90 days of in vitro culture. The substrates consisting of washed sand + dried coconut shell powder, at a 1:1 ratio by volume, and Topstrato HT(r may be recommended for genipapo acclimatization. The NB accession is genetically different from the CZA and AS populations and shows superiority for most of the variables analyzed.

  14. Behavioral effects of acclimatization to restraint protocol used for awake animal imaging.

    Reed, Michael D; Pira, Ashley S; Febo, Marcelo

    2013-07-15

    Functional MRI in awake rats involves acclimatization to restraint to minimize motion. We designed a study to examine the effects of an acclimatization protocol (5 days of restraint, 60 min per day) on the emission of 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and performance in a forced swim test (FST). Our results showed that USV calls are reduced significantly by days 3, 4 and 5 of acclimatization. Although the rats showed less climbing activity (and more immobility) in FST on day 5 compared to the 1st day of restraint acclimatization, the difference was not detected once the animals were given a 2-week hiatus. Overall, we showed that animals adapt to the restraint over a five-day period; however, restraint may introduce confounding behavioral outcomes that may hinder the interpretation of results derived from awake rat imaging. The present data warrants further testing of the effects of MRI restraint on behavior. PMID:23562621

  15. Methods to Estimate Acclimatization to Urban Heat Island Effects on Heat- and Cold-Related Mortality

    Milojevic, Ai; Armstrong, Ben G.; Gasparrini, Antonio; Bohnenstengel, Sylvia I.; Barratt, Benjamin; Wilkinson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Investigators have examined whether heat mortality risk is increased in neighborhoods subject to the urban heat island (UHI) effect but have not identified degrees of difference in susceptibility to heat and cold between cool and hot areas, which we call acclimatization to the UHI. Objectives: We developed methods to examine and quantify the degree of acclimatization to heat- and cold-related mortality in relation to UHI anomalies and applied these methods to London, UK. Methods: Case–crossover analyses were undertaken on 1993–2006 mortality data from London UHI decile groups defined by anomalies from the London average of modeled air temperature at a 1-km grid resolution. We estimated how UHI anomalies modified excess mortality on cold and hot days for London overall and displaced a fixed-shape temperature-mortality function (“shifted spline” model). We also compared the observed associations with those expected under no or full acclimatization to the UHI. Results: The relative risk of death on hot versus normal days differed very little across UHI decile groups. A 1°C UHI anomaly multiplied the risk of heat death by 1.004 (95% CI: 0.950, 1.061) (interaction rate ratio) compared with the expected value of 1.070 (1.057, 1.082) if there were no acclimatization. The corresponding UHI interaction for cold was 1.020 (0.979, 1.063) versus 1.030 (1.026, 1.034) (actual versus expected under no acclimatization, respectively). Fitted splines for heat shifted little across UHI decile groups, again suggesting acclimatization. For cold, the splines shifted somewhat in the direction of no acclimatization, but did not exclude acclimatization. Conclusions: We have proposed two analytical methods for estimating the degree of acclimatization to the heat- and cold-related mortality burdens associated with UHIs. The results for London suggest relatively complete acclimatization to the UHI effect on summer heat–related mortality, but less clear evidence for

  16. Certain questions of the acclimatization of construction workers to the conditions of a subtropical climate

    Babayev, A.

    1979-01-01

    The period of active acclimatization was determined for construction workers coming into a subtropical climate. Changes were observed in metabolic processes, oxygen needs, pulse rate, arterial pressure, body and skin temperature, body weight, water consumption and loss, and the comfort zone of heat sensitivity. It was concluded that acclimatization is facilitated if introduction to the hot climate occurs in the mild cool season, rather than the summer. This also prevents heat prostration and improves the development of adaptive mechanisms.

  17. Variations of Endocrine Hormones Concentrations in Tupaia belangeri under Simulated Seasonal Acclimatized: Role of Leptin Sensitivity

    Zhu, Wan-long; Mu, Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Zheng-Kun

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal variations in endocrine hormones concentrations are important for the survival of small mammals during acclimatization. In order to understand the role of leptin sensitivity on other endocrine hormones concentrations, we examined body mass, serum leptin level, serum insulin, tri-iodothyronine (T 3), thyroxine (T 4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in Tupaia belangeri under seasonal acclimatized (The simulated temperature and photoperiod in winter: 5°C and SD, 8h :...

  18. Growth and symptomatological aspects in the acclimatization of ipê roxo

    João Paulo Rodrigues Martins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the influence of seal type and substrate type on pre-acclimatization, and symptomatological aspects relating to acclimatization of ipê-roxo. For the pre-acclimatization, ipê-roxo plants obtained through an in vitro zygotic embryo culture were aseptically inoculated in test tubes with different types of seal (cotton plug, plastic cap + parafilm and plastic lid and different substrates (agar, vermiculite and Plantmax® supplemented with a WPM culture medium with 1 gL-1 of activated charcoal, 10 mgL-1 of citric acid and 30 gL-1 of sucrose added. For the acclimatization, in vitro ipê-roxo plants were transplanted into 56-cm3 plastic tubes containing vermiculite and Plantmax® at a 2:1 ratio which had been previously autoclaved at 121oC and 1 atm for 20 minutes. Once transplanted, the plants were irrigated with different concentrations of the MS medium (25%, 50%, 75%, 100% and 150%, using distilled water as control. After 30 days, the effects of seal type and substrate type on pre-acclimatization were examined. Cotton can be recommended where Plantmax® or vermiculite is used as substrate. In the acclimatization it was noted that where plants were irrigated with distilled water and concentrations < 50% they showed symptoms of nutritional deficiency. Similar symptoms were observed when using MS medium at a concentration equal to or greater than 100%. The 75% MS concentration was found to be the most effective at maintaining the nutritional vigor of ipê-roxo seedlings in the process of acclimatization.

  19. Acclimatization of Phalaenopsis and Cattleya obtained by micropropagation

    Lucía Primitiva Díaz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Título en español: Aclimatización de Phalaenopsis y Cattleya obtenidas por micropropagación ABSTRACT The quality of micropropagated plants relies on the acclimatization stage. This research intends to develop an efficient protocol to obtain the acclimatization of Phalaenopsis and Cattleya. Plants of Phalaenopsis obtained from protocorms were selected. They came from flowering stalks grown at modified Murashige and Skoog (MS (1962 medium and classified by growth ranks and put into moss, mesquite wood shaving and perlite (1:1:1, into a humidity chamber. The protocorms were multiplied at MS from Cattleya sown in Knudson C (1946 medium; regenerated plants of 1-2 cm were selected, and implanted in humidity chamber on: moss, coal and perlite (1:1:1 MCP; mesquite wood shavings, coal and perlite (1:1:1 ACP; moss and perlite (1:1 MP; mesquite wood shaving and perlite (1:1 AP. The following results were obtained: Phalanopsis: a Survival: 44% in R0 and 100% in RI and RII of the. b Number of leaves: RI gave on average 1 more leaf than the range 0; c Roots number and length: RI and RII gave on average 2 more roots than R0, and there were no significant differences in length. d Height: RII presented greater growth than RI and Ro. Cattleya: a The survival in MCP was 0%, MP 16 %, ACP 32% and AP 80%. b The height in MP was significantly superior to the ones in ACP and AP. Plants from both genera need to achieve a 2 to 4 cm growth rank in vitro to endure the greenhouse conditions. MAP was the best substrate in Phalaenopsis and moss-perlite in Cattleya. Key words: Orchidaceae, substrates, in vitro culture. RESUMEN La calidad final de las plantas producidas por micropropagación depende de la etapa de aclimatización. Se intenta desarrollar un protocolo eficiente para la aclimatización de Phalaenopsis y Cattleya. Se seleccionaron plantas de Phalaenopsis, obtenidas de protocormos provenientes de estacas florales cultivadas en Murashige y Skoog modificado (MS

  20. Parental Effect of Long Acclimatization on Thermal Tolerance of Juvenile Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Wang, Qing-Lin; Yu, Shan-Shan; Dong, Yun-Wei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the thermal resistance of marine invertebrates to elevated temperatures under scenarios of future climate change, it is crucial to understand parental effect of long acclimatization on thermal tolerance of offspring. To test whether there is parental effect of long acclimatization, adult sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus) from the same broodstock were transplanted southward and acclimatized at high temperature in field mesocosms. Four groups of juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced different durations of high temperature acclimatization were established. Upper thermal limits, oxygen consumption and levels of heat shock protein mRNA of juveniles was determined to compare thermal tolerance of individuals from different groups. Juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced high temperature could acquire high thermal resistance. With the increase of parental exposure duration to high temperature, offspring became less sensitive to high temperature, as indicated by higher upper thermal limits (LT50), less seasonal variations of oxygen consumption, and stable oxygen consumption rates between chronic and acute thermal stress. The relatively high levels of constitutive expression of heat-shock proteins should contribute to the high thermal tolerance. Together, these results indicated that the existence of a parental effect of long acclimatization would increase thermal tolerance of juveniles and change the thermal sensitivity of sea cucumber to future climate change. PMID:26580550

  1. Parental Effect of Long Acclimatization on Thermal Tolerance of Juvenile Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Qing-Lin Wang

    Full Text Available To evaluate the thermal resistance of marine invertebrates to elevated temperatures under scenarios of future climate change, it is crucial to understand parental effect of long acclimatization on thermal tolerance of offspring. To test whether there is parental effect of long acclimatization, adult sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus from the same broodstock were transplanted southward and acclimatized at high temperature in field mesocosms. Four groups of juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced different durations of high temperature acclimatization were established. Upper thermal limits, oxygen consumption and levels of heat shock protein mRNA of juveniles was determined to compare thermal tolerance of individuals from different groups. Juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced high temperature could acquire high thermal resistance. With the increase of parental exposure duration to high temperature, offspring became less sensitive to high temperature, as indicated by higher upper thermal limits (LT50, less seasonal variations of oxygen consumption, and stable oxygen consumption rates between chronic and acute thermal stress. The relatively high levels of constitutive expression of heat-shock proteins should contribute to the high thermal tolerance. Together, these results indicated that the existence of a parental effect of long acclimatization would increase thermal tolerance of juveniles and change the thermal sensitivity of sea cucumber to future climate change.

  2. ENERGY SOURCES AFFECT IN VITRO PROPAGATION AND SUBSEQUENT ACCLIMATIZATION OF ANANAS COMOSUS, VAR. SMOOTH CAYENNE PLANTS

    Ayelign Mengesha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant tissue culture is an inevitable technique to overcome healthy and limited planting materials problems using suitable energy sources. Different carbohydrates have diverse effect on in vitro growing plantlets in terms of growth performance, acclimatization and cost used for micro-propagation. Hence, this paper reports the effects of sucrose, fructose, glucose, table sugar and starch on pineapple in vitro mass propagation and acclimatization as well as the analysis of energy source required cost per a medium. A complete randomized design was used to compare analytic grade sucrose with other four energy sources at 2 and 3 % (w/v. The results revealed that the energy sources with varied concentration strongly influenced the in vitro growth and subsequent acclimatization of pineapple plantlets. Analytic grade sucrose and table sugar at 3 % performed well for in vitro survival rate (100%, shoot amplification (15.3-16.5 shoots, rooting ability (2.5cm long and 12 roots and acclimatization (95.4-97%. However, fructose and glucose required high importation cost (229.1% and 121.9% over analytic grade sucrose, respectively, and have low growth and acclimatization performance next to starch and energy free medium. Thus, table sugar has found to be a suitable alternative energy source for pineapple mass propagation, which saved about 95-97% cost from that of laboratory grade sucrose.

  3. Physiological responses in rufous-collared sparrows to thermal acclimation and seasonal acclimatization.

    Maldonado, Karin Evelyn; Cavieres, Grisel; Veloso, Claudio; Canals, Mauricio; Sabat, Pablo

    2009-04-01

    A large number of physiological acclimation studies assume that flexibility in a certain trait is both adaptive and functionally important for organisms in their natural environment; however, it is not clear how an organism's capacity for temperature acclimation translates to the seasonal acclimatization that these organisms must accomplish. To elucidate this relationship, we measured BMR and TEWL rates in both field-acclimatized and laboratory-acclimated adult rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis). Measurements in field-acclimatized birds were taken during the winter and summer seasons; in the laboratory-acclimated birds, we took our measurements following 4 weeks at either 15 or 30 degrees C. Although BMR and TEWL rates did not differ between winter and summer in the field-acclimatized birds, laboratory-acclimated birds exposed to 15 degrees C exhibited both a higher BMR and TEWL rate when compared to the birds acclimated to 30 degrees C and the field-acclimatized birds. Because organ masses seem to be similar between field and cold-acclimated birds whereas BMR is higher in cold-acclimated birds, the variability in BMR cannot be explained completely by adjustments in organ masses. Our findings suggest that, although rufous-collared sparrows can exhibit thermal acclimation of physiological traits, sparrows do not use this capacity to cope with minor to moderate fluctuations in environmental conditions. Our data support the hypothesis that physiological flexibility in energetic traits is a common feature of avian metabolism. PMID:19011873

  4. Human physiological responses to cold exposure: Acute responses and acclimatization to prolonged exposure.

    Castellani, John W; Young, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Cold exposure in humans causes specific acute and chronic physiological responses. This paper will review both the acute and long-term physiological responses and external factors that impact these physiological responses. Acute physiological responses to cold exposure include cutaneous vasoconstriction and shivering thermogenesis which, respectively, decrease heat loss and increase metabolic heat production. Vasoconstriction is elicited through reflex and local cooling. In combination, vasoconstriction and shivering operate to maintain thermal balance when the body is losing heat. Factors (anthropometry, sex, race, fitness, thermoregulatory fatigue) that influence the acute physiological responses to cold exposure are also reviewed. The physiological responses to chronic cold exposure, also known as cold acclimation/acclimatization, are also presented. Three primary patterns of cold acclimatization have been observed, a) habituation, b) metabolic adjustment, and c) insulative adjustment. Habituation is characterized by physiological adjustments in which the response is attenuated compared to an unacclimatized state. Metabolic acclimatization is characterized by an increased thermogenesis, whereas insulative acclimatization is characterized by enhancing the mechanisms that conserve body heat. The pattern of acclimatization is dependent on changes in skin and core temperature and the exposure duration. PMID:26924539

  5. Assessment of hypoxia right heart remodeling after acclimatization at high different altitude areas

    Xiao-jin LAI; Xin-rong XIAO; Jin-chun GUO; Ming-song LIAO; Liang, Yan; Dan DENG; Tao, Jie; Huang, Yue; Li, Wei; Kai-qiang ZHANG; Peng, Yan; Kuan-jun MA

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess hypoxic right heart remodeling after acclimatization at high altitude area. Methods One hundred volunteers who came to Tibet from the low-altitude areas by plane were randomly selected to serve as control group, and another 100 servicemen, who were dispatched from low altitude area to a station in Tibet area 3000m above sea level and got acclimatized to serve as altitude group. The altitude group was divided into altitude group 1 (3000-4000m above sea level, n=67) and alti...

  6. The impact of acclimatization on thermophysiological strain for contrasting regional climates

    de Freitas, C. R.; Grigorieva, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    During acclimatization to heat and cold, the body experiences additional thermally induced physiological strain. The first signs show up in the respiratory organs because respiration is a continuous heat exchange process in which the body is in closest contact with the ambient air. There are no behavioral or other adjustments to prevent the ambient air from entering into the body's core area through the respiratory tract. The Acclimatization Thermal Strain Index (ATSI) describes the acclimatization thermal loading (ATL) on respiratory organs until full adaptation is achieved. The aim here is to further assess the ATSI scheme using a range of actual but contrasting bioclimatic conditions. To simulate ATL, scenarios of the consequences of acclimatization due to movement to or from five contrasting climates are used. The results show that adjusting to cold comes with greater physiological strain than adjusting to heat, the biggest impact occurring for a change of location from hot-humid to cold-dry climatic conditions. The approach can be used to assess risks due to increases in short-term thermal variability in weather conditions such as encountered during heat waves and cold snaps. The information could also be useful for assessing the need for public health services and measures that might be used to help mitigate impacts.

  7. Effect of heat and heat acclimatization on cycling time trial performance and pacing

    Racinais, Sebastien; Périard, Julien D; Karlsen, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the effects of heat-acclimatization on performance and pacing during outdoor cycling time-trials (TT, 43.4km) in the heat. METHODS: Nine cyclists performed 3 TTs in hot ambient conditions (TTH, ∼37ºC) on the first (TTH-1), sixth (TTH-2) and fourteenth (TTH-3) days of training...

  8. In vitro mycorrhization and acclimatization of Amanita caesareoides and its relatives on Pinus densiflora.

    Endo, Naoki; Gisusi, Seiki; Fukuda, Masaki; Yamada, Akiyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Amanita caesareoides is a sister species of Amanita caesarea, also known as Caesar's mushroom and one of the most desirable edible mycorrhizal mushrooms. However, cultivation of Caesar's mushrooms has not yet been successful due to the difficulties involved in establishing pure cultures. In this study, we established pure cultures of four Asian Caesar's mushroom species, i.e., A. caesareoides, Amanita javanica, Amanita esculenta, and Amanita similis, which were identified by sequence analysis of their rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Five selected isolates in A. caesareoides, A. javanica, and A. esculenta were tested for ectomycorrhizal syntheses with axenic Pinus densiflora seedlings in vitro. Ectomycorrhizal tips of each fungal isolate tested were observed on pine lateral roots within 5 months of inoculation. Seventeen pine seedlings that formed ectomycorrhizas in vitro with these three Amanita species were acclimatized under non-sterile conditions. Seven months following acclimatization, ectomycorrhizal colonization by A. caesareoides was observed on newly grown root tips, which was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the fungal rDNA ITS region. Two other Amanita species also survived during ectomycorrhizal acclimatization. These results suggest that the cultivation of A. caesareoides and its relatives can be attempted through mycorrhizal synthesis using P. densiflora as a host. This is the first report of in vitro mycorrhization of Asian Caesar's mushrooms and their acclimatization under non-sterile conditions. PMID:23242587

  9. Limitations to Thermoregulation and Acclimatization Challenge Human Adaptation to Global Warming

    Elizabeth G. Hanna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human thermoregulation and acclimatization are core components of the human coping mechanism for withstanding variations in environmental heat exposure. Amidst growing recognition that curtailing global warming to less than two degrees is becoming increasing improbable, human survival will require increasing reliance on these mechanisms. The projected several fold increase in extreme heat events suggests we need to recalibrate health protection policies and ratchet up adaptation efforts. Climate researchers, epidemiologists, and policy makers engaged in climate change adaptation and health protection are not commonly drawn from heat physiology backgrounds. Injecting a scholarly consideration of physiological limitations to human heat tolerance into the adaptation and policy literature allows for a broader understanding of heat health risks to support effective human adaptation and adaptation planning. This paper details the physiological and external environmental factors that determine human thermoregulation and acclimatization. We present a model to illustrate the interrelationship between elements that modulate the physiological process of thermoregulation. Limitations inherent in these processes, and the constraints imposed by differing exposure levels, and thermal comfort seeking on achieving acclimatization, are then described. Combined, these limitations will restrict the likely contribution that acclimatization can play in future human adaptation to global warming. We postulate that behavioral and technological adaptations will need to become the dominant means for human individual and societal adaptations as global warming progresses.

  10. In vitro culture systems and acclimatization of Aechmea setigera Mart. ex Schult. & Schult. f. (Bromeliaceae

    Janaína Medeiros Vasconcelos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aechmea setigera is an endemic bromeliad from Amazon with ornamental potential. Bromeliads have been propagated by tissue culture. The consistency of the culture medium in vitro multiplication influences the rate of propagation. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate different culture systems with the use of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP on in vitro propagation and the effect of different substrates in acclimatization of plantlets Aechmea setigera. In vitro germinated seedlings were inoculated in MS medium in liquid stationary, semisolid, double-phase systems, plus 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP in different concentrations (0, 2.2, 4.4, 8.8 and 17.7 μM. The ex vitro rooting and acclimatization were performed on substrate Plantmax Forest ®, vermiculite and sawdust eucalyptus. After three successive subcultures, the double-phase system showed a higher number of regenerated shoots in comparison to other systems. Acclimatization using the combination of commercial substrate Plantmax Forest ® and vermiculite favored the growth of micropropagated plants. The use of a culture medium double-phase without growth regulator, and the rooting in acclimatization are feasible strategy for the micropropagation of A. setigera. Indexação

  11. Altitude acclimatization and blood volume: effects of exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion

    Sawka, M N; Young, Jette Feveile; Rock, P B;

    1996-01-01

    blood oxygen content alters erythropoietin responses during altitude acclimatization, and 4) mechanisms responsible for plasma loss at altitude. Sixteen healthy men had a series of hematologic measurements made at sea level, on the first and ninth days of altitude (4,300 m) residence, and after...

  12. Cerebral artery alpha-1 AR subtypes: high altitude long-term acclimatization responses.

    Ravi Goyal

    Full Text Available In response to hypoxia and other stress, the sympathetic (adrenergic nervous system regulates arterial contractility and blood flow, partly through differential activities of the alpha1 (α1 - adrenergic receptor (AR subtypes (α1A-, α1B-, and α1D-AR. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that with acclimatization to long-term hypoxia (LTH, contractility of middle cerebral arteries (MCA is regulated by changes in expression and activation of the specific α1-AR subtypes. We conducted experiments in MCA from adult normoxic sheep maintained near sea level (300 m and those exposed to LTH (110 days at 3801 m. Following acclimatization to LTH, ovine MCA showed a 20% reduction (n = 5; P<0.05 in the maximum tension achieved by 10-5 M phenylephrine (PHE. LTH-acclimatized cerebral arteries also demonstrated a statistically significant (P<0.05 inhibition of PHE-induced contractility in the presence of specific α1-AR subtype antagonists. Importantly, compared to normoxic vessels, there was significantly greater (P<0.05 α1B-AR subtype mRNA and protein levels in LTH acclimatized MCA. Also, our results demonstrate that extracellular regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2-mediated negative feedback regulation of PHE-induced contractility is modulated by α1B-AR subtype. Overall, in ovine MCA, LTH produces profound effects on α1-AR subtype expression and function.

  13. Packaging of Post Acclimatized Somatic Embryogenesis Cocoa Plantlet (Theobroma cacao L.

    Soedarsianto Soedarsianto

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Clonal plants that produced by somatic embryogenesis technique is one of the best choice to produce supperior clonal cacao (Theobroma cacao L. planting materials. The somatic embryogenesis technique is a possible way for massive propagation, the outcome is true to type plants, the architecture similarity that the seedlings but there is not segregation like seedlings plants. At present mass production started of plantlets production until post-acclimatized plantlets of somatic embryogenesis cocoa was done at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. Distribution system of the planting materials to whole areas in form of as up-rooted post-acclimatized plantlet. Some problems identified to reduce probability of decreasing viability of up-rooted post-acclimatized plantlets and one of them is extreme internal water deficit. This research investigate of the influece storage condition (air tight and non-air tight and box storage (mica plastic and cardboardbox. The first experiment result show, there is no significant different between mica plastic and cardboard box usage for storage of post-acclimatized cocoa pantlet. Viability of up-rooted post acclimatized cocoa plantlet influenced exactly by air tight and non-air tight storage condition. Air tight storage condition have better viability of up-rooted post acclimatised (81,58% than non-air tight storage condition (65,00%. Leaf sanasence on air tight storage condition (10,33% lower than non-air tight storage (32,58%. There is not significantly on volume storage per plantlet between 4.416 cm3 and 12.600 cm3. Relationship between fallen leaves and cocoa planlet viability follow negative linear correlation y = -1,4719x + 104,88 (R2 = 0,9772. The second experiment treatment showed that maximal storage periode of post cclimatized cocoa plantlet just until 6 days stored (97% and not significant with 3 days one. Viability of post acclimatized cocoa plantlet decreased after 6 days storage period

  14. Endogenous cytokinin profiles of tissue-cultured and acclimatized 'Williams' bananas subjected to different aromatic cytokinin treatments

    Aremu, A.O.; Plačková, L. (Lenka); Bairu, M. W.; Novák, O.; Szüčová, L. (Lucie); Doležal, K. (Karel); Finnie, J.F.; Van Staden, J.

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous cytokinin (CK) levels of in vitro-cultured and greenhouse-acclimatized 'Williams' bananas treated with six aromatic CKs were quantified using UPLC-MS/MS. The underground parts had higher endogenous CK levels than the aerial parts. Control plantlets had more isoprenoid CKs while the aromatic-type CKs were predominant in all other regenerants. Following acclimatization of the control and 10 mu M CK regenerants, there was a rapid decline in both isoprenoid and aromatic CK in the green...

  15. Endogenous cytokinin profiles of tissue-cultured and acclimatized 'Williams' bananas subjected to different aromatic cytokinin treatments.

    Aremu, Adeyemi O; Plačková, Lenka; Bairu, Michael W; Novák, Ondřej; Szüčová, Lucie; Doležal, Karel; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Van Staden, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous cytokinin (CK) levels of in vitro-cultured and greenhouse-acclimatized 'Williams' bananas treated with six aromatic CKs were quantified using UPLC-MS/MS. The underground parts had higher endogenous CK levels than the aerial parts. Control plantlets had more isoprenoid CKs while the aromatic-type CKs were predominant in all other regenerants. Following acclimatization of the control and 10 μM CK regenerants, there was a rapid decline in both isoprenoid and aromatic CK in the greenhouse-grown plants. Apart from the control and 6-(3-Methoxybenzylamino)-9-tetrahydropyran-2-ylpurine (MemTTHP) treatment with higher level of isoprenoid CK, aromatic CK remain the predominant CK-type across all CK treatments. The most abundant CK forms were meta-topolin (mT) and benzyladenine (BA) in the micropropagated and acclimatized plants, respectively. Micropropagated plantlets had cis-Zeatin (cZ) as the major isoprenoid CK-type which was in turn replaced by isopentenyladenine (iP) upon acclimatization. On a structural and functional basis, 9-glucoside, a deactivation/detoxicification product was the most abundant and mainly located in the underground parts (micropropagation and acclimatization). The results establish the wide variation in metabolic products of the tested aromatic CKs during micropropagation and acclimatization. The findings are discussed with the possible physiological roles of the various CK constituents on the growth and development of banana plants. PMID:24268166

  16. In vitro culture systems and acclimatization of Aechmea setigera Mart. ex Schult. & Schult. f. (Bromeliaceae)

    Janaína Medeiros Vasconcelos; João Ricardo Avelino Leão; Andrea Raposo; Paulo Cesar Poeta Fermino Junior

    2015-01-01

    Aechmea setigera is an endemic bromeliad from Amazon with ornamental potential. Bromeliads have been propagated by tissue culture. The consistency of the culture medium in vitro multiplication influences the rate of propagation. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate different culture systems with the use of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) on in vitro propagation and the effect of different substrates in acclimatization of plantlets Aechmea setigera. In vitro germinated seedling...

  17. Structural Modifications of the Brain in Acclimatization to High-Altitude

    Zhang, Jiaxing; Yan, Xiaodan; Shi, Jinfu; Gong, Qiyong; Weng, Xuchu; Liu, Yijun

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive changes in respiratory and cardiovascular responses at high altitude (HA) have been well clarified. However, the central mechanisms underlying HA acclimatization remain unclear. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with fractional anisotropy (FA) calculation, we investigated 28 Han immigrant residents (17–22 yr) born and raised at HA of 2616–4200 m in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau for at least 17 years and who currently attended college at sea-level (SL). ...

  18. Limitations to Thermoregulation and Acclimatization Challenge Human Adaptation to Global Warming

    Hanna, Elizabeth G.; Peter W. Tait

    2015-01-01

    Human thermoregulation and acclimatization are core components of the human coping mechanism for withstanding variations in environmental heat exposure. Amidst growing recognition that curtailing global warming to less than two degrees is becoming increasing improbable, human survival will require increasing reliance on these mechanisms. The projected several fold increase in extreme heat events suggests we need to recalibrate health protection policies and ratchet up adaptation efforts. Clim...

  19. Niche acclimatization in Red Sea corals is dependent on flexibility of host-symbiont association

    Ziegler, Maren

    2015-08-06

    Knowledge of host-symbiont specificity and acclimatization capacity of corals is crucial for understanding implications of environmental change. Whilst some corals have been shown to associate with a number of symbionts that may comprise different physiologies, most corals associate with only one dominant Symbiodinium species at a time. Coral communities in the Red Sea thrive under large fluctuations of environmental conditions, but the degree and mechanisms of coral acclimatization are largely unexplored. Here we investigated the potential for niche acclimatization in 2 dominant corals from the central Red Sea, Pocillopora verrucosa and Porites lutea, in relation to the fidelity of the underlying coral-symbiont association. Repeated sampling over 2 seasons along a cross-shelf and depth gradient revealed a stable symbiont association in P. verrucosa and flexible association in P. lutea. A statistical biological-environmental matching routine revealed that the high plasticity of photophysiology and photopigments in the stable Symbiodinium microadriaticum (type A1) community in P. verrucosa were correlated with environmental influences along spatio-temporal dimensions. In contrast, photophysiology and pigments were less variable within each symbiont type from P. lutea indicating that niche acclimatization was rather regulated by a flexible association with a variable Symbiodinium community. Based on these data, we advocate an extended concept of phenotypic plasticity of the coral holobiont, in which the scleractinian host either associates with a specific Symbiodinium type with a broad physiological tolerance, or the host-symbiont pairing is more flexible to accommodate for different symbiont associations, each adapted to specific environmental settings.

  20. Assessment of hypoxia right heart remodeling after acclimatization at high different altitude areas

    Xiao-jin LAI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess hypoxic right heart remodeling after acclimatization at high altitude area. Methods One hundred volunteers who came to Tibet from the low-altitude areas by plane were randomly selected to serve as control group, and another 100 servicemen, who were dispatched from low altitude area to a station in Tibet area 3000m above sea level and got acclimatized to serve as altitude group. The altitude group was divided into altitude group 1 (3000-4000m above sea level, n=67 and altitude group 2 (4000-5500m above sea level, n=33 according to the altitude of the campsite, and also into migration-time group 1 (entered and stationed in Xizang for 1-2 years, n=72 and migration-time group 2 (entered and stationed in Xizang for over 2 years, n=28. The structure and function of the right heart were measured using a portable multi-functional composite echocardiography in a quiescent state, and hypoxic right heart remodeling after high-altitude acclimatization was comprehensively analyzed and assessed. Results Compared with control group, the main manifestations of the subjects in the altitude group were right ventricular and right atrial enlargement, right ventricular wall thickening, aggravation of tricuspid regurgitation, and broadening of pulmonary trunk and branch (P 4000m above sea level than in those who were in the area 2 years, particularly in those for > 5 years, than those who lived there for < 2 years (P < 0.01. Conclusions The altitude and living time in high-altitude are main factors for hypoxic right heart remodeling. Altitude acclimatization is only the adjustment of human body to hypoxic environment. A portable multi-functional composite echocardiography can early and timely assess hypoxic right heart remodeling and it is of important significance for ensuring the health of the serviceman in high-altitude area.

  1. Rooting and acclimatization of the Japanese plum tree, cv. América

    Juliana de Magalhães Bandeira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rooting and acclimatization are limiting steps in plant micropropagation, especially in woody plant species. This study aimed to evaluate the IAA and IBA effect on the in vitro rooting and acclimatization of micropropagated shoots of Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. América. Shoots from 3 to 4 cm long were inoculated in MS medium with half salt and vitamin concentrations (MS/2 added with IAA and IBA (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mg L-1. After a 20-day period in in vitro cultivation, the shoots were evaluated, and then transferred to a greenhouse, and evaluated after 30 days. At the end of the in vitro cultivation period, no significant interactions were observed for number of roots per shoot and rooting percentage, but a significant effect was recorded for auxin type only, for which shoots grown in media added with IBA showed high values - 0.87 and 41.95%, respectively. A linear increase response from 1.45 to 5.75 cm was verified for root length of shoots cultivated in IBA medium; however, no significant effect was observed, and a 0.86 cm average root length per shoot grown in medium added with IAA was found. After 30 days of acclimatization period, the largest survival percentage was obtained from shoots cultivated in medium with 1 mg L-1 of IBA and IAA (88% and 92%, respectively. Although, IBA provided the highest in vitro rooting, most of the surviving shoots were those originated in IAA-added medium, probably because IBA promoted longer fibrous roots, less appropriate for transplant and soil fixation, as they are easily damaged. It was concluded that in vitro rooting with the addition of the highest IAA concentration (1 mg L-1 provided the greatest plant survival during the acclimatization period of the Japanese plum cv. América.

  2. EX VITRO ROOTING AND ACCLIMATIZATION OF Ilex paraguariensis A. St Hil. MICROCUTTINGS

    Kenia Michele de Quadros Tronco; Dilson Antônio Bisognin; Frederico Dimas Fleig; Micheli Angélica Horbach

    2015-01-01

    The technique of microcutting and ex vitro rooting can result in plantlets with better quality of radicular system and larger number of secondary roots, when compared with conventional cutting. The objective of this work was to evaluate the ex vitro rooting and acclimatization of holly microcuttings in different doses of phytoregulator indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and substrate. In the growth room were evaluated different doses of indole-3-butyric acid (0, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg.L-1) and d...

  3. Acclimatization of Photosynthetic Apparatus of Tor Grass (Brachypodium pinnatum) during Expansion

    Bąba, Wojciech; Kalaji, Hazem M.; Kompała-Bąba, Agnieszka; Goltsev, Vasilij

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the acclimatization mechanisms of photosynthetic apparatus in Brachypodium pinnatum (L.) P. Beauv grass during its expansion. Twelve populations differentiated by age: young (30–50 years old), intermediate age (ca. 100 y) and old (>300 y) were studied. It was confirmed that the decrease of the number of genotypes as a result of environmental stress and competition were reflected in changes in chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) parameters. The old stands were dominated by a few genotypes which seem to be the best acclimatized to the self-shading/competition by lowering their photosynthetic performance during light-phase of photosynthesis. On the other hand, the 'high-speed' photosynthetic rate observed in the young populations can be seen as acclimatization to very adverse conditions. Our results clearly confirm that ChlF is a powerful method of inferring physiological mechanisms of the expansion of tor grass. The Principal Component and Redundancy Analyses, followed with k-means classification, allowed to find the differentiation of groups of distinct ChlF parameters and enabled us to relate them to changes in genotypic diversity of populations. We conclude that the plastic morphological and physiological response to changeable habitat light conditions with its optimum in half-shade refers to its forest-steppe origin. PMID:27275605

  4. Light in intermediate acclimatization of in vitro germinated seedlings of Dendrobium phalaenopsis Deang Suree

    José Carlos Sorgato

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The success in micropropagation of Dendrobium phalaenopsis Deang Suree is high, but when transplanted into the greenhouse, their survival is minimal. To increase survival in production in the present study it was evaluated the effect of intermediate acclimatization for 30 days in a grow room utilizing the following luminosity conditions: 1- white fluorescent light (B (18.9µmol m-2 s-1; 2- white fluorescent light + red fluorescent light (GRO-LUX(r (BV (14.85µmol m-2 s-1; 3- red fluorescent light (GRO-LUX(r (V (9.45µmol m-2 s-1 and the control plants were accommodated directly in a greenhouse (162.0µmol m-2 s-1. After this the leaves were characterized anatomically and the plants transferred to the control greenhouse. It was evaluated survival percentage and final number of roots, and calculated the relations between the final and initial values of fresh weight, number of leaves, length and diameter of the largest pseudo bulb, number of pseudo bulbs and longest root length. Only plants submitted to red light, were statistically better than the control in relation to the survival percentage and in relation to fresh weight, while the control showed a higher number of roots that plants acclimatized in this luminosity conditions. Intermediate acclimatization, using red light or red + white light, is recommended for D. phalaenopsis Deang Suree.

  5. Ascent schedules, acute altitude illness, and altitude acclimatization: Observations on the Yushu Earthquake

    Wu Tianyi; Hou Shike; Li Shuzhi; Li Wenxiang; Gen Deng

    2013-01-01

    During the Yushu Earthquake on April 14,2010,a large number of rescuers from sea level or lowlands ascended to the quake areas very rapidly or rapidly less than 24 h.However,Yushu Earthquake is the highest quake in the world at altitudes between 3750 m and 4878 m where is a serious hypoxic environment.A high incidence of acute altitude illness was found in the unacclimatized rescuers; the mountain rescue operation changed as "rescue the rescuers".Lesson from the Yushu Earthquake is that the occurrence of acute altitude illness may be closely related to the ascent schedules.This prompted us to study the relationship between ascent rate and the incidence and severity of acute altitude illness; five different groups were compared.The first group was 42 sea level male young soldiers who ascended to quake area very rapidly within 8 h at 4000 m; the second group was 48 sea level male young soldiers who ascended to 4000 m rapidly less than 18 h; the third group was 66 acclimatized medical workers from 2261 m who ascended to 4000 m rapidly within 12 h; the fourth group was 56 Tibetan medical workers from 2800 m who ascended to 4000 m rapidly within 8 h; the fifth group was 50 male sea level workers who ascended to 4000 m gradually over a period of 4 d.The results showed that the sea level rescuers ascended to 4000 m very rapidly or rapidly had the highest incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) with the greatest AMS scores and the lowest arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) ; the sea level workers ascended to 4000 m gradually had moderate incidence of AMS with moderate AMS scores and SaO2 values; whereas the acclimatized and adapted rescuers had the lowest incidence of AMS,lowest AMS scores and higher SaO2; especially none AMS occurred in Tibetan rescuers.AMS score is inversely related to the ascent rate (r=-0.24,p<0.001).Additionally,acute altitude illness is significantly influenced by altitude acclimatization.The ascent rate is inversely related to

  6. Notes from Batavia, the Europeans' graveyard: the nineteenth-century debate on acclimatization in the Dutch East Indies.

    Pols, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of European colonial expansion, medical theories of acclimatization have been inextricably related to convictions about the possibility and desirability of white settlement in the colonies, and political ideas of colonial governance. Before 1800, acclimatization theories emphasized the inherent flexibility of the human constitution and its ability to adapt to new environments. During the first half of the nineteenth century, European theorists came to highlight the vulnerability of white Europeans in the tropics to disease, degeneration, and death instead. They consequently argued that white settlement in the tropics was impossible and inadvisable. European physicians in the British and French colonies presented similar views. By contrast, their colleagues in the Dutch East Indies remained optimistic. They associated themselves with the colonial European settler community and shared their grievances against autocratic colonial rule. They presented medical theories which related acclimatization to prudent behavior, morality, and proper management of the environment, thereby downplaying the significance of climate and high temperatures. During the following decades, their views on acclimatization were transferred to the Netherlands, where they were deployed as an argument against the cultivation system, the then-current approach of colonial governance, which emphasized the trade of cash crops grown by the indigenous population, severely limited European settlement, and curtailed the rights of Europeans living in the Indies. Throughout the nineteenth century, the influence of climate and the possibility of acclimatization became recurring themes in debates about colonial governance in both the Dutch East Indies and the Netherlands. PMID:21317422

  7. CO2, H2O exchange and stomatal regulation of regenerated Camptotheca acuminata plantlets during ex vitro acclimatization

    WANG Hui-mei; LI Yan-hua; GAO Yin-xiang; ZU Yuan-gang

    2006-01-01

    For finding the changes in CO2, H2O exchange and their stomatal regulation during ex vitro acclimatization of regenerated Camptotheca acuminata plantlets, the net photosynthesis rate (Pn), respiration rate (Rd), light compensation point (Lc) and light saturation point (Ls), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (gs) and water use efficiency(WUE) were measured during 37 days of ex vitro acclimatization. The results showed that Pn sharply increased until 29 days, then slightly decreased. A substantial decrease in Lc and a substantial increase of Ls in the former two weeks were observed, indicating the light regime enlargement for effective leaf photosynthesis. Tr and gs abruptly decreased during the first week then linearly increased until 29days ex vitro acclimatization, reflecting the strong regulation effect of stomata on water changes of ex vitro acclimating plantlets. Stomatal regulation effect on CO2 exchange was different from that on water exchange, i.e. Pn was almost independent of gs during the first week, while Pn was significantly correlated with gs thereafter (i.e. dual patterns). Different from dual patterns of gs-Pn relation, the Tr monotonously linearly increased with gs. Furthermore, WUE was almost independent on gs during the first week, while a marked decreasing tendency with gs was found thereafter. At the beginning of the acclimatization, WUE was mainly determined by photosynthetic capacity, while transpiration becomes a main determinant factor for WUE from 7 to 37 days' acclimatization.

  8. Sustained acclimatization in Chilean mine workers subjected to chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    Farias, Jorge G; Osorio, Jorge; Soto, Gustavo; Brito, Julio; Siques, Patricia; Reyes, Juan G

    2006-01-01

    Farias, Jorge G., Jorge Osorio, Gustavo Soto, Julio Brito, Patricia Siques, and Juan G. Reyes. Sustained acclimatization in Chilean mine workers subjected to chronic intermittent hypoxia. High Alt. Med. Biol. 7:302-306, 2006--We wanted to know if sea-level mine workers exposed previously to chronic intermittent hypoxia reached a steady acclimatization at 36 months under hypobaric hypoxia. An intermittently exposed group of mine workers (IE, n = 25) were subjected to submaximal exercise (100 W) at 4500 m. Their systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (HbSatO(2)) were monitored. Two comparison groups of unacclimatized sea-level workers (n = 17) were studied. A nonexposed group (NE) performed 5 min of submaximal exercise at sea level. Some kind of exercise was performed both by an acutely exposed group (AE) and IE group at 4500 m. No statistical differences were found for HR, SBP, and DBP (p > 0.05) during exercise between IE and AE groups. Resting HbSatO(2) of IE (87 +/- 6%) was lower than NE (97 +/- 3%) (p < 0.05), but was higher than AE (82 +/- 4%) (p < 0.05). In the exercise condition, HbSatO(2) of IE (85 +/- 5%) was lower than NE (95 +/- 3%) (p < 0.05), but was higher than AE (76 +/- 2%) (p < 0.05). These responses were maintained through the 6 months of the study period. Thus, mine workers subjected to intermittent hypobaric condition for 3 years showed a good degree of acclimatization that was maintained through time. PMID:17173515

  9. Acclimatization test of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Lebna reservoir (Cap Bon, Tunisia)

    Derouiche, E.; Azaza, M.S; KRAIEM M. M.

    2009-01-01

    Ce travail consiste à tester l’acclimatation d’une espèce thermophile, le tilapia du Nil Oreochromis niloticus dans la retenue du barrage Lebna (Cap Bon), moyennant un système extensif de grossissement. Les résultats montrent que le tilapia introduit directement en pleine retenue a pu se maintenir et supporter les mauvaises conditions hivernales en adoptant une stratégie d’hibernation. Par ailleurs, avec le retour des conditions favorables (T>20°C), ce Cichlidé a montré une bonne condition, u...

  10. Unchanged cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism after acclimatization to high altitude

    Møller, Kirsten; Paulson, Olaf B; Hornbein, Thomas F.;

    2002-01-01

    . Global cerebral blood flow at rest and during exercise on a bicycle ergometer was measured by the Kety-Schmidt technique. Cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen, glucose, and lactate were calculated by the Fick principle. Cerebral function was assessed by a computer-based measurement of reaction time...... and cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen and glucose also remained unchanged, whereas cerebral metabolic rates of lactate increased slightly but nonsignificantly at high altitude during exercise compared with high altitude at rest. Reaction time was unchanged. The data indicate that cerebral blood flow...... and oxidative metabolism are unaltered after high-altitude acclimatization from sea level, despite marked changes in breathing and other organ functions....

  11. The re-establishment of the normal blood lactate response to exercise in humans after prolonged acclimatization to altitude

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Calbet, J A; Søndergaard, H; Saltin, B

    1. One to five weeks of chronic exposure to hypoxia has been shown to reduce peak blood lactate concentration compared to acute exposure to hypoxia during exercise, the high altitude 'lactate paradox'. However, we hypothesize that a sufficiently long exposure to hypoxia would result in a blood...... lowlanders acclimatized for 9 weeks to an altitude of 5260 m, the arterial lactate concentration was similar at 0 m acute hypoxia and 5260 m chronic hypoxia. The net lactate release from the active leg was higher at 5260 m chronic hypoxia compared to 0 m acute hypoxia, implying an enhanced lactate...... utilization with prolonged acclimatization to altitude. The present study clearly shows the absence of a lactate paradox in lowlanders sufficiently acclimatized to altitude....

  12. Structural modifications of the brain in acclimatization to high-altitude.

    Zhang, Jiaxing; Yan, Xiaodan; Shi, Jinfu; Gong, Qiyong; Weng, Xuchu; Liu, Yijun

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive changes in respiratory and cardiovascular responses at high altitude (HA) have been well clarified. However, the central mechanisms underlying HA acclimatization remain unclear. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with fractional anisotropy (FA) calculation, we investigated 28 Han immigrant residents (17-22 yr) born and raised at HA of 2616-4200 m in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau for at least 17 years and who currently attended college at sea-level (SL). Their family migrated from SL to HA 2-3 generations ago and has resided at HA ever since. Control subjects were matched SL residents. HA residents (vs. SL) showed decreased grey matter volume in the bilateral anterior insula, right anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral prefrontal cortex, left precentral cortex, and right lingual cortex. HA residents (vs. SL) had significantly higher FA mainly in the bilateral anterior limb of internal capsule, bilateral superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, corpus callosum, bilateral superior corona radiata, bilateral anterior external capsule, right posterior cingulum, and right corticospinal tract. Higher FA values in those regions were associated with decreased or unchanged radial diffusivity coinciding with no change of longitudinal diffusivity in HA vs. SL group. Conversely, HA residents had lower FA in the left optic radiation and left superior longitudinal fasciculus. Our data demonstrates that HA acclimatization is associated with brain structural modifications, including the loss of regional cortical grey matter accompanied by changes in the white matter, which may underlie the physiological adaptation of residents at HA. PMID:20625426

  13. Free radical scavenging potential of in vitro raised and greenhouse acclimatized plants of Artemisia amygdalina

    R.Rasool; B.A.Ganai; S.Akbar; A.N.Kamili

    2013-01-01

    AIM:Artemisia amygdalina Decne.(Asteraceae) is a critically endangered and endemic herb of Kashmir Himalayan sub-alpine region and Pakistan.Scientific research throughout the world has evidence to support the tremendous medicinal utility of the genus Artemisia.The natural resources of medicinal plants are being reduced day by day.This study provides the alternative way for medicinal resource utilization and conservation of A.amygdalina.METHODS:In vitro-raised plants and greenhouse acclimatized plants were obtained by culturing wild explants on Murashige and Skoog's medium.Plant extracts were obtained and subjected to different antioxidant assays:DPPH assay,riboflavin photo-oxidation assay,deoxy ribose assay,ferric thiocyanate assay,thiobarbituric acid assay,post mitochondrial supernatant assay and DNA damage on agarose gel.RESULTS:In vitro grown plants,as well as those acclimatized in the greenhouse reveals antioxidant activity against hydroxyl,superoxide,and lipid peroxyl radicals.CONCLUSION:This preliminary study revealed the free radical scavenging potential of tissue culture-raised plant extracts of A.amydalina.

  14. Acclimatization and Adaptive Capacity of Marine Species in a Changing Ocean.

    Foo, S A; Byrne, M

    2016-01-01

    To persist in an ocean changing in temperature, pH and other stressors related to climate change, many marine species will likely need to acclimatize or adapt to avoid extinction. If marine populations possess adequate genetic variation in tolerance to climate change stressors, species might be able to adapt to environmental change. Marine climate change research is moving away from single life stage studies where individuals are directly placed into projected scenarios ('future shock' approach), to focus on the adaptive potential of populations in an ocean that will gradually change over coming decades. This review summarizes studies that consider the adaptive potential of marine invertebrates to climate change stressors and the methods that have been applied to this research, including quantitative genetics, laboratory selection studies and trans- and multigenerational experiments. Phenotypic plasticity is likely to contribute to population persistence providing time for genetic adaptation to occur. Transgenerational and epigenetic effects indicate that the environmental and physiological history of the parents can affect offspring performance. There is a need for long-term, multigenerational experiments to determine the influence of phenotypic plasticity, genetic variation and transgenerational effects on species' capacity to persist in a changing ocean. However, multigenerational studies are only practicable for short generation species. Consideration of multiple morphological and physiological traits, including changes in molecular processes (eg, DNA methylation) and long-term studies that facilitate acclimatization will be essential in making informed predictions of how the seascape and marine communities will be altered by climate change. PMID:27573050

  15. Mesophotic coral depth acclimatization is a function of host-specific symbiont physiology

    Maren eZiegler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mesophotic coral ecosystems receive increasing attention owing to their potential as deep coral refuges in times of global environmental change. Here, the mechanisms of coral holobiont photoacclimatization over a 60 m depth gradient in the central Red Sea were examined for the four coral genera Porites, Leptoseris, Pachyseris, and Podabacia. General acclimatization strategies were common to all host-symbiont combinations, e.g. Symbiodinium cell densities and photoprotective to light-harvesting pigment ratios both significantly decreased with water depth. Porites harboured Symbiodinium type C15 over the whole 60 m depth range, while Pachyseris and Podabacia had limited vertical distributions and hosted mainly Symbiodinium type C1. Symbiodinium type C15 had generally higher xanthophyll de-epoxidation rates and lower maximum quantum yields than C1, and also exhibited a strong photoacclimatory signal over depth that relates to the large distribution range of Porites. Interestingly, the coral host had an effect on Symbiodinium pigment composition. When comparing Symbiodinium type C1 in Podabacia and Pachyseris, the ß-carotene chl a-1, the peridinin chl a-1, and diadinoxanthin chl a-1 ratios were significantly different between host species. Our data support a view that depth acclimatization of corals in the mesophotics is supported by Symbiodinium physiology, which in turn is host-specific.

  16. Variations of Endocrine Hormones Concentrations in Tupaia belangeri under Simulated Seasonal Acclimatized: Role of Leptin Sensitivity

    Zhu, Wan-long

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations in endocrine hormones concentrations are important for the survival of small mammals during acclimatization. In order to understand the role of leptin sensitivity on other endocrine hormones concentrations, we examined body mass, serum leptin level, serum insulin, tri-iodothyronine (T 3, thyroxine (T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations in Tupaia belangeri under seasonal acclimatized (The simulated temperature and photoperiod in winter: 5°C and SD, 8h:16h Light:Dark; the simulated temperature and photoperiod in summer: 30°C and SD, 16h:8h Light:Dark for 4 weeks. The results showed that body mass, serum leptin level, serum T3, T4 concentrations and T3/T4 showed significant variation, but serum insulin and TSH concentrations showed no variations between treatment group. There were positive correlation between serum leptin level and insulin, T4 concentrations, and were negative correlation between serum leptin level and body mass, T3 concentrations. However, no correlation was found between serum TSH concentrations and serum leptin level. The present results suggested T. belangeri overcome winter thermogenesis challenges by adjusting body mass and endocrine hormones concentrations. Furthermore, leptin may play an potential role in their body mass regulation in T. belangeri.

  17. Mesophotic coral depth acclimatization is a function of host-specific symbiont physiology

    Ziegler, Maren

    2015-02-06

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems receive increasing attention owing to their potential as deep coral refuges in times of global environmental change. Here, the mechanisms of coral holobiont photoacclimatization over a 60 m depth gradient in the central Red Sea were examined for the four coral genera Porites, Leptoseris, Pachyseris, and Podabacia. General acclimatization strategies were common to all host-symbiont combinations, e.g., Symbiodinium cell densities and photoprotective (PP) to light-harvesting pigment ratios both significantly decreased with water depth. Porites harbored Symbiodinium type C15 over the whole 60 m depth range, while Pachyseris and Podabacia had limited vertical distributions and hosted mainly Symbiodinium type C1. Symbiodinium type C15 had generally higher xanthophyll de-epoxidation rates and lower maximum quantum yields than C1, and also exhibited a strong photoacclimatory signal over depth that relates to the large distribution range of Porites. Interestingly, the coral host had an effect on Symbiodinium pigment composition. When comparing Symbiodinium type C1 in Podabacia and Pachyseris, the ß-carotene chl a−1, the peridinin chl a−1, and diadinoxanthin chl a−1 ratios were significantly different between host species. Our data support a view that depth acclimatization of corals in the mesophotics is facilitated by Symbiodinium physiology, which in turn is host-specific.

  18. Growth and photosynthetic responses during ex vitro acclimatization of Etlingera elatior (Jack rm smith (torch ginger

    Marcelo Rodrigues

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Torch ginger (Etlingera elatior (Jack RM Smith can be propagated in vitro, but there is currently little information about the stages of acclimatization and adaptation for torch ginger in a greenhouse. The objective was to study the growth responses, survival and photosynthetic response during the acclimatization of plants maintained on three different substrates (Plantmax forestry®, sand and 1:1 Plantmax forestry® and sand under three shading conditions (50% red and blue shading nets and control without shading nets. The highest leaf and shoot numbers per plant and survival rate were observed in treatments with the Plantmax forestry® type substrate in the absence of shading. In vitro culture plants behaved similarly or better than rhizome propagated control plants with regard to the net photosynthesis rate, carboxylation efficiency, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. In general, for both conditions, in vitro and control plants had similar efficiency of biochemical functions and of photosystem II. These results show that plants derived from in vitro culture exhibit satisfactory physiological yield and greenhouse acclimation capacity.

  19. The Growth of Brown Adipose Tissue in Cold-acclimatized Rats after Depletion of Mast Cell Histamine by Compound 48/80

    Daló Nelson L

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold acclimatization (4-5°C is accompanied by 2-3 fold increase of brown adipose tissue (BAT. This rapid growth of interscapular BAT was studied after histamine depletion. In control rats maintained at room temperature (28 ± 2°C the BAT histamine content was 23.4 ± 5.9 (mean ± SD µg/g of tissue and cold acclimatization (5±1°C produced a significant increase of BAT weight, but reduced the histamine content to 8.4 ± 1.9 µg/g. The total weight of BAT after 20 days of acclimatization was unaffected by depletion of histamine due to compound 48/80. The low level of histamine in BAT of cold acclimatized rats could be due to a fast rate of amine utilization; alternatively an altered synthesis or storage process may occur during acclimatization.

  20. Cytokinin profiles in ex vitro acclimatized Eucomis autumnalis plants pre-treated with smoke-derived karrikinolide

    Aremu, A.O.; Plačková, Lenka; Novák, Ondřej; Stirk, W. A.; Doležal, Karel; van Staden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2016), s. 227-238. ISSN 0721-7714 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA MŠk LK21306 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Acclimatization * Asparagaceae * Conservation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.071, year: 2014

  1. The lactate paradox revisited in lowlanders during acclimatization to 4100 m and in high-altitude natives

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Lundby, C; Araoz, M;

    2009-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia has been proposed to induce a closer coupling in human skeletal muscle between ATP utilization and production in both lowlanders (LN) acclimatizing to high altitude and high-altitude natives (HAN), linked with an improved match between pyruvate availability and its use in mitochon...

  2. Exercise tolerance in a hot and humid climate in heat-acclimatized girls and women.

    Rivera-Brown, A M; Rowland, T W; Ramírez-Marrero, F A; Santacana, G; Vann, A

    2006-12-01

    This study compared physiological responses associated with exercise tolerance in girls (G) and women (W) of similar fitness and heat acclimatization level during exercise in a hot and humid outdoor environment (33.4 degrees C and 55.1 % RH; WBGT = 29.9 +/- 0.2 degrees C). Nine pre-menarcheal G (age = 11.3 yr) and nine W (age = 26.8 yr), matched for aerobic capacity and heat acclimatization level, performed a cycling session at 60 % VO2max until fatigue. A sports drink was provided periodically to prevent dehydration. Tolerance time was not different between the groups (G = 56.9 +/- 6.3, W = 76.5 +/- 9.9 min, p > 0.05). During exercise, sweat rate (G = 9.1 +/- 1.1, W = 12.0 +/- 1.1 ml.m(-2).min(-1)), the increase in rectal temperature [T(re)] (G = 0.9 +/- 0.1, W = 1.1 +/- 0.1 degrees C), and heat storage (G = 10.6 +/- 5.3, W = 20.5 +/- 4.5 W.m(-2)) did not differ between the groups. At fatigue, T(re) (G = 38.2 +/- 0.1, W = 38.4 +/- 0.1 degrees C), heart rate (G = 167.3 +/- 7.3, W = 171 +/- 3.3 beats.min(-1)), stroke index (G = 48.3 +/- 1.5, W = 52.4 +/- 1.8 ml.m(-2)), and forearm skin blood flow (G = 9.5 +/- 1.3, W = 11.7 +/- 1.5 ml.100 ml(- 1).min(-1)) did not differ between the groups. Similar to women, the main reasons reported by girls to stop exercising in the heat were localized leg fatigue and gluteus muscle discomfort. We conclude that heat-acclimatized girls exhibit an adequate cardiovascular and thermoregulatory adjustment while exercising in a hot and humid outdoor environment when hypohydration is prevented. PMID:16739090

  3. Maximal exercise and muscle oxygen extraction in acclimatizing lowlanders and high altitude natives

    Lundby, Carsten; Sander, Mikael; van Hall, Gerrit;

    2006-01-01

    The tight relation between arterial oxygen content and maximum oxygen uptake (Vv(o2max)within a given person at sea level is diminished with altitude acclimatization. An explanation often suggested for this mismatch is impairment of the muscle O(2) extraction capacity with chronic hypoxia, and is...... the focus of the present study. We have studied six lowlanders during maximal exercise at sea level (SL) and with acute (AH) exposure to 4,100 m altitude, and again after 2 (W2) and 8 weeks (W8) of altitude sojourn, where also eight high altitude native (Nat) Aymaras were studied. Fractional arterial...... muscle O(2) extraction at maximal exercise was 90.0+/-1.0% in the Danish lowlanders at sea level, and remained close to this value in all situations. In contrast to this, fractional arterial O(2) extraction was 83.2+/-2.8% in the high altitude natives, and did not change with the induction of normoxia...

  4. Carpophilus zeaphilus, a new sap beetle species acclimatized in Italy (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae

    Paolo Audisio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Carpophilus zeaphilus Dobson, 1969 (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae, Carpophilinae is an Afrotropical species that has become widespread in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Mediterranean areas in recent years. The species was first recorded from Europe in Portugal and Spain nearly thirty years ago, and it was later intercepted in Sicily near Trapani in 1991. A few specimens of this species were collected in April, 2015 in a sparsely forested area near Rome, which suggests a recent acclimatization into peninsular Italy. Specimens were taken on flowering trees of Prunus spinosa L. (Rosaceae, an unusual occurrence for most introduced species of Carpophilinae that are normally associated with rotten fruit and other decomposing vegetal matter.

  5. Body composition in air and road inductees at high altitude during the initial days of acclimatization

    Ray, U. S.; Selvamurthy, W.

    This study assesses body composition changes and their time course during the initial days of acclimatization to high altitude (HA). Comparisons were made between gradual and acute induction to HA using 60 male lowlander volunteers (24-28 years of age) divided into two equal groups for inducting them to HA. Thirty subjects were air-lifted from sea level (SL) to 3500 m HA in 1 h. These subjects were air inductees (AI). The other 30 subjects were transported in 4 days by road to the same location at 3500 m. These were road inductees (RI). After remaining for 15 days at 3500 m both groups were inducted to 4200 m by road. All the subjects could not reach the various altitudes at the same time due to logistical problems. Ultimately, data for each altitude (SL, 3500 m and 4200 m) were available for only 26 RI subjects and 10 AI subjects. Skinfold thickness (SKF) measurements for the subscapular, thigh, triceps, biceps, juxtanipple, umbilicus, suprailiac and calf regions were taken in order to calculate fat percentages. Measurements were taken at SL and on days 1 and 9 at both 3500 m and 4200 m. On day 1 at 3500 m, RI showed a significant fall in body weight (BW) with respect to SL but AI maintained it. On subsequent days at HA both groups showed a significant fall in BW and lean body mass but not in percentage fat. SKF in the biceps and triceps regions decreased significantly but in the umbilicus and suprailiac regions it significantly increased at HA in both groups. Body composition, along with other parameters, is discussed determining the acclimatization schedule for sojourners at HA. Possibly, translocation of body fat takes place from the periphery to deep body fat depots in the core/main trunk due to the cold at HA.

  6. Root acclimatization of the micropropagated fruit tree rootstock ‘Adafuel’ (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb x P. persica (L.) Batsch)

    Marín Velázquez, Juan Antonio

    2009-01-01

    ISHS Acta Horticulturae 812: III International Symposium on Acclimatization and Establishment of Micropropagated Plants. 6 Pag., 1 Tabl., 1 Fig. The definitive version is available at: http://www.actahort.org/

  7. Acclimatation de vitroplants de bananier Musa sp. en culture hydroponique: impact de différentes concentrations en cuivre sur la croissance des vitroplants

    Mazinga, MK.; Van Koninckxloo, M.; Godoy Jara, M.; Baboy Longanza, L.; Louvieaux, J.

    2013-01-01

    Acclimatation of Banana's Vitroplants (Musa sp.) in Hydroponic Culture: Effects of Different Concentrations Copper on Growth of Vitroplants. Constraints due to copper and consequences of its accumulation in acclimatized banana in vitroplants have been studied in hydroponic culture. 0-100- 500-1000 ppm copper was added to the nutrient medium in hydroponic culture. At 1000 ppm, copper was accumulated in the roots but not in the aerial parts. Surprisingly, biomass of shoots and roots was augment...

  8. Antenatal maternal long-term hypoxia: acclimatization responses with altered gene expression in ovine fetal carotid arteries.

    Ravi Goyal

    Full Text Available In humans and other species, long-term hypoxia (LTH during pregnancy can lead to intrauterine growth restriction with reduced body/brain weight, dysregulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF, and other problems. To identify the signal transduction pathways and critical molecules, which may be involved in acclimatization to high altitude LTH, we conducted microarray with advanced bioinformatic analysis on carotid arteries (CA from the normoxic near-term ovine fetus at sea-level and those acclimatized to high altitude for 110+ days during gestation. In response to LTH acclimatization, in fetal CA we identified mRNA from 38 genes upregulated >2 fold (P2-fold (P<0.05. The major genes with upregulated mRNA were SLC1A3, Insulin-like growth factor (IGF binding protein 3, IGF type 2 receptor, transforming growth factor (TGF Beta-3, and genes involved in the AKT and BCL2 signal transduction networks. Most genes with upregulated mRNA have a common motif for Pbx/Knotted homeobox in the promoter region, and Sox family binding sites in the 3' un translated region (UTR. Genes with downregulated mRNA included those involved in the P53 pathway and 5-lipoxygenase activating proteins. The promoter region of all genes with downregulated mRNA, had a common 49 bp region with a binding site for DOT6 and TOD6, components of the RPD3 histone deacetylase complex RPD3C(L. We also identified miRNA complementary to a number of the altered genes. Thus, the present study identified molecules in the ovine fetus, which may play a role in the acclimatization response to high-altitude associated LTH.

  9. Acclimatization of micropropagated Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae) plants Aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae)

    Paulo Hercílio Viegas Rodrigues; Ana Maria Liner Pereira Lima; Gláucia Maria B. Ambrosano; Maria de Fátima Batista Dutra

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the behavior of micropropagated heliconia seedlings during the acclimatization process using different substrates and shade levels, seedlings of H. bihai (Lobster Claw I) were planted in plastic trays using the substrates: washed sand, vermiculite (medium texture), and PlantMax® Horticultura, and shade cloths with percentages of 0% (full sun), 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% of shade in relation to full sun. Best results were obtained for washed sand and PlantMax substrates at sh...

  10. The lactate paradox revisited in lowlanders during acclimatization to 4100 m and in high-altitude natives

    van Hall, G; Lundby, C; Araoz, M; Calbet, J A L; Sander, M; Saltin, B

    2009-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia has been proposed to induce a closer coupling in human skeletal muscle between ATP utilization and production in both lowlanders (LN) acclimatizing to high altitude and high-altitude natives (HAN), linked with an improved match between pyruvate availability and its use in mitochondrial respiration. This should result in less lactate being formed during exercise in spite of the hypoxaemia. To test this hypothesis six LN (22–31 years old) were studied during 15 min warm up followed by an incremental bicycle exercise to exhaustion at sea level, during acute hypoxia and after 2 and 8 weeks at 4100 m above sea level (El Alto, Bolivia). In addition, eight HAN (26–37 years old) were studied with a similar exercise protocol at altitude. The leg net lactate release, and the arterial and muscle lactate concentrations were elevated during the exercise in LN in acute hypoxia and remained at this higher level during the acclimatization period. HAN had similar high values; however, at the moment of exhaustion their muscle lactate, ADP and IMP content and Cr/PCr ratio were higher than in LN. In conclusion, sea-level residents in the course of acclimatization to high altitude did not exhibit a reduced capacity for the active muscle to produce lactate. Thus, the lactate paradox concept could not be demonstrated. High-altitude natives from the Andes actually exhibit a higher anaerobic energy production than lowlanders after 8 weeks of acclimatization reflected by an increased muscle lactate accumulation and enhanced adenine nucleotide breakdown. PMID:19139048

  11. Heat acclimatization does not improve VO2max or cycling performance in a cool climate in trained cyclists

    Karlsen, Anders; Racinais, S; Jensen, M V;

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if well-trained cyclists improve V ˙ O 2 m a x and performance in cool conditions following heat acclimatization through natural outdoor training in hot conditions. Eighteen trained male cyclists were tested for physiological adaptations, V ˙ O 2 m a x , peak aerobic power...... was associated with marked improvements in TT performance in the heat. However, for the well-trained endurance athletes, this did not transfer to an improved aerobic exercise capacity or outdoor TT performance in cool conditions.......This study investigated if well-trained cyclists improve V ˙ O 2 m a x and performance in cool conditions following heat acclimatization through natural outdoor training in hot conditions. Eighteen trained male cyclists were tested for physiological adaptations, V ˙ O 2 m a x , peak aerobic power...... output, exercise efficiency, and outdoor time trial (TT) performance (43.4 km in cool environment, ∼5-13 °C) before and after 2 weeks of training in a cool (CON, n = 9) or hot (∼35 °C, HA, n = 9) environment. After heat acclimatization, TT performance in the heat was improved by 16%; however...

  12. Metabolic responses during initial days of altitude acclimatization in the Eastern Himalayas

    Basu, C. K.; Gautam, R. K.; Sharma, R. P.; Kumar, H.; Tomar, O. S.; Sawhney, R. C.; Selvamurthy, W.

    1996-09-01

    The study was carried out on 16 men (aged 20 30 years) to evaluate daily metabolic responses during the early phase of altitude acclimatization at moderate altitudes between 3100 and 4200 m in the Eastern Himalayas. Resting (R) and submaximal exercise (E) oxygen consumption (| VO2) at 100 W at sea level (SL) were 3.25 (SEM 0.15) and 20.31 (SEM 0.77) ml/kg per min respectively. On day 1 at 3110 m both R and E | VO2 decreased ( Paltitudes. Pulmonary ventilation (|VE) increased consistently ( Paltitude. The arterial oxygen saturation ( S a O2) at different altitudes was lower ( Paltitude; the values at 3110 and 3445 m were significantly lower ( PBlood pressure (BP) increased ( Paltitude. The systolic BP tended to decline towards SL values but the diastolic BP remained high ( Pblood lactic acid concentration, [ la -] bl , showed a decline ( Paltitude of 3445 m can be safely avoided where rapid ascent to higher altitude is required.

  13. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria gain antibiotic resistance during long-term acclimatization.

    Zhang, Zheng-Zhe; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Guo, Qiong; Chen, Qian-Qian; Jiang, Xiao-Yan; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2015-09-01

    Three broad-spectrum antibiotics, amoxicillin (AMX), florfenicol (FF) and sulfamethazine (SMZ), that inhibit bacteria via different target sites, were selected to evaluate the acute toxicity and long-term effects on anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) granules. The specific anammox activity (SAA) levels reduced by approximately half within the first 3 days in the presence of antibiotics but no nitrite accumulation was observed in continuous-flow experiments. However, the SAA levels and heme c content gradually recovered as the antibiotic concentrations increased. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) analysis suggested that anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria gradually developed a better survival strategy during long-term acclimatization, which reduced the antibiotic stress via increased EPS secretion that provided a protective 'cocoon.' In terms of nitrogen removal efficiency, anammox granules could resist 60 mg-AMX L(-1), 10 mg-FF L(-1) and 100 mg-SMZ L(-1). This study supported the feasibility of using anammox granules to treat antibiotic-containing wastewater. PMID:26111629

  14. CYANIDE HYDRATASE PRODUCTION USING ACCLIMATIZED STRAIN OF STREPTOMYCES PHAEOVIRIDAE AND ITS CHARACTERIZATION

    Shete HG* and Kapdnis BP

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide and cyanide compounds are produced on the industrial scale to use in the metal extraction, electroplating, polymer, steel, carbonization, organic chemicals, pharmaceuticals and agricultural product industries. Cyanide is a respiratory inhibitor and it affects the living cell by binding with the enzyme cytochrome C oxidase. Cyanide released in the stream cause poisoning to animals and fishes in the water bodies. As cyanide is highly toxic, it must be detoxified before discharging into the sewers.  Potential cyanide degrader Actinomycete was isolated and acclimatized in the minimal medium containing 1000 ppm cyanide. It was then identified as Streptomyces phaeoviridae by using International Streptomyces Project Standard Tests. Cyanide degradation by this organism was studied. The mechanism of cyanide degradation was found to be enzymatic and the detection of formamide in the culture broth confirmed the cyanide hydratase [E.C. 4.2.1.66] activity. Parameters for cyanide hydratase production using Streptomyces pheoviridea were optimized. The enzyme was extracted and optimum conditions for its activity with respect to pH, temperature and substrate concentration were determined. The kinetics studied revealed the Km value as 33 mM and Vmax 35 mM/ml/min.  

  15. EX VITRO ROOTING AND ACCLIMATIZATION OF Ilex paraguariensis A. St Hil. MICROCUTTINGS

    Kenia Michele de Quadros Tronco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The technique of microcutting and ex vitro rooting can result in plantlets with better quality of radicular system and larger number of secondary roots, when compared with conventional cutting. The objective of this work was to evaluate the ex vitro rooting and acclimatization of holly microcuttings in different doses of phytoregulator indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and substrate. In the growth room were evaluated different doses of indole-3-butyric acid (0, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg.L-1 and different substrates used pure (coarse sand, carbonized rice husk, vermiculite, coconut fiber and commercial substrate. In humid chamber were evaluated the same pure substrates and the following combinations of the same volume ratios: carbonized rice husk + coarse sand; carbonized rice husk + coarse sand + commercial substrate; carbonized rice husk + commercial substrate. The ex vitro rooting and acclimation of holly microcuttings can be done in the humid chamber, necessitating the use of indole-3-butyric acid at a dose of 1250 mg.L-1. The substrate composed in equal proportions of carbonized rice husk + coarse sand + commercial substrate provided a higher percentage of rooted microcuttings.

  16. Regeneration and acclimatization of salt-tolerant arachis hypogaea plants through tissue culture

    Excised embryos of Arachis hypogaea were cultured on Murashige and Skoog's medium (MS medium) supplemented with different combinations of growth hormones. The highest frequency of callus proliferation (80%) was recorded on MS medium mixed with 1.0 mg/1 of 2,4-D and 0.5 mg/1 of BAP. These cultures were treated with 0.65 mg/l of trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline (HyP) a:1d various concentrations (0.1-0.5%) of NaCl. In all cases the presence of salt reduced the fresh mass of callus. Shoot regeneration in the cultures took place when transferred to MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/1 of kinetin (Kin) and 0.5 mg/1 of 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP). Percentage of shoot regeneration decreased with the increase of NaCl (0.1- 0.5%) in the shoot regeneration medium. Root formation in these cultures took place when the cultures were nurtured on MS medium free of growth hormones. Regeneration, hardening and acclimatization of the salt tolerant plants was conducted. (author)

  17. NaCl-induced physiological and biochemical changes in two cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum and Phormidium foveolarum acclimatized to different photosynthetically active radiation.

    Kumar, Jitendra; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2015-10-01

    The present study is aimed at investigating physiological and biochemical behavior of two cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum and Phormidium foveolarum acclimatized to different levels (sub-optimum; 25 ± 0.5, optimum; 75 ± 2.5 and supra-optimum; 225 ± 3.5 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), and subsequently treated with two doses (30 and 90 mM) of NaCl. PAR influences growth in tested cyanobacteria being maximum in supra-optimum PAR acclimatized cells. NaCl-induced maximum percent decline in growth was observed in sub-optimum PAR acclimatized cells, which was in consonance with a decrease in chlorophyll content. Sub-optimum PAR acclimatization stimulated phycocyanin content in control cells, whereas maximum carotenoids content was observed in supra-optimum PAR acclimatized cells. Photosystem II photochemistry viz. Fv/F0, Fv/Fm, Ψ0, ϕE0, PIABS, ABS/RC, TR0/RC, ET0/RC and DI0/RC was also influenced by PAR and NaCl. Maximum percent rise in superoxide radical (SOR), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation was observed in sub-optimum PAR acclimatized cells exposed to NaCl, which could be correlated with lower values of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase) and non-enzymatic (NP-SH and cysteine) antioxidants. In supra-optimum PAR acclimatized cells level of oxidative stress markers was in parallel with enhanced antioxidants. The results suggest that PAR significantly changes physiological and biochemical responses of studied cyanobacteria under NaCl stress. Besides this, this study also shows that P. foveolarum is more tolerant than N. muscorum under test conditions. PMID:26318279

  18. Viability of post acclimatized plantlets of Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora after storage

    Teguh Iman Santoso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This research related to the storage method of planting materials in the form of post acclimatized plantlets of Robusta coffee multiplied by somatic embryogenesis using plastic film that wraped the whole of plantlets. This information is important to support the delivery of clonal planting materials to distribution points, especially Robusta coffee plantlets viability based on condition of the container, storage period and density of plantlets. The research was conducted at Kaliwining Experimental Station of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute, located at 45 m asl. D rainfall type (Schmidt—Ferguson classification. The first experiment determind the effect of container condition and storage duration on viability of Robusta coffee plantlets. Each experimental unit contained 100 plantlets and each treatment was repeated three times with completely randomized design in factorial. The first factor was condition of storage container, i.e. airtight and non air tight. The second factor was storage period levels: 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 days. The storage container was cardboard volume 11 dm3. The second experiment was conducted for the optimization of storage volume and storage period. Each treatment using 100 plantlets was repeated three times in completly randomized design with factorial. The first factor was storage volume of 7 dm3 and 11 dm3, the second factor was storage period levels: 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 days. The results indicated that the maximum store period was obtained in an airtight storage treatment with 10 days, 96.3% plantlets viability, 1% fallen leaves, 3.3% water loss and not significantly different to control. For packing 100 plantlets with height 8—10 cm and leaf number 4—6 can use the volume of container store up to 7 dm3, which showed no significant difference to container volume 11 dm3 in the percentage of viability, the percentage of fallen leaves, loss of water. Key words : Robusta coffee, plantlets, storage

  19. Extensive phenotypic plasticity of a Red Sea coral over a strong latitudinal temperature gradient suggests limited acclimatization potential to warming

    Sawall, Yvonne

    2015-03-10

    Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12° latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient between the northern (28.5°N, 21-27°C) and southern (16.5°N, 28-33°C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28-29°C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with temperature and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean warming of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean warming in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals.

  20. Extensive phenotypic plasticity of a Red Sea coral over a strong latitudinal temperature gradient suggests limited acclimatization potential to warming

    Sawall, Yvonne; Al-Sofyani, Abdulmoshin; Hohn, Sönke; Banguera-Hinestroza, Eulalia; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wahl, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12° latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient between the northern (28.5°N, 21-27°C) and southern (16.5°N, 28-33°C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28-29°C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with temperature and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean warming of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean warming in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals.

  1. Similar carbohydrate but enhanced lactate utilization during exercise after 9 wk of acclimatization to 5,620 m

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Calbet, J A L; Sondergaard, H; Saltin, B

    2002-01-01

    We hypothesized that reliance on lactate as a means of energy distribution is higher after a prolonged period of acclimatization (9 wk) than it is at sea level due to a higher lactate Ra and disposal from active skeletal muscle. To evaluate this hypothesis, six Danish lowlanders (25 +/- 2 yr) were...... studied at rest and during 20 min of bicycle exercise at 146 W at sea level (SL) and after 9 wk of acclimatization to 5,260 m (Alt). Whole body glucose Ra was similar at SL and Alt at rest and during exercise. Lactate Ra was also similar for the two conditions at rest; however, during exercise, lactate Ra...... was substantially lower at SL (65 micro mol. min(-1). kg body wt(-1)) than it was at Alt (150 micro mol. min(-1). kg body wt(-1)) at the same exercise intensity. During exercise, net lactate release was approximately 6-fold at Alt compared with SL, and related to this, tracer-calculated leg lactate...

  2. The Influence of High-Altitude Acclimatization on Ventilatory and Blood Oxygen Saturation Responses During Normoxic and Hypoxic Testing

    Ušaj1 Anton

    2016-04-01

    V˙E${\\dot V_E}$, SaO2, blood pH and Pco2 were measured at a similar absolute exercise intensity of 180 W in NOR and HYP conditions. Seven experienced alpinists (mean ± SD: age: 50 ± 6 yrs; body mass: 76 ± 5 kg; body height: 175 ± 8 cm volunteered to participate in this study after they had reached the summit of Gasherbrum II and Ama Dablam. They had therefore experienced the limitations of their acclimatization. Individual differences of PLT between values reached after and before the expedition (∆PLT correlated (r = 0.98, p = 0.01 with differences of SaO2 (∆SaO2 in HYP, and differences of PVT (∆PVT correlated (r = -0.83, p = 0.02 with differences of V˙E(ΔV˙E${\\dot V_E}\\left( {\\Delta {{\\dot V}_E}} \\right$ in HYP. The results suggest that the acclimatization may not have an equivocal and simple influence on the performance in hypoxia: enhanced blood oxygen saturation may be accompanied by increased endurance only, when the increase exceeded 2-3%, but enhanced ventilation, when increased more than 10 l/min in HYP, could detrimentally influence endurance.

  3. Pulmonary gas exchange at maximal exercise in Danish lowlanders during 8 wk of acclimatization to 4,100 m and in high-altitude Aymara natives

    Lundby, Carsten; Calbet, Jose A L; van Hall, Gerrit;

    2004-01-01

    We aimed to test effects of altitude acclimatization on pulmonary gas exchange at maximal exercise. Six lowlanders were studied at sea level, in acute hypoxia (AH), and after 2 and 8 wk of acclimatization to 4,100 m (2W and 8W) and compared with Aymara high-altitude natives residing at this...... altitude. As expected, alveolar Po2 was reduced during AH but increased gradually during acclimatization (61 +/- 0.7, 69 +/- 0.9, and 72 +/- 1.4 mmHg in AH, 2W, and 8W, respectively), reaching values significantly higher than in Aymaras (67 +/- 0.6 mmHg). Arterial Po2 (PaO2) also decreased during exercise...... exercise compared with rest in AH and after 2W and 8W: 73.3 +/- 1.4, 76.9 +/- 1.7, and 79.3 +/- 1.6%, respectively. After 8W, SaO2 in lowlanders was not significantly different from that in Aymaras (82.7 +/- 1%). An improved pulmonary gas exchange with acclimatization was evidenced by a decreased...

  4. Human muscle net K+ release during exercise is unaffected by elevated anaerobic metabolism, but reduced after prolonged acclimatization to 4100 m

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Calbet, Jose A. L.; Sander, Mikael;

    2010-01-01

    It was investigated if skeletal muscle K(+) release is linked to the degree of anaerobic energy production. Six subjects performed an incremental bicycle exercise test in normoxic and hypoxic conditions prior to and after 2 and 8 weeks of acclimatization to 4100 m. The highest workload completed ...

  5. Acclimatization of mice to different cage types and social groupings with respect to fecal secretion of IgA and corticosterone metabolites

    Bundgaard, Cathrine Juel; Kalliokoski, Otto; Abelson, Klas Sp;

    2012-01-01

    Stress associated with transport and change of environment may have widespread effects on physiological parameters in laboratory animals. To investigate the time needed for mice to acclimatize to a new environment, based on fecal IgA and corticosterone excretion, eightweek-old BALB/c mice of both...

  6. Home Away from Home: Acclimatization of Filipino Elderly from Being Home to a Sense of Being "at Home" in an Elderly Institution

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Guevara, Katrina Illyana J.; Guiang, Frances Jane B.; Gutierez, Anton Lorenzo I.; Habaluyas, Alayne S.; Hizon, Marc Alison P.; Idanan, Shalaine G.

    2012-01-01

    This grounded study examined the process of acclimatization or the process of changing perspectives of a person so as to get used to or feel "at home" among a select group of Filipino elderly in a nursing care facility. As institutionalization of the elderly is not typical in the Philippine context, varied responses were analyzed to understand the…

  7. Estimating the capability of microalgae to physiological acclimatization and genetic adaptation to petroleum and diesel oil contamination

    Romero-Lopez, Julia; Lopez-Rodas, Victoria [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Puerta de Hierro s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Costas, Eduardo, E-mail: ecostas@vet.ucm.es [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Puerta de Hierro s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microalgae are able to physiological acclimatization low doses of petroleum and diesel oil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer When petroleum or oil concentration exceeds these limits, survival depend of rare mutations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Petroleum-resistant and diesel oil mutants occur spontaneously prior to oil exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer After 300 generations of artificial selection resistant strains were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanobacteria has more difficulties to achieve petroleum resistance than Chlorophyta. - Abstract: There is increasing scientific interest in how phytoplankton reacts to petroleum contamination, since crude oil and its derivatives are generating extensive contamination of aquatic environments. However, toxic effects of short-term petroleum exposure are more widely known than the adaptation of phytoplankton to long-term petroleum exposure. An analysis of short-term and long-term effects of petroleum exposure was done using experimental populations of freshwater (Scenedesmus intermedius and Microcystis aeruginosa) and marine (Dunaliella tertiolecta) microalgae isolated from pristine sites without crude oil product contamination. These strains were exposed to increased levels of petroleum and diesel oil. Short-term exposure to petroleum or diesel oil revealed a rapid inhibition of photosynthetic performance and cell proliferation in freshwater and marine phytoplankton species. A broad degree of inter-specific variation in lethal contamination level was observed. When different strains were exposed to petroleum or diesel oil over the long-term, the cultures showed massive destruction of the sensitive cells. Nonetheless, after further incubation, some cultures were able to grow again due to cells that were resistant to the toxins. By means of a fluctuation analysis, discrimination between cells that had become resistant due to physiological acclimatization and resistant

  8. Acclimatization of micropropagated Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae plants Aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae

    Paulo Hercílio Viegas Rodrigues

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the behavior of micropropagated heliconia seedlings during the acclimatization process using different substrates and shade levels, seedlings of H. bihai (Lobster Claw I were planted in plastic trays using the substrates: washed sand, vermiculite (medium texture, and PlantMax® Horticultura, and shade cloths with percentages of 0% (full sun, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% of shade in relation to full sun. Best results were obtained for washed sand and PlantMax substrates at shade conditions starting from 50%, especially at 70% and 80%. Pre-existing roots from in vitro rootings were not functional, not presenting secondary roots, and showing root tissue necrosis. Acclimatized seedlings developed new roots. This finding suggests that this plant can be acclimatized without going through a laboratory rooting stage.A cultura da helicônia é a que apresenta maior crescimento entre o cultivo de flores tropicais para a exportação. Avaliou-se o comportamento de mudas de helicônias micropropagadas no processo de aclimatização, em diferentes substratos e níveis de sombreamento. Foram plantadas mudas de H. bihai (Lobster Claw I em bandejas plásticas contendo os diferentes substratos: areia lavada, vermiculita (textura média e PlantMax® Horticultura. Na avaliação de níveis de sombreamento foi utilizado o telado (sombrite, com ordem de sombreamento 0% (pleno sol, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% e 80%. O desempenho foi superior nos substratos areia lavada e PlantMax® Horticultura e nas condições de sombreamento a partir de 50 %, em especial 70% e 80%. As raízes pré-existentes, oriundas do enraizamento in vitro, mostraram-se não funcionais, sem a emissão de raízes secundárias e apresentando necrose do tecido radicular. As mudas aclimatizadas desenvolveram novas raízes, o que sugere que esta cultura pode ser aclimatizada sem que as plântulas passem pela fase de enraizamento em laboratório.

  9. Estimating the capability of microalgae to physiological acclimatization and genetic adaptation to petroleum and diesel oil contamination

    Highlights: ► Microalgae are able to physiological acclimatization low doses of petroleum and diesel oil. ► When petroleum or oil concentration exceeds these limits, survival depend of rare mutations. ► Petroleum-resistant and diesel oil mutants occur spontaneously prior to oil exposure. ► After 300 generations of artificial selection resistant strains were obtained. ► Cyanobacteria has more difficulties to achieve petroleum resistance than Chlorophyta. - Abstract: There is increasing scientific interest in how phytoplankton reacts to petroleum contamination, since crude oil and its derivatives are generating extensive contamination of aquatic environments. However, toxic effects of short-term petroleum exposure are more widely known than the adaptation of phytoplankton to long-term petroleum exposure. An analysis of short-term and long-term effects of petroleum exposure was done using experimental populations of freshwater (Scenedesmus intermedius and Microcystis aeruginosa) and marine (Dunaliella tertiolecta) microalgae isolated from pristine sites without crude oil product contamination. These strains were exposed to increased levels of petroleum and diesel oil. Short-term exposure to petroleum or diesel oil revealed a rapid inhibition of photosynthetic performance and cell proliferation in freshwater and marine phytoplankton species. A broad degree of inter-specific variation in lethal contamination level was observed. When different strains were exposed to petroleum or diesel oil over the long-term, the cultures showed massive destruction of the sensitive cells. Nonetheless, after further incubation, some cultures were able to grow again due to cells that were resistant to the toxins. By means of a fluctuation analysis, discrimination between cells that had become resistant due to physiological acclimatization and resistant cells arising from rare spontaneous mutations was accomplished. In addition, an analysis was done as to the maximum capacity of

  10. Substrate utilization in sea level residents during exercise in acute hypoxia and after 4 weeks of acclimatization to 4100 m

    Lundby, C; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the effect of acclimatization to hypoxia on substrate utilization, eight sea level residents were studied during exercise at the same relative (rel) and absolute (abs) work rate as at sea level (SL), under acute (AH), and after 4 weeks exposure to 4100 m altitude (CH). Carbohydrate...... (CHO) and fat oxidation during exercise at SL were 2.0 +/- 0.2 and 0.3 +/- 0.0 g min(-1), respectively. At AHabs and CHabs CHO oxidation increased (P < 0.05) to 2.5 +/- 0.2 and 2.3 +/- 0.1 for CHO, and fat oxidation decreased (P < 0.05) to 0.2 +/- 0.01 and 0.2 +/- 0.01 g min(-1), respectively. Exercise...

  11. Acclimatization of communities of ammonia oxidizing bacteria to seasonal changes in optimal conditions in a coke wastewater treatment plant.

    Kim, Young Mo

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the correlation between optimal conditions of ammonia oxidation rates (AORs) and communities of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) adapting to seasonal changes in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The optimal temperature and pH of specific AORs reflected seasonal variation patterns, showing the lowest values during the cold season, while the highest values in the warm season. Throughout the study period, Nitrosomonas europaea/eutropha and Nitrosomonas nitrosa remained the dominant AOB, indicating resistance to the influences of a changing environment. These results show that the optimal conditions for AOR can be adjusted to accommodate changing environmental conditions, relying on the acclimatization of a stable AOB community to given conditions, without any visible shift in the AOB community. PMID:24001689

  12. The effect of Yucca schidigera liquid extract on water quality and survival of Pacific Red Snapper Lutjanus peru during acclimatization

    S Castillo-Vargasmachuca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the effect of the liquid extract of Yucca schidigera on water quality and survival of Pacific red snapper Lutjanus peru during its transfer from wild to laboratory conditions. Three experimental groups (0.00; 0.25 and 0.75 mg of Y. schidigera liquid extract per liter of culture were tested with four replicates using water recirculating systems. The liquid extract was dispensed every 72 h during 28 days. It was proved that Y. schidigera extract could be effective to reduce ammonia nitrogen caused by biogenic source (excretion of fish juveniles diminishing mortality of Pacific red snapper during acclimatization process. It is recommended the use of yucca extract concentration at a dose of 0.75 mg L-1 to reduce ammonia concentration in marine water for holding red snapper juveniles.

  13. The 'lactate paradox', evidence for a transient change in the course of acclimatization to severe hypoxia in lowlanders

    Lundby, C; Saltin, B; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2000-01-01

    The metabolic response to exercise at high altitude is different from that at sea level, depending on the altitude, the rate of ascent and duration of acclimatization. One apparent metabolic difference that was described in the 1930s is the phenomenon referred to as the 'lactate paradox'. Acute...... exposure to hypoxia results in higher blood lactate accumulation at submaximal workloads compared with sea level, but peak blood lactate remain the same. Following continued exposure to hypoxia or altitude, blood lactate accumulation at submaximal work and peak blood lactate levels are paradoxically...... reduced compared with those at sea level. It has recently been shown, however, that, if the exposure to altitude is sufficiently long, blood lactate responses return to those seen at sea level or during acute hypoxia. Thus, to evaluate the 'lactate paradox' phenomenon in relation to time spent at altitude...

  14. A community change in the algal endosymbionts of a scleractinian coral following a natural bleaching event: field evidence of acclimatization.

    Jones, A M; Berkelmans, R; van Oppen, M J H; Mieog, J C; Sinclair, W

    2008-06-22

    The symbiosis between reef-building corals and their algal endosymbionts (zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium) is highly sensitive to temperature stress, which makes coral reefs vulnerable to climate change. Thermal tolerance in corals is known to be substantially linked to the type of zooxanthellae they harbour and, when multiple types are present, the relative abundance of types can be experimentally manipulated to increase the thermal limits of individual corals. Although the potential exists for this to translate into substantial thermal acclimatization of coral communities, to date there is no evidence to show that this takes place under natural conditions. In this study, we show field evidence of a dramatic change in the symbiont community of Acropora millepora, a common and widespread Indo-Pacific hard coral species, after a natural bleaching event in early 2006 in the Keppel Islands (Great Barrier Reef). Before bleaching, 93.5% (n=460) of the randomly sampled and tagged colonies predominantly harboured the thermally sensitive Symbiodinium type C2, while the remainder harboured a tolerant Symbiodinium type belonging to clade D or mixtures of C2 and D. After bleaching, 71% of the surviving tagged colonies that were initially C2 predominant changed to D or C1 predominance. Colonies that were originally C2 predominant suffered high mortality (37%) compared with D-predominant colonies (8%). We estimate that just over 18% of the original A. millepora population survived unchanged leaving 29% of the population C2 and 71% D or C1 predominant six months after the bleaching event. This change in the symbiont community structure, while it persists, is likely to have substantially increased the thermal tolerance of this coral population. Understanding the processes that underpin the temporal changes in symbiont communities is key to assessing the acclimatization potential of reef corals. PMID:18348962

  15. Potential costs of acclimatization to a warmer climate: growth of a reef coral with heat tolerant vs. sensitive symbiont types.

    Alison Jones

    Full Text Available One of the principle ways in which reef building corals are likely to cope with a warmer climate is by changing to more thermally tolerant endosymbiotic algae (zooxanthellae genotypes. It is highly likely that hosting a more heat-tolerant algal genotype will be accompanied by tradeoffs in the physiology of the coral. To better understand one of these tradeoffs, growth was investigated in the Indo-Pacific reef-building coral Acropora millepora in both the laboratory and the field. In the Keppel Islands in the southern Great Barrier Reef this species naturally harbors nrDNA ITS1 thermally sensitive type C2 or thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium and can change dominant type following bleaching. We show that under controlled conditions, corals with type D symbionts grow 29% slower than those with type C2 symbionts. In the field, type D colonies grew 38% slower than C2 colonies. These results demonstrate the magnitude of trade-offs likely to be experienced by this species as they acclimatize to warmer conditions by changing to more thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae. Irrespective of symbiont genotype, corals were affected to an even greater degree by the stress of a bleaching event which reduced growth by more than 50% for up to 18 months compared to pre-bleaching rates. The processes of symbiont change and acute thermal stress are likely to act in concert on coral growth as reefs acclimatize to more stressful warmer conditions, further compromising their regeneration capacity following climate change.

  16. Estimating the capability of microalgae to physiological acclimatization and genetic adaptation to petroleum and diesel oil contamination.

    Romero-Lopez, Julia; Lopez-Rodas, Victoria; Costas, Eduardo

    2012-11-15

    There is increasing scientific interest in how phytoplankton reacts to petroleum contamination, since crude oil and its derivatives are generating extensive contamination of aquatic environments. However, toxic effects of short-term petroleum exposure are more widely known than the adaptation of phytoplankton to long-term petroleum exposure. An analysis of short-term and long-term effects of petroleum exposure was done using experimental populations of freshwater (Scenedesmus intermedius and Microcystis aeruginosa) and marine (Dunaliella tertiolecta) microalgae isolated from pristine sites without crude oil product contamination. These strains were exposed to increased levels of petroleum and diesel oil. Short-term exposure to petroleum or diesel oil revealed a rapid inhibition of photosynthetic performance and cell proliferation in freshwater and marine phytoplankton species. A broad degree of inter-specific variation in lethal contamination level was observed. When different strains were exposed to petroleum or diesel oil over the long-term, the cultures showed massive destruction of the sensitive cells. Nonetheless, after further incubation, some cultures were able to grow again due to cells that were resistant to the toxins. By means of a fluctuation analysis, discrimination between cells that had become resistant due to physiological acclimatization and resistant cells arising from rare spontaneous mutations was accomplished. In addition, an analysis was done as to the maximum capacity of adaptation to a gradual contamination process. An experimental ratchet protocol was used, which maintains a strong selection pressure in a temporal scale up to several months over very large experimental populations of microalgae. Microalgae are able to survive to petroleum contamination as a result of physiological acclimatization without genetic changes. However, when petroleum concentration exceeds the physiological limits, survival depends exclusively on the occurrence on

  17. Role of Acclimatization in Weather-Related Human Mortality During the Transition Seasons of Autumn and Spring in a Thermally Extreme Mid-Latitude Continental Climate

    de Freitas, Christopher R.; Grigorieva, Elena A.

    2015-01-01

    Human mortality is closely related to natural climate-determined levels of thermal environmental stress and the resulting thermophysiological strain. Most climate-mortality research has focused on seasonal extremes during winter and summer when mortality is the highest, while relatively little attention has been paid to mortality during the transitional seasons of autumn and spring. The body acclimatizes to heat in the summer and cold in winter and readjusts through acclimatization during the transitions between the two during which time the body experiences the thermophysiological strain of readjustment. To better understand the influences of weather on mortality through the acclimatization process, the aim here is to examine the periods that link very cold and very warms seasons. The study uses the Acclimatization Thermal Strain Index (ATSI), which is a comparative measure of short-term thermophysiological impact on the body. ATSI centers on heat exchange with the body’s core via the respiratory system, which cannot be protected. The analysis is based on data for a major city in the climatic region of the Russian Far East characterized by very hot summers and extremely cold winters. The results show that although mortality peaks in winter (January) and is at its lowest in summer (August), there is not a smooth rise through autumn nor a smooth decline through spring. A secondary peak occurs in autumn (October) with a smaller jump in May. This suggests the acclimatization from warm-to-cold produces more thermophysiological strain than the transition from cold-to-warm. The study shows that ATSI is a useful metric for quantifying the extent to which biophysical adaptation plays a role in increased strain on the body during re-acclimatization and for this reason is a more appropriate climatic indictor than air temperature alone. The work gives useful bioclimatic information on risks involved in transitional seasons in regions characterized by climatic extremes. This

  18. Acclimatation de vitroplants de bananier Musa sp. en culture hydroponique: impact de différentes concentrations en cuivre sur la croissance des vitroplants

    Mazinga, MK.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acclimatation of Banana's Vitroplants (Musa sp. in Hydroponic Culture: Effects of Different Concentrations Copper on Growth of Vitroplants. Constraints due to copper and consequences of its accumulation in acclimatized banana in vitroplants have been studied in hydroponic culture. 0-100- 500-1000 ppm copper was added to the nutrient medium in hydroponic culture. At 1000 ppm, copper was accumulated in the roots but not in the aerial parts. Surprisingly, biomass of shoots and roots was augmented significantly at this concentration (with leaves as an exception. Plant height was reduced strongly even at 100 ppm CuSO4, although the copper content in shoots and leaves was very low.

  19. Micropropagation of Achillea millefolium L. on half-strength ms medium and direct rooting and acclimatization of microshoots in hydroponic culture

    Marković Marija; Skočajić Dragana; Grbić Mihailo; Đukić Matilda; Obratov-Petković Dragica; Đunisijević-Bojović Danijela; Borovica Milica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of micropropagation of the medicinal plant A. millefolium on half-strength MS medium and ex vitro rooting and acclimatization of the obtained microshoots in hydroculture in order to establish an efficient production method. Two explant types were used: basal and terminal cuttings, and better results were achieved when terminal cuttings were used. The development of shoots in the multiplication phase was...

  20. Temperature mapping of trucks transporting fertile eggs and day-old chicks: Efficiency and/or acclimatization?

    Aérica C. Nazareno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the thermal profiles of trucks used for transporting fertile eggs and day-old chicks. This study was carried out in a broiler hatchery in the State of Sao Paulo. The experiment was conducted during three months, in which six egg loads and 11 chick loads were observed. Thermal profile assessments were performed in an environmental controlled trucks with thermal control and following dimensions: 7.5 x 2.6 x 2.5 m for eggs, and 8.0 x 2.5 x 2.5 m for chicks. The maximum transport capacities were approximately of 592 boxes of eggs and 630 boxes of chicks, distributed all over the lorry. The thermal profiles were assessed at five-minutes-interval for eggs and in ten-minutes-interval for chicks, using thermal variables such as temperature, relative humidity and specific enthalpy. Geostatistics was used to model spatial dependency (by kriging. The results showed that the acclimatization in trucks was deficient. The loads were found to be submitted to an incompatible temperature, showing a huge thermal variety in the body trucks.

  1. Why is VO2 max after altitude acclimatization still reduced despite normalization of arterial O2 content?

    Calbet, J A L; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Radegran, G;

    2003-01-01

    Acute hypoxia (AH) reduces maximal O2 consumption (VO2 max), but after acclimatization, and despite increases in both hemoglobin concentration and arterial O2 saturation that can normalize arterial O2 concentration ([O2]), VO2 max remains low. To determine why, seven lowlanders were studied at VO2...... max (cycle ergometry) at sea level (SL), after 9-10 wk at 5,260 m [chronic hypoxia (CH)], and 6 mo later at SL in AH (FiO2 = 0.105) equivalent to 5,260 m. Pulmonary and leg indexes of O2 transport were measured in each condition. Both cardiac output and leg blood flow were reduced by approximately 15......% in both AH and CH (P <0.05). At maximal exercise, arterial [O2] in AH was 31% lower than at SL (P <0.05), whereas in CH it was the same as at SL due to both polycythemia and hyperventilation. O2 extraction by the legs, however, remained at SL values in both AH and CH. Although at both SL and in AH...

  2. Acclimatization and leaf anatomy of micropropagated fig plantlets Aclimatização e anatomia foliar de plântulas de figo micropropagadas

    Chrystiane Fráguas Chirinéa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of micropropagated plants during and after acclimatization is a limiting process to plant establishment. There is little information on how the anatomy of vegetative organs of Ficus carica can be affected by culture conditions and acclimatization. The present research aimed to study the effects of time on culture medium and substrates during the acclimatization of fig tree plantlets produced in vitro, characterizing some leaf anatomy aspects of plantlets cultured in vitro and of fig trees produced in field. Plantlets previously multiplied in vitro were separated and transferred into Wood Plant Medium (WPM where they were kept for 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Different substrates were tested and studies on leaf anatomy were performed in order to compare among plantlets grown in vitro, plantlets under 20, 40 and 60 days of acclimatization, and field grown plants. Keeping plantlets for 30 days in WPM allowed better development in Plantmax during acclimatization. Field grown plants presented higher number of stomata, greater epicuticular wax thickness and greater leaf tissue production compared to in vitro ones. The leaf tissues of in vitro plantlets show little differentiation and have great stomata number compared with acclimatized plants, which reduce the number of stomata during the acclimatization process.A sobrevivência de plantas micropropagadas durante e após a aclimatização é um processo limitante para o estabelecimento de plantas. Poucas informações são encontradas de como a anatomia de órgãos vegetativos de Ficus carica pode ser afetada pelas condições de cultivo e aclimatização. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar os efeitos do tempo em meio de cultura e substratos durante a aclimatização de plântulas de figueira produzidas in vitro e cultivadas no campo. Plântulas multiplicadas in vitro foram separadas e transferidas para meio WPM, onde foram mantidas por 0; 15; 30; 45 e 60 dias. Diferentes

  3. Organogênese direta e aclimatização de plantas de patchouli Direct organogenesis and acclimatization of patchouli

    Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank

    2011-06-01

    aromatic species whose essential oil is largely employed by perfume industry. This conventional propagation is carried out using cuttings. Micropropagation is an alternative for clonal propagation of pathogens free individuals in large scale. We analyzed the influence of different combinations of auxins and kinetin in patchouli organogenesis and different kinds of substrate mixtures for the acclimatization of micropropagated plantlets. Two tests of organogenesis induction were carried out. In the first, five kinetin concentrations (0.0; 1.0; 2.0; 4.0 and 6.0 mg L‑1 and four IAA concentrations (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 were tested, and in the second, five kinetin concentrations (0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0 mg L-1 and three NAA concentrations (0.0; 0.1 and 0.5 mg L-1. For acclimatization the following substrates were analyzed: coconut dust + formulated fertilizer (NPK 3-12-6 + Ca, S, Zn, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and B at 3.0; 2.5; 0.1; 0.025; 0.01; 0.075; 0.05 and 0.0015%, respectively at the concentration of 12 g L-1 + limestone (1 g L-1 [PBC]; coconut dust + vermiculite (2:1 + formulated fertilizer at the concentration of 12 g L-1 + limestone (1 g L-1 [PBCV (2:1]; coconut dust + vermiculite (1:1 v/v + formulated fertilizer at the concentration of 12 g L-1 + limestone (1 g L-1 [PBCV (1:1]; coconut dust + limestone (1 g L-1 + MS salts [PCMS]; vermiculite added with MS salts, using 15 mL of the salt mixture per plant [VMS]; vermiculite + formulated fertilizer at the concentration of 12 g L-1 [VMB]. Direct organogenesis can be promoted by MS medium supplemented with 2.47 mg L-1 of kinetin and 0.1 mg L-1 of NAA. The shoot elongation, individualization and shoot rooting steps, however, were promoted in MS medium without growth regulators. For acclimatization one of the best results was obtained using PBCV (1:1.

  4. Hemoglobina y testosterona: importancia en la aclimatación y adaptación a la altura Hemoglobin and testosterone: importance on high altitude acclimatization and adaptation

    Gustavo F. Gonzales

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los diferentes tipos de mecanismos que emplea el organismo cuando se enfrenta a una situación de hipoxia incluyen la acomodación, la aclimatación y la adaptación. La acomodación es la respuesta inicial a la exposición aguda a la hipoxia de altura y se caracteriza por aumento de la ventilación y de la frecuencia cardiaca. La aclimatación se presenta en los individuos que están temporalmente expuestos a la altura y, que en cierto grado, les permite tolerar la altura. En esta fase hay un incremento en la eritropoyesis, se incrementa la concentración de hemoglobina y mejora la capacidad de transporte de oxígeno. La adaptación es el proceso de aclimatación natural donde entra en juego las variaciones genéticas y la aclimatación que les permiten a los individuos vivir sin dificultad en la altura. La testosterona es una hormona que regula la eritropoyesis y la ventilación, podría estar asociada con los procesos de aclimatación y adaptación a la altura. La eritrocitosis excesiva que conduce al mal de montaña crónico es causada por una baja saturación arterial de oxígeno, una ineficiencia ventilatoria y reducida respuesta ventilatoria a la hipoxia. La testosterona se incrementa en la exposición aguda en la altura y en los nativos de altura con eritrocitosis excesiva. Los resultados de las investigaciones actuales permitirían concluir que el incremento de la testosterona y de la hemoglobina son buenas para la aclimatación adquirida pues mejoran el transporte de oxígeno pero no para la adaptación a la altura, dado que valores altos de testosterona en suero se asocian con eritrocitosis excesiva.The different types of response mechanisms that the organism uses when exposed to hypoxia include accommodation, acclimatization and adaptation. Accommodation is the initial response to acute exposure to high altitude hypoxia and is characterized by an increase in ventilation and heart rate. Acclimatization is observed in individuals

  5. Preconditioning in the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis and the potential for trans-generational acclimatization in coral larvae under future climate change conditions.

    Putnam, Hollie M; Gates, Ruth D

    2015-08-01

    Coral reefs are globally threatened by climate change-related ocean warming and ocean acidification (OA). To date, slow-response mechanisms such as genetic adaptation have been considered the major determinant of coral reef persistence, with little consideration of rapid-response acclimatization mechanisms. These rapid mechanisms such as parental effects that can contribute to trans-generational acclimatization (e.g. epigenetics) have, however, been identified as important contributors to offspring response in other systems. We present the first evidence of parental effects in a cross-generational exposure to temperature and OA in reef-building corals. Here, we exposed adults to high (28.9°C, 805 µatm P(CO2)) or ambient (26.5°C, 417 µatm P(CO2)) temperature and OA treatments during the larval brooding period. Exposure to high treatment negatively affected adult performance, but their larvae exhibited size differences and metabolic acclimation when subsequently re-exposed, unlike larvae from parents exposed to ambient conditions. Understanding the innate capacity corals possess to respond to current and future climatic conditions is essential to reef protection and maintenance. Our results identify that parental effects may have an important role through (1) ameliorating the effects of stress through preconditioning and adaptive plasticity, and/or (2) amplifying the negative parental response through latent effects on future life stages. Whether the consequences of parental effects and the potential for trans-generational acclimatization are beneficial or maladaptive, our work identifies a critical need to expand currently proposed climate change outcomes for corals to further assess rapid response mechanisms that include non-genetic inheritance through parental contributions and classical epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:26246609

  6. Thermal performance in layer hen house with natural acclimatization/ Desempenho térmico de aviário de postura acondicionado naturalmente

    Luiz Antônio Targa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The work aimed at presenting analyses and comparisons of the thermal performance of a laying hens housing in the region of Bastos, in the state of São Paulo, adapted from natural alternatives of acclimatization, having a not adapted housing as reference, that is, of a more common typology in the area, and another one, artificially acclimatized. The index evaluated was the temperature and humidity (THI, the black globe temperature and humidity index (GTHI and the thermal radiation charge (TRC. It was calculated from the measurement of the temperature of dry bulb, temperature of wet bulb, temperature of black globe and air speed. The measurements were made both in the intern and the extern environment, at four times (5 a.m, 11a.m., 3 p.m. and 4 p.m. o´clock and in two seasons (late spring and early summer, for ten days in a row. The results allow to conclude that the house naturally acclimatized (NA has presented intermediate performance as compared with the others, making it to possible to control environment at adequate levels only during spring.O objetivo do trabalho foi apresentar análises e comparações sobre o desempenho térmico de um galpão para aves de postura, na região de Bastos, estado de São Paulo, adaptado a partir de alternativas naturais de acondicionamento, tendo como referências um galpão não adaptado, ou seja, de tipologia mais comum na região e outro acondicionado artificialmente. Os parâmetros avaliados – Índice de Temperatura e Umidade (ITU, o Índice de Temperatura de Globo Negro (UTGU, Umidade e a Carga Térmica de Radiação (CTR – foram calculados a partir de medidas de temperatura de bulbo seco, temperatura de bulbo úmido, temperatura de globo negro e velocidade do ar. As medições foram realizadas, nos ambientes internos e externos, em quatro horários (5, 11, 15 e 16 horas na estação primavera e verão, durante dez dias consecutivos. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que o sistema de

  7. Avaliação do desenvolvimento de diferentes tamanhos de mudas micropropagadas de abacaxizeiro, após aclimatação Evaluation of the development of different sizes of micropropagated seeedlings of pineapple tree, after acclimatized

    Sávio da Silva Berilli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A micropropagação de plantas é extremamente útil na multiplicação de novas cultivares em larga escala. O abacaxizeiro 'Vitória' é uma cultivar com a importante característica de ser resistente à fusariose. Após cultivo in vitro e aclimatização, é possível produzir mudas de diferentes tamanhos, entretanto um tamanho-padrão tem sido utilizado para comercialização. O uso de mudas de diferentes estádios de crescimento, após a aclimatização, pode interferir na qualidade final das mudas para o plantio no campo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos diferentes tamanhos de mudas do abacaxizeiro 'Vitória', após aclimatização, na qualidade dessas após o período de aclimatação. Foram selecionadas mudas micropropagadas do abacaxizeiro 'Vitoria', aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação com diferentes tamanhos, e estas foram plantadas em canteiros a céu aberto para aclimatação, por um período de 150 dias. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, em arranjo fatorial 5x2, correspondentes a cinco períodos de aclimatização das mudas (30; 60; 90; 120 e 150 dias e a duas épocas de avaliação (início e aos 150 dias da aclimatação. Os tratamentos foram avaliados em relação ao número de folhas, área foliar, altura da planta, diâmetro de roseta, comprimento da folha mais desenvolvida, massa seca e massa fresca da parte aérea. Para as condições deste experimento, verificou-se que mudas com 60; 90; 120 e 150 dias após aclimatização apresentam condições para aclimatação.The micropropagation of plants is extremely useful in the multiplication of new cultivars in wide scale. The pineapple tree Vitória is a cultivar with the important characteristic of being resistant to the fusariosis. After cultivation in vitro and acclimatization is possible to produce seedlings of different sizes, meantime a standard size has been used for marketing. The use of seedlings of different stages of

  8. Pulmonary gas exchange and acid-base state at 5,260 m in high-altitude Bolivians and acclimatized lowlanders

    Wagner, Hans Peter; Araoz, Mauricio; Boushel, Robert Christopher;

    2002-01-01

    Pulmonary gas exchange and acid-base state were compared in nine Danish lowlanders (L) acclimatized to 5,260 m for 9 wk and seven native Bolivian residents (N) of La Paz (altitude 3,600-4,100 m) brought acutely to this altitude. We evaluated normalcy of arterial pH and assessed pulmonary gas...... exchange and acid-base balance at rest and during peak exercise when breathing room air and 55% O2. Despite 9 wk at 5,260 m and considerable renal bicarbonate excretion (arterial plasma HCO3- concentration = 15.1 meq/l), resting arterial pH in L was 7.48 +/- 0.007 (significantly greater than 7...

  9. Variation in metabolic enzymatic activity in white muscle and liver of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus, in response to long-term thermal acclimatization

    Younis, Elsayed M.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of rearing temperature on white muscle and hepatic phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were examined in fingerlings of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus. The experiment was conducted for 14 weeks at temperatures of 18, 22, 26, 30, and 34°C. The activity of the glycolytic enzymes PFK, PK, and LDH in white muscle increased significantly with increase in water temperature. A reverse trend was observed for these enzymes in the liver, except for LDH, which behaved in the same manner as in white muscle. Cytosolic AST and ALT activity increased in both white muscle and liver in response to warm thermal acclimatization, while a reduction in mitochondrial AST and ALT activity was noticed at high temperatures in comparison with those at a lower temperature.

  10. Echinometra sea urchins acclimatized to elevated pCO2 at volcanic vents outperform those under present-day pCO2 conditions.

    Uthicke, Sven; Ebert, Thomas; Liddy, Michelle; Johansson, Charlotte; Fabricius, Katharina E; Lamare, Miles

    2016-07-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations will significantly reduce ocean pH during the 21st century (ocean acidification, OA). This may hamper calcification in marine organisms such as corals and echinoderms, as shown in many laboratory-based experiments. Sea urchins are considered highly vulnerable to OA. We studied an Echinometra species on natural volcanic CO2 vents in Papua New Guinea, where they are CO2 -acclimatized and also subjected to secondary ecological changes from elevated CO2 . Near the vent site, the urchins experienced large daily variations in pH (>1 unit) and pCO2 (>2000 ppm) and average pH values (pHT 7.73) much below those expected under the most pessimistic future emission scenarios. Growth was measured over a 17-month period using tetracycline tagging of the calcareous feeding lanterns. Average-sized urchins grew more than twice as fast at the vent compared with those at an adjacent control site and assumed larger sizes at the vent compared to the control site and two other sites at another reef near-by. A small reduction in gonad weight was detected at the vents, but no differences in mortality, respiration, or degree of test calcification were detected between urchins from vent and control populations. Thus, urchins did not only persist but actually 'thrived' under extreme CO2 conditions. We suggest an ecological basis for this response: Increased algal productivity under increased pCO2 provided more food at the vent, resulting in higher growth rates. The wider implication of our observation is that laboratory studies on non-acclimatized specimens, which typically do not consider ecological changes, can lead to erroneous conclusions on responses to global change. PMID:26762613

  11. Silver Nitrate and Different Culture Vessels Influence High Frequency Microrhizome Induction In Vitro and Enhancement Growth of Turmeric Plantlet During Ex Vitro Acclimatization

    Dikash Singh THINGBAIJAM

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Eleven cultivars of C. longa var. Lakadong were collected from Manipur having different topography. Curcumin content in different cultivars has been analyzed by using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer (100 Bio-Carry Spectrophotometer. The curcuminoids content were analyzed and quantified for identification of best quality cultivar. Thoubal Cultivar with highest curcumin content (9.44% was subjected for tissue culture technique using different culture vessels and silver nitrate for rapid multiplication and scaling up of microrhizome production. High multiplication rate of 27.40�0.47 were obtained in Murashige and Skoog�s medium supplemented with 3% sucrose + 1 mg L-1 ?-napthalene acetic acid, 4 mg L-1 6-benzyl-amino-purine and 11 ?M silver nitrate. Effect of different culture vessels and silver nitrate were studied for microrhizome and multiple shoots formation. Relatively higher rate of shoots along with microrhizome (17.5�0.32 can be seen in Growtek which was grown without any plant growth regulator. Growtek was used for scaling up of microrhizome production in vitro and utmost microrhizome was produced in liquid Murashige and Skoog�s medium supplemented with 8% sucrose, 1 mg L-1 ?-napthalene acetic acid, 4 mg L-1 6-benzyl-amino-purine and 11 ?M silver nitrate (36.25�0.27. Addition of silver nitrate in the medium resulted in improvement of microrhizome induction in vitro. Higher concentration of silver nitrate (33, 44, 66, 88 ?M negatively affected the microrhizome and shoot multiplication and shows inhibition of tissue response completely. Analysis of in vitro derived plantlets during acclimatization shows that the exogenous applied of silver nitrate shows superior growth as compared to control. 90-95% of plantlets with and 75-80% plantlets without silver nitrate treatment were successfully established under ex vitro acclimatization. The protocol could be utilized for large scale production of true-to-type plantlets and as alternative

  12. Benefits of automated acclimatization during the pre-milking phase of lactating girolando cows Benefícios da climatização automatizada na pré-ordenha de vacas girolando em lactação

    Irenilson M. da Silva; Héliton Pandorfi; Gledson L. P de Almeida; Cristiane Guiselini; Hugo M. Henrique

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the automated acclimatization effects during pre-milking of cows on thermal conditioning, physiology, milk production and cost-benefit of the automated adiabatic evaporative cooling system (AECS). The treatments 20; 30; 40 min and control consisted of exposure time of pre-milking cows to the automated AECS. Sixteen cows were used with an average daily milk yield of 19 kg, distributed in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The Tukey's test (P

  13. Transcriptional regulation of metal transport genes and mineral nutrition during acclimatization to cadmium and zinc in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges population).

    Küpper, Hendrik; Kochian, Leon V

    2010-01-01

    We investigated changes in mineral nutrient uptake and cellular expression levels for metal transporter genes in the cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens during whole plant and leaf ontogenesis under different long-term treatments with Zn and Cd. Quantitative mRNA in situ hybridization (QISH) revealed that transporter gene expression changes not only dependent on metal nutrition/toxicity, but even more so during plant and leaf development. The main mRNA abundances found were: ZNT1, mature leaves of young plants; ZNT5, young leaves of young plants; MTP1 (= ZTP1 = ZAT), young leaves of both young and mature plants. Surprisingly different cellular expression patterns were found for ZNT1 and ZNT5, both belonging to the ZIP family of transition metal transporters: ZNT1, photosynthetic mesophyll and bundle sheath cells; ZNT5, nonphotosynthetic epidermal metal storage cells and bundle sheath cells. Thus, ZNT1 may function in micronutrient nutrition while ZNT5 may be involved in metal storage associated with hyperaccumulation. Cadmium inhibited the uptake of Zn, iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn), probably by competing for transporters or by interfering with the regulation of transporter gene expression. Cadmium-induced changes in cellular expression for ZNT1, ZNT5 and MTP1 could also be part of plant acclimatization to Cd toxicity. Defence against Cd toxicity involved enhanced uptake of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca) and sulphur (S). PMID:19843304

  14. Micropropagation of Achillea millefolium L. on half-strength ms medium and direct rooting and acclimatization of microshoots in hydroponic culture

    Marković Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of micropropagation of the medicinal plant A. millefolium on half-strength MS medium and ex vitro rooting and acclimatization of the obtained microshoots in hydroculture in order to establish an efficient production method. Two explant types were used: basal and terminal cuttings, and better results were achieved when terminal cuttings were used. The development of shoots in the multiplication phase was successful with a regeneration percentage of 100%. Ex vitro rooting in a modified Hoagland nutrient solution was successful (83%, but the percentage of in vitro rooting on half-strength MS medium without hormones was higher (95%. However, bearing in mind that mass production of A. millefolium is more efficient when the phase of in vitro rooting is excluded, this method could be recommended for commercial propagation of this medicinal plant. It is necessary to conduct additional research in order to optimize the composition, EC and pH value of the hydroponic nutrient solution. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  15. Long-term acclimatization of hydraulic properties, xylem conduit size, wall strength and cavitation resistance in Phaseolus vulgaris in response to different environmental effects.

    Holste, Ellen K; Jerke, Megan J; Matzner, Steven L

    2006-05-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris grown under various environmental conditions was used to assess long-term acclimatization of xylem structural characteristics and hydraulic properties. Conduit diameter tended to be reduced and 'wood' density (of 'woody' stems) increased under low moisture ('dry'), increased soil porosity ('porous soil') and low phosphorus ('low P') treatments. Dry and low P had the largest percentage of small vessels. Dry, low light ('shade') and porous soil treatments decreased P50 (50% loss in conductivity) by 0.15-0.25 MPa (greater cavitation resistance) compared with 'controls'. By contrast, low P increased P50 by 0.30 MPa (less cavitation resistance) compared with porous soil (the control for low P). Changes in cavitation resistance were independent of conduit diameter. By contrast, changes in cavitation resistance were correlated with wood density for the control, dry and porous soil treatments, but did not appear to be a function of wood density for the shade and low P treatments. In a separate experiment comparing control and porous soil plants, stem hydraulic conductivity (kh), specific conductivity (ks), leaf specific conductivity (LSC), total pot water loss, plant biomass and leaf area were all greater for control plants compared to porous soil plants. Porous soil plants, however, demonstrated higher midday stomatal conductance to water vapour (gs), apparently because they experienced proportionally less midday xylem cavitation. PMID:17087467

  16. VIGOR OF PLANTLET FROM MICROPLANTLET TREATED BY FILTRATE AND CELL SUSPENSION OF SOME ISOLATES OF BACILLUS AND RESISTANCE TO BANANA WILT PATHOGEN AFTER ACCLIMATIZATION

    Hadi wiyono

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood Disease Bacterium (BDB and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (FOC is a couple wilt pathogen  of  banana.  These pathogens are the most important constraint in cultivation of banana in Indonesia.  In the integrated control strategy of the disease, the use of healthy seedlings produced from tissue culture technique is recommended.  The seedling produced by tissue culture technique however leads to lower vigor and susceptibility to the disease due to the aseptic work in vitro causing the beneficial bacterial endophytic to be eliminated. Therefore, the utility of the beneficial endophytic bacteria should be studied for recovering the vigor and resistance of the seedling.     Three isolates of endophytic Bacillus (B04, B05, B10 have been effective as growth promoter of microplantlet and antagonist of BDB and FOC in vitro.   Here then, this article reports the study results of the vigor of the plantlet (treated microplantlet by filtrate or cell suspension of the Bacillus after 3 months in acclimatization. The results were similar to the previous results on microplantlet in vitro, that Bacillus isolates B04, B05, and B10 were capable of promoting the growth and inducing the resistance to wilt pathogens on banana plantlets.  The treatments with bacterial cell inoculums were more effective than those bacterial filtrate. Isolate B10 was most potential followed by B05 and B04 respectively.

  17. Micropropagação e aclimatização de gerânio (Pelargonium graveolens L. Micropropagation and acclimatization of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.

    M.F Arrigoni-Blank

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O gerânio (Pelargonium graveolens L. é uma planta medicinal e aromática nativa do sul da África, cujo óleo essencial é amplamente empregado nas indústrias de perfumaria e cosmético, além de ser usado como terapêutico. Avaliou-se o efeito da luminosidade e dos reguladores de crescimento BAP e ANA na multiplicação in vitro e o uso de diferentes substratos na aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas. Foram avaliadas as concentrações 0; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg L-1 de BAP, 0; 0,1 e 0,5 mg L-1 de ANA e duas condições de luminosidade (ausência e presença de luz, em esquema fatorial 4x3x2; para a aclimatização foram utilizados quatro substratos, pó de coco + Biosafra® (3-12-6 (12 g L-1 + calcário (1 g L-1 (PCBC; pó de coco + Biosafra® (3-12-6 (12 g L-1 + calcário (1 g L-1 + vermiculita (1:1 (PCBCV 1:1; pó de coco + Biosafra® (3-12-6 (12 g L­-1 + calcário (1 g L-1 + vermiculita (PCBCV 2:1 e vermiculita e adição semanal de sais MS (VS. Para a micropropagação de P. graveolens a utilização de 1,3 mg L-1 de BAP e 0,5 mg L-1 de ANA é eficiente na regeneração direta de plantas de gerânio, sendo a condição de escuro a mais indicada por proporcionar o maior número de brotos por explante. Para a aclimatização das mudas de gerânio, os melhores resultados foram obtidos em mudas aclimatizadas no substrato vermiculita com adição semanal de sais de MS seguido do substrato PCBCV 1:1.Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L. is a medicinal and aromatic plant native to the south of Africa and whose essential oil is widely used by perfume and cosmetic industries, as well as in therapeutics. The effect of luminosity and growth regulators BAP and NAA on in vitro multiplication was evaluated, together with the use of different substrates on the acclimatization of micropropagated seedlings. The evaluated concentrations were 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 BAP; 0, 0.1 and 0.5 mg L-1 NAA; and two luminosity conditions (absence and presence of

  18. Short-term captivity influences maximal cold-induced metabolic rates and their repeatability in summer-acclimatized American goldfinches Spinus tristis

    David L.SWANSON; Marisa O.KING

    2013-01-01

    Studies of metabolic variation in birds have involved both wild and captive individuals,but few studies have investigated whether captivity directly influences metabolic rates,despite such variation potentially confounding conclusions regarding how metabolic rates respond to the conditions under study.In addition,whether short-term captivity influences metabolic rate repeatability in birds is currently uninvestigated.In this study,we measured Msum (maximal cold-induced metabolic rates) in summer acclimatized American goldfinches Spinus tristis directly after capture from wild populations,after approximately 2 weeks of indoor captivity (Captive 1),and again after an additional 1-2 weeks of captivity (Captive 2).Msum increased significantly (16.9%) following the initial captive period,but remained stable thereafter.Body mass (Mb) also increased significantly (9.2%) during the initial captive period but remained stable thereafter,suggesting that muscle growth and/or remodeling of body composition produced the observed metabolic variation.Mb and Msum were not significantly repeatable between wild and Captive 1 birds,but were significantly repeatable between Captive 1 and Captive 2 groups.These data suggest that caution must be exercised when extrapolating metabolic rates from short-term captive to wild populations.In addition,Msum was a repeatable trait for birds under conditions where mean metabolic rates remained stable,but Msum repeatability disappeared during acclimation to conditions promoting phenotypically flexible metabolic responses.This suggests that the capacity for phenotypic flexibility varies among individuals,and such variation could have fitness consequences.

  19. Anatomia foliar de Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl Nich. (Bignoniaceae propagadas in vitro, in vivo e durante a aclimatização Leaf anatomy of Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl Nich. (Bignoniaceae propagated in vitro, in vivo and during the acclimatization

    Sara Dousseau

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As mudas propagadas por técnicas de micropropagação geralmente apresentam alterações significativas induzidas pelas condições in vitro, que diminuem a capacidade de sobrevivência após a transferência para o ambiente ex vitro, sendo fundamental a avaliação da mudança estrutural durante o processo de adaptação. Objetivou-se com este trabalho, identificar as diferenças anatômicas foliares entre plantas de Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl Nich. (ipê amarelo, cultivadas in vitro, in vivo e durante a aclimatização. Foram utilizadas plântulas mantidas por 43 dias em sala de crescimento, com 20, 40, 60 e 80 dias de aclimatização e mudas de 90 dias cultivadas em viveiro. As plântulas foram obtidas via cultura de embriões em meio MS e transplantadas para tubetes contendo plantmax®, para aclimatização em viveiro, sob 50% de sombreamento. Nas mesmas condições da aclimatização, foram produzidas as mudas in vivo. Cortes transversais e paradérmicos foram preparados de acordo com técnicas usuais em microtecnia vegetal. As plântulas in vitro apresentam os tecidos foliares pouco diferenciados e estômatos maiores e mais abertos, exigindo maiores cuidados na etapa inicial de aclimatização. Aos 60 dias de aclimatização as novas folhas produzidas possuem alguns aspectos anatômicos que podem conferir maior eficiência fotossintética e maior capacidade de regulação hídrica das plantas.The seedlings spread by micropropagation techniques, usually show significant alterations induced by the conditions in vitro, which decrease the survival capacity after the transfer to conditions ex vitro. The evaluation of the structural change during the acclimatization is necessary for the understanding of this adaptation process. The objective of this research was to identify the anatomical differences among the seedlings cultivated in vitro, in vivo and acclimatized plants of Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl Nich. (yellow ipe, species with great

  20. Adição de torta de mamona em substratos na aclimatação de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira Effect of addition of castor bean pie in substrates in acclimatization of micropropagated banana plantlets

    Adriana Novais Martins

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira que oferecem qualidade genética e fitossanitária, favorecendo o desenvolvimento, instalação e uniformidade do pomar, é importante para a exploração comercial da bananicultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da adição da torta de mamona nos substratos na aclimatação de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira da cv. Willians. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 10 tratamentos, sendo 2 substratos e 5 dosagens de torta de mamona (0; 6; 12; 18 e 24 g vaso-1. O substrato Vivatto Slim Plus® possibilitou o melhor desenvolvimento das plantas na aclimatação. Não são recomendadas doses superiores a 12 g planta-1 de torta de mamona misturadas ao substrato na aclimatação de mudas de bananeira.The use of micropropagated banana tree seedlings offer genetic and phytosanitary qualities, favoring the development, installation and uniformity of the yield and it is very important for the commercial exploration of banana fruits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of castor oil plant pie added to the substrate in the acclimatization of micropropagated banana plantlets cv. 'Willians'. It was use the completely randomized, with 10 treatments, being 2 substrates and 5 dosages of castor oil plant pie (0; 6; 12; 18 and 24 g for each recipient. The substrate Vivatto Slim Plus® showed the best development of the plants in acclimatization processes. Dosages above 12 g of castor oil plant pie for each plant are not recommended mixed to the substrate in the acclimatization of banana tree seedlings

  1. Efeito da adubação foliar com KNO3 na aclimatização de bromélia cultivada in vitro Effect of foliar KNO3 fertilization in the acclimatization of bromeliads grown in vitro

    Armando Reis Tavares

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubação foliar nitrogenada na aclimatização de bromélia cultivada in vitro, utilizaram-se mudas de Aechmea blanchetiana, que, após o processo de cultivo in vitro, foram transferidas para substrato constituído de areia e adubadas por pulverização de 3,0 mL, a cada 30 dias, com solução de KNO3 nas concentrações de 0,0; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 g L-1. Foram avaliadas as variáveis comprimento da maior folha e raiz, número de folhas, fitomassa fresca e seca das plantas e a porcentagem de plantas mortas no estágio inicial e após dois períodos de aclimatização (0; 60 e 120 dias. Concentrações maiores de KNO3 foram eficientes, amenizando os efeitos do estresse durante o período da aclimatização de 60 dias. Entretanto, ao final do experimento (120 dias, as plantas submetidas à adubação foliar com KNO3 apresentaram menor crescimento que o controle.The effect of foliar nitrogen fertilization, for an efficient acclimatization of in vitro propagation bromeliads was evaluated, using Aechmea blanchetiana plantlets which, after the in vitro propagation, were transferred to a sandy substratum and fertilized with 3.0 mL sprinkler irrigation of 0.0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 g L-1 nitrates concentrations using KNO3 as N source. Foliar length, the size of the larger root, leaves number, dry and fresh fitomass quantity and dead plants percentage after three times of acclimatization (0, 60 and 120 days were evaluated. The results showed that higher KNO3 concentrations were efficient to brighten up the stress effects. However, at the end of the experiment (120 days, only lower KNO3 concentrations to an efficient acclimatization to this specific specie were necessary.

  2. Aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de Bastão do Imperador em diferentes volumes de recipientes Acclimatization of micropropagated seedlings of Torch Lily in containers of different capacities

    Elisangela Maria dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available É crescente o mercado de flores tropicais no Brasil. No nordeste, por causa do clima, torna-se difícil a aclimatização dessas plantas. Portanto, este trabalho tem por objetivo determinar o recipiente mais adequado para aclimatizar mudas micropropagadas de bastão do imperador cv. Porcelana, em ambiente protegido. O experimento foi realizado em estufa e as mudas utilizadas foram obtidas por micropropagação. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos (volumes e cinco repetições. Os volumes dos recipientes testados foram: V1 - 50 cm³ (Copo pequeno - CP; V2 - 150 cm³ (Tubete pequeno - TP; V3 - 300 cm³ (Tubete grande - TG; V4 - 450 cm³(Vaso pequeno - VP. Foram coletados dados correspondentes ao número de folhas (NF, altura da muda (AM, diâmetro do pseudocaule (DP, massa fresca da parte aérea (MFPA, massa fresca do sistema radicular (MFSR, massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA e massa seca do sistema radicular (MSSR. Foi realizada a análise de variância e os resultados de natureza qualitativa foram submetidos ao teste de média. O vaso de 450 cm³ é o recipiente mais adequado para aclimatização de bastão do imperador, pois proporcionou melhor desenvolvimento das mudas.The Brazilian market of tropical flowers is in a rapid growth stage. The climate of the Brazilian northeastern region, however, tends to hamper plant acclimatization. Considering this, our study aims at determining the most appropriate container (concerning to capacity to acclimatize micropropagated Torch Lily (cultivar Porcelana in a greenhouse. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments (container capacities and five replications. The tested container capacities were: V1 = 50cm³ (small glass - CP; V2 = 150cm³ (small plastic tube - TP; V3 = 300 cm³ (large plastic tube - TG; V4 = 450cm³ (small vase - VP. The characteristics evaluated were: the number of leaves (NF, seedling height (AM, stem diameter (DP

  3. Estufas climatizadas para experimentos ambientais com rãs, em gaiolas Acclimatized incubators for environmental experiments with frogs, in cages

    Mario Roberto Chim Figueiredo

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram construídas seis estufas climatizadas, instaladas inicialmente no Ranário Experimental da Universidade Federal de Viçosa e, posteriormente, no Ranário Experimental da Fundação Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, com o objetivo de realizar experimentos para avaliar os efeitos do ambiente sobre o desempenho de rãs em gaiolas de fibra de vidro. Ambientes com temperaturas de 25ºC e fotoperíodo de 12/12 horas de luz/horas de escuridão (h L/E serviram para adaptação das rãs por 15 dias antes de cada experimento. Os tratamentos consistiram em simular ambientes com temperaturas variando de 20 a 35ºC e fotoperíodos de 8/16, 12/12 e 16/8 h L/E. Foram realizados experimentos com rã-touro (Rana catesbeiana Shaw, 1802 e rã-manteiga (Leptodactylus ocellatus Linnaeus, 1758. Nessas estufas foi possível estimar que: a os maiores ganhos de peso de rã-touro foram obtidos entre 27,6 e 29,7ºC, com melhor crescimento entre 28,2 e 30,1ºC; para rã-manteiga os melhores ganhos e conversão alimentar foram observados a 28,6 e 28ºC, respectivamente; b a temperatura interage com fotoperíodo sobre o desempenho das rãs e seu desenvolvimento gonadal; c a 27,7ºC (temperatura de conforto térmico haverá menos rãs dentro d'água; d a maior temperatura cloacal de rã-touro, 32,1ºC no seco e 33,8ºC dentro d'água, a 35ºC, evidenciou que as rãs se termorregulam; e os níveis de tetraiodotironina (T4 no plasma decrescem na temperatura de conforto térmico; f rã-manteiga condiciona-se ao manejo de rotina, reunindo-se ao redor do cocho na hora da alimentação.Six acclimatized incubators were initially installed in the Experimental Frog Farm of the Federal University of Viçosa and later in Experimental Frog Farm of the Federal University of Rio Grande, with the objective of accomplishing experiments to evaluate the effects of the environment on frogs performance in cages of fiber glass. Environments with temperatures of 25ºC and photoperiod of

  4. Changes of erythrocyte deformability in rats acclimatized to hypoxia and its molemechanism%高原低氧习服大鼠红细胞变形性的变化规律及其分子机制

    聂鸿靖; 田云梅; 张东祥; 汪海

    2011-01-01

    acclimatized to hypoxia and its molemechanism. Methods: Male rats were randomly divided into three groups(n= 10): normal control group, acute hypoxia group and hypoxia acclimatization group. Animals were exposed to hypoxia for0, 1, 28 d, blooded from their hearts after anaesthetized, respectively. Erythrocyte deformability,membrane fluidity, cholesterin and total lipid, lipid components of erythrocyte membrane, erythrocyte membrane ATPase and the concentrations of Na+ and Ca2 + were measured respectively. The two-dimensional electrophoresis maps of the rats erythrocyte membrane protein were achieved. The different protein spots were founded by image master 2D elite and identified by mass spectrum. Results: ①In acute hypoxia group, the deformability, membrane fluidity, the content of membrane cholesterin and total lipid were declined. The content of phosphatidylserines(PS), sphingomyelin(SM) in erythrocyte membrane lipids were increased, phosphatidylcholine(PC) reduced. The activity of ATP enzymes reduced end the concentration of Na + and Ca2 + in erythrocyte increased. The two-dimensional electrophoresis maps of the rats erythrocyte membrane protein were achieved. Four of the seven protein spots selected increased and three of them showed no change. ②In hypoxia acclimatization group, the deformability, membrane fluidity, the content of membrane cholesterin and total lipid were increased than those in acute hypoxia group, similar to normal group. The content of PS、SM in erythrocyte membrane lipids were reduced, PC increased. The activity of ATP enzymes induced and the concentration of Na + and Ca2 + in erythrocyte increased after hypoxia acclimatization. Four of those protein spots mentioned increase and three declined after hypoxia acclimatization. They were respectively proved by mass spectrum to be alexin binding protein, aquaporin chip, membrane inhibitor reactive lysis, phospholipids scramblase, glucose transferase, aminophospholipid translocases, ATP

  5. Morpho-physiological changes in pineapple plantlets [Ananas comosus (L. merr.] during acclimatization Mudanças morfofisiológicas em plântulas de abacaxi [Ananas comosus (L. Merr.] durante a aclimatização

    Ariel Villalobo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple producing countries lack good quality propagation material to expand cultivars into new areas. Previously, research protocols may increase the offer of high quality plantlets and speed the introduction of new pineapple cultivars. The present work is to evaluate the morpho-physiological changes in plantlets of pineapple [Ananas comosus (L. Merr. 'MD-2'] during the acclimatization phase. Plantlets were acclimatized under 80% relative humidity, 25.5 °C temperature and photosynthetic photon flux of 400-500 µmol m-2 s-1 as average for 45 d under natural photoperiods. All measurements (plant length, number of leaves and roots, fresh weight, width and length of leaf 'D', net photosynthesis and total transpiration rate were carried out at the end of in vitro rooting phase coincident with 0 d of acclimatization and at 15, 30 and 45 d thereafter. Photosynthetic activity of in vitro plantlets did not increase during the first 30 d of the acclimatization phase. After 30 d, photosynthetic activity ranged from 5.72 to 9.36 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1 while total transpiration ranged from 6.0 to 1.42 mmol H2O m-2 s-1. During the first 30 days there were no significant differences in number of leaves, length or width of the longest ('D' leaf (cm or plant length (cm. However, after 45 days plant fresh weight (g, length and width of the 'D' leaf (cm and root number all increased significantly, while transpiration (mmol H2O m-2 s-1 declined. There were small but significant decreases in chlorophyll a and b (µg g-1 mf.. Increased photosynthetic activity after 30 d shows that the increase in light intensity and the reduction of relative humidity during acclimatization did not constitute inhibitory factors.Os países produtores do abacaxi precisam de mudas de boa qualidade para a introdução de novas culturas nas áreas de cultivo. Os protocolos de pesquisa podem aumentar a oferta de mudas de alta qualidade e acelerar a introdução de novas culturas do abacaxi

  6. Enraizamento in vitro de marmeleiro cv. MC como porta-enxerto para a pereira e aclimatização das microestacas enraizadas In vitro rooting of quince cv. MC as rootstock for pear and acclimatization of the rooted microcuttings

    Alan Cristiano Erig

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o tipo e a concentração de auxina que promova o enraizamento in vitro de marmeleiro (Cydonia oblonga Mill. cv. MC como porta-enxerto para a pereira (Pyrus spp e avaliar a sobrevivência das microestacas enraizadas durante a aclimatização às condições ex vitro. Os tratamentos consistiram de três tipos de auxina (ácido indolbutírico ‘AIB’, ácido naftalenoacético ‘ANA’ e ácido 3-indolacético ‘AIA’, utilizadas em cinco diferentes concentrações (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20miM. Inicialmente as microestacas foram cultivadas, durante sete dias, em meio de cultura constituído pelos sais de MS reduzidos à metade de sua concentração original, acrescido de mio-inositol (100mgL-1, sacarose (30gL-1, ágar (6gL-1 e de auxina. Após, as microestacas foram transferidas para um novo meio de cultura sem auxina. Microestacas enraizadas oriundas de vários tratamentos, indistintamente, foram aclimatizadas às condições ex vitro. O AIB, o ANA e o AIA apresentaram o mesmo efeito sobre a percentagem de enraizamento, obtendo-se o melhor resultado com 10miM; o ANA favoreceu o maior comprimento médio das raízes; a intensidade de formação de calo aumentou com a concentração de auxina, sendo maior com o AIB e o ANA; e ao fim de 30 dias de aclimatização, 65,12% das plantas sobreviveram.The objective of this work was to determine auxin type and concentration to promote in vitro rooting of quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill. cv. MC as rootstock for pear (Pyrus spp and to evaluate the survival of the rooted microcuttings during acclimatization in ex vitro conditions. The treatments consisted of three auxin types (IBA, NAA and IAA and five different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20muM. Initially the microcuttings were cultivated for seven days in culture medium constituted by salts of MS reduced to half of its original concentration and added myo-inositol (100mg L-1, sucrose (30g L-1, agar (6g L-1 and auxin

  7. Aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de helicônia em ambiente protegido em função do tipo de substrato Acclimatization of micropropagated heliconia plants in different substrates

    Eliana Lee Jorge Rocha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A etapa de aclimatização é uma fase crítica da micropropagação vegetal, podendo ser responsável por altos índices de mortalidade, baixas taxas de crescimento e desuniformidade das plantas. Um fator fundamental na aclimatização é tipo de substrato a ser utilizado. Nesse trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de diferentes substratos na aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de helicônia (Heliconia lingulata Ruiz & Pav.. A pesquisa foi conduzida em um túnel alto de cultivo forçado pertencente à Embrapa Agroindústria Tropica,l situada no município de Fortaleza - CE, Brasil (3º44'S e 38º33'W. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os substratos testados foram: T1 -pó-de-coco seco + húmus de minhoca + solo (PCS+H+S; T2 -pó-de-coco verde + vermiculita + composto de cama de frango (PCV+V+CCF; T3 -pó-de-coco verde + húmus de minhoca + solo (PCV+H+S; T4 -pó-de-coco seco + vermiculita + composto de cama de frango (PCS+V+CCF; e T5 - substrato comercial Hortimix® (HORT. As variáveis agronômicas, avaliadas no experimento foram: altura da planta, número de folhas e diâmetro do pseudocaule. Os resultados do experimento evidenciaram o maior desenvolvimento das mudas micropropagadas de helicônia, quando o substrato utilizado foi a combinação pó de coco verde + húmus de minhoca + solo (PCV + H + S.Acclimatization is the most important and critical plant micropropagation phase. It can be responsible for high mortality rate, low growth rate, and plant heterogeneity. One of the limiting factors in plant acclimatization is the substrate. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different substrates on the acclimatization of micropropagated heliconia plants (Heliconia lingulata Ruiz & Pav.. The research was carried out in a greenhouse at the Embrapa Tropical Agroindustry located in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (3º44' S and 38º33' W. The

  8. Alterações morfofisiolócias de plantas de abacaxizeiro influenciadas por diferentes substratos durante o processo de aclimatização Morphophysiological changes of pineapple plants influenced by different substrates during the process of acclimatization

    Francyane Tavares Braga

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar um substrato adequado para aclimatização de plantas micropropagadas de abacaxizeiro 'Gomo de Mel' e a sua caracterização anatômica, durante este processo. O enraizamento dos brotos foi realizado em meio MS acrescido de 30 g L-1 de sacarose e 6 g L-1 de ágar. As culturas foram mantidas em sala de crescimento a 25±1º C, 36µmol m-2 s-1 durante 16 horas diárias. Após 60 dias, brotos enraizados foram removidos dos frascos e distribuídos em tubetes, contendo os seguintes tratamentos: 1 A+X+H (areia, xaxim e húmus (1:1:1; 2 substrato comercial plantmax®; 3 vermiculita e 4 combinação 1:1 de plantmax® + vermiculita. As características anatômicas foram avaliadas nas plântulas ainda in vitro e aos 7; 15; 30 e 60 dias de aclimatização. As folhas de transição também foram caracterizadas. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições com cinco plantas. Maiores comprimentos da parte aérea, massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e raízes, foram observados com o uso de areia + xaxim + húmus. Para número de folhas, massa fresca de raízes e massa seca de parte aérea, não houve diferença entre os substratos. Quanto às características anatômicas, o substrato vermiculita, no período de 60 dias de aclimatização, promoveu as maiores espessuras dos tecidos que compõe o limbo foliar.This work aimed to determine a right substrate for acclimatization of pineapple 'Gomo de Mel' plantlets and its anatomical characterization during this process. Rooting of the shoots was done in MS medium supplemented with 30 g L-1 sucrose and 6 g L-1 agar. Cultures were maintained in growth room at 25±1º C, 36µmol m-2 s-1 during 16 hours. After 60 days, rooted shoots were removed from the bottles and distributed in tubes containing the following treatments: 1 A+X+H (sand, fern tree fiber and humus (1: 1: 1; 2 commercial substrate Plantmax®; 3 vermiculite and 4

  9. Inoculação micorrízica e aclimatização de dois porta-enxertos de macieira micropropagados Mycorrhizal inoculation and acclimatization of two micropropagated apple rootstocks

    Lucir Maria Locatelli

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available A micropropagação e a inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA podem melhorar a qualidade de mudas produzidas comercialmente. Essas técnicas permitem a produção de plantas homogêneas e de alta qualidade em curtos períodos de tempo, mas isso exige o conhecimento da interação entre fungos e plantas, substratos e técnicas de aclimatização e inoculação. Foi realizado um estudo em condições controladas a fim de desenvolver procedimentos para aclimatizar e inocular FMA nos porta-enxertos de macieira (Malus spp. Marubakaido, vigoroso e com forte sistema radicular, e M.9, nanizante e com sistema radicular pouco desenvolvido. Plantas oriundas de micropropagação foram imersas em ácido indolebutírico (5miM e transferidas para substrato à base de solo, a fim de serem enraizadas ex vitro. Antes ou após o enraizamento, inoculou-se uma mistura de isolados de Scutellospora pellucida, Glomus etunicatum e Glomus sp. A fase de enraizamento durou 21 dias, e após 51 e 81 dias avaliaram-se colonização micorrízica, altura, peso da matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea e relação entre raiz e parte aérea das plantas. A colonização micorrízica variou entre 50% e 70% para ambos porta-enxertos, tendo efeito positivo sobre o crescimento do porta-enxerto Marubakaido, enquanto o porta-enxerto M.9 teve seu desenvolvimento inibido pela presença dos FMA.The combination of micropropagation and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF can improve the quality of seedling plants produced on a commercial scale. These techniques allow high quality and homogeneous seedling production in a shorter period of time, but they require understanding of the interaction among fungi, plants, substrates, acclimatization and inoculation techniques. A study was performed under controlled conditions to develop procedures to acclimatize and inoculate AMF in two apple (Malus spp. rootstocks: vigorous strong-rooted Marubakaido and the dwarfing

  10. 不同热习服条件对大鼠湿热环境下运动能力的影响%Effects of different heat acclimatization conditions on the physical activity of rats in hot and humid environment

    李玉祥; 陈新民; 梁涵; 安合定; 马文领; 史仍飞

    2016-01-01

    目的 观察不同热习服条件对大鼠热习服能力及湿热环境下运动能力的影响. 方法 将64只雄性SD大鼠按数字表法随机分为常温常湿安静(LLQ)组、常温常湿运动(LLE)组、常温高湿安静(LHQ)组、常温高湿运动(LHE)组、高温常湿安静(HLQ)组、高温常湿运动(HLE)组、高温高湿安静(HHQ)组和高温高湿运动(HHE)组共8组,每组8只. 安静组大鼠每天在相应环境中安静放置2 h,运动组在相应环境中安静放置1 h后运动(14 m/min)1 h,连续14 d. 每天实验前后称量大鼠体质量并计算体质量丢失率,实验结束后立即测定大鼠肛温. 第16天所有大鼠在高温(36℃)高湿(85%)条件下运动30 min (28 m/min),记录运动期间力竭大鼠的数量与力竭时间,并记录力竭即刻或运动结束后大鼠肛温,第17天统计动物死亡数量.结果 在热习服过程中,除高温安静组外,其余各组从第4天开始体质量丢失率明显下降(P0.05). 高温高湿条件下运动刺激后,HLE组和HHE组的肛温、中途力竭数量和死亡数量明显低于LLQ组和HHQ组(P0.05). 结论 高温高湿和高温常湿条件下运动训练均能达到最好的习服效果;从训练期间对人体体温和体质量丢失率影响较小且体感更舒适的角度考虑,选择在高温常湿环境条件下进行运动训练是较为适宜的热习服训练方法.%Objective To investigate the effects of different thermal conditions on the heat acclimatization and physical ability of rats in hot and humid environment .Methods Sixty-four male SD rats were randomly divided into 8 groups:the normal temperature and humidity rest group ( or the NTHR group );the normal temperature and humidity exercise group ( or the NTHE group );the normal temperature and high humidity rest group ( or the NTHHR group ); the normal temperature and high humidity exercise group ( or the NTHHE group);the high temperature and normal humidity rest group (or the HTNHR group); the high

  11. Avaliação do crescimento de plantas de morangueiro, durante a aclimatização ex vitro Evaluation of the growth of strawberry plants during ex vitro acclimatization

    Eunice Oliveira Calvete

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available A fim de otimizar a micropropagação de morangueiro cv Campinas, reduzindo as perdas durante a aclimatização, foi realizado este trabalho na Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo foi correlacionar a presença de sacarose no tecido vegetal com a produção de biomassa, na aclimatização. As plântulas desenvolvidas in vitro, após permanecerem três semanas na etapa de enraizamento, em quatro concentrações de sacarose (15, 30, 45 e 60 g L-1, foram transplantadas para bandejas de isopor de 72 células. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições. Cada parcela constituiu-se de 36 mudas, totalizando 720 plantas. Foram avaliadas as taxas de sobreviventes (% e de crescimento (mg semana-1, área foliar (cm², massa seca da parte aérea (mg, área foliar específica (cm² mg-1, razão de massa foliar (mg mg-1 e razão da área foliar (cm² mg mg-1. Estabeleceu - se a dosagem de 45g L-1 de sacarose em meio MS para o cultivo de morangueiro cv Campinas, como a melhor concentração para a produção de biomassa ex vitro. Também foi verificado que essas mudas necessitaram de três a quatro semanas para se adaptarem às novas condições ambientais, e somente após, retomaram o crescimento.A study was carried out in the Faculdade de Agronomia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul to optimize the process of micropropagation of strawberry plants (cultivar Campinas and to reduce plant losses during acclimatization. The objective of this experiment was to relate plant tissue sucrose levels to biomass production during acclimatization. Strawberry seedlings were grown in vitro, rooted for three weeks under four sucrose levels (15, 30, 45, and 60 g L-1, and transplanted to polyethylene trays bearing 72 cells. The experimental units were arranged in a complete randomized blocks design with five replications. Each plot comprised 36 seedlings and a total of 720 plants. There were evaluated the

  12. Influence of substrates and in vitro preconditioning treatments on ex vitro acclimatization of Arachis retusa Influência de substratos e de pré-tratamentos in vitro na aclimatização ex vitro de Arachis retusa

    Georgia Pacheco

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of substrate and preconditioning treatments on the acclimatization of in vitro plants of Arachis retusa. Plants were transferred to Plantmax or sand, and fertilized with Hoagland's nutrient solution. Plants maintained in sand, with or without fertilizer, showed the highest survival rates. In order to evaluate the influence of in vitro preconditioning treatments, stem segments were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different sucrose concentrations. The highest survival and developmental rates were observed in plants from two accessions cultured on MS supplemented with 1.5% and 3% sucrose. Flowering and fruit production were observed after five months.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de diferentes substratos e pré-tratamentos in vitro, na aclimatização de plantas in vitro de Arachis retusa. As plantas foram transferidas para Plantmax ou areia e adubadas com solução de Hoagland. Plantas mantidas em areia, com adubação ou sem adubação, apresentaram maiores taxas de sobrevivência. Para avaliação da influência de pré-tratamentos in vitro, segmentos de caule foram cultivados em meio MS suplementado com diferentes concentrações de sacarose. As maiores taxas de sobrevivência e desenvolvimento foram observadas em plantas cultivadas em sacarose a 1,5% e 3%. Depois de cinco meses, foram observadas a floração e a produção de frutos.

  13. Acclimatization of 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia grapevine rootstock Aclimatização do porta-enxerto de videira 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia

    Marília Pereira Machado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The pre-acclimatization stage can be used to improve micropropagation protocols and increase the yield of produced plants. The influence of sucrose and photon flux density (PFD levels on the acclimatization of in vitro-grown 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia grapevine rootstocks was evaluated. Rooted shoots were obtained from 4-week-old in vitro shoots cultivated in QL (Quoirin and Lepoivre, 1977 culture medium supplemented with 15, 30 and 45 g L-1 of sucrose. The experiment was kept in a 25 ± 2ºC growth room, under 16-h photoperiod and PFD of 18 µmol m-2 s-1 or 43 µmol m-2 s-1. Plants were transferred to an intermittent misting system greenhouse for 10 d followed by 20 d of once-a-day watering routine using a handheld hose. Plant height was influenced by sucrose concentration, and shoots produced on media supplemented with 30 g L-1 sucrose were the tallest (5.0 cm. The largest leaf area was obtained with 31.3 g L-1 of sucrose, under the PFD of 43 µmol m-2 s-1 (13.3 cm². Absence of sucrose in the culture medium led to a significant reduction in leaf area at both PFDs. Shoot (aerial part dry matter was largest when 30 or 45 g L-1 of sucrose (17.5 and 16.7 mg per plant, respectively were used. Microcuttings rooted in all sucrose concentrations tested. The highest survival percentage (100% during ex vitro acclimatization was obtained for shoots cultured in media supplemented with 45 g L-1 of sucrose under both PFDs tested.A fase de pré-aclimatização pode ser utilizada para aperfeiçoar os protocolos de micropropagação e aumentar o rendimento na produção de mudas. Avaliou-se a influência da sacarose e níveis de densidade de fluxo de fóton (DFF in vitro, na sobrevivência das mudas do porta-enxerto de videira 'VR043-43'(Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia, na fase de aclimatização. Microestacas obtidas de brotações in vitro foram cultivadas em meio de cultura QL suplementado 15, 30 e 45 g L-1 de sacarose. O

  14. Efeito de substratos na aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de abacaxizeiro cv. Pérola Acclimatization of micropropagated pineapple plants cv. "Pérola": substrata effect

    Maria Aparecida Moreira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho verificar o efeito da matéria orgânica como componente de substratos para mudas micropropagadas de abacaxizeiro cv. Pérola em fase de aclimatização. Mudas micropropagadas de abacaxizeiro cv. Pérola, selecionadas de acordo com o peso (aproximadamente 2 g, foram plantadas em bandejas de isopor de 72 células de 120 cm³ contendo proporções de substratos com terra, esterco bovino, Plantmax e matéria orgânica. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com 4 repetições e 3 plantas por parcela. As avaliações foram feitas 90 dias após o plantio, quando se avaliou: altura da planta, comprimento de raiz, peso de matéria fresca de raiz e parte aérea, peso de matéria seca de raiz e parte aérea e número de folhas. Com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que a matéria orgânica tem efeito significativo no desenvolvimento das mudas. Com o substrato contendo terra, esterco e Plantmax foi obtido o melhor desenvolvimento das raízes e parte aérea.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the organic matter as component of substrata for micropropagated plants of pineapple cv. Pérola in the acclimatization phase. Micropropagated plants were selected according to the weight (approximately 2g and planted in trays with 72 cels of 120 cm³, containing substrata made of soil, bovine manure, Plantmax and organic matter at different proportions. At 90 days after planting, the following parameters were evaluated: height of the plant, root length, weight of fresh matter of root and aerial part, dry matter weight of root and aerial part and number of leaves. The obtained results allowed to conclude that the organic matter has significant effect on the development of the seedlings. The best results for the development of the roots and aerial part were obtained with substratum containing soil, manure and Plantmax.

  15. Benefits of automated acclimatization during the pre-milking phase of lactating girolando cows Benefícios da climatização automatizada na pré-ordenha de vacas girolando em lactação

    Irenilson M. da Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate the automated acclimatization effects during pre-milking of cows on thermal conditioning, physiology, milk production and cost-benefit of the automated adiabatic evaporative cooling system (AECS. The treatments 20; 30; 40 min and control consisted of exposure time of pre-milking cows to the automated AECS. Sixteen cows were used with an average daily milk yield of 19 kg, distributed in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The Tukey's test (PObjetivou-se com esta pesquisa avaliar os efeitos da climatização na pré-ordenha sobre o acondicionamento térmico, fisiologia, produção de leite e relação custo/benefício do sistema de resfriamento adiabático evaporativo (SRAE automatizado. Os tratamentos adotados foram os tempos de exposição dos animais ao SRAE no curral de espera, 20; 30; 40 min e o tratamento-controle. Utilizaram-se 16 vacas com produção de 19 kg de leite dia-1, adotando-se delineamento em quadrado latino 4 x 4 e comparação entre as médias pelo teste de Tukey (P<0,05. Foram registradas as variáveis ambientais temperatura de bulbo seco (Tbs e umidade relativa (UR a cada minuto, o que permitiu determinar a eficiência do sistema por meio do índice de temperatura e umidade (ITU. A frequência respiratória (FR, temperatura retal (TR e temperatura de pelame (TP foram medidas antes e depois da climatização. O tratamento 40 min permitiu manter as variáveis ambientais e os índices de conforto entre os limites recomendados. As variáveis fisiológicas (FR, TR e TP mostraram valores inferiores no tratamento 40 min, com aumento de 3,66% na produção de leite, quando comparado com o controle. O investimento promoveu acréscimo na receita mensal de R$ 1.992,67 com tempo de retorno do capital de 43 dias.

  16. Micropropagação da amoreira-preta (Rubus spp. e efeito de substratos na aclimatização de plântulas = Blackberry micropropagation (Rubus spp. and effects of substrates in plants acclimatization

    Fabíola Villa

    2006-01-01

    , supplemented with five activated charcoal concentrations and five BAP concentrations. Both experiments were entirely performed in a designrandomized complete block, using in vitro 3 explants by repetition and 4 replications for treatment and in greenhouse, a factorial 4x4. The pH of the culture medium was adjusted to 5.8 before the additionof 6 g L-1 of agar and the sterilization to 121ºC and 1 atm for 20 minutes. After 70 days, several parameters in the explants were evaluated. A greater number of leaves and roots were obtained with0.5 mg L-1 of BAP. The number of roots and their length were larger in the presence of 3 g L-1 of activated charcoal. A larger weight of the fresh matter was obtained in the absence of activated charcoal. The second experiment consisted of plants cv. Cherokee maintained in in vitro conditions and transplanted to plastic trays, containing the substrates and kept in greenhouse. Four types of substrates were tested. After 100 days of acclimatization, the leaf number, root length and aerial part, cool and dry root weight and cool and dry aerial part weight had been evaluated. It was concluded that the acclimatization can be successfully performed using Plantmax. followed by the Plantmax. + vermiculita + rind rice carbonized mixture. There was a 92% rate of the plants' survival in allsubstrates.

  17. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares e rizobactérias promotoras de crescimento na aclimatização de zingiber spectabile Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in the acclimatization of zingiber spectabile

    João Ricardo Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR, isolated and/or combined (in dual inoculation on acclimatization of Zingiber spectabile Griff. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using containers of 300 mL and dust from coconut shell (Amafibra® as substrate. The experimental design was completely randomized with two AMF treatments [Glomus etunicatum (Ge and the mixture of G. etunicatum and Gigaspora margarita (Ge/Gm], two treatments with PGPR inoculation [Bacillus thuringiensis (HPF14 and B. pumilus (HPS6], four treatments combining these microorganisms [Ge+HPS6, Ge+HPF14, Ge/Gm+HPS6 and Ge/Gm+HPF14] and a control treatment (not inoculated, with eight replicates. After 90 days survival percentage, height, leaf area, fresh and dry biomass of shoots (FBS and DBS and roots (FBR and DBR, mycorrhizal colonization and content of macro and micronutrients in the shoot were evaluated. Co-inoculation (Ge/Gm+HPS6 benefited significantly the mycorrhization when compared to the other treatments, resulting in higher FBS than that produced by HPF14 inoculation. Although with 100% survival after the acclimatization period, the development of Z. spectabile inoculated with HPF14 isolated and/or combined with AMF is lower than the observed for control plants. The results suggest that the use of plant growth-promoting microorganisms should be done carefully, considering the cost/benefit of the application.

  18. Le long cheminement vers l’acclimatation

    Tabeaud , Martine

    2013-01-01

    « Lutter contre le changement climatique », selon l’expression impropre mais « consacrée », serait une réponse nécessaire au réchauffement de la planète depuis le milieu du XIX e siècle. Le terme de réchauffement a d’ailleurs été remplacé progressivement par « changement climatique », ce qui élargit la problématique à toutes sortes de conséquences directes ou indirectes de la hausse thermique. Ces dernières étant envisagées comme négatives, alors qu’antérieurement toute période chaude était q...

  19. Influência do substrato e do tipo de fertilizante na aclimatação de mudas de bananeira 'Prata-Anã' Influence of substrate and fertilizer type on the acclimatization of 'Prata-Anã' banana plantlets

    Edson Shigueaki Nomura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se avaliar a influência do substrato e tipo de fertilizante na aclimatação de mudas de bananeira 'Prata-Anã', provenientes de micropropagação, foi instalado um experimento em blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 5 x 3, com quatro repetições. Os substratos utilizados foram: S1 - Terra de subsolo + casca de arroz carbonizada + substrato comercial Rendimax Floreira®; S2 - Terra de subsolo + casca de arroz carbonizada + composto orgânico Organifol®; S3 - Terra de subsolo + casca de arroz carbonizada + composto orgânico Organifol® 9% SiO; S4 - substrato comercial Technes Vivatto®; S5 - Areia grossa + casca de arroz carbonizada + Rendimax Floreira®, todos na proporção 1:1:1 (v/v/v. Os fertilizantes utilizados foram: SF - sem fertilizante; FLL - fertilizante de liberação lenta, 14-14-14 (5,0 kg m-3 misturado ao substrato; e FLN - fertilizante de liberação normal, 14-14-14 (5,0 kg m-3 aplicado em cobertura, 30 dias após o plantio. As mudas foram plantadas em sacos de polietileno quando apresentavam quatro a cinco folhas, sendo mantidas em viveiro com 50% de sombreamento. Foram feitas medidas de altura, diâmetro do colo e número de folhas, e determinada a massa seca das mudas. As diferenças químicas das misturas utilizadas como substrato, juntamente com o tipo de fertilizante utilizado, proporcionaram crescimento diferenciado das mudas. O substrato S4 pode ser utilizado sem fertilização. Os substratos S2 e S3 devem ser utilizados com fertilizante de liberação normal ou lenta de nutrientes, e S1 e S5, sendo pobres em nutrientes, com fertilizante de liberação lenta.With the aim of evaluating the influence of the substrate and fertilizer type on the acclimatization of plantlets of 'Prata-Anã' banana obtained from micropropagation, a complete randomized block design was installed, in a 5 x 3 factorial structure, with four replications. The substrates used were: S1 - subsoil dirt + carbonized rice hull

  20. BAP e substratos na aclimatização de plântulas de gloxínia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern. provenientes de cultura de tecidos BAP and substrates on gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern. plantlets from tissue culture acclimatization

    Adriano Bortolotti da Silva

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A gloxínia é uma planta ornamental cultivada pela exoticidade e variação de coloração de suas flores. Objetivou-se avaliar a influência residual da citocinina 6-Benzilaminopurina (BAP usada durante a cultura in vitro sobre o processo de aclimatização de gloxínia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern.. As concentrações de 0,0; 0,5; 1 e 2,0 mg L-1 de BAP, em cultivo in vitro, foram combinadas com os substratos: vermiculita, plantmax® e vermiculita + plantmax®, durante o processo de aclimatização. Após o processo de inoculação in vitro, o material foi transferido para sala de crescimento com temperatura de 26 ± 1ºC, intensidade luminosa de 35 m mol m² s-1 e fotoperíodo de 16 horas, permanecendo nessas condições por 60 dias. Após esse período, as plantas obtidas foram plantadas nos diferentes substratos. As avaliações foram efetuadas após 120 dias, em casa-de-vegetação, registrando-se o número de brotos, peso da matéria fresca do sistema radicular, peso da matéria seca da planta e número de flores. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o cultivo em substrato plantmax® ou plantmax�� + vermiculita advinda de meio de cultura in vitro isento de BAP.The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP used in acclimatization of gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern. Concentrations of BAP (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 in vitro and substrates (vermiculite, plantmax®, and vermiculite+plantmax® were tested for acclimatization in every possible combination. After in vitro inoculation, the material was transferred to a growth chamber with temperature of 26±1ºC and light intensity of 35 m mol m-2 s-1 for 16 hours, remaining under these conditions for 60 days. After that period, the plants obtained were transferred to pots containing substrates in a greenhouse. The evaluations were performed 120 days after cultivation. It were measured number of shoots, roots dry weight, above

  1. Desempenho do abacaxizeiro 'Vitória' em resposta à aplicação de ácidos húmicos durante a aclimatação Performance of 'Vitória' pineapple in response to humic acid application during acclimatization

    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A aclimatação de mudas de abacaxizeiro propagadas por cultura in vitro é um processo lento. A promoção do crescimento radicular pelo uso de ácidos húmicos pode ser útil durante esse processo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho do abacaxizeiro 'Vitória' propagado por cultura de tecidos em resposta à aplicação de diferentes doses de ácidos húmicos isolados de vermicomposto e de torta de filtro durante o período de aclimatação em casa de vegetação. Foram avaliadas as características anatômicas da lâmina foliar, o teor de pigmentos fotossintéticos, o crescimento da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, e o conteúdo de nutrientes foliares. Os resultados mostraram incrementos no crescimento e desenvolvimento da parte aérea e do sistema radicular com a aplicação de ácidos húmicos, bem como acúmulo significativo de N, P, K, Ca e Mg e aumento na relação clorofila a/clorofila b. A promoção do crescimento das mudas durante o período de aclimatação, em resposta à aplicação de ácidos húmicos, pode melhorar a adaptação do abacaxizeiro ao ambiente ex vitro.The acclimatization of pineapple plantlets propagated by plant tissue culture is slow. The intensification of root growth by the use of humic acids may be useful during this process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the greenhouse acclimatization of 'Vitória' pineapple propagated by plant tissue culture in response to different doses of humic acids isolated from vermicompost and filter cake. Leaf anatomy, photosynthetic pigment content, shoot and root growth, and leaf nutrients were evaluated. An increase in growth and development of shoots and root system with the application of humic acids as well as a significant accumulation of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg and increase in the chlorophyll a / chlorophyll b ratio were found. Growth promotion by the application of humic acids to plantlets during the period of acclimatization can improve their

  2. Cultivo in vitro de embriões zigóticos e aclimatação de plântulas de coqueiro-anão In vitro culture of zygotic embryos and acclimatization of green dwarf coconut palm

    Ana da Silva Lédo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi ajustar os protocolos de cultivo in vitro de embriões zigóticos e de aclimatação de plântulas de coqueiro-anão-verde do Brasil de Jiqui (Cocos nucifera L.. Os embriões zigóticos maduros, colocados assepticamente em meio de cultura líquido Y3 suplementado com 27,8 mg L-1 de Fe2SO4.7H2O e 60 g L-1 de sacarose, apresentaram maior germinação e formação de plântulas normais. As plântulas transferidas para meio indutor de enraizamento Y3, gelificado e suplementado com 1 mg L-1 de ANA, 0,5 mg L-1 de BAP e 2,5 g L-1 de carvão ativado, apresentaram incremento do desenvolvimento radicular e da parte aérea. Na fase de aclimatação, o substrato composto por areia lavada e pó de casca de coco seco, na proporção de 1:1, proporcionou maior sobrevivência das plântulas (58,33%, maior crescimento da parte aérea (39,08 cm e maior número de folhas (6,33. Os protocolos estabelecidos para o cultivo in vitro de embriões zigóticos e a aclimatação de coqueiro-anão-verde de Jiqui podem ser utilizados no intercâmbio e conservação de germoplasma.The objective of this work was to improve the protocols for culture and acclimatization of green dwarf coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.. Mature zygotic embryos, cultivated in vitro aseptically in Y3 liquid medium culture, supplemented with 27.8 mg L-1 of Fe2SO4.7H2O and 60 g L-1 of sucrose, presented higher germination and normal plantlets formation. The plantlets transferred to Y3 semi-solid medium culture supplemented with 1 mg L-1 of ANA, 0.5 mg L-1 of BAP and 2.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal, promoted better root and shoot development. In the acclimatization phase, the 1:1 substrate composed of washed sand and coconut coir dust provided higher survival of plantlets (58.33%, larger growth of the aerial part (39.08 cm and larger number of leaves (6.33. The established protocols for in vitro culture of zygotic embryos and acclimatization of green dwarf coconut palm

  3. Crescimento de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira aclimatizadas nas condições da Amazônia Sul Ocidental sob a influência de diferentes substratos e recipientes Growth of micropropagated banana plantlets acclimatized on conditions of South West Amazon under the influence of different substrates and recipients

    Janiffe Peres de Oliveira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Para laboratórios que produzem milhares de plantas micropropagadas regularmente, a otimização da fase de aclimatização é de fundamental importância para evitar perdas excessivas de plantas, bem como favorecer seu crescimento. O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o crescimento de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira na aclimatização, sob a influência de diferentes substratos e recipientes, nas condições da Amazônia Sul-Ocidental. Após o sexto subcultivo, brotações de bananeira, cv. Grand Naine (AAA, foram enraizadas em meio MS básico sendo, posteriormente, transferidas para viveiro onde foram plantadas em tubetes de 115 cm³ e 180 cm³ preenchidos com seis diferentes substratos, formulados a partir da combinação de terra de encosta, esterco bovino e casca de arroz carbonizada. Avaliações sobre sobrevivência, altura da parte aérea e diâmetro do pseudocaule foram realizadas quinzenalmente, sendo que, ao final de 75 dias, também foi determinada a massa fresca e seca das plantas. Observou-se que a sobrevivência das plantas não foi influenciada pelo uso de tubetes de 115 cm³ ou 180 cm³, no entanto, plantas aclimatizadas em tubetes de 180 cm³ apresentam maior crescimento em altura e diâmetro do pseudocaule e, conseqüentemente, maior acúmulo de massa fresca e seca das partes aérea e raízes, durante a aclimatização, quando comparados aos tubetes com 115 cm³ de capacidade. Entre os substratos, verificou-se que aqueles que continham esterco bovino na sua composição, proporcionaram resultados superiores quando comparados aos demais substratos testados para todas as variáveis analisadas, sendo este, portanto, um importante componente no desenvolvimento das plantas durante a fase de aclimatização.For laboratories that produce thousands of micropropagated plants regularly, the optimization of the acclimatization phase is of fundamental importance to avoid excessive losses and to promote the development of the plants

  4. Selection of Dendrobium phalaenopsis (Orchidaceae genotypes in the in vitro propagation and acclimatization phases / Seleção de genótipos de Dendrobium phalaenopsis (Orchidaceae nas fases de propagação in vitro e aclimatização

    Inês Cristina de Batista Fonseca

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The hybridization of orchids have been done to propitiate a production of cultivars with commercial interesting that show high vigor, great number of fowers and variability of colors. This research had the objective to select favorable genotypes of Dendrobium phalaenopsis for in vitro propagation and acclimatization, resulted from crossing and self- fertilizations of selected plants matrix. For the realization of crossing and self-fertilizations 56 plants of D. phalaenopsis were utilized, totalizing 109 combinations. From the 109 crossing and self-pollinations, only 13 crossing and 3 self-pollinations showed enough number of seedlings for an evaluation. After fve months, 15 seedlings from each crossing and self-pollinationss were evaluated by the following characteristics: length of the aerial part, number of roots, weight of the total fresh mass, length of the biggest root and number of buds. The others seedlings were planted in trays of styrofoam and after four months the rate of survival were evaluated. The most favorable genotype for the in vitro propagation and acclimatization was the crossing DF18 x DF13.A hibridação de orquídeas é realizada para propiciar a produção de cultivares de interesse comercial que apresentem alto vigor, grande número de fores e variabilidade de cores. O trabalho teve por objetivo a seleção de genótipos de Dendrobium phalaenopsis favoráveis para a propagação in vitro e aclimatização, resultantes de cruzamentos e autofecundações de plantas matrizes selecionadas. Foram utilizadas 56 plantas de D. phalaenopsis para a realização dos cruzamentos e autofecundações, totalizando 109 combinações. Dos 109 cruzamentos e autofecundações realizados, apenas 13 cruzamentos e 3 autofecundações apresentaram número de plântulas sufcientes para as avaliações. Após cinco meses, 15 plântulas de cada cruzamento e autofecundação foram submetidas à avaliação das características: comprimento da parte

  5. Autonomic nervous system activity during acclimatization after rapid air travel across time zones: A case study [Aktivita autonomního nervového systému během aklimatizace po rychlém přeletu časových pásem: Kazuistika

    Michal Botek

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rapid transition across time zones also known as jet lag syndrome leads to desynchronization of our endogenous "biological" clock and causes a transient decrease in the adaptation capacity of an athlete. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to verify the use of the spectral analysis of heart rate variability (SA HRV method as a tool for classification of the answer of the body to both the rapid transition across time zones and the training intensity level during the following acclimatization. METHODS: Changes in autonomic activity were assessed by SA HRV during acclimatization after eastward (+6 hours and westward (–7 hours flights in two elite athletes. RESULTS: The results revealed that the athlete, who undertook a flight from Prague to Beijing (China, was able to start with intensive training during the fourth day of his acclimatization. No acute decrease in training ability (adaptability was found in the athlete after the flight from Prague to Bogota (Columbia. Significant modifications in her training load level were made only on the third day in Columbia. The study confirmed that the reaction of the body to the rapid transition across time zones is highly individual. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, in the future, the SA HRV method could become a promising tool for solving questions of both the acclimatization strategy and the optimizing of sport performance in elite athletes. [VÝCHODISKA: Vlivem rychlého přesunu přes časová pásma dochází k poruše vnitřních regulací organismu, které mohou být u sportovců příčinou přechodného poklesu jejich tréninkové adaptační kapacity. CÍLE: Cílem práce bylo ověřit možnost využití metody spektrální analýzy variability srdeční frekvence (SA HRV jako nástroje pro hodnocení aktivity autonomního nervového systému (ANS, který se podílí na regulaci těchto změn souvisejících s aklimatizací. METODY: U dvou vrcholových sportovců, kteří absolvovali p

  6. Avaliação de substratos e adubos orgânicos na aclimatização de plântulas de Heliconia psittacorum Evaluation of substrates and organic fertilizers in the acclimatization of plantlets of Heliconia psittacorum

    Maurício Reginaldo Alves dos Santos

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de três substratos orgânicos - casca de arroz carbonizada, pó de casca de coco seco e verde - e dois adubos -Vitasolo® e húmus de minhoca -, na aclimatização de plântulas de Heliconia psittacorum L., provenientes da micropropagação. Aos 75 dias, avaliaram-se a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do pseudocaule, o número de folhas e a área da terceira folha. A casca de arroz foi mais eficiente que o pó de casca de coco, verde ou seco; o pó de casca de coco verde foi mais eficiente que o pó de casca de coco seco; e o húmus foi mais eficiente que o Vitasolo®.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of three organic substrates, carbonised rice hull, dry and green coir dust, and two fertilizers, Vitasolo® and earthworm humus, in the acclimatization of plantlets of Heliconia psittacorum L., obtained from micropropagation. After 75 days, the height of the plants, diameter of pseudo-stem, number of leaves and area of the third leaf were evaluated. The rice hull was more efficient than the coir dust (dry or green; the green coir dust was more efficient than dry coir dust; and the humus was more efficient than Vitasolo®.

  7. 树麻雀代谢率和器官重量在季节驯化中表型的可塑性变化%Phenotypic flexibility of metabolic rate and organ masses among tree sparrows Passer montanus in seasonal acclimatization

    柳劲松; 李铭

    2006-01-01

    Acclimatization to winter conditions is an essential prerequisite for survival of small passerines of the northern temperate zone. In this study, we measured seasonal changes in basal metabolic rate (BMR) and organ mass, and evaluated the relationship between BMR, organ mass in tree sparrows Passer montanus. The results were used to test the 'energy demand' hypothesis for adjustments in metabolic rate. The energy demand hypothesis posits that birds adjust the size of their internal organs relative to food intake, a correlate of energy demand. Winter and autumn sparrows demonstrated significantly higher BMR than their spring and summer counterparts. Winter and autumn birds also had higher liver, heart, gizzard, small intestine, rectum and total digestive tract than spring and summer birds. These data support the view that prominent winter increases in BMR are components of winter acclimatization in tree sparrows and that seasonal changes in metabolism in sparrows are similar to those for other small temperate-wintering birds. Meanwhile, these data test the hypothesis that central organs have a significant positive relationship with BMR. The relationship between BMR and internal organs could be due to either (or both) increased energy demand or seasonal shifts in diet[Acta Zoologica Sinica 52(3):469-477,2006].%动物能量代谢的生理生态特征与物种的分布和丰富度密切相关,基础代谢率(BMR)是内温动物能量预算的重要组成部分.北温带的小型鸟类,通过增加产热来适应低温环境.增加BMR的基础之一是中心器官(代谢机器)发生明显的变化.本研究中我们测定了树麻雀(Passer montanus)的BMR、体重和各器官的重量,分析了麻雀各器官的季节性变化及与BMR的关系.方差分析表明:麻雀的BMR存在明显的季节性变化,在冬季和秋季较高.麻雀内部器官的变化同样有明显的季节性,冬季和秋季麻雀的肝脏、心脏、肌胃、小肠、直肠和整体消化道

  8. Micropropagação, aclimatização, teor e composição química do óleo essencial de genótipos de hortelã japonesa Micropropagation, acclimatization, essential oil content and chemical composition of japanese mint genotypes

    Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A hortelã japonesa (Mentha arvensis é uma espécie aromática, originária do sul da China, o seu óleo essencial é rico em mentol, o qual é empregado nas indústrias farmacêuticas, de alimentos e de cosméticos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver um protocolo para a micropropagação e aclimatização de genótipos de hortelã japonesa, além de analisar a composição química dos óleos essenciais de plantas micropropagadas e não micropropagadas. Segmentos nodais são os mais indicados para a micropropagação dos genótipos de M. arvensis. A concentração de 4,4 µM de AIA promoveu um maior número de brotos e folhas por explante do genótipo MA701-02, em relação aos demais genótipos. A utilização de 4,4 µM AIA e 9,3 µM CIN + 8,9 µM BAP + 2,2 µM AIA proporcionou maior acúmulo de massa seca no genótipo MA701-02, e no MA701-04 foi a concentração de 8,9 µM BAP + 5,4 µM ANA. O substrato pó de coco + 1 g L-1 de calcário + 12 g L-1 de Biosafra® (3-12-6 pode ser indicado para a aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas dos genótipos de hortelã japonesa avaliados. A micropropagação não alterou o teor de óleo essencial e foram identificados 17 constituintes químicos, perfazendo um total de 92 a 99%.Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis L. is an aromatic species originated from South China and its essential oil is rich in menthol, which is used in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. The aim of this work was to develop a protocol for micropropagation and acclimatization of japanese mint genotypes and analyze the chemical composition of the essential oils from micropropagated and not micropropagated plants. Nodal segments are the most indicated for micropropagation of the M. arvensis genotypes. The concentration of 4.4 µM of IAA promoved higher number of shoots and leaves per explant of the MA701-02 genotype when compared with the others. The use of 4,4 µM of IAA and 9,3 µM of KIN + 8,9 µM of BAP + 2

  9. 热习服对高温力竭运动大鼠体液调节激素及下丘脑抗利尿激素合成的影响%Heat Acclimatization Promotes Exercise Capacity of Rats in a Warm Environment

    董柔; 封文平; 曾凡星; 陈宜威

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper was to observe the effect of heat acclimatization on serum Na+, K+, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), and atrial natriuretic peptide(ANP) after prolonged exercise in a warm environment. Methods 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group (A) .prolonged exercise in warm environment group(B) and prolonged exercise in warm environment after heat acclimatization group(C). The temperature and humidity of normal environment were set at 25℃ and 50% .respectively. The warm environment was created in a chamber with 38℃ of temperature and 50% of humidity. Rats in group C underwent exhaustive treadmill training at the speed of 18m/min and slope of 0° for 14 days in warm environment. Then,rats in groups B and C carried on treadmill training at the speed of 20m/min and slope of 0° in warm environment till exhaustion. Body weight and rectal temperature of the rats were measured before and after the experiment, and exhaustive exercise duration of groups B and C was recorded. Immediately after exhaustion,serum Na+,K+,ANP,aldosterone(ALD), ADH in hypothalamus were tested. Results (l)The exhaustive exercise duration of group C (75.20+15.39 min) was significantly longer than group B (27.67±4.80 min)(P < 0.01). (2)The weight loss in % of group G was greater than that of group B(P < 0.01) ; plasma osmotic pressure of group C(316.50 ±3.63 mmol/L) was significantly higher than that in group B (304.75±5.90 mmol/L) (P < 0.01).(3)After exhaustive exercise in warm environment, the concentration of serum ADH in groups B and C was higher than that in group A(P < 0.05) ,and in group C was lower than that in group B(P < 0.05); The concentration of serum ALD of groups B and C was higher than that of group A (P < 0.01), The concentration of serum ANP of group B and C was lower than that of group A (P < 0.05).(4)The expression of ADH mRNA in hypothalamus of group B( 1.51+0.18) increased more significantly than that of group A(1.04

  10. Aclimatação do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 à água doce com diferentes estratégias de alimentação e calagem = Acclimatization of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 to the freshwater with different feeding and liming strategies

    Paulo de Paula Mendes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pós-Larvas do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei, na fase de PL9-10 e PL25-26 foram aclimatadas à água doce (0,0 ‰, objetivando promover cultivos em regiões interioranas. Para isso, foram realizados dois experimentos conduzidos em aquários com capacidade útil de 44 litros e densidade de estocagem de 11,36 pós-larvas/L. No experimento 1, foram testadas diferentes concentrações de cal hidratada (0,018 g a 0,031 g e 2 dietas, formuladas à base de ração comercial para camarão e biomassa de artêmia. No experimento 2, foram testadas 5dietas com diferentes concentrações de biomassa de artêmia (0% a 100%, inseridas em rações de peixes e camarões. No final do processo de aclimatação, a sobrevivência das póslarvas variou de 40,44% a 98,04%. Concluiu-se que pós-larvas do Litopenaeus vannamei podem ser aclimatadas à água doce e que o aumento da concentração de cal e de artêmia na ração melhoraram significativamente (pLitopenaeus vannamei postlarvae with 9-10 (PL9-10, 25-26 days old (PL25-26 were acclimated to freshwater (0 ppt for the purpose of attending the inland cultures. Two experiments were conducted in 44 liter aquariums with stocking density of 11.36 postlarvae/L. In experiment 01, different concentrations of hydrated lime (0.018 g a 0.031 g and two diets, formulated with commercial shrimp ration and artemia biomass, were tested. In experiment 02, five diets, withdifferent concentrations of artemia biomass (0 to 100% inserted in fish and shrimp rations, were tested. At the end of the acclimatization process, the postlarvae survival varied from40.44 to 98.04%. Results showed that Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae can be acclimated to freshwater. Also, the increase of lime concentration and the artemia biomass in the ration improved (p<0.05 the zootechnic parameters of the species in a significant way.

  11. Análise do desempenho reprodutivo e do uso de energia elétrica em instalações climatizadas de cachaços Analysis of reproductive performance and use of electrical energy in the acclimatized facilities of boars

    Luiz A. Rossi

    2012-10-01

    there was no improvement in the mean values of seminal volume and sperm concentration. It is worthwhile to mention that monthly increase in energy costs due to use of acclimatization and automation equipments were not significant as the equipments are of low energy consumption.

  12. Efeito do cultivo in vitro na presença de NaCl em plantas de abacaxizeiro na fase de aclimatação Effects of in vitro culture in the presence of NaCl in pineapple plants during the acclimatization phase

    Paulo A. V. Barroso

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A cultura de tecidos tem sido utilizada como ferramenta para gerar e selecionar variabilidade genética que confira maior tolerância das espécies cultivadas à salinidade. Plantas de abacaxi das variedades Pérola e Smooth Cayenne foram micropropagadas em meio de cultura contendo zero, 12,5 e 25 mM de NaCl e avaliadas durante a fase de aclimatação quanto às alterações induzidas pelo NaCl durante o cultivo in vitro e para determinar o melhor parâmetro para quantificar estas alterações. Foram avaliados os caracteres altura das plantas, diâmetro da roseta foliar, número de folhas, comprimento e largura da folha ‘D’ aos 0, 15, 45, 75 e 105 dias após a instalação do experimento. Observou-se que as plantas micropropagadas em meio com NaCl e sem NaCl apresentaram médias e taxas de crescimento semelhantes, mas diferiram quanto às correlações entre os caracteres e às variâncias fenotípicas. Os resultados indicaram que a variância fenotípica foi o parâmetro mais adequado para avaliar o impacto da seleção in vitro sobre caracteres aparentemente não relacionados com a salinidade em plantas de abacaxi.Plant tissue culture has been used to induce and select genetic variability in order to increase the level of salinity tolerance in several species. Pineapple plants from Pérola and Smooth Cayenne varieties were micropropagated for six months in a medium with 0, 12.5 and 25 mM of NaCl and evaluated during the acclimatization phase to verify the changes induced by NaCl during in vitro cultivation and to determine the best parameter to quantify these changes. The traits evaluated for plant height, plant diameter, leaf number, length and width of the D leaf at 0, 15, 45, 75 and 105 days after the installation of the experiment. There was no effect of different levels of NaCl during the micropropagation on the traits and mean growing rates. Differences were found in the correlation coefficients between the characters and mainly, in

  13. Estudo de simulações de microclimas em casas de vegetação visando à aclimatação de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira cv Grande Naine Simulations of microclimate in greenhouses aiming the acclimatization of micropropagated seedlings of banana cv. Grande Naine

    Ciro Scaranari

    2008-12-01

    fotovoltaicos de silício, por volta das 9h, 12h e 15h, sob condições de céu claro e encoberto, durante o verão de 2004/05 e inverno de 2005. As malhas vermelhas apresentam transmitâncias diferenciadas ao longo do espectro da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa, constituindo-se assim em interessantes materiais para os pretendidos estudos sobre aclimatação. Resultados mostram maiores reduções na faixa RFA para as telas vermelhas, independentes do horário, insolação e estação do ano, concordantes com aqueles obtidos por espectro-radiômetro.In acclimatization processes, the environment control takes over a part of vital importance, since in in vitro condition banana seedlings do not efficiently operate the absorption of light, water and nutrients. Therefore, they should be submitted to controlled environments under feasible conditions of luminosity, temperature (around 28ºC, with minimum of 18ºC and maximum of 34ºC, and relative humidity above 75%. For this purpose, it was installed five mini tunnels with controlled temperature and relative humidity. For the control of temperature it was used pad-fan evaporative coolers at 28/25ºC. For the control of relative humidity it was used fogging during the day at 75% under intermittence of 6s at each 40s. For temperature and relative humidity monitoring, it was installed three aspirate psychrometers in each mini tunnel connected to a data logger for daily acquisition every 60s. Temperature and relative air humidity were adequate for plants development, however significant differences were observed between the different environment conditions. For luminosity study, under transparent plastic film (low density polyethylene of 100µm thickness, it was used four meshes with average shading in the PAR spectrum band (400 to 700nm of 69.92%, 50.73%, 29.73%, and 57.77%, being the first three in red color (with top level at 580nm, and abrupt reduction after that, the fourth mesh was black (linear behavior. The fifth tunnel had

  14. Role of predator cues in developmental acclimatization of locomotor capacity

    Bainová, H.; Vinkler, M.; Promerová, Marta; Bryjová, Anna; Bryja, Josef; Albrecht, T.

    Prague : Society for Experimental Biology, 2010. s. 103. [SEB Annual Main Meeting 2010. 30.06.2010-03.07.2010, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : passerine birds * evolution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://www.sebiology.org/meetings/Past_Meetings/prague/Abstracts/C4.pdf

  15. In vitro development and acclimatization of dendezeiro (Elaeis guineensis)

    Marlúcia Souza Souza Pádua; Luciano Viela Paiva; Luis Gustavo Texeira da Silva; Luciano Coutinho Silva; Vanessa Cristina Stein

    2014-01-01

    Fruits and almond from the dendezeiro, oil palmbelonging to the Elaeis genus,are widely used for the production of cookingoils or for the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.In the last decade, this oil palm also emerged as a promising source for commercialbiofuel production. This study evaluated the effect of different culture media, MS (MURASHIGUE AND SKOOG) and Y3 (EEUWENS)and carbohydrates duringin vitro germination of zygotic embryos, the effect of growth regulators GA3, NAA and BA Po...

  16. Crescimento in vitro e aclimatização de Cattleya loddigesii Lindley (Orchidaceae com carvão ativado sob dois espectros luminosos In vitro growth and acclimatization of Cattleya loddigesii Lindley (Orchidaceae with actived charcoal in two light spectra

    Renato Fernandes Galdiano Júnior

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a adição de concentrações de carvão ativado em meio de cultura ½ MS (com metade da concentração dos macronutrientes sob dois espectros luminosos para a obtenção de plântulas in vitro de Cattleya loddigesii. Plântulas com aproximadamente 90 dias foram subcultivadas em oito tratamentos, nos quais foi testada a adição ao meio de cultura ½ MS com carvão ativado (0; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0g L-1 e combinados sob espectro de luz branca e luz vermelha. Após 180 dias da germinação, foram mensurados dados biométricos (raiz e parte aérea, massa fresca e teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos. Em plântulas aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação, foram avaliadas a taxa de sobrevivência após 120 dias. As concentrações de clorofila total, clorofila a e carotenoides foram maiores nos tratamentos sob luz branca, enquanto a luz vermelha influenciou significativamente maior clorofila b, plântulas com menos raízes e de menor comprimento e elevada mortalidade ex vitro. A adição de 2,0g L-1 de carvão ativado ao meio de cultura e o uso de luz branca proporcionaram maior eficiência de desenvolvimento tanto para as culturas in vitro quanto para a sobrevivência ex vitro das plantas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of activated charcoal in ½ MS (half concentration of macronutrients culture medium under two light spectra on the in vitro growth of Cattleya loddigesii seedlings. Plantlets with approximately 90 days were subcultured under eight treatments, consisting of different active charcoal concentrations (0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0g L-1 in ½ MS medium combined with white and red light spectra. After 180 days of germination, biometric data, fresh weight, and the level of photosynthetic pigments were evaluated. Plantlets acclimatized in a greenhouse were evaluated for survival after 120 days. Total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, and carotenoid concentrations were higher in

  17. Micorriza arbuscular e matéria orgânica na aclimatização de mudas de bananeira, cultivar nanicão Arbuscular mycorrhizal and organic matter on the acclimatization of banana-tree seedlings, cv. Nanicão

    Rosa Maria Barbosa Matos

    2002-12-01

    substrata with 0, 10 and 20% of organic matter, in the presence or absence of the fungus Glomus clarum. The results showed a significant positive effect of the inoculation on seedling height and number of leaves, 65 days after acclimatization. At 93 days, this positive effect was shown also by the pseudostem diameter. After harvest, the seedlings inoculated with G. clarum showed a significant increase in leaf, pseudostem and root dry matter, as well as total phosphorus content and radicular ratio efficiency in comparison to non-inoculated seedlings. As a rule, the addition of organic matter to the substratum led to an increase in the development of banana seedlings, cv. Nanicão, even in the absence of G. clarum.

  18. Aclimatação do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 à água doce com diferentes estratégias de alimentação e calagem - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.668 Acclimatization of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 to the freshwater with different feeding and liming strategies - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.668

    Bruno Leonardo da Silva Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pós-Larvas do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei, na fase de PL9-10 e PL25-26 foram aclimatadas à água doce (0,0 ‰, objetivando promover cultivos em regiões interioranas. Para isso, foram realizados dois experimentos conduzidos em aquários com capacidade útil de 44 litros e densidade de estocagem de 11,36 pós-larvas/L. No experimento 1, foram testadas diferentes concentrações de cal hidratada (0,018 g a 0,031 g e 2 dietas, formuladas à base de ração comercial para camarão e biomassa de artêmia. No experimento 2, foram testadas 5 dietas com diferentes concentrações de biomassa de artêmia (0% a 100%, inseridas em rações de peixes e camarões. No final do processo de aclimatação, a sobrevivência das póslarvas variou de 40,44% a 98,04%. Concluiu-se que pós-larvas do Litopenaeus vannamei podem ser aclimatadas à água doce e que o aumento da concentração de cal e de artêmia na ração melhoraram significativamente (p Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae with 9-10 (PL9-10, 25-26 days old (PL25-26 were acclimated to freshwater (0 ppt for the purpose of attending the inland cultures. Two experiments were conducted in 44 liter aquariums with stocking density of 11.36 postlarvae/L. In experiment 01, different concentrations of hydrated lime (0.018 g a 0.031 g and two diets, formulated with commercial shrimp ration and artemia biomass, were tested. In experiment 02, five diets, with different concentrations of artemia biomass (0 to 100% inserted in fish and shrimp rations, were tested. At the end of the acclimatization process, the postlarvae survival varied from 40.44 to 98.04%. Results showed that Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae can be acclimated to freshwater. Also, the increase of lime concentration and the artemia biomass in the ration improved (p < 0.05 the zootechnic parameters of the species in a significant way.

  19. The susceptibility and resilience of corals to thermal stress: adaptation, acclimatization or both?

    Weis, Virginia M

    2010-04-01

    Coral reefs are threatened with worldwide decline from multiple factors, chief among them climate change (Hughes et al. 2003; Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2007). The foundation of coral reefs is an endosymbiosis between coral hosts and their resident photosynthetic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium) and this partnership (or holobiont) is exquisitely sensitive to temperature stress. The primary response to hyperthermic stress is coral bleaching, which is the loss of symbionts from coral tissues-the collapse of the symbiosis (Weis 2008). Bleaching can result in increased coral mortality which can ultimately lead to severely compromised reef health (Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2007). Despite this grim picture of coral bleaching and reef degradation, coral susceptibility to stress and bleaching is highly variable (Coles & Brown 2003). There is enormous interest in discovering the factors that determine susceptibility in order to help us predict if and how corals will survive a period of rapid global warming. In this issue, Barshis et al. (2010) examine the ecophysiological and genetic basis for differential responses to stress in Porites lobata in American Samoa. They combine a reciprocal transplant experimental design between two neighbouring, but very different reef environments with state-of-the-art physiological biomarkers and molecular genetic markers for both partners to tease apart the contribution of environmental and fixed influences on stress susceptibility. Their results suggest the presence of a fixed, rather than environmental effect on expression of ubiquitin conjugates, one key marker for physiological stress response. In addition, the authors show genetic differentiation in host populations between the two sites suggesting strong selection for physiological adaptation to differing environments across small geographic distances. These conclusions point the study of coral resilience and susceptibility in a new direction. PMID:20456235

  20. Retinal vessel diameters in relation to hematocrit variation during acclimatization of highlanders to sea level altitude

    Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Sander, Birgit; Zubieta-Calleja, Gustavo;

    2009-01-01

    traveled by airplane to Copenhagen, Denmark, near sea level. RESULTS: In the study subjects, hematocrit decreased from 49.6% (day 2) to 45.9% (P = 0.0066, day 23) and 41.7% (P <0.0001, day 72); from days 2 to 23, retinal vein diameter increased by 2.68% (P = 0.0079); whereas retinal artery and vein...

  1. An inquiry into the role of cardiac filling pressure in acclimatization to heat.

    Senay, L. C.

    1986-01-01

    During the first exposure of exercising subjects to hot environments (30-50 degrees C), cardiac output, heart rate, and body temperature increase over that seen in cool environments, while stroke volume decreases. If daily heat exposures occur, during the second heat exposure, heart rates and rectal temperatures are decreased from day 1 while cardiac output is maintained. This decrease in physiological strain occurs with little or no increase in evaporative heat loss. The alleviating agent ap...

  2. Acclimatization of microbial consortia to alkaline conditions and enhanced electricity generation.

    Zhang, Enren; Zhai, Wenjing; Luo, Yue; Scott, Keith; Wang, Xu; Diao, Guowang

    2016-07-01

    Air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs), obtained by inoculating with an aerobic activated sludge, were activated over a one month period, at pH 10.0, to obtain alkaline MFCs. The alkaline MFCs produced stable power of 118mWm(-2) and a maximum power density of 213mWm(-2) at pH 10.0, using glucose as substrate. The performance of the MFCs was enhanced to produce a stable power of 140mWm(-2) and a maximum power density of 235mWm(-2) by increasing pH to 11.0. This is the highest pH for stably operating MFCs reported in the literature. Power production was found to be suppressed at higher pH (12.0) and lower pH (9.0). Microbial analysis indicated that Firmicutes phylum was largely enriched in the anodic biofilms (88%), within which Eremococcus genus was the dominant group (47%). It is the first time that Eremococcus genus was described in bio-electrochemical systems. PMID:27061261

  3. CrossTalk proposal: Heat acclimatization does improve performance in a cool condition.

    Minson, Christopher T; Cotter, James D

    2016-01-15

    We believe available data support the thesis that HA can improve performance in cool conditions, and perhaps with less expense and fewer side-effects than hypoxia (Dempsey & Morgan, 2015), but its utility is unresolved and may be modest or absent in some settings and individuals. A few key issues are becoming clear, however. First, HA must be of sufficient stimulus and duration, with key evidence indicating longer is better. Second, individual variability in response to HA as an ergogenic aid needs to be considered. Third, key training aspects such as speed and intensity may need to be maintained, and ideally performed in a cooler environment to maximize gains and minimize fatigue (including the effects of matched absolute versus relative work rates on adaptations). Alternatively, passive heating should be considered (e.g. immediately after training). Fourth, there is no evidence that HA impairs cool weather performance, and thus HA is a useful strategy when the competitive environmental conditions are potentially hot or unknown. Fifth, much remains unknown about ideal timing for competition following HA and its decay. Lastly, an ergogenic effect of HA has yet to be studied in truly elite athletes. PMID:26668072

  4. Effects of immersion system and gibberellic acid on the growth and acclimatization of micropropagated pineapple

    Ramon Felipe Scherer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation based techniques enable the mass production of pest- and disease-free stock plants. Aiming at optimizing pineapple [Ananas comosus (L. Merril] micropropagation, a complete randomized experiment with three factors was established: immersion system (2 L twin flasks temporary immersion and permanent immersion; culture medium (supplemented or not with GA3 ; and shoot height class. The effects on regeneration rate (number of new shoots per 1 g fresh mass (FM of inoculated microshoots, FM per shoot, and shoot survival were evaluated. Significant interactions (p<0.05 were observed in the regeneration rate, and simple effects (p<0.05 were detected for FM per shoot. All treatments resulted in a survival rate higher than 95%. Altogether, it was found that 2 L twin flasks temporary immersion and MS culture medium free of GA3 allowed the optimization of the protocol used. This treatment was tested with positive response in a biofactory system that uses sterile plastic bottles (5 L.

  5. Randomness and changes of heart rate and respiratory frequency during high altitude mountain ascent without acclimatization

    Wesfreid, Eva; Billat, Véronique

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to detect and compare the changes in the time-frequency and fractal scaling behaviors of heart rate (HR) and respiratory frequency (Rf), recorded simultaneously during a high altitude mountain ascent. The time-frequency analysis was performed using the local cosine4 orthonormal bases of Coifman, Malvar and Meyer, whose spectrum is not redundant as those computed with the short Fourier transform. The fractal scaling behavior was obtained using the detrended fluctuation (DFA) and the wavelet leaders (WL) analysis. Results showed that the high altitude mountain ascent differently affected HR and Rf variability. Rf average values increased (p=0.0003) while HR average values did not change. The scaling variability of HR was altered during the mountain ascent, which was detected by the increasing HR short range DFA exponents with altitude (paltitude (p=0.04) in contrast to HR. In most of these HR and Rf analyses, one of the two time series was significantly modified but not both. Moreover, the Rf local cosine4 spectrum had higher entropy compared to HR (paltitude increased this difference.

  6. The Use Heat Acclimatization to Improve the Growth Performance of Heat Stressed Buffaloes Using Radioimmunoassay

    Heat acclimation is a slowly developing response evoked by chronic exposure to moderate heat under controlled environment. the objective of the present study was to elucidate the feasibility and validity of heat acclimation in Egyptian buffaloes. eight male buffalo calves were exposed to adjustment period of mild climate for 3 weeks (20 C and 75% Rh), then exposed to heat treatment period for 4 days(40 C and 45% Rh). after the end of heat exposure period, the animals were acclimated by exposing them to warm climate for 3 weeks at (30 C and 55% Rh). to test the validity of heat acclimation, the animals were exposed to (43 C and 45% Rh) for 4 days.then the heat-induced change % before acclimation were compared with those after acclimation to find out if the latter are less in magnitude. blood samples were taken at different intervals for each period .the biochemical parameters estimated were glucose, kidney function (urea and creatinine), liver function (ALT and AST) , total proteins, total lipids, cortisol, T4 hormones and digestibility . the physiological parameters estimated were rectal temperature (RT) , respiration rate (RR) and body weight (BW)

  7. Diversity of Araliaceae in Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve, West Sumatra and its acclimatization

    DWI MURTI PUSPITANINGTYAS

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve is a conservation area in West Sumatra Province, which contains high diversity of plants including Araliaceae. Araliaceae mostly consist of attractive plants which have potentiallity as ornamental plants. The aim of this research is to record the diversity of Araliaceae in Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve. The result of the study indicates that there are, species of Araliaceae found in Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve, which are : Arthrophyllum diversifolium, Brassaiopsis glomerulata, Brassaiopsis sumatrana var. variaefolia, Macropanax dispermus, Schefflera elliptica, S. farinosa, S. lucescens, S. scandens, Schefflera sp., and Trevesia beccarii, in which Bogor Botanic Garden collected 6 species of them, i.e.: Brassaiopsis glomerulata, Brassaiopsis sumatrana var. variaefolia, Macropanax dispermus, Schefflera elliptica, S. scandens, Schefflera sp. Most of the collections are successfully acclimated in the gardens.

  8. The debate about acclimatization in the Dutch East Indies (1840-1860).

    A. de Knecht-van Eekelen

    2000-01-01

    Around the middle of the nineteenth century, conflicting views were put forward on the influence of climate on health and disease in the Dutch East Indies. In this part of the world, old Hippocratic ideas influenced views on the cause of disease much longer than in the Netherlands. Moreover, Brunonian theories--which had been discarded in the Netherlands--fitted the discussion about the effect of temperature on the body. Additionally, scientific medicine was introduced. Scientific methods, su...

  9. The debate about acclimatization in the Dutch East Indies (1840-1860).

    de Knecht-van Eekelen, A

    2000-01-01

    Around the middle of the nineteenth century, conflicting views were put forward on the influence of climate on health and disease in the Dutch East Indies. In this part of the world, old Hippocratic ideas influenced views on the cause of disease much longer than in the Netherlands. Moreover, Brunonian theories--which had been discarded in the Netherlands--fitted the discussion about the effect of temperature on the body. Additionally, scientific medicine was introduced. Scientific methods, such as the collection of meteorological and statistical data, were promoted by a small group of military health officers. However, the use of scientific data did not guarantee a clear-cut opinion on the causes of disease. Numbers proved as disputable as other, less objective, medical observations. Mortality statistics and numbers of patients especially were used as arguments in various discussions. The example of Bosch, who changed his views on the dangers of tropical climate, demonstrates that statistics could be used for different purposes. At first, in his position as General Inspector, he used them as an argument to provide better care for the military personnel; later, when retired and a civilian, he used them as justification for colonization in relation to an intended improvement of the living conditions of the natives. The dangers of tropical climate for the health of Europeans were played down as soon as other--primarily economic--motives for living in the tropics became strong enough. PMID:11769938

  10. Dexamethasone mimics aspects of physiological acclimatization to 8 hours of hypoxia but suppresses plasma erythropoietin

    LIU, CHUN; Croft, Quentin P P; Kalidhar, Swati; Jerome T Brooks; Herigstad, Mari; Smith, Thomas G.; Dorrington, Keith L.; Robbins, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Dexamethasone ameliorates the severity of acute mountain sickness (AMS) but it is unknown whether it obtunds normal physiological responses to hypoxia. We studied whether dexamethasone enhanced or inhibited the ventilatory, cardiovascular, and pulmonary vascular responses to sustained (8 h) hypoxia. Eight healthy volunteers were studied, each on four separate occasions, permitting four different protocols. These were: dexamethasone (20 mg orally) beginning 2 h before a control period of 8 h o...

  11. Phenology, in vitro cultivation, and acclimatization of the endangered bromeliad species Nidularium minutum Mez

    Flávia Maria Kazue Kurita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the phenology of a species indicates the most favorable period to harvest mature seeds, which may be used for producing seedlings through effective methods as in vitro cultivation. This technique has been regarded as a strategy for the propagation of endangered species, such as the bromeliad species Nidularium minutum Mez. This article aimed at identifying the time of fructification and seed production of in situ specimens of N. minutum and establishing a protocol of in vitro cultivation through seeds. The species phenology was followed up for 12 months in plants at the Alto da Serra Biological Station, in Paranapiacaba, São Paulo, Brazil. The results showed that the best time to harvest seeds was from June to August 2008. The germination process occurred at all temperatures tested, being more effective at 26°C, with no need of mineral nutrients. The best conditions for growing plants occurred with the same temperature, with Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing half the macronutrient concentration. By means of this protocol, it is possible to preserve in vitro plants and optimize their production to be used in restocking programs.

  12. CYANIDE HYDRATASE PRODUCTION USING ACCLIMATIZED STRAIN OF STREPTOMYCES PHAEOVIRIDAE AND ITS CHARACTERIZATION

    Shete HG* and Kapdnis BP

    2013-01-01

    Cyanide and cyanide compounds are produced on the industrial scale to use in the metal extraction, electroplating, polymer, steel, carbonization, organic chemicals, pharmaceuticals and agricultural product industries. Cyanide is a respiratory inhibitor and it affects the living cell by binding with the enzyme cytochrome C oxidase. Cyanide released in the stream cause poisoning to animals and fishes in the water bodies. As cyanide is highly toxic, it must be detoxified before discharging into ...

  13. Does developmental acclimatization reduce the susceptibility to predation in newt larvae?

    Smolinský, Radovan; Gvoždík, Lumír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2013), s. 109-115. ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2170; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : adaptive plasticity * beneficial acclimation * dragonfly nymphs * predator–prey interactions * thermal adaptation * Triturus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.535, year: 2013

  14. Calcium homeostasis in low and high calcium water acclimatized Oreochromis mossambicus exposed to ambient and dietary cadmium

    Pratap, H.B.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of cadmium administered via ambient water (10 mg/l) or food (10 mgCd/fish/day) on plasma calcium, corpuscles of Stannius and bony tissues of Oreochromis mossambicus acclimated to low calcium (0.2 mM) and high calcium (0.8 mM) water were studied for 2, 4, 14 and 35 days. In low calcium water acclimated fish, ambient cadmium induced significant hypocalcemia, while the structure and morphometry of type-1 and type-2 cells of corpuscles of Stannius were not affected on day 2 and 4. Sub...

  15. Calcium homeostasis in low and high calcium water acclimatized Oreochromis mossambicus exposed to ambient and dietary cadmium

    Pratap, H.B.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of cadmium administered via ambient water (10 mg/l) or food (10 mgCd/fish/day) on plasma calcium, corpuscles of Stannius and bony tissues of Oreochromis mossambicus acclimated to low calcium (0.2 mM) and high calcium (0.8 mM) water were studied for 2, 4, 14 and 35 days. In low calcium wa

  16. Assessment of the role of meta-topolins on in vitro produced phenolics and acclimatization competence of micropropagated 'Williams' banana

    Aremu, A.O.; Bairu, M. W.; Szüčová, Lucie; Doležal, Karel; Finnie, J.F.; van Staden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 6 (2012), s. 2265-2273. ISSN 0137-5881 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI92A247 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Cytokinins * Chlorophyll * Phenolics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.305, year: 2012

  17. Antioxidant and phenolic acid profiles of tissue cultured and acclimatized Merwilla plumbea plantlets in relation to the applied cytokinins

    Aremu, A.O.; Grúz, Jiří; Šubrtová, Michaela; Szüčová, Lucie; Doležal, Karel; Bairu, M. W.; Finnie, J. F.; van Staden, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 170, č. 15 (2013), s. 1303-1308. ISSN 0176-1617 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Conservation * Medicinal plants * Micropropagation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.770, year: 2013

  18. Conservation strategy for Pelargonium sidoides DC: Phenolic profile and pharmacological activity of acclimatized plants derived from tissue culture

    Moyo, M.; Aremu, A.O.; Grúz, Jiří; Šubrtová, Michaela; Szüčová, Lucie; Doležal, Karel; van Staden, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 2 (2013), s. 557-561. ISSN 0378-8741 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Antimicrobial * Antioxidant * Medicinal plants Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.939, year: 2013

  19. Extensive phenotypic plasticity of a Red Sea coral over a strong latitudinal temperature gradient suggests limited acclimatization potential to warming

    Yvonne Sawall; Abdulmoshin Al-Sofyani; Sönke Hohn; Eulalia Banguera-Hinestroza; Voolstra, Christian R.; Martin Wahl

    2015-01-01

    Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12 degrees latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient be...

  20. Plasma volume expansion does not increase maximal cardiac output or VO2 max in lowlanders acclimatized to altitude

    Calbet, José A L; Rådegran, Göran; Boushel, Robert Christopher;

    2004-01-01

    liter of 6% dextran 70 (BV = 6.32 +/- 0.34 liters). PV expansion had no effect on Qmax, maximal O2 consumption (VO2), and exercise capacity. Despite maximal systemic O2 transport being reduced 19% due to hemodilution after PV expansion, whole body VO2 was maintained by greater systemic O2 extraction (P...

  1. Autonomic Cardiovascular Responses in Acclimatized Lowlanders on Prolonged Stay at High Altitude: A Longitudinal Follow Up Study

    Dhar, Priyanka; Sharma, Vijay K.; Hota, Kalpana B.; Das, Saroj K; Hota, Sunil K.; Srivastava, Ravi B.; Singh, Shashi B

    2014-01-01

    Acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude is reported to cause sympathetic dominance that may contribute to the pathophysiology of high altitude illnesses. The effect of prolonged stay at high altitude on autonomic functions, however, remains to be explored. Thus, the present study aimed at investigating the effect of high altitude on autonomic neural control of cardiovascular responses by monitoring heart rate variability (HRV) during chronic hypobaric hypoxia. Baseline electrocar...

  2. A community change in the algal endosymbionts of a scleractinian coral following a natural bleaching event : field evidence of acclimatization

    Jones, A. M.; Berkelmans, R.; van Oppen, M. J. H.; Mieog, J. C.; Sinclair, W.

    2008-01-01

    The symbiosis between reef-building corals and their algal endosymbionts (zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium) is highly sensitive to temperature stress, which makes coral reefs vulnerable to climate change. Thermal tolerance in corals is known to be substantially linked to the type of zooxanthe

  3. Endogenous cytokinin profiles of tissue-cultured and acclimatized 'Williams' bananas subjected to different aromatic cytokinin treatments

    Aremu, A.O.; Plačková, Lenka; Bairu, M. W.; Novák, Ondřej; Szüčová, Lucie; Doležal, Karel; Finnie, J. F.; van Staden, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 214, JAN 2014 (2014), s. 88-98. ISSN 0168-9452 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Micropropagation * Musa spp. * Phytohormones Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.607, year: 2014

  4. Le rôle de la PTOX dans l’acclimatation des plantes alpines aux conditions extrêmes

    Laureau, Constance

    2012-01-01

    Le climat alpin à plus de 2400 mètres d’altitude montre des fortes variations de température, des intensités lumineuses très élevées (3000 µmol photons m-2 s-1) qui sont connues pour générer un état de réduction importante de la chaine de transport des électrons photosynthétique. Le bon fonctionnement du processus photosynthétique est primordial pour les quelques espèces de plantes vasculaires qui sont présentes à l’étage alpin et qui doivent terminer leur cycle de vie lors d’une très courte ...

  5. Challenges of Acclimatizing to the Chinese Market : Viewed from the perspectives of a multinational corporation and consultants

    Andersson, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Multinational corporations are active in a complex global society, embedded in a web of different cultures and varying perceptions. Distant markets constitute challenging discrepancies that are a demanding process to bridge, but nevertheless some of these markets are critical for the future success of corporations. Perhaps the most opportunity rich and desired market for global actors is China, where the economical progression has been impressive and is expected to continue to progress incred...

  6. Protocol for acclimatization of in vitro cultured Potamogeton praelongus – aspect of plantlet size and type of substrate

    Romana Prausová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to determine suitable substrate type and optimal plant size for transfer of plantlets from in vitro to ex vitro under experimental outdoor conditions. Tests focused on the effect of substrate type (muddy and sandy and starting size of plantlets gained through in vitro seed germination (0–3, 3.1–5,5.1–6, 6.1–10 cm on plant growth. Three parameters (fresh weight, length, and the number of leaves were compared to evaluate growth. Basic water parameters in experimental water tanks were regularly measured (pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, shadow intensity and controlled to reach similar conditions to those in the natural habitat of this species. Overwintering was studied in a cellar with newly defined size categories (≤6, 6.1–8, 8.1–10, 10.1–12, 12.1–15 cm. Both substrate type and starting size of plantlets significantly impacted growth. Plantlets grew better in the muddy substrate while a 100% success rate of rooting was gained with a starting size of 6.1–10 cm in both substrates. The biggest increase in fresh weight was observed with a starting size of 3.1–5 cm and 5.1–6 cm in both substrates. The greatest increase in fresh weight was observed in plants with a starting size of 3.1–5 cm in the muddy substrate (more than 95% increase. The best overwintering results were gained in the 6.1–8 cm size category.

  7. Long-term and short-term effects of abscisic acid on plantlet acclimatization to ex vitro conditions

    Pospíšilová, Jana; Haisel, Daniel; Synková, Helena; Baťková, Petra

    Ciego de Avila : University of Ciego, 2009, s. 1-6. [Congreso International de Biotecnología Vegetal. Congreso International de Biotecnología Vegetal (ES), 05.10.2009-07.10.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/07/0227 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : carotenoids * chlorophyll contents * chlorophyll fluorescence Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  8. Organogênese direta e aclimatização de plantas de patchouli Direct organogenesis and acclimatization of patchouli

    Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank; Aline V Santos; Arie F. Blank

    2011-01-01

    O patchouli é uma espécie aromática cujo óleo essencial é largamente empregado pela indústria de perfumes. A propagação convencional desta espécie é por estaquia, sendo a micropropagação uma alternativa para propagação clonal de indivíduos livres de patógenos em larga escala. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a influência de combinações de diferentes fontes de auxinas com cinetina sobre a organogênese de patchouli, assim como diferentes tipos de composição de substratos na aclimatização ...

  9. Mitochondria-rich cell activity in the yolk-sac membrane of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) larvae acclimatized to different ambient chloride levels.

    Lin, Li-Yih; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2004-03-01

    Mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) in the yolk-sac membrane of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) larvae were examined by Na+/K(+)-ATPase immunocytochemistry and vital staining for glycoproteins following acclimation to high (7.5-7.9 mmol l(-1)), normal (0.48-0.52 mmol l(-1)) or low (0.002-0.007 mmol l(-1)) ambient Cl- levels. With a combination of concanavalin-A (Con-A)-Texas-Red conjugate staining (larvae exposed to the dye in vivo in the water) and a monoclonal antibody raised against Na+/K(+)-ATPase, MRCs were easily recognized and presumed to be active when Con-A-positive (i.e. with their apical membrane in contact with the water) or inactive when Con-A-negative. The proportion of active cells gradually increased during a 48-h acclimation to low-Cl- medium but decreased during acclimation to high-Cl- medium. Total densities of MRCs did not change when ambient chloride levels were altered. Furthermore, in live larvae exposed to changes in ambient Cl-, yolk-sac MRCs, vitally stained with DASPEI and subsequently traced in time, did not significantly alter turnover. The polymorphism of the apical membrane compartment of the MRCs represents structural modification of the active MRCs. Yolk-sac pavement cells labeled with the membrane marker FM1-43 (fluorescent lipophilic tracer) were shown to cover active MRCs in larvae transferred from normal to high ambient Cl- levels, thereby inactivating the MRCs. PMID:15010484

  10. Post-capture immune gene expression studies in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus acclimatized to atmospheric pressure

    Barros, I.; Divya, B.; Martins, I.; Vandeperre, F.; Santos, R.S.; Bettencourt, R.

    ) following the manufacturer's specifi- cations and re-suspended in nuclease-free, DEPC-treated water. Total RNA quality preparations and concentrations were assessed by the A260/280 and A260/230 spectrophotometric ratios using the NanoVue spectrophotometer... in all cDNA synthesis. The cDNA concentration was measured using the NanoVue spectrophotometer (A260/280 and A260/230 spectrophotometric ratios). 2.5. Real-time PCR (qPCR) analyses Based on sequences retrieved from the DeepSeaVent database (http...

  11. Transcriptional regulation of metal transport genes and mineral nutrition during acclimatization to cadmium and zinc in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges population)

    Küpper, Hendrik; Kochian, Leon V.

    2010-01-01

    - We investigated changes in mineral nutrient uptake and cellular expression levels for metal transporter genes in the cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens during whole plant and leaf ontogenesis under different long-term treatments with Zn and Cd.- Quantitative mRNA in situ hybridization (QISH) revealed that transporter gene expression changes not only dependent on metal nutrition/toxicity, but even more so during plant and leaf development. The main mRNA abundances ...

  12. Micropropagação e aclimatização de gerânio (Pelargonium graveolens L.) Micropropagation and acclimatization of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.)

    M.F Arrigoni-Blank; S.A. Almeida; A.C.L Oliveira; A.F Blank

    2011-01-01

    O gerânio (Pelargonium graveolens L.) é uma planta medicinal e aromática nativa do sul da África, cujo óleo essencial é amplamente empregado nas indústrias de perfumaria e cosmético, além de ser usado como terapêutico. Avaliou-se o efeito da luminosidade e dos reguladores de crescimento BAP e ANA na multiplicação in vitro e o uso de diferentes substratos na aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas. Foram avaliadas as concentrações 0; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg L-1 de BAP, 0; 0,1 e 0,5 mg L-1 de ANA e du...

  13. 京藏铁路列车乘务人员高原习服调查研究%Altitude Acclimatization of Coach Attendants Serving Beijing-Tibet Railway

    姚晶磊; 肖林; 金恩忠; 任骁芳; 石红; 储刚

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To assess the high altitude adaptability of railway coach crew members and its influencing factors by monitoring their physiological parameters,and to provide reference for future occupational health supervision and work arrangement guidance.[Methods] Pulse oximeter,tonometer,fundus photography,and Lake Louise self-assessment questionnaires were performed on 98 randomly selected coach attendants during the entire journey to examine saturation oxygen (SaO2),intraocular pressure,fundus conditions,and occurrence of acute mountain sickness (AMS).[Results] The oxygen partial pressures of the coach compartments and the blood oxygen pressures of the attendants were negatively correlated with altitude.In the 98 studied subjects,AMS was presented in varying degrees in 94 attendants,and the AMS scores were obviously higher for the attendants with shorter on-duty hours and higher workload (P < 0.05).Moreover,83 subjects presented retinal vascular engorgement and 21 subjects presented retinal hemorrhage and papilledema.[Conclusion] Existing coach oxygen-rich measures cannot sufficiently prevent occurrence of AMS.Both on-duty hours and workload may affect coach attendants' altitude adaptation.Retinal vascular changes can be used as an important indicator of AMS in railway coach attendants.%[目的]通过跟踪监测高原列车乘务人员相关生理指标变化,分析乘务人员高原适应性及影响因素,为高原乘务人员的健康监护及指定作业方式提供依据. [方法]随机对一列京藏线列车98名乘务人员全程监测血氧饱和度(SaO2)、眼压、眼底情况及Lake Louise急性高原病(AMS)自评评分. [结果]车厢内氧分压及乘务员血氧饱和度与海拔高程呈负相关性,94人发生不同程度AMS,在岗时间短及劳动强度大的人群AMS较明显(P<0.05),83人出现视网膜静脉扩张,21人出现视乳头充血水肿. [结论]现行列车富氧措施不能完全防止AMS的发生;在岗时间及劳动强度均对乘务员高原适应性有影响;视网膜血管改变可作为AMS重要指征.

  14. Fluorescent protein-mediated colour polymorphism in reef corals: multicopy genes extend the adaptation/acclimatization potential to variable light environments.

    Gittins, John R; D'Angelo, Cecilia; Oswald, Franz; Edwards, Richard J; Wiedenmann, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    The genomic framework that enables corals to adjust to unfavourable conditions is crucial for coral reef survival in a rapidly changing climate. We have explored the striking intraspecific variability in the expression of coral pigments from the green fluorescent protein (GFP) family to elucidate the genomic basis for the plasticity of stress responses among reef corals. We show that multicopy genes can greatly increase the dynamic range over which corals can modulate transcript levels in response to the light environment. Using the red fluorescent protein amilFP597 in the coral Acropora millepora as a model, we demonstrate that its expression increases with light intensity, but both the minimal and maximal gene transcript levels vary markedly among colour morphs. The pigment concentration in the tissue of different morphs is strongly correlated with the number of gene copies with a particular promoter type. These findings indicate that colour polymorphism in reef corals can be caused by the environmentally regulated expression of multicopy genes. High-level expression of amilFP597 is correlated with reduced photodamage of zooxanthellae under acute light stress, supporting a photoprotective function of this pigment. The cluster of light-regulated pigment genes can enable corals to invest either in expensive high-level pigmentation, offering benefits under light stress, or to rely on low tissue pigment concentrations and use the conserved resources for other purposes, which is preferable in less light-exposed environments. The genomic framework described here allows corals to pursue different strategies to succeed in habitats with highly variable light stress levels. In summary, our results suggest that the intraspecific plasticity of reef corals' stress responses is larger than previously thought. PMID:25496144

  15. Hemoglobina y testosterona: importancia en la aclimatación y adaptación a la altura Hemoglobin and testosterone: importance on high altitude acclimatization and adaptation

    Gustavo F. Gonzales

    2011-01-01

    Los diferentes tipos de mecanismos que emplea el organismo cuando se enfrenta a una situación de hipoxia incluyen la acomodación, la aclimatación y la adaptación. La acomodación es la respuesta inicial a la exposición aguda a la hipoxia de altura y se caracteriza por aumento de la ventilación y de la frecuencia cardiaca. La aclimatación se presenta en los individuos que están temporalmente expuestos a la altura y, que en cierto grado, les permite tolerar la altura. En esta fase hay un increme...

  16. Effect of nitrogen source and acclimatization on specific growth rates of microalgae determined by a high-throughput in vivo microplate autofluorescence method

    Podevin, Mike; De Francisci, Davide; Holdt, Susan Løvstad;

    2015-01-01

    Specific growth rates (SGR) of freshwater algaespecies (Chlorella vulgaris, Auxenochlorella protothecoides,and Chlorella sorokiniana) and the marine speciesNannochloropsis oculata on various nitrogen sources (ammoniumcarbonate, ammonium chloride, sodium nitrate, andurea) could be determined by in...

  17. Estufas climatizadas para experimentos ambientais com rãs, em gaiolas Acclimatized incubators for environmental experiments with frogs, in cages

    Mario Roberto Chim Figueiredo; Samuel Lopes Lima; Claudio Angelo Agostinho; Fernando da Costa Baêta; Stefan Cruz Weigert

    2001-01-01

    Foram construídas seis estufas climatizadas, instaladas inicialmente no Ranário Experimental da Universidade Federal de Viçosa e, posteriormente, no Ranário Experimental da Fundação Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, com o objetivo de realizar experimentos para avaliar os efeitos do ambiente sobre o desempenho de rãs em gaiolas de fibra de vidro. Ambientes com temperaturas de 25ºC e fotoperíodo de 12/12 horas de luz/horas de escuridão (h L/E) serviram para adaptação das rãs por 15 dias antes...

  18. Introduction and Acclimatization of Wild Forgae-- Ⅰ. Ceratoides arborescens%野生牧草的引种驯化——Ⅰ华北驼绒藜

    赵书元; 阿拉塔

    2012-01-01

    Ceratoides arborescend is preferred by livestock such as sheep,horses and camels because of its luxuriant foliages, abundant nutrition, rich protein and calcium. It's stem and leaf preserved well in cold season, and the characteristics of drought resistance,cold resistance, barren tolerance made it a kind of excellent xerophil semi-shrub in arid area. It's also a kind of important grass seed for building and planting in non-irrigated pasture. This paper introduces Ceratoides arborescens' exploitation and utilization, morphological characteristics, ecological types and cytology researches, growth and development, adaptation and habitats,building and planting technology,grassland management,nutritional value ;it also gives reference plants ofthe same genus as Ceratoides arborescens for extending plantation, exploitation and utilization.%华北驼绒藜枝叶繁茂,营养丰富,富含蛋白质及钙,为羊、马、骆驼等家畜所喜食。其茎叶在冷季保存良好,并具有抗旱、抗寒、耐瘠薄的特性,是干旱地区的优等半灌木饲草,也是建植灌草结合旱作草地的重要草种之一。概述了华北驼绒藜的开发利用、形态特征、生态型与细胞学研究、生长发育、适应性和生境条件、建植技术与草地管理、营养价值,并介绍了华北驼绒藜的同属植物,以期为更好地推广种植和合理开发利用华北驼绒藜提供参考。

  19. Brassinosteróide e substratos na aclimatização do abacaxizeiro ‘Imperial’ = Brassinosteroid and substrates in acclimatization of ‘Imperial’ pineapple

    Paulo Henrique Aragão Catunda

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de diferentes concentrações de um análogo de brassinosteróide (BIOBRAS – 16 e de dois substratos sobre o crescimento de mudas micropropagadas do abacaxizeiro ‘Imperial’. O experimento foi conduzido em DBC, em esquema fatorial 2 x 5 x 4, no qual foram avaliadas cincoconcentrações do BIOBRAS - 16 (0; 0,1; 0,3; 0,5 e 1 mg L-1, dois tipos de substratos e quatro épocas de amostragem (60, 90, 120 e 150 dias após transplantio. Os substratos utilizados foram o Plantmax® e outro substrato obtido pela compostagem de uma mistura entre o bagaço-de-cana e torta de filtro (BT. As plântulas foram transplantadas para tubetes cônicos em casa-de-vegetação equipada com nebulizadores intermitentes. As plantas cultivadas no substrato BT e pulverizadas com 0,1 mg L-1 do BIOBRAS - 16 apresentaram maior crescimento da parte aérea, com maior número de folhas, diâmetro de roseta, largurade folha, massa fresca e massa seca, aos 150 dias após transplantio. Nas plantas cultivadas no substrato BT as pulverizações com o BIOBRAS-16 a 0,1 mg L-1 proporcionaram acúmulo de matéria seca 2,8 vezes superior ao valor da testemunha cultivada no substrato Plantmax®. A massa fresca e seca de raízes foram superiores no substrato Plantmax® em relação ao BT, nas últimas épocas de amostragem.This work aimed to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of a brassinoesteroid analogue (BIOBRAS-16 and two substrates on the growth of micropropagated seedlings of ‘Imperial’ pineapple. A randomized block design was used in a 2 x 5 x 4 factorial scheme, evaluating five concentrations of BIOBRAS-16 (0; 0.1; 0.3; 0.5and 1 mg L-1, two types of substrates and four sampling periods (60, 90, 120 and 150 day safter planting. The substrates used were Plantmax® and another obtained from a mix of composting sugar-cane bagasse and filter cake (CC. The seedlings were transplanted tosmall conic tubes and allocated in a greenhouse equipped with an intermittent mist. The plants cultivated in CC substrate and sprayed with 0.1 mg L-1 of BIOBRAS-16 showed higher growth of shoots with greater numbers of leaves, rosette diameter, leaf width, freshand dry matter production at 150 days after planting. The plants that were cultivated on CC substrate and sprayed with BIOBRAS-16 at a 0.1 mg L-1 produced 2.8 times more dry matter than the control cultivated in Plantmax® substrate. The fresh and dry matter of roots were superior in Plantmax® when compared to CC at late sampling periods.

  20. Efeito da adubação foliar com KNO3 na aclimatização de bromélia cultivada in vitro Effect of foliar KNO3 fertilization in the acclimatization of bromeliads grown in vitro

    Armando Reis Tavares; Patricia Giampaoli; Shoey Kanashiro; Francismar Francisco Alves Aguiar; Edison Paulo Chu

    2008-01-01

    Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubação foliar nitrogenada na aclimatização de bromélia cultivada in vitro, utilizaram-se mudas de Aechmea blanchetiana, que, após o processo de cultivo in vitro, foram transferidas para substrato constituído de areia e adubadas por pulverização de 3,0 mL, a cada 30 dias, com solução de KNO3 nas concentrações de 0,0; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 g L-1. Foram avaliadas as variáveis comprimento da maior folha e raiz, número de folhas, fitomassa fresca e seca das p...

  1. Micropropagação da amoreira-preta (Rubus spp.) e efeito de substratos na aclimatização de plântulas = Blackberry micropropagation (Rubus spp.) and effects of substrates in plants acclimatization

    Fabíola Villa; Moacir Pasqual; Aparecida Gomes de Araújo; Leila Aparecida Salles Pio

    2006-01-01

    O objetivo do presente estudo foi aprimorar técnicas de propagação in vitro e determinar um melhor substrato para a amoreira-preta. O primeiro experimento consistiu de gemas axilares com cerca de 2 cm, oriundas de plântulas preestabelecidas in vitro da cv. Ébano, excisadas e inoculadas em meio MS, suplementado com 5 concentrações de carvão ativado e 5 de BAP. Ambos os experimentos foram inteiramente casualisados, utilizando-se in vitro 3 explantes por repetição e 4 repetições por tratamento e...

  2. Enraizamento in vitro de marmeleiro cv. MC como porta-enxerto para a pereira e aclimatização das microestacas enraizadas In vitro rooting of quince cv. MC as rootstock for pear and acclimatization of the rooted microcuttings

    Alan Cristiano Erig; Márcia Wulff Schuch

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o tipo e a concentração de auxina que promova o enraizamento in vitro de marmeleiro (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) cv. MC como porta-enxerto para a pereira (Pyrus spp) e avaliar a sobrevivência das microestacas enraizadas durante a aclimatização às condições ex vitro. Os tratamentos consistiram de três tipos de auxina (ácido indolbutírico ‘AIB’, ácido naftalenoacético ‘ANA’ e ácido 3-indolacético ‘AIA’), utilizadas em cinco diferentes concentrações (0, 5, 10,...

  3. Influência do substrato e do tipo de fertilizante na aclimatação de mudas de bananeira 'Prata-Anã' Influence of substrate and fertilizer type on the acclimatization of 'Prata-Anã' banana plantlets

    Edson Shigueaki Nomura; Juliana Domingues Lima; Domingos Sávio Rodrigues; Valéria Augusta Garcia; Eduardo Jun Fuzitani

    2009-01-01

    Objetivando-se avaliar a influência do substrato e tipo de fertilizante na aclimatação de mudas de bananeira 'Prata-Anã', provenientes de micropropagação, foi instalado um experimento em blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 5 x 3, com quatro repetições. Os substratos utilizados foram: S1 - Terra de subsolo + casca de arroz carbonizada + substrato comercial Rendimax Floreira®; S2 - Terra de subsolo + casca de arroz carbonizada + composto orgânico Organifol®; S3 - Terra de subsolo + casca d...

  4. Aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de helicônia em ambiente protegido em função do tipo de substrato Acclimatization of micropropagated heliconia plants in different substrates

    Eliana Lee Jorge Rocha; Ana Cristina Portugal Pinto de Carvalho; Benito Moreira de Azevedo; Albanise Barbosa Marinho; Thales Vinicius de Araujo Viana; Denise Vieira Vasconcelos

    2009-01-01

    A etapa de aclimatização é uma fase crítica da micropropagação vegetal, podendo ser responsável por altos índices de mortalidade, baixas taxas de crescimento e desuniformidade das plantas. Um fator fundamental na aclimatização é tipo de substrato a ser utilizado. Nesse trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de diferentes substratos na aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de helicônia (Heliconia lingulata Ruiz & Pav.). A pesquisa foi conduzida em um túnel alto de cultivo forçado pertencente...

  5. Fungos micorrízicos-arbusculares no desenvolvimento de mudas de helicônia e gérbera micropropagadas Application of arbuscular mycorrhiza to micropropagated heliconia and gerbera plants during acclimatization period

    Aurora Yoshiko Sato

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Plântulas micropropagadas de helicônia (Heliconia sp gérbera (Gerbera sp de vaso, foram aclimatadas em substrato (torta de filtro 50%, solo 30% e areia 20%, inoculado com três espécies de fungo micorrízico (Glomus clarum Nicolson. & Schenck, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann e Gigaspora margarita Becker & Hall e uma mistura destas espécies (inóculo múltiplo. As avaliações quanto ao desenvolvimento da parte aérea e do sistema radicular e porcentagem de colonização, foram feitas aos 60 dias para gérbera e aos 90 dias para helicônia, após transplante. As duas espécies comportaram-se de modo diferente em resposta à micorrização. Glomus etunicatum não colonizou bem nenhuma das duas espécies estudadas. Apesar da elevada colonização, a helicônia não se beneficiou da inoculação, enquanto que a gérbera beneficiou-se da inoculação com G. clarum, G. etunicatum e do inóculo misto.Heliconia (Heliconia sp. and pot gerbera plantlets (Gerbera sp. obtained by in vitro micropropagation on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium were inoculated with 3 vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM species and a mixture of three species. A control treatment without inoculation was also included. The plantlets were acclimated in a mixture of soil 30%, sand 20% and "torta de filtro" 50%. The fungal species were Glomus clarum, Glomus etunicatum and Gigaspora margarita. At 60 days for gerbera and 90 days for heliconia after the inoculation, fresh and dry matter of the aerial and root parts were determined, and the percentage of mycorrhizal colonization of the roots was obtained. Both species behaved different to mycorrhization. Glomus etunicatum did not show to be effective in colonization of heliconia and gerbera. Colonization was high, but heliconia did not benefit from this inoculation, however Gerbera was benefited by G. clarum, G. etunicatum and mixture inoculation.

  6. Fungos micorrízicos-arbusculares no desenvolvimento de mudas de helicônia e gérbera micropropagadas Application of arbuscular mycorrhiza to micropropagated heliconia and gerbera plants during acclimatization period

    Aurora Yoshiko Sato; Dulcimara Carvalho Nannetti; José Eduardo Brasil Pereira Pinto; José Oswaldo Siqueira; Maria de Fátima Arrigoni Blank

    1999-01-01

    Plântulas micropropagadas de helicônia (Heliconia sp) gérbera (Gerbera sp) de vaso, foram aclimatadas em substrato (torta de filtro 50%, solo 30% e areia 20%), inoculado com três espécies de fungo micorrízico (Glomus clarum Nicolson. & Schenck, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann e Gigaspora margarita Becker & Hall) e uma mistura destas espécies (inóculo múltiplo). As avaliações quanto ao desenvolvimento da parte aérea e do sistema radicular e porcentagem de colonização, foram feitas aos 60 ...

  7. Análise comparativa do ambiente de aviários de postura com diferentes sistemas de acondicionamento Comparative analysis of the environment of poultry sheds with different systems of acclimatization

    Guilherme Vitorasso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As tipologias dos galpões de galinhas poedeiras e os materiais utilizados principalmente na cobertura são determinantes para uma condição térmica apropriada com vistas à produção. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar diferenças no ambiente interno de dois galpões de poedeiras, utilizando monitoramento e posterior comparação estatística das variáveis do ambiente. A análise dos dados não evidenciou maior conforto térmico no galpão recoberto com telhas de barro, em razão da ausência de lanternim que dificultou a renovação do ar por "efeito chaminé". A concentração de amônia medida no interior de ambas as instalações ficou dentro do limite de conforto. O índice de temperatura e umidade do galpão recoberto com telhas de cerâmica apresentou valores maiores que do galpão recoberto com telha de cimento amianto, mesmo se verificando temperaturas de superfície menores nas telhas de cerâmica, evidenciando os efeitos positivos do lanternim na instalação. Com base nos resultados desta pesquisa, recomendam-se, para a região de Bastos, SP, que os aviários para galinhas de postura sejam construídos com lanternim e prolongamento do beiral e que sejam recobertos com telhas de cerâmica.Poulty house typology and the materials used (mainly for roofing are the determining factors for an appropriate thermal condition aiming at production. In this context, the main point of this paper was to identify differences in the internal environment of two poultry houses, using monitoring and afterwards using statistics for comparing the environmental variables. The data analyzed did not show evidence of better thermal comfort for the house which was covered with ceramic roofing tile, because this house did not have ridged vents, making the hot air exit from the house difficult by the "chimney effect". The ammonia concentration measured inside both houses was within the comfort limit. The temperature and humidity index of the house covered with ceramic roofing tiles was higher than the house which was covered with cement asbestos roofing tile, even though lower temperature on the tiles' surfaces was verified, showing the positive effects of the use of ridge vents at the housing. Based on the results obtained it is recommended for the Bastos, SP region, that poulty houses should be built with the ridge vent and long eaves beyond the roof of ceramic tiles.

  8. Anatomia foliar de Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl) Nich. (Bignoniaceae) propagadas in vitro, in vivo e durante a aclimatização Leaf anatomy of Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl) Nich. (Bignoniaceae) propagated in vitro, in vivo and during the acclimatization

    Sara Dousseau; Amauri Alves de Alvarenga; Evaristo Mauro de Castro; Roberta Pereira Soares; Eduardo Bucsan Emrich; Lucas Amaral de Melo

    2008-01-01

    As mudas propagadas por técnicas de micropropagação geralmente apresentam alterações significativas induzidas pelas condições in vitro, que diminuem a capacidade de sobrevivência após a transferência para o ambiente ex vitro, sendo fundamental a avaliação da mudança estrutural durante o processo de adaptação. Objetivou-se com este trabalho, identificar as diferenças anatômicas foliares entre plantas de Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl) Nich. (ipê amarelo), cultivadas in vitro, in vivo e durante a ...

  9. Avaliação do desenvolvimento de diferentes tamanhos de mudas micropropagadas de abacaxizeiro, após aclimatação Evaluation of the development of different sizes of micropropagated seeedlings of pineapple tree, after acclimatized

    Sávio da Silva Berilli; Almy Junior Cordeiro de Carvalho; Silvio de Jesus Freitas; Denílson Coelho Faria; Claudia Sales Marinho

    2011-01-01

    A micropropagação de plantas é extremamente útil na multiplicação de novas cultivares em larga escala. O abacaxizeiro 'Vitória' é uma cultivar com a importante característica de ser resistente à fusariose. Após cultivo in vitro e aclimatização, é possível produzir mudas de diferentes tamanhos, entretanto um tamanho-padrão tem sido utilizado para comercialização. O uso de mudas de diferentes estádios de crescimento, após a aclimatização, pode interferir na qualidade final das mudas para o plan...

  10. Spatial Disorientation Training – Demonstration and Avoidance

    Bles, W.

    2008-01-01

    Acclimatization ; Aerospace medicine ; Attitude indicators ; Aviation accidents ; Flight maneuvers ; Flight simulators ; Human factors engineering ; Orientation ; Perception ; Physiological effects ; Pilot training ; Pilots (personnel) ; Responses ; Reviews ; Situational awareness ; Spatial disorien

  11. Acclimatization of bananas ‘Prata-Anã’: methods and times for degreening after cold storage. = Climatização de bananas ‘Prata-Anã’: métodos e tempos para o desverdecimento após o armazenamento refrigerado.

    Marcos André de Souza Prill

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The control and standardization of the ripening of bananas brings economic advantages for the agricultural marketing. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the application of methods (Muffling and Ethrel® and times of degreening aimed on the standardization and uniformity of bananas ‘Prata-Anã’ produced in Boa Vista/RR. After harvested, the fruits were selected in the form of bouquets, sanitized and stored under refrigeration for four periods of time, 0, 10, 20 and 30 days at 12 ± 1°C and 93 ± 2% RH. The treatments were: T1–muffling + 0 days of cold storage (CS, T2–Ethrel® + 0 days of cold storage,T3–muffling + 10 days of cold storage; T4–Ethrel® + 10 days of cold storage; T5–muffling + 20 days of cold storage; T6–Ethrel ® + 20 days of cold storage; T7–muffling + 20 days of cold storage; T8–Ethrel ® + 30 days of cold storage. After each period of cold storage, the fruits were subjected to degreening and analyzed with 1, 2, 3 and 4 days thereafter. The following analyses were performed: lesions in the skin, ethylene production, pH, titratable acidity (TA total and reduced sugars. There were no significant effects to determine what is the best method of muffling, however, it was found that the longer the period of cold storage, the lower was the period of maintaining the bananas ‘Prata-Anã’ quality after the degreening. It is thereforerecommended that the degreenning be carried out safely for up 20 days (12 ± 1oC e 93 ± 2% de R.U. It is expected, in this situation, the maintenance of the sensory quality attributes in bananas for at least three days, average marketing. =O controle e padronização do amadurecimento em bananas trazem vantagens econômicas para o setor agrícola de comercialização. Assim, objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a aplicação de métodos (Abafamento e Ethrel® e tempos de desverdecimento visando à padronização e uniformização de bananas ‘Prata-Anã’ produzidas em Boa Vista/RR. Depois de colhidos, os frutos foram selecionados no formato de buquês, sanitizados e armazenados sob refrigeração (AR por quatro períodos de tempo, com 0, 10, 20 e 30 dias em refrigeração a 12 ± 1 oC e 93 ± 2% de U.R. Os tratamentos foram: T1–abafamento + 0 dias de AR; T2–Ethrel® + 0 dias de AR; T3–Abafamento + 10 dias de AR; T4–Ethrel® + 10 dias de AR; T5–Abafamento + 20 dias de AR; T6–Ethrel® + 20 dias de AR; T7–Abafamento + 30 dias de AR; T8–Ethrel® + 30 dias de AR. Após cada período de armazenamento refrigerado (AR, os frutos foram analizados com 1, 2, 3 e 4 dias após cada tratamento. As análises realizadas foram: lesões na casca, concentração de etileno, pH, acidez titulável (AT e açúcares totais e redutores. Independentemente dos métodos de desverdecimento, verificou-se que quanto maior o período de AR, menor o período de manutenção da qualidade das bananas ‘Prata-Anã’ após o desverdecimento. Assim, recomenda-se que o desverdecimento sejarealizado com segurança por até 20 dias (12 ± 1oC e 93 ± 2% de U.R. Espera-se, nessa situação, a manutenção dos atributos de qualidade sensorial nas bananas por no mínimo três dias, período médio de comercialização.

  12. Avaliação de substratos e adubos orgânicos na aclimatização de plântulas de Heliconia psittacorum Evaluation of substrates and organic fertilizers in the acclimatization of plantlets of Heliconia psittacorum

    Maurício Reginaldo Alves dos Santos; Ana Luiza de Oliveira Timbó; Ana Cristina Portugal Pinto de Carvalho; João Paulo Saraiva Morais

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de três substratos orgânicos - casca de arroz carbonizada, pó de casca de coco seco e verde - e dois adubos -Vitasolo® e húmus de minhoca -, na aclimatização de plântulas de Heliconia psittacorum L., provenientes da micropropagação. Aos 75 dias, avaliaram-se a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do pseudocaule, o número de folhas e a área da terceira folha. A casca de arroz foi mais eficiente que o pó de casca de coco, verde ou seco; o pó de casca...

  13. Micropropagação, aclimatização, teor e composição química do óleo essencial de genótipos de hortelã japonesa Micropropagation, acclimatization, essential oil content and chemical composition of japanese mint genotypes

    Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank; Andréa Santos Costa; Valéria Oliveira Fonseca; Pericles Barreto Alves; Arie Fitzgerald Blank

    2011-01-01

    A hortelã japonesa (Mentha arvensis) é uma espécie aromática, originária do sul da China, o seu óleo essencial é rico em mentol, o qual é empregado nas indústrias farmacêuticas, de alimentos e de cosméticos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver um protocolo para a micropropagação e aclimatização de genótipos de hortelã japonesa, além de analisar a composição química dos óleos essenciais de plantas micropropagadas e não micropropagadas. Segmentos nodais são os mais indicados para a mic...

  14. Aclimatação do híbrido da tilápia vermelha Oreochromis niloticus sp. e utilização em ambientes marinhos como isca viva para a pesca de tunideos - Acclimatization of red tilápia hybrids, Oreochromis niloticus sp., and use in sea environments as lively bait in the baitboat fishery of tuna

    Hilton Amaral Junior; Gosuke Sato; Luciano Strefling; Roberto Vahrlich; Ricardo Hoinkes; Silvano Garcia; Paula Capozza Tebaldi

    2010-01-01

    ResumenLa tilápia roja de Florida Oreochromis sp, obtenido mediante el cruce de O.mossambicus y O. urulepis hornorum, se caracteriza por tener altaresistencia a la salinidad y ser muy tolerante a una variedad de condiciones climáticas. Por lo tanto, es ampliamente utilizado en los cultivos comerciales en algunas partes del mundo tanto en agua dulce y salobre. Se enfrenta actualmente a un problema importante en relación a la disponibilidad de cebo vivo, que usa sardina como atracción a los atu...

  15. Aclimatação do híbrido da tilápia vermelha Oreochromis niloticus sp. e utilização em ambientes marinhos como isca viva para a pesca de tunideos - Acclimatization of red tilápia hybrids, Oreochromis niloticus sp., and use in sea environments as lively bait in the baitboat fishery of tuna

    Hilton Amaral Junior

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa tilápia roja de Florida Oreochromis sp, obtenido mediante el cruce de O.mossambicus y O. urulepis hornorum, se caracteriza por tener altaresistencia a la salinidad y ser muy tolerante a una variedad de condiciones climáticas. Por lo tanto, es ampliamente utilizado en los cultivos comerciales en algunas partes del mundo tanto en agua dulce y salobre. Se enfrenta actualmente a un problema importante en relación a la disponibilidad de cebo vivo, que usa sardina como atracción a los atunes. Además, crea un conflicto con los pescadores industriales que utilizan el mismo recurso, así como los pescadores artesanales y la sociedad. Este trabajo consistió en una evaluaciónde la resistencia a la salinidad de la tilápia roja, lo que sugiere una nueva técnica para la aclimatación de los juveniles de esta especie. Los lotes de alevines de tilápia roja sexualmente invertido se crearon en el Campo Experimental de Piscicultura de Camboriú - CEPC/Epagri y recreado en el laboratorio de maricultura UNIVALI - EMC, Penha SC. Los parámetros analizados fueron: la tolerancia a la salinidad, la supervivencia y la capacidad de almacenamiento. Los resultados de esta experiencia indican que esta especie responde a las necesidades requeridas para este tipo de pesca. Losjuveniles adaptados a la salinidad, se han utilizado para los ensayos como cebo vivo en la pesca de atún. Este trabajo ofrece una alternativa a cebo vivo en la pesca de atún.ResumoA tilápia vermelha da Flórida (Oreochromis sp, obtida através do cruzamento de O. mossambicus e O. urulepis hornorum, se caracteriza por apresentar grande resistência à salinidade e ser bastante tolerante a uma diversidade de condições climáticas. Sendo assim, é bastante utilizada em cultivos comerciais em algumas partes do mundo, tanto em água doce como salobra. A pesca de atum e afins com vara e isca-viva, atualmente vem enfrentando um grande problema em relação à disponibilidade da isca propriamente dita, que utiliza juvenis de sardinha como atrativo dos cardumes. Também, gera um conseqüente conflito com os pescadores industriais que utilizam o mesmo recurso quando adultos, bem como com os pescadores artesanais e a sociedade. O presente trabalho consistiu em realizar uma avaliação da resistência a salinidade da tilápia vermelha, sugerindo uma nova técnica de aclimatação para juvenis desta espécie. Lotes de alevinos de tilápias vermelhas revertidas sexualmente foram criadas no Campo Experimental de Piscicultura de Camboriú – CEPC/Epagri e recriados no Laboratório de Maricultura da UNIVALI – CEM, Penha SC. Os parâmetros analisados foram: Tolerância à salinidade, sobrevivência e capacidade de estocagem. Os resultados deste experimento, indicam que esta espécie atende as necessidades exigidas para este tipo de pesca. Os alevinos adaptados à salinidade, foram utilizados em testes como isca viva na pesca de tunídeos. Este trabalho oferece uma alternativa de isca viva na pesca de tunídeos

  16. Neurophysiological Problems in Snow Bound High Altitude Areas

    W. Selvamurthy

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of studies have been conducted to evaluate the neurophysiological responses in young healthy soldiers during acclimatization at 3,500m altitude in Western Himalayas. The responses of autonomic nervous system, electroencephalogram hypothalamic thermoregulatory efficiency, orthostatic tolerance, sleep profile and effects of sleep deprivation have been studied in fresh inductees during three to five weeks of acclimatization at high altitude and compared with those of one year acclimatized lowlanders and high altitude natives. Physiological significance of these neurophysiological responses in the process of altitude adaptation is discussed in the light of current knowledge in the field.

  17. 78 FR 57835 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Notice of 6-Month Extension of the Final...

    2013-09-20

    ... Federal Register (77 FR 73219) in response to a petition from the Center of Biological Diversity to list... acclimatize to ocean warming and acidification. (5) The reliability, certainty, scale, and variability...

  18. Acclimation to different thermal conditions in a northerly wintering shorebird is driven by body mass-related changes in organ size

    Vezina, Francois; Jalvingh, Kirsten M.; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis

    2006-01-01

    Seasonal acclimatization and experimental acclimation to cold in birds typically results from increased shivering endurance and elevated thermogenic capacity leading to improved resistance to cold. A wide array of physiological adjustments, ranging from biochemical transformations to organ mass vari

  19. Simulação e análise custo-benefício de sistemas energéticos para uma habitação unifamiliar em clima português, com foco em sistemas geotérmicos

    Ginjeira, Ana Sara Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Engenharia da Energia e do Ambiente, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2010 In order to minimize the high energetic consumption it has grown, in the last years, the implementation of acclimatization systems in residential buildings, in order to improve the thermal comfort conditions without high energetic needs. With the growing demand for different kind of acclimatization systems that follows up this work, which as for basis the evaluation of their potential...

  20. The effect of combined glutamate receptor blockade in the NTS on the hypoxic ventilatory response in awake rats differs from the effect of individual glutamate receptor blockade

    Pamenter, Matthew E.; Nguyen, Jetson; Carr, John A.; Powell, Frank L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH) increases the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and causes persistent hyperventilation when normoxia is restored, which is consistent with the occurrence of synaptic plasticity in acclimatized animals. Recently, we demonstrated that antagonism of individual glutamate receptor types (GluRs) within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) modifies this plasticity and VAH (J. Physiol. 592(8):1839–1856); however, the effects of combined GluR antag...

  1. Exercise capacity, arterial oxygen saturation, hemoglobin concentration, and physical activity : A cross-sectional study of selected factors associated with the adaptation to high altitude, a comparison of 9-10 year old native Tibetan and Chinese immigrants in Lhasa, Tibet

    2006-01-01

    Aim: It is well known that capacity for exercise performance is progressively limited with increasing altitude. Furthermore, the maximal exercise capacity is an indicator of the capacity of humans to adapt and acclimatize to high altitude. Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS) is associated with inadequate adaptation or acclimatization abilities to high altitude. CMS is more common among immigrants who have immigrated from areas of low altitude to high altitude areas than among native highlanders....

  2. An Efficient In vitro Hardening Technique of Tissue Culture Raised Plants

    C.R. Deb; T. Imchen

    2010-01-01

    Micropropagation has been extensively used for the rapid multiplication of many plants species. However, its wider use is restricted often by the high percentage of plant loss or damaged when transferred to ex vitro condition. To acclimatize the micropropagated plants, different workers have employed different approach toward successful establishment of in vitro raised plants under ex vitro condition. In the present study, a successful attempt has been made to acclimatize the tissue culture r...

  3. In vitro propagation of rare species Ruscus aculeatus L. and histological peculiarities of the regenerants

    Anca AIFTIMIE-PĂUNESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study belongs to the international efforts for plant conservation in the areas endangered by human activities. Ruscus aculeatus L. is one of the threatened plants (included in all national red list of vascular plants from Romania that grow in the Natural Park Comana, Southern Romania.Seedlings and fragments of rhizome, from plants grown in the natural habitat have been used for in vitro plant regeneration and multiplication. After successfully rooting and acclimatization of the regenerated plantlets, histological studies have been performed in order to compare the regenerants from in vitro cultures with plants from natural habitat. The results indicated that this plant species can be multiplicated, rooted and acclimatized on synthetic medium (MS supplemented with NAA, IBA, kinetin and BAP with a good efficiency and the regenerants develop a only a few structural modification under vitroculture conditions, with no major consequences for a normal physiology and plant acclimatization.

  4. Pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. pérola ex vitro growth and mycorrhizal colonization affected by in vitro sucrose concentration

    Alceu Kunze

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sucrose concentration in the culture medium on growth and on the establishment of mycorrhizas during the acclimatization of pineapple cv. Pérola. The plantlets were micropropagated in MS culture medium with 0, 10, 20 and 30 g L-1 of sucrose and then they were acclimatized during 12 weeks under greenhouse conditions, in a sandy soil - compost mixture, uninoculated or inoculated with a Rhizophagus clarus isolate. Plantlets from the culture medium with 20 g and 30 g of sucrose L-1 showed higher shoot and root biomass than those from sugar-free medium. Mycorrhizal colonization was lower in plantlets micropropagated in sucrose-free medium, but the intensity of arbuscules did not differ among treatments. In the 12-week period of acclimatization, mycorrhizal colonization had no effect on plant biomass.

  5. The emergence of cold-induced brown adipocytes in mouse white fat depots is determined predominantly by white to brown adipocyte transdifferentiation

    Barbatelli, G.; Murano, I.; Madsen, Lise;

    2010-01-01

    The origin of brown adipocytes arising in white adipose tissue (WAT) after cold acclimatization is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that several UCP1-immunoreactive brown adipocytes occurring in WAT after cold acclimatization have a mixed morphology (paucilocular adipocytes). These cells also had a ...... for C/EBP (an antimitotic protein), whereas Ccna1 expression (related to cell proliferation) was unchanged. Overall, our data strongly suggest that the cold-induced emergence of brown adipocytes in WAT predominantly reflects ß3-adrenoceptor-mediated transdifferentiation....

  6. Timing the arrival at 2340m altitude for aerobic performance

    Schuler, B; Thomsen, JJ; Gassmann, M;

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and performance increase upon altitude acclimatization at moderate altitude. Eight elite cyclists were studied at sea level, and after 1 (Day 1), 7 (Day 7), 14 (Day 14) and 21 (Day 21) days of exposure to 2340 m. Capillary blood...... samples were taken on these days before performing two consecutive maximal exercise trials. Acclimatization reased hemoglobin concentration and arterial oxygen content. On Day 1, VO2max and time to exhaustion (at 80% of sea-level maximal power output) decreased by 12.8% (P<0.05) and 25.8% (P<0...

  7. Removal and fate of micropollutants in a sponge-based moving bed bioreactor.

    Luo, Yunlong; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao; Nghiem, Long Duc; Hai, Faisal Ibney; Kang, Jinguo; Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Price, William Evan

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the removal of micropollutants using polyurethane sponge as attached-growth carrier. Batch experiments demonstrated that micropollutants could adsorb to non-acclimatized sponge cubes to varying extents. Acclimatized sponge showed significantly enhanced removal of some less hydrophobic compounds (log Dmicropollutants. Particularly, carbamazepine, ketoprofen and pentachlorophenol were found at high concentrations (7.87, 6.05 and 5.55 μg/g, respectively) on suspended biosolids. As a whole, the effectiveness of MBBR for micropollutant removal was comparable with those of activated sludge processes and MBRs. PMID:24658104

  8. Daily variation in body mass and thermoregulation in male Hwamei(Garrulax canorus) at different seasons

    Lidan; Zhao; Runmei; Wang; Yunan; Wu; Mengsi; Wu; Weihong; Zheng; Jinsong; Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acclimatization to winter conditions is an essential prerequisite for survival of small passerines of the northern temperate zone. In the present study, we measured diurnal variations in body mass, body temperature and basal metabolic rate(BMR) for seasonally acclimatized Hwameis(Garrulax canorus).Methods: Body mass was determined with a Sartorius balance. Metabolic rates of Hwameis were measured with an open-circuit respirometry system.Results: Body masses varied with time of day and were higher in daytime for Hwameis in both summer and winter, and body masses in winter were higher compared to that in summer. Body temperatures of Hwameis were higher in daytime, and the summer acclimatized birds had significantly higher body temperatures compared to the winter acclimatized birds. BMRs of Hwameis were significantly higher during the daytime compared to the nighttime of the daily cycle in both summer and winter, and Hwameis in winter had significantly higher BMRs than that in summer.Conclusions: This result showed that Hwameis rely mostly on metabolic capacity to maintain their body temperature in cold weathers, and Hwameis exhibited daily and seasonal flexibility in morphology and physiology which is important under changing environmental conditions.

  9. Cloning: plants – micropropagation/tissue culture

    Clonal micropropagation is the multiplication of the buds and shoots that occur in leaf axils on a defined nutrient medium in an aseptic in vitro environment. The resulting shoots are either subdivided for continued multiplication or rooted and acclimatized to the greenhouse or field. Micropropagati...

  10. Heat acclimation alters the sleep and behavior based thermoregulatory dynamics of rats in heat stress

    Sinha RK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is well understood that the high environmental heat significantly affects the brain physiology of mammals, particularly the sleep and behavior of the subjects. The objective of the present work is to quantify the effects of acclimatization to the high environmental heat on sleep and behavioral activities in heat stress conditions. Methods: The polygraphic data involved simultaneous recordings of cortical electroencephalogram (EEG, electrooculogram (EOG, and electromyogram (EMG were recorded both on chart as well as in digital format to study the sleep-wake parameters in three different age groups of freely moving rats following exposure to high environmental heat. Each age group was subdivided into four groups: the acute heat stress group, subjected to a single exposure of 4h at 38°C in the biological oxygen demand (BOD incubator; the chronic heat stress group, exposed for 21 days, for 1 h each day, at 38°C in the BOD; acute heat stress followed by 21 days of chronic heat acclimatization and the handling control group. Open field and elevated plus-maze behavior was also analyzed following different exposure setup of high environmental heat. Results: The analyses of results suggest that acclimatization to the high environmental heat significantly alters the effects of acute exposure of high environmental heat on different sleep-wake as well as behavioral parameters. Conclusion: Acclimatization to environmental heat shifts the thermoregulatory set-point and thus these altered changes in sleep and behavior have been observed. Paste Full conclusion here

  11. ПАРАЗИТОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ПРОБЛЕМЫ АККЛИМАТИЗАЦИИ ОТДЕЛЬНЫХ ВИДОВ ДИКИХ КОПЫТНЫХ

    Пельгунов А.Н.; Маклакова Л.П.

    2013-01-01

    Data on long-term monitoring of wild unlulate helminths in “Zavidovo” National Park are presented. Acclimatization of new to the locality ungulates, introduction of animals from other parts of the area for increase of their numbers resulted in changes in ungulate helminth fauna complex Species of practical importance were observed among parasites introduced.

  12. Oligofructans content and yield of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) cultivated in Mississippi

    Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. & Endl.) H. Robinson (Asteraceae), also known as yacon, is an herbaceous tropical species native to the high mountains of Andes. It has been introduced to several countries, including Japan and Brazil. We are attempting to acclimatize yacon to Mississippi as a poten...

  13. The Documentation Process: The Administrator's Role and the Interplay of Necessity, Support and Collaboration

    Charlton, Donna; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2008-01-01

    Traditional teacher documentation procedures pit the administrator against the teacher. The process is adversarial and erodes the quality of the intervention. Teachers who are unsuccessful in meeting campus/school district expectations can be successfully acclimatized to the campus culture through a documentation process that combines affective…

  14. Subjective study of thermal acceptability of novel enhanced displacement ventilation system and implication of occupants' personal control

    Sun, Weimeng; Cheong, K.W.D.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2012-01-01

    with DV and constant heat load at different supply air temperatures, namely 20, 22, and 24 °C and room air temperatures, 22, 24, and 26 °C. Subjective assessments were carried out with 32 tropically-acclimatized college students who were given the choice to adjust the fan speed. Subjects' thermal...

  15. INFLUENCIA DE DIFERENTES SUBSTRATOS E FERTILIZANTES NA ACLIMATIZAÇÃO DE PLANTAS DE FIGUEIRA (FICUS CARICA L.

    Ester Alice Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to a great amount of environmental differences between in vitro and ex vitro conditions, the acclimatization phase of plantlets is one of the essential points to guarantee the success in obtaining micropropagated plants. Using a substrate with chemical and organic composition is important on this phase, because it will influence in the nutritional state of the seedlings. The present paper aimed to evaluate the effects of different substrate on acclimatization of fig plants 'Roxo de Valinhos'. It were selected uniform plantlets within a 5 cm of height which were transferred to the greenhouse, with an intermittent mist system, with 50% mesh of shadow by sombrite® planted in stereo foam trays where were submitted to the following treatments: Plantmax®; carbonized rice husk; soil in combination with Osmocote®; manure (3:1:1; NPKMg. The experimental design adopted was randomized blocks in factorial scheme and the evaluation was done one hundred and twenty days after the acclimatization by the following characteristics: plant high (cm, number of leaves/plant, dry weight of aerial part and roots and total weight (g/plant. As results, it was verified that on the acclimatization of fig plantlets 'Roxo de Valinhos' using of substrate soil + carbonized rice husk+ manure promotted highest number of leaves and largest weight of aerial dry matter were obtained Plantmax® substrate without any addition of fertilizers.

  16. Spatial Disorientation Training – Demonstration and Avoidance

    Bles, W.

    2008-01-01

    Acclimatization ; Aerospace medicine ; Attitude indicators ; Aviation accidents ; Flight maneuvers ; Flight simulators ; Human factors engineering ; Orientation ; Perception ; Physiological effects ; Pilot training ; Pilots (personnel) ; Responses ; Reviews ; Situational awareness ; Spatial disorientation ; Spatial information ; Spatial orientation ; Visual displays. Abstract Recent accident statistics reveal that Spatial Disorientation (SD) is still a major threat to flight safety in many NA...

  17. Children of Torture Victims: Reactions and Coping.

    Montgomery, Edith; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of 11 children from 5 exile families with at least 1 parent having been subjected to torture found children were anxious, depressive, and regressive with psychosomatic symptoms, sleep disorders, and family and school problems. Coping strategies including isolation and withdrawal, mental flight, eagerness to acclimatize, and strength of…

  18. The acceptable air velocity range for local air movement in the Tropics

    Gong, Nan; Tham, K.W.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Wyon, David Peter; Sekhar, S.C.; Cheong, K.W.

    2006-01-01

    The perception of locally applied airflow was studied with tropical subjects who had become passively acclimatized to hot conditions in the course of their day-to-day life. During the experiments, 24 subjects (male and female) performed normal office work in a room equipped with six workstations....

  19. ТОЧКА КРИСТАЛЛИЗАЦИИ ТКАНЕЙ РАЗНЫХ ОТДЕЛОВ ТЕЛА МЕДОНОСНЫХ ПЧЕЛ APIS MELLIFERA MELLIFERA L. И APIS MELLIFERA CARNICA В УСЛОВИЯХ ПЕРМСКОГО КРАЯ

    Мурылёв, Александр; Петухов, Александр

    2012-01-01

    The year cycle of crystallization point of different departments of a body of honeybee is shown in dynamics. Distinction of crystallization point of tissues of honeybee in Apis mellifera mellifera and Apis mellifera carnica is noted. The given indicator will allow to explain the mechanism of adaptation of bees at physiological level to adverse winter conditions and acclimatization on the north of the range.

  20. Inoculum and zeolite synergistic effect on anaerobic digestion of poultry manure.

    Fotidis, Ioannis A; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Zaganas, Ioannis D; Kotsopoulos, Thomas A; Martzopoulos, Gerasimos G

    2014-01-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate due to its high content of proteins and amino acids. Ammonia is the major inhibitor of anaerobic digestion (AD) process, affecting biogas production and causing great economic losses to the biogas plants. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite dosages on the mesophilic AD of poultry manure inoculated with a non-acclimatized to ammonia inoculum (dairy manure) was investigated. Additionally, a comparative analysis was performed between the data extracted from this study and the results of a previous study, which has been conducted under the same experimental conditions but with the use of ammonia acclimatized inoculum (swine manure). At 5 and 10 g zeolite L(-1), the methane yield of poultry manure was 43.4% and 80.3% higher compared with the experimental set without zeolite addition. However, the ammonia non-acclimatized inoculum was not efficient in digesting poultry manure even in the presence of 10 g zeolite L(-1), due to low methane production (only 39%) compared with the maximum theoretical yield. Finally, ammonia acclimatized inoculum and zeolite have demonstrated a possible 'synergistic effect', which led to a more efficient AD of poultry manure. The results of this study could potentially been used by the biogas plant operators to efficiently digest poultry manure. PMID:24701918

  1. Aromatic cytokinins in micropropagated potato plants

    Baroja, F. E.; Aguirreolea, J.; Martínková, Hana; Hanuš, Jan; Strnad, Miroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 3 (2002), s. 217-224. ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 844.10; GA ČR GA301/02/0475 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Acclimatization * Aromatic cytokinins * Micropropagation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.582, year: 2002

  2. Truth in politics : rhetorical approaches to democratic deliberation in Africa and beyond

    Salazar, P.J.; Osha, S.; Binsbergen, van W.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Democracy is about competing "truths". This is why "rhetoric"- the study of public deliberation and the training in public debate and argumentation - is part of democracy in development. This volume acclimatizes "rhetoric" to the philosophical scene in South Africa, and more in general in Africa as

  3. Evaluation of macronutrient demand in calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica)

    Carneiro, Daniella N. M.; Lopes Coelho, Lívia; Paiva, Patrícia D. O.;

    2015-01-01

    . Following acclimatization, micropropagated shoots were cultivated in pots with coconut fiber as a substrate and were fertilized with a modified version of Malavolta solution, as described. For each tested plot, evaluations were performed every 30 days for 12 months. We evaluated the dry mass of each plant...

  4. Isolation of Bacterial Strains Capable of Sulfamethoxazole Mineralization from an Acclimated Membrane Bioreactor

    Bouju, H.; Ricken, B.; Beffa, T; Corvini, P. F.- X.; Kolvenbach, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we isolated five strains capable of degrading 14C-labeled sulfamethoxazole to 14CO2 from a membrane bioreactor acclimatized to sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, and diclofenac. Of these strains, two belonged to the phylum Actinobacteria, while three were members of the Proteobacteria.

  5. Selecting the best inoculation for anaerobic thermophilic treatment in sewage plants; Seleccion de inoculo para el tratamiento anaerobio termofilico de lodos de depuradora

    Riau, V.; Rubia, M. A. de la; Forster, T.; Perez, M.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of the present work is to propose a suitable method to obtain an thermophilic inoculum source able for the anaerobic thermophilic digestion of sludge raw. Also, the acclimatization period to the temperature and the substrate is study as well as the thermophilic process at different solids retention of solids is analyzed. (Author) 18 refs.

  6. Effect of primary hypohydration on physical work capacity

    Pichan, G.; Gauttam, R. K.; Tomar, O. S.; Bajaj, A. C.

    1988-09-01

    Physical work capacity (PWC180) was assessed with different levels of hypohydration in 25 heat-acclimatized male volunteers in hot dry (45°C DB, 30% RH) and hot humid (39°C DB, 60% RH) conditions equated to a heat stress level of 34°C on the WBGT scale. Heat acclimatization was carried out by exposing the subjects for 8 consecutive days in a climatic chamber with moderate work for two 50 min work cycles and 10 min intervening rest pauses. Acclimatization resulted in significant decreases in heart rate (27 bpm), oral temperature (0.8°C), mean skin temperature (1.2°C) and a significant increase in sweating rate (120 g h-1 m-2). Day-to-day variations in body hypohydration levels during heat acclimatization were not significantly different, although water intake was found to increase significantly from day 3 onwards when the subjects were in ad lib water intake state. The heat acclimatized subjects were then hypohydrated to varying degrees, viz. 1%, 2% and 3% body weight deficit, with moderate work in heat in the climatic chamber and after successful recovery from the effects of thermal stress and exercise; their physical work capacity was assessed individually. Physical work capacity was found to decrease significantly with hypohydration as compared to controls. The decrease was of the order of 9%, 11% and 22% in the hot dry condition and 6%, 8% and 20% in the hot humid condition with hypohydration levels of 1%, 2% and 3% respectively. The decrease was more pronounced during 3% hypohydration level under both heat stress conditions. This decrease was in spite of significant increases in maximal ventilation. However, the PWC180 under the two heat stress conditions, when compared, did not reveal any significant difference. It was concluded that the heat stress vehicle did not adversely affect the physical work capacity. On the other hand, the decreases in physical work capacity were found to be closely related to the primary hypohydration level in heat-acclimatized

  7. Reduced heterotrophy in the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis after life-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide.

    Smith, Joy N; Strahl, Julia; Noonan, Sam H C; Schmidt, Gertraud M; Richter, Claudio; Fabricius, Katharina E

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification imposes many physiological, energetic, structural and ecological challenges to stony corals. While some corals may increase autotrophy under ocean acidification, another potential mechanism to alleviate some of the adverse effects on their physiology is to increase heterotrophy. We compared the feeding rates of Galaxea fascicularis colonies that have lived their entire lives under ocean acidification conditions at natural carbon dioxide (CO2) seeps with colonies living under present-day CO2 conditions. When provided with the same quantity and composition of zooplankton as food, corals acclimatized to high CO2 showed 2.8 to 4.8 times depressed rates of zooplankton feeding. Results were consistent over four experiments, from two expeditions and both in field and chamber measurements. Unless replenished by other sources, reduced zooplankton uptake in G. fascicularis acclimatized to ocean acidification is likely to entail a shortage of vital nutrients, potentially jeopardizing their health and survival in future oceans. PMID:27255977

  8. Respiration rate of stream insects measured in situ along a large altitude range

    Rostgaard, S.; Jacobsen, D.

    2005-01-01

    conditions in streams from 400 to 3800 m above sea level in tropical Ecuador. Mean active respiration rates of the animals at 3800 m were approximately half of those at 400 m. Trichoptera showed a slightly larger difference in respiration with altitude than Ephemeroptera. Comparative respiration measurements......Field studies of respiration in stream insects are few in comparison with laboratory studies. To evaluate the influence of temperature and oxygen along altitudinal gradients we measured the respiration rate of fully acclimatized larval Trichoptera, Plecoptera and Ephemeroptera under similar field...... to temperature in tropical streams is probably due to full acclimatization of the component species to stable and narrow temperature ranges. Adaptations to the low oxygen availability at high altitude probably consist of a suite of genetic physiological and behavioural features....

  9. The characterization of regenerative processes on grapevine culture under DDW influence

    In order to study the influence of DDW (Deuterium Depleted Water) on regenerative processes in grapevine a culture of explants, taken out from plants belonging to Feteasca Alba and Feteasca Neagra sorts, was made in a DDW medium and compared with to usual medium. During three subculture (90-100 days of culture), the influence of DDW on the regenerative processes and the biochemical composition of biological material were observed. It was investigated the possibility of using DDW like a sterile agent for explants (in initialization stage) and in treatment against mould (in acclimatization stage). Without excluding the endogen factor, our observations on biological materials cultivated in vitro, demonstrated a positive influence of DDW, by the increase of growth and acclimatization rate. (authors)

  10. The characterization of regenerative processes on grapevine culture under DDW influence

    In order to study the influence of DDW on regenerative processes in grapevine culture, an explants culture, with plants belonging to Feteasca Alba and Feteasca Neagra varieties was made, which was growth on medium with DDW, and compared with the usual water medium. During three subculture (90-100 days of culture), the influence of DDW on the regenerative processes and the biochemical composition of biological material were observed. It was investigated the possibility of DDW use like sterile agent for explants (in initialization stage) and in treatment against mould (in acclimatization stage). Without excluding the endogenous factor, our observations on biological material coming from in vitro, demonstrated a positive influence of DDW, namely an increase of multiplication and acclimatization rate. (authors)

  11. Local stressors reduce coral resilience to bleaching.

    Jessica E Carilli

    Full Text Available Coral bleaching, during which corals lose their symbiotic dinoflagellates, typically corresponds with periods of intense heat stress, and appears to be increasing in frequency and geographic extent as the climate warms. A fundamental question in coral reef ecology is whether chronic local stress reduces coral resistance and resilience from episodic stress such as bleaching, or alternatively promotes acclimatization, potentially increasing resistance and resilience. Here we show that following a major bleaching event, Montastraea faveolata coral growth rates at sites with higher local anthropogenic stressors remained suppressed for at least 8 years, while coral growth rates at sites with lower stress recovered in 2-3 years. Instead of promoting acclimatization, our data indicate that background stress reduces coral fitness and resilience to episodic events. We also suggest that reducing chronic stress through local coral reef management efforts may increase coral resilience to global climate change.

  12. Reduced heterotrophy in the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis after life-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide

    Smith, Joy N.; Strahl, Julia; Noonan, Sam H. C.; Schmidt, Gertraud M.; Richter, Claudio; Fabricius, Katharina E.

    2016-06-01

    Ocean acidification imposes many physiological, energetic, structural and ecological challenges to stony corals. While some corals may increase autotrophy under ocean acidification, another potential mechanism to alleviate some of the adverse effects on their physiology is to increase heterotrophy. We compared the feeding rates of Galaxea fascicularis colonies that have lived their entire lives under ocean acidification conditions at natural carbon dioxide (CO2) seeps with colonies living under present-day CO2 conditions. When provided with the same quantity and composition of zooplankton as food, corals acclimatized to high CO2 showed 2.8 to 4.8 times depressed rates of zooplankton feeding. Results were consistent over four experiments, from two expeditions and both in field and chamber measurements. Unless replenished by other sources, reduced zooplankton uptake in G. fascicularis acclimatized to ocean acidification is likely to entail a shortage of vital nutrients, potentially jeopardizing their health and survival in future oceans.

  13. Mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle following high-altitude exposure

    Jacobs, Robert A; Boushel, Robert; Wright-Paradis, Cynthia; Calbet, Jose A L; Robach, Paul; Gnaiger, Erich; Lundby, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Studies regarding mitochondrial modifications in human skeletal muscle following acclimatization to high altitude are conflicting, and these inconsistencies may be due to the prevalence of representing mitochondrial function through static and isolated measurements of specific mitochondrial...... characteristics. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate mitochondrial function in response to high-altitude acclimatization through measurements of respiratory control in the vastus lateralis muscle. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from 10 lowland natives prior to and again after a total of 9......-11 days of exposure to 4559 m. High-resolution respirometry was performed on the muscle samples to compare respiratory chain function and respiratory capacities. Respirometric analysis revealed that mitochondrial function was largely unaffected, because high-altitude exposure did not affect the capacity...

  14. Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) branches show acclimation of xylem anatomy and hydraulic properties to increased light after thinning

    Lemoine, D.; Jacquemin, S; Granier, A.

    2002-01-01

    Acclimatation anatomique et hydraulique du xylème après une éclaircie chez le hêtre (Fagus sylvatica L.). Nous avons analysé l'acclimatation hydraulique de hêtre Fagus sylvatica L. suite à une éclaircie forestière. Quelques mois après l'éclaircie, nous avons mesuré le potentiel hydrique des feuilles et du xylème et la conductance stomatique de branches " éclaircies " et comparé ces résultats à des branches de lumière et d'ombre. Nous avons déterminé la vulnérabilité à la cavitation de ces bra...

  15. Biodegradation kinetics during different start up of the anaerobic tapered fluidized bed reactor

    Rangasamy Parthiban

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic study for different start up conditions of the anaerobic digestion of wastewater derived from the sago processingfrom tubers of tapioca (Mannihot utillisema is discussed. The experiment is carried out with synthetic waste water usinga tapered fluidized bed reactor. Mesoporous granulated activated carbon is used as a bacterial support. The kinetic modelfollows half order kinetics for substrate utilization and for methane formation and it exhibits an order of 0.20 during thestart up of the reactor without acclimatization. For the remaining start up with acclimatized sludge, kinetic parameters areexpressed in terms of Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics for the substrate utilization. The methane formation kinetics followsan order of the reaction as 0.30. The values of the kinetic constants are in the range of 0.13–0.21.

  16. Mice Do Not Habituate to Metabolism Cage Housing

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Darusman, Huda Shalahudin;

    2013-01-01

    abnormality were monitored. Forced swim tests were conducted to determine whether the animals experienced behavioral despair and the serotonergic integrity was tested using an 8-OH-DPAT challenge. The metabolism cage housed mice excreted approximately tenfold higher amounts of corticosterone metabolites in...... in the present setup. In conclusion, the mice were found not to acclimatize to the metabolism cages whereby concern for animal welfare would dictate that mice should be housed in this way for as short periods as possible. The elevated degree of HPA axis activity, oxidative stress, and increased......The metabolism cage is a barren, non-enriched, environment, combining a number of recognized environmental stressors. We investigated the ability of male BALB/c mice to acclimatize to this form of housing. For three weeks markers of acute and oxidative stress, as well as clinical signs of...

  17. Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat

    Racinais, S; Alonso, J M; Coutts, A J;

    2015-01-01

    Exercising in the heat induces thermoregulatory and other physiological strain that can lead to impairments in endurance exercise capacity. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide up-to-date recommendations to optimize performance during sporting activities undertaken in hot ambient...... and minimize dehydration during exercise. Following the development of commercial cooling systems (e.g., cooling vest), athletes can implement cooling strategies to facilitate heat loss or increase heat storage capacity before training or competing in the heat. Moreover, event organizers should plan for large...... conditions. The most important intervention one can adopt to reduce physiological strain and optimize performance is to heat acclimatize. Heat acclimatization should comprise repeated exercise-heat exposures over 1-2 weeks. In addition, athletes should initiate competition and training in a euhydrated state...

  18. Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat

    Racinais, Sébastien; Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Coutts, Aaron J;

    2015-01-01

    Exercising in the heat induces thermoregulatory and other physiological strain that can lead to impairments in endurance exercise capacity. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide up-to-date recommendations to optimize performance during sporting activities undertaken in hot ambient...... and minimize dehydration during exercise. Following the development of commercial cooling systems (e.g., cooling vests), athletes can implement cooling strategies to facilitate heat loss or increase heat storage capacity before training or competing in the heat. Moreover, event organizers should plan for large...... conditions. The most important intervention one can adopt to reduce physiological strain and optimize performance is to heat acclimatize. Heat acclimatization should comprise repeated exercise-heat exposures over 1-2 weeks. In addition, athletes should initiate competition and training in an euhydrated state...

  19. The BMRES 1984 Medical Research Expedition to the Himalayas.

    Bradwell, A R; Coote, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-one subjects formed a trekking expedition to study the effects of acetazolamide on exercise performance and acclimatization at high altitude. Subjects were randomized to acetazolamide or placebo on a double blind basis. During ascent to and stay for 6 nights at 4846 m studies were carried out on blood gases, 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (2,3 DPG), proteinuria, exercise testing, intestinal absorption, purine metabolism and changes in body composition. The results showed beneficial effects of ...

  20. Fixed allocation patterns, rather than plasticity, benefit recruitment and recovery from drought in seedlings of a desert shrub

    Zhang, Yao; Li, Yan; Xie, Jiang-Bo

    2016-01-01

    The response of plants to drought is controlled by the interaction between physiological regulation and morphological adjustment. Although recent studies have highlighted the long-term morphological acclimatization of plants to drought, there is still debate on how plant biomass allocation patterns respond to drought. In this study, we performed a greenhouse experiment with first-year seedlings of a desert shrub in control, drought and re-water treatments, to examine their physiological and m...

  1. Epigenetics and Nutritional Environmental Signals

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A.; Soliman, Karam F. A.

    2014-01-01

    All terrestrial life is influenced by multi-directional flows of information about its environment, enabling malleable phenotypic change through signals, chemical processes, or various forms of energy that facilitate acclimatization. Billions of biological co-inhabitants of the earth, including all plants and animals, collectively make up a genetic/epigenetic ecosystem by which adaptation/survival (inputs and outputs) are highly interdependent on one another. As an ecosystem, the solar system...

  2. Withania Coagulans (Stocks Dunal: Biotechnological Achievements And Perspectives

    Teixeira da Silva Jaime A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Withania coagulans (Stocks Dunal is an important medicinal plant of the Solanaceae. Biotechnological studies on this plant started in 2009 and are still in a nascent phase of development. Even so, some important advances have been made, particularly in the field of tissue culture, which is an important means for its large-scale propagation and in vitro conservation. This review focuses on methods for surface sterilization, culture initiation, multiplication, rooting and acclimatization of W. coagulans.

  3. Mercury Removal From Petroleum Based Industries Wastewater By P. Putida

    A. A. M. Azoddein; R. M. Yunus; N. M. Sulaiman; A. B. Bustary; F. A. Azli

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mercury pollution is one of a primary environmental issue and public health problem. The purpose of this research is to remove the mercury using pure culture Pseudomonas putida ATCC 49128 at optimum growth parameters such as technique of culture acclimatization time and speed of incubator speed. In this study the optimum growth parameters ofP. putida were obtained to achieve the maximum of mercury removal. Thus a field study were carried out at two different location based on petrole...

  4. Sleep-disordered breathing and oxidative stress in preclinical chronic mountain sickness (excessive erythrocytosis)

    Julian, Colleen Glyde; Vargas, Enrique; Gonzales, Marcelino; Dávila, R. Daniela; Ladenburger, Anne; Reardon, Lindsay; Schoo, Caroline; Powers, Robert W.; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo; Moore, Lorna G.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is considered to be a loss of ventilatory acclimatization to high altitude (>2500 m) resulting in marked arterial hypoxemia and polycythemia. This case-control study explores the possibility that sleep-disordered breathing (SBD) and associated oxidative stress contribute to the etiology of CMS. Nocturnal respiratory and SaO2 patterns were measured using standard polysomnography techniques and compared between male high-altitude residents (aged 18–25) with precl...

  5. Sprint performance under heat stress: A review.

    Girard, O; Brocherie, F; Bishop, D J

    2015-06-01

    Training and competition in major track-and-field events, and for many team or racquet sports, often require the completion of maximal sprints in hot (>30 °C) ambient conditions. Enhanced short-term (39 °C). Here we also discuss strategies (heat acclimatization, precooling, hydration strategies) employed by "sprint" athletes to mitigate the negative influence of higher environmental temperatures. PMID:25943658

  6. Flight muscle shape reliably predicts flight muscle mass of migratory songbirds: a new tool for field ornithologists

    Bauchinger, Ulf; McWilliams, Scott R.; Kolb, Harald; Popenko, Vladimir M.; Price, Edwin R.; Biebach, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The pectoral muscle is the biggest organ within a passerine bird. It provides flight locomotion and is known to act as a protein source during periods with increased protein demands or decreased protein availability. The mass of the flight muscle is dynamic and changes during juvenile growth, reproduction, seasonal acclimatization, fasting and migration. Thus, a tool that accurately and non-invasively quantifies this phenotypic flexibility in flight muscle mass is of inter...

  7. Alternative substrates to substitute xaxim in the cultivation of the primary hybrid Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. (Orchidaceae) /
    Substratos alternativos ao xaxim no cultivo do híbrido primário Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. (Orchidaceae)

    Jenniffer Aparecida Schnitzer; Lúcia Sadao Takahashi; Ricardo Tadeu de Faria; Mauren Sorace; Lilian Yukari Yamamoto

    2009-01-01

    The paper had the purpose of evaluating root formation and vegetative development of the acclimatized plants of the primary hybrid Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook., using alternative substrates to substitute xaxim. Seedlings, with approximately eight months, obtained by in vitro culture with medium height of 6.4 ± 0.5 cm, were grown up in greenhouse with 60% of shadowness, using pots of polipropilene number one, containing the following substrates as treatments: XD= defib...

  8. Fulminant high altitude blindness.

    Mashkovskiy, Evgeny; Szawarski, Piotr; Ryzhkov, Pavel; Goslar, Tomaz; Mrak, Irena

    2016-06-01

    Prolonged altitude exposure even with acclimatization continues to present a physiological challenge to all organ systems including the central nervous system. We describe a case of a 41-year-old Caucasian female climber who suffered severe visual loss that was due to possible optic nerve pathology occurring during a high altitude expedition in the Himalayas. This case is atypical of classic high altitude cerebral oedema and highlights yet another danger of prolonged sojourn at extreme altitudes. PMID:27601532

  9. The physiology of ex vitro pineapple ( Ananas comosus L. Merr. var MD-2) as CAM or C3 is regulated by environmental conditions: proteomic and transcriptomic profiles

    Aragón, C.; Pascual, P.; González, J.; Escalona, M.; Carvalho, L.; Amâncio, S.

    2013-01-01

    Pineapple is one of the most important tropical crops worldwide. The use of Temporary Immersion Bioreactors (TIB) for the first stages of pineapple propagation enables precise control of plant growth, increases the rate of plant multiplication, decreases space, energy and labor requirements for pineapple plants in commercial micropropagation. Once the plantlets are ready to be taken from the reactors, they are carefully acclimatized to adapt to natural environmental conditions, and a facultat...

  10. The effect of temperature and salinity on the physiological rates of the mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus 1758)

    Charrid Resgalla Jr; Elisângela de Souza Brasil; Luis Carlos Salomão

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the rates of respiration, clearance, excretion and absorption efficiency at different temperature and salinity under laboratory conditions for Perna perna. Results showed variations in physiological rates and in acclimatization capacity which, taken together, enabled to understand its behavior in the environment, as well as to estimate its scope for growth. All experiments were carried out in static conditions, in ten replicas with one mussel by flasks. Perna...

  11. Physiological rates in different classes of sizes of Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) submmited to experimental loboratory conditions Taxas fisiológicas do mexilhão Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) em diferentes classes de tamanho e condições de manutenção em laboratório

    C. RESGALLA Jr.; E. S. Brasil; L.C. Salomão

    2006-01-01

    Physiological studies of the mussel Perna perna in Brazil are almost 30 years behind those of other, more exhaustively investigated species, such as Mytilus edulis. Little is known about the variations in physiological rates due to size and the consequences of maintaining P. perna in laboratory conditions. This work investigated the variations in respiration, clearance, excretion and absorption efficiency rates of P. perna, classified by size and acclimatized in a laboratory, monitoring the m...

  12. Mycorrhizal synthesis between Pisolithus arhizus and adult clones of Arbutus unedo in vitro and in nursery

    Filomena Gomes; Helena Machado; Esteban San Martin; A. Portugal; Jorge M. Canhoto

    2013-01-01

    Arbutoid mycorrhizae were synthesized between adult se-lected clones of Arbutus unedo L. and Pisolithus arhizus. Two micro-propagated clones were tested:AL1, in vitro and C1 (acclimatized plants) in nursery and later in a field trial. In vitro, rooted shoots were trans-ferred to test tubes containing the substrate previously inoculated with mycelium cultured on agar. In the nursery, two inoculation treatments were tested (vegetative inocula or dry sporocarps) and compared to con-trol plants. In the field trial, plants from nursery inoculation treatments were compared and an additional control treatment using seedlings was implemented. Plant height was evaluated 4 months later in the nursery and 20 months later in the field trial. Roots were examined by morpho-logical and histological studies: a) in vitro plantlets one month after inoculation and nine months after acclimatization;and b) 20 months after the field trial was established. Arbutoid mycorrhizae were observed in vitro one month after inoculation, indicating compatibility between A. unedo and P. arhizus. These showed the presence of a mantle, Hartig net, and intracellular hyphal complexes confined to the epidermal root cells. Arbutoid mycorrhizae were also observed nine months after acclimatiza-tion in inoculated and control plants. In order to confirm the identity of mycorrhizae, molecular techniques were used, in previously inoculated in vitro plants, 12 months after acclimatization. Thelephora and Hebeloma mycorrhizae, two types of highly competitive and widespread my-corrhizae on nurseries were identified. In the nursery, dry sporocarp treatment improved plant height after four months. In a field trial (20 months later), plants growth did not show significant differences. By this time, mycorrhized roots with Cenococcum geophilum and other types were identified. These results and their implications on A. unedo breed-ing program are discussed.

  13. [Presence in France of a selvatic Xenopsylla: X. cunicularis Smit, 1957 (Siphonaptera, Pulicidae), a parasite of wild rabbits].

    Beaucournu, J C; Launay, H

    1977-01-01

    The authors point out, for the first time in France, a selvatic Xenopsylla: X. cunicularis Smit, 1957, parasite on the European rabbit, well-known in Morocco and Spain until today. The paleogeographical, ecological, and epidemiological interest of this parasite is laid stress on. The other fleas linked to the European rabbit are evoked, and the acclimatization of Euphoplopsyllus glacialis affinis (Baker, 1904), in France and Italy, introduced with its host Sylvilagus? floridanus is related. PMID:580913

  14. Milk residues and performance of lactating dairy cows administered high doses of monensin

    Bagg, Randal; Vessie, Gordon H.; Dick, C. Paul; Duffield, Todd; Wilson, Jeff B.; Aramini, Jeff J

    2005-01-01

    Milk residues and performance were evaluated in lactating cows that were fed up to 10 times the recommended dose of monensin. Following an acclimatization period of 14 d, during which cows were fed a standard lactating cow total mixed ration containing 24 ppm monensin, 18 lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped according to the level of feed intake and then randomly assigned within each group to 1 of 3 challenge rations delivering 72, 144, and 240 ppm monensin. Outcome measurements include...

  15. Multiple Environmental Stressors: Biological Interactions Between Parameters of Climate Change and Perfluorinated Alkyl Substances in Fish

    Olufsen, Marianne Opsahl

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic organisms continuously acclimatize to fluctuations in environment parameters and contaminant insult. The aim of this thesis was to investigate effects of combined exposure to quantifiable measures of climate change (hypercapnia and hypoxia) and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) on oxidative stress, lipid homeostasis and endocrine disruption in fish. The thesis consists of four papers (Paper I-IV). In Paper I and II, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) juveniles was expose...

  16. A fuzzy system for cloacal temperature prediction of broiler chickens Sistema fuzzy para a predição da temperatura cloacal de frangos de corte

    Leandro Ferreira; Tadayuki Yanagi Junior; Wilian Soares Lacerda; Giovanni Francisco Rabelo

    2012-01-01

    Cloacal temperature (CT) of broiler chickens is an important parameter to classify its comfort status; therefore its prediction can be used as decision support to turn on acclimatization systems. The aim of this research was to develop and validate a system using the fuzzy set theory for CT prediction of broiler chickens. The fuzzy system was developed based on three input variables: air temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and air velocity (V). The output variable was the CT. The fuzzy in...

  17. Reaction Norms in Natural Conditions: How Does Metabolic Performance Respond to Weather Variations in a Small Endotherm Facing Cold Environments?

    Petit, Magali; Vézina, François

    2014-01-01

    Reaction norms reflect an organisms' capacity to adjust its phenotype to the environment and allows for identifying trait values associated with physiological limits. However, reaction norms of physiological parameters are mostly unknown for endotherms living in natural conditions. Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) increase their metabolic performance during winter acclimatization and are thus good model to measure reaction norms in the wild. We repeatedly measured basal (BMR) an...

  18. Interaction between the blood fluke, Sanguinicola inermis and humoral components of the immune response of carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Roberts, M.L.; Lewis, J W; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Hoole, D.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of Sanguinicola inermis on serum antibody and complement activity in Cyprinus carpio was assessed using an ELISA and haemolytic assays. Possible immune evasion strategies were assessed using immunodetection of host proteins on the surface of the parasite. Carp acclimatized to 20 or 25 °C were infected by exposure to 500 cercariae or injected intraperitoneally with 150 cercariae, and serum monitored over a 63-day period. In cercariae-injected carp, irrespective of time and temperatu...

  19. Local Stressors Reduce Coral Resilience to Bleaching

    Carilli, Jessica E; Norris, Richard D.; Black, Bryan A.; Walsh, Sheila M.; McField, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Coral bleaching, during which corals lose their symbiotic dinoflagellates, typically corresponds with periods of intense heat stress, and appears to be increasing in frequency and geographic extent as the climate warms. A fundamental question in coral reef ecology is whether chronic local stress reduces coral resistance and resilience from episodic stress such as bleaching, or alternatively promotes acclimatization, potentially increasing resistance and resilience. Here we show that following...

  20. IN-VIVO EVALUATION OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM INDUCED DNA DAMAGE BY ALKALINE COMET ASSAY AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CATLA CATLA

    Kantha Deivi Arunachalam; Sathesh Kumar Annamalai; Jaya Krishna Kuruva

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the acute toxicity of Chromium in fingerlings of Catla catla, an Indian major carp, was evaluated with renewal bioassay method. In vivo studies were designed to assess the extent of Micronucleus Assay, Comet Assay under the exposure of common heavy-metal compounds, namely, Chromium Nitrate, using Catla catla (2n = 20), as a test model. The laboratory acclimatized fishes were divided into four groups. Group I served as positive control and the other three as exposed group...

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhiza technology applied to micropropagated Prunus avium and to protection against Phytophthora cinnamomi

    Cordier, Christelle; Trouvelot, A; GIANINAZZI, Silvio; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne

    1996-01-01

    Deux champignons endomycorhizogenes a arbuscules (Glomus intraradices, Glomus caledonium), introduits pendant la periode d'acclimatation, ont ete testes pour leur pouvoir infectieux et leur effet sur la croissance de plants micropropages de merisiers (Prunus avium L) transplantes dans deux differents sols neutres, prealablement desinfectes ou non. Les vitroplants endomycorhizes presentent une meilleure croissance que les plantes temoins sur les deux sols desinfectes. L'importance de l'augment...

  2. The effect of high- to low-altitude adaptation on the multifocal electroretinogram

    Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Sander, Birgit; Zubieta-Calleja, Gustavo;

    2009-01-01

    .028) to a level of 73.2% to 87.0% higher in the highlanders than in the lowlanders (P < 0.0008). The increase in numerical amplitudes was proportional to the decrease in erythrocyte concentration (P = 0.023, 0.053, and 0.12 for N1, P1, and N2, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: On arrival at sea level, the...... intrinsic retinal mechanisms and that acclimatization was not complete by the end of the study....

  3. Hibernation, stress, intestinal functions, and catecholoamine turnover rate in hamsters and gerbils

    Musacchia, X. J.

    1973-01-01

    Bioenergetic studies on hamsters during depressed metabolic states are reported. External support of blood glucose extended the survival times of hibernating animals. Radioresistance increased in hibernating as well as in hypothermic hamsters. Marked changes in hamster catecholamine turnover rates were observed during acclimatization to high temperature stress. High radioresistance levels of the gerbil gastrointestinal system were attributed in part to the ability of the gut to maintain functional integrity.

  4. Chov agapornise škraboškového

    Schölzigová, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor´s thesis deals with the breeding of agapornis personata. Agapornis personata comes from northeastern Tanzania. It inhabits savannas with open stands. It is not demanding for breeding and that is why it is suitable for beginners. It has been kept in captivity since 1925 (imported to the USA), after import birds are sensitive for temperature and food changes but after acclimatization they are resistant and also handle low temperatures. It is possible to keep agapornis individ...

  5. Combinational Effects of Prebiotics and Soybean against Azoxymethane-Induced Colon Cancer In Vivo

    L.T. Walker; J. Boateng; Shackelford, L.; Gourineni, V. P.; Verghese, M.; N.K. Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Prebiotic fructans are nondigestible carbohydrates with numerous health benefits. Soybean is a rich source of phytonutrients such as isoflavones. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemopreventive effects of prebiotics (Synergy1) and soybean meal (SM) at 5% and 10% levels alone and in combination on azoxymethane- (AOM-) induced colon carcinogenesis. After one wk of acclimatization, Fisher 344 male rats (N = 90) were randomly assigned to 9 groups (n = 10). Control rats (C) were fe...

  6. Impact of ocean acidification on thermal tolerance and acid-base regulation of Mytilus edulis (L.) from the North Sea

    Zittier, Zora; Bock, Christian; Lannig, Gisela; Pörtner, Hans-Otto

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change confronts marine organisms with rapid trends of concomitant warming and CO2 induced ocean acidification. The survival and distribution of species partly depend on their ability to exploit their physiological plasticity during acclimatization. Therefore, in laboratory studies the effects of simulated future ocean acidification on thermal tolerance, energy metabolism and acid–base regulation capacity of the North Sea population of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis were...

  7. Prehranski dodatki in prehrana v visokih hribih: Nutritional supplements and nutrition in mountains:

    Rotovnik-Kozjek, Nada

    2004-01-01

    Altitude acclimatization and altitude exercise are physiologically demanding for the body. During exercise at high altitudes, energy and fluid needs are almost difficult to satisfy with normal food intake. An inappropriate thirst and appetite response can contribute to rapid dehydration, glycogen depletion and weight loss unless adequate amounts of food and fluid are ingested. Dehydration may intensify the symptoms of altitude sickness and result in an even lower food intake. The first and th...

  8. Evolutionary adaptation to high altitude: a view from in utero

    Julian, Colleen Glyde; Wilson, Megan J.; Moore, Lorna G.

    2009-01-01

    A primary focus within biological anthropology has been to elucidate the processes of evolutionary adaptation. A. Roberto Frisancho helped move anthropology towards more mechanistic explanations of human adaptation by drawing attention to the importance of the functional relevance of human variation. Using the natural laboratory of high altitude, he and others asked whether the unique physiology of indigenous high-altitude residents was the result of acclimatization, developmental plasticity ...

  9. Anatomical structure of african violet (Saintpaulia ionantha L.) vitro- and exvitroplantlets

    Adriana PETRUŞ-VANCEA; Angela Monica ŞIPOŞ

    2010-01-01

    In this article we study the histo-anatomical structure of vegetative organs of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha L.) vitro- and exvitroplantlets in comparison with similar aspects at the same organs of the greenhouse plants (control lot). The phytoinoculs vitroculture period was 120 days, the ex vitro acclimatization for the exvitroplantlets needed 30 days, and the greenhouse cultivar was 2 years old. Finally, we found that only rootlets of the vitroplantlets had a primary structure becau...

  10. The effect of acetazolamide on breath holding at high altitude.

    Morrissey, S. C.; Keohane, K.; Coote, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of altitude and acetazolamide on breath holding was studied in 20 individuals. Breath holding time was reduced progressively during ascent. There was an additional reduction in the acetazolamide group at low but not at high altitude. The initial difference between the two groups may have been related to a lower CSF pH when on acetazolamide. At high altitude the finding of similar breath holding times in the two groups may have been due to acclimatization in the placebo group.

  11. High-Altitude Illnesses: Physiology, Risk Factors, Prevention, and Treatment

    Taylor, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    High-altitude illnesses encompass the pulmonary and cerebral syndromes that occur in non-acclimatized individuals after rapid ascent to high altitude. The most common syndrome is acute mountain sickness (AMS) which usually begins within a few hours of ascent and typically consists of headache variably accompanied by loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, disturbed sleep, fatigue, and dizziness. With millions of travelers journeying to high altitudes every year and sleeping above 2,500 m, acute m...

  12. Physiological aspects of altitude training and the use of altitude simulators

    Ranković Goran; Radovanović Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Altitude training in various forms is widely practiced by athletes and coaches in an attempt to improve sea level endurance. Training at high altitude may improve performance at sea level through altitude acclimatization, which improves oxygen transport and/or utilization, or through hypoxia, which intensifies the training stimulus. This basic physiological aspect allows three training modalities: live high and train high (classic high-altitude training), live low and train high (training thr...

  13. Effectiveness of calcium chloride in reduction of shoot necrosis incocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) in vitro propagation

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2012-01-01

    Various efforts have been developed for the optimization of the various stages in vitro micropropagation. The maturation stage and pre-acclimatization plantlets is an important stages that must be considered to produce vigorous plants and ready to be planted in the field. The purpose of this study was to reduced shoot tip necrosis in cocoa planlets to obtaine vigorous planlets from in vitro propagation through the addition of Calcium Chloride (CaCl2). The study used two stages of embryogenic ...

  14. Effects of High Altitude on Sleep and Respiratory System and Theirs Adaptations

    Turhan San; Senol Polat; Cemal Cingi; Gorkem Eskiizmir; Fatih Oghan; Burak Cakir

    2013-01-01

    High-altitude (HA) environments have adverse effects on the normal functioning body of people accustomed to living at low altitudes because of the change in barometric pressure which causes decrease in the amount of oxygen leading to hypobaric hypoxia. Sustained exposure to hypoxia has adverse effects on body weight, muscle structure and exercise capacity, mental functioning, and sleep quality. The most important step of acclimatization is the hyperventilation which is achieved by hypoxic ven...

  15. Coronary heart disease at altitude.

    Alexander, J K

    1994-01-01

    In the past, it has been assumed that some basic physiologic responses to altitude, exposure in coronary patients are comparable to those in normal young subjects. In fact there are similar changes in sympathetic activation, heart rate, and blood pressure early after ascent, with decrements in plasma volume, cardiac output, and stroke volume as acclimatization proceeds. These responses are described, and experience with coronary patients is reviewed. During the 1st 2 to 3 days at altitude, co...

  16. Changes in cerebral blood flow and vasoreactivity to CO(2) measured by Arterial Spin Labeling after 6 days at 4,350 m.

    Villien, Marjorie,; Bouzat, Pierre; Rupp, Thomas; Robach, Paul; Lamalle, Laurent; Troprès, Irène; Estève, François; Krainik, Alexandre; Lévy, Patrick; Warnking, Jan; Verges, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Changes in cerebral perfusion and CO(2) cerebrovascular reactivity during and immediately after a sojourn at high altitude remain unclear but may be critical for acclimatization. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of 6days at 4,350m on cerebral perfusion and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to CO(2) by arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging at sea level and to compare it with transcranial Doppler (TCD) results at altitude. Eleven healthy male subjects, non...

  17. Control of breathing and the circulation in high-altitude mammals and birds.

    Ivy, Catherine M; Scott, Graham R

    2015-08-01

    Hypoxia is an unremitting stressor at high altitudes that places a premium on oxygen transport by the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Phenotypic plasticity and genotypic adaptation at various steps in the O2 cascade could help offset the effects of hypoxia on cellular O2 supply in high-altitude natives. In this review, we will discuss the unique mechanisms by which ventilation, cardiac output, and blood flow are controlled in high-altitude mammals and birds. Acclimatization to high altitudes leads to some changes in respiratory and cardiovascular control that increase O2 transport in hypoxia (e.g., ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia). However, acclimatization or development in hypoxia can also modify cardiorespiratory control in ways that are maladaptive for O2 transport. Hypoxia responses that arose as short-term solutions to O2 deprivation (e.g., peripheral vasoconstriction) or regional variation in O2 levels in the lungs (i.e., hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction) are detrimental at in chronic high-altitude hypoxia. Evolved changes in cardiorespiratory control have arisen in many high-altitude taxa, including increases in effective ventilation, attenuation of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, and changes in catecholamine sensitivity of the heart and systemic vasculature. Parallel evolution of some of these changes in independent highland lineages supports their adaptive significance. Much less is known about the genomic bases and potential interactive effects of adaptation, acclimatization, developmental plasticity, and trans-generational epigenetic transfer on cardiorespiratory control. Future work to understand these various influences on breathing and circulation in high-altitude natives will help elucidate how complex physiological systems can be pushed to their limits to maintain cellular function in hypoxia. PMID:25446936

  18. Acetazolamide pre-treatment before ascending to high altitudes: when to start?

    Burtscher, Martin; Gatterer, Hannes; Faulhaber, Martin; Burtscher, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia is the main responsible factor initiating the symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) in susceptible individuals. Measures that improve oxygenation and/or hasten acclimatization like pre-treatment with acetazolamide will prevent the development of AMS. We hypothesized that pre-treatment with acetazolamide the day before arrival at high altitude would elicit improved oxygenation compared to placebo not until the second day of high-altitude exposure. Fifteen study participants were ra...

  19. Anther Culture of Pepper: Morphological Characteristics of Fruits of Androgenetic Pepper Lines (Capsicum Annuum L.)

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Trajkova, Fidanka

    2012-01-01

    The presented study describes the effectiveness of induced androgenesis in in vitro pepper anther culture. The aim of this study was the establishment of effective technology for induction of embryogenesis in pepper anther culture; development of the embryos into plantlets; successful adaptation and acclimatization of plantlets from sterile to greenhouse conditions, and the breeding process of obtained androgenetic pepper lines in the plastic tunnel conditions. From 19 pepper genotypes under ...

  20. Loss of adipose fatty acid oxidation does not potentiate obesity at thermoneutrality

    Jieun Lee; Joseph Choi; Susan Aja; Susanna Scafidi; Michael J. Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Ambient temperature affects energy intake and expenditure to maintain homeostasis in a continuously fluctuating environment. Here, mice with an adipose-specific defect in fatty acid oxidation (Cpt2A−/−) were subjected to varying temperatures to determine the role of adipose bioenergetics in environmental adaptation and body weight regulation. Microarray analysis of mice acclimatized to thermoneutrality revealed that Cpt2A−/− interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) failed to induce the expres...

  1. Modulation of antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes in the gills of Perna viridis (L.) exposed to water accomodate fraction of diesel

    Jena, K.B.; Verlecar, X.N.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    chemicals were analar grade. Experimental animals and maintenance: Green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis), with umbo of length 8-10 em were collected from Bambolim beach Goa, India. Animals were transported to the laboratory in the polythene bags, filled... and then aqueous phase was drained out. This preparation was used as 100 % stock solution. Experimental designs: The acclimatized animals were divided into three groups: Group I: Control mussels, untreated, Group II: Mussels treated with 0.5 % WAFO, Group III...

  2. Hydration in soccer: a review

    Monteiro Cristiano Ralo; Guerra Isabela; Barros Turíbio Leite de

    2003-01-01

    Hydration should be considered before, during and after the exercise. This review intends to approach the main points of hydration process in soccer. The replacement of fluids during exercise is proportional to some factors, such as: exercise intensity; climatic conditions; the athlete's acclimatization; the athlete's physical conditioning; physiologic individual characteristics and the player's biomechanics. Performance is improved when players ingest not only water but also carbohydrate. Th...

  3. Fermentation Kinetics for Xylitol Production by a Pichia stipitis d-Xylulokinase Mutant Previously Grown in Spent Sulfite Liquor

    Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.; Lu, Chenfeng; Lin, Bernice; Jeffries, Thomas W.

    Spent sulfite pulping liquor (SSL) contains lignin, which is present as lignosulfonate, and hemicelluloses that are present as hydrolyzed carbohydrates. To reduce the biological oxygen demand of SSL associated with dissolved sugars, we studied the capacity of Pichia stipitis FPL-YS30 (xyl3Δ) to convert these sugars into useful products. FPL-YS30 produces a negligible amount of ethanol while converting xylose into xylitol. This work describes the xylose fermentation kinetics of yeast strain P.stipitis FPL-YS30. Yeast was grown in rich medium supplemented with different carbon sources: glucose, xylose, or ammonia-base SSL. The SSL and glucose-acclimatized cells showed similar maximum specific growth rates (0.146 h-1). The highest xylose consumption at the beginning of the fermentation process occurred using cells precultivated in xylose, which showed relatively high specific activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49). However, the maximum specific rates of xylose consumption (0.19 gxylose/gcel h) and xylitol production (0.059 gxylitol/gcel h) were obtained with cells acclimatized in glucose, in which the ratio between xylose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21) and xylitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.9) was kept at higher level (0.82). In this case, xylitol production (31.6 g/l) was 19 and 8% higher than in SSL and xylose-acclimatized cells, respectively. Maximum glycerol (6.26 g/l) and arabitol (0.206 g/l) production were obtained using SSL and xylose-acclimatized cells, respectively. The medium composition used for the yeast precultivation directly reflected their xylose fermentation performance. The SSL could be used as a carbon source for cell production. However, the inoculum condition to obtain a high cell concentration in SSL needs to be optimized.

  4. Altitude Modulates Concussion Incidence

    Smith, David W.; Myer, Gregory D; Currie, Dustin W.; Comstock, R Dawn; Clark, Joseph F.; Bailes, Julian E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent research indicates that the volume and/or pressure of intracranial fluid, a physiology affected by one’s altitude (ie, elevation above sea level), may be associated with the likelihood and/or severity of a concussion. The objective was to employ an epidemiological field investigation to evaluate the relationship between altitude and concussion rate in high school sports. Hypothesis: Because of the physiologies that occur during acclimatization, including a decline in intrac...

  5. Temperature Tolerance of Large Yellow Croaker, Pseudosciaena Crocea ( Richardson ) Associated with Summer Season

    CHEN Quanzhen; ZENG Jiangning; LIAO Yibo; GAO Aigen; YANG Hefu

    2005-01-01

    Lethal temperature tolerance was determined for about 8 cm, age 0 Pseudosciaena crocea using both slow heating and rapid transfer protocol. The acclimatization temperature was 28 ℃ with summer season, lethal temperature ( LT50 value ) of slow heating protocol ( CTMax ) was 35.0 ℃, and the upper and lower incipient lethal temperatures of rapid transfer protocol were 34.2 ℃ and 17.5 ℃ respectively.

  6. Primary productivity of marine macrophytes in the coral reef lagoon of the Kadmat Island, Lakshadweep

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Shaikh, N.

    used as control remained constant, so blank corrections need not be a p plied. Healthy, branched, clean fronds of known weight were selected from each acclimatized ma cr o phyte and carefully transferred into the experimental bottles (light... from each bottle was carefully siphoned with the help of a tube into two oxygen bottles and the dissolved oxygen conce n tration was determined by the Wrinkler method 19 . The macr o- phytes from the respective bottles were then removed, blott ed...

  7. The effect of altitude and intensity of physical activity on the exergy efficiency of respiratory system

    Henriques, Izabela Batista; Mady, Carlos Eduardo Keutenedjian; Albuquerque Neto, Cyro; Yanagihara, Jurandir Itizo; Oliveira Junior, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    The effect of altitude on exercise performance of lowlanders has long been discussed, but it is still unclear whether the performance reduction is related to inefficiency of the respiratory system, body tissues or both. In the present work, exergy analysis was applied to the human body in order to compare its exergy efficiency under basal conditions and during physical activity at sea level and high altitudes for different periods of acclimatization. Two control volumes were analyzed: respira...

  8. Histology, Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia Evaluations of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Leaves on Adult Wistar Rat.

    Oboma, Yibala .I; Asuqwo E.E

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia is an indicator of diabetes mellitus and chronic dyslipidemia a risk factor cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: We aim at evaluating the effect of Moringa oleifera on glucose level, lipid profile, cardiac markers, liver enzymes, proteins and histology of the heart and liver. METHODOLOGY: Twenty six male (26) adult Wistar rats were enrolled for the study. Acclimatized and randomly divided into four groups (A, B, C&-D, n=6) and controls. They rat were given intraperitoneal ...

  9. Ex vitro transfer and abscisic acid

    Pospíšilová, Jana; Synková, Helena; Haisel, Daniel; Vágner, Martin; Baťková, Petra

    Faro, 2007. s. 33-33. [International Symposium on Acclimatization and Establishment of Micropropagated Plants /3./. 12.09.2007-15.09.2007, University of Algarve] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/07/0227 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : abscisic acid * antioxidants * ex vitro transfer * in vitro growth * stomata * photoinhibition * xanthophyll cycl Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  10. Effect of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the performance of activated sludge process during the biotreatment of real textile wastewater

    Kapil Kumar; Gaurav Kumar Singh; M.G. Dastidar; T.R. Sreekrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Adequate information is available on colour and organics removal in batch mode using pure microbial cultures from dye contaminated wastewater. There was a need to develop environment friendly and cost effective treatment technique for actual field conditions. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the potential of acclimatized mixed microbial consortia for the removal of colour and organics from real textile wastewater. Experiments were performed in laboratory sca...

  11. Langkawi's Sustainable Regeneration Strategy and Natural Heritage Preservation

    Rugayah Hashim; Zulkiflee Abd Latif

    2015-01-01

    In the face of climate change and increased development, environmental acclimatization includes looking for alternatives for socio-economic improvement. For the island resort of Langkawi, Malaysia, agriculture is no longer a sustainable income generating venture. Eco-tourism has taken over paddy planting and artisanal fishing. The state government and local authorities are aware of the need to realign their development strategies to suit the environment. By engaging in sustainable regeneratio...

  12. Ex situ Conservation of Three Endemic and/or Endangered Dianthus Species

    Victoria CRISTEA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the current context of declining biodiversity, the botanical gardens play an essential role in its conservation. Dianthus callizonus, D. glacialis ssp. gelidus and D. spiculifolius are the species that we seek to preserve in "Alexandru Borza" Botanical Garden of Cluj-Napoca (Romania. Several replicates were collected for each taxon from different populations in order to avoid the genetic uniformity. The material collected from the natural sites, was planted on a rockery, specially designed for this collection in the Botanical Garden. At the time of planting, each individual was sampled for setting up an in vitro collection and further biochemical and molecular analyses. In case of ex situ outdoor conservation of the three Dianthus species, 80.6% of the individuals collected in the field survived during the first year but the percentage decreased drastically after four years. In the case of in situ collected individuals, as well as in the case of in vitro individuals, D. spiculifolius had the best ability to acclimatize in the Botanical Garden, and D. callizonus presented the lowest number of surviving individuals. The ex vitro acclimatization of the plantlets had 80% efficiency at 10ºC, using three different substrates: soil and pearl stone mix 1/1, soil and sand mix 1/1 and pearl stone. All the three species are preserved in vitro, whereas the plantlets are acclimatized outdoors. Ex situ conservation of these species will have a positive impact on the biodiversity conservation.

  13. On the mechanisms that limit oxygen uptake during exercise in acute and chronic hypoxia: role of muscle mass

    Calbet, José A L; Rådegran, Göran; Boushel, Robert;

    2009-01-01

    -legged knee extension exercise: Knee)muscle mass in normoxia, acute hypoxia (AH) (FIO2 = 0.105) and after 9 weeks of residence at 5260 m (CH). Reducing the size of the active muscle mass blunted by 62% the effect of hypoxia on VO2,peak in AH and abolished completely the effect of hypoxia on VO2,peak after...... altitude acclimatization. Acclimatization improved Bike peak exercise Pa,O2 from 34 +/- 1 in AH to 45 +/- 1 mmHg in CH(P <0.05) and Knee Pa,O2 from 38 +/- 1 to 55 +/- 2 mmHg(P <0.05). Peak cardiac output and leg blood flow were reduced in hypoxia only during Bike. Acute hypoxia resulted in reduction of...... during hypoxic exercise, attenuates the Bohr effect on oxygen uploading at the lungs and preserves sea level convective O2 transport to the active muscles. Thus, the altitude-acclimatized human has potentially a similar exercising capacity as at sea level when the exercise model allows for an adequate...

  14. Symbiotic propagation of seedlings of Cyrtopodium glutiniferum Raddi (Orchidaceae

    Fernanda Aparecida Rodrigues Guimarães

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In nature, orchid seeds obtain the nutrients necessary for germination by degrading intracellular fungal structures formed after colonization of the embryo by mycorrhizal fungi. Protocols for asymbiotic germination of orchid seeds typically use media with high concentrations of soluble carbohydrate and minerals. However, when reintroduced into the field, seedlings obtained via asymbiotic germination have lower survival rates than do seedlings obtained via symbiotic germination. Tree fern fiber, the ideal substrate for orchid seedling acclimatization, is increasingly scarce. Here, we evaluated seed germination and protocorm development of Cyrtopodium glutiniferum Raddi cultivated in asymbiotic media (Knudson C and Murashige & Skoog and in oatmeal agar (OA medium inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Epulorhiza sp., using non-inoculated OA medium as a control. We also evaluated the performance of tree fern fiber, pine bark, eucalyptus bark, corncob and sawdust as substrates for the acclimatization of symbiotically propagated plants. We determined germination percentages, protocorm development and growth indices at 35 and 70 days of cultivation. Relative growth rates and the effects of substrates on mycorrhizal formation were calculated after 165 days of cultivation. Germination efficiency and growth indices were best when inoculated OA medium was used. Corncob and pine bark showed the highest percentages of colonized system roots. The OA medium inoculated with Epulorhiza sp. shows potential for C. glutiniferum seedling production. Corncob and pine bark are promising substitutes for tree fern fiber as substrates for the acclimatization of orchid seedlings.

  15. Prior altitude experience of climbers attempting to summit Aconcagua.

    Borm, Nicholas; Van Roo, Jon D; Pesce, Carlos; Courtney, D Mark; Malik, Sanjeev; Lazio, Matthew P

    2011-01-01

    Aconcagua (6962 m) is one of the seven summits and the highest mountain outside of Asia. Climbers of varying experience are drawn to its nontechnical route. Our objective was to detail the prior altitude experience of climbers attempting to summit Aconcagua. We asked all climbers on the normal route of Aconcagua to complete questionnaires with demographics and prior high altitude experience while acclimatizing at Plaza de Mulas base camp during 9 nonconsecutive days in January 2009. 127 volunteers from 22 countries were enrolled. Mean age was 39.8 years and 88.2% were male. Median altitude at place of residence was 200 m (IQR: 30, 700). Median previous maximum altitude reached was 5895 m (IQR: 5365, 6150). 7.1% of climbers had never been above 4000 m. Median previous maximum sleeping altitude was 4800 m (IQR: 4300, 5486). 12.6% of climbers had never slept above 4000 m. Climbers who performed acclimatization treks spent a mean of 3.6 (2.5, 4.7) days at>3000 m in the previous 2 months. However, 50.4% of climbers performed no acclimatization treks. Although the majority of mountaineers who attempt Aconcagua have prior high altitude experience, a substantial minority has never been above 4000 m. PMID:22206564

  16. Exercise training hypotension - Implications for plasma volume, renin, and vasopressin

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Sciaraffa, D.; Shvartz, E.; Keil, L. C.; Brock, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    The relation of changes in plasma volume, plasma renin activity and arginine vasopressin to changes in resting blood pressure during exercise training is investigated. Resting supine, sitting, and standing systolic and fifth-phase diastolic blood pressures were measured in ten men before and after an eight-day training period on a cycle ergometer in either a hot (39.8 C) or cool (23.8 C) environment, and compared with plasma volume, renin and vasopressin levels, heart rates, maximal oxygen uptakes, rectal temperatures and sweat rates. Following acclimatization, resting supine and sitting diastolic pressures are observed to decrease by 6 and 9 mm Hg, respectively, while no significant changes are found in the diastolic pressures of the control group or the systolic pressures of either group. Resting plasma volume is found to increase by 12.2% in the controls and by 17.6% after acclimatization following the exercise training. Results suggest that the resting hypotension produced is not attributable to changes in resting plasma volume, renin or vasopressin, although heat acclimatization, which leads to large decreases in plasma volume and increases in vasopressin and renin activity, may be useful in the treatment of hypertension.

  17. Thermal and metabolic adaptation to first cold-water immersion in juvenile penguins.

    Barré, H; Roussel, B

    1986-09-01

    Juvenile king and macaroni penguins are terrestrial seabirds and must face an intensive and prolonged energetic demand during their passage from shore to marine life in cold subantarctic seawater. Evidence for progressive thermal adaptation was sought by measurement of metabolic rate (MR) and body (Tb) and skin (Tsk) temperatures in unrestrained, fully immersed penguins. Steady-state responses obtained after the 3rd h of immersion in never-immersed (NI) penguins were compared with those of penguins acclimatized to seawater temperature (A). NI macaroni penguins, unlike NI king penguins, showed a fall in Tb on their first immersion but, once acclimatized, were able to maintain their homeothermy due to an increase (greater than 3.2 W/kg) in regulatory thermogenesis. In NI king penguins, during a simulation of seawater adaptation by 10 successive immersions, MR at 7 degrees C water temperature (Tw) rose from 6.0 to 9.4 W/kg (becoming 3-5 times higher than in air), whereas Tb rose from 37.6 to 38.4 degrees C. In both species occurrence of peak MR at much lower Tw, progressive increase in thermogenesis capacity, and lower conductance in water after adaptation to marine life (28 and 36% less in A king and macaroni penguins, respectively) showed that the passage from shore to marine life consisted of a true cold acclimatization. PMID:3752279

  18. Decolorization of Mordant Orange-1 by Marinobacter algicola MO-17

    R. S. Shertate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The textile industries use different types of dyes in their processing units which are liberated in natural marine water bodies. This release of dyes in turn affect the marine flora and fauna very adversely. Approach: The release of textile dyes into the environment is a matter of concern due to the toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and xenobiotic nature. Hence, considerable attention has been given in determining the ability of marine microorganism in decolorization and degradation of textile dyes. Results: The present study deals with the decolorization of Mordant Orange-1 was carried out using the acclimatized Marinobacter algicola MO-17 isolated from natural marine environment. The acclimatized strain was capable of decolorizing 800 μg mL-1 of the dye at high salt concentration (12% in 24 h. The percent decolorization of the dye was moderated by spectroscopy at 385 nm (λmax. Conclusion/Recommendations: The spectrophotometric analysis showed 78.78% decolorization in Nutrient Broth and 76.78% decolorization in Half Strength Nutrient Broth. The percent Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD reduction of the dye by the strain was 90%. From the study performed, we conclude that, this acclimatized strain can prove better option for bioremediation of textile dyes in wastes containing high salts and in marine environment.

  19. Transcriptomic plasticity in brown adipose tissue contributes to an enhanced capacity for nonshivering thermogenesis in deer mice.

    Velotta, Jonathan P; Jones, Jennifer; Wolf, Cole J; Cheviron, Zachary A

    2016-06-01

    For small mammals living at high altitude, aerobic heat generation (thermogenesis) is essential for survival during prolonged periods of cold, but is severely impaired under conditions of hypobaric hypoxia. Recent studies in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) reveal adaptive enhancement of thermogenesis in high- compared to low-altitude populations under hypoxic cold stress, an enhancement that is attributable to modifications in the aerobic metabolism of muscles used in shivering. However, because small mammals rely heavily on nonshivering mechanisms for cold acclimatization, we tested for evidence of adaptive divergence in nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) under hypoxia. To do so, we measured NST and characterized transcriptional profiles of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in high- and low-altitude deer mice that were (i) wild-caught and acclimatized to their native altitude, and (ii) born and reared under common garden conditions at low elevation. We found that NST performance under hypoxia is enhanced in wild-caught, high-altitude deer mice, a difference that is associated with increased expression of coregulated genes that influence several physiological traits. These traits include vascularization and O2 supply to BAT, brown adipocyte proliferation and the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation from ATP synthesis in the generation of heat. Our results suggest that acclimatization to hypoxic cold stress is facilitated by enhancement of nonshivering heat production, which is driven by regulatory plasticity in a suite of genes that influence intersecting physiological pathways. PMID:27126783

  20. Effects of high altitude on sleep and respiratory system and theirs adaptations.

    San, Turhan; Polat, Senol; Cingi, Cemal; Eskiizmir, Gorkem; Oghan, Fatih; Cakir, Burak

    2013-01-01

    High-altitude (HA) environments have adverse effects on the normal functioning body of people accustomed to living at low altitudes because of the change in barometric pressure which causes decrease in the amount of oxygen leading to hypobaric hypoxia. Sustained exposure to hypoxia has adverse effects on body weight, muscle structure and exercise capacity, mental functioning, and sleep quality. The most important step of acclimatization is the hyperventilation which is achieved by hypoxic ventilatory response of the peripheral chemoreceptors. Hyperventilation results in increase in arterial carbon-dioxide concentration. Altitude also affects sleep and cardiac output, which is the other determinant of oxygen delivery. Upon initial exposure to HA, the resting pulse rate increases rapidly, but with acclimatization, heart rate and cardiac output tend to fall. Another important component that leads to decrease in cardiac output is the reduction in the stroke volume with acclimatization. During sleep at HA, the levels of CO2 in the blood can drop very low and this can switch off the drive to breathe. Only after the body senses a further drop in O2 levels breathing is started again. Periodic breathing is thought to result from instability in the control system through the hypoxic drive or the response to CO2. PMID:23690739

  1. Effects of High Altitude on Sleep and Respiratory System and Theirs Adaptations

    Turhan San

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude (HA environments have adverse effects on the normal functioning body of people accustomed to living at low altitudes because of the change in barometric pressure which causes decrease in the amount of oxygen leading to hypobaric hypoxia. Sustained exposure to hypoxia has adverse effects on body weight, muscle structure and exercise capacity, mental functioning, and sleep quality. The most important step of acclimatization is the hyperventilation which is achieved by hypoxic ventilatory response of the peripheral chemoreceptors. Hyperventilation results in increase in arterial carbondioxide concentration. Altitude also affects sleep and cardiac output, which is the other determinant of oxygen delivery. Upon initial exposure to HA, the resting pulse rate increases rapidly, but with acclimatization, heart rate and cardiac output tend to fall. Another important component that leads to decrease in cardiac output is the reduction in the stroke volume with acclimatization. During sleep at HA, the levels of CO2 in the blood can drop very low and this can switch off the drive to breathe. Only after the body senses a further drop in O2 levels breathing is started again. Periodic breathing is thought to result from instability in the control system through the hypoxic drive or the response to CO2.

  2. Adaptation to High Altitude

    H. S. Nayar

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is inconsequential for physiologically fit persons below an effective altitude of 2640 metres. At higher altitudes, the adaptation is brought about by four main factors, viz., hyperventilation, increased diffusion of oxygen across alveolar membrane, erythrocythemia and maintenance of body hydration. Carbon dioxide sensitivity is markedly elevated at high altitude, both in sojourners and acclimatized low-landers. The greater pulmonary diffusing capacity observed in high altitude natives is well documented. RBC count, haemoglobin and haematocrit increase whereas arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation percentage decreases at high altitude. Diuretics (Furosemide have no role in adaptation to high altitude and adequate body hydration must be maintained.The ultimate adaptive mechanisms occur at tissue level which facilitate the diffusion of oxygen from blood to tissue and its utilization. The work capacity decreases at high altitude and a relationship between load carried and speed of marching has been determined at various altitudes. Although altitude has an adverse effect on process of cold acclimatization, yet it is possible to induce cold acclimatization by exposing subjects to a temperature of 0° to -5°C for a period of three hours daily for three weeks. The caloric requirements increase at high altitudes and are 4,286 K Cal and 4,380 K Cal at 13000 feet (3950 m and 17000 feet (5170 m, respectively.

  3. Comparison of microhabitats and foraging strategies between the captive-born Zhangxiang and wild giant pandas: implications for future reintroduction.

    Lei, Miaowen; Yuan, Shibin; Yang, Zisong; Hong, Mingsheng; Yang, Xuyu; Gu, Xiaodong; Huang, Feng; Zhang, Zejun

    2015-10-01

    The female giant panda Zhangxiang (pedigree number 826) was born on August 20, 2011 in Wolong Nature Reserve, China. On November 6, 2013, Zhangxiang was transported into the acclimatization enclosure in the Liziping Nature Reserve. Before Zhangxiang left the enclosure into the wild, we conducted the first study to compare microhabitats and foraging strategies between Zhangxiang in the enclosure and giant pandas in the wild. Compared with the latter, microhabitats of Zhangxiang in the enclosure are characteristic of gentler slope, more trees, higher canopy, smaller tree DBH, and lower density of living bamboos. Diet composition and foraging behaviors significantly differed between Zhangxiang and wild giant pandas, perhaps reflecting the combined consequence of environmental conditions (e.g., bamboo species) and individual status (e.g., age, mastication ability, etc.). The difference in microhabitats and foraging strategies between Zhangxiang and wild giant pandas implied that after being released into the natural habitat in the reserve, Zhangxiang will have to adapt to the environmental conditions once again. For future reintroduction, the enclosure can be extended to the Bashania spanostachya forest in the reserve, and captive giant pandas for release can thus normally transit into the wild without human intervention during acclimatization period. For other acclimatization enclosures to be constructed in the future, ecological environment inside, including topography, forests, and bamboos as well, should as possible as can match the habitat that the giant panda to-be-reinforced populations inhabit. PMID:26003090

  4. MIKROPROPAGASI ANGGREK ALMA Grammatophyllum scriptum Blume

    Elizabeth Handini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Grammatophyllum scriptum is a beautiful wild orchid that has an interesting economic value. However, the existence of this ornamental plant species is at risk because of irresponsible exploitation of the natural population and insufficient cultivation efforts. Currently, the Bogor Botanic Garden is developing a program of orchid propagation for enhancing the conservation of all potential orchid collections. The propagation of G. scriptum was basically carried out by culturing the seeds in a modified Hyponex or Vacin & Went medium, transplanting the plantlets into a more suitable medium and finally acclimatizing the resulting seedlings. A study was done to observe the effect of fertilizer application on the growth of acclimatized G. scriptum seedlings, as a means to improve the propagation technique of the species. The result showed that the application of 1 and 2 m1/I organic fertilizer (Sugih as well as 1 and 2 g/I inorganic fertilizer (Hyponex increased the seedling mortality, in which the application of 2 g/ml Hyponex fertilizer was being the most damaging treatment, leaving 12,5 % seedlings to survive. However, in terms of seedling growth, the application of 1 m1/I Sugih fertilizer was slightly beneficial to the formation of root and the elongation of stem of the acclimatized seedlings. It may be suggested, therefore, that G. scriptum seedlings require no (or very little amount of supplementary fertilizer to boost their vegetative growth.

  5. Kesintasan Undur-Undur pada Media Aklimatisasi

    Mayang Arundina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kesintasan undur-undur pada media aklimatisasi. Penelitian dilakukan di rumah teduh Jalan Tumpang I/82 Semarang dan Laboratorium Jurusan Biologi FMIPA UNNES. Variabel utamanya kesintasan undur-undur, berat dan panjang undur-undur, sedangkan variabel pendukungnya jenis media aklimatisasi, meliputi tanah kering, abu dan serbuk batu bata. Tahap awal, disiapkan media hidup undur-undur, media kemudian dimasukkan kedalam kotak aklimatisasi, diberi cangkup dan dibiarkan selama 10 hari. Undur-undur ditimbang dan diukur panjang tubuhnya kemudian dimasukkan kedalam kotak aklimatisasi, masing-masing kotak diisi15 undur-undur. Kesintasan hidup undur-undur pada masing-masing media diamati selama 45 hari, data diambil seminggu sekali. Undur-undur diberi makan 2 - 3 ekor semut sehari 3 kali. Setelah 45 hari undur-undur ditimbang dan diukur panjang tubuhnya kembali. Data kesintasan hidup undur-undur dianalisis menggunakan Anava Dua jalur. Berat dan panjang undur-undur dianalisis menggunakan t-test. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan undur-undur dapat sintas pada media aklimatisasi, yaitu tanah kering dan abu. Undur-undur mengalami pertambahan berat dan panjang sesudah penelitian. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa undur-undurdapat sintas pada media aklimatisasi yaitu tanah kering dan abu. Ukuran berat dan panjang undur-undur mengalami pertambahan sesudah penelitian. This research was aimed to know the survival of gratus at the acclimatization media. The research was held in the shady house at Jalan Tumpang I/82 Semarang and in the Laboratory of Biology Departement of FMIPA UNNES. The main variables were the survival of gratus, the weight and length of gratus, whereas the supporting variable was the acclimatization media, that is the dry sandy soil, the dust and the powder of bricks. Initially, the acclimatization media was prepared for the gratus, then the media was distributed into the boxes of

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow in humans at high altitude: gradual ascent and 2 wk at 5,050 m.

    Willie, C K; Smith, K J; Day, T A; Ray, L A; Lewis, N C S; Bakker, A; Macleod, D B; Ainslie, P N

    2014-04-01

    The interindividual variation in ventilatory acclimatization to high altitude is likely reflected in variability in the cerebrovascular responses to high altitude, particularly between brain regions displaying disparate hypoxic sensitivity. We assessed regional differences in cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured with Duplex ultrasound of the left internal carotid and vertebral arteries. End-tidal Pco2, oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), blood pressure, and heart rate were measured during a trekking ascent to, and during the first 2 wk at, 5,050 m. Transcranial color-coded Duplex ultrasound (TCCD) was employed to measure flow and diameter of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Measures were collected at 344 m (TCCD-baseline), 1,338 m (CBF-baseline), 3,440 m, and 4,371 m. Following arrival to 5,050 m, regional CBF was measured every 12 h during the first 3 days, once at 5-9 days, and once at 12-16 days. Total CBF was calculated as twice the sum of internal carotid and vertebral flow and increased steadily with ascent, reaching a maximum of 842 ± 110 ml/min (+53 ± 7.6% vs. 1,338 m; mean ± SE) at ∼ 60 h after arrival at 5,050 m. These changes returned to +15 ± 12% after 12-16 days at 5,050 m and were related to changes in SpO2 (R(2) = 0.36; P < 0.0001). TCCD-measured MCA flow paralleled the temporal changes in total CBF. Dilation of the MCA was sustained on days 2 (+12.6 ± 4.6%) and 8 (+12.9 ± 2.9%) after arrival at 5,050 m. We observed no significant differences in regional CBF at any time point. In conclusion, the variability in CBF during ascent and acclimatization is related to ventilatory acclimatization, as reflected in changes in SpO2. PMID:23813533

  7. The effect of climbing Mount Everest on spleen contraction and increase in hemoglobin concentration during breath holding and exercise.

    Engan, Harald K; Lodin-Sundström, Angelica; Schagatay, Fanny; Schagatay, Erika

    2014-04-01

    Release of stored red blood cells resulting from spleen contraction improves human performance in various hypoxic situations. This study determined spleen volume resulting from two contraction-evoking stimuli: breath holding and exercise before and after altitude acclimatization during a Mount Everest ascent (8848 m). Eight climbers performed the following protocol before and after the climb: 5 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m during rest, 20 min oxygen respiration, 20 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m, three maximal-effort breath holds spaced by 2 min, 10 min ambient air respiration, 5 min of cycling at 100 W, and finally 10 min ambient air respiration. We measured spleen volume by ultrasound and capillary hemoglobin (HB) concentration after each exposure, and heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) continuously. Mean (SD) baseline spleen volume was unchanged at 213 (101) mL before and 206 (52) mL after the climb. Before the climb, spleen volume was reduced to 184 (83) mL after three breath holds, and after the climb three breath holds resulted in a spleen volume of 132 (26) mL (p=0.032). After exercise, the preclimb spleen volume was 186 (89) mL vs. 112 (389) mL) after the climb (p=0.003). Breath hold duration and cardiovascular responses were unchanged after the climb. We concluded that spleen contraction may be enhanced by altitude acclimatization, probably reflecting both the acclimatization to chronic hypoxic exposure and acute hypoxia during physical work. PMID:24673535

  8. Increased hemoglobin O2 affinity protects during acute hypoxia.

    Yalcin, Ozlem; Cabrales, Pedro

    2012-08-01

    Acclimatization to hypoxia requires time to complete the adaptation mechanisms that influence oxygen (O(2)) transport and O(2) utilization. Although decreasing hemoglobin (Hb) O(2) affinity would favor the release of O(2) to the tissues, increasing Hb O(2) affinity would augment arterial O(2) saturation during hypoxia. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that pharmacologically increasing the Hb O(2) affinity will augment O(2) transport during severe hypoxia (10 and 5% inspired O(2)) compared with normal Hb O(2) affinity. RBC Hb O(2) affinity was increased by infusion of 20 mg/kg of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5HMF). Control animals received only the vehicle. The effects of increasing Hb O(2) affinity were studied in the hamster window chamber model, in terms of systemic and microvascular hemodynamics and partial pressures of O(2) (Po(2)). Pimonidazole binding to hypoxic areas of mice heart and brain was also studied. 5HMF decreased the Po(2) at which the Hb is 50% saturated with O(2) by 12.6 mmHg. During 10 and 5% O(2) hypoxia, 5HMF increased arterial blood O(2) saturation by 35 and 48% from the vehicle group, respectively. During 5% O(2) hypoxia, blood pressure and heart rate were 58 and 30% higher for 5HMF compared with the vehicle. In addition, 5HMF preserved microvascular blood flow, whereas blood flow decreased to 40% of baseline in the vehicle group. Consequently, perivascular Po(2) was three times higher in the 5HMF group compared with the control group at 5% O(2) hypoxia. 5HMF also reduced heart and brain hypoxic areas in mice. Therefore, increased Hb O(2) affinity resulted in hemodynamics and oxygenation benefits during severe hypoxia. This acute acclimatization process may have implications in survival during severe environmental hypoxia when logistic constraints prevent chronic acclimatization. PMID:22636677

  9. Contrary seasonal changes of rates of nutrient uptake, organ mass, and voluntary food intake in red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Arnold, Walter; Beiglböck, Christoph; Burmester, Marion; Guschlbauer, Maria; Lengauer, Astrid; Schröder, Bernd; Wilkens, Mirja; Breves, Gerhard

    2015-08-01

    Northern ungulates acclimatize to winter conditions with restricted food supply and unfavorable weather conditions by reducing energy expenditure and voluntary food intake. We investigated in a study on red deer whether rates of peptide and glucose transport in the small intestines are also reduced during winter as part of the thrifty phenotype of winter-acclimatized animals, or whether transport rates are increased during winter in order to exploit poor forage more efficiently. Our results support the latter hypothesis. We found in a feeding experiment that total energy intake was considerably lower during winter despite ad libitum feeding. Together with reduced food intake, mass of visceral organs was significantly lower and body fat reserves were used as metabolic fuel in addition to food. However, efficacy of nutrient absorption seemed to be increased simultaneously. Extraction of crude protein from forage was higher in winter animals, at any level of crude protein intake, as indicated by the lower concentration of crude protein in feces. In line with these in vivo results, Ussing chamber experiments revealed greater electrogenic responses to both peptides and glucose in the small intestines of winter-acclimatized animals, and peptide uptake into jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles was increased. We conclude that reduced appetite of red deer during winter avoids energy expenditure for unproductive search of scarcely available food and further renders the energetically costly maintenance of a large gut and visceral organs unnecessary. Nevertheless, extraction of nutrients from forage is more efficient in the winter to attenuate an inevitably negative energy balance. PMID:26017492

  10. Hematological and physiological adaptations following 46 weeks of moderate altitude residence.

    Brothers, Michael D; Doan, Brandon K; Zupan, Michael F; Wile, Al L; Wilber, Randall L; Byrnes, William C

    2010-01-01

    Although acclimatization to moderate altitude (MA) is thought to be unnecessary or to require minimal adaptation, retrospective data from the U.S. Air Force Academy (USAFA), a military college located at 2210 m, suggested otherwise. To further examine the utility of USAFA as a model for MA acclimatization, a longitudinal experimental design was prospectively utilized to determine the magnitude and time course of selected hematological and performance parameters following 46 weeks at this unique MA setting. Incoming USAFA male freshmen (n=55) were divided into experimental groups based on prior residence at sea level (SL) or MA. Hematological and performance parameters were repeatedly assessed during their entire first year at MA. Hematological data consisted of a complete blood count (CBC) with reticulocyte parameters, as well as determination of serum levels of ferritin, erythropoietin, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR). Performance testing included aerobic (1.5-mile run) and physical (push-ups, sit-ups, pull-ups, and standing long jump) fitness tests, maximal aerobic capacity, and running economy. Significant (ppeers. Although both serum ferritin and sTfR demonstrated a significant altitude group x time interaction, [Hb] and hematocrit did not. A significant main effect of altitude without interaction was also observed for performance parameters, with SL subjects having a significantly lower Vo2peak (-5.9%), slower 1.5- mile run time (+5.4%), poorer running economy (+6.6%), and lower composite physical fitness test score (-13.9%) than MA subjects. These results suggest that complete acclimatization to 2210 m by former SL residents may require lengthy physiological adaptations, as both hematological and physical performance differences persisted between groups. Further research at this uniquely well controlled MA setting is warranted. PMID:20919886

  11. Spatio-Temporal Analyses of Symbiodinium Physiology of the Coral Pocillopora verrucosa along Large-Scale Nutrient and Temperature Gradients in the Red Sea

    Sawall, Yvonne

    2014-08-19

    Algal symbionts (zooxanthellae, genus Symbiodinium) of scleractinian corals respond strongly to temperature, nutrient and light changes. These factors vary greatly along the north-south gradient in the Red Sea and include conditions, which are outside of those typically considered optimal for coral growth. Nevertheless, coral communities thrive throughout the Red Sea, suggesting that zooxanthellae have successfully acclimatized or adapted to the harsh conditions they experience particularly in the south (high temperatures and high nutrient supply). As such, the Red Sea is a region, which may help to better understand how zooxanthellae and their coral hosts successfully acclimatize or adapt to environmental change (e. g. increased temperatures and localized eutrophication). To gain further insight into the physiology of coral symbionts in the Red Sea, we examined the abundance of dominant Symbiodinium types associated with the coral Pocillopora verrucosa, and measured Symbiodinium physiological characteristics (i.e. photosynthetic processes, cell density, pigmentation, and protein composition) along the latitudinal gradient of the Red Sea in summer and winter. Despite the strong environmental gradients from north to south, our results demonstrate that Symbiodinium microadriaticum (type A1) was the predominant species in P. verrucosa along the latitudinal gradient. Furthermore, measured physiological characteristics were found to vary more with prevailing seasonal environmental conditions than with region-specific differences, although the measured environmental parameters displayed much higher spatial than temporal variability. We conclude that our findings might present the result of long-term acclimatization or adaptation of S. microadriaticum to regionally specific conditions within the Red Sea. Of additional note, high nutrients in the South correlated with high zooxanthellae density indicating a compensation for a temperature-driven loss of photosynthetic

  12. Postural instability at a simulated altitude of 5,000 m before and after an expedition to Mt. Cho-Oyu (8,201 m).

    Hoshikawa, Masako; Hashimoto, Shiori; Kawahara, Takashi; Ide, Rika

    2010-10-01

    To clarify the effects of altitude acclimatization on postural instability at altitudes, six female climbers stood with their eyes open or closed on a force-measuring platform under normoxia (NC) and hypobaric hypoxia, equivalent to a 5,000 m altitude (HC), before and after an expedition to Mt. Cho-Oyu (8,201 m). The expedition extended over 84 days. We recorded sways in the center of foot pressure, electromyograms (EMGs) of lower-leg muscles, blood components and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO(2)). Before the expedition, the maximum amplitude of sway with the eyes open and integrated EMG from the medial gastrocnemius increased for HC. After the expedition, red blood cell (from 423.4 ± 15.4 to 498.0 ± 24.5 × 10(4) μl(-1)), hemoglobin content (from 12.6 ± 0.32 to 14.5 ± 1.00 g/dl) and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (from 1.93 ± 0.21 to 2.24 ± 0.34 μmol/ml) increased. The SpO(2) under HC increased from 69.2 ± 9.6 to 77.2 ± 10.0%. The maximum amplitude of sway with the eyes open decreased for HC. No difference in the sway path length and integrated EMGs was observed between NC and HC. These results suggest that acclimatization can improve the impaired postural stability on initial arrival at altitudes. However, it is still unclear how long acclimatization period is needed. Further studies are needed to reveal this point. PMID:20549513

  13. Isolation of Pseudomonas pickettii strains that degrade 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and their dechlorination of chlorophenols.

    Kiyohara, H.; Hatta, T; Ogawa, Y.; T Kakuda; H. Yokoyama; Takizawa, N

    1992-01-01

    Three strains of Pseudomonas pickettii that can grow with 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) as the sole source of carbon and energy were isolated from different mixed cultures of soil bacterial populations that had been acclimatized to 2,4,6-TCP. These strains released 3 mol of chloride ion from 1 mol of 2,4,6-TCP during the complete degradation of the TCP. Of these strains, P. pickettii DTP0602 in high-cell-density suspension cultures dechlorinated various chlorophenols (CPs). Cells that wer...

  14. Biological denitrification of high sodium nitrate bearing actual reprocessing waste

    High nitrate bearing alkaline waste solution of reprocessing plant origin was decontaminated by adopting an ion exchange followed by a chemical treatment based process. The resulting effluent was then subjected to nitrate removal by biodenitrification. A flow through bioreactor provided with stainless steel modules as support for biomass growth was setup and the biomass in reactor was acclimatized to a NaNO3 solution of concentration level comparable to actual effluents. The bioreactor was used for denitrification of the actual effluent in continuous mode and complete denitrification of the actual reprocessing waste solution containing 17,500 ppm of nitrate has been successfully demonstrated. (author)

  15. Isolation of biomass for denitrification of sodium nitrate bearing nuclear waste effluents

    Isolation of biomass and identification of suitable growth medium was carried out for denitrification of nitrate present as sodium nitrate. The biomass after acclimatization was used for denitrification of 0.1% NaNO3 solution in batch bioreactor and the progress of denitrification was monitored for 10 consecutive cycles. The denitrification performance was also studied using harvested cells in the batch bioreactor. Complete denitrification of different concentrations of NaNO3 solution up to 8800 ppm (NO3- ) was achieved. (author)

  16. Sex-dependent regulation of hypoxic ventilation in mice and humans is mediated by erythropoietin

    Soliz, Jorge; Thomsen, Jonas Juhl; Soulage, Christophe;

    2009-01-01

    Acclimatization to hypoxic exposure relies on an elevated ventilation and erythropoietic activity. We recently proposed that erythropoietin (Epo) links both responses: apart from red blood cell production, cerebral and plasma Epo interact with the central and peripheral respiratory centers. Knowing...... that women cope better than men with reduced oxygen supply (as observed at high altitude), we analyzed the hypoxic ventilatory response in Epo-overexpressing transgenic male and female mice with high Epo levels in brain and plasma (Tg6) or in wild-type animals injected with recombinant human Epo (rh...

  17. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara;

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from...... of soluble glutathione-S-transferases (sGST) and catalase increased with soil pesticide contamination in A. caliginosa. Pesticide stress was reflected in depletion of energy reserves in A. chlorotica. Acute exposure of pre-adapted and naïve A. caliginosa to pesticides (fungicide Opus ®, 0.1 μg active...

  18. Some like it hot: heat tolerance of the Crab-eating Frog, Fejervarya cancrivora (Note

    Bennett, W.A.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We used Critical Thermal Methodology to quantify thermal tolerance of the crab-eating frog, Fejervarya cancrivora,from Hoga Island, southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. The critical thermal maximum of F. cancrivora was 42.1 ± 0.76°C, and is perhaps the highest thermal tolerance value known in an anuran acclimatized to 25°C. The frogs’ ability to tolerate extreme high temperatures allows them to exploit abiotically harsh mangal habitats and accounts for their wide distribution across the tropical Pacific.

  19. Studies on dormancy tribal cultures of filamentous green algae of the genus Klebsormidium isolated from the polar regions and from Slovakia

    Communities of microscopic algae are subject of different levels of biotic and abiotic stress, where they show a strong potential for acclimatization and adaptation. Filamentous green algae of the genus Klebsormidium is pervasive, it has an internal subordinated broad ecological amplitude and equally broad biological plasticity that allows it to survive in adverse conditions. Probably just a set of dormant cells represents itself as a potential component of natural genetic diversity. So they can be responsible for a long-term durability and protection, which allows them to grow again in suitable conditions. (authors)

  20. Climate Change Effects on Heat Waves and Future Heat Wave-Associated IHD Mortality in Germany

    Stefan Zacharias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of future climate change on the occurrence of heat waves and its implications for heat wave-related mortality due to ischemic heart diseases (IHD in Germany is studied. Simulations of 19 regional climate models with a spatial resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° forced by the moderate climate change scenario A1B are analyzed. Three model time periods of 30 years are evaluated, representing present climate (1971–2000, near future climate (2021–2050, and remote future climate (2069–2098. Heat waves are defined as periods of at least three consecutive days with daily mean air temperature above the 97.5th percentile of the all-season temperature distribution. Based on the model simulations, future heat waves in Germany will be significantly more frequent, longer lasting and more intense. By the end of the 21st century, the number of heat waves will be tripled compared to present climate. Additionally, the average duration of heat waves will increase by 25%, accompanied by an increase of the average temperature during heat waves by about 1 K. Regional analyses show that stronger than average climate change effects are observed particularly in the southern regions of Germany. Furthermore, we investigated climate change impacts on IHD mortality in Germany applying temperature projections from 19 regional climate models to heat wave mortality relationships identified in a previous study. Future IHD excess deaths were calculated both in the absence and presence of some acclimatization (i.e., that people are able to physiologically acclimatize to enhanced temperature levels in the future time periods by 0% and 50%, respectively. In addition to changes in heat wave frequency, we incorporated also changes in heat wave intensity and duration into the future mortality evaluations. The results indicate that by the end of the 21st century the annual number of IHD excess deaths in Germany attributable to heat waves is expected to rise by factor 2

  1. 挑战首份工

    李茜

    2007-01-01

    <正>Generally speaking,most of what you learned in school will not prepare you for this job.Perhaps you did an internship or participated in some other type of cooperative education experience.In that case,you were fortunate;you are a small step ahead of your peers.However,there is a big difference between being a student at work,and being an employee.Certainly,more will be expected of you.Here are some rules that will help you get acclimatized to the world of

  2. Adult acclimation to combined temperature and pH stressors significantly enhances reproductive outcomes compared to short-term exposures

    Suckling, Coleen C.; Melody S Clark; Richard, Joelle; Morley, Simon A.; Thorne, Michael A. S.; Harper, Elizabeth M.; Peck, Lloyd S.

    2015-01-01

    1.This study examined the effects of long-term culture under altered conditions on the Antarctic sea urchin, Sterechinus neumayeri. 2.Sterechinus neumayeri was cultured under the combined environmental stressors of lowered pH (−0·3 and −0·5 pH units) and increased temperature (+2 °C) for 2 years. This time-scale covered two full reproductive cycles in this species and analyses included studies on both adult metabolism and larval development. 3.Adults took at least 6–8 months to acclimat...

  3. Response of solvent-exposed printers and unexposed controls to six-hour toluene exposure

    Bælum, Jesper; Andersen, I B; Lundqvist, G R;

    1985-01-01

    and rotogravure printing plants, while the controls had no history of solvent exposure. Each subject was exposed once in a climate chamber to either 100 ppm of toluene or clean air for 6.5 h preceded by a 1-h acclimatization period. The effects of toluene were measured from subjective votes with......, a feeling of intoxication, and irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. Furthermore, the subjects exposed to toluene showed decreased manual dexterity, decreased color discrimination, and decreased accuracy in visual perception. There was no significant difference in the effects of toluene on...

  4. Utilisation de l'énergie solaire dans la productivité photosunthétique au cours de quatre phases vegetatives de differentes variétés du Triticum durum [Utilization of solar energy in photosynthesis during four vegetative phases of different varieties of Triticum durum

    W. Nowakowski; E. Konopko; G. Lubańska

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of solar energy in photosynthesis has been studied in 20 varieties of Triticum durum belonging to the 12 botanical forms found in the collection of The Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization, Radzikow n. Warsaw. We have found that the solar energy used in photosynthesis, expressed as % of the solar radiation (cal*cm-2) accumulated in the carbon of the dry matter per cm! of the aerial part of the different varieties of T. durum reaches the mean values of 2,23% to 3,80%.

  5. A comparison of motor behaviours in groups of rats distinguished by their climbing response to apomorphine.

    Davis, A.S.; Jenner, P.; Marsden, C. D.

    1986-01-01

    Administration of apomorphine hydrochloride (0.5 mg kg-1 s.c.) to adult male or female Wistar rats previously acclimatized to the test environment induced climbing behaviour in approximately 50% of animals examined. The proportion of animals climbing was related to age, being maximal at 8-9 weeks. Those animals showing an initial climbing response to apomorphine (0.5 mg kg-1 s.c.), climbed when challenged with this dose of apomorphine on subsequent occasions. In 'climbing' animals the intensi...

  6. The use of the isotope 32P in the study of some ecological aspects of a laboratory stream ecosystem

    A laboratory stream consisting of two stream sections interrupted by two pools was filled with a mixture of tap water and organically enriched water from rivers nearby. Bottom sediment material, Potamogeton pectinatus, macro-invertebrate organisms, as well as the mosquito fish, Aplocheilichthys johnstonii were collected from rivers around Johannesburg and introduced into the laboratory stream. After initial acclimatization, the distribution of the isotope 32P through this laboratory stream was followed. Absorption of this isotope by benthic algae, Potamogeton pectinatus, several macro-invertebrate organisms as well as Aplocheilichthys johnstonii was recorded

  7. Transcriptome and gene expression analysis of DHA producer Aurantiochytrium under low temperature conditions

    Zengxin Ma; Yanzhen Tan; Guzhen Cui; Yingang Feng; Qiu Cui; Xiaojin Song

    2015-01-01

    Aurantiochytrium is a promising docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production candidate due to its fast growth rate and high proportions of lipid and DHA content. In this study, high-throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to explore the acclimatization of this DHA producer under cold stress at the transcriptional level. The overall de novo assembly of the cDNA sequence data generated 29,783 unigenes, with an average length of 1,200 bp. In total, 13,245 unigenes were annotated in at least o...

  8. Micropropagation of Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) MacBride var. latifolia Roxb.

    Rout, G R; Das, P

    1993-07-01

    Bud break and multiple shoots were induced in apical and axillary meristems derived from 10-d old seedlings of Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) singly or in combinatiobn with 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Excised shoots were rooted on half-strength MS with IBA (1.0 mg/l) after 18d of culture. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transferred to soil. PMID:24196112

  9. Physiologic simulator to predict the arterial oxygen saturation at extreme heights

    Arturo Reyes Lazalde; María Eugenia Pérez Bonilla; Olga Leticia Fuchs Gómez; Marleni Reyes Monreal

    2011-01-01

    A simulator («Alturas») was developed to calculate the levels of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO 2 ) at heights ranging from small to extreme. The results of the simulations were compared to published experimental data in order to validate the accuracy of the simulator. Three types of cases were used in the comparison: (1) non acclimatized people at heights ranging from 20 m to 4,162 m above sea level, (2) inhabitants of mountain zones living at heights between 1,692 m and 4,230 m, (3) ...

  10. Dicty_cDB: SSB177 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available strain AX4, complete sequence. 428 e-116 1 CB293485 |CB293485.1 UCRCS01_06ag01_g1 Washington Navel orange cold acclimate...ered pieces. 42 4.0 1 CB291576 |CB291576.1 UCRCS01_03af02_b1 Washington Navel orange cold acclimated flavedo...42 4.0 1 CB293416 |CB293416.1 UCRCS01_06ac11_b1 Washington Navel orange cold acclimated flavedo & albedo cDN...dg03_g1 Washington Navel orange cold acclimated flavedo & albedo cDNA library Cit

  11. Influence du statut azoté et du cycle lumineux diurne sur le métabolisme lipidique d'Isochrysis sp. (Haptophyceae)

    Lacour, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Cette thèse présente différents cas d'acclimatation d'une espèce de phytoplancton (Isochrysis sp.) à des modifications de son environnement physico-chimique avec une attention particulière portée sur la composante lipidique de la réponse aux changements. Dans ce contexte nous avons étudié les lipides à la fois comme des produits (triacylglycerol) et des acteurs (glycolipides) de la photosynthèse. Tout d'abord, nous avons étudié l'influence de plusieurs types de limitation par l'azote sur la t...

  12. Pengaruh penambahan auxin terhadap pertunasan dan perakaran kopi arabika perbanyakan Somatic Embryogenesis (The effects of shooting and rooting of arabica coffee propagation through Embryogenesis Somatic auxin uses).

    Rina Arimarsetiowati; Fitria Ardiyani

    2012-01-01

    Plantlet that has developed shoots and roots will have a high level adaptation in the field. The objective of this experiment was to improve the ability of planlet in shooting and rooting so that it is ready for acclimatization in the field. The increase ability in shooting and rooting of the planlet were conducted by adding various types of auxin in the media. The arabica coffee embryo of clone AS 2K which has entered the phase of the cotyledons was transfered into the treatment media contai...

  13. Heart rate variability changes at 2400 m altitude predicts acute mountain sickness on further ascent at 3000-4300 m altitudes

    HeikkiMikaelKarinen; HenriVähä-Ypyä; MikaKähönen; JariViik; PhyllisKravetStein

    2012-01-01

    Objective If the body fails to acclimatize at high altitude, acute mountain sickness (AMS) may result. For the early detection of AMS, changes in cardiac autonomic function measured by heart rate variability (HRV) may be more sensitive than clinical symptoms alone. The purpose of this study was to ascertain if the changes in HRV during ascent are related to AMS. Methods We followed Lake Louise Score (LLS), arterial oxygen saturation at rest (R-SpO2) and exercise (Ex-SpO2) and HRV pa...

  14. Heart rate variability changes at 2400 m altitude predicts acute mountain sickness on further ascent at 3000–4300 m altitudes

    Karinen, Heikki M.; Uusitalo, Arja; Vähä-Ypyä, Henri; Kähönen, Mika; Peltonen, Juha E.; Stein, Phyllis K.; Viik, Jari; Tikkanen, Heikki O.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: If the body fails to acclimatize at high altitude, acute mountain sickness (AMS) may result. For the early detection of AMS, changes in cardiac autonomic function measured by heart rate variability (HRV) may be more sensitive than clinical symptoms alone. The purpose of this study was to ascertain if the changes in HRV during ascent are related to AMS. Methods: We followed Lake Louise Score (LLS), arterial oxygen saturation at rest (R-SpO2) and exercise (Ex-SpO2) and HRV parameters...

  15. Cytogenetic studies in green mussel, Perna viridis (Mytiloida: Pteriomorphia), from West Coast of India

    Iqbal, A.N.M.Z.; Khan, M.S.; Goswami, U.

    studies have received a little consideration than they actually deserve. Karyotypic details have been documented in several animal groups including a few Bivalvia species (Cornet and Soulard 1990; Wada and Komaru 1993; Insua et al. 1998; Martı´nez- Lage et... and methods Green mussels were collected from the Central West Coast of India. Live animals were brought to the laboratory and acclimatized for ten days in tanks containing aerated sea- water at 25C176C and fed upon phytoplankton Chaetocerous sp. Animals were...

  16. Genèse de la notion de culture : une perspective globale

    Meyran, Régis

    2014-01-01

    On propose ici de retracer la genèse de la notion de culture. Cette notion s’est propagée mondialement et s’est acculturée nationalement, par hybridation avec des traditions intellectuelles locales. Le concept trouve son origine dans la psychologie des peuples du Berlin des années 1850, puis se développe avec le diffusionnisme et sous une forme raciste dans la période nazie. Parallèlement, la notion évolue avec Franz Boas aux États‑Unis. En France le mot peine à s’acclimater face au concept d...

  17. Effect of Different Levels of L-Carnitine on the Productive Performance, Egg Quality, Blood Parameters and Egg Yolk Cholesterol in Laying Hens

    Kazemi-Fard M; Yousefi S; Dirandeh E; Rezaei M

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of L-carnitine on productive performance, egg quality and blood parameters in laying hens. Forty-eight Hy-Line W-36 egg Layers were weighed at 90 weeks of age and randomly allocated into 16 cages (three hens per cage). Four dietary treatments were prepared by supplementing L-carnitine (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of diet) to corn-soybean meal diet and offered ad libitum to hens. After two weeks of acclimatization, the e...

  18. Assessment of Genotoxicity through ISSR Marker in Pistia stratiotes Induced by Lead

    Lamyai Neeratanaphan; Runglawan Sudmoon; Arunrat Chaveerach

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of DNA changes in Pistia stratiotes induced by lead (Pb), plants were grown in acclimatized conditions for 15 days. Each of 5 plants were then transferred to cultivate in three repeated 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 mg/l Pb experiments, four days and controls. Lead concentration in water was analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), physical and chemical factors including temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) and electro-conductivity (EC) before and after the experiment...

  19. Micropropagation of Glandularia perakii Cov. et Schn. (Verbenaceae: a native species with ornamental potential

    Concepción Marino

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Glandularia perakii is a perennial species with beautiful violet flowers that grows in the stony soil of Mendocine pedemont. A plentiful and prolonged flowering confers it an important ornamental potential. In this paper, a method of propagation of G. perakii from nodal segments is reported. Proliferating microshoot cultures were obtained by placing nodal segment on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS supplemented with 20 g.L-1 of sucrose without growth regulators. In this medium multiplication rate after 20 days was 7.9. Rooted plants were acclimatized successfully.

  20. Effect of hypoxaemia on water and sodium homeostatic hormones and renal function

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1995-01-01

    Changes in body fluid homeostasis during acute hypoxaemia suggest a crucial role of renal function in acclimatization processes. Hypoxaemia stimulates sympathetic nervous activity, and also the cardiovascular system is affected with increases in heart rate and cardiac output. In most subjects...... the advantage of opposing excessive sodium and water retention, which characterizes acute mountain sickness. Short-term isocapnic or hypocapnic hypoxaemia in spontaneously breathing humans causes moderate if any increases in renal blood flow and only minor changes in GFR. In contrast, renal blood flow and GFR...

  1. Engineering Design Activities (EDA) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project: January 1993 progress report

    The task of selecting and assembling the Joint Central Team (JCT) is the authors top priority, and he has instructed the Deputy Directors and Division Heads to diligently pursue the selection of qualified team members. Several steps are involved in assembling the JCT: specification of posts, nomination of candidates, selection of team members, arrival and startup of work, and completion of secondment procedures. Only after these steps have been completed are staff able to take up their full responsibilities within the management structure of the JCT. Even then, a period of some months of acclimatization and adjustment may be required before the staff can be expected to work fully effectively

  2. Engineering Design Activities (EDA) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project: January 1993 progress report

    Rebut, P.H.

    1994-09-01

    The task of selecting and assembling the Joint Central Team (JCT) is the authors top priority, and he has instructed the Deputy Directors and Division Heads to diligently pursue the selection of qualified team members. Several steps are involved in assembling the JCT: specification of posts, nomination of candidates, selection of team members, arrival and startup of work, and completion of secondment procedures. Only after these steps have been completed are staff able to take up their full responsibilities within the management structure of the JCT. Even then, a period of some months of acclimatization and adjustment may be required before the staff can be expected to work fully effectively.

  3. Modeling and simulation of energy consumption inside greenhouses aiming at energy saving in Spain and Brazil; Modelado y simulacion del consumo de energia invernaderos: aplicacion para el ahorro de energia en Espana y Brasil

    Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de; Rabi, Jose Antonio [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Eng. de Alimentos. Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos], E-mail: celsooli@usp.br; Navas Gravia, Luis Manoel [Universidad de Valladolid (UVa) (Spain). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola e Florestal

    2009-07-01

    The study was accomplished taking into account the model framework development by authors in order to simulate acclimatized greenhouses for 10 cities in Brazil and Spain. Results showed that the use of a versatile energy source (such as electricity) has a higher cost in both countries. Particularly in Brazil, the use of heating systems to prevent losses in protected crops is only feasible for high-added value crops while in Spain heating systems are mandatory so as to make several crops possible during no-harvest periods. (author)

  4. The Harmony of Eco-translation in Chinese Version of“Of Studies”

    青岛滨海学院,山东青岛266555

    2014-01-01

    A study on Eco-translatology starting at the beginning of the 2000s aims at studying the harmony and unity between a translator and eco-translation. It requires translators to acclimatize themselves to translating ecosystem so that their translation as adaptation and selection may follow the dynamic variation of eco-translatology, which is the prerequisite for the balance between the original text and the version, the translator and the writer, the translator and readers, the culture of the original language and the target language. This paper shows the harmony of eco-translation by analyzing Wang Zuoliang ’s translation of Of Studies in light of eco-translatology.

  5. Highly contrasted responses of Mediterranean octocorals to climate change along a depth gradient

    Pivotto, I. D.; Nerini, D.; Masmoudi, M.; Kara, H.; Chaoui, L.; Aurelle, D.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change has a strong impact on marine ecosystems, including temperate species. Analysing the diversity of thermotolerance levels within species along with their genetic structure enables a better understanding of their potential response to climate change. We performed this integrative study on the Mediterranean octocoral Eunicella cavolini, with samples from different depths and by means of a common garden experiment. This species does not host photosynthetic Symbiodinium, enabling us to focus on the cnidarian response. We compared the thermotolerance of individuals from 20 m and 40 m depths from the same site and with replicates from the same colony. On the basis of an innovative statistical analysis of necrosis kinetics and risk, we demonstrated the occurrence of a very different response between depths at this local scale, with lower thermotolerance of deep individuals. Strongly thermotolerant individuals were observed at 20 m with necrosis appearing at higher temperatures than observed in situ. On the basis of nine microsatellite loci, we showed that these marked thermotolerance differences occur within a single population. This suggests the importance of acclimatization processes in adaptation to these different depths. In addition, differences between replicates demonstrated the occurrence of a variability of response between fragments from the same colony with the possibility of an interaction with a tank effect. Our results provide a basis for studying adaptation and acclimatization in Mediterranean octocorals in a heterogeneous environment. PMID:26064654

  6. Combining zygotic embryo culture and mutation induction to improve salinity tolerance in avocado (Persea americana Mill)

    Mutation induction and biotechnological techniques are some of the current approaches used in plant breeding. In the present work radiation-induced mutation followed by in vitro culture of zygotic embryos and high osmotic pressure selection methods to improve salt tolerance in avocado are investigated. The in vitro germination, rooting, bud multiplication and plantlet acclimatization of Cuban avocado varieties were recorded. The germination rates of whole embryos in vitro were found to be higher when using mature rather than immature embryos. Almost 80% of the whole embryos derived plantlets produced were successfully acclimatized under greenhouse conditions. An in vitro propagation method for avocado breeding purposes was optimized and documented. However, in vitro multiplication results indicated the need to improve bud multiplication methods in avocado. The survival rates of gamma rays irradiated and salt pressured avocado embryos were also investigated. Both mutagenic (LD50 = 27-28 Gy) and selective (LD20 = 157 mM of NaCl) doses were established. A procedure combining zygotic embryo culture and mutation induction was used to obtain. Putative mutant lines derived from salt tolerant rootstocks were developed. Putative M1V3 progenies were planted in the field for segregation analysis. An avocado gene bank was established under the same study. Therefore this methodology appears as an alternative to traditional breeding methods, particularly for improving agronomic characteristics such as salt tolerance in avocado. (author)

  7. An efficient system for in vitro propagation of Bouchea fluminensis (Vell. Mold. (Verbenaceae

    Cristiano Ferrara de Resende

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish and propagate in vitro plants of Bouchea fluminensis, a medicinal species known in Brazil as gervão-falso ("false verbena", evaluating the influences of different growth regulators on in vitro multiplication and rooting stages, as well as examining ex vitro acclimatization of rooted plants. Explants were established on Murashige and Skoog medium at half strength of salts and vitamins without growth regulators. For multiplication, the explants were subjected to combinations of 6-benzyladenine (BA; 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 µM and α-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA; 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 µM. The medium found to induce the greatest number of shoot was that containing 5 µM of BA (NAA-free. For rooting, we evaluated three auxins (NAA, indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid; 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 µM, as well as a control. No differences were observed between the control and the other treatments. The auxin-free medium was deemed the most suitable, because it ensures the lowest cost in the micropropagation procedures. We obtained 100% survival of the acclimatized seedlings, and the plants showed normal vegetative and reproductive development, suggesting that the micropropagation did not alter the biological cycle of this species. The results show the importance and potential of micropropagation for biodiversity conservation of Bouchea fluminensis.

  8. Importance of hemoglobin concentration to exercise: acute manipulations

    Calbet, José A L; Lundby, Carsten; Koskolou, Maria;

    2006-01-01

    An acute reduction of blood hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), even when the circulating blood volume is maintained, results in lower (.)V(O(2)(max) and endurance performance, due to the reduction of the oxygen carrying capacity of blood. Conversely, an increase of [Hb] is associated with enhanced ...... maximal exercise capacity or (.)V(O(2)(max) during exercise in acute hypoxia. Likewise, reducing [Hb] in altitude-acclimatized humans to pre-acclimatization values has no effect on (.)V(O(2)(max) during exercise in hypoxia....... (.)V(O(2)(max) and endurance capacity, that is also proportional to the increase in the oxygen carrying capacity of blood. The effects on endurance capacity appear more pronounced and prolonged than on (.)V(O(2)(max). During submaximal exercise, there is a tight coupling between O(2) demand and O(2......) delivery, such that if [Hb] is acutely decreased muscle blood flow is increased proportionally and vice versa. During maximal exercise with either a small or a large muscle mass, neither peak cardiac output nor peak leg blood flow are affected by reduced [Hb]. An acute increase of [Hb] has no effect on...

  9. Reduced heat stress in offices in the tropics using solar powered drying of the supply air

    Gunnarsen, L. [By og Byg. Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut, Hoersholm (Denmark); Santos, A.M.B. [Univ. of the Philippines, Diliman (Philippines)

    2002-07-01

    Many solutions to indoor climate problems known from developed countries may have prohibitive installation and running costs in developing countries. The purpose was to develop a low-cost solution to heat stress in a hot and humid environment based on solar powered drying of supply air. Dry supply air may facilitate personal cooling by increased evaporation of sweat. Heat acclimatized people with efficient sweating may in particular benefit from this cooling. A prototype solar powered supply system for dried-only air was made. Air from the system was mixed with room air, heated to six different combinations of temperature and humidity and led to Personal Units for Ventilation and Cooling (PUVAC) in six cubicles simulating office workplaces. A total of 123 heat acclimatized subjects were exposed 45 min in each of the cubicles. A model for the combined effect of operative temperature of room, moisture content of room air, temperature of supply air and moisture content of supply air was developed based on the experiments. Reduction of moisture content in the supply air by 1.6 g/kg had the same effect as lowering the operative temperature by 1deg C. The solar-powered system for supplying dry air is a low-cost alternative to traditional air conditioning in hot and humid regions. (au)

  10. Assessment of mint (Mentha spp. species for large-scale production of plantlets by micropropagation

    Hugo Teixeira Gomes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Mentha produce essential oils which are widely used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Current study evaluates the potential for in vitro propagation and estimates mass production of plantlets of Mentha species. Nine species (M. piperita, M. suaveolens, M. canadensis, M. longiflora, M. aquatica, M. arvensis, Mentha x gracilis, M. gracilis and M. spicata were propagated with five successive 30-day subcultures in MS medium supplemented with NAA (0.05 µM and BAP (4.4 µM. Shoots were rooted in MS with IBA, IAA or NAA (0.0; 0.25; 0.5; 2.5 or 5.0 µM. The rooted plantlets were finally acclimatized in a greenhouse. Studied species increased in multiplication rates between 4.2 and 9.0-fold per month. M. piperita, M. longiflora, M. arvensis, M. x gracilis and M. gracilis showed the greatest potential for plantlet production since the estimated production varied between 6,000 and 27,000 plantlets after five 30-days subcultures. The addition of auxin to the medium did not influence root induction. However, IAA at a concentration of 5 µM provided the best results for root length and fresh weight, with averages 11.1 cm and 0.16 g, respectively. Survival of plantlets reached 100% during the greenhouse acclimatization process.

  11. Reduced heat stress in offices in the tropics using solar powered drying of the supply air.

    Gunnarsen, L; Santos, A M B

    2002-12-01

    Many solutions to indoor climate problems known from developed countries may have prohibitive installation and running costs in developing countries. The purpose was to develop a low-cost solution to heat stress in a hot and humid environment based on solar powered drying of supply air. Dry supply air may facilitate personal cooling by increased evaporation of sweat. Heat acclimatized people with efficient sweating may in particular benefit from this cooling. A prototype solar powered supply system for dried-only air was made. Air from the system was mixed with room air, heated to six different combinations of temperature and humidity and led to Personal Units for Ventilation and Cooling (PUVAC) in six cubicles simulating office workplaces. A total of 123 heat acclimatized subjects were exposed 45 min in each of the cubicles. A model for the combined effect of operative temperature of room, moisture content of room air, temperature of supply air and moisture content of supply air was developed based on the experiments. Reduction of moisture content in the supply air by 1.6 g/kg had the same effect as lowering the operative temperature by 1 degree C. The solar-powered system for supplying dry air is a low-cost alternative to traditional air conditioning in hot and humid regions. PMID:12532757

  12. Parasites, politics and public science: the promotion of biological control in Western Australia, 1900-1910.

    Deveson, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Biological control of arthropods emerged as a scientific enterprise in the late nineteenth century and the orchard industry of California was an early centre of expertise. In 1900, as the Australian colonies prepared for federation, each had a government entomologist attached to its agriculture department. The hiring of George Compere from California by the Western Australian Department of Agriculture began a controversial chapter in the early history of biological control that was linked to a late, local popularization of acclimatization. Compere became known as the 'travelling entomologist' and for a decade brought 'parasites' of pest insects from overseas and released them in Perth. His antagonistic disciplinary rhetoric and inflated claims for the 'parasite theory' created conflict with his counterparts in the eastern states. The resulting inter-state entomological controversy was played out in the press, revealing the political use of science for institutional and even state identity. It is a story of transnational exchanges, chance discoveries and popular public science: popular because of the promise of a simple, natural solution to agricultural insect pests and because of the public nature of the disputes it generated between the experts. This microcosm contributes to the global historiography of acclimatization, biological control, scientific exposition and the professionalization of agricultural science. PMID:27264494

  13. Micropropagation of peach rootstocks and cultivars.

    Balla, Ildikó; Mansvelt, Lucienne

    2013-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is one of the most popular stone fruits, commercially produced largely in Mediterranean and, to a lesser extent, in continental climatic conditions. Several breeding programs with different aims release annually large numbers of new cultivars. Micropropagation offers a suitable method to provide the growers of sufficient quantities of rootstocks, as well as of pathogen-free planting material of old and new cultivars.An effective four-step micropropagation procedure for cultivar and rootstock production is described here, based on the use of modified MS and WPM media. The health status of the initial shoot tips is very important, also because the growth and proliferation rate of shoot cultures from virus-infected clones are generally very poor. Proliferation and elongation phases depend on the major macro-elements, as well as the content and ratio of plant growth regulators. It is important to grow the cultures at 22°C, as hyperhydricity may develop at higher temperatures. Although sucrose is the most common carbon source used during proliferation and rooting, for some peach cultivars and rootstocks the replacement of sucrose (10 g/L) with glucose (20 g/L) in the rooting medium improves the rooting and survival rates of plants in the acclimatization phase. The rooting rate of the rootstock "Cadaman" is improved with the chelated form of iron FeEDDHA at 150 mg/L. Rooted plants are acclimatized in greenhouse under high humidity conditions. PMID:23179695

  14. Discordant coral-symbiont structuring: factors shaping geographical variation of Symbiodinium communities in a facultative zooxanthellate coral genus, Oculina

    Leydet, Karine Posbic; Hellberg, Michael E.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the factors that help shape the association between corals and their algal symbionts, zooxanthellae ( Symbiodinium), is necessary to better understand the functional diversity and acclimatization potential of the coral host. However, most studies focus on tropical zooxanthellate corals and their obligate algal symbionts, thus limiting our full comprehension of coral-algal symbiont associations. Here, we examine algal associations in a facultative zooxanthellate coral. We survey the Symbiodinium communities associated with Oculina corals in the western North Atlantic and the Mediterranean using one clade-level marker ( psbA coding region) and three fine-scale markers ( cp23S- rDNA, b7sym15 flanking region, and b2sym17). We ask whether Oculina spp. harbor geographically different Symbiodinium communities across their geographic range and, if so, whether the host's genetics or habitat differences are correlated with this geographical variation. We found that Oculina corals harbor different Symbiodinium communities across their geographical range. Of the habitat differences (including chlorophyll a concentration and depth), sea surface temperature is better correlated with this geographical variation than the host's genetics, a pattern most evident in the Mediterranean. Our results suggest that although facultative zooxanthellate corals may be less dependent on their algal partners compared to obligate zooxanthellate corals, the Symbiodinium communities that they harbor may nevertheless reflect acclimatization to environmental variation among habitats.

  15. Plant regeneration from in vitro-selected salt tolerant callus cultures of solanum tuberosum

    This research work reports In vitro direct selection of salt-tolerant callus cultures and subsequent plant regeneration in two potato cultivars (Cardinal and Desiree). Results have shown more than 50% reduction in relative fresh callus mass in the two potato cultivars exposed to 120 mM NaCl. Callus morphology correspondingly changed from off-white to blackish-brown at 120 mM to acutely-necrotic at 140 mM NaCl. Regeneration potential of recurrently-selected callus cultures (100 mM NaCl-treated) on salt-free regeneration medium (MS + 2.64 meu M NAA and 1.00 meu M TDZ) was not much different as compared to the control (non-selected ones). Regenerated plants from salt-tolerant callus cultures of both the cultivars after selection were transferred to soil and organic matter (50:50, v/v) for acclimatization in the greenhouse. It was observed that the recurrently-selected plants had higher fresh/dry weight and number of tubers compared with the control ones in both the cultivars. Likewise the protein, peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities have shown an increasing trend in salt-treated plants of both the cultivars. The results from this study highlighted a strong possibility for the selection of salt-tolerant callus lines of potato followed by an efficient plant regeneration and further acclimatization. (author)

  16. Development of a vinasse culture medium for plant tissue culture

    Vinasse is the main pollutant (effluent) obtained from the distillation of sugarcane in the production of fuel alcohol. However, this residue is rich in nutrients that are required by plants. We developed a new culture medium using vinasse for the In vitro propagation of an orchid. The vinasse was treated (decanted and filtered), and the nutrients were determined and quantified. Different formulations using vinasse were tested for an In vitro culture. The vinasse dilutions demonstrated a good buffering effect. The ideal vinasse dilution for media formulation was 2.5%. The best KC formulations with vinasse were KCV1 and KCV5. Compared to KC medium, these formulations demonstrated similar results for In vitro multiplication, with the exception of protocorm-like body number, which was inferior in the vinasse formulations. Conversely, for In vitro elongation and rooting, these vinasse media were superior to KC medium. KC medium promotes a low rooting rate (8%) compared to 68 and 100% obtained by KCV1 and KCV5, respectively. Moreover, plantlets cultured on KC medium become protocorm-like body clusters, which impeded the acclimatization of these explants. Plantlets elongated and rooted on KCV1 and KCV5 were successfully acclimatized with a 91% survival rate for both KC vinasse formulations. This study shows the great potential of this technology as a rational alternative to vinasse disposal and adds value to what is currently considered a waste product. (author)

  17. Effects of ozone on kraft process pulp mill effluent

    Effluent from a kraft process pulp mill was studied in a batch reactor for ozone doses between 50 and 200 mg O3/L to identify the suitability of ozone application locations in the treatment process and see the improvements in biotreatability of wastewaters from a kraft process pulp mill. Laboratory acclimatized seed were used for (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) BOD tests for ozonated and unozonated samples. The inhibitory effects were minimized by using optimum dilutions. The studies were divided into three major sections: characterization of mill effluent; ozone system calibration, and reactor design; and ozonation of mill effluent. Seed for BOD tests were acclimatized in batch units for primary, bleach and secondary effluents separately. The results were analyzed using the open-quote t close-quote test for paired experiments and an ANOVA table for statistical confirmation. Residuals were plotted to check the assumptions of constant variance and normal distribution. It was concluded that ozone is most effective for the removal of color and the increase of BOD in secondary effluent. 21 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs

  18. In vitro propagation of critically endangered species Scilla autumnalis L. – biochemical analyses of the regenerants

    Cristian BANCIU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study belongs to the international efforts for plant conservation from the areas threatened by human activities. The saline soils areas are restricting for agriculture and in some cases for fishery facilities and the plant species are extinct from those areas. Scilla autumnalis L. is one of the threatened plants (rare on the national red list of vascular plants from Romania that grows in the Natural Park Comana, Giurgiu County, South Romania. Seeds from plants grown in the natural habitat have been used for in vitro plant regeneration and multiplication. After successfully rooting and acclimatization of the regenerated plantlets from germinated seeds, biochemical studies have been performed in order to compare the regenerants from in vitro cultures with native plants from genetically point of view. Peroxydase and esterase’s spectra were the biochemical markers used.The results indicated that this plant species can be multiplicated, rooted and acclimatized on synthetic medium (MS supplemented with NAA, IBA, IAA, kinetin and BAP with a good efficiency and the regenerants had no genetic alterations determinated by culture conditions.

  19. Effect of Different Photoperiods on Cold Hardiness in Cherry

    A.Z. Makaraci

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research we have investigated the effects of different photoperiods on cold hardiness of cherry trees (Prunus avium cv. Ulster. One year old, cherry trees were exposed 8 hours of day length and 16 hours of dark period for short day conditions and 16 hours of light and 8 hours of dark period for long day conditions. We also compared the acclimatization pattern of cherry trees with hybrid aspen (Populus tremula ×Populus tremuloides trees. LT50 values indicated that short day and long day conditions did not alter the cold hardiness of cherry trees. Under the same experimental conditions hybrid aspen trees were affected from different photoperiods. Aspen trees exposed to short day conditions were hardier than the trees exposed to long day conditions. We also investigated the acclimatization the patterns of basal and apical parts of the branches both in cherry and aspen trees. There were no significant differences in cold hardiness of the basal and apical parts of the branches in aspen and cherry trees.

  20. Efficient somatic embryogenesis and molecular marker based analysis as effective tools for conservation of red-listed plant Commiphora wightii

    ASHOK KUMAR PARMAR

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A refined and high efficiency protocol for in vitro regeneration of Commiphora wightii, a red-listed medicinal plant of medicinal importance, has been developed through optimized somatic embryogenesis pathway. Cultures from immature fruits were induced and proliferated on B5 medium supplemented with 2.26 µM 2,4-D. Embryogenic calli were obtained and then maintained for extended periods by alternately subculturing on modified MS medium supplemented with 1.11 µM BAP, 0.57 µM IBA and with 0.5% activated charcoal or without PGR every 3-4 weeks. Cyclic embryogenesis was obtained. Late torpedo and early cotyledonary stages somatic embryos were regularly harvested from PGR-free modified MS medium. It was found that percent moisture available in culture containers play a critical role in maturation and subsequent germination of somatic embryos of C. wighti. Maximum germination of more than 80% was achieved through media recycling. Somatic embryo derived plants (emblings were acclimatized. After 5 months, acclimatized plants were out-planted in experimental field. These morphologically normal plants have been surviving for over 3 years. Molecular polymorphism was clearly evident when these plants were tested using RAPD primers, making the plants suitable for use in its species restoration program.

  1. Pathophysiology and pathological findings of heatstroke in dogs

    Romanucci M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mariarita Romanucci, Leonardo Della SaldaDepartment of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Teramo, Teramo, ItalyAbstract: Canine heatstroke is a life-threatening condition resulting from an imbalance between heat dissipation and production, and characterized by a nonpyrogenic elevation in core body temperature above 41°C (105.8°F. Several exogenous and endogenous factors may predispose dogs to the development of heatstroke; on the other hand, adaptive mechanisms also exists which allow organisms to combat the deleterious effects of heat stress, which are represented by the cellular heat-shock response and heat acclimatization. The pathophysiology and consequences of heatstroke share many similarities to those observable in sepsis and are related to the interaction between the direct cytotoxicity of heat, the acute physiological alterations associated with hyperthermia, such as increased metabolic demand, hypoxia, and circulatory failure, and the inflammatory and coagulation responses of the host to the widespread endothelial and tissue injuries, which may culminate in disseminated intravascular coagulation, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and multiple organ dysfunction.Keywords: thermoregulation, acclimatization, heat shock proteins, hyperthermia, systemic inflammatory response, multiple organ dysfunction

  2. Peranan Jamur Rhizoctonia sp. Asal Taman Nasional Rawa Aopa Watumohai Sulawesi Tenggara terhadap Keberhasilan Aklimatisasi dan Laju Pertumbuhan Planlet Anggrek Macan (Grammatophyllum scriptum BL.

    Rita Ningsih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to know the role of Rhizoctonia sp. fungus from Taman Nasional Rawa Aopa Watumohai (TNRAW to the successfully acclimatization and growth rate of tiger orchid planlet (Grammatophyllum scriptum Bl. as well to know successfully infection of fungus Rhizoctonia sp. at the planlet root. The procedure of this research consists 3 main steps, they were fungus inoculation on orchid’s growing media, growth test and verification of successfully infection on planlet root. Growth test consisting of 3 treatments namely control (without nutrition and fungi (K0; Rhizoctonia sp. application (R1; Rhizoctonia sp. + nutrition Potato Dextrose Borth (PDB (R2 with the repetition for 8 times, then the growth data was analysed by statistics utilizes to F-test and continue by BNT-test on 95% trusty level. The result of the research showed that R2 treatment increase high planlet, leaf and root number. All the mean score of research indicator R2 was highest compared R1 and K0. The result of F-test showed R1 and R2 treatment gave significant influence toward the high planlet, leaf and root number growth. Except, fresh and dry weight planlet. Eventhough, fresh and dry weight was higher compared than K0 acclimatization period for a month.  Rhizoctonia sp. fungus infected planlet root through velamen to eksodermis and cortex by forming hifa scroll (pelotons.

  3. Ammonium-oxidizing bacteria facilitate aerobic degradation of sulfanilic acid in activated sludge.

    Chen, Gang; Ginige, Maneesha P; Kaksonen, Anna H; Cheng, Ka Yu

    2014-01-01

    Sulfanilic acid (SA) is a toxic sulfonated aromatic amine commonly found in anaerobically treated azo dye contaminated effluents. Aerobic acclimatization of SA-degrading mixed microbial culture could lead to co-enrichment of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) because of the concomitant release of ammonium from SA oxidation. To what extent the co-enriched AOB would affect SA oxidation at various ammonium concentrations was unclear. Here, a series of batch kinetic experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of AOB on aerobic SA degradation in an acclimatized activated sludge culture capable of oxidizing SA and ammonium simultaneously. To account for the effect of AOB on SA degradation, allylthiourea was used to inhibit AOB activity in the culture. The results indicated that specific SA degradation rate of the mixed culture was negatively correlated with the initial ammonium concentration (0-93 mM, R²= 0.99). The presence of AOB accelerated SA degradation by reducing the inhibitory effect of ammonium (≥ 10 mM). The Haldane substrate inhibition model was used to correlate substrate concentration (SA and ammonium) and oxygen uptake rate. This study revealed, for the first time, that AOB could facilitate SA degradation at high concentration of ammonium (≥ 10 mM) in an enriched activated sludge culture. PMID:25259503

  4. Thermal adaption in the built environment: a literature review

    Brager, G.S. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Center for Environmental Design Research; De Dear, R.J. [Macquarie Univ., Sydney (Australia). Climatic Impacts Centre

    1998-02-01

    This paper presents the results of an extensive literature review on the topic of thermal adaptation in the built environment. The adaptive approach to modeling thermal comfort acknowledges that thermal perception in `real world` settings is influenced by the complexities of past thermal history and cultural and technical practices. An important premise of the adaptive model is that the person is no longer a passive recipient of the given thermal environment, but instead is an active agent interacting with the person-environment system via multiple feedback loops. Thermal adaptation can be attributed to three different processes - behavioral adjustment, physiological acclimatization and psychological habituation or expectation. Both climate chamber and field evidence indicates that the slower process of acclimatization is not so relevant to thermal adaptation in the relatively moderate conditions found in buildings, whereas behavioral adjustment and expectation have a much greater influence. One of the most important findings from our review of field evidence was the distinction between thermal comfort responses in air-conditioned vs. naturally ventilated buildings, most likely resulting from a combination of past thermal history in the buildings and differences in levels of perceived control. (orig.)

  5. Bioremediation: Technology for treating hydrocarbon-contaminated wastewater

    Towprayoon, S.; Kuntrangwattana, S. [King Mongkut`s Institute of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1996-12-31

    Cutting oil wastewater from an iron and steel factory was applied to the soil windrow. Self-remediation was then compared with remediation with acclimatized indigenous microbes. The incremental reduction rate of the microorganisms and hydrocarbon-degradable microbes was slower in self-remediation than in the latter treatment. Within 30 days, when the acclimatized indigenous microbes were used, there was a significant reduction of the contaminated hydrocarbons, while self-remediation took longer to reduce to the same concentration. Various nitrogen sources were applied to the soil pile, namely, organic compost, chemical fertilizer, ammonium sulfate, and urea. The organic compost induced a high yield of hydrocarbon-degradable microorganisms, but the rate at which the cutting oil in the soil decreased was slower than when other nitrogen sources were used. The results of cutting oil degradation studied by gas chromatography showed the absence of some important hydrocarbons. The increment of the hydrocarbon-degradable microbes in the land treatment ecosystem does not necessarily correspond to the hydrocarbon reduction efficiency. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  6. A Model of Genome Size Evolution for Prokaryotes in Stable and Fluctuating Environments.

    Bentkowski, Piotr; Van Oosterhout, Cock; Mock, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Temporal variability in ecosystems significantly impacts species diversity and ecosystem productivity and therefore the evolution of organisms. Different levels of environmental perturbations such as seasonal fluctuations, natural disasters, and global change have different impacts on organisms and therefore their ability to acclimatize and adapt. Thus, to understand how organisms evolve under different perturbations is a key for predicting how environmental change will impact species diversity and ecosystem productivity. Here, we developed a computer simulation utilizing the individual-based model approach to investigate genome size evolution of a haploid, clonal and free-living prokaryotic population across different levels of environmental perturbations. Our results show that a greater variability of the environment resulted in genomes with a larger number of genes. Environmental perturbations were more effectively buffered by populations of individuals with relatively large genomes. Unpredictable changes of the environment led to a series of population bottlenecks followed by adaptive radiations. Our model shows that the evolution of genome size is indirectly driven by the temporal variability of the environment. This complements the effects of natural selection directly acting on genome optimization. Furthermore, species that have evolved in relatively stable environments may face the greatest risk of extinction under global change as genome streamlining genetically constrains their ability to acclimatize to the new environmental conditions, unless mechanisms of genetic diversification such as horizontal gene transfer will enrich their gene pool and therefore their potential to adapt. PMID:26242601

  7. High-altitude medicine

    Paralikar Swapnil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sojourns to high altitude have become common for recreation and adventure purposes. In most individuals, gradual ascent to a high altitude leads to a series of adaptive changes in the body, termed as acclimatization. These include changes in the respiratory, cardiovascular, hematologic systems and cellular adaptations that enhance oxygen delivery to the tissues and augment oxygen uptake. Thus there is an increase in pulmonary ventilation, increase in diffusing capacity in the lung, an increase in the cardiac output and increase in the red blood cell count due to an increase in erythropoietin secretion by the kidney, all of which enhance oxygen delivery to the cells. Cellular changes like increase in the number of mitochondria and augmentation of cytochrome oxidase systems take months or years to develop. Too rapid an ascent or inability to acclimatize leads to high-altitude illnesses. These include acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE and high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. Acute mountain sickness is self limiting if recognized early. Both HACE and HAPE are life threatening and need to be treated aggressively. The key to treatment of these illnesses is early recognition; administration of supplemental oxygen; and descent if required. Drugs like acetazolamide, dexamethasone, nifedipine may be administered as recommended.

  8. Cytogenetics of Anodonta cygnea (Mollusca: Bivalvia) as possible indicator of environmental adversity

    Carrilho, J.; Leitão, A.; Vicente, C.; Malheiro, I.

    2008-11-01

    Anodonta cygnea is a freshwater clam, belonging to the Unionidae family, which can be found in rivers and lagoons all over Europe and Northern America. As they appear as important case studies for ecological damage assessments, the various species of the Unionidae family have been submitted to a sort of recent studies on their chromosomal or cytogenetic status. In this study we confirmed the diploid chromosome number of 2 n = 38 for this species, and established for the first time the karyotype, which comprised six metacentric, 12 submetacentric and one subtelocentric chromosome pairs. We also found a high percentage of cells with an abnormal number of chromosomes. Considering that karyotype disturbances in Unionids have been previously related with exposure to chemicals, either natural or produced by human activity, we determined the aneuploidy index for our population. The aneuploidy index is an excellent marker for pollutant presence/effect. The animals acclimatized in tap water and in natural water from the lake where the individuals were collected showed different levels of aneuploidy. The higher values were found in tap water. Chromosome analysis techniques seem a suitable tool to study the impact of contaminants referred above, and making A. cygnea a suitable organism for assessment of an eugenic damage in aquatic systems. On the other hand, our results also point out to the importance of doing the acclimatizing process of the collected animals in their own natural water.

  9. Research on optimal domestication of thiobacillus ferooxidans and desulfurization

    Gong, G.; Tao, X.; Zhang, X.; ??? Luo, Z. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2006-07-15

    In order to increase the efficiency of biodesulfurization and reduce the reaction time, based on the high selectivity adsorption and oxidation characteristic of thiobacillus ferooxidans (T.f.) for pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) in coal, the strain of T.f. was acclimatized by changing concentration of Fe{sup 2+}, H{sup +} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} and adding FeS{sub 2} and glucose in the 9 K medium. The optimal conditions of growth were investigated and used in the biodesulfurization experiments. The results show that the normal growth of T.f. was achieved after two turns of acclimatization. The desulfurization efficiency is the best under the conditions of 10% inoculation, 1.85 pH value and 27{sup o}C. The smaller the size of coal particle is, the effective the biodesulfurization is. The maximum sulphur removal from coal of 76.2% was obtained after reaction time of 7 days. The mechanisms of desulfurization with T.f. can be explained by the cooperation reaction of dissolved oxygen, bacteria and Fe{sup 3+}. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  10. A reusable immobilization matrix for the biodegradation of phenol at 5000 mg/L

    Li, Najun; Jiang, Jun; Chen, Dongyun; Xu, Qingfeng; Li, Hua; Lu, Jianmei

    2015-03-01

    Bacteria-mediated degradation of toxins has been reported as a practical technique for the innocuous removal of toxic organic compounds from water. Specifically, immobilized and pre-acclimatized Pseudomonas putida has been shown to clear low levels of contaminants (less than 2000 mg/L) from wastewater, wherein the bacteria consumes toxic aromatic compounds as the only source of carbon and energy. Here we report the preparation of a high-capacity composite adsorbent as an immobilization matrix for pre-acclimatized P. putida that is capable of complete degradation of 5000 mg/L of phenol within 80 hours. The composite adsorbent, a n-Butyl acrylate (BA)-resin evenly coated on polyester fiber (PF), can quickly reduce the phenol concentration to a level that is suitable for the immobilized bacteria to start the biodegradation process. Furthermore, the composite adsorbent (PF-BA) is regenerated during the biodegradation process without any additional manipulations, therefore it is reusable. As a whole, we provide a general strategy for more efficient biodegradation for phenol, which can be generalized to other water-soluble toxic organics removal for waste water treatment.

  11. Time required to stabilize thermographic images at rest

    Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Moreira, Danilo Gomes; Cano, Sergio Piñonosa; Quintana, Manuel Sillero; Soares, Danusa Dias; Fernandes, Alex de Andrade; Silva, Fabrício Sousa da; Costa, Carlos Magno Amaral; Amorim, Paulo Roberto dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    Thermography for scientific research and practical purposes requires a series of procedures to obtain images that should be standardized; one of the most important is the time required for acclimatization in the controlled environment. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify the appropriate acclimatization time in rest to reach a thermal balance on young people skin. Forty-four subjects participated in the study, 18 men (22.3 ± 3.1 years) and 26 women (21.7 ± 2.5 years). Thermographic images were collected using a thermal imager (Fluke®), totaling 44 images over a period of 20 min. The skin temperature (TSK) was measured at the point of examination which included the 0 min, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20. The body regions of interest (ROI) analyzed included the hands, forearms, arms, thighs, legs, chest and abdomen. We used the Friedman test with post hoc Dunn's in order to establish the time at rest required to obtain a TSK balance and the Mann-Whitney test was used to compare age, BMI, body fat percentage and temperature variations between men and women, considering always a significance level of p body region of the abdomen obtained a significant variance (p body analysis it is recommended at least 10 min for both sexes.

  12. Micropropagação de sucupira-preta por meio de gemas axilares Sucupira-preta micropropagation through axillary buds

    Luciana Coelho de Moura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de reguladores de crescimento, aditivos antioxidantes, tipo de explantes e intensidade de cobertura de mudas aclimatizadas, na micropropagação de sucupira-preta (Bowdichia virgilioides por meio de gemas axilares. Os explantes foram cultivados para a multiplicação em meio de cultura básico WPM, suplementado com concentrações de benzilaminopurina (BAP. No alongamento, os tratamentos foram combinações de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA e BAP adicionadas ao meio. Para o enraizamento, as brotações foram colocadas em meio com concentrações de ácido indolbutírico, ou em meio com combinações dos aditivos polivinilpirrolidona e carvão ativado, em diferentes concentrações de ANA. As plantas foram transplantadas para copos de plástico, com substrato, e cobertas com saco de polietileno. Posteriormente, esses sacos foram retirados, ou perfurados, ou não retirados, o que constituiu os tratamentos de pré-aclimatização in vitro. A aclimatização ex vitro foi realizada após o período de pré-aclimatização in vitro. A sucupira-preta apresentou melhor micropropagação com emprego de: segmentos cotiledonares e 0,3 mg L-1 de BAP, na multiplicação; 0,3 mg L-1 de ANA e 0,03 mg L-1 de BAP, no alongamento; e carvão ativado (2,0 mg L-1, no enraizamento e na pré-aclimatização in vitro, com uso de cobertura de plástico transparente em torno da muda.The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of growth regulators, antioxidant additives, type of explants, and coverage intensity of acclimatized seedlings in the micropropagation of sucupira-preta (Bowdichia virgilioides through axillary buds. Explants were cultured for multiplication on WPM medium, supplemented with concentrations of benzylaminopurine (BAP. In the elongation phase, treatments consisted of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and BAP combinations added to the medium. For rooting, shoots were inoculated in medium containing

  13. Anatomia comparada das folhas e raízes de Cymbidium Hort. (Orchidaceae cultivadas ex vitro e in vitro Comparative leaf and root anatomy of ex vitro and in vitro cultured Cymbidium Hort. plants

    Juliana Lischka Sampaio Mayer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Na fase de cultivo in vitro, as plantas são mantidas em ambiente com alta umidade relativa do ar, baixa luminosidade e trocas gasosas restritas, o que resulta em taxa de transpiração reduzida. Portanto, quando essas mudas são expostas ao meio ex vitro, sofrem estresse que pode causar a morte. O objetivo desse trabalho foi comparar a estrutura anatômica das mudas de Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' cultivadas ex vitro (planta matriz e aclimatizada e in vitro e verificar se a estrutura anatômica das plantas in vitro influencia no processo de aclimatização. As plantas ex vitro foram mantidas em casa-de-vegetação, em vasos individuais com o substrato fibra de coco em pó combinada com fibra de coco, e as plantas in vitro foram mantidas em meio de cultura MS. Para a análise anatômica qualitativa foram coletadas amostras de folhas e raízes de plantas ex vitro e in vitro. As plantas aclimatizadas apresentaram estrutura morfoanatômica semelhante à da planta matriz. A estrutura anatômica das plantas in vitro não influenciou a sobrevivência das mudas durante a aclimatização devido à plasticidade fenotipica desse cultivar. As plantas de Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' possuem grande capacidade de aclimatização ao ambiente, sendo provavelmente este um dos fatores responsáveis pela sobrevivência de 100% das mudas.During in vitro culture plants are kept in an atmosphere with high relative humidity, low light intensity and reduced gas exchange, resulting in low transpiration rates. Therefore, when these plants are exposed to ex vitro conditions, they suffer stress, which can induce mortality. The purpose of this study was to compare the anatomical structure of Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' plants from ex vitro (mother plant and acclimatized plants and in vitro cultures and to verify if the anatomical structure of in vitro cultured plants affects acclimatization. The ex vitro plants were kept in a greenhouse in pots containing a mixture of coconut-fiber powder and

  14. Effects of continuous drought and immersion on hatchability of Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae eggs stored at low temperature Efecto de la sequía continua y la inmersión sobre la respuesta de eclosión de los huevos de Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae almacenados a baja temperatura

    Raúl E Campos

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of environmental factors on the hatching response of O. albifasciatus (Macquart eggs is studied by simulating winter conditions in the laboratory. The hypothesis tested was that hatching response is affected by: (1 time that eggs remain at low temperature, (2 storage conditions, and (3 acclimatization time. Eggs were stored at 5ºC in drought and immersion conditions during 7, 21, 35, 90 and 146 days, immediately after, they were acclimatized at 22ºC during 24, 72, and 168 hours, and then eggs were flooded to induce hatching. Percent of hatched eggs was analyzed with a Generalized Lineal Model with a binomial distribution. Results show that: (1 a long storage period at cold temperature and long acclimatization periods improve the hatching response; (2 storage conditions have a moderate effect on hatching, being more evident in eggs stored dry; (3 a long time of acclimatization favors the hatching response in submerged eggs more than in eggs stored dry; (4 long time at cold favors the hatching response in eggs stored dry more than in submerged eggs; (5 the hatching response of eggs that remain for a long time at low temperature is higher when the time of acclimatization is long.Se estudió el rol de los factores ambientales sobre la eclosión de los huevos de O. albifasciatus (Macquart, simulando condiciones de invierno. La hipótesis planteada fue que la respuesta de eclosión de los huevos depende de: (1 tiempo de permanencia a baja temperatura, (2 condiciones de almacenamiento, y (3 tiempo de aclimatación. Los huevos fueron almacenados a 5º C en condiciones de sequía y sumergidos durante 7, 21, 35, 90 y 146 días; luego fueron aclimatados a 22º C durante 24, 72, y 168 horas y posteriormente inundados para inducir la eclosión. El porcentaje de huevos eclosionados se analizó con un Modelo Lineal Generalizado con distribución binomial. Los resultados mostraron que: (1 largos períodos de almacenamiento en frío y largos tiempos

  15. Impact of high altitude on the hepatic fatty acid oxidation and synthesis in rats

    Highlights: • Acute exposure to high altitude (HA) increased hepatic fatty acid (FA) β-oxidation. • Acute exposure of rats to HA increased hepatic FA synthesis. • PPARα and AMPK can regulate the FA metabolism. • FA may be a key energy fuel and a compensation for CHO during acute exposure to HA. • The acute changes of FA metabolism may be a mechanism of acclimatization. - Abstract: High altitude (HA) affects energy metabolism. The impact of acute and chronic HA acclimatization on the major metabolic pathways is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to unveil the impact of HA on the key enzymes involved in the fatty acid (FA) metabolism in liver. Rats were exposed to an altitude of 4300 m for 30 days and the expressions of two key proteins involved in FA β-oxidation (carnitine palmitoyl transferase I, CPT-I; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα), two proteins involved in FA synthesis (acetyl CoA carboxylase-1, ACC-1; and AMP-activated protein kinase, AMPK), as well as the total ketone body in the liver and the plasma FFAs were examined. Rats without HA exposure were used as controls. We observed that the acute exposure of rats to HA (3 days) led to a significant increase in the expressions of CPT-I and PPARα and in the total hepatic ketone body. Longer exposure (15 days) caused a marked decrease in the expression of CPT-I and PPARα. By 30 days after HA exposure, the expression levels of CPT-I and PPARα returned to the control level. The hepatic ACC-1 level showed a significant increase in rats exposed to HA for 1 and 3 days. In contrast, the hepatic level of AMPK showed a significant reduction throughout the experimental period. Plasma FFA concentrations did not show any significant changes following HA exposure. Thus, increased hepatic FA oxidation and synthesis in the early phase of HA exposure may be among the important mechanisms for the rats to respond to the hypoxic stress in order to acclimatize themselves to the

  16. Evidence for an apical Na-Cl cotransporter involved in ion uptake in a teleost fish

    Hiroi, J.; Yasumasu, S.; McCormick, S.D.; Hwang, P.-P.; Kaneko, T.

    2008-01-01

    Cation-chloride cotransporters, such as the Na+/K +/2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and Na+/Cl - cotransporter (NCC), are localized to the apical or basolateral plasma membranes of epithelial cells and are involved in active ion absorption or secretion. The objectives of this study were to clone and identify 'freshwater-type' and 'seawater-type' cation-chloride cotransporters of euryhaline Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and to determine their intracellular localization patterns within mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs). From tilapia gills, we cloned four full-length cDNAs homologous to human cation-chloride cotransporters and designated them as tilapia NKCC1a, NKCC1b, NKCC2 and NCC. Out of the four candidates, the mRNA encoding NKCC1a was highly expressed in the yolk-sac membrane and gills (sites of the MRC localization) of seawater-acclimatized fish, whereas the mRNA encoding NCC was exclusively expressed in the yolk-sac membrane and gills of freshwater-acclimatized fish. We then generated antibodies specific for tilapia NKCC1a and NCC and conducted whole-mount immunofluorescence staining for NKCC1a and NCC, together with Na+/K+-ATPase, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3), on the yolk-sac membrane of tilapia embryos acclimatized to freshwater or seawater. The simultaneous quintuple-color immunofluorescence staining allowed us to classify MRCs clearly into four types: types I, II, III and IV. The NKCC1a immunoreactivity was localized to the basolateral membrane of seawater-specific type-IV MRCs, whereas the NCC immunoreactivity was restricted to the apical membrane of freshwater-specific type-II MRCs. Taking account of these data at the level of both mRNA and protein, we deduce that NKCC1a is the seawater-type cotransporter involved in ion secretion by type-IV MRCs and that NCC is the freshwater-type cotransporter involved in ion absorption by type-II MRCs. We propose a novel ion-uptake model by MRCs in

  17. Impact of high altitude on the hepatic fatty acid oxidation and synthesis in rats

    Ni, Qian [Department of General Surgery, Hepatic-biliary-pancreatic Institute, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou (China); Department of Pediatrics, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou (China); Shao, Yuan; Wang, Ying Zhen [Department of General Surgery, Hepatic-biliary-pancreatic Institute, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou (China); Jing, Yu Hong [Institute of Anatomy, School of Basic Medicine, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China); Zhang, You Cheng, E-mail: zhangychmd@126.com [Department of General Surgery, Hepatic-biliary-pancreatic Institute, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou (China)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • Acute exposure to high altitude (HA) increased hepatic fatty acid (FA) β-oxidation. • Acute exposure of rats to HA increased hepatic FA synthesis. • PPARα and AMPK can regulate the FA metabolism. • FA may be a key energy fuel and a compensation for CHO during acute exposure to HA. • The acute changes of FA metabolism may be a mechanism of acclimatization. - Abstract: High altitude (HA) affects energy metabolism. The impact of acute and chronic HA acclimatization on the major metabolic pathways is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to unveil the impact of HA on the key enzymes involved in the fatty acid (FA) metabolism in liver. Rats were exposed to an altitude of 4300 m for 30 days and the expressions of two key proteins involved in FA β-oxidation (carnitine palmitoyl transferase I, CPT-I; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα), two proteins involved in FA synthesis (acetyl CoA carboxylase-1, ACC-1; and AMP-activated protein kinase, AMPK), as well as the total ketone body in the liver and the plasma FFAs were examined. Rats without HA exposure were used as controls. We observed that the acute exposure of rats to HA (3 days) led to a significant increase in the expressions of CPT-I and PPARα and in the total hepatic ketone body. Longer exposure (15 days) caused a marked decrease in the expression of CPT-I and PPARα. By 30 days after HA exposure, the expression levels of CPT-I and PPARα returned to the control level. The hepatic ACC-1 level showed a significant increase in rats exposed to HA for 1 and 3 days. In contrast, the hepatic level of AMPK showed a significant reduction throughout the experimental period. Plasma FFA concentrations did not show any significant changes following HA exposure. Thus, increased hepatic FA oxidation and synthesis in the early phase of HA exposure may be among the important mechanisms for the rats to respond to the hypoxic stress in order to acclimatize themselves to the

  18. The acceptable air velocity range for local air movement in the Tropics

    Gong, Nan; Tham, K.W.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor;

    2006-01-01

    high velocity values. Most dissatisfaction with air movement is caused by thermal sensation, with air movement perception accounting for a smaller proportion. The subjects preferred air movement to be between "just right" and "slightly breezy" and preferred their thermal sensation to be between......The perception of locally applied airflow was studied with tropical subjects who had become passively acclimatized to hot conditions in the course of their day-to-day life. During the experiments, 24 subjects (male and female) performed normal office work in a room equipped with six workstations...... for 15 minutes, during which the subjects responded to computer-administered questionnaires on their thermal and draft sensations using visual-analogue scales. The results showed that the subjects preferred air movement within a certain range, i.e., a higher percentage was dissatisfied at both low and...

  19. Study on rapid propagation of Zanhuang Chinese jujube by tissue culture

    Zanhuang jujube is a very precious and rare variety of Chinese jujube. Its development was restricted by the under-developed propagate technique in history. The rapid propagation by tissue culture was studied and the optimum media were screened out. Through studying the condition of initial, proliferating, acclimatizing and rooting culture, 4 media, MS +6-BA 0.5 mg/L+IBA 0.1 mg/L, MS+6-BA 1.5 mg/L+IBA 0.1-0.2 mg/L, MS+KT 0.5 mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L and 1/2 MS+IBA 0.6 mg/L+NAA 0.2-0.3 mg/L were selected respectively

  20. Rhabdomyolysis in adolescent athletes: review of cases.

    Hummel, Kevin; Gregory, Andrew; Desai, Neerav; Diamond, Alex

    2016-05-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome characterized by muscle pain, weakness and myoglobinuria and ranges in severity from asymptomatic to life threatening with acute kidney failure. While a common condition in adult populations, it is understudied in pediatrics and the majority of adolescent cases are likely exercise-induced, caused by strenuous exercise in athletes. Recently, in our pediatric sports medicine practice, we have seen numerous cases of late adolescent high school athletes who present with severe muscle pain and were found to have elevated creatine kinase levels. The cases review potential contributing factors including characteristics of the workout, use of supplements, caffeine, medication, and metabolic or genetic predisposition. Treatment for exercised-induced rhabdomyolysis rarely requires more than rehydration. Return to play should be progressive, individualized, and include acclimatization and monitoring of hydration status, though guidelines require further review. PMID:27031535

  1. Heat-related illness in sports and exercise.

    Nichols, Andrew W

    2014-12-01

    Exertional heat-related illness (EHRI) is comprised of several states that afflict physically active persons when exercising during conditions of high environmental heat stress. Certain forms of EHRI may become life threatening if not treated. Exertional heat stroke (EHS), characterized by a core body temperature of >40 ° C and mental status changes, is the most severe form of EHRI. EHS must be treated immediately with rapid body cooling to reduce morbidity and mortality. Many EHRI cases are preventable by following heat acclimatization guidelines, modifying sports and exercise sessions during conditions of high environmental heat stress, maintaining adequate hydration, avoiding exertion in the heat when ill, and by educating sports medicine personnel, coaches, parents, and athletes on the early recognition and prevention of EHRI. Heat exhaustion, exercise-associated collapse, exercise-associated muscle cramps, exercise-associated hyponatremia, and exertional rhabdomyolysis are also described. PMID:25240413

  2. The aging diver: endothelial biochemistry and its potential implications for cardiovascular health.

    Berenji Ardestani, Simin; Buzzacott, Peter; Eftedal, Ingrid

    2015-12-01

    Divers are exposed to circulatory stress that directly affects the endothelial lining of blood vessels, and even asymptomatic dives are associated with inflammatory responses, microparticle release and endothelial dysfunction. As humans age, there is a relative increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease, attributed in part to declining endothelial function. Whether extensive diving in the older diver increases the risk of disease as a result of accumulated circulatory stress or provides protection through processes of acclimatization remains an open question. We provide a brief review of current knowledge about the separate effects of diving and aging on the vascular endothelium in humans and rodents, and discuss the available data on their combined effects. The aim is to elucidate possible outcomes of the interplay between exogenous and endogenous stress factors for endothelial function and to question potential implications for cardiovascular health in the aging diver. PMID:26687310

  3. Biodegradation of high strength phenolic wastewater in a modified external loop inversed fluidized bed airlift bioreactor (EIFBAB)

    Aye, T. T.; Loh, K-C. [National University of Singapore, Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, (Singapore)

    2003-12-01

    Phenol degradation at high concentrations was investigated in both batch and continuous mode, using a modified external loop inversed fluidized bed airlift bioreactor (EIFBAB). It was found that the modified EIFBAB, when operated at five litres/hour was capable of degrading 3,000 mg/L phenol. Under continuous operation the bioreactor was capable of degrading up to 5,000 mg/L phenol, with gradual acclimatization of the biofilm on the expanded polystyrene beads. Response of the system under shock loading was also evaluated. Results showed that the system was able to absorb the shock well up to 5,000 mg/L phenol. Although phenol breakthrough was evident in the effluent beyond 4,500 mg/L., the increase in effluent phenol concentration was gradual, and the effluent concentration did not increase beyond 1,000 mg/L phenol. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  4. Micropropagation and callogenesis in Mandevilla guanabarica (Apocynaceae, an endemic plant from Brazil

    Sandra Zorat Cordeiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mandevilla guanabarica is an endemic plant from Brazil, with pharmacological and ornamental potential, both unexplored. This study established the best culture medium for in vitro plant maintenance, efficient protocol for its regeneration, and callogenesis from different explants excised from in vitro-grown plants. Woody plant medium with double boron concentration (WPMB plus 2.27 µM thidiazuron or 0.49 µM 2-isopentenyladenine provided multiplication rates higher than 1:6. Shoots were 100% rooted on WPMB. After acclimatization, plants showed 83% survival. For callogenesis, the use of MS media supplemented with high concentrations of picloram or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid produced, respectively, friable or compact non-morphogenic calluses from different types of explants. This micropropagation protocol allows the production of seedlings of M. guanabarica for ornamental or commercial uses, and for conservation purposes; calluses can be used to establish suspension cultures in prospecting for bioactive compounds

  5. Clonal fidelity of chrysanthemum regenerated from long term cultures

    Jevremović Slađana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics of flowers of long term regenerated chrysanthemum, cv. "White Spider", after ten years of micropropagation are investigated. Shoot cultures are established and maintained more than ten years by stem segment culture on MS medium supplemented with BAP and NAA (1.0, 0.1 mgL-1, respectively. Rooting of shoots (100 % has done on MS medium without hormones and it was very successful after ten years, as well as, after two or eight years of micropropagation. Acclimation of rooted chrysanthemum plantlets at greenhouse conditions was excellent and after appropriate photoperiod "in vitro" plants flowered 90.3 % and have the same flower color, shape and size as mother plants. Flower color changes of "in vitro" plants are observed during another flowering cycle one year after acclimatization. Observed variations of chrysanthemum flowers could be attributed to epigenetic factors.

  6. BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND MICROPROPAGATION STUDIES ON NEEM FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    Prithviraj Bhandare

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment the seed oils of 30 Neem (Azadirachta indica. A. juss biotypes were screened and evaluated for their physio-chemical parameters for oil content, biodiesel yield, density, viscosity, iodine value , free fatty acid, saponification value, flash point and fire point which were estimated for selection of the elite neem biotype. The best shoot regeneration (60%-80% was observed in Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with naphthalene acetic acid NAA (0.2-0.4 mg/L and benzyl amino purine BAP (0.2-0.4 mg/L. Root induction (80% was successfully obtained in MS medium supplemented with IBA (0.05 mg/L and IAA (0.05 mg/L. Acclimatization and hardening was quite successful with survival rate of 60%.

  7. Rapid in vitro propagation of medicinally important Aquilaria agallocha

    HE Meng-ling; QI Shu-yuan; HU Lan-juan

    2005-01-01

    Aquilaria agallocha can produce fragrant agarwood used for incense, traditional medicine and other products. An efficient plant regeneration system was established via organogenesis from shoots developed from seedlings ofAquilaria agallocha. Shoots generated many buds on MS medium supplemented with 1.3 μmol/L BA (6-benzylaminopurine) in the first 7 weeks,and the buds elongated on MS medium with 1.3 μmol/L BA+0.5 μmol/L NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid) in another 7 weeks, 2.3shoots 2 cm in length per explant were obtained within 14 weeks. Plantlets were rooted on 1/2 MS medium after being immersed in5 μmol/L NAA for 48 h, 96.7% of the roots grew up two weeks later. All plantlets that survived acclimatization grew well in the pots.

  8. Monitoring of pests of Coccinea suborder in the collection greenhouses at Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden

    Rak Natalja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main field of research carried out in the Polar-Alpine botanical garden-institute is the plant introduction and acclimatization. The problem of particular complexity is the protection of plant introducents from pests. The representatives of the Coccinea suborder are found in the Far North exclusively in greenhouses. Monitoring of a phytosanitary condition of Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden plant collection fund revealed the most stable pest species in relation to local conditions and methods used to fight against species of the Coccinea suborder. Сomposition of forage plants is defined and species of plant-reserves, on which pest population is formed, are selected. List of tropical and subtropical plants populated by Coccinea in the collection of the Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden is compiled (data on the years of 2004-2013

  9. Bioaccumulation behaviour of transplants of the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata in relation to total deposition at a polluted location in Portugal

    This experiment compares the short and long time element accumulation behaviour of transplants of Flavoparmelia caperata lichen thalli and total deposition in an atmospheric polluted area. It was found that lichens exposed for a short time behaved differently from lichens in cumulative exposition suggesting the presence of acclimatization behaviour. The lichen transplant elemental content does not unequivocally represent the average or cumulative environmental availability of the exposure period. Reflection characteristics depend on the element and the lichen physiological conditions. Good correlations between lichen elemental contents and total deposition were obtained when a physiological lichen parameter was introduced in a mathematical model, suggesting that metabolically mediated accumulation is important. - The length of the foregoing atmospheric availability period reflected by lichen elemental contents is element-specific and depends on lichen physiological conditions

  10. Effect of ultraviolet radiation absorbing film on pollination work of foreign bumblebee [Bombus terrestris

    The transmitted light through the ultraviolet radiation absorbing (UVA) film has a preventing effect of disease and pest occurrence. To develop the agriculture harmonized with the ecosystem, we attempted to research a further possible utilization of the UVA film. Pollination work of foreign bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) in the greenhouses roofed with UVA film and with common film for agriculture was examined in growing fruit-vegetables. The bumblebees used were not acclimatized to environmental conditions of the greenhouses. They visited flowers and gathered pollen from flowered crops grown in both houses, irrespective of the kind of film covering over the greenhouse roof, and the pollen quantity gathered was far greater in crops which produced in large quantity of pollen. Thus, the bumblebees were capable to work under the condition lacking in ultraviolet radiation. This pollinating behavior is different from that of honeybees. Then we concluded that bumblebees functioned well as an efficient pollinator under the condition without ultraviolet radiation

  11. APPARENT DIGESTIBILTY EXPERIMENT WITH NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS FED DIETS CONTAINING CITRULLUS LANATUS SEEDMEAL

    Wasiu Adeyemi JIMOH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients in Citrullus lanatus based diets were determined for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus using AIA as marker or indicator. 150 tilapia fingerlings of average weight 6.12±0.05g were acclimatized for a week, weighed and allotted into five dietary treatments; CTR, DT2, DT3, DT4 and DT5 containing 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60% Citrullus lanatus respectively. The diets were isonitrogenous, isocaloric and isolipidic. Each treatment was replicated three times with ten fish per replicate. Fish were fed 5% body weight on two equal proportions per day. The results from the study indicated that there was no significant variation (p>0.05 in the apparent organic matter and gross energy digestibility coefficients of the diets; that there was significant (p0.05 in the apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients (protein, energy, lipid and carbohydrates between the diets up to 30% replacement levels for tilapia.

  12. Reduced heat stress in offices in the tropics using solar powered drying of the supply air

    Gunnarsen, Lars; Santos, A M B

    2002-01-01

    Many solutions to indoor climate problems known from developed countries may have prohibitive installation and running costs in developing countries. The purpose was to develop a low-cost solution to heat stress in a hot and humid environment based on solar powered drying of supply air. Dry supply...... air may facilitate personal cooling by increased evaporation of sweat. Heat acclimatized people with efficient sweating may in particular benefit from this cooling. A prototype solar powered supply system for dried-only air was made. Air from the system was mixed with room air, heated to six different...... content of room air, temperature of supply air and moisture content of supply air was developed based on the experiments. Reduction of moisture content in the supply air by 1.6 g/kg had the same effect as lowering the operative temperature by 1 degree C. The solar-powered system for supplying dry air...

  13. In Vitro Shoot Regeneration of Corchorus acutangulus Lam. (Tiliaceae.

    K Padmavathy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The herb, Corchorus acutangulus is an important medicinal plant belongs to the family Tiliaceae. The present study describes the efficient in vitro regeneration protocol standardized for this species through leaf explant. The leaf explants were cultured on Murashige & Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (1.5 mgl-1 and NAA (0.2 mgl-1 for efficient callus induction (84.43%. Multiple shoots (83% were developed in the MS medium fortified with IBA (2.0 mgl-1 and TDZ (0.2 mgl-1. Better rooting response (74% was observed on half strength MS medium containing IBA (2.0 mgl-1 and Kn (0.2 mgl-1. Regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized and hardened off inside the culture room and then transferred to green house with 81% survival rate.

  14. Glycolytic intermediates and adenosine phosphates in rat liver at high altitude /3,800 m/.

    Cipriano, L. F.; Pace, N.

    1973-01-01

    Liver tissue obtained from adult rats exposed to 3800 m altitude for intervals ranging from 1.5 hr to 63 days was examined by enzymatic analysis. During the first 3 hr of exposure, an immediate decrease in rephosphorylation of high-energy phosphates led to reduced glycogenesis and eventual pileup of AMP, pyruvate, fructose 1,6-diphosphate, glucose 6-phosphate, and glucose. This was accompanied by a reduction of pentose phosphate pathway activity. After 3 to 6 hr, a secondary adjustment of substrate concentrations occurred along with the apparent facilitation of phosphofructokinase. This secondary adjustment appears to increase anaerobic production of ATP and represents a significant intracellular contribution to the acclimatization process at high altitude.

  15. Effect of sucrose, benzylaminopurine and culture condition on in vitro propagation of curcuma xanthorrhiza roxb and zingiber aromaticum val

    Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Zingiber aromaticum, are important medicinal species of the Zingiberaceae family. They are used in traditional medicine known as Jamu. This study reports on the presence of sucrose and BA (benzylaminopurine) supplements in the culture medium and also the effect of varying culture condition on In vitro propagation of these two species. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 5 mg L-1 BA and 30 g L-1 sucrose, incubated under total darkness, induced the highest number of multiple shoots in C. xanthorrhiza while the Z. aromaticum produced the highest number of multiple shoot in the same medium incubated under continuous light. The increase in sucrose concentration reduced shoot height in both species. Rooting of micro-shoots was not affected by the different culture treatments. The acclimatized plantlets of C. xanthorrhiza and Z. aromaticum were normal with 83.3-100% percentage when transferred to the outside environment.(author)

  16. AUTEKOLOGI PURNAJIWA (EUCHRESTA HORSFIELDII (LESCH. BENN. (FABACEAE DI SEBAGIAN KAWASAN HUTAN BUKIT TAPAK CAGAR ALAM BATUKAHU BALI

    Sutomo -

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purnajiwa, which lives in highland jungles in Bali, is a famous medicinal plant in Bali and its presence in the wild is now under threat due to over exploitation and the destruction of its habitat. Batukahu nature reserves are one of its remaining habitats. This preliminary study aimed to describe purnajiwa’s habitat in Batukahu nature reserves. Purnajiwa was found in shaded areas with light intensity range from 55-65%. It grows under the shading of Laportea sp., Ficus sp., Syzygium zollingerianum, and Sauraria sp. Purnajiwa grows on soil with 6,7-6,8 range of pH with litter thickness of 3-7 cm. Purnajiwa also associated with the surrounding understorey vegetation such as Diplazium proliferum (IVI = 54,6 and Oplismenus compositus L. (IVI = 40. Result from this study gave usefull information for the purpose of its acclimatization and propagation in ex-situ conservation for its sustainable resources.

  17. Study on submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) treating high suspended solids raw tannery wastewater for biogas production.

    Umaiyakunjaram, R; Shanmugam, P

    2016-09-01

    This study deals with the treatment of high suspended solids raw tannery wastewater using flat sheet Submerged Anaerobic Membrane (0.4μm) Bioreactor (SAMBR) acclimatized with hypersaline anaerobic seed sludge for recovering biogas. The treatability of SAMBR achieved higher CODremoval efficiency (90%) and biogas yield (0.160L.g(-1) CODremoved) coincided with high r(2) values between permeate flux and TSS (0.95), biogas and COD removed (0.96). The acidification of hypersaline influent wastewater by biogas mixing with high CO2, achieved quadruplet benefit of gas liquid and solid separation, in-situ pH and NH3 control, in-situ CH4 enrichment, and prevention of membrane fouling. The initial high VFA became stable as time elapsed reveals the hydrolysing ability of particulate COD into soluble COD and into biogas, confirms the suitability of SAMBR for high suspended solids tannery wastewater. PMID:27309773

  18. Lightning and severe thunderstorms in event management.

    Walsh, Katie M

    2012-01-01

    There are a few national position stands/guidelines that address environmental conditions in athletics, yet they do not govern all outdoor sports. Extreme heat and cold, lightning, and severe wind can all be fatal, yet the majority of outdoor sports have no published guidelines addressing these conditions in relation to activity. Available research on extreme heat and cold conditions in athletics provides prevention strategies, to include acclimatization. Lightning and severe wind are two environmental conditions to which humans cannot accommodate, and they both can be deadly. There are strong positions on extreme heat/cold and lightning safety in athletics, but none affiliated with severe winds. Medical personnel involved in planning large outdoor sporting events must know of the presence of nationally published weather-related documents and apply them to their event. In addition, research needs to be expanded in the realm of establishing guidelines for safety to participants and spectators in severe wind conditions. PMID:22580490

  19. Review and testing analysis of Moupfouma rain rate model for Southern India

    Chandrika, P.; Vijaya Bhaskara Rao, S.; Kirankumar, N. V. P.; Narayana Rao, T.

    2015-09-01

    Suitability of the analytical model by Moupfouma in modeling the one-minute rain rate distributions at tropical stations of Thiruvananthapuram and Gadanki is studied. The Climatic dependent parameters of the model governing the slope of the one-minute rain rate distributions are acclimatized and validated. The paper also presents rain rate distributions for Thiruvananthapuram and Gadanki. Performance of the model with newly refined climatic dependent parameters is assessed. The Moupfouma model is observed to model the one minute rain rate distributions with a maximum percentage relative error of 14% at 0.001% of time, and with approximately zero relative error at 0.01% of time in an average year. The climatic dependent parameters governing the slope of one-minute rain rate distributions are proposed for Southern India.

  20. Micropropagation of an elite F1 watermelon (Citrullus lanatus hybrid from the shoot tip of field grown plants

    Mohammad Khalekuzzaman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a protocol for rapid micropropagation of an elite F1 hybrid watermelon cultivar using shoot tip of field-grown plants. Maximum frequency (73% of shoot tip showed growth response in MS medium supplemented with 5 mg l-1 benzyl adenine (BA and 0.1 mg l-1 indole-3 acetic acid (IAA. Upon transfer to cytokinin-enriched medium, the cultures produced multiple shoots and 2.0 mg l-1 BA was optimum in this respect. Addition of gibberellic acid (GA3 in the multiplication medium resulted in better growth of shoots. Rooting rate was 100% when shoots were obtained from second subculture were cultured in medium with 1.0 mg l-1 indole-3 butyric acid (IBA. The shoots produced more roots with increasing number of subcultures. About 72% of the regenerated plantlets acclimatized successfully and survived in the soil condition.

  1. Survival of Drogpa Cultural and Traditional Memes and the Threat of Modern Development

    Dorji Wangchuk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of modern amenities such as roads, electricity, cell phones, television, and tourism on the two Drogpa communities of Me rag and Sag steng. It also aims to study the misinterpretation of ancient Drogpa history. The paper concludes that the endurance of Drogpa culture is uncertain and thus, loss of their identity is imminent in the near future. Therefore, the future of Drogpa culture and their hospitable behaviour will depend on how well they perceive and respond to the modern developments. Finally, this paper concludes that the government of Bhutan and Drogpa should proceed collaboratively to sustain their valuable culture and traditions. Furthermore, government should also examine methodically prior to executing any development activity to make certain that tribal cultures be endorsed and more tribal youths be encouraged to acclimatize to their cultures and traditions.

  2. In vitro micropropagation of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni in Malaysia

    Ummi Nur Ain Abdul Razak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a medicinal plants and commercially use as non-caloric sweetener for diabetic patient. In the present study, a protocol was developed for in vitro micropropagation using 6-benzylamino purine (BAP and Kinetin (Kn for the formation of multiple shoot proliferation and Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA for the induction of roots. Maximum shoot formation (7.82 ± 0.7 shoots per explants was observed on a Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L-1 BAP and 0.25 mg L-1 Kn. The maximum number of roots (30.12 ± 2.1 roots per explants was obtained on a MS medium containing 1.0 mg L-1 IBA. The well rooted plantlets were successfully weaned and acclimatized in plant soil with survival rate of 83.3 %.

  3. Decolorization of Orange Ⅱ using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor with and without co-substrates

    Soon-An Ong; Eiichi Toorisaka; Makoto Hirata; Tadashi Hano

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the decolorization of Orange Ⅱ with and without the addition of co-substrates and nutrients under an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR).The increase in COD concentrations from 900 to 1750 to 3730 mg/L in the system treating 100 mg/L of Orange H-containing wastewater enhanced color removal from 27% to 81% to 89%,respectively.In the absence of co-substrates and nutrients,more than 95% of decolorization was achieved by the acclimatized anaerobic microbes in the bioreactor treating 600 mg/L of Orange Ⅱ.The decrease in mixed liquor suspended solids concentration by endogenous lysis of biomass preserved a high reducing environment in the ASBR,which was important for the reduction of the Orange Ⅱ azo bond that caused decolorization.The maximum decolorization rate in the ASBR was approximately 0.17 g/hr in the absence of co-substrates and nutrients.

  4. Strategies for recovering inhibition caused by long chain fatty acids on anaerobic thermophilic biogas reactors

    Palatsi, J.; Laureni, M.; Andres, M.V.;

    2009-01-01

    Long chain fatty acids (LCFA) concentrations over 1.0 g L1 were inhibiting manure thermophilic digestion, in batch and semi-continuous experiments, resulting in a temporary cease of the biogas production. The aim of the work was to test and evaluate several recovery actions, such as reactor feeding...... patterns, dilution and addition of adsorbents, in order to determine the most appropriate strategy for fast recovery of the reactor activity in manure based plants inhibited by LCFA. Dilution with active inoculum for increasing the biomass/LCFA ratio, or addition of adsorbents for adsorbing the LCFA...... and reducing the bioavailable LCFA concentration, were found to be the best recovery strategies, improving the recovery time from 10 to 2 days, in semi-continuously fed systems. Moreover, acclimatization was introduced by repeated inhibition and process recovery. The subsequent exposure of the anaerobic...

  5. Aliens.

    Juliet Fall

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Berce du Caucase, Renouée du Japon, Séneçon du Cap, Solidage du Canada : le monde s’invite dans nos jardins et nos paysages. Or, cet exotisme botanique, longtemps valorisé et promu par les Sociétés d’acclimatation, est aujourd’hui perçu comme un important problème écologique. Hors des limites contrôlées de nos jardins publics ou privés, ces plantes nous envahissent. Elles se mobilisent, concurrencent nos espèces indigènes, se dotent de pouvoirs allergènes et nous nuisent. ...

  6. Splitting of Malus microcuttings enhances rooting

    Marín Velázquez, Juan Antonio; Puente Cabeza, Javier

    1992-01-01

    [FR] La fente des microboutures de Malus pour l'enracinement in vitro. La capacité d'enracinement in vitro de microboutures du porte-greffe de pommier M9 (Jork 9) a été notablement augmentée en fendant la partie basale (2 mm). Les plantes enracinées ont survécu et se sont développées normalement pendant l'acclimatation. Pour étudier la capacité d'enracinement des différentes parties de la même microbouture, les microboutures ont été fendues sur toute leur longueur en 2 moitiés semblables dont...

  7. Comparative leaf anatomy of long pepper (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. and spiked pepper (Piper aduncum L. cultured in vitro, ex vitro and in vivo

    Simone de Alencar Maciel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Piper hispidinervum and Piper aduncum contain the secondary metabolites safrole and dilapiol, and there is commercial interest in their essential oils. The study aimed to compare anatomical aspects related to physiological responses of leaves from P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum propagated in vitro, in vivo and during acclimatization. Paradermal sections and cross-sections of leaves from in vitro, ex vitro and in vivo culture, were obtained for the measurement of anatomical structures using a light microscope. The thickness of the epidermis and hypodermis of P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum underwent changes in the transition from in vitro to ex vitro. Mesophyll tissues and stomatal pore opening of both species were inluenced by the environment in vitro. Different cultivation environments promote the plasticity of the cellular structures of the leaf blade and underlie the success of micropropagation of both species.

  8. Environmental Physiology at the Johnson Space Center: Past, Present, and Future

    Conkin, Johnny

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work in environmental physiology done at Johnson Space Center (JSC). The work is aimed at keeping astronauts healthy. This is a different approach than treating the sick, and is more of an occupational health model. The reduction of risks is the main emphasis for this work. They emphasis is to reduce the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) and acute mountain sickness (AMS). The work in environmental physiology encompasses the following areas: (1) Pressure: hypobaric and hyperbaric (2) Gases: hypoxia and hyperoxia, hypercapnia--closed space issues, inert gas physiology / respiration (3) Temperature: hypothermia and hyperthermia, thermal comfort, Protective clothing diving, aviation, mountaineering, and space (4) Acceleration (5) Noise and Vibration (6) Exercise / Performance (6) Acclimatization / Adaptation: engineering solutions when necessary. This presentation reviews the work done at JSC in the areas of DCS and AMS.

  9. Insecticide toxicity to Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) females and effect on descendant generation.

    Vianna, Ulysses R; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Zanuncio, José C; Lima, Eraldo R; Brunner, Jay; Pereira, Fabrício F; Serrão, José E

    2009-02-01

    The effect of nine insecticides used in tomato production was evaluated on adults of two Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) populations from Rive and Afonso Cláudio, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The experiment was developed in an acclimatized chamber at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% relative humidity and 14 h photophase. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), previously immersed in insecticides solutions were offered to females of both T. pretiosum populations. Bacillus thuringiensis, lufenuron and triflumuron had lowest negative effects on parasitism and viability of individuals of these populations; however, abamectin and pyrethroids (betacyflurin 50 and 125 g/l and esfenvalerate) insecticides reduced parasitism rates. T. pretiosum emerged from A. kuehniella eggs treated with esfenvalerate but were not able to parasitize non treated eggs of this host. B. thuringiensis, lufenuron and triflumuron may be used in integrated pest management programs to control tomato pests, because they have moderated negative effect on parasitoid wasps. PMID:18931909

  10. Cold Temperature Effects on Long-Term Nitrogen Transformation Pathway in a Tidal Flow Constructed Wetland.

    Pang, Yunmeng; Zhang, Yan; Yan, Xingjun; Ji, Guodong

    2015-11-17

    The present study investigated long-term treatment performance and nitrogen transformation mechanisms in tidal flow constructed wetlands (TFCWs) under 4, 8, and 12 °C temperature regimes. High and stable ammonium (NH4(+)-N) removal efficiency (93-96%) was achieved in our TFCWs, whereas nitrate (NO3(-)-N) was accumulated at different levels under different temperatures. Quantitative response relationships showed anammox/amoA, (narG+napA)/amoA, and (narG+napA)/bacteria were the respective key functional gene groups determining 4, 8, and 12 °C NO3(-)-N reduction. Pathway analysis revealed the contribution of these functional gene groups along a depth gradient. In addition, denitrification process increased, while anammox process decreased consistent with a rise in temperature from 4 to 12 °C. Furthermore, cold temperatures exhibited different effects on anammox and denitrification and their long-term acclimatization capacities changed with temperature. PMID:26460580

  11. Epidermal formations of Cymbidium vitro- and exvitroplantlets

    Adriana PETRUS-VANCEA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to septic medium is dependent to gas change between exvitroplantlets and outside medium, this is why we decided to study the Cymbidium and modifications which appear in vitroculture at stoma density, dimension and closing system, and also the capacity of this vitroplantlets to adaptation its antideshydratation defence system, during acclimatization period, using as standard measure those plants which were cultivated to septic medium. After results analyze we observed that the Cymbidium hybridum species have amphystomatical leaf only “in vitro” medium conditions, and to greenhouse plants and exvitroplantlets the leafs are hypostomatic. This situation is generated from his special nutrition which exists in vitrocultures. This fact was explained by Salisbury (1927 [8] and Schoch (1978 [9], who demonstrated that the stoma frequency may significant vary to some as ambient factors which modify the morphology and composition of leaf.

  12. Hemoglobin isoform differentiation and allosteric regulation of oxygen binding in the turtle, Trachemys scripta

    Damsgaard, Christian; Storz, Jay F.; Hoffmann, Federico G.;

    2013-01-01

    When freshwater turtles acclimatize to winter hibernation, there is a gradual transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism, which may require adjustments of blood O2 transport before turtles become anoxic. Here, we report the effects of protons, anionic cofactors, and temperature on the O2......-binding properties of isolated hemoglobin (Hb) isoforms, HbA and HbD, in the turtle Trachemys scripta. We determined the primary structures of the constituent subunits of the two Hb isoforms, and we related the measured functional properties to differences in O2 affinity between untreated hemolysates from...... turtles that were acclimated to normoxia and anoxia. Our data show that HbD has a consistently higher O2 affinity compared with HbA, whereas Bohr and temperature effects, as well as thiol reactivity, are similar. Although sequence data show amino acid substitutions at two known β-chain ATP-binding site...

  13. GRASS SPECIES FROM C-4 CARBON FIXATION GROUP: POLISH EXPERIMENT WITH A NOVEL ENERGY AND FORAGE PURPOSES CROP

    Włodzimierz Majtkowski

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Experiment was conducted during four years 2003-2006. Materials used were three genus grass species of C-4 photosynthesis: Andropogon gerardi Vitman, Panicum virgatum L. and Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim. Hack. Plants were planted at spring 1998. Agrotechnical part of experiment was conducted in Botanical Garden of Plant Breeding Acclimatization Institute in Bydgoszcz and analytical part in Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Management, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology of University of Technology and Life Science in Bydgoszcz. Forage from grass C-4 photosynthesis were material of good ensilage suitability. High structural carbohydrates (NDF, ADF contents in tested forage dry matter suggest ensilage at early phases of plant development. Above results suggest to possibility of usage of forage from grass C-4 carbon fixation group for animal feeding purposes. C-4 grass forage should be recognized as a supplementary source of green matter in periods of insufficient access to traditional silage sources.

  14. Plant regeneration from petiole and leaf of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. cultured in vitro

    Wichada Sunpui

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A regeneration procedure was developed for in vitro grown African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.. Adventitious shoot regeneration was compared among petioles, leaves and stems cultured on MS basal medium. High frequency regeneration was obtained from leaves and petioles supplemented with plant growth regulators (BA, KN, 2,4-D, and NAA. Regeneration media that induced the highest number of shoots in petiole explants was either MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/l BA alone or 1 mg/l NAA plus 3 mg/l BA. Adventitious shoots were also regenerated from callus that was derived from leaf explants cultured on MS medium containing several concentrations of TDZ. Callus induced on medium with 0.5 mg/l TDZ showed the best shoot induction. Regenerated shoots could be rooted on 1/2 MS medium or MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/l IBA. Complete plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transplanted to glasshouse conditions.

  15. Ceiling-mounted personalized ventilation system integrated with a secondary air distribution system - a human response study in hot and humid climate

    Bin, Yang; Sekhar, S.C.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of thermal comfort and indoor air quality with personalized ventilation (PV) systems have been demonstrated in recent studies. One of the barriers for wide spread acceptance by architects and HVAC designers has been attributed to challenges and constraints faced in the integration of...... PV systems with the work station. A newly developed ceiling-mounted PV system addresses these challenges and provides a practical solution while retaining much of the apparent benefits of PV systems. Assessments of thermal environment, air movement, and air quality for ceiling-mounted PV system were...... performed with tropically acclimatized subjects in a Field Environmental Chamber. Thirty-two subjects performed normal office work and could choose to be exposed to four different PV airflow rates (4, 8, 12, and 16 L/s), thus offering themselves a reasonable degree of individual control. Ambient...

  16. Somatic Embryogenesis in Lisianthus (Eustoma russellianum Griseb.).

    Ruffoni, Barbara; Bassolino, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is, for the main floricultural crops, a promising system for commercial scale-up, providing cloned material to be traded as seedlings. Somatic embryos, having the contemporary presence of root apical meristem and shoot apical meristem, can be readily acclimatized. For Lisianthus it is possible to induce embryogenic callus from leaf fragments of selected genotypes and to obtain embryos either in agarized substrate or in liquid suspension culture. The production of somatic embryos in liquid medium is high and can be modulated in order to synchronize the cycle and the size of the neoformed structures. The possibility to use the liquid substrate with high propagation rates reduces labor costs and could support the costs of eventual automation. In this paper we report a stepwise protocol for somatic embryogenesis in the species Eustoma russellianum. PMID:26619872

  17. Mosquito development and biological control in a macrophyte-based wastewater treatment plant.

    Kengne Noumsi, I M; Akoa, A; Atangana Eteme, R; Nya, J; Ngniado, P; Fonkou, T; Brissaud, F

    2005-01-01

    A one-year study of the proliferation of mosquito in a Pistia stratiotes-based waste stabilization ponds in Cameroon revealed that Mansonia and Culex were the main breeding genera with about 55% and 42% of the total imagoes respectively. Though the ponds represent a favorable breeding ground for mosquitoes, only 0.02% of captured imagoes was Anopheles gambiae, suggesting that this wastewater treatment plant does not significantly contribute to the development of the malaria vector in the area. Gambusia sp. introduced to control mosquito population in the ponds acclimatized relatively well in most of the ponds (B3-B7) and their feeding rate without any diet ranged from 15.0 to 50.2 larvae/day for a single fish. PMID:16114683

  18. Application of statistical experimental methodology to optimize bioremediation of n-alkanes in aquatic environment

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations for removal of n-alkanes from crude oil contaminated seawater samples in batch reactors. Erlenmeyer flasks were used as bioreactors; each containing 250 mL dispersed crude oil contaminated seawater, indigenous acclimatized microorganism and different amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus based on central composite design (CCD). Samples were extracted and analyzed according to US-EPA protocols using a gas chromatograph. During 28 days of bioremediation, a maximum of 95% total aliphatic hydrocarbons removal was observed. The obtained Model F-value of 267.73 and probability F < 0.0001 implied the model was significant. Numerical condition optimization via a quadratic model, predicted 98% n-alkanes removal for a 20-day laboratory bioremediation trial using nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of 13.62 and 1.39 mg/L, respectively. In actual experiments, 95% removal was observed under these conditions.

  19. The Influence of Explant Types and Orientation on in Vitro Culture

    Kamnoon KANCHANAPOOM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflorescence, apical and lateral buds of Musa balbisiana ‘Kluai Hin’ (BBB group were used to culture on MS medium supplemented with 22 μM BA and 15% (v/v coconut water. Comparison of bud orientation showed that the best response of in vitro shoot tip proliferation was obtained with abaxial surface of buds lying down i.e. one side touching the medium (tilt. Mass propagation of shoot tips was obtained when cultured buds on MS medium containing 44 μM BA. Rooting was achieved by transferring the isolated shoots to MS basal medium without growth regulators. Rooted plantlets were acclimatized and successfully established in soil.

  20. RedeGasEnergia and associated technologies with industrial market; A RedeGasEnergia e as tecnologias associadas a aplicacoes industriais

    Santos, Antonio Luiz F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gas Natural; Lodi, Cristiane [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Rede Gas Energia

    2004-07-01

    The industrial segment shows a potential of consumption of about 40 millions m{sup 3}/d. This represent a great opportunity for RedeGasEnergia, a net of excellent with realize a cooperative and segmented work with Technology for development of natural gas once that at this moment this segment consume almost 20 millions m{sup 3}/d. The search for solutions economically and sustainable for replacing others energetics sources that are currently being used, placing emphasis on the quality of product, a concern with the environment, the need for technological development, the ease handling of equipment, safety regulations, those are the aims of the Industrial Applications of Technology. The development of projects in the technology field associate to combustion/conversion of industrial installations, acclimatization/refrigeration, industrial equipment, and new products and processes, which will make use of the natural gas has being our main goal nowadays. (author)

  1. Evaporative Heat Loss form the Human Body in Different Thermal Environments

    N. L. Ramanathan

    1967-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relation of the evaporative heat loss to theraal stress in naturally acclimatized subjects under Indian conditions. The environmental conditions under which the subjects were made to perform light exercise ranged from 18.9Degree C E.T to 30Degree C E.T. The evaporative heat was found to be significantly correlated to the 1% level with the air and effective temperatures, with correlation constants of 0.79 & 0.80 respectively. The average rate of change of the evaporative heatloss with air temperature was 15.4 K cal/Hr/Degree C and with the effective temperature 9.1 K cal/Hr/Degree C.

  2. Ocorrência de Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae em pupas de Musca domestica L. e Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera, Muscidae no sul do Rio Grande do Sul

    R.K Brandão

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It was reported the occurrence of Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae as a parasitoid of pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera, Muscidae and Stomoxys calcitrans Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera, Muscidae in the extreme Southern of Brazil. The collection of pupae was performed in January and February, 2008. The pupae of M. domestica and S. calcitrans were collected from bovine feces using the flotation method. The pupae were individualized in glass tubes and maintained in acclimatized chamber at 27±2ºC with relative air humidity > 70% until the emergence of the flies or the parasitoids. The referred occurrence consists in the first report to Rio Grande do Sul.

  3. Identification and analysis of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)--biodegrading bacterial strains from refinery soil of India.

    Chaudhary, Priyanka; Sahay, Harmesh; Sharma, Richa; Pandey, Alok Kumar; Singh, Shashi Bala; Saxena, A K; Nain, Lata

    2015-06-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) utilizing bacteria were isolated from soils of seven sites of Mathura refinery, India. Twenty-six bacterial strains with different morphotypes were isolated. These strains were acclimatized to utilize a mixture of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, i.e., anthracene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, each at 50 mg/L concentration as sole carbon source. Out of total isolates, 15 potent isolates were subjected to 16S rDNA sequencing and identified as a member of diverse genera, i.e., Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Alcaligenes, Lysinibacillus, Brevibacterium, Serratia, and Streptomyces. Consortium of four promising isolates (Acinetobacter, Brevibacterium, Serratia, and Streptomyces) were also investigated for bioremediation of PAH mixture. This consortium was proved to be efficient PAH degrader resulting in 40-70 % degradation of PAH within 7 days. Results of this study indicated that these genera may play an active role in bioremediation of PAHs. PMID:26026847

  4. Sir Joseph Barcroft: one victorian physiologist's contributions to a half century of discovery.

    Longo, Lawrence D

    2016-03-01

    During the first half of the 20th Century, Joseph Barcroft, KBE, FRS of Cambridge University became a world leader in respiratory physiology. He determined the role of neural stimulation in the oxygen consumption of several organs, established many of the factors that regulate the binding of oxygen to haemoglobin, explored the determinants of a human's acclimatization to high altitude and developed the field of fetal cardiovascular physiology. Chair of the Cambridge Department of Physiology from 1925 to 1937, he served as a consultant and member of many UK governmental committees. During World War I, he led a British research unit exploring the effects of poisonous gases on pulmonary function and related problems. In addition to his almost 300 publications, several of his monographs are considered as classics. PMID:25929679

  5. Redefining thermal regimes to design reserves for coral reefs in the face of climate change.

    Iliana Chollett

    Full Text Available Reef managers cannot fight global warming through mitigation at local scale, but they can use information on thermal patterns to plan for reserve networks that maximize the probability of persistence of their reef system. Here we assess previous methods for the design of reserves for climate change and present a new approach to prioritize areas for conservation that leverages the most desirable properties of previous approaches. The new method moves the science of reserve design for climate change a step forwards by: (1 recognizing the role of seasonal acclimation in increasing the limits of environmental tolerance of corals and ameliorating the bleaching response; (2 using the best proxy for acclimatization currently available; (3 including information from several bleaching events, which frequency is likely to increase in the future; (4 assessing relevant variability at country scales, where most management plans are carried out. We demonstrate the method in Honduras, where a reassessment of the marine spatial plan is in progress.

  6. Micropropagation and Phenolic exudation protocol for Excoecaria agallocha-an important mangrove

    Manickam Arumugam; Rajaram Panneerselvam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop a standard micropropagation protocol for an important vulnerable mangrove Excoecaria agallocha. Methods: Collection of explants, surface sterilization, phenolic exudation and medium was standardized. Shoot induction, shoot multiplication and rooting were carried out in MMS medium supplemented with BAP, Kinetin, Zeatin, 2ip, NAA, IAA and IBA. Hardening was carried out after root well established. Results: The best phenolic exudation removal was resulted in 4 g/L activated charcoal. The maximum shoot induction response showed in MMS medium and better shoot induction was performed in the concentration of BAP (3.9 μmol) and NAA (1.34 μmol). Rooting induction was performed high range at 5.02 μmol of IAA. Well rooted micro-shoots were hardened and acclimatized. Conclusions: From the present investigation, it can be concluded that a standard micropropagation protocol was developed for an important vulnerable mangrove species.

  7. SATISFAÇÃO DOS USUÁRIOS DE APARELHO DE AMPLIFICAÇÃO SONORA INDIVIDUAL

    Patrícia Arruda de Souza Alcarás

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to verify the level of satisfaction appliances fitted with Individual Sound Amplification and followed at a hearing center in the state of Sao Paulo - SP. The sample consisted of 30 participants, of both genders, aged 50 years, adapted with digital hearing aid technology and realizes that currently the monitoring process of adaptation. The materials used understand the Hearing Handicap Questionnaire for Elderly - HHIE, containing 25 multiple choice questions and applied directly. The results revelead that of the 30 study participants 46.6% have perceived hearing handicap, and that 36.7% had mild to moderate perception and 50% had severe or perception significant. Regarding the time of fitting adaptation were 66.7% made use of individual hearing aids for more than six months. Through the results we conclude that though most participants are adapted for more than six months, minimum period of acclimatization, many still feel limited as to the benefits of hearing aids.

  8. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF ECKLONIA RADIATA (LAMINARIALES) TO A LATITUDINAL GRADIENT IN OCEAN TEMPERATURE

    Stæhr, Peter Anton; Wernberg, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We tested the ability of sporophytes of a small kelp, Ecklonia radiata (C. Agardh) J. Agardh, to adjust their photosynthesis, respiration, and cellular processes to increasingly warm ocean climates along a latitudinal gradient in ocean temperature (~4°C). Tissue concentrations of pigment and...... nutrients decreased with increasing ocean temperature. Concurrently, a number of gradual changes in the metabolic balance of E. radiata took place along the latitudinal gradient. Warm-acclimatized kelps had 50% lower photosynthetic rates and 90% lower respiration rates at the optimum temperature than did...... was, however, weakened with increasing ocean temperature, such that the critical light demand was relaxed in kelp acclimated to higher ocean temperatures. Nevertheless, calculations of critical depth limits suggested that direct effects of future temperature increases are unlikely to be as strong as...

  9. Indirect organogenesis from various explants of Hildegardia populifolia (Roxb. Schott & Endl. – A threatened tree species from Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India

    A.R. Lavanya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hildegardia species are an important resource for fiber industry. This investigation was conducted to develop a plant regeneration protocol for Hildegardia populifolia (Roxb. Schott & Endl. via indirect organogenesis Callus was obtained from leaf, internode and petiole explants, among these explants internode explant gave best result on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D. The highest percentage (100% of regeneration was obtained with benzyladenine (BA (2.0 mg/l + indole-3-acetic acid (IAA (0.1 mg/l + glutamine (25 mg/l + thidiazuron (TDZ (0.5 mg/l from internode explants. Shootlets were highly rooted on MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/l indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. In vitro rooted seedlings were successfully acclimatized. This in vitro regeneration system will facilitate further development of reliable procedures for this genus.

  10. Water and electrolytes. [in human bodies

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Harrison, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been found that the performance of the strongest and fittest people will deteriorate rapidly with dehydration. The present paper is concerned with the anatomy of the fluid spaces in the body, taking into account also the fluid shifts and losses during exercise and their effects on performance. Total body water is arbitrarily divided into that contained within cells (cellular) and that located outside the cells (extracellular). The anatomy of body fluid compartments is considered along with the effects of exercise on body water, fluid shifts with exercise, the consequences of sweating, dehydration and exercise, heat acclimatization and endurance training, the adverse effects of dehydration, thirst and drinking during exercise, stimuli for drinking, and water, electrolyte, and carbohydrate replacement during exercise. It is found that the deterioration of physical exercise performance due to dehydration begins when body weight decreases by about 1 percent.

  11. Micropropagación de plantas de lechosa en recipientes de inmersión temporal a partir de brotes axilares Micropropagation of papaya plants in temporary immersion recipients from axilary shoots

    Ariadne Vegas García

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Micropropagation of papaya plants in temporary immersion recipients from axilary shootsTítulo corto: Micropropagación de lechosa en recipientes de inmersión temporal.Resumen: Se estandarizaron las condiciones de iniciación, multiplicación, enraizamiento y aclimatización de plantas hermafroditas de lechosa cv Maradol provenientes de brotes axilares, producidos en recipientes de inmersión temporal RITA®. En cada envase, contentivo de 200 ml de medio de cultivo líquido de Fitch, se colocaron cuatro brotes de 2 a 3 cm de longitud. Los biorreactores se conectaron a tres líneas de inmersión de 5, 2 y 1 min cada 4h y se colocaron 6 envases en promedio por línea, en condiciones de fotoperíodo de 16 h. Transcurridos 30 a 45 días, se cuantificaron los brotes y se clasificaron de acuerdo al tamaño: < 2 cm (pequeños, entre 2 a 3 cm (medianos,  ˃ 3 cm con y sin raíz (grandes. Los dos primeros tipos de brotes se continuaron multiplicando en los mismos medios; y los más elongados se aclimatizaron utilizando el Sistema Autotrófico Hidropónico (SAH. Se determinó la sanidad y la fidelidad de las plantas producidas mediante pruebas de ELISA y RAPD, respectivamente. Durante un periodo de 6 meses se reciclaron un total de 47 recipientes, los cuales produjeron 1.091 brotes: 377  pequeños; 482 medianos; 175 grandes sin raíz y 57 con raíz. Usando el SAH se obtuvo 89,5% de plantas aclimatizadas cuando se usaron brotes enraizados, y 41,6% a partir de brotes sin  raíces. Con la combinación de las técnicas RITA y SAH se logró un sistema continuo y eficiente de producción de plantas sanas y fieles al tipo, en comparación con los métodos convencionales de micropropagación y aclimatización.Palabras clave: Carica papaya, RITA®, sistema autotrófico, estabilidad genética.Abstract: We standardized initiation, multiplication, rooting and acclimatization conditions of papaya cv Maradol hermaphrodite plants from axillary

  12. Exploring action dynamics as an index of paired-associate learning.

    Rick Dale

    Full Text Available Much evidence exists supporting a richer interaction between cognition and action than commonly assumed. Such findings demonstrate that short-timescale processes, such as motor execution, may relate in systematic ways to longer-timescale cognitive processes, such as learning. We further substantiate one direction of this interaction: the flow of cognition into action systems. Two experiments explored match-to-sample paired-associate learning, in which participants learned randomized pairs of unfamiliar symbols. During the experiments, their hand movements were continuously tracked using the Nintendo Wiimote. Across learning, participant arm movements are initiated and completed more quickly, exhibit lower fluctuation, and exert more perturbation on the Wiimote during the button press. A second experiment demonstrated that action dynamics index novel learning scenarios, and not simply acclimatization to the Wiimote interface. Results support a graded and systematic covariation between cognition and action, and recommend ways in which this theoretical perspective may contribute to applied learning contexts.

  13. SEASONAL CHANGES OF VITAL SIGNS IN RELATION TO THE WORKING THERMAL CONDITIONS AMONG WORKERS OF TEHRAN BAKERIES

    F. Goebabai ; K. Parwizpoor M. Mahmoudi

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the seasonal changes of vital signs (body temperature, pulse rate and blood pressure in relation to the working thermal conditions. In this study a total number of 202 permanent workers of bakeries were studied during summer and winter. The results showed the body temperature and pulse rate raised more in summer than in winter in all workers except who worked under favorable thermal conditions and are involved in light duties too (P< 0.005. No significant seasonal changes, however, was noticed concerning systolic and diastolic blood pressure. It was concluded that acclimation does not totally eliminate the seasonal changes in thermoregulatory set point. Furthermore the results indicated that the natural acclimatization is preferred over the artificial process.

  14. Toxicological effects of ammonia on gills of Cyprinus carpio var. communis (Linn.)

    Senthamilselvan Devaraj; Chezhian Arulprakasam; Arul Pandian Kandhan; Kabilan Neelamegam; Rajalakshmi Kalaiselvan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To monitor the response of gills of Cyprinus carpio var. communis to LC50 levels of ammonia over a period of 96 h by bath exposure, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods: Cyprinus carpio procured from a local fish farm in Vadalore, Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India were acclimatized under laboratory conditions for 20 d. Fish were placed into experimental tanks with 20 L of water and 22 mg/L ammonia. A total of 10 fish were collected from each experimental tank every 24 h for histopathological studies. Results:Histopathological studies showed these changes in the gills:secondary lamellar fusion, haemorrhage, oedema, epithelial hyperplasia, and chloride cell proliferation. Occasionally, multifocal necrosis of inter-lamellar regions of gill filaments but with no apparent haemorrhage was observed under electron microscopy. Conclusion:The present study shows that histopathological and ultrastructural alterations in gills are useful indicators for ammonia toxicity in Cyprinus carpio.

  15. Effect of light intensity on in vitro multiple shoot induction and regeneration of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Khandawa-2).

    Gupta, S K; Singh, P K; Sawant, S V; Chaturvedi, R; Tuli, R

    2000-04-01

    Cotyledonary nodes taken alongwith shoot apex from seedlings of cotton (G. hirsutum) proliferated into shoots on nutrient agar medium supplemented with cytokinins. In the presence of optimal plant growth regulators, low light intensity enhanced the number of shoots initiated per explant in cotton. An average of 33.5 +/- 2.9 shoots were obtained from a single explant cultured for 8 weeks which is about four fold higher than the values reported in earlier protocols. The isolated shoots were rooted on nutrient agar medium supplemented with alpha-naphthalene acetic acid and transferred to soil after acclimatization. Regenerated plants were morphologically identical to the seed-germinated plants and were fertile. PMID:11218821

  16. Respirometry applied for biological nitrogen removal process; Aplicacion de la respirometria al tratamiento biologico para la eliminacion del nitrogeno

    Serrano, E.

    2004-07-01

    In waste water treatment plants, the Biological Nitrogen Removal (BNR) has acquired a fundamental importance. The BNR processes are Nitrification ( aerobic) and Denitrification (anoxic). Since both processes are carried on living microorganisms, a lack of their bioactivity information might cause serious confusion about their control criteria and following up purposes. For this reason, the Re spirometry applied to those processes has reached an important role by getting an essential information in a timely manner through respiration rate measurements in static and dynamic modes and applications such as AUR (Ammonium Uptake Rate), Nitrification Capacity. RBCOD (Readily Biodegradable COD) as well as AUR related to SRT (Sludge age), RBCOD related to NUR (Specific Nitrate Uptake Rate) and others. By other side in this article we have introduced a not very well known applications related to denitrification, about the methanol acclimatization and generated bioactivity. (Author) 6 refs.

  17. Effect of ammonium and acetate on methanogenic pathway and methanogenic community composition

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Kotsopoulos, T. A.; Martzopoulos, G. G.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    Methanogenesis from acetate (aceticlastic methanogenesis or syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis) is the most important step for the biogas process. The major environmental factors influencing methanogenesis are volatile fatty acids, ammonia, pH, and...... exposure to different ammonia concentrations. The methanogenic pathway was determined by following the production of (14) CH(4) and (14) CO(2) from acetate labeled in the methyl group (C-2). Microbial communities' composition was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Upon acclimatization to...... acetate and ammonia, thermophilic cultures clearly shifted their acetate bioconversion pathway from SAO with subsequent hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis (mediated by Methanobacteriales spp. and/or Methanomicrobiales spp.) to aceticlastic methanogenesis (mediated by Methanosarcinaceae spp.). On the contrary...

  18. The physiology of global change: linking patterns to mechanisms.

    Somero, George N

    2012-01-01

    Global change includes alterations in ocean temperature, oxygen availability, salinity, and pH, abiotic variables with strong and interacting influences on the physiology of all taxa. Physiological stresses resulting from changes in these four variables may cause broad biogeographic shifts as well as localized changes in distribution in mosaic habitats. To elucidate these causal linkages, I address the following questions: What types of physiological limitations can alter species' distributions and, in cases of extreme stress, cause extinctions? Which species are most threatened by these physiological challenges--and why? How do contents of genomes establish capacities to respond to global change, notably in the case of species that have evolved in highly stable habitats? How fully can phenotypic acclimatization offset abiotic stress? Can physiological measurements, including new molecular ("-omic") approaches, provide indices of the degree of sublethal stress an organism experiences? And can physiological evolution keep pace with global change? PMID:22457968

  19. Variation of muscle efficiency and regulation of heat production in an organism

    Ivanov, K.P.

    1987-03-01

    The results of over twenty years of studies on the mechanism of heat production during muscle contraction in homiothermic organisms are presented. The mechanisms regulating energy exchange during contractile (or shivering) thermogenesis and noncontractile muscle thermogenesis are examined, with special consideration given to the efficiency coefficients (ECs) of muscle work related to the processes of muscle contraction and ATP synthesis, and to relative changes in these ECs. Special attention is given to the effect of acclimatization to cold on muscle energetics, when the EC of the muscle contraction falls, while the heat production increases; the mechanism of this phenomenon is considered to be related to the increasing degree of uncoupling between the oxidation and phosphorylation processes. The role of hormones and of the sympathetic nervous system in thermoregulation is discussed. 71 references.

  20. Mitochondrial coupling and capacity of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle of Inuit and Caucasians in the arctic winter

    Gnaiger, E; Boushel, R; Søndergaard, H;

    2015-01-01

    During evolution, mitochondrial DNA haplogroups of arctic populations may have been selected for lower coupling of mitochondrial respiration to ATP production in favor of higher heat production. We show that mitochondrial coupling in skeletal muscle of traditional and westernized Inuit habituating...... and Danes had identical capacities to oxidize fat substrate in arm muscle, which increased in Danes during the 42 days of acclimation to exercise, approaching the higher level of the Inuit hunters. A common pattern emerges of mitochondrial acclimatization and evolutionary adaptation in humans at high...... latitude and high altitude where economy of locomotion may be optimized by preservation of biochemical coupling efficiency at modest mitochondrial density, when submaximum performance is uncoupled from VO2max and maximum capacities of oxidative phosphorylation....

  1. Application of statistical experimental methodology to optimize bioremediation of n-alkanes in aquatic environment

    Zahed, Mohammad Ali; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Mohajeri, Leila; Mohajeri, Soraya [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed Hasnain, E-mail: hasnain_isa@petronas.com.my [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2010-12-15

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations for removal of n-alkanes from crude oil contaminated seawater samples in batch reactors. Erlenmeyer flasks were used as bioreactors; each containing 250 mL dispersed crude oil contaminated seawater, indigenous acclimatized microorganism and different amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus based on central composite design (CCD). Samples were extracted and analyzed according to US-EPA protocols using a gas chromatograph. During 28 days of bioremediation, a maximum of 95% total aliphatic hydrocarbons removal was observed. The obtained Model F-value of 267.73 and probability F < 0.0001 implied the model was significant. Numerical condition optimization via a quadratic model, predicted 98% n-alkanes removal for a 20-day laboratory bioremediation trial using nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of 13.62 and 1.39 mg/L, respectively. In actual experiments, 95% removal was observed under these conditions.

  2. MATLAB WEB SERVER AND ITS APPLICATION IN REMOTE COLLABORATIVE DESIGN OF MAGNETIC BEARING SYSTEMS

    2001-01-01

    Acclimatizing itself to the development of network,Math Works Inc constructed a MATLAB Web Server environment by dint of which one can browse the calculation and plots of MATLAB through Internet directly.The installation and use of the environment is introduced.A code established on the platform of MATLAB,which deals with the modal analysis of magnetic bearing system(MBS) supporting rotors of five degrees of freedom and considering the coupling of thrust bearing with radical bearings is modified to work in the environment.The purpose is to realize a remote call of the code by users through Internet for the performance analysis of the system.Such an application is very important to the concurrent design of MBS and for the utilization of distributive knowledge acquisition resources in collaborative design.The work on modification and realization is described and the results are discussed.

  3. Characterization of Arabidopsis sterol glycosyltransferase TTG15/UGT80B1 role during freeze and heat stress.

    Mishra, Manoj K; Singh, Gaurav; Tiwari, Shalini; Singh, Ruchi; Kumari, Nishi; Misra, Pratibha

    2015-01-01

    Sterol glycosyltransferases regulate the properties of sterols by catalyzing the transfer of carbohydrate molecules to the sterol moiety for the synthesis of steryl glycosides and acyl steryl glycosides. We have analyzed the functional role of TTG15/UGT80B1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana in freeze/thaw and heat shock stress using T-DNA insertional sgt knockout mutants. Quantitative study of spatial as well as temporal gene expression showed tissue-specific and dynamic expression patterns throughout the growth stages. Comparative responses of Col-0, TTG15/UGT80B1 knockout mutant and p35S:TTG15/UGT80B1 restored lines were analyzed under heat and freeze stress conditions. Heat tolerance was determined by survival of plants at 42°C for 3 h, MDA analysis and chlorophyll fluorescence image (CFI) analysis. Freezing tolerance was determined by survival of the plants at -1°C temperature in non-acclimatized (NA) and cold acclimatized (CA) conditions and also by CFI analysis, which revealed that, p35S:TTG15/UGT80B1 restored plants were more adapted to freeze stress than TTG15/UGT80B1 knockout mutant under CA condition. HPLC analysis of the plants showed reduced sterol glycoside in mutant seedlings as compared to other genotypes. Following CA condition, both β-sitosterol and sitosterol glycoside quantity was more in Col-0 and p35S:TTG15/UGT80B1 restored lines, whereas it was significantly less in TTG15/UGT80B1 knockout mutants. From these results, it may be concluded that due to low content of free sterols and sterol glycosides, the physiology of mutant plants was more affected during both, the chilling and heat stress. PMID:26382564

  4. Adaptation of microalgae to a gradient of continuous petroleum contamination

    In order to study adaptation of microalgae to petroleum contamination, we have examined an environmental stress gradient by crude oil contamination in the Arroyo Minero River (AMR), Argentina. Underground crude oil has constantly leaked out since 1915 as a consequence of test drilling for possible petroleum exploitation. Numerous microalgae species proliferated in AMR upstream of the crude oil spill. In contrast, only four microalgal species were detected in the crude oil spill area. Species richness increases again downstream. Microalgae biomass in the crude oil spill area is dominated by a mesophile species, Scenedesmus sp. Effects of oil samples from AMR spill on photosynthetic performance and growth were studied using laboratory cultures of two Scenedesmus sp. strains. One strain (Se-co) was isolated from the crude oil spill area. The other strain (Se-pr) was isolated from a pristine area without petroleum contamination. Crude oil has undetectable effects on Se-co strain. In contrast crude oil rapidly destroys Se-pr strain. However, Se-pr strain can adapt to low doses of petroleum (≤3% v/v total hydrocarbons/water) by means of physiological acclimatization. In contrast, only rare crude oil-resistant mutants are able to grow under high levels of crude oil (≥10% v/v total hydrocarbons/water). These crude oil-resistant mutants have arisen through rare spontaneous mutations that occur prior to crude oil exposure. Species richness in different areas of AMR is closely connected to the kind of mechanism (genetic adaptation vs. physiological acclimatization) that allows adaptation. Resistant-mutants are enough to assure the survival of microalgal species under catastrophic crude oil spill.

  5. Cryopreservation of peach palm zygotic embryos.

    Steinmacher, Douglas A; Saldanha, Cleber W; Clement, Charles R; Guerra, Miguel P

    2007-01-01

    Cryopreservation is a safe and cost-effective option for long-term germplasm conservation of non-orthodox seed species, such as peach palm (Bactris gasipaes). The objective of the present study was to establish a cryopreservation protocol for peach palm zygotic embryos based on the encapsulation-dehydration technique. After excision, zygotic embryos were encapsulated with 3 percent sodium alginate plus 2 M glycerol and 0.4 M sucrose, and pre-treated or not with 1 M sucrose during 24 h, followed by air-drying. Fresh weight water contents of beads decreased from 83 percent and 87 percent to 18 percent and 20 percent for pre-treated or non-pretreated beads, respectively, after 4 h of dehydration. Sucrose pre-treatment at 1 M caused lower zygotic embryo germination and plantlet height in contrast to non-treated beads. All the variables were statistically influenced by dehydration time. Optimal conditions for recovery of cryopreserved zygotic embryos include encapsulation and dehydration for 4 h in a forced air cabinet to 20 percent water content, followed by rapid freezing in liquid nitrogen (-196 degree C) and rapid thawing at 45 degree C. In these conditions 29 percent of the zygotic embryos germinated in vitro. However, plantlets obtained from dehydrated zygotic embryos had stunted haustoria and lower heights. Histological analysis showed that haustorium cells were large, vacuolated, with few protein bodies. In contrast, small cells with high nucleus:cytoplasm ratio formed the shoot apical meristem of the embryos, which were the cell types with favorable characteristics for survival after exposure to liquid nitrogen. Plantlets were successfully acclimatized and showed 41+/-9 percent and 88+/-4 percent survival levels after 12 weeks of acclimatization from cryopreserved and non-cryopreserved treatments, respectively. PMID:17369958

  6. Establishment of an efficient protocol for micropropagation of some pakistani cultivars of date palm (phonex dactylifera l.) using novel inflorescence explants

    An efficient protocol for rapid and large scale In vitro propagation of some Pakistani cultivars of date palm has been established using inflorescence explants at Date Palm Research Institute (DPRI), Shah Abdul Latif University (SALU), Khairpur, Pakistan. Immature inflorescences of desired cultivars of date palm detached from mother palms followed by surface sterilization with low torrent of current tap water and then 30 percentage NaOCl/sub 2/ solution, the outer cover were removed in order to get spike explants and cut into the 2-3 cm small pieces and cultured on modified MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg l-1 2, 4-D + 0.1 mg l-1 IAA + 5.0 mg l-1 NAA for initiation and establishment of cultures. The obtained somatic embryos were subjected to multiplication medium involved 0.1 mg l-1 NAA + 0.05 mg l-1BA. Rooting was achieved using quarter strength MS medium containing 0.1 mg l-1NAA without activated charcoal (AC) initially and then with 3 g l-1 AC. Strong rooted plantlets with 2-3 leaves were transferred to pots contained sand and peat moss mixture (1:1 v/v) with more than 95 percentage success in acclimatization. The acclimatized plants with at least one compound leaf were shifted to the open field conditions at SALU campus for further studying morphological and fruit characterization to ensure the true-to-type nature of tissue culture derived plantlets. High multiplication efficiency and survival percentage with no any somaclonal variation ensured the efficacy of the protocol developed for the production of elite cultivars of date palm of Pakistan and can be used to optimize production of other cultivars of date palm worldwide. (author)

  7. Micropropagation of Cyclopia genistoides, an endemic South African plant of economic importance.

    Kokotkiewicz, Adam; Luczkiewicz, Maria; Hering, Anna; Ochocka, Renata; Gorynski, Krzysztof; Bucinski, Adam; Sowinski, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    An efficient micropropagation protocol of Cyclopia genistoides (L.) Vent., an indigenous South African shrub of economic importance, was established. In vitro shoot cultures were obtained from shoot tip fragments of sterile seedlings cultured on solid Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) medium supplemented with 9.84 microM 6-(gamma,gamma-dimethylallylamino)purine (2iP) and 1.0 microM thidiazuron (TDZ). Maximum shoot multiplication rate [(8.2 +/- 1.3) microshoots/explant)] was observed on this medium composition. Prior to rooting, the multiplied shoots were elongated for 60 days (two 30-days passages) on SH medium with one-half sucrose concentration, supplemented with 4.92 microM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The rooting of explants was only possible in the case of the elongated shoots. The highest root induction rate (54.8%) was achieved on solid SH medium with one-half sucrose and one-half potassium nitrate and ammonium nitrate concentration, respectively, supplemented with 28.54 microM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 260.25 microM citric acid. The plantlets were acclimatized for 30 days in the glasshouse, with the use of peat/gravel/perlite substrate (1:1:1). The highest acclimatization rate (80%) was obtained for explants rooted with the use of IAA-supplemented medium. The phytochemical profile of the regenerated plants was similar to that of the reference intact plant material. HPLC analyses showed that C. genistoides plantlets obtained by the micropropagation procedure kept the ability to produce xanthones (mangiferin and isomangiferin) and the flavanone hesperidin, characteristic of wild-growing shrubs. PMID:22486043

  8. High-frequency in vitro plantlet regeneration from apical bud as a novel explant of Carum copticum L.

    Mansoureh Salehi; Bahman Hosseini; Zohreh Jabbarzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop an in vitro regeneration system to increase the recovery of Carum copticum L. plantlets as a part of developing a metabolic engineering program.Methods:3-acetic acid and indole butyric acid on direct shoot regeneration and rooting of ajowan from apical bud explants were assessed. All explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different combinations of 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP) (0, 2.2, 4.4, 8.8µ The efficacy of different concentrations and combinations of 6-benzyladenine, indole-Results: The maximum shoot regeneration frequency (97.5%) and the highest number of shoots produced from apical buds (34 shoots per explant) were obtained on MS medium fortified with BAP (4.4 µmol/L) and IAA (0.5 µmol/L). Low shoot regeneration frequency was observed in BAP free treatments. The effects of different strengths of MS medium and various concentrations of IAA and indole-3- butyric acid on rooting rate, length and average number of roots were also investigated. Application of indole-3- butyric acid (6 µmol/L) in full-strength MS medium, was more effective than IAA and resulted in highest shoot regeneration frequency with the rooting rate of 100% and highest mean number of roots per shoot (41.8). The rooted plantlets were acclimatized successfully in greenhouse conditions with a survival rate of 90%. mol/L) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (0, 0.5, 1.1, 2.2 µmol/L). Conclusion: In this study, a simple and reliable regeneration and acclimatization protocol for Carum copticum has been presented. This protocol can be found very advantageous for a variety of purposes, including mass multiplication of Carum species, medicinal plant breeding studies and transgenic plant production.

  9. A high-frequency in vitro multiplication, micromorphological studies and ex vitro rooting of Cadaba fruticosa (L.) Druce (Bahuguni): a multipurpose endangered medicinal shrub.

    Lodha, Deepika; Patel, Ashok Kumar; Shekhawat, N S

    2015-07-01

    An efficient and reproducible in vitro propagation protocol has been established for Cadaba fruticosa (L.) Druce. Surface-sterilized nodal stem segments of mature plant were used as explants for culture establishment. Multiple shoots were optimally differentiated from the nodal stem explants through bud breaking on Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium containing 3.0 mg l(-1) benzyladenine (BA). The effect of different plant growth regulators and minerals were studied on different stages of micropropagation procedure (i.e., explant establishment, shoot multiplication/growth and ex vitro rooting). Additionally, for enhancing shoot multiplication during subculture, MS medium was modified (MMS) with higher levels of magnesium, potassium and sulphate ions. Out of these, MMS3 medium containing 0.25 mg l(-1) each of BA and Kin (N6-furfuryladenine), with 0.1 mg l(-1) NAA (α-naphthalene acetic acid) was found the best for shoot multiplication (42.45 ± 3.82 per culture vessel). The in vitro regenerated shoots were rooted under ex vitro conditions on treating the shoot base with 500 mg l(-1) of IBA (indole-3 butyric acid) for 3 min on sterile Soilrite®. The ex vitro rooted plants were hardened in the greenhouse and transferred to the field with ≈85 % survival rate. There were not any visual differences between wild and micropropagated plants in the field, although the later underwent significant changes during acclimatization. Micromorphological changes on leaf surface characters from in vitro to acclimatized plantlets were studied in terms of development of glandular trichomes, changes in vein spacing and vein structure in order to understand the nature of plant responses towards environmental conditions. The method developed and defined can be applied for commercial cultivation, which may be important for extraction of bioactive compounds and may facilitate conservation of this multipurpose endangered medicinal shrub. PMID:26261405

  10. In Vitro Propagation of Muña-Muña (Clinopodium odorum (Griseb. Harley

    María Soledad Diaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A micropropagation protocol was developed which may assist in the safeguarding and augmentation of dwindling natural populations of Clinopodium odorum (Griseb. Harley, a critically and endangered medicinal plant. Factors affecting culture initiation bud sprouting and growth, rooting, and acclimatization were studied, using nodal segments of in vitro germinated seedling as primary explants on six media supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP (0.5–1.5 and 2-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA (0.5–1.5. Best results for culture initiation with sustainable multiplication rates (100% were obtained on WP medium without any growth regulator. WP with the addition of 0.5 : 1 or 0.5 : 1.5 of BAP and NAA promoted a higher elongation; however, the optimum number of nodes were obtained in plantlets grown on 1/2 MS with the addition of 1 : 1.5 of BAP and NAA. Culture of sectioned individual nodes transferred to the media with different rates of BAP and NAA 1/2 MS-9 (1.5 : 1.5, SH-8 (1.5 : 1.0, and 1/2 B5-4 (1.0 : 0.5 media resulted in no proliferated shoots. The in vitro plants were successfully acclimatized garden soil and sand (2 : 1 in the greenhouse, with over 90% survival rate. The in vitro-grown plants could be transferred to ex vitro conditions and the efficacy in supporting ex vitro growth was assessed, with a view to develope longer-term strategies for the transfer and reintroduction into natural habitats.

  11. Calcification, photosynthesis and mucus production of the coral Pocillopora verrucosa along the nutrient and temperature gradient of the Red Sea

    Sawall, Yvonne; Al-Sofyani, Abdulmohsin

    2013-04-01

    The Red Sea is characterized by a large latitudinal gradient, most important an increase in nutrients and in temperature (21-33°C) from N to S, featuring challenging conditions during summer in the S. The metabolism of the widely distributed coral species Pocillopora verrucosa was investigated in situ along the gradient in summer and in winter to evaluate its acclimatization mechanisms to these variable and partly extreme environmental conditions. Calcification rates revealed clear seasonal pattern with more than 2-fold increased rates in the Northern reefs during summer and more than 1.5-fold increased rates in the Southern reefs during winter. This pattern strongly relates with temperature, where maximum calcification rates occurred at ~29°C independent of latitude and nutrients in the water. Furthermore, diel calcification rates decreased with light intensity during summer in the S, indicating energy allocation towards stress mitigation, possibly caused by co-occurring high SST and high light intensity. Photosynthesis, as the main energy supply, followed the gradient stronger during winter with a 3-fold increase from N to S and was generally higher in winter than in summer, except at the most Northern site. Hence, energy consuming calcification could only partly be related to photosynthesis with a higher correlation during winter than in summer. Mucus release increased >5-fold from N to S during winter and summer, while mucus release was generally higher during summer. This indicates that a substantial amount of energy in Southern corals was allocated towards protection from sedimentation in nutrient enriched waters and possibly towards the protection from heat-related stressors, e.g. enhanced bacterial pressure. These acclimatization mechanisms of P. verrucosa to varying temperature and nutrient regimes explain its success and wide physiological niche in the Red Sea, although conditions may be rather marginal for coral growth in some areas.

  12. Exploring the response of West Siberian wetland methane emissions to future changes in climate, vegetation, and soil microbial communities

    T. J. Bohn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We ran the VIC land surface model over the West Siberian Lowland (WSL, forced with outputs from 32 CMIP5 models for the RCP4.5 scenario, and compared the effects of changes in climate and vegetation (leaf area index in particular on predicted wetland CH4 emissions and other fluxes for the period 2071–2100, relative to the period 1981–2010. We also explored possible responses of soil microbial communities to these changes. Our results suggest that, if soil microbial communities acclimatize to elevated temperatures without changes in species abundances, end-of-century CH4 emissions from the WSL will only rise to 3.6 Tg CH4 yr−1 (6% above historical emissions. In contrast, if microbial species abundances in the north additionally shift to resemble those in the south, CH4 emissions will more than double, to 7.3 Tg CH4 yr−1. Crucially, while historical emissions were concentrated in the southern half of the domain, acclimatization plus microbial population shifts concentrate almost 3/4 of future emissions in the northern half of the domain, where the possible release of carbon with permafrost thaw is a concern. In addition, microbial population shifts disproportionately increase microbial activity in the period during and immediately following snowmelt, when highly labile carbon is first thought to be released from the soil. This work indicates the importance of better constraining the responses of soil microbial communities to changes in climate and vegetation as they are critical determinants of the region's future methane emissions.

  13. Interactive effects of ocean acidification and warming on coral reef associated epilithic algal communities under past, present-day and future ocean conditions

    Vogel, N.; Cantin, N. E.; Strahl, J.; Kaniewska, P.; Bay, L.; Wild, C.; Uthicke, S.

    2016-06-01

    Epilithic algal communities play critical ecological roles on coral reefs, but their response to individual and interactive effects of ocean warming (OW) and ocean acidification (OA) is still largely unknown. We investigated growth, photosynthesis and calcification of early epilithic algal community assemblages exposed for 6 months to four temperature profiles (-1.1, ±0.0, +0.9, +1.6 °C) that were crossed with four carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) levels (360, 440, 650, 940 µatm), under flow-through conditions and natural light regimes. Additionally, we compared the cover of heavily calcified crustose coralline algae (CCA) and lightly calcified red algae of the genus Peyssonnelia among treatments. Increase in cover of epilithic communities showed optima under moderately elevated temperatures and present pCO2, while cover strongly decreased under high temperatures and high-pCO2 conditions, particularly due to decreasing cover of CCA. Similarly, community calcification rates were strongly decreased at high pCO2 under both measured temperatures. While final cover of CCA decreased under high temperature and pCO2 (additive negative effects), cover of Peyssonnelia spp. increased at high compared to annual average and moderately elevated temperatures. Thus, cover of Peyssonnelia spp. increased in treatment combinations with less CCA, which was supported by a significant negative correlation between organism groups. The different susceptibility to stressors most likely derived from a different calcification intensity and/or mineral. Notably, growth of the epilithic communities and final cover of CCA were strongly decreased under reduced-pCO2 conditions compared to the present. Thus, CCA may have acclimatized from past to present-day pCO2 conditions, and changes in carbonate chemistry, regardless in which direction, negatively affect them. However, if epilithic organisms cannot further acclimatize to OW and OA, the interacting effects of both factors may change

  14. Adaptation of microalgae to a gradient of continuous petroleum contamination

    Carrera-Martinez, Daniel; Mateos-Sanz, Aranzazu [AlgasGen Biotecnologia, EBT-UCM, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Puerta de Hierro s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Rodas, Victoria [AlgasGen Biotecnologia, EBT-UCM, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Puerta de Hierro s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Puerta de Hierro s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Costas, Eduardo, E-mail: ecostas@vet.ucm.es [AlgasGen Biotecnologia, EBT-UCM, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Puerta de Hierro s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Puerta de Hierro s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-01-25

    In order to study adaptation of microalgae to petroleum contamination, we have examined an environmental stress gradient by crude oil contamination in the Arroyo Minero River (AMR), Argentina. Underground crude oil has constantly leaked out since 1915 as a consequence of test drilling for possible petroleum exploitation. Numerous microalgae species proliferated in AMR upstream of the crude oil spill. In contrast, only four microalgal species were detected in the crude oil spill area. Species richness increases again downstream. Microalgae biomass in the crude oil spill area is dominated by a mesophile species, Scenedesmus sp. Effects of oil samples from AMR spill on photosynthetic performance and growth were studied using laboratory cultures of two Scenedesmus sp. strains. One strain (Se-co) was isolated from the crude oil spill area. The other strain (Se-pr) was isolated from a pristine area without petroleum contamination. Crude oil has undetectable effects on Se-co strain. In contrast crude oil rapidly destroys Se-pr strain. However, Se-pr strain can adapt to low doses of petroleum ({<=}3% v/v total hydrocarbons/water) by means of physiological acclimatization. In contrast, only rare crude oil-resistant mutants are able to grow under high levels of crude oil ({>=}10% v/v total hydrocarbons/water). These crude oil-resistant mutants have arisen through rare spontaneous mutations that occur prior to crude oil exposure. Species richness in different areas of AMR is closely connected to the kind of mechanism (genetic adaptation vs. physiological acclimatization) that allows adaptation. Resistant-mutants are enough to assure the survival of microalgal species under catastrophic crude oil spill.

  15. Physiological and ecological performance differs in four coral taxa at a volcanic carbon dioxide seep.

    Strahl, J; Stolz, I; Uthicke, S; Vogel, N; Noonan, S H C; Fabricius, K E

    2015-06-01

    Around volcanic carbon dioxide (CO2) seeps in Papua New Guinea, partial pressures of CO2 (pCO2) approximate those as predicted for the end of this century, and coral communities have low diversity and low structural complexity. To assess the mechanisms for such community shifts in response to ocean acidification, we examined the physiological performance of two hard corals that occur with increased or unaltered abundance at a seep site (mean pHTotal=7.8, pCO2=862 μatm) compared to a control site (mean pHTotal=8.1, pCO2=323 μatm), namely massive Porites spp. and Pocillopora damicornis, and two species with reduced abundance, Acropora millepora and Seriatopora hystrix. Oxygen fluxes, calcification, and skeletal densities were analyzed in corals originating from the seep and control site. Net photosynthesis rates increased considerably in Porites spp. and A. millepora and slightly in P. damicornis at increased pCO2, but remained unaltered in S. hystrix. Dark respiration rates remained constant in all corals investigated from both sites. Rates of light calcification declined in S. hystrix at high pCO2, but were unaffected by pCO2 in the other three coral taxa. Dark and net calcification rates remained unchanged in massive Porites and P. damicornis, but were drastically reduced at high pCO2 in A. millepora and S. hystrix. However, skeletal densities were similar at both seep and control sites in all coral taxa investigated. Our data suggest that the pCO2-tolerant corals were characterized by an increased ability to acclimatize to ocean acidification, e.g. by maintaining net calcification. Thus, robust corals, such as Porites spp. and P. damicornis, are more likely to persist for longer in a future high pCO2 world than those unable to acclimatize. PMID:25727938

  16. New tendencies in the application of altitude training in sport preparation

    RANISAVLJEV IGOR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Competitive athletes frequently use altitude training (AT to improve sea-level performance. ATbecame interesting for sport scientists and athletes since Olympic Games in Mexico City in 1968. Exercise ataltitude may increase the training stimulus and enlarge the effects of endurance training. The first notedadaptation induced by staying at altitude is an increase in red blood cell mass that improves aerobic power andsea-level performance. Currently, there are several types of AT modalities: traditional ‘live high-train high’,contemporary ‘live high-train low’, intermittent hypoxic exposure during rest, live low-train high andintermittent hypoxic exposure during continuous session. Despite several substantial differences between thesemethods of hypoxic all of them have the same goal: to stimulate an improvement in athletic performance at sealevel. A proper distinction must be made between altitude acclimatization during preparation for competitions ataltitude and AT and acclimatization for improvement of the sea-level performances. Former scientific researchesidentified two longer phases of enhanced work capacity after AT. First phase of enhanced work capacityoccurring between days 3-7 and 12-13, while the best results are achieved during 18 and 20 days after AT.Second phase of enhanced work capacity is reported between days 36 and 48 after AT. The further developmentof practical knowledge in area of AT should predominantly include recommendations about application ofdifferent AT methods in training periodization in different sports. Improvement of the work capacity andduration of enhanced work capacity at the sea level after AT stimuli are the main questions opened for futurescientific researches.

  17. Pathology of high altitude pulmonary oedema

    Objective: To describe autopsy findings in fatal cases of high altitude pulmonary oedema. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out between 1999 and 2002 at an army field medical unit in Baltistan, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi and Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Patients and Methods:Autopsies were performed in 17 fatal cases of High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE) occurring among soldiers serving in Siachen. Results:All cases were males with a mean age of 26.8 years (19-35). The mean altitude at which HAPE occurred was 5192 meters (2895-6492), and the mean duration of stay at these altitudes was 15.3 days (1-30). Eleven individuals had undergone proper acclimatization. The commonest clinical findings were cough (70%), dyspnoea (53%), nausea (47%), headache (41%), vomiting (35%), chest pain (35%) and tightness in chest (24%). Cyanosis and frothy secretions in the nostrils and mouth were present in all but one case. Mean combined weight of lungs was 1470 grams (1070-1810). There was marked congestion of outer and cut surfaces. Interstitial oedema was present in all cases. RBCs and leukocyte infiltrates were seen in 13 and alveolar hyaline membranes in 9 cases. Thrombi were seen in 2 cases. Cerebral oedema was present in 9 cases. Conclusion:HAPE can occur after more than two weeks of stay at high altitudes despite proper acclimatization. Concomitant cerebral oedema is frequently present. Our autopsy findings are consistent with what has been reported previously. (author)

  18. Physiological adaptation of the cardiovascular system to high altitude.

    Naeije, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Altitude exposure is associated with major changes in cardiovascular function. The initial cardiovascular response to altitude is characterized by an increase in cardiac output with tachycardia, no change in stroke volume, whereas blood pressure may temporarily be slightly increased. After a few days of acclimatization, cardiac output returns to normal, but heart rate remains increased, so that stroke volume is decreased. Pulmonary artery pressure increases without change in pulmonary artery wedge pressure. This pattern is essentially unchanged with prolonged or lifelong altitude sojourns. Ventricular function is maintained, with initially increased, then preserved or slightly depressed indices of systolic function, and an altered diastolic filling pattern. Filling pressures of the heart remain unchanged. Exercise in acute as well as in chronic high-altitude exposure is associated with a brisk increase in pulmonary artery pressure. The relationships between workload, cardiac output, and oxygen uptake are preserved in all circumstances, but there is a decrease in maximal oxygen consumption, which is accompanied by a decrease in maximal cardiac output. The decrease in maximal cardiac output is minimal in acute hypoxia but becomes more pronounced with acclimatization. This is not explained by hypovolemia, acid-bases status, increased viscosity on polycythemia, autonomic nervous system changes, or depressed systolic function. Maximal oxygen uptake at high altitudes has been modeled to be determined by the matching of convective and diffusional oxygen transport systems at a lower maximal cardiac output. However, there has been recent suggestion that 10% to 25% of the loss in aerobic exercise capacity at high altitudes can be restored by specific pulmonary vasodilating interventions. Whether this is explained by an improved maximum flow output by an unloaded right ventricle remains to be confirmed. Altitude exposure carries no identified risk of myocardial ischemia in

  19. Energy metabolism and the high-altitude environment.

    Murray, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    At high altitude the barometric pressure falls, challenging oxygen delivery to the tissues. Thus, whilst hypoxia is not the only physiological stress encountered at high altitude, low arterial P(O2) is a sustained feature, even after allowing adequate time for acclimatization. Cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism is altered in subjects at, or returning from, high altitude. In the heart, energetic reserve falls, as indicated by lower phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratios. The underlying mechanism is unknown, but in the hypoxic rat heart fatty acid oxidation and respiratory capacity are decreased, whilst pyruvate oxidation is also lower after sustained hypoxic exposure. In skeletal muscle, there is not a consensus. With prolonged exposure to extreme high altitude (>5500 m) a loss of muscle mitochondrial density is seen, but this was not observed in a simulated ascent of Everest in hypobaric chambers. At more moderate high altitude, decreased respiratory capacity may occur without changes in mitochondrial volume density, and fat oxidation may be downregulated, although this is not seen in all studies. The underlying mechanisms, including the possible role of hypoxia-signalling pathways, remain to be resolved, particularly in light of confounding factors in the high-altitude environment. In high-altitude-adapted Tibetan natives, however, there is evidence of natural selection centred around the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway, and metabolic features in this population (e.g. low cardiac phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratios, increased cardiac glucose uptake and lower muscle mitochondrial densities) share similarities with those in acclimatized lowlanders, supporting a possible role for the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway in the metabolic response of cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism to high altitude. PMID:26315373

  20. The second Summer Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing, People's Republic of China: preparing youth athletes to compete in the heat

    Brito J

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Joao Brito,1 Sebastien Racinais,2 George P Nassis,1,3 1National Sports Medicine Programme, Excellence in Football Project, Aspetar – Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar; 2Athlete Health and Performance Research Centre, Aspetar – Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar; 3School of Physical Education and Sport Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece  All authors contributed equally to this manuscript Abstract: The second Summer Youth Olympic Games will take place August 16–28, 2014 in Nanjing, People's Republic of China during the peak of the summer. Nanjing has been reported as one of the hottest cities in the People's Republic of China, with temperatures reaching as high as 40°C. There is limited clinical evidence of the real risks that youth athletes face when training and competing in the heat, but some recommendations can be made. The estimated average wet bulb globe temperature for Nanjing in August is 32°C, which has been classified as a very high risk/stop play condition for heat illness and injury. Training and competing under extreme heat conditions could stress the thermoregulatory system and adversely affect health and performance. However, current guidelines appear to be inadequate or too conservative, and mostly focus on adult elite athletes. Therefore, proper preventive measures are warranted to reduce the risks of heat illness and injury. With proper heat acclimatization and monitoring, youth athletes can exercise reasonably well and safely in the heat. During the second Summer Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing, People's Republic of China, special attention should be devoted to athletes exposed to long and extensive sunny and hot conditions. Keywords: youth sports, heat acclimatization, thermoregulation

  1. Coral thermal tolerance: tuning gene expression to resist thermal stress.

    Anthony J Bellantuono

    Full Text Available The acclimatization capacity of corals is a critical consideration in the persistence of coral reefs under stresses imposed by global climate change. The stress history of corals plays a role in subsequent response to heat stress, but the transcriptomic changes associated with these plastic changes have not been previously explored. In order to identify host transcriptomic changes associated with acquired thermal tolerance in the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora, corals preconditioned to a sub-lethal temperature of 3°C below bleaching threshold temperature were compared to both non-preconditioned corals and untreated controls using a cDNA microarray platform. After eight days of hyperthermal challenge, conditions under which non-preconditioned corals bleached and preconditioned corals (thermal-tolerant maintained Symbiodinium density, a clear differentiation in the transcriptional profiles was revealed among the condition examined. Among these changes, nine differentially expressed genes separated preconditioned corals from non-preconditioned corals, with 42 genes differentially expressed between control and preconditioned treatments, and 70 genes between non-preconditioned corals and controls. Differentially expressed genes included components of an apoptotic signaling cascade, which suggest the inhibition of apoptosis in preconditioned corals. Additionally, lectins and genes involved in response to oxidative stress were also detected. One dominant pattern was the apparent tuning of gene expression observed between preconditioned and non-preconditioned treatments; that is, differences in expression magnitude were more apparent than differences in the identity of genes differentially expressed. Our work revealed a transcriptomic signature underlying the tolerance associated with coral thermal history, and suggests that understanding the molecular mechanisms behind physiological acclimatization would be critical for the modeling of reefs

  2. Effect of temperature on the pharmacokinetics of benzocaine in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after bath exposures

    Stehly, G.R.; Meinertz, J.R.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of benzocaine during bath exposures at 1 mg/L were determined in rainbow trout acclimated at 6 °C, 12 °C or 18 °C for at least 1 month. Individual fish were exposed to benzocaine in a recirculating system for 4 h and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated in a unique manner from the concentration of benzocaine in the bath water vs. time curve. Elimination from plasma was also determined after the 4 h exposure. The uptake clearance and metabolic clearance increased with increased acclimatization temperatures (uptake clearance 581 ± 179 mL/min/kg at 6 °C and 1154 ± 447 mL/ min/kg at 18 °C; metabolic clearance 15.2 ± 4.1 mL/min/kg at 6 °C and 22.3 ± 4.2 mL/min/kg at 18 °C). The apparent volume of distribution had a trend for increasing with temperature that was not significant at the 5% level (2369 ± 678 mL/kg at 6 °C to 3260 ± 1182 mL/kg at 18 °C). The elimination half-life of benzocaine in plasma was variable and did not differ significantly with temperature (60.8 ± 30.3 min at 6 °C to 35.9 ± 13.0 min at 12 °C). Elimination of benzocaine from rainbow trout is relatively rapid and even more rapid at higher acclimatization temperatures based on calculated metabolic clearances and measured plasma concentrations, but was not evident by measurement of terminal plasma half-lifes.

  3. Hydration in soccer: a review

    Monteiro Cristiano Ralo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydration should be considered before, during and after the exercise. This review intends to approach the main points of hydration process in soccer. The replacement of fluids during exercise is proportional to some factors, such as: exercise intensity; climatic conditions; the athlete's acclimatization; the athlete's physical conditioning; physiologic individual characteristics and the player's biomechanics. Performance is improved when players ingest not only water but also carbohydrate. The rates that carbohydrate and water are absorbed by the organism are limited by the rates of gastric emptying and intestinal absorption. The composition of drinks offered to the players should be influenced by the relative importance of the need of supplying carbohydrates or water; it should be remembered that the depletion of carbohydrate can result in fatigue and decrease of performance, but it is not usually a life-threatening condition. The addition of carbohydrate in these drinks increases the concentrations of blood glucose, increases the use of external fuel through the increase of the glucose oxidation in the muscles and it spares muscle glycogen. So, the ingestion of carbohydrate before and during the exercise can delay the emergence of fatigue and increase the players' performance. Several tactics can be used to avoid dehydration, like hyperhydration before exercise and player's acclimatization. The ideal situation to restore the player's fluid losses is between the sessions of exercises. Since soccer is a sport with quite peculiar characteristics related to hydration, the players should be concerned and educated about the importance of fluid ingestion before, during and after the exercise.

  4. Mice do not habituate to metabolism cage housing--a three week study of male BALB/c mice.

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Darusman, Huda S; Henriksen, Trine; Weimann, Allan; Poulsen, Henrik E; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas S P

    2013-01-01

    The metabolism cage is a barren, non-enriched, environment, combining a number of recognized environmental stressors. We investigated the ability of male BALB/c mice to acclimatize to this form of housing. For three weeks markers of acute and oxidative stress, as well as clinical signs of abnormality were monitored. Forced swim tests were conducted to determine whether the animals experienced behavioral despair and the serotonergic integrity was tested using an 8-OH-DPAT challenge. The metabolism cage housed mice excreted approximately tenfold higher amounts of corticosterone metabolites in feces throughout the study when compared to controls. Urinary biomarkers confirmed that these mice suffered from elevated levels of oxidative stress, and increased creatinine excretions indicated increased muscle catabolism. Changes in the core body temperature (stress-induced hyperthermia) and the fur state of the mice also indicated impaired well-being in the metabolism cage housed mice. However, monitoring body weight and feed intake was found misleading in assessing the wellbeing of mice over a longer time course, and the forced swim test was found poorly suited for studying chronic stress in mice in the present setup. In conclusion, the mice were found not to acclimatize to the metabolism cages whereby concern for animal welfare would dictate that mice should be housed in this way for as short periods as possible. The elevated degree of HPA axis activity, oxidative stress, and increased overall metabolism warrant caution when interpreting data obtained from metabolism cage housed mice, as their condition cannot be considered representative of a normal physiology. PMID:23505511

  5. Use of gamma radiation cobalt 60 for disinfestation of Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1972) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) in Cymbopogon citratus stapf and Ocimun basillicum L. dehydrated

    Ramos, Amanda C.O.; Potenza, Marcos R.; Alves, Juliana N.; Justi Junior, Joao [Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Sanidade Vegetal]. E-mail: potenza@biologico.sp.gov.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Stored products such as grains, flours, dry fruits and spices are normally infested by pests as beetles (Lasioderma serricorne), mites and moths, depreciating the product visually and promoting its deterioration. To improve the quality of spices, medicinal plants, seasoning and others foodstuffs there is a need for adequate methods of handling, correct identification of the species, adequate collection, pre and post-treatment procedures and adequate storage. The objective of this work was to determine the dose of gamma radiation for the disinfestations of medicinal and aromatic plants dehydrated infested by L. serricone. The plants used in this study were Cymbopogon citratus stapf (lemon grass) and Ocimun basillicum L. (basil) in this dehydrated form. The experiment was carried out in the Arthropods Laboratory of the Instituto Biologico/SP, during the months of January and May 2006, and the irradiations were carried out in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN/CNEN/SP, using an experimental Cobalt 60 irradiator, model Gammacell 220. Each treatment consisted of 5 parcels containing 10g of dehydrated products infested with 20 last instar larvae of L. serricorne, conditioned in plastic 10x10 cm containers with small punctures in the cover to allow internal aeration. The substratum previously infested was kept for 1 day in a acclimatized room at 27 {+-} 2 deg C, after this period the substratum was submitted to increasing doses of gamma radiation: 0; 0,5; 0,75; 1,0; 1,25; 1,50; 1,75; 2,0; 2,25; 2,50 e 2,75 kGy. After irradiation, the samples were kept in a acclimatized room at 27 {+-} 2 deg C of temperature and relative humidity of 70 {+-} 5 % and after a 45 days period the number of adults insects emerged was evaluated. The lethal dose of gamma radiation for L. serrricorne last instar larvae on Cymbopogon citratus stapf and Ocimun basillicum L. was 1,75 kGy. (author)

  6. A regenerative route for Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae through in vitro germination and micropropagation

    Paulo Roberto Diniz da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia uniflora is a tree species native from Central and South America, largely employed in the popular medicine, in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries and also consumed in natura. Aiming to provide plant material with high sanity and genetic uniformity for the establishment of commercial plantations, we developed a protocol for seeds disinfestation, in vitro germination and in vitro propagation of this species through organogenesis. Fruits of E. uniflora were obtained from wild trees growing in the Pampa biome, Southern Brazil. Seeds were disinfested using ethanol 70% (10 min and NaOCl 1.25% (10 or 25 min. Shoot apexes and nodal segments of non-contaminated plantlets were cultivated in verification medium AS30 during 20 days, posteriorly in ½MS medium supplemented with sucrose, IBA and BAP during 45 days and acclimatized in greenhouse. Disinfesting seeds with ethanol 70% (10 min and NaOCl 1.25% (25 min allowed germination with significantly lower contamination (2.0% and production of healthy explants for the micropropagation. No difference concerning size and contamination was observed for the propagation using shoot apexes or nodal segments as explant. Acclimatized plants revealed normal phenotype and healthy appearance. This regenerative route can be applied for mass clonal propagation from seeds of cross-pollinated or self-pollinated selected trees aiming the establishment of commercial plantations of E. uniflora and other Myrtaceae species.

  7. 用高压氧治疗高原脱习服症的效果分析%Improving effects of hyperbaric oxygenation therapy on plateau soldiers deacclimatization symptoms

    哈振德

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy altitude acclimatization off disease clinical results. Methods:The clinical data recently went to defensive duties after the end of the plateau Lintong sanatorium treatment of 31 cases were convalescent soldiers plateau were retrospectively studied. We see this 31 cases were divided into groups and recuperation hyperbaric oxygen group, which hyperbaric oxygen group had 18 patients, rehabilitation and convalescent group had 13 patients. Convalescent hospital for rehabilitation of patients convalescent rehabilitation group, on this basis, the group of patients with hyperbaric oxygen hyperbaric oxygen therapy. When we patient admission, 15 days and 30 days after treatment were recorded clinical symptoms, and scored its improvement of clinical symptoms, the patient's score results were compared. Results:In the first 15 days after treatment, hyperbaric oxygen group of patients with symptoms of altitude acclimatization off scores were significantly lower in patients with rehabilitation and convalescent group, both of which had significant difference compared (P <0.05). Conclusion:On the basis of convalescence during rehabilitation treatment with hyperbaric oxygen plateau de acclimatization disease can significantly improve the symptoms of patients. However, pending further study the therapeutic effect of the method and mature treatment programs.%目的:探讨用高压氧治疗高原脱习服症的临床效果。方法:对近期结束高原防守任务后赴临潼疗养院进行疗养治疗的31例高原官兵的临床资料进行回顾性研究。我们将这31例患者分为高压氧组和康复疗养组,其中,高压氧组有18例患者,康复疗养组有13例患者。我院对康复疗养组的患者进行康复疗养,在此基础上,对高压氧组的患者进行高压氧治疗。我们在患者入院时、进行治疗后的15天及30天记录其临床症状,并对其临床症状的改善

  8. Respuesta fisiológica al déficit hídrico in vitro y análisis proteómico preliminar en callos de cuatro cultivares de Allium cepa L. (cebolla Physiologic response to hydric déficit in vitro and preliminary proteomic analysis in calli of four cultivars of Allium cepa L. (Onion

    Ysabel Díaz V

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo por objetivo estudiar la respuesta fisiológica y proteómica al déficit hídrico in vitro inducido por el polietilen-glicol (PEG-8000 en callos de cuatro cultivares de cebolla, 'Sivan' y 'Americana' (rojas, 'Ica' y 'Ram' (amarillas. En todos los cultivares sin aclimatamiento (Sin-PEG el porcentaje de sobrevivencia disminuyó conforme se incrementaron las concentraciones de PEG-8000; en contraste, en los callos con aclimatamiento (Con-PEG 10% p/v incrementó el porcentaje de sobrevivencia en 'Ica' y 'Sivan' y disminuyó en 'Americana' y 'Ram', en las más bajas concentraciones de PEG-8000. Los cultivares 'Ica' y 'Americana' presentaron su máximo porcentaje de sobrevivencia en el mayor tratamiento con PEG-8000 (40%, 'Sivan' incrementó a 47% y 'Ram' disminuyó a 22,8% de sobrevivencia. El valor de DHLs, en los callos con-PEG se incrementó significativamente en 'Ica' (11,38% de PEG-8000 p/v y 'Sivan' (10,5% de PEG-8000 p/v. La concentración de carbohidratos solubles totales disminuyó en 'Americana', en 'Sivan' e 'Ica' se incrementaron y en 'Ram' el incremento fue más del doble. La concentración de prolina se aumentó significativamente (p The objective of this investigation was study the physiologic and proteomic response to hydric deficit in vitro induced by PEG-8000, in calli of four cultivars of onion, 'Sivan' and 'Americana' (red, 'Ica' and 'Ram' (yellow. For all the cultivars without acclimatization treatment (without PEG the survival percentage diminished in relation to increasing of concentration of PEG, whereas with acclimatization (10% of PEG-8000 the survival percentage increased in 'Ica' and 'Sivan', and it diminished in 'Americana'and 'Ram' al lowest concentrations of PEG. 'Ica' and 'Americana' presented the highest percentage of survival at 40% of PEG, "Sivan' increased to 47%, and 'Ram' shown its lowest value (22.8%. The value of DHL50 in calli with-PEG, increased significatively in 'Ica' (11

  9. Hydration and thermoregulation during a half-ironman performed in tropical climate.

    Baillot, Michelle; Hue, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the core temperature (TC) and markers of hydration status in athletes performing a half Ironman triathlon race in hot and humid conditions (27.2 ± 0.5°C, relative humidity was 80 ± 2%). Before and immediately after the 2012 Guadeloupe half Ironman triathlon, body mass and urine osmolarity (mean ± SD) were measured in 19 well-trained male triathletes. TC was measured before and after the race, and at each transition during the event, using an ingestible pill telemetry system. Ambient temperature and heart rate (HR) were measured throughout the race. Mean ± SD performance time was 331 ± 36 minutes and HR was 147 ± 16 beats·min(-1). Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) averaged 25.4 ± 1.0°C and ocean temperature was 29.5°C. The average TC at the beginning of the race (TC1) was 37.1 ± 0.7°C; it was 37.8 ± 0.9°C after swimming (TC2), 37.8 ± 1.0°C after cycling (TC3), and (TC4) 38.4 ± 0.7°C after running. Body mass significantly declined during the race by 3.7 ± 1.9 kg (4.8 ± 2.4%; p athletes acclimatized to tropical climate, when performing a half Ironman triathlon in a warm and humid environment. Key pointsAd libitum fluid intake appears applicable to athletes acclimatized to tropical climate when performing a half Ironman triathlon in a warm and humid environment.The final core temperature average was 38.8 ± 0.7ºC after the event in these triathletes and the athletes showed no evidence of heat illness while competing in a warm and humid environment.Core temperature was dependent on both activity and anthropometry. PMID:25983573

  10. Protocol optimization and histological analysis of in vitro plant regeneration of RB92579 and RB93509 sugarcane cultivars Otimização do protocolo e análise histológica da regeneração in vitro de plantas dos cultivares de cana-de-açúcar RB92579 e RB93509

    Roberson Dibax

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to establish appropriate conditions for obtaining plant regeneration and acclimatization of the 'RB92579' and 'RB93509' sugarcane cultivars and to elucidate the shoots origin through histological analysis. For both cultivars, obtaining shoots showed better results with the culture of explants on a callus induction medium containing 2.0mg L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, followed by cultivation on a shoot induction medium containing 0.1mg L-1 kinetin and 0.2mg L-1 benzilaminopurine. The MS medium without growth regulators proved to be appropriate for elongation and rooting of shoots and the use of the composed substrate of vermiculite + MS salts was effective for acclimatization. Histological analysis revealed that the origin of the shoots in both cultivars occurred through indirect organogenesis.Os objetivos deste estudo foram estabelecer condições apropriadas para a obtenção de regeneração de plantas e aclimatização das cultivares 'RB92579' e 'RB93509' de cana-de-açúcar e elucidar a origem das brotações através da análise histológica. Em ambas as cultivares, as brotações obtidas apresentaram os melhores resultados com a cultura dos explantes em um meio de indução de calo contendo 2,0mg L-1 de ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético, seguido do cultivo em meio indutor de brotações, contendo 0,1mg L-1 de cinetina e 0,2mg L-1 benzilaminopurina. O meio MS sem reguladores de crescimento foi adequado para o alongamento e enraizamento das brotações e da utilização do substrato composto de vermiculite + sais do meio MS, foi eficaz para a aclimatização. A análise histológica revelou que a origem das brotações em ambas as cultivares ocorreu via organogênese indireta.

  11. Arginine-vasopressin marker copeptin is a sensitive plasma surrogate of hypoxic exposure

    Ostergaard L

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Louise Ostergaard,1,2,* Alain Rudiger,3,* Sven Wellmann,2,4,5 Elena Gammella,6 Beatrice Beck-Schimmer,2,3 Joachim Struck,7 Marco Maggiorini,2,8 Max Gassmann,1,2,9 1Institute of Veterinary Physiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zürich, 2Zürich Center for Integrative Human Physiology, 3Institute of Anesthesiology, 4Division of Neonatology, University Hospital Zürich, Zürich, 5Department of Neonatology, University Children's Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Department of Human Morphology and Biomedical Science, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; 7Research Department, B•R•A•H•M•S Biomarkers, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Hennigsdorf, Germany; 8Medical Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland; 9Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru *These authors contributed equally to this work and share first authorship Background: A reduced oxygen supply puts patients at risk of tissue hypoxia, organ damage, and even death. In response, several changes are activated that allow for at least partial adaptation, thereby increasing the chances of survival. We aimed to investigate whether the arginine vasopressin marker, copeptin, can be used as a marker of the degree of acclimatization/adaptation in rats exposed to hypoxia. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 10% oxygen for up to 48 hours. Arterial and right ventricular pressures were measured, and blood gas analysis was performed at set time points. Pulmonary changes were investigated by bronchoalveolar lavage, wet and dry weight measurements, and lung histology. Using a newly developed specific rat copeptin luminescence immunoassay, the regulation of vasopressin in response to hypoxia was studied, as was atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP by detecting mid-regional proANP. Results: With a decreasing oxygen supply, the rats rapidly became cyanotic and inactive. Despite continued exposure to 10% oxygen, all animals recuperated within 16 hours and

  12. Desenvolvimento de Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill., em diferentes substratos, após micropropagação in vitro - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.659 The development of Opuntia ficus-indica (L mill., in different substrates, after in vitro micropropagation - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.659

    Jacob Silva Souto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill, em diferentes substratos, utilizaram-se plantas micropropagadas nas seguintes etapas: indução, crescimento, multiplicação e enraizamento dos brotos. Após o enraizamento, as plântulas foram aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação, usando-se os seguintes substratos: solo não adubado, solo adubado de acordo com análise de solo, solo + pó de coco (1:1 e 2:1, solo + esterco de bovino (1:1 e 2:1, solo + bioadubo (1:1 e 2:1, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições. As plântulas possuíam entre 1 a 2 cm de comprimento e foram enterradas a dois terços no solo. Semanalmente, foram medidas as alturas das plantas e contado o número de brotações. Verificou-se diferença significativa ao nível de 5% de probabilidade pelo Teste t quando comparados os efeitos dos diferentes substratos. Conclui-se que deve-se utilizar o substrato à base de esterco bovino na aclimatização da palma forrageira.The study aimed to evaluate the development of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill, in different substrates, using micropropagated plants in the following stages: induction, growth, multiplication and bud rooting. After rooting, seedlings were acclimatized in greenhouse, by means of the following potting mixture: unfertilized soil, fertilized soil according to soil analysis, soil + coconut dust (1:1 and 2:1, soil + bovine manure (1:1 and 2:1, soil + biofertilizer (1:1 and 2:1, randomly applied with four replications. The seedlings had between 1 and 2 cm of length and were planted two thirds under the soil. There were weekly measures of the plants’ height and the number of shoots. Significant difference to the level of 5% of probability for test was verified when comparing the effects of different substrates. Results show that the potting mixture must be based on bovine manure in the acclimatization of palm grass.

  13. Associação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares e cultivares micropropagadas de antúrio Mycorrhizal fungi and micropropagated cultivars of Anthurium associations

    Giulio Cesare Stancato

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Para a formação de mudas, plântulas micropropagadas de antúrio (Anthurium andraeanum são submetidas a uma das etapas mais críticas na cultura de tecidos de plantas que é a da aclimatização. Uma forma de se estimular a autotrofia pode ser o estabelecimento da associação de fungos micorrízicos e as raízes das plântulas de antúrio. Assim, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da associação micorrízica em plântulas de antúrio, foi realizado um experimento, em casa de vegetação, empregando-se as cultivares IAC Astral, IAC Eidibel, IAC Juréia, IAC Luau, IAC Netuno e IAC Ômega e os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares Glomus intraradices, Glomus etunicatum e Acaulospora sp., em substrato orgânico, na fase de aclimatização das plântulas micropropagadas. Os resultados permitiram concluir que houve resposta das cultivares de antúrio à micorrização, em termos de produção de matéria seca, e que a eficiência simbiótica variou com a cultivar e o fungo micorrízico associado.One of the most important steps on micropropagated Anthurium plantlets is the acclimatization. Mycorrhization could be a process that helps the plantlets to change to the autotrophic state. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the mycorrhizal association on the growth of Anthurium cultivars. A experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions, using the cultivars IAC Astral, IAC Eidibel, IAC Juréia, IAC Luau, IAC Netuno and IAC Ômega and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus intraradices, Glomus etunicatum and Acaulospora sp., in organic substrate, at the plantlets acclimatization stage. The results showed that there was increase in shoot dry matter in mycorrhizal plantlets and that the symbiotic efficiency varied according to the cultivar and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus.

  14. Testicular pathology, gonadal and epididymal sperm reserves of Yankasa rams infected with experimental Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma evansi

    Yunusa A. Wada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the pathological effects of trypanosomosis on the testes, gonadal, and epididymal sperm reserves of Yankasa rams for 98 days. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 Yankasa rams, aged between 24 and 30 months and weighed between 22 and 25 kg, were acclimatized for a period of 2-months in a clean fly proof house and were adequately fed and given water ad-libitum. Of the 16 rams, 12 that were clinically fit for the experiment at the end of the acclimatization period were randomly divided into four groups: Groups I, II, III, and IV, each having 3 rams. Groups I and II were each challenged singly with experimental Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Federer strain and Trypanosoma evansi (Sokoto strain, respectively, while Group III was challenged with mixed T. brucei brucei and T. evansi parasites (50% of each species in the infective inoculum and Group IV was left as an uninfected control. Each infected ram received 2 mL of the infected blood containing 2×106 trypomastigotes via the jugular vein, while the control group received 2 mL each, normal saline. Results: All the infected rams developed clinical signs typical of trypanosomosis at varying pre-patent periods. The gross lesions observed in the infected rams in Group II were moderate and more severe in those of Groups I and III. Histological sections of the testes of infected rams (Groups I, II, and III showed moderate (T. evansi-infected group to severe (mixed and T. brucei brucei-infected groups testicular degenerations with reduction in number of spermatogenic cell layers, degenerated seminiferous tubules, congested interlobular spaces, loss of tissue architecture with significant (p<0.01 depletion, and loss of gonadal and epididymal sperm reserves in Groups I and III in comparison to Group II and the control Group IV. No observable clinical signs and histopathological lesions were found in those rams of the control Group IV. Conclusion: The study concluded

  15. Application gamma radiation of cobalt-60 in disinfestation of some types of rations for feeding small animals

    The pests as beetles, mites, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal rations, spices, dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting to deterioration of the products. The present research had as objective the use of the gamma radiation in the disinfestation of some types of rations used for feeding animals of small size. In the first experiment packing of free samples were used measuring 10 cm x 20 cm with capacity of 70 grams of substrate (ration) with 4 types of existent marks in the trade: (1), (2), e (3), and (4). Each treatment consisted of 10 repetitions, that were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy, to do the disinfestation of the samples. After the irradiation (disinfestation) of the all irradiated packing and more the control was conditioned in plastic boxes of 80 cm x 50 cm with cover, where the insects were liberated Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and Sitophilus oryzae, in a total of 400 for each box and maintained at room acclimatized with 27 ± 2 Deg C and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%. In the second experiment packing were used made with the materials of packing of the first experiment. Each packing was made of 10 cm x 15 cm, with capacity of 30 grams of substrate (ration). In each repetition was inoculated 10 insects of each species, in a total of 400 insects for experiment per box. The packing with substrate and insect, were stamped in commercial machine and irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy. The irradiated packing and the control were maintained at room acclimatized same the mentioned in the first experiment. The counting of the number of insects and holes in the packing were made after 60 days. Concluded that only the packing of the ration type number 4 was susceptive to attack of all species of insects. The dose of 0,5 kGy was sufficient to induce the

  16. Sinoatrial tissue of crucian carp heart has only negative contractile responses to autonomic agonists

    Hälinen Mervi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp (Carassius carassius cardiac activity varies according to the seasons. To clarify the role of autonomic nervous control in modulation of cardiac activity, responses of atrial contraction and heart rate (HR to carbacholine (CCh and isoprenaline (Iso were determined in fish acclimatized to winter (4°C, cold-acclimated, CA and summer (18°C, warm-acclimated, WA temperatures. Results Inhibitory action of CCh was much stronger on atrial contractility than HR. CCh reduced force of atrial contraction at an order of magnitude lower concentrations (EC50 2.75-3.5·10-8 M in comparison to its depressive effect on HR (EC50 1.23-2.02·10-7 M (P -8 M and 10-7 M CCh, respectively (P + current, IK,CCh, with an EC50 value of 3-4.5·10-7 M and inhibited Ca2+ current (ICa by 28 ± 8% and 51 ± 6% at 10-7 M and 10-6 M, respectively. These currents can explain the shortening of AP. Iso did not elicit any responses in crucian carp sinoatrial preparations nor did it have any effect on atrial ICa, probably due to the saturation of the β-adrenergic cascade in the basal state. Conclusion In the crucian carp, HR and force of atrial contraction show cardio-depressive responses to the cholinergic agonist, but do not have any responses to the β-adrenergic agonist. The scope of inhibitory regulation by CCh is increased by the high basal tone of the adenylate cyclase-cAMP cascade. Higher concentrations of CCh were required to induce IK,CCh and inhibit ICa than was needed for CCh's negative inotropic effect on atrial muscle suggesting that neither IK,CCh nor ICa alone can mediate CCh's actions but they might synergistically reduce AP duration and atrial force production. Autonomic responses were similar in CA winter fish and WA summer fish indicating that cardiac sensitivity to external modulation by the autonomic nervous system is not involved in seasonal acclimatization of the crucian carp heart to cold and anoxic

  17. Application gamma radiation of cobalt-60 in disinfestation of some types of rations for feeding small animals; Emprego da radiacao gama do cobalto-60 na desinfestacao de alguns tipos de racoes para alimentacao de animais de pequeno porte

    Arthur, Paula Bergamin

    2012-07-01

    The pests as beetles, mites, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal rations, spices, dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting to deterioration of the products. The present research had as objective the use of the gamma radiation in the disinfestation of some types of rations used for feeding animals of small size. In the first experiment packing of free samples were used measuring 10 cm x 20 cm with capacity of 70 grams of substrate (ration) with 4 types of existent marks in the trade: (1), (2), e (3), and (4). Each treatment consisted of 10 repetitions, that were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy, to do the disinfestation of the samples. After the irradiation (disinfestation) of the all irradiated packing and more the control was conditioned in plastic boxes of 80 cm x 50 cm with cover, where the insects were liberated Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and Sitophilus oryzae, in a total of 400 for each box and maintained at room acclimatized with 27 {+-} 2 Deg C and relative humidity of 70 {+-} 5%. In the second experiment packing were used made with the materials of packing of the first experiment. Each packing was made of 10 cm x 15 cm, with capacity of 30 grams of substrate (ration). In each repetition was inoculated 10 insects of each species, in a total of 400 insects for experiment per box. The packing with substrate and insect, were stamped in commercial machine and irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy. The irradiated packing and the control were maintained at room acclimatized same the mentioned in the first experiment. The counting of the number of insects and holes in the packing were made after 60 days. Concluded that only the packing of the ration type number 4 was susceptive to attack of all species of insects. The dose of 0,5 kGy was sufficient to induce the

  18. Protein evolution in two co-occurring types of Symbiodinium: an exploration into the genetic basis of thermal tolerance in Symbiodinium clade D

    Ladner Jason T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The symbiosis between reef-building corals and photosynthetic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium is an integral part of the coral reef ecosystem, as corals are dependent on Symbiodinium for the majority of their energy needs. However, this partnership is increasingly at risk due to changing climatic conditions. It is thought that functional diversity within Symbiodinium may allow some corals to rapidly adapt to different environments by changing the type of Symbiodinium with which they partner; however, very little is known about the molecular basis of the functional differences among symbiont groups. One group of Symbiodinium that is hypothesized to be important for the future of reefs is clade D, which, in general, seems to provide the coral holobiont (i.e., coral host and associated symbiont community with elevated thermal tolerance. Using high-throughput sequencing data from field-collected corals we assembled, de novo, draft transcriptomes for Symbiodinium clades C and D. We then explore the functional basis of thermal tolerance in clade D by comparing rates of coding sequence evolution among the four clades of Symbiodinium most commonly found in reef-building corals (A-D. Results We are able to highlight a number of genes and functional categories as candidates for involvement in the increased thermal tolerance of clade D. These include a fatty acid desaturase, molecular chaperones and proteins involved in photosynthesis and the thylakoid membrane. We also demonstrate that clades C and D co-occur within most of the sampled colonies of Acropora hyacinthus, suggesting widespread potential for this coral species to acclimatize to changing thermal conditions via ‘shuffling’ the proportions of these two clades from within their current symbiont communities. Conclusions Transcriptome-wide analysis confirms that the four main Symbiodinium clades found within corals exhibit extensive evolutionary divergence (18.5-27.3% avg

  19. Response of branchial Na(+)/K(+) ATPase to changes in ambient temperature in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and whiting (Merlangius merlangus).

    Michael, Katharina; Koschnick, Nils; Pörtner, Hans-O; Lucassen, Magnus

    2016-05-01

    The maintenance of ion and pH homeostasis despite changes in ambient temperature is crucial for ectothermic organisms. Thermal sensitivity of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase mRNA expression, protein expression and activity was determined in gills of North Sea cod (NC) and Northeastern Arctic cod (NEAC), acclimated for 6 weeks at 4 and 10 °C and compared to field samples of North Sea cod (sNC), acclimatized to early spring (4 °C) and summer (18 °C) conditions. The same analyses were conducted in gills of the confamiliar whiting, acclimated at 4 and 10 °C. Branchial Na(+)/K(+) ATPase capacities remained uncompensated at functional and protein levels in NC and NEAC at both acclimation temperatures. Na(+)/K(+) ATPase mRNA expression in NEAC acclimated at 10 °C was about twofold higher compared to NC, indicating some population-specific differentiation at this level. Lower Na(+)/K(+) ATPase capacities in gills of warm-acclimatized sNC at common assay temperatures indicate thermal compensation between seasonal extremes, and post-translational modifications contributed to this mitigation at high assay temperature. Together, cod compensates Na(+)/K(+) ATPase capacities on the warm edge of the thermal window and below 4 °C, respectively. In contrast, whiting Na(+)/K(+) ATPase capacities were cold compensated at 4 °C, supported by 1.5-fold higher mRNA and protein expression. Besides, capacities were lower in whiting compared to NC and NEAC at optimum temperature, which may be advantageous in terms of reduced maintenance cost, but at temperatures ≤4 °C, compensation may represent an energy trade-off to maintain homeostasis. The species-specific response of gadid Na(+)/K(+) ATPase indicates certain threshold temperatures beyond which compensation of the pump is elicited, possibly related to the different biogeography of these species. PMID:26922791

  20. Testicular pathology, gonadal and epididymal sperm reserves of Yankasa rams infected with experimental Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma evansi

    Wada, Yunusa A.; Oniye, Sonnie J.; Rekwot, Peter I.; Okubanjo, Oluyinka O.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the pathological effects of trypanosomosis on the testes, gonadal, and epididymal sperm reserves of Yankasa rams for 98 days. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 Yankasa rams, aged between 24 and 30 months and weighed between 22 and 25 kg, were acclimatized for a period of 2-months in a clean fly proof house and were adequately fed and given water ad-libitum. Of the 16 rams, 12 that were clinically fit for the experiment at the end of the acclimatization period were randomly divided into four groups: Groups I, II, III, and IV, each having 3 rams. Groups I and II were each challenged singly with experimental Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Federer strain) and Trypanosoma evansi (Sokoto strain), respectively, while Group III was challenged with mixed T. brucei brucei and T. evansi parasites (50% of each species in the infective inoculum) and Group IV was left as an uninfected control. Each infected ram received 2 mL of the infected blood containing 2×106 trypomastigotes via the jugular vein, while the control group received 2 mL each, normal saline. Results: All the infected rams developed clinical signs typical of trypanosomosis at varying pre-patent periods. The gross lesions observed in the infected rams in Group II were moderate and more severe in those of Groups I and III. Histological sections of the testes of infected rams (Groups I, II, and III) showed moderate (T. evansi-infected group) to severe (mixed and T. brucei brucei-infected groups) testicular degenerations with reduction in number of spermatogenic cell layers, degenerated seminiferous tubules, congested interlobular spaces, loss of tissue architecture with significant (p<0.01) depletion, and loss of gonadal and epididymal sperm reserves in Groups I and III in comparison to Group II and the control Group IV. No observable clinical signs and histopathological lesions were found in those rams of the control Group IV. Conclusion: The study concluded that