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Sample records for accidents traffic

  1. Traffic Congestion and Accidents

    Schrage, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Obstructions caused by accidents can trigger or exacerbate traffic congestion. This paper derives the efficient traffic pattern for a rush hour with congestion and accidents and the corresponding road toll. Compared to the model without accidents, where the toll equals external costs imposed on drivers using the road at the same time, a new insight arises: An optimal toll also internalizes the expected increase in future congestion costs. Since accidents affect more drivers if traffic volumes...

  2. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Road Traffic Accidents in Kazakhstan

    Alma Aubakirova; Alibek Kossumov; Nurbek Igissinov

    2013-01-01

    Background: The article provides the analysis of death rates in road traffic accidents in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2010 and explores the use of sanitary aviation. Methods: Data of fatalities caused by road traffic accidents were collected and analysed. Descriptive and analytical methods of epidemiology and biomedical statistics were applied. Results: Totaly 27,003 people died as a result of road traffic accidents in this period. The death rate for the total population due to road traffic accid...

  4. Road Traffic Accidents in Kazakhstan

    Alma Aubakirova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The article provides the analysis of death rates in road traffic accidents in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2010 and explores the use of sanitary aviation.Methods: Data of fatalities caused by road traffic accidents were collected and analysed. Descriptive and analytical methods of epidemiology and biomedical statistics were applied.Results: Totaly 27,003 people died as a result of road traffic accidents in this period. The death rate for the total population due to road traffic accidents was 25.0±2.10/0000. The death rate for men was (38.3±3.20/0000, which was higher (P<0.05 than that for women (12.6±1.10/0000. High death rates in the entire male population were identified among men of 30-39 years old, whereas the highest rates for women were attributed to the groups of 50-59 years old and 70-79 years old. In time dynamics, death rates tended to decrease: the total population (Тdec=−2.4%, men (Тdec=−2.3% and women (Тdec=−1.4%. When researching territorial relevance, the rates were established as low (to 18.30/0000, average (between18.3 and24.00/0000 and high (from 24.00/0000 and above. Thus, the regions with high rates included Akmola region (24.30/0000, Mangistau region (25.90/0000, Zhambyl region (27.30/0000, Almaty region (29.30/0000 and South Kazakhstan region (32.40/0000.Conclusion: The identified epidemiological characteristics of the population deaths rates from road traffic accidents should be used in integrated and targeted interventions to enhance prevention of injuries in accidents.

  5. Traffic accident with radioactive material

    A traffic accident with a package with radioactive contents of the category 'III-YELLOW' remaining undamaged, caused complete confusion among the responsible rescue services. All forces active until professional fire-brigades arrived showed a deficit of tactical radiation protection behaviour. Even a medical unit with an equipped emergency task force in situ and radiation protection equipment did not feel responsible. (DG)

  6. Traffic Accident Prediction Model Implementation in Traffic Safety Management

    Wen, Keyao

    2009-01-01

    As one of the highest fatalities causes, traffic accidents and collisions always requires a large amounteffort to be reduced or prevented from occur. Traffic safety management routines therefore always needefficient and effective implementation due to the variations of traffic, especially from trafficengineering point of view apart from driver education.Traffic Accident Prediction Model, considered as one of the handy tool of traffic safety management,has become of well followed with interest...

  7. Temporal Statistic of Traffic Accidents in Turkey

    Erdogan, S.; Yalcin, M.; Yilmaz, M.; Korkmaz Takim, A.

    2015-10-01

    Traffic accidents form clusters in terms of geographic space and over time which themselves exhibit distinct spatial and temporal patterns. There is an imperative need to understand how, where and when traffic accidents occur in order to develop appropriate accident reduction strategies. An improved understanding of the location, time and reasons for traffic accidents makes a significant contribution to preventing them. Traffic accident occurrences have been extensively studied from different spatial and temporal points of view using a variety of methodological approaches. In literature, less research has been dedicated to the temporal patterns of traffic accidents. In this paper, the numbers of traffic accidents are normalized according to the traffic volume and the distribution and fluctuation of these accidents is examined in terms of Islamic time intervals. The daily activities and worship of Muslims are arranged according to these time intervals that are spaced fairly throughout the day according to the position of the sun. The Islamic time intervals are never been used before to identify the critical hour for traffic accidents in the world. The results show that the sunrise is the critical time that acts as a threshold in the rate of traffic accidents throughout Turkey in Islamic time intervals.

  8. Congestion by accident? Traffic and accidents in England

    Pasidis, Ilias-Nikiforos

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is the estimation of the effect of accidents on traffic congestion and vice versa. In order to do this, I use ?big data? of highway traffic and accidents in England for the period 2007-2013. The data exhibit some remarkably stable cyclical pattern of highway traffic which is used as a research setting that enables the identification of the causal effect of accidents on traffic congestion and vice versa. The estimation draws on panel data methods that have previously bee...

  9. ACCOUNT OF ROAD CONDITIONS WHILE INVESTIGATING TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS

    D. D. Selioukov; I. I. Leonovich

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers problems on better traffic safety at government, authority, engineering and driver activity levels, account of road conditions while investigating traffic accidents. The paper also provides road defects mentioned in forensic transport examinations of traffic accidents.

  10. Post-Traumatic Stress After a Traffic Accident

    ... Stress Disorder | Post-traumatic Stress After a Traffic Accident Each year more than 6 million traffic accidents occur in the United States. If you've been in an accident, you might have experienced many different feelings at ...

  11. Psychiatric consequences of road traffic accidents.

    Mayou, R; Bryant, B.; Duthie, R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the psychiatric consequences of being a road traffic accident victim. DESIGN--Follow up study of road accident victims for up to one year. SETTING--Emergency department of the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford. SUBJECTS--188 consecutive road accident victims aged 18-70 with multiple injuries (motorcycle or car) or whiplash neck injury, who had not been unconscious for more than 15 minutes, and who lived in the catchment area. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Present state examinat...

  12. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...... of accidents in normally Danish winter seasons are remarkable alike the amount of salt used in praxis in the winter 2011/2012. • 2.7 ton NaCl/km when using brine spread with nozzles • 5 ton NaCl/km when using pre wetted salt. • 5.7 ton NaCl/km when using kombi spreaders The explanation is that spreading...... of brine with nozzles is precision spreading, while spreading of salt with rotation plate are very imprecise; you can measure 80% residual salt when using brine and only 40% when using pre wetted salt. Of course the result would be worse if dry (solid) salt were used on dry roads. A winter route in Denmark...

  13. Road traffic accidents: more than just whiplash?

    Counsell, Heather; Johnson, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Following a minor road traffic accident (RTA) a 55-year-old woman developed a new onset of whole body tremor and abnormal gait. This was in the context of significant previous depressive episodes and a traumatic background relating to RTAs. After extensive investigation, no organic causes were identified. The patient was subsequently referred to psychiatry and diagnosed with conversion disorder. Subsequently, various treatments including mirtazepine, venlafaxine, clonazepam, diazepam and lith...

  14. Designing of an emergency call system for traffic accidents

    Ziya Ekşi; Murat Çakıroğlu

    2013-01-01

    In our country, many people have been seriously injured or died in traffic accidents. Fatal accidents often occur because of not complying with traffic rules or carelessness. Except these driver mistakes, heavy injuries can result in deaths because of emergency aid teams failing to arrive to accident scene in time. In this study, an accident emergency call system is designed to help injured people's treatment as soon as possible by notifying emercengy team automatically in accidents. The desi...

  15. Modeling secondary accidents identified by traffic shock waves.

    Junhua, Wang; Boya, Liu; Lanfang, Zhang; Ragland, David R

    2016-02-01

    The high potential for occurrence and the negative consequences of secondary accidents make them an issue of great concern affecting freeway safety. Using accident records from a three-year period together with California interstate freeway loop data, a dynamic method for more accurate classification based on the traffic shock wave detecting method was used to identify secondary accidents. Spatio-temporal gaps between the primary and secondary accident were proven be fit via a mixture of Weibull and normal distribution. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate major factors contributing to secondary accident occurrence. Traffic shock wave speed and volume at the occurrence of a primary accident were explicitly considered in the model, as a secondary accident is defined as an accident that occurs within the spatio-temporal impact scope of the primary accident. Results show that the shock waves originating in the wake of a primary accident have a more significant impact on the likelihood of a secondary accident occurrence than the effects of traffic volume. Primary accidents with long durations can significantly increase the possibility of secondary accidents. Unsafe speed and weather are other factors contributing to secondary crash occurrence. It is strongly suggested that when police or rescue personnel arrive at the scene of an accident, they should not suddenly block, decrease, or unblock the traffic flow, but instead endeavor to control traffic in a smooth and controlled manner. Also it is important to reduce accident processing time to reduce the risk of secondary accident. PMID:26687540

  16. Researching Effects of Drivers Features on Traffic Accidents: Kocaeli Model

    UÇKUN, Ceylan Gazi; ÇELİKKOL, Ethem Soner; TEKİN, Vasfı Nadir; ÇELİKKOL, Şimal

    2013-01-01

    In addition to environmental conditions, weather conditions and density, situations related to drivers are more effective on traffic accidents, according to available data. Regarding occurrence of traffic accidents, it is observed that point of view of drivers towards traffic rules and drivers’ compliance with these rules is not parallel. It is important to research the reasons that cause this situation. A normal person’s mental state does not change without any reason at traffic. It is clear...

  17. RESEARCHING EFFECTS OF DRIVERS FEATURES ON TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS: KOCAELİ MODEL

    CEYLAN GAZI UÇKUN; ETHEM SONER ÇELİKKOL; VASFI NADIR TEKİN; ŞIMAL ÇELİKKOL

    2013-01-01

    In addition to environmental conditions, weather conditions and density, situations related to drivers are more effective on traffic accidents, according to available data.Regarding occurrence of traffic accidents, it is observed that point of view of drivers towards traffic rules and drivers’ compliance with these rules is not parallel. It is important to research the reasons that cause this situation. A normal person’s mental state does not change without any reason at traffic. It is clear ...

  18. Sociological study on the course of the traffic system and the traffic accidents

    Erjem, Yaşar

    2007-01-01

    The subject of this research is the operation of the traffic system and traffic accidents from a sociological perspective. In the research , the traffic system is taken as a sub-system of the social system. In this context the effects of the social, cultural and demographic factors on traffic accidents are examined . The data were collected from 681 people of whom 300 are drivers 300 pedestrians, 4 directors and 20 instructors of driving courses in Konya in Turkey. The research findings showe...

  19. [Epidemiological features and causes of railway traffic accidents].

    Zhou, D S

    1991-01-01

    This article reports on epidemiological features of railway traffic accidents and factors influencing traffic safety. An analysis of various kinds of railway traffic accidents over 30 years in Nanjing Railway Branch, Showed that railway traffic accidents have become a sort of modern social disease, and had particular epidemiological features. The peak of the epidemic curve appeared cyclically and had a close relation to social disturbances, Frequency of accident occurrence was the highest in the first season (period of spring transport) and the third season (period of high temperature) of the year thus most accidents happen in February and August. Most accidents occurred on Fridays and least on Mondays. Distribution of accidents had obvious "antenna" phenomenon in round graph which had a 24-hour cycle. Analysing the multiple factors influencing traffic safety, the results showed that the upper-limit-age of a train driver should not be more than 50 years old; The phenomenon "bathtub" between personage accident rate and age must be taken seriously. More attention should be paid to the psychological aspects when recruiting train drivers. In our country, it is urgent to set up standard of psychomovement function for choosing train locomotive drivers. Fatigue was one of the direct causes resulting in accident occurrences. No statistical correlation was found between biorhythm and accident occurrence. PMID:2036908

  20. Effects of Car Accidents on Three-Lane Traffic Flow

    Jianzhong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-lane traffic flow model is proposed to investigate the effect of car accidents on the traffic flow. The model is an extension of the full velocity difference (FVD model by taking into account the lane changing. The extended lane-changing rules are presented to model the lane-changing behaviour. The cases that the car accidents occupy the exterior or interior lane, the medium lane, and two lanes are studied by numerical simulations. The time-space diagrams and the current diagrams are presented, and the traffic jams are investigated. The results show that the car accident has a different effect on the traffic flow when it occupies different lanes. The car accidents have a more serious effect on the whole road when they occupy two lanes. The larger the density is, the greater the influence on the traffic flow becomes.

  1. Economic development, mobility and traffic accidents in Algeria.

    Bougueroua, M; Carnis, L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this contribution is to estimate the impact of road economic conditions and mobility on traffic accidents for the case of Algeria. Using the cointegration approach and vector error correction model (VECM), we will examine simultaneously short term and long-term impacts between the number of traffic accidents, fuel consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) per capital, over the period 1970-2013. The main results of the estimation show that the number of traffic accidents in Algeria is positively influenced by the GDP per capita in the short and long term. It implies that a higher economic development worsens the road safety situation. However, the new traffic rules adopted in 2009 have an impact on the forecast trend of traffic accidents, meaning efficient public policy could improve the situation. This result calls for a strong political commitment with effective countermeasures for avoiding the further deterioration of road safety record in Algeria. PMID:27070081

  2. IMPROVEMENT OF ROAD TRAFFIC QUALITY IN ACCIDENT CLUSTERS

    D. V. Kapsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic with its share from 2/3 to 3/4 of the total volume of transport service represents rather large and complicated social and production system with several subsystems that include roads, transport facilities, road traffic organization, law enforcement, personnel training, road traffic service and others. Road traffic quality can be quantitatively evaluated in accordance with values of losses pertaining to social and economic cost of discretionary (unenforced expenses for road traffic process. Road traffic contains accident, ecological, economic and social risks. Accidence is considered as the most important risk for participants involved in road traffic because it directly concerns their life, health and welfare. So accident response has rather high social significance and it is considered as a matter of national importance. In this connection role of road traffic organization has become very important and it is directed on improvement of its quality including security in the accident clusters.Methodological principles for improvement of road traffic quality have been developed in the paper. These principles presuppose the following: maximization of danger while selecting investigation object; minimization of total losses while evaluating quality and selecting solutions on improvement in road traffic safety; balanced accountability of accidental and ecological losses while selecting solutions on higher road traffic safety in ambiguous situations; minimization of total cost pertaining to object operation while selecting measures on improvement of road traffic safety; obligatory operative control evaluation of accidence on the basis of method for conflict situations while introducing measures of road traffic safety. Such approaches will contribute to higher quality of the decisions taken in the field of road traffic organization.

  3. Reaction time of drivers who caused road traffic accidents

    Đurić Predrag

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Human factor is the single cause of road traffic injuries in 57%, and together with other factors in more than 90% of all road traffic accidents. Human factor includes many aspects, where reaction time is very important. Material and methods. Thirty healthy drivers 28-40 y.o. with 50-500 km passed per week, having caused at least one road traffic accident in the last ten years were selected, provided they were not under the influence of alcohol and drugs during traffic accident. The same number of control were selected. Both cases and controls were tested to reaction time. Results. We found statistically significant difference between car drivers who caused car accidents and those who did not in both simple and choice reaction times. Discussion. Car drivers who caused road traffic accidents have longer reaction time (both simple and choice reaction time, but as the tasks were more complex, that difference was less visible. Since drivers involved in this study had introductory phase before measuring their reaction times, they faced with unpleasant sound when they made mistake, which forced them to be aware not to make a mistake in further tasks, so they showed longer reaction times. Conclusion. Measuring of reaction time seems to be important, and as we have showed they are different in drivers who have caused road traffic accidents and those who have do not.

  4. Traffic accidents involving fatigue driving and their extent of casualties.

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Zhang, Xun; Li, Yanyan

    2016-02-01

    The rapid progress of motorization has increased the number of traffic-related casualties. Although fatigue driving is a major cause of traffic accidents, the public remains not rather aware of its potential harmfulness. Fatigue driving has been termed as a "silent killer." Thus, a thorough study of traffic accidents and the risk factors associated with fatigue-related casualties is of utmost importance. In this study, we analyze traffic accident data for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. The study data were extracted from the traffic accident database of China's Public Security Department. A logistic regression model is used to assess the effect of driver characteristics, type of vehicles, road conditions, and environmental factors on fatigue-related traffic accident occurrence and severity. On the one hand, male drivers, trucks, driving during midnight to dawn, and morning rush hours are identified as risk factors of fatigue-related crashes but do not necessarily result in severe casualties. Driving at night without street-lights contributes to fatigue-related crashes and severe casualties. On the other hand, while factors such as less experienced drivers, unsafe vehicle status, slippery roads, driving at night with street-lights, and weekends do not have significant effect on fatigue-related crashes, yet accidents associated with these factors are likely to have severe casualties. The empirical results of the present study have important policy implications on the reduction of fatigue-related crashes as well as their severity. PMID:26625173

  5. Road Traffic Accidents The Number One Killer in Libya

    Ahmed Ali, Abdulmajid

    2007-01-01

    To The Editor: It is estimated that 1.26 million people worldwide died in 2000 from road traffic accidents, 90% of them in low and middle-income countries. In 2000, the road traffic injury mortality rate for the world was 20.8 per 100,000 populations (30.8 in males, 11.0 in females) [1].The Arab population constitutes 3.6% of the world’s population and it owns 1% of the world’s vehicles. Its human losses as a result of road traffic accidents (RTA) account for 4.8% of that of the world’s losse...

  6. Traffic Accident, System Model and Cluster Analysis in GIS

    Veronika Vlčková

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the many often frequented topics as normal journalism, so the professional public, is the problem of traffic accidents. This article illustrates the orientation of considerations to a less known context of accidents, with the help of constructive systems theory and its methods, cluster analysis and geoinformation engineering. Traffic accident is reframing the space-time, and therefore it can be to study with tools of technology of geographic information systems. The application of system approach enabling the formulation of the system model, grabbed by tools of geoinformation engineering and multicriterial and cluster analysis.

  7. Trauma in the elderly caused by traffic accident: integrative review

    Ana Maria Ribeiro dos Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To describe the scientific knowledge produced about trauma in the elderly caused by traffic accidents in healthcare area studies. METHODS Integrative review of studies from 2003 to 2013 searched in LILACS, SciELO, PubMed and CINHAL databases. We used combination of the descriptors injuries, wounds and accidents, in English, Portuguese and Spanish languages. RESULTS 32 studies were selected. In the thematic analysis, three categories emerged: epidemiological data from traffic accidents involving elderly; traffic accidents with elderly pedestrians; and trauma care in the elderly. We observed increased incidence of trauma in most countries and pedestrians represented a large part of the victims. Among these, the elderly are the most vulnerable group. CONCLUSION Studies showed that trauma care in the elderly need protocols and professionals with training in gerontology specialized in trauma care services.

  8. URBAN TRAFFIC ACCIDENT ANALYSIS BY USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Meltem SAPLIOĞLU

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, traffic accidents that cause more social and economic losses than that of natural disasters,have become a national problem in Turkey. To solve this problem and to reduce the casualties, road safety programs are tried to be developed. It is necessary to develop the most effective measures with low investment cost due to limited budgets allocated to such road safety programs. The most important program is to determine dangerous locations of traffic accidents and to improve these sections from the road safety view point. New Technologies are driving a cycle of continuous improvement that causes rapid changes in the traffic engineering and any engineering services within it. It is obvious that this developed services will be the potential for forward-thinking engineering studies to take a more influence role. In this study, Geographic Information System (GIS was used to identify the hazardous locations of traffic accidents in Isparta. Isparta city map was digitized by using Arcinfo 7.21. Traffic accident reports occurred between 1998-2002 were obtained from Directory of Isparta Traffic Region and had been used to form the database. Topology was set up by using Crash Diagrams and Geographic Position Reference Systems. Tables are formed according to the obtained results and interpreted.

  9. Countermeasures for traffic accidents due to road conditions in China

    PEI Yu-long; MA Ji

    2005-01-01

    Regarding the postulate of traffic infrastmcture and vehicles, much attention should be given to the effect of road conditions on accidents. With large numbers of traffic accidents on Shenda Freeway, Liaoning Province, Harbin City and others in P. R. China, parameters and the effect of accidents caused by horizontal alignment, vertical alignment, cross section and intersection are studied systematically The disciplinary analysis of these effects are presented in this paper. The viewpoint is acknowledged that high sub grade and steep slopes are against traffic safety, which is common and ignored in high-usage highways in China. Design parameters of the current design criteria and the corresponding countermeasures are suggested for safety on our highways.

  10. Young Drivers Perceptual Learning Styles Preferences and Traffic Accidents

    Čičević, Svetlana; Tubić, Vladan; Nešić, Milkica; Čubranić-Dobrodolac, Marjana

    2011-01-01

    Young drivers are over-represented in crash and fatality statistics. One way of dealing with this problem is to achieve primary prevention through driver education and training. Factors of traffic accidents related to gender, age, driving experience, and self-assessments of safety and their relationship to perceptual learning styles (LS) preferences have been analyzed in this study. The results show that auditory is the most prominent LS. Drivers in general, as well as drivers without traffic...

  11. Model based detection and reconstruction of road traffic accidents

    Hiemer, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes the detection and reconstruction of traffic accidents with event data recorders. The underlying idea is to describe the vehicle motion and dynamics up to the stability limit by means of linear and non-linear vehicle models. These models are used to categorize the driving behavior and to freeze the recorded data in a memory if an accident occurs. Based on these data, among others the vehicle trajectory is reconstructed with fuzzy data fusion. The side slip angle whi...

  12. Identification of traffic accident risk-prone areas under low-light conditions

    Ivan, K.; I. HAIDU; J. BENEDEK; S. M. Ciobanu

    2015-01-01

    Besides other non-behavioural factors, low-light conditions significantly influence the frequency of traffic accidents in an urban environment. This paper intends to identify the impact of low-light conditions on traffic accidents in the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The dependence degree between light and the number of traffic accidents was analysed using the Pearson correlation, and the relation between the spatial distribution of traffic accidents and the light conditio...

  13. Readmissions due to traffic accidents at a general hospital

    Luciana Paiva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: to verify the occurrence and the causes of hospital readmissions within a year after discharge from hospitalizations due to traffic accidents.Methods: victims of multiple traumas due to traffic accidents were included, who were admitted to an Intensive Care Unit. Sociodemographic data, accident circumstances, body regions affected and cause of readmission were collected from the patient histories.Results: among the 109 victims of traffic accidents, the majority were young and adult men. Most hospitalizations due to accidents involved motorcycle drivers (56.9%. The causes of the return to the hospital were: need to continue the surgical treatment (63.2%, surgical site infection (26.3% and fall related to the physical sequelae of the trauma (10.5%. The rehospitalization rate corresponded to 174/1,000 people/year.Conclusion: the hospital readmission rate in the study population is similar to the rates found in other studies. Victims of severe limb traumas need multiple surgical procedures, lengthier hospitalizations and extended rehabilitation.

  14. Traffic accidents and drivers suspected for drug influence.

    Christensen, L Q; Nielsen, L M; Nielsen, S L

    1990-04-01

    All records from the Danish Medicolegal Council concerning drivers suspected for drug influences were examined for the 5 year period 1981-1985. 461 records were included, 62 women and 399 men. In 250 cases drugs from more than one of ten groups had been taken thus making 786 combinations of drug/driving. The major drug group was benzodiazepines, accounting for 65% of all drug intake. Opioids also contributed substantially, found in 38% of the cases. A traffic accident had occurred in 180 (39%) of the records. Drivers who had been taking antidepressives were involved in an accident in 67%, significantly above the mean. For benzodiazepines, the corresponding percentage was 43%, while for opioids it was only 23%, significantly below the mean. This striking difference has been demonstrated in most of the studies concerning drugs in traffic. It may support the hypothesis that opioids do not necessarily make driving dangerous, as do antidepressives, barbiturates and especially benzodiazepines. PMID:2361649

  15. Development and application of traffic accident density estimation models using kernel density estimation

    Seiji Hashimoto; Syuji Yoshiki; Ryoko Saeki; Yasuhiro Mimura; Ryosuke Ando; Shutaro Nanba

    2016-01-01

    Traffic accident frequency has been decreasing in Japan in recent years. Nevertheless, many accidents still occur on residential roads. Area-wide traffic calming measures including Zone 30, which discourages traffic by setting a speed limit of 30 km/h in residential areas, have been implemented. However, no objective implementation method has been established. Development of a model for traffic accident density estimation explained by GIS data can enable the determination of dangerous areas o...

  16. HOMICIDE BY A ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT : A CASE REPORT

    Yandra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Deaths from road traffic accidents need a meticulous autopsy examination and a proper interpretation of injuries, as they can be a source of potential homicide among them. We report a case of homicide which was brought as a death in a ‘hit and run’ case to our mortuary. After our post mortem examination and issuing of our report, the investigative authorities were able to nab the actual culprit involved in the murder.

  17. Neurological Outcome in Road Traffic Accidents with Spinal Cord Injury

    Moslavac, Saša; DŽIDIĆ, Ivan; Kejla, Zvonko

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate neurological outcome in road traffic accidents (RTA) with spinal cord injury (SCI). The study was undertaken in National Spinal Unit of Special Medical Rehabilitation Hospital, in Vara`dinske Toplice, Croatia. Hospital records of 154 inpatient RTA SCI patients, in years 1991–2001 were reviewed. Six groups of patients were formed: car drivers, co-drivers, back seat passengers, motorcycle drivers, bicycle drivers and pedestrians. Neurological ...

  18. Injury risk prediction for traffic accidents in Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil

    Perone, Christian S.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the experimental application of Machine Learning techniques to build prediction models that can assess the injury risk associated with traffic accidents. This work uses an freely available data set of traffic accident records that took place in the city of Porto Alegre/RS (Brazil) during the year of 2013. This study also provides an analysis of the most important attributes of a traffic accident that could produce an outcome of injury to the people involved in the accident.

  19. Traffic accidents with motorcycles and their relationship to mortality.

    de Oliveira, Nelson Luiz Batista; de Sousa, Regina Marcia Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    This study characterizes traffic accidents involving motorcycles according to local conditions, data concerning the type of accident, date and time, and identifies among these variables those associated with the death of victims. This retrospective study uses data from traffic collision reports from 2004 and death records from the institute of forensic medicine. A total of 99.4% of the events occurred in urban areas, where illumination (87.4%), weather conditions (80.6%); and traffic signs (70.6%) were satisfactory. Collisions between motorcycles and cars or pickup trucks prevailed (55.5%), followed by motorcycle falls (18.0%). In relation to the type of collision, the highest percentage was observed in broadside collision category (35.2%). There were differences between the groups of fatalities and survivors in relation to the area and illumination in the collision's site, in addition to the types of collision and impact. The conclusion is that local conditions and types of collision and impact stand out among the multiple variables defining the severity of accidents involving motorcycles. PMID:21584389

  20. Traffic Accident Propagation Properties and Control Measures for Urban Links Based on Cellular Automata

    Xian-sheng Li; Xue-lian Zheng; Wei-wei Guo; Yuan-yuan Ren; Yu-ning Wang; Meng Yang

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of urban transport and the sharp increase in vehicle population, traffic accidents form one of the most important causes of urban traffic congestion other than the imbalance between traffic supply and demand. Traffic congestion causes severe problems, such as environment contamination and energy dissipation. Therefore, it would be useful to analyze the congestion propagation characteristics after traffic accidents. Numerical analysis and computer simulation were two...

  1. Road Traffic Accidents - The Number One Killer in Libya

    Abdulmajid Ahmed Ali

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To The Editor: It is estimated that 1.26 million people worldwide died in 2000 from road traffic accidents, 90% of them in low and middle-income countries. In 2000, the road traffic injury mortality rate for the world was 20.8 per 100,000 populations (30.8 in males, 11.0 in females [1].The Arab population constitutes 3.6% of the world’s population and it owns 1% of the world’s vehicles. Its human losses as a result of road traffic accidents (RTA account for 4.8% of that of the world’s losses [2]. It is estimated that the annual cost of road crashes is about 1% of the Gross National Product (GNP in developing countries, 1.5 in transitional countries and 2% in highly motorised countries [3].In Libya the situation is worse. It is a sad fact that road traffic accidents are the number one killer in Libya. As a matter of fact I consider it to be an ‘epidemic’ in all sectors of the Libyan society. There is not a day that goes by in Libya without us hearing about families, young men, women and children getting killed in horrific car accidents.It is alarming that young children are knocked down on a daily basis by speeding young drivers, whose understanding of driving skills may have been acquired from "playstation games"! (You can watch some of the shameful video clips sent by some of these drivers on this link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=doWEDjiHlVoI feel it is our responsibility as physicians observing the situation to raise awareness about the scale of the problem, possible causes, and how to tackle it. POSSIBLE CAUSES:• A driving licence in Libya is not issued on the basis of how much you know. Therefore the majority of drivers know little or nothing about the law.• Wearing seat belts is not compulsory in most parts of Libya. In some places, especially in the Eastern part of Libya, you could be penalised for wearing one. I was stopped many years ago by the traffic police in the Eastern part of Libya because I was wearing sunglasses

  2. Severe head injury caused by motorcycle traffic accident

    李钢

    1999-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristic and treatment of the severe head injury due to motorcycle accident.Methods Review and analysis of 27 motorcycle traffic trauma cases who were admitted to our hospital from Oct.1995 to Sep.1997.Results Young men were the main composition of these patients.Multiple injuries associated with brain ste or diffuse axonal injury were common,which were the main factors influencing the consciousness and prognosis of the patients.The wound was usually severely contaminated.Evacuation of hematomas,decompression by depleting skull flap,hypotheymia and artificial hibernation were conducted in this series.Among them,14 cases were cured ,3 cases were seriously disabled,10 cases died.Conclusions Motorcycle's weight is light so it easily loses its balance.The riders and the passengers are exposed and lack protection.Driving against traffic regulations is frquently seen.All these are the reasons why the motorcycle traffic accidents often take place. When the traffic accident happens,the patients' head generally is thrown a long distance and dashed against the barrier or the ground.The psture nd mechanism of injury were complicated and varied.The decelerated injury and rolling injury occurred frequently and they were the main reasons for brain stem or diffuse axonal injury.The patients who have surgical indication should be operated upon as soon as possible.Hibernation and low temoerature therapy are conducive to the protection of the brain function at the early stage of postinjury or postoperation.A careful epluchage is essential to reduce infection of the open injury.

  3. Daylight Saving Time Transitions and Road Traffic Accidents

    Tuuli Lahti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythm disruptions may have harmful impacts on health. Circadian rhythm disruptions caused by jet lag compromise the quality and amount of sleep and may lead to a variety of symptoms such as fatigue, headache, and loss of attention and alertness. Even a minor change in time schedule may cause considerable stress for the body. Transitions into and out of daylight saving time alter the social and environmental timing twice a year. According to earlier studies, this change in time-schedule leads to sleep disruption and fragmentation of the circadian rhythm. Since sleep deprivation decreases motivation, attention, and alertness, transitions into and out of daylight saving time may increase the amount of accidents during the following days after the transition. We studied the amount of road traffic accidents one week before and one week after transitions into and out of daylight saving time during years from 1981 to 2006. Our results demonstrated that transitions into and out of daylight saving time did not increase the number of traffic road accidents.

  4. Assessment of the responsibility between a road traffic accident and medical defects after the traffic accident injury of knee joint.

    Chen, Jiemin; Xia, Wentao

    2012-04-01

    A 48-year-old Chinese woman was hit by a car in a road traffic accident. Local county hospital considered that her right knee was injured, but didn't find any sign of fracture from X-ray imaging. Then the hospital gave diagnosis of soft tissue contusion and the patient started to exercise with burden 21 days after her right lower limb was fixed by plaster slab. Four months later, she had to go back to the county hospital for recheck due to persistent pain on her right knee. Then, the right tibia outer plateau fracture was found. The patient rejected the advice of open reduction and internal fixation of right tibia plateau fracture. Instead, she accepted the unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in a hospital affiliated to a medical college. The patient felt the knee pain alleviated after surgery However, the joint dysfunction was aggravated even more. The patient used the legal procedure for personal compensation. Both driver and the insurance company disputed that the final consequence of the injured knee was due to not only the traffic accident, but also poor medical practice involved. Therefore the court consigned us to make judicial judgment of expertise. After investigation, we found the earliest X-ray graph after the accident had shown the fracture of right tibia outer plateau and right knee valgum, with articular surface involvement, and the traffic accident was considered as the primary cause of sequelae. At the same time, the county hospital missed the diagnosis of fracture, and led to insufficient fixation of right lower limb, which was not good for rehabilitation from fracture and joint injury. This was the secondary cause of sequelae. Additionally, instead of the standard therapy, the affiliated hospital of medical college made the unicompartmental knee arthroplasty four months later, which also had a little defect. It was the minor reason for the result. PMID:22391004

  5. 32 CFR 634.30 - Use of traffic accident investigation report data.

    2010-07-01

    ... data will be used to inform and educate drivers and to conduct traffic engineering studies. (e) Army... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Use of traffic accident investigation report data... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic...

  6. Identification of traffic accident risk-prone areas under low lighting conditions

    K. Ivan; I. HAIDU; J. BENEDEK; Ciobanu, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Besides other non-behavioural factors, the low lighting conditions significantly influence the frequency of the traffic accidents in the urban environment. This paper intends to identify the impact of low lighting conditions on the traffic accidents in the city of Cluj-Napoca. The dependence degree between lighting and the number of traffic accidents was analyzed by the Pearson's correlation and the relation between the spatial distributio...

  7. Bilateral Carotid Artery Dissection after High Impact Road Traffic Accident

    Michael Kelly

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A 58 year old man was involved in a high impact road traffic incident and was admitted for observation. Asymptomatic for the first 24 hours, he collapsed with symptoms and signs consistent with a cerebrovascular accident. Computed tomography angiogram (CTA and Magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA demonstrated bilateral internal carotid artery dissections and a left middle cerebral artery infarct. It was not considered appropriate to attempt stenting or other revascularistation. The patient was treated with heparin prior to starting warfarin. He made a partial recovery and was discharged to a rehabilitation facility. This case is a reminder of carotid dissection as an uncommon but serious complication of high speed motor vehicle accident, which may be silent initially. Literature Review suggests risk stratification before relevant radiological screening at risk patients. Significant advances in CTA have made it the diagnostic tool of choice, but ultrasound is an important screening tool.

  8. Simulation of three lanes one-way freeway in low visibility weather by possible traffic accidents

    Pang, Ming-bao; Zheng, Sha-sha; Cai, Zhang-hui

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the traffic impact of low visibility weather on a freeway including the fraction of real vehicle rear-end accidents and road traffic capacity. Based on symmetric two-lane Nagel-Schreckenberg (STNS) model, a cellular automaton model of three-lane freeway mainline with the real occurrence of rear-end accidents in low visibility weather, which considers delayed reaction time and deceleration restriction, was established with access to real-time traffic information of intelligent transportation system (ITS). The characteristics of traffic flow in different visibility weather were discussed via the simulation experiments. The results indicate that incoming flow control (decreasing upstream traffic volume) and inputting variable speed limits (VSL) signal are effective in accident reducing and road actual traffic volume's enhancing. According to different visibility and traffic demand the appropriate control strategies should be adopted in order to not only decrease the probability of vehicle accidents but also avoid congestion.

  9. The willingness to pay of parties to traffic accidents for loss of productivity and consolation compensation.

    Jou, Rong-Chang; Chen, Tzu-Ying

    2015-12-01

    In this study, willingness to pay (WTP) for loss of productivity and consolation compensation by parties to traffic accidents is investigated using the Tobit model. In addition, WTP is compared to compensation determined by Taiwanese courts. The modelling results showed that variables such as education, average individual monthly income, traffic accident history, past experience of severe traffic accident injuries, the number of working days lost due to a traffic accident, past experience of accepting compensation for traffic accident-caused productivity loss and past experience of accepting consolation compensation caused by traffic accidents have a positive impact on WTP. In addition, average WTP for these two accident costs were obtained. We found that parties to traffic accidents were willing to pay more than 90% of the compensation determined by the court in the scenario of minor and moderate injuries. Parties were willing to pay approximately 80% of the compensation determined by the court for severe injuries, disability and fatality. Therefore, related agencies can use our study findings as the basis for determining the compensation that parties should pay for productivity losses caused by traffic accidents of different types. PMID:26363088

  10. Identification of traffic accident risk-prone areas under low-light conditions

    Ivan, K.; Haidu, I.; Benedek, J.; Ciobanu, S. M.

    2015-09-01

    Besides other non-behavioural factors, low-light conditions significantly influence the frequency of traffic accidents in an urban environment. This paper intends to identify the impact of low-light conditions on traffic accidents in the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The dependence degree between light and the number of traffic accidents was analysed using the Pearson correlation, and the relation between the spatial distribution of traffic accidents and the light conditions was determined by the frequency ratio model. The vulnerable areas within the city were identified based on the calculation of the injury rate for the 0.5 km2 areas uniformly distributed within the study area. The results show a strong linear correlation between the low-light conditions and the number of traffic accidents in terms of three seasonal variations and a high probability of traffic accident occurrence under the above-mentioned conditions at the city entrances/exits, which represent vulnerable areas within the study area. Knowing the linear dependence and the spatial relation between the low light and the number of traffic accidents, as well as the consequences induced by their occurrence, enabled us to identify the areas of high traffic accident risk in Cluj-Napoca.

  11. Investigating Prevalence of deaths from Traffic Accidents and Factors Associated with it in Yazd in 2009

    Gh Soltani

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: This study findings provide useful information for setting priorities in order to prevent the traffic accidents injuries. In addition, appropriate intervention programs are necessary in order to prevent traffic accidents and their complications, as well as to minimize injuries in accordance with other relevant organizations.

  12. Pattern Recognition and Classification of Fatal Traffic Accidents in Israel A Neural Network Approach

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    : (1) single-vehicle accidents of young drivers, (2) multiple-vehicle accidents between young drivers, (3) accidents involving motorcyclists or cyclists, (4) accidents where elderly pedestrians crossed in urban areas, and (5) accidents where children and teenagers cross major roads in small urban areas......This article provides a broad picture of fatal traffic accidents in Israel to answer an increasing need of addressing compelling problems, designing preventive measures, and targeting specific population groups with the objective of reducing the number of traffic fatalities. The analysis focuses on...... 1,793 fatal traffic accidents occurred during the period between 2003 and 2006 and applies Kohonen and feed-forward back-propagation neural networks with the objective of extracting from the data typical patterns and relevant factors. Kohonen neural networks reveal five compelling accident patterns...

  13. Traffic dynamics around weaving section influenced by accident: Cellular automata approach

    Kong, Lin-Peng; Li, Xin-Gang; Lam, William H. K.

    2015-07-01

    The weaving section, as a typical bottleneck, is one source of vehicle conflicts and an accident-prone area. Traffic accident will block lanes and the road capacity will be reduced. Several models have been established to study the dynamics around traffic bottlenecks. However, little attention has been paid to study the complex traffic dynamics influenced by the combined effects of bottleneck and accident. This paper presents a cellular automaton model to characterize accident-induced traffic behavior around the weaving section. Some effective control measures are proposed and verified for traffic management under accident condition. The total flux as a function of inflow rates, the phase diagrams, the spatial-temporal diagrams, and the density and velocity profiles are presented to analyze the impact of accident. It was shown that the proposed control measures for weaving traffic can improve the capacity of weaving section under both normal and accident conditions; the accidents occurring on median lane in the weaving section are more inclined to cause traffic jam and reduce road capacity; the capacity of weaving section will be greatly reduced when the accident happens downstream the weaving section.

  14. Traffic accident injuries in a referral Orthopedic Hospital in North West of Iran during summer 2009

    Amir Mohammad Navali; Firoozeh Pouyandeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Road traffic injuries are a major public health problem, requiring huge efforts for effective and sustainable prevention. Because of the high occurrence of traffic accidents in Iran, basic data acquisition is highly needed to implement prevention plans. The present research is conducted as an epidemiological study of the traffic accident victims referred to a referral orthopedic center in North West of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during a 3 months period...

  15. Posttraumatic nightmares and psychopathology in children after road traffic accidents.

    Wittmann, Lutz; Zehnder, Daniel; Schredl, Michael; Jenni, Oskar G; Landolt, Markus A

    2010-04-01

    Posttraumatic nightmares are considered as a reexperiencing symptom of the DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis. Different types of posttraumatic nightmares, however, may differ in their relation to psychopathology. Thirty-two children were longitudinally assessed 10 days, 2 months, and 6 months after traffic accidents. Occurrence and characteristics of nightmares were examined and their relation to psychopathology assessed. Thirty-four percent of children reported posttraumatic nightmares during at least one assessment. Exact replicative nightmares at baseline assessment predicted PTSD symptoms 2 and 6 months postaccident, but not depressive symptoms. Exact replicative nightmares revealed the strongest cross-sectional association with trauma-specific psychopathology but not with depression. The authors conclude that posttraumatic nightmares--especially exact replicative ones--may be closely related to psychopathological mechanisms of posttraumatic stress in children. PMID:20419731

  16. Road traffic accidents in Libya: An undeclared War

    Ahmed Salamat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To The Editor: In his outstanding article regarding Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs in Libya [1], Dr Abdulmajid Ali has raised awareness and started a debate about this extremely important issue. Before responding to some points in Dr Ali’s article, I would like to tell a real story of a tragic accident that happened last week, which highlights several issues related to RTAs in Libya. A 55 year old driver left after Fajr prayer to the vegetable market to buy a few things for his daughter’s wedding lunch. While trying to avoid a big pothole in the middle of the road, he was hit by a truck without headlights coming from the opposite direction. The truck driver continued driving as if nothing had happened. None of the road users cared to help the victim but he was able to contact his son by mobile phone to come and help him out of the wreckage. His son took him to the main Trauma Hospital in Tripoli. The patient had no external injuries. He was admitted for observation only. A few hours later the patient died as a result of major internal haemorrhage. Further information revealed that the truck driver had no driving licence and the truck was not road worthy.This story is not unique However, it highlights the complex and intermingled issues that need to be addressed to have any real impact on this disastrous problem in Libya. The specific points I would like to add to Dr Ali’s article are:There is no doubt that RTAs are a major killer in Libya especially in the young age group. The annual reporting of road causalities is considered to be the yard stick to measure the effectiveness of any national traffic policy,; in the UK for example the target is to reduce fatalities from RTAs by 50% by 2010 [2]. It is a disgrace not to have accurate official statistics published at least annually of fatalities, injuries, disabilities and the economic consequences of this undeclared war in Libya. There is evidence to support that there could be a positive

  17. Risk Factors and Road Traffic Accidents in Tanzania: A Case Study of Kibaha District

    Komba, Deus Damian

    2007-01-01

    This thesis discusses the risk factors which are associated to the cause of road traffic accidents in Kibaha district in Tanzania; the study describes the composition of motor related injuries including non motorized casualties in Kibaha district. The thesis assesses different road safety measures taken by the local authorities to prevent accidents in Kibaha district.In identifying risk factor associated to the cause of road traffic accidents, four theoretical frameworks: System theory, risk ...

  18. Risk Factors and Road Traffic Accidents in Tanzania : A Case Study of Kibaha District

    Komba, Deus Damian

    2007-01-01

    This thesis discusses the risk factors which are associated to the cause of road traffic accidents in Kibaha district in Tanzania; the study describes the composition of motor related injuries including non motorized casualties in Kibaha district. The thesis assesses different road safety measures taken by the local authorities to prevent accidents in Kibaha district. In identifying risk factor associated to the cause of road traffic accidents, four theoretical frameworks: System theory, risk...

  19. Analysis of Intra-Urban Traffic Accidents Using Spatiotemporal Visualization Techniques

    Soltani Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accidents (RTAs rank in the top ten causes of the global burden of disease and injury, and Iran has one of the highest road traffic mortality rates in the world. This paper presents a spatiotemporal analysis of intra-urban traffic accidents data in metropolitan Shiraz, Iran during the period 2011-2012. It is tried to identify the accident prone zones and sensitive hours using Geographic Information Systems (GIS-based spatio-temporal visualization techniques. The analysis aimed at the identification of high-rate accident locations and safety deficient area using Kernel Estimation Density (KED method. The investigation indicates that the majority of occurrences of traffic accidents were on the main roads, which play a meta-region functional role and act as a linkage between main destinations with high trip generation rate. According to the temporal distribution of car crashes, the peak of traffic accidents incident is simultaneous with the traffic congestion peak hours on arterial roads. The accident-prone locations are mostly located in districts with higher speed and traffic volume, therefore, they should be considered as the priority investigation locations to safety promotion programs.

  20. Analysis of Traffic Accidents Using Hazard Index Method: Case of Denizli

    Cenk OZAN

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents that occur as a result of a combination of many factors are complex and difficult issue. Although many studies are carried out in order to reduce the number of traffic accidents in urban transportation networks, exactly prevention of traffic accidents which arise from human and environmental factors is impossible. Therefore, especially in the urban transportation networks, determining links which have an accident risk and taking required measures are very important. In this study, the hazard index has been used to determine links which have an accident risk. Transportation network which contains high traffic volume regions in Denizli has been selected as study area. In this network, data were collected to be used in the hazard index, hazard indexes were calculated for links and risk grading was conducted. Morning and evening peak hour speed and traffic volume surveys were carried out in order to be used in analyses. Results showed that hazard index method can be used in traffic accident risk analysis and it is determined that hazard index method can be used to form a basis for future studies about decreasing the number of traffic accidents.

  1. Traffic crash accidents in Tehran, Iran: Its relation with circadian rhythm of sleepiness

    Khosro Sadeghniiat-Haghighi; Zohreh Yazdi; Mohsen Moradinia; Omid Aminian; Alireza Esmaili

    2015-01-01

    Purpose:Road traffic accidents are one of main problems in Iran.Multiple factors cause traffic accidents and the most important one is sleepiness.This factor,however,is given less attention in our country.Road traffic accidents relevant to sleepiness are studied.Methods:In this cross-sectional study,all road traffic accidents relevant to sleepiness,which were reported by police,were studied in Tehran province in 2009.Results:The risk of road traffic accidents due to sleepiness was increased by more than sevenfold (odds ratio =7.33) in low alertness hours (0:00-6:00) compared to other time of day.The risk of road traffic accidents due to sleepiness was decreased by 0.15-fold (odds ratio-0.15) in hours with maximum of alertness (18:00-22:00) of circadian rhythm compared to other time of day.Conclusion:The occurrence of road traffic accidents due to sleepiness has significant statistical relations with driving during lowest point of alertness of circadian rhythm.

  2. Epidemiological study of trauma caused by traffic accidents on Hefei—Nanjing expressway

    王永征; 邵成颂; 等

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the epidemiological data of trauma caused by traffic accidents on Hefei-Nanjing expressway from the year of 1995 to 1996.Methods:The data provided by Anhui Provincial Traffic Police Bureau were analyzed and discussed. Rsults:Mortality rates in 1995 and in 1996 were respectively 0.19 and 0.12 er 10000vehicles.Traffic accidents occurred mostly in fine weather from 22:00 to 6:00.The cause of traffic acidents in the first place was the head-tail collision,then the collision with fixtures or overturning,Traffic accidents bringing about by drivers accounted for more than 70 percent of the cases.The reasons was weary driving,illegal parking and over-speed driving.The breakdown of vehicles and pedestrians on highway were also the cause of accidents.Conclusions:In order to reduce the incidence of traum caused by traffic accidents on expressway,the followings should be carried out as strengthening the policy or traffic administration on expressway,examining strictly vehicles annually,educating drivers to abide by traffic rules,propagandizing people's traffic safety consciousness and forbidding pedestrians to walk into expressways.

  3. Traffic accident and emission reduction through intermittent release measures for heavy fog weather

    Shi, Jing; Tan, Jin-Hua

    2015-09-01

    Heavy fog weather can increase traffic accidents and lead to freeway closures which result in delays. This paper aims at exploring traffic accident and emission characteristics in heavy fog, as well as freeway intermittent release measures for heavy fog weather. A driving simulator experiment is conducted for obtaining driving behaviors in heavy fog. By proposing a multi-cell cellular automaton (CA) model based on the experimental data, the role of intermittent release measures on the reduction of traffic accidents and CO emissions is studied. The results show that, affected by heavy fog, when cellular occupancy ρ safety and reduce emissions.

  4. Suitable time of treating maxillofacial trauma caused by traffic accident in general hospitals

    桑修文; 赵宏伟; 等

    1999-01-01

    Objective To explore sutitable time of treating maxillofacial trauma caused by traffic accident in general hospitals to decrease adverse effect caused by delayed therapy.Methods:In recent 10 years we have treated 154 cases of maxillofacial trauma by traffic accidents and their data were analyzed.Results:Early surgical therapy could be done in maxillofacial soft tissue trauma.The therapy of returning occlusion relation or temporary fixing was performed in bone fracture before porosis.Conclusions:For maxilloficial trauman and trauman of other parts caused by traffic accidents.early treatment should be done in order to decrease dysfunction and deformity caused by maxillofacial trauma.

  5. Aspects Concerning The Rules And The Investigation Of Traffic Accidents As Work Accidents

    Tarnu, Lucian Ioan

    2015-07-01

    When Romania joined the European Union, it was imposed that the Romanian legislation in the field of the security and health at work be in line with the European one. The concept of health as it is defined by the International Body of Health, refers to a good physical, mental and social condition. The improvement of the activity of preventing the traffic accidents as work accidents must have as basis the correct and accurate evaluation of risks of getting injured. The goal of the activity of prevention and protection is to ensure the best working conditions, the prevention of accidents and occupational diseases and the adjustment to the scientific and technological progress. In the road transport sector, as in any other sector, it is very important to pay attention to working conditions to ensure a workforce motivated and well qualified. Some features make it a more difficult sector risk management than other sectors. However, if one takes into account how it works in practice this sector and the characteristics of drivers and how they work routinely, risks, dangers and threats can be managed efficiently and with great success.

  6. Ethanol in Fatal Road Traffic Accidents: The Prevalence of Ethanol in Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in The Bahamas: The Need for a Controlled Study

    Carey, James

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There are no documented studies of the role of ethanol in fatal road traffic accidents in The Bahamas. This paper provides a retrospective analysis of the involvement of ethanol in road traffic fatalities for 2000-2002 in The Bahamas. In the three-year period covered by this study, 185 traffic fatalities were recorded, post-mortem blood samples from 139 decedents were analyzed for blood alcohol concentration (BAC. The involvement of ethanol in many of these fatalities was not conclusive because BAC at the time of the accident cannot be confidently extrapolated from post mortem BAC data. In an effort to understand the involvement of ethanol in road traffic accidents we propose that BAC of all participants in road traffic accidents involving injuries should be recorded. This proposal is based on, and supported by, the analyses of the available data. Analysis of the data highlights its deficiencies and that of the data collection system. The case for a systematic study is presented.

  7. A space-time multivariate Bayesian model to analyse road traffic accidents by severity

    Boulieri, A; Liverani, S; Hoogh, K. de; Blangiardo, M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper investigates the dependences between levels of severity of road traffic accidents, accounting at the same time for spatial and temporal correlations. The study analyses road traffic accidents data at ward level in England over the period 2005–2013. We include in our model multivariate spatially structured and unstructured effects to capture the dependences between severities, within a Bayesian hierarchical formulation. We also include a temporal component to capture the time effects...

  8. Road Traffic Accident Victims’ Experiences of Return to Normal Life: A Qualitative Study

    Pashaei Sabet, Fatemeh; Norouzi Tabrizi, Kian; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Saadat, Soheil; Abedi, Heidar Ali; Bastami, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background Road traffic accident (RTA) victims also suffer from different types of injuries and disabilities, which can affect their quality of life. They usually face with various physical, mental, and social problems. Most traffic accident victims had difficulty to return to normal life. Objectives This study aimed to understand the experiences of return to normal life in RTA victims. Patients and Methods This qualitative study with content analysis approach was conducted on 18 Iranian pati...

  9. Risk of low back pain in people admitted to hospital for traffic accidents and falls.

    Walsh, K; Cruddas, M.; Coggon, D.

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to assess the risk of back symptoms in people admitted to hospital because of traffic accidents and falls. DESIGN--The study was a cross sectional survey with information collected by postal questionnaire. Main outcome measures were associations between hospital admission for a traffic accident or fall and reported first onset of back symptoms at the same age and at later ages. SETTING--General practices in seven towns and one rural district. SUBJECTS--1172 men an...

  10. Traffic accidents on a single-lane road with multi-slowdown sections

    Li, Xingli; Kuang, Hua; Fan, Yanhong; Zhang, Guoxin

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, an extended cellular automaton model is proposed to simulate the complex characteristics of traffic flow and the probability of the occurrence of traffic accidents by considering the modified conditions for determining whether traffic accidents happen and the effect of multi-slowdown sections on a highway. The simulation results show that the multi-slowdown sections can lead to multiphase coexistences (i.e. free flow phase, congestion phase and saturation phase) in traffic system. The fundamental diagram shows that the number of slowdown section does not influence the mean velocity and the mean flow under the periodic boundary condition, but the existence of slowdown sections can effectively reduce the occurrence of traffic accident. In particular, it is found that the probability of car accidents to occur is the largest at the joint of the normal-speed section and slowdown section, and the underlying mechanism is analyzed. In addition, to design the appropriate limited speed and reduce the differences between the normal speed and limited speed will alleviate traffic congestion and reduce the occurrence of traffic accidents obviously.

  11. Automatic Accident Detection and Ambulance Rescue with Intelligent Traffic Light System

    S.IYYAPPAN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the road accidents in modern urban areas are increased to uncertain level. The loss of human life due to accident is to be avoided. Traffic congestion and tidal flow are major facts that cause delay to ambulance. To bar loss of human life due to accidents we introduce a scheme called ITLS (Intelligent Traffic Light system. The main theme behind this scheme is to provide a smooth flow for the emergency vehicles like ambulance to reach the hospitals in time and thus minimizing the delay caused by traffic congestion. The idea behind this scheme is to implement ITLS which would control mechanically the traffic lights in the path of the ambulance. The ambulance is controlled by the control unit which furnishes adequate route to the ambulance and also controls the traffic light according to the ambulance location and thus reaching the hospital safely. The controller identifies the location of the accident spot through the sensor systems in the vehicle which determined the accident and thus the controller walks through the ambulance to the spot. This scheme is fully automated, thus it finds the accident spot, controls the traffic lights, helping to reach the hospital in time.

  12. Method of Light Bulbs Analysis on Vehicles Damaged in Traffic Accidents

    Horvat, Rajko; Barišić-Jaman, Berislav; Mršić, Gordan; Špoljarić, Igor; Vrdoljak, Andro; Pehar, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    One of the measures to increase road traffic safety in Croatia is the introduction of obligatory use of daily lights on vehicles in road traffic during driving, regardless of the visibility and the time of day. The paper describes the new original technical and technological procedure of analysing automotive light bulbs in order to find the traces of glass particles of the broken glass balloon in the marginal cases of action of small inertia forces generated as result of a traffic accident. I...

  13. A Hybrid Algorithm of Traffic Accident Data Mining on Cause Analysis

    Jianfeng Xi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accident databases provide the basis for road traffic accident analysis, the data inside which usually has a radial, multidimensional, and multilayered structure. Traditional data mining algorithms such as association rules, when applied alone, often yield uncertain and unreliable results. An improved association rule algorithm based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO put forward by this paper can be used to analyze the correlation between accident attributes and causes. The new algorithm focuses on characteristics of the hyperstereo structure of road traffic accident data, and the association rules of accident causes can be calculated more accurately and in higher rates. A new concept of Association Entropy is also defined to help compare the importance between different accident attributes. T-test model and Delphi method were deployed to test and verify the accuracy of the improved algorithm, the result of which was a ten times faster speed for random traffic accident data sampling analyses on average. In the paper, the algorithms were tested on a sample database of more than twenty thousand items, each with 56 accident attributes. And the final result proves that the improved algorithm was accurate and stable.

  14. Appraisals and Cognitive Coping Styles Associated with Chronic Post-Traumatic Symptoms in Child Road Traffic Accident Survivors

    Stallard, Paul; Smith, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Background: Comparatively little is known about the cognitive appraisals and coping styles of child road traffic accident (RTA) survivors that are associated with chronic post-traumatic reactions. Methods: Seventy-five children and young people aged 7-18 who were involved in a road traffic accident and attended an accident and emergency department…

  15. Speed Spatial Distribution Models for Traffic Accident Section of Freeway Based on Computer Simulation

    Decai Li; Jiangwei Chu; Wenhui Zhang; Xiaojuan Wang; Guosheng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Simulation models for accident section on freeway are built in microscopic traffic flow simulation environment. In these models involving 2⁃lane, 3⁃lane and 4⁃lane freeway, one detector is set every 10 m to measure section running speed. According to the simulation results, speed spatial distribution curves for traffic accident section on freeway are drawn which help to determine dangerous sections on upstream of accident section. Furthermore, the speed spatial distribution models are obtained for every speed distribution curve. The results provide theoretical basis for determination on temporal and spatial influence ranges of traffic accident and offer reference to formulation of speed limit scheme and other management measures.

  16. The use of Grey System Theory in predicting the road traffic accident in Fars province in Iran

    Ali Mohammadi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents have become a more and more important factor that restrict the development of economy and threaten the safety of human beings. Considering the complexity and uncertainty of the influencing factors on traffic accidents, traffic accident forecasting can be regarded as a grey system with unknown and known information, so be analyzed by grey system theory. Grey models require only a limited amount of data to estimate the behavior of unknown systems. In this paper, first, the original predicted values of road traffic accidents are separately obtained by the GM (1,1 model, the Verhulst model and the DGM(2,1 model. The results of these models on predicting road traffic accident show that the forecasting accuracy of the GM(1,1 is higher than the Verhulst model and the DGM(2,1 model. Then, the GM(1,1 model is applied to predict road traffic accident in Fars province.

  17. Risk factors for traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis: a case-reference study.

    Na Ayuthya, R S; Böhning, D

    1997-12-01

    It was aimed to study injures from road traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis and identify patients' characteristics as well as to search for risk factors for traffic accidents leading to hospitalization. The study included 346 in-patient cases suffering injuries from road traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis. The patients were recruited during a period of 4 months of the year 1992 from five hospitals in various areas of Bangkok which were judged to be representative for Bangkok Metropolis. Using the method of case-reference, relative risk could be estimated for various exposure factors. Most of the patients drove a motorcycle, had their license for only a short period, and drove more than 5 hours a day. About one third of the patients were under the influence of alcohol. The traffic accident characteristics were that they occurred mainly at night time with the peak between 21.00 and 24.00 hours. About 90% of all traffic accidents occurred during the rainy season and most of them occurred near to road junctions. Reference data was available for some variables and the following risk group could be identified: RR (male-age 20-24) = 17.06 (8.8-33.9), RR (single-marital status) = 2.25 (1.7-3.1), RR (primary-education) = 6.2 (2.9-12.6), RR (unskilled labourer-occupation) = 3.91 (2.7-5.9), RR (salesperson-occupation) = 3.34 (2.2-5.0). PMID:9656420

  18. Correlates of road traffic accident in cases attending IIR hospital Kanpur

    Shibajee Debbarma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globally, road traffic accidents rank 8th among the leading causes of death. According to WHO data, deaths from road traffic injuries account for around 25% of all deaths from injury. Objective: To study the various correlates of road traffic accident in cases attending LLR Hospital, Kanpur. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among road traffic accident cases attending Emergency Ward of Lala Lajpat Rai Hospital, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh during the period of March-September, 2015. Data was recorded in a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS software version 16.0. Results: Out of 609 RTA cases, maximum number (54.19% were in 20-40 years age group. Most of the RTA victims were males (69.95% and majority were literate (90.97%. Maximum number (28.74% of RTA took place between 4.00 p.m-8.00 p.m. Maximum number (36.95% of RTA victims were two-wheeler drivers, followed by two-wheeler riders (26.60%. 16.60% of drivers of motorized vehicles had no driving license. 85.48% of motorized vehicle users were not using any protective gear (helmet, seat belt etc. at the time of accident. Conclusion: Young adults in the economically most productive age group were the commonest victims of RTA. There is need of creating awareness regarding traffic rules among general public and strict enforcement of traffic rules by the concerned authorities.

  19. Serious brain injury coexisting with multiple injuries caused by traffic accidents in 69 cases

    张浚; 张鹤飞; 等

    1999-01-01

    Objective To explore the speciality,diagnosis,cure principle of serious brain injury coexisting with nultiple injuries caused by traffic accidents.Methods To analyze the clinic data of 69 cases of serious rain injury combined by oter parts of injuries caused by traffic accidents received from January 1998 to April 1999.Results This type of injury took up 11.5 percent of brain injuries in the same term and 33.6 percent of serious brain injuries.The specialities of the injury are that most of them were pedestrians crashed by vehicles.Coesisting injuries including chest injury and limb fractures accounted for a large part.The brain injury usally presented profound disturbance of consciousness,being dangerous and complicated,and a high ISS value.After treatment 13 cases died,9 cases was heavily crippled,11 cases lightly crippled,and 36 cases recovered.The death was usually caused by brain injury.Conclusions Road traffic accidents increased substantially every year.Most of them are related with violating drive rules and regulations.It is important to decrease the road traffic accidents by strengthening propaganda on traffic safety and traffic management.The main principles for salvage should emphasize the importance of pre-hospital emergency rescue and the accurate diagnosis rate,especially the distinction between coma and shock.The priority should be put on those injuries threatening to life.

  20. Epidemiological analysis of traffic accident trauma in Gansu province in 1996

    张向东; 代荫梅

    1999-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiologic data of traffic trauma in Gansu province in 1996 and try to find effective ways to reduce the injury.Methods The data were gathered from the General Team o the Traffic Police of Gansu Province and analyzed together with other related data.Results Although the traffic accidents in Gansu province were reduced in last two years as a result of traffic safety education,the number of casuatlties has not been evidently reduced.The number of deaths caused by traffic accidents was 983 in 1996.The main causes of these deaths were the negligence of the drivers,carelessness of the pedestrians and the bike riders,the sudden breakdown of the machine parts of the vehicles,and non-licensed driving.Among the number of deaths 69 percent was caused by violation of traffic regulations by drivers.Most of the death accidents happened at straight roads and road-crosses.The percentage was 64% and 11%,respectively.The most of deaths,about 81%,took place in sunny days.The main reason was due to the careless and exceeding-speed-limit driving.The young and middle aged were about 77% of the dead,most likely because they are the dominant group in daily work and life.Conclusions To strengthen the propaganda of traffic regulations,improve driver's moral qualities and raise the management level are very important for reducing traffic accidents.Correct and timely first aid before being hospitalized can also greatly reduce the mortality.

  1. Investigation of Two-Wheeled Road Traffic Accidents using Explicit FE Techniques.

    McLundie, W. M.

    2007-01-01

    With the increase of road traffic accidents increasing due to motorised traffic in the developing world growing alongside the more traditional bicycles and light motorcycles there is good reason to re-examine the two-wheeler case. In addition, if you include the large congestion charge scheme now underway in London and similar projects being considered in other cities globally, there is an even stronger case. These schemes encourage commuters to get back onto two wheels but ...

  2. Simulation study of traffic car accidents in single-lane highway

    Bentaleb, Khalid; Lakouari, Noureddine; Marzoug, Rachid; Ez-Zahraouy, Hamid; Benyoussef, Abdelilah

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we numerically study the probability Pac of the occurrence of car accidents in the extended Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) model in the case of mixture of fast (Vmax1=5) and slow vehicles (Vmax2=1) by taking also to the risky overtaking of fast vehicles. In comparison with previous existing models, we find that accidents can occur in the free traffic phase and/or congested one depending on the overtaking rate of fast vehicles. The effect of evacuation of damaged vehicles from the road with probabilities Pevf and Pevs of fast and slow vehicles respectively on the traffic flow behavior is also computed.

  3. THE ANALYSIS OF AFFECT OF THE TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS ENDING DEATH TO THE LIFE EXPECTATIONS

    Derya KOC; Hakan TUZUN; Isil MARAL

    2006-01-01

    We make observations for year 1999, backward on the traffic accidents and deaths in the registrations and countries, based on the age and sex classifications by analyzing using life table techniques. In conclusion we observed that in tables that are prepared by excluded traffic accidents, effects seen in all ranges of sex and totally life losing from the age of zero. Life expectancy for year 1999 in Turkey, our observations pointed out the number 74.43 on the life table including all the deat...

  4. [Methodological aspects of measuring injuries from traffic accidents at the site of occurrence].

    Híjar-Medina, M C; López-López, M V; Flores-Aldana, M; Anaya, R

    1997-02-01

    Traffic accidents are a well-known public health problem worldwide. In Mexico research into risk factors for motor involving vehicles accidents and their consequences has recently been taken into account. The relevant literature does not normally describe the methodological aspects involved in the collection of primary data, since most studies have used secondary data the good quality and validity of which are assumed. The paper presented seeks to discuss and share with researchers in this field, some of the methodological aspects to be considered in the attempt to recreate the scene of the accident and obtain information approximating to reality. The measurements in situ of, such traffic accident variables as injury, use of seat belt, speed and alcohol intake are discussed. PMID:9430931

  5. Road Safety Barriers, the Need and Influence on Road Traffic Accidents

    Butāns, Ž.; Gross, K. A.; Gridnevs, A.; Karzubova, E.

    2015-11-01

    Constantly increasing intensity of road traffic and the allowed speed limits seem to impose stronger requirements on road infrastructure and use of road safety systems. One of the ways to improve road safety is the use of road restraint systems. Road safety barriers allow not only reducing the number of road traffic accidents, but also lowering the severity of accidents. The paper provides information on the technical requirements of road safety barriers. Various types of road safety barriers and their selection criteria for different types of road sections are discussed. The article views an example of a road traffic accident, which is also modelled by PC-Crash computer program. The given example reflects a road accident mechanism in case of a car-to-barrier collision, and provides information about the typical damage to the car and the barrier. The paper describes an impact of the road safety barrier type and its presence on the road traffic accident mechanism. Implementation and maintenance costs of different barrier types are viewed. The article presents a discussion on the necessity to use road safety barriers, as well as their optimal choice.

  6. The age-dependent incidence of injuries due to road traffic accidents in Odense, Denmark from 1980 to 1992

    Larsen, L B; Poulsen, T K; Johannsen, H G

    1995-01-01

    The study was based on data concerning persons treated at Odense University Hospital as a result of road traffic accidents in the period 1980-92. Incidence rates of road traffic accident injuries were calculated on the basis of the population in Odense municipality. The study group included perso...

  7. An epidemiologic survey of road traffic accidents in Iran: analysis of driver-related factors

    Moafian Ghasem

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Road traffic accident (RTA and its related injuries contribute to a significant portion of the burden of diseases in Iran. This paper explores the as-sociation between driver-related factors and RTA in the country. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran and all data regarding RTAs from March 20, 2010 to June 10, 2010 were obtained from the Traffic Police Department. We included 538 588 RTA records, which were classified to control for the main confounders: accident type, final cause of accident, time of accident and driver-related factors. Driver-related factors included sex, educational level, license type, type of injury, duration between accident and getting the driving license and driver’s error type. Results: A total of 538 588 drivers (91.83% male, sex ratio of almost 13:1 were involved in the RTAs. Among them 423 932 (78.71% were uninjured; 224 818 (41.74% had a diploma degree. Grade 2 driving license represented the highest proportion of all driving licenses (290 811, 54.00%. The greatest number of accidents took place at 12:00-13:59 (75 024, 13.93%. The proportion of drivers involved in RTAs decreased from 15.90% in the first year of getting a driving license to 3.13% after 10 years’ of driving experience. Ne-glect of regulations was the commonest cause of traffic crashes (345 589, 64.17%. Non-observance of priority and inattention to the front were the most frequent final causes of death (138 175, 25.66% and 129 352, 24.02%, respectively. We found significant association between type of acci-dent and sex, education, license type, time of accident, final cause of accident, driver’s error as well as duration between accident and getting the driving license (all P<0.001. Conclusion: Our results will improve the traffic law enforcement measures, which will change inappropriate be-havior of drivers and protect the least experienced road users. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Automobile

  8. Traffic accident injuries in a referral Orthopedic Hospital in North West of Iran during summer 2009

    Amir Mohammad Navali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic injuries are a major public health problem, requiring huge efforts for effective and sustainable prevention. Because of the high occurrence of traffic accidents in Iran, basic data acquisition is highly needed to implement prevention plans. The present research is conducted as an epidemiological study of the traffic accident victims referred to a referral orthopedic center in North West of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during a 3 months period from June to September 2009 in Tabriz, Iran. A total of 16681 patients were admitted to the emergency ward, and 3246 patients (19.5% were hospitalized during this period because of traffic related injuries. After randomization, 630 cases were selected to be enrolled in the study. The location of an accident, position of road users, type of crashed vehicle, cause of accident, type of injury, time interval from accident to hospitalization and treatment outcome were recorded. Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS software. Results: The mean age of the patients was 31 years (range, 6 months to 98 years and 77.0% of patients (468 cases were men. A total of 193 (36.6% patients sustained traffic accident in open roads and 335 (63.4% in urban corridors. In 67 (12.9% of accidents, there was only a single occupant in the vehicle. The time interval between the accident and admission was 6.6 ± 3.2 hours. Of the 608 cases, 45.7% were drivers, 30.3% passengers, and 24.0% pedestrians. Most cases of the car accident happened in urban areas, and the male victims were largely in the driver group. The most frequent type of injury was knee, leg and head trauma. Conclusion: The large number of traffic-related injuries admitted to our emergency ward that comprise mostly young adults should be considered as an alarming signal to policy makers and health providers in our province. Strict control on drivers’ behavior should be taken into account if increasing human

  9. Road Traffic Accident Victims’ Experiences of Return to Normal Life: A Qualitative Study

    Pashaei Sabet, Fatemeh; Norouzi Tabrizi, Kian; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Saadat, Soheil; Abedi, Heidar Ali; Bastami, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background Road traffic accident (RTA) victims also suffer from different types of injuries and disabilities, which can affect their quality of life. They usually face with various physical, mental, and social problems. Most traffic accident victims had difficulty to return to normal life. Objectives This study aimed to understand the experiences of return to normal life in RTA victims. Patients and Methods This qualitative study with content analysis approach was conducted on 18 Iranian patients with disability in the upper or lower limbs caused by traffic accidents, who had passed a time between 3 months till 2 years. A purposeful sampling method was applied until reaching data saturation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Afterwards, the gathered data were analyzed through conventional content analysis. Results By analyzing 498 primary codes, four main categories, including supportive needs, adaptation to the new situation, seeking information, and transition from functional limitation, were extracted from traffic accident victims’ experiences of reintegration to normal life. Conclusions The results of this study may help policy-makers to take steps toward health promotion and recovery of RTA victims. Considering the results of this study, it is a need for further research to investigate RTAs victims’ needs for reintegration to home and community. Access to training and supportive facilities like strong therapeutic, nursing and social support, and the possibility to participate in self-care activities is essential for reintegration to community in RTA victims. PMID:27275399

  10. EVALUATION OF TRAFFIC ACCIDENT CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED TO WEATHER CONDITIONS IN BOTUCATU, SP

    Sergio Augusto Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled growth of several cities has generated major problems regarding urban environment and mobility. Among several factors affecting mobility in Brazilian cities and towns traffic accidents are increasingly common concerns and climate condition might be a possible generator for such growth. In addition there is increasing pollution and possible changes in the environment generated by the large increase in the number of vehicles in circulation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between traffic accidents and weather conditions in Botucatu, SP, Brazil. It was used database with information obtained from the city´s responsible bodies for traffic accidents as well as from the meteorological station. These data were analyzed using univariate statistical procedures. Charts and tables were presented for a better understanding of the behavior of each variable. Later it was used linear correlation coefficient for understanding how climate characteristics of the city are associated to some information related to traffic accidents. It was observed that there were significant correlations between some of the variables.

  11. Road Traffic Accident Patterns: A Conceptual Grouping Approach to Evaluate Crash Clusters

    Nowakowska, Marzena

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the work is to highlight road traffic accident patterns in the context of interrelations between road characteristics and a traffic safety threat. The actual data concerning multi-vehicle accidents without pedestrians on non-urban roads in a chosen region of Poland was the subject of the research. The roadway and roadside data at the accident site have been combined with the crash data that define the roadway hazard, i.e. driver's behaviour, type and accident severity. The data were subject to multivariate segmentation by means of such conceptual grouping techniques as the K-means clustering algorithm and competitive artificial neural networks. The Ward's method was used as a supporting tool in establishing the final number of accident profiles. Six distinct accident patterns have been recognised, quantified and labelled, where the first, second and third one are typical of rural areas, the fourth and fifth - of built-up areas, and the last one - of intersections. The analysis indicates that apart from threat factors, the following road related features play an important role in road accident profiling tasks: area type and area development level, roadway surface condition, intersection indicator, shoulder type, and also to some extent: lighting conditions, shoulders' width, and horizontal curve radius.

  12. Analysis of 78 cases of prehospital death due to traffic accident injury

    胡孝菽; 洪勇; 等

    1999-01-01

    Objective The cause and time of prehospital death for the injured patients caused by traffic accidents were studied in order to improve traffic management and clinical treatment,and reduce mortality.Methods The characteristics of the injury,the rescue procedure,the status of the injury leading to death were analyzed based on the retrospective data of 78 cases died before admission.Results The main causes of prehospital death in the traffic accidents included:1.head injury,2.bleeding,3.chest and heart wound,4.spinal cord injury at upper cervix.Death happened immediately after injury was in 17 cases.Death happened from the accident site to our hospital was in 47 cases.Death happened within half an hour after reaching emergency room was in 14 cases.In all of the cases,the death on the transfer took up 62.5%.Conclusions Findings from analysis of the data will be presented on a wide range of traffic safety issues.These include enhancing education of traffic safety and administration of drivers and motor vehicles,establishing a perfect emergency medical service system and a well-trained team of first aid,and popularizing first aid knowledge to all people.

  13. Drug use and the severity of a traffic accident

    Smink, BE; Ruiter, B; Lusthof, KJ; de Gier, JJ; Uges, DRA; Egberts, ACG

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have showed that driving under the influence of alcohol and/or certain illicit or medicinal drugs increases the risk of a (severe) crash. Data with respect to the question whether this also leads to a more severe accident are sparse. This study examines the relationship between the u

  14. PATTERN OF HEAD INJURIES IN FATAL ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN INDORE REGION, M. P.

    Chaturvedi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accident is the leading cause of serious injuries with associated head trauma especially in youth and middle age persons. Head injury is the most common cause of mortality and major health problem all over the world The Incidence of RTAs was higher in males and in 3rd to 4th decade of life owing to increase risk exposure to males due to more outdoor activities. Incidence of deaths due to RTAs was maximum (45.67% in two wheeler riders followed by pedestrians in 33.33% cases. The present study was conducted on dead bodies, died of accidents involving two wheeler, four wheeler and bicycle. The rate of incidence is higher in India because of bad traffic patterns and possibly the lack of awareness about traffic rules and also lack of good hospital services to our victims of RTAs

  15. The effect of traffic light on accident probability in open and periodic boundaries system

    Mhirech, Abdelaziz; Alaoui-Ismaili, Assia

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we numerically study the dependence of car accident probability Pac, per site and per time step on cycle time T of traffic light, both in open and periodic boundaries system. In this study one traffic light is placed in the middle of the system. This work is based on Nagel and Schreckenberg (NaSch) model (Nagel and Schreckenberg (1992)) in parallel dynamics. The Pac dependence on T and the (α, β) phase diagrams are established. α and β are the injecting and extracting rates of cars in the traffic lane respectively. The increase of the cycle time light T causes an important decrease of the accident probability Pac both in the open and periodic cases.

  16. [Driving simulators in risk assessment of traffic accident among drivers with obstructive sleep apnea].

    Siedlecka, Jadwiga; Bortkiewicz, Alicja

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disorders in the form of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are still underdiagnosed and insufficiently treated in drivers. This is a very important problem, because chronic sleepiness during the day and episodes of sleep during driving a road vehicle are now regarded as one of the main causes of traffic accidents, including fatal ones, caused by professional drivers. For many years driver fatigue has been considered a major risk factor of traffic accidents, while obstructive sleep apnea has remained almost completely disregarded. In the late 1980s and early 1990s epidemiological data began to indicate sleepiness and sleep deficit as the cause of up to 20% of road accidents. Later studies conducted in many countries in different groups of drivers have confirmed that people with breathing problems during sleep are much more likely to cause accidents than healthy ones. These accidents often result from sleep disorders experienced by drivers while driving, during both long monotonous journeys and in heavy urban traffic. The application of treatment involving continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) reduces the rate of accidents among drivers. In the recent years, the studies of this problem has been expanded by the use of drive simulators that quite accurately simulate real driving conditions. This approach allows to assess the driver's reactions and behaviors in different situations on the road, including the most dangerous ones. By comparing the results from the simulator with those in real conditions it will be possible to see to what extent the risk of accident in simulated conditions correlates with the risk of accident in real life settings. PMID:22779329

  17. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT CASES AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN RURAL HARYANA

    Abhishek Singh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background- Accidents occur not only due to ignorance but also due to carelessness, thoughtlessness and over confidence. Human, vehicular and environmental factors play role before, during and after a Road Traffic Accidents (RTA. Road traffic injuries are partially predictable and hence preventable. Objectives- To study the pattern of road traffic accidents, socio demographic profile of road traffic injury victims seeking care at Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences And Research, Mullana and to study the antecedent factors influencing the road traffic accidents. Material and Methods-The present cross-sectional study was carried out at Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research (MMIMSR, Mullana (Ambala. All the victims who reported to MMIMSR emergency and various OPD clinics of the institute between September 2009 to February 2011 were included in the study. Various parameters like age and sex distribution, time of occurrence, protective gears worn, injuries sustained, receipt of First -Aid, alcohol consumption, category of road user, vehicles involved in RTA, types of RTA, road conditions, environmental conditions etc were studied and valid conclusions were drawn. Results- There was a marked male preponderance (88.77 % with maximum involvement of younger age groups. Most of the accidents had taken place in the evening hours (6 pm -12 midnight. The vulnerable road users like motorized two wheeler, LMV and pedestrians constituted 41.52%, 19.39% and 13.41% respectively. Only 158 of 545 two-wheeler users wore a helmet at the time of injury. 16.24% of drivers did not have a valid driving license. Not using indicator lights and not following speed limits were two most common factors responsible for these RTA.

  18. An epidemiologic survey of road traffic accidents in Iran:analysis of driver-related factors

    Ghasem Moafian; Mohammad Reza Aghabeigi; Seyed Taghi Heydari; Amin Hoseinzadeh; Kamran Bagheri Lankarani; Yaser Sarikhani

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic accident (RTA)and its related injuries contribute to a significant portion of the burden of diseases in Iran.This paper explores the association between driver-related factors and RTA in the country.Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran and all data regarding RTAs from March 20,2010 to June 10,2010 were obtained from the Traffic Police Department.We included 538 588 RTA records,which were classified to control for the main confounders:accident type,final cause of accident,time of accident and driver-related factors.Driver-related factors included sex,educational level,license type,type of injury,duration between accident and getting the driving license and driver's error type.Results:Atotal of 538 588 drivers (91.83% male,sex ratio of almost 13:1) were involved in the RTAs.Among them 423 932 (78.71%) were uninjured; 224 818 (41.74%) had a diploma degree.Grade 2 driving license represented the highest proportion of all driving licenses (290 811,54.00%).The greatest number of accidents took place at 12:00-13:59(75 024,13.93%).The proportion of drivers involved in RTAs decreased from 15.90% in the first year of getting a driving license to 3.13% after 10 years' of driving experience.Neglect of regulations was the commonest cause of traffic crashes (345 589,64.17%).Non-observance of priority and inattention to the front were the most frequent final causes of death (138 175,25.66% and 129 352,24.02%,respectively).We found significant association between type of accident and sex,education,license type,time of accident,final cause of accident,driver's error as well as duration between accident and getting the driving license (all P<0.001).Conclusion:Our results will improve the traffic law enforcement measures,which will change inappropriate behavior of drivers and protect the least experienced road users.

  19. Study on characteristics of fractures from road traffic accidents in 306 cases

    侯树勋; 章亚东; 吴闻文

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the characteristics of bone fractures from road traffic accidents and analyze their injury mechanisms so as to provide reference for the research and medical care of traffic trauma.   Methods: Three hundred and six patients with fractures from road traffic accidents were included into this study. A total of 507 fractures were identified and the injury mechanism, location distribution and frequency were analyzed.   Results: The most common location of fractures was the lower extremities, followed by the upper extremities, skull and maxillofacial region, and the rarest was the spine. A total of 56% of the patients suffered from multiple fractures. The fractures of the patella, femur and pelvis and the fractures of the olecranon, humerus and shoulder often happened simultaneously.   Conclusions: The injury mechanisms can be classified into four types: impact, incoordinate movement, stretch injury and crush and extrusion. The fractures from traffic accidents have the following characteristics: centrifugal distribution of the injuries, multiple fractures, force transmission and ipsilateral occurrence.

  20. Impact of traffic congestion on road accidents: a spatial analysis of the M25 motorway in England.

    Wang, Chao; Quddus, Mohammed A; Ison, Stephen G

    2009-07-01

    Traffic congestion and road accidents are two external costs of transport and the reduction of their impacts is often one of the primary objectives for transport policy makers. The relationship between traffic congestion and road accidents however is not apparent and less studied. It is speculated that there may be an inverse relationship between traffic congestion and road accidents, and as such this poses a potential dilemma for transport policy makers. This study aims to explore the impact of traffic congestion on the frequency of road accidents using a spatial analysis approach, while controlling for other relevant factors that may affect road accidents. The M25 London orbital motorway, divided into 70 segments, was chosen to conduct this study and relevant data on road accidents, traffic and road characteristics were collected. A robust technique has been developed to map M25 accidents onto its segments. Since existing studies have often used a proxy to measure the level of congestion, this study has employed a precise congestion measurement. A series of Poisson based non-spatial (such as Poisson-lognormal and Poisson-gamma) and spatial (Poisson-lognormal with conditional autoregressive priors) models have been used to account for the effects of both heterogeneity and spatial correlation. The results suggest that traffic congestion has little or no impact on the frequency of road accidents on the M25 motorway. All other relevant factors have provided results consistent with existing studies. PMID:19540969

  1. Combined Prediction Model of Death Toll for Road Traffic Accidents Based on Independent and Dependent Variables

    Feng Zhong-xiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to build a combined model which can meet the variation rule of death toll data for road traffic accidents and can reflect the influence of multiple factors on traffic accidents and improve prediction accuracy for accidents, the Verhulst model was built based on the number of death tolls for road traffic accidents in China from 2002 to 2011; and car ownership, population, GDP, highway freight volume, highway passenger transportation volume, and highway mileage were chosen as the factors to build the death toll multivariate linear regression model. Then the two models were combined to be a combined prediction model which has weight coefficient. Shapley value method was applied to calculate the weight coefficient by assessing contributions. Finally, the combined model was used to recalculate the number of death tolls from 2002 to 2011, and the combined model was compared with the Verhulst and multivariate linear regression models. The results showed that the new model could not only characterize the death toll data characteristics but also quantify the degree of influence to the death toll by each influencing factor and had high accuracy as well as strong practicability.

  2. Time analysis of fatal traffic accidents in Fars Province of Iran

    Heydari Seyed Taghi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To analyze the time factor in road traffic accidents (RTAs in Fars Province of Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in Fars Province, Iran from November 22, 2009 to November 21, 2011. Victims’ information consisted of age, sex, death toll involving dri-vers or passengers of cars, motorcycles and pedestrians, and site of injury etc. Accidents were analyzed in relation to hour of the day, season of the year, lighting condition in-cluding sunrise, sunset, daytime and nighttime. Results: A total of 3 642 deaths (78.3% were males, and the ratio of males to females was about 3.6:1 were studied regarding their autopsy records. There was a steady in-crease in fatal accidents occurring at midnight to 15:59. The risk of being involved in a fatal traffic accident was higher for those injured between 4:00 to 7:59 than at other times (OR=2.13, 95% CI 1.85-2.44. The greatest number of fatal RTAs took place in summer. Mortalities due to RTA during spring and summer were more pronounced at 20:00 to 23:59 and midnight to 3:59, whereas mortalities in fall and winter were more pronounced from 12:00 to 15:59. Conclusion: The high mortality rate of RTA is a major public health problem in Fars Province. Our results indicate that the time is an important factor which contributes to road traffic deaths. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Epidemiology; Mortality; Iran

  3. Traffic Analysis and Road Accidents: A Case Study of Hyderabad using GIS

    Globalization has impacted many developing countries across the world. India is one such country, which benefited the most. Increased, economic activity raised the consumption levels of the people across the country. This created scope for increase in travel and transportation. The increase in the vehicles since last 10 years has put lot of pressure on the existing roads and ultimately resulting in road accidents. It is estimated that since 2001 there is an increase of 202 percent of two wheeler and 286 percent of four wheeler vehicles with no road expansion. Motor vehicle crashes are a common cause of death, disability and demand for emergency medical care. Globally, more than 1 million people die each year from traffic crashes and about 20-50 million are injured or permanently disabled. There has been increasing trend in road accidents in Hyderabad over a few years. GIS helps in locating the accident hotspots and also in analyzing the trend of road accidents in Hyderabad

  4. Alcohol, psychoactive substances and non-fatal road traffic accidents - a case-control study

    Bogstrand Stig

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances is high in biological specimens from injured drivers, while the prevalence of these psychoactive substances in samples from drivers in normal traffic is low. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of alcohol and psychoactive substances in drivers admitted to hospital for treatment of injuries after road traffic accidents with that in drivers in normal traffic, and calculate risk estimates for the substances, and combinations of substances found in both groups. Methods Injured drivers were recruited in the hospital emergency department and drivers in normal conditions were taken from the hospital catchment area in roadside tests of moving traffic. Substances found in blood samples from injured drivers and oral fluid samples from drivers in moving traffic were compared using equivalent cut off concentrations, and risk estimates were calculated using logistic regression analyses. Results In 21.9% of the injured drivers, substances were found: most commonly alcohol (11.5% and stimulants eg. cocaine or amphetamines (9.4%. This compares to 3.2% of drivers in normal traffic where the most commonly found substances were z-hypnotics (0.9% and benzodiazepines (0.8%. The greatest increase in risk of being injured was for alcohol combined with any other substance (OR: 231.9, 95% CI: 33.3- 1615.4, p  Conclusion The prevalence of psychoactive substances was higher among injured drivers than drivers in normal moving traffic. The risk of accident is greatly increased among drivers who tested positive for alcohol, in particular, those who had also ingested one or more psychoactive substances. Various preventive measures should be considered to curb the prevalence of driving under the influence of psychoactive substances as these drivers constitute a significant risk for other road users as well as themselves.

  5. The Effects of the Daily Driven Distance and Age Factor on the Traffic Accidents

    Ş. KALYONCUOĞLU, Figen; TIĞDEMİR, Mesut

    2014-01-01

    Based on Turkish traffic survey data (n=5,520), driver accident rates per million kilometre-driver were compared according to the daily driven distances (DDD) for each age group as very old (65+, n=39), old (56-65, n=183), above middle-aged (36-55, n=1,875), middle-aged (26-35, n=2,204), and young (25-, n=1,219). When the accidents-per-km comparison was made in groups matched for daily exposure, there was no evidence of higher risk with increasing age. In all age groups, risk per km decreased...

  6. Elderly patients attended in emergency health services in Brazil: a study for victims of falls and traffic accidents

    Mariana Gonçalves de Freitas; Palmira de Fátima Bonolo; Edgar Nunes de Moraes; Carla Jorge Machado

    2015-01-01

    The article aims to describe the profile of elderly victims of falls and traffic accidents from the data of the Surveillance Survey of Violence and Accidents (VIVA). The VIVA Survey was conducted in the emergency health-services of the Unified Health System in the capitals of Brazil in 2011. The sample of elderly by type of accident was subjected to the two-step cluster procedure. Of the 2463 elderly persons in question, 79.8% suffered falls and 20.2% were the victims of traffic accidents. Th...

  7. Study on Brain Injury Biomechanics Based on the Real Pedestrian Traffic Accidents

    Feng, Chengjian; Yin, Zhiyong

    This paper aimed to research the dynamic response and injury mechanisms of head based on real pedestrian traffic accidents with video. The kinematics of head contact with the vehicle was reconstructed by using multi-body dynamics models. These calculated parameters such as head impact velocity and impact location and head orientation were applied to the THUMS-4 FE head model as initial conditions. The intracranial pressure and stress of brain were calculated from simulations of head contact with the vehicle. These results were consistent with that of others. It was proved that real traffic accidents combined with simulation analysis can be used to study head injury biomechanics. Increasing in the number of cases, a tolerance limit of brain injury will be put forward.

  8. One autopsy case of an elderly traffic accident victim with Tetralogy of Fallot

    Kubo, Shinichi; OGATA, Mamoru; Kitamura, Osamu; Nagasono, Ichiro

    1999-01-01

    The case of a61-year-old male traffic accident victem with Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is reported. The autopsy revealed massive hemorrhages in the subcutaneous tissue, muscle, and subarachnoidal space. Furthermore, multiple fractures of ribs, sternum and thoracic vertebrae were observed. Histopathological examination revealed changes characteristic of trauma, such as acute lung congestion, acute renal cortical necrosis, and embolization in the lungs and kidney. These autopsy and histological o...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY FOR TRAFFIC ACCIDENT FORECASTING AT VARIOUS TYPICAL URBAN AREAS

    D. Kapsky

    2014-01-01

    The paper provides investigation results pertaining to development of methodology for forecasting traffic accidents using a “conflict zone” method that considers potential danger for two typical urban areas, namely: signaled crossings and bumps that are made in the areas of zebra crossings and it also considers various types and kinds of conflicts. The investigations have made it possible to obtain various indices of threshold sensitivity in respect of  potential risks  and in relation to tra...

  10. Are men more resilient than women after a road traffic accident?

    Pires, Tânia Sofia Fernandes; Maia, Ângela

    2012-01-01

    Background: Men are involved on road traffic accidents (RTA) more frequently than women, but both genders can show psychological disorders. Our aim was to identify gender differences in psychological responses after a RTA. Methods: 101 victims of serious RTA (76 male) were evaluated 5 days, 4 and 12 months after RTA. They were evaluated on Peritraumatic Dissociation, Acute Stress Disorder, PTSD, neuroticism and global psychopathology. Findings: 13 women and 20 men reported symptoms fo...

  11. Socioeconomic Status and Incidence of Traffic Accidents in Metropolitan Tehran: A Population-based Study

    Mojtaba Sehat; Kourosh Holakouie Naieni; Mohsen Asadi-Lari; Abbas Rahimi Foroushani; Hossein Malek-Afzali

    2012-01-01

    Background: Population-based estimates of traffic accidents (TAs) are not readily available for developing countries. This study examined the contribution of socioeconomic status (SES) to the risk of TA among Iranian adults. Methods: A total of 64,200people aged ≥18years were identified from 2008 Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART) survey. 22,128 households were interviewed to estimate the overall annual incidence, severity and socioeconomic determinants of TAs ...

  12. Surgical correction of buried penis after traffic accident – a case report

    Masuda Hiroshi; Azuma Haruhito; Segawa Naoki; Iwamoto Yusaku; Inamoto Teruo; Takasaki Noboru; Katsuoka Yoji

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Buried penis, most commonly seen in children, is particularly debilitating in adults, resulting in inability to void while standing and it also affects vaginal penetration. We report a case of buried penis due to a traffic accident, which caused dislocation of the fractured pubic bone that shifted inside and pulled the penis by its suspensory ligament. Case presentation A 55-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a chief complaint of hidden penis while in the sitti...

  13. Cross-border traffic accidents in the EU - the potential impact of driverless cars

    Kadner Graziano, Thomas Michael

    2016-01-01

    Commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI committee, this study provides an analysis of the potential legal impact of the introduction of connected and autonomous vehicles on rules of private international law determining jurisdiction and applicable law in the EU Member States in the event of a cross-border traffic accident. Following a case-studies approach, it makes a number of recommendations to im...

  14. On human factor in road traffic accidents%谈道路交通事故中人的因素

    高玉英; 马淑清

    2012-01-01

    Combining the typical traffic accidents this and last years,the paper has the deep analysis of the influential human factors,including the drivers,the bicycle riders and the pedestrians,in the traffic accidents,illustrates the causality relationship between the various behaviors of men who are involved in traffic and the traffic accidents,so as to warn people to adhere to the traffic regulation and to cherish their lives.%结合今年及去年的典型交通事故案例,对交通事故中人(驾驶员、骑车人、行人)的影响因素进行了深入分析,剖析了交通参与人的种种行为与交通事故的因果关系,达到警示人们遵守交通法规、珍爱生命的效果。

  15. Epidemiologic features of lethal head injury caused by highway traffic accidents

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To study the epidemiologic features of highway traffic accidents by analyzing the clinical data of the patients died of head injury.Methods:The reatures of the cases' age,occupation,status of head injury and complications.and the rescue procedures were retrospectively analyzed based on the data of 214 patients died of head injury.Results:The main victime were adults(78%)and peasants(52.8%).And the ost common head injuries were severe cerebral contusion with intracranial hematomas(73.4%).The mean arrival time from the accident spots to hospitals was(2.2±1.9)h.And the mean interval time between the arrival and operation was(1.9±0.9)h.Primary and secondary brainstem damage were the main causes of early death.Yet pulmonary infection and multiple organs failure were the common reasons for late death.Conclusions:Enhancing the propaganda for traffic regulations,establishing perfect pre-hospital and in-hospital EMS(emergency medical service)system,catching the opportunity of operation,and preventing complications are essential to reduce the mortality of traffic accidents induced head trauma.

  16. The burden of road traffic accidents in a French Departement: the description of the injuries and recent changes.

    Chiron Mireille; Amoros Emmanuelle; Ndiaye Amina; Gadegbeku Blandine; Lapostolle Annabelle; Spira Alfred; Laumon Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Background: A significant reduction in road traffic accidents has been observed since prevention measures were introduced by the French public authorities in 2002. The goals of this study are to describe the burden of road traffic accidents in a French Departement, and to identify changes if any between the periods 1997-2001 and 2002-2006 on the basis of the disability adjusted life years (DALY). Methods: Years of lost life (YLL) and years lived with disabilit...

  17. Traffic accident in Cuiabá-MT: an analysis through the data mining technology.

    Galvão, Noemi Dreyer; de Fátima Marin, Heimar

    2010-01-01

    The traffic road accidents (ATT) are non-intentional events with an important magnitude worldwide, mainly in the urban centers. This article aims to analyzes data related to the victims of ATT recorded by the Justice Secretariat and Public Security (SEJUSP) in hospital morbidity and mortality incidence at the city of Cuiabá-MT during 2006, using data mining technology. An observational, retrospective and exploratory study of the secondary data bases was carried out. The three database selected were related using the probabilistic method, through the free software RecLink. One hundred and thirty-nine (139) real pairs of victims of ATT were obtained. In this related database the data mining technology was applied with the software WEKA using the Apriori algorithm. The result generated 10 best rules, six of them were considered according to the parameters established that indicated a useful and comprehensible knowledge to characterize the victims of accidents in Cuiabá. Finally, the findings of the associative rules showed peculiarities of the road traffic accident victims in Cuiabá and highlight the need of prevention measures in the collision accidents for males. PMID:20841739

  18. Injuries and absenteeism among motorcycle taxi drivers who are victims of traffic accidents.

    Barbosa, Kevan G N; Lucas-Neto, Alfredo; Gama, Bruno D; Lima-Neto, Jose C; Lucas, Rilva Suely C C; d'Ávila, Sérgio

    2014-08-01

    Facial injuries frequently occur in traffic accidents involving motorcycles. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of facial injuries among motorcycle drivers who perform motorcycle taxi service. The study design was cross-sectional. A total of 210 participants who served as motorcycle taxi drivers in a city in northeastern Brazil completed a survey concerning their experience of accidents involving facial injuries and consequent hospitalization and absenteeism from work. The motorcycle drivers included in the study were randomly selected from a list provided by the city. Out of the respondents, 165 (78.6%) who were involved in traffic accidents in the last 12 months, 15 (9.1%) reported facial injuries. The types of facial injury most frequently reported involved soft tissues (n = 8; 53.3%), followed by simple fracture (n = 4; 26.7%) and dentoalveolar fracture (n = 3; 20%). We found an association between facial injuries and absenteeism, as well as an association between the presence of facial injury and the need for hospitalization for a period of 2 days or more. Respondents reported that they had accidents, but due to the use of full face motorcycle helmet the number of facial injuries was low. For most of them, absenteeism was observed for a period of one month or more. PMID:25066167

  19. Relationship between speed and traffic accident and speed limit on freeway

    CHENG Guo-zhu; PEI Yu-long

    2008-01-01

    To develop an equation between discrete degree of speed and traffic accident on freeway in China and give reasonable suggestions of speed management, the relation model was established between speed standard deviation and accident rate per 100,000,000 vehicle kilometers by regression analysis. The model shows that the more discrete is the speed distribution, the higher is the accident rate, which provides theoretical gist for speed limit on freeway. It is suggested that speed limit should be set according to 85th percentile speed obtained by the relationship between 85th percentile speed and Rcc, (curvature change rate of single circular curve), anddifferent speed limits should be set for cars and trucks. Through analyzing spot speed data of eight freeways in China, regression models were established between 85th percentile speed and RCCs and 15th percentile speed and RCCs. Reasonable speed limit suggestion values are put forward through these models.

  20. Comprehensive Research on Speed and Traffic Accidents%车速与交通事故综合研究

    黎毅

    2012-01-01

    With increasing concerns of people for traffic safety issues, safety techniques and relevant researches on road traffic developed quickly. This paper analyzes influences of speed on traffic accident rate and severity of accidents and establishes correlativity between speed and traffic accident rate and severity of accidents. Research finds that the more the speed deviates, the higher the accident rate; and the more the speed changes before and after collision accidents, the severer the accidents. Therefore the speed remarkably influences traffic safety.%随着人们对交通安全问题日益关注,道路交通安全技术和相关研究也得以快速发展.分析车速对交通事故率及事故严重程度的影响,建立车速与交通事故率和事故严重程度2者之间的相关关系.研究发现,车速偏差越大,事故率越高;事故冲撞前后车速变化越大,事故越严重.由此可知,车速对交通安全有显著影响.

  1. Elderly patients attended in emergency health services in Brazil: a study for victims of falls and traffic accidents.

    de Freitas, Mariana Gonçalves; Bonolo, Palmira de Fátima; de Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Machado, Carla Jorge

    2015-03-01

    The article aims to describe the profile of elderly victims of falls and traffic accidents from the data of the Surveillance Survey of Violence and Accidents (VIVA). The VIVA Survey was conducted in the emergency health-services of the Unified Health System in the capitals of Brazil in 2011. The sample of elderly by type of accident was subjected to the two-step cluster procedure. Of the 2463 elderly persons in question, 79.8% suffered falls and 20.2% were the victims of traffic accidents. The 1812 elderly who fell were grouped together into 4 clusters: Cluster 1, in which all had disabilities; Cluster 2, all were non-white and falls took place in the home; Cluster 3, younger and active seniors; and Cluster 4, with a higher proportion of seniors 80 years old or above who were white. Among cases of traffic accidents, 446 seniors were grouped into two clusters: Cluster 1 of younger elderly, drivers or passengers; Cluster 2, with higher age seniors, mostly pedestrians. The main victims of falls were women with low schooling and unemployed; traffic accident victims were mostly younger and male. Complications were similar in victims of falls and traffic accidents. Clusters allow adoption of targeted measures of care, prevention and health promotion. PMID:25760111

  2. Elderly patients attended in emergency health services in Brazil: a study for victims of falls and traffic accidents

    Mariana Gonçalves de Freitas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to describe the profile of elderly victims of falls and traffic accidents from the data of the Surveillance Survey of Violence and Accidents (VIVA. The VIVA Survey was conducted in the emergency health-services of the Unified Health System in the capitals of Brazil in 2011. The sample of elderly by type of accident was subjected to the two-step cluster procedure. Of the 2463 elderly persons in question, 79.8% suffered falls and 20.2% were the victims of traffic accidents. The 1812 elderly who fell were grouped together into 4 clusters: Cluster 1, in which all had disabilities; Cluster 2, all were non-white and falls took place in the home; Cluster 3, younger and active seniors; and Cluster 4, with a higher proportion of seniors 80 years old or above who were white. Among cases of traffic accidents, 446 seniors were grouped into two clusters: Cluster 1 of younger elderly, drivers or passengers; Cluster 2, with higher age seniors, mostly pedestrians. The main victims of falls were women with low schooling and unemployed; traffic accident victims were mostly younger and male. Complications were similar in victims of falls and traffic accidents. Clusters allow adoption of targeted measures of care, prevention and health promotion.

  3. Mortality pattern according to autopsy findings among traffic accident victims in Yazd, Iran

    Yashar Moharamzad; Hamidreza Taghipour; Nader Hodjati Firoozabadi; Abolfazl Hodjati Firoozabadi; Mojtaba Hashemzadeh; Mehdi Mirjalili; Abed Namavari

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To describe mortality pattern and to deter-mine undiagnosed fatal injuries according to autopsy find-ings among road traffic accident victims in Yazd, Iran. Methods: In this retrospective study, 251 victims of road traffic accidents who were admitted to a tertiary trauma hospital over a two-year period (2006 and 2007) and received medical cares were included. Hospital records were reviewed to gather demographic characteristics, road user type, and medical data. Autopsy records were also reviewed to determine actual causes of death and possible undiagnosed injuries occurred in the initial assessment of the emergency unit or during hospitalization. Results: There were 202 males (80.5%) and 49 females (19.5%). The mean (±SD) age of fatalities was 34.1 (±21.5) years. Pedestrian-vehicle accidents were the most common cause of trauma (100 cases, 39.8%). The most common cause of death was central nervous system injury ( 146 cases, 58.1%). The other causes were skull base fractures (10%), internal bleeding (8%), lower limb hemorrhage (8%), skull vault fractures (4%), cervical spinal cord injury (3.6%), airway com-promise (3.2%), and multifactor cases (5.1%), respectively.Thirtysix fatal injuries in 30 victims (12%) mainly contributed to death according to autopsy, but were not diagnosed in initial assessments. The head (72.2%) and cervical spine (13.8%) regions were the two most common sites for undiagnosed injuries. Conclusion: Training courses for emergency unit medical staff with regard to interpreting radiological findings of head and neck and high clinical suspicion for cervical spine injuries are essential to improve the quality of early hospital care and reduce the mortality and morbidity of traffic accident patients.

  4. Time analysis of fatal traffic accidents in Fars Province of Iran

    Seyed Taghi Heydari; Amin Hoseinzadeh; Yaser Sarikhani; Arya Hedjazi; Mohammad Zarenezhad; Ghasem Moafian; Mohammad Reza Aghabeigi

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the time factor in road traffic accidents (RTAs) in Fars Province of Iran.Methods:This study was conducted in Fars Province,Iran from November 22,2009 to November 21,2011.Victims'information consisted of age,sex,death toll involving drivers or passengers of cars,motorcycles and pedestrians,and site of injury etc.Accidents were analyzed in relation to hour of the day,season of the year,lighting condition including sunrise,sunset,daytime and nighttime.Results:Atotal of 3 642 deaths (78.3% were males,and the ratio of males to females was about 3.6:1) were studied regarding their autopsy records.There was a steady increase in fatal accidents occurring at midnight to 15:59.The risk of being involved in a fatal traffic accident was higher for those injured between 4:00 to 7:59 than at other times (OR=2.13,95% CI 1.85-2.44).The greatest number of fatal RTAs took place in summer.Mortalities due to RTA during spring and summer were more pronounced at 20:00 to 23:59and midnight to 3:59,whereas mortalities in fall and winter were more pronounced from 12:00 to 15:59.Conclusion:The high mortality rate ofRTAis a major public health problem in Fars Province.Our results indicate that the time is an important factor which contributes to road traffic deaths.

  5. An Evaluation of the Role that Traffic Culture Plays in Reducing Consequences of Accidents and Promoting Social Security and Order

    Nasser Pourmoallem; Seyed Ehsan Jafari Nasab

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionAccidents and traffic security have become serious issues in our country, to the extent that most of the people and authorities are severely concerned about them. On the other hand, research shows that human factor has the most important role in the occurrence of accidents. According to the records, only %1 of all accidents in Iran are resulted from "vehicle malfunction" and “immunodeficiency of the roads”; while other events, directly or indirectly, are caused by human wrong oper...

  6. ESTIMATION OF THE COSTS OF TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN TURKEY: AN EVALUATION IN TERMS OF THE INSURANCE AND FINANCIAL SYSTEM

    Ozen, Ercan; Genc, Erhan; KAYA, Zubeyde

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to estimate the costs of traffic accidents in Turkey and to put forward conjectural magnitude of these costs within insurance and financial system. Another purpose is to predict the non-systemic costs which are difficult to be involved in records and that are caused by accidents. Different kinds of cost elements come out as a result of traffic accidents. In this study, great effort is spent to predict the cost elements such as material damage, medical care and labour l...

  7. Predictors of children's sleep onset and maintenance problems after road traffic accidents

    Lutz Wittmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep onset and maintenance problems are a frequent complaint after traumatic events in children. However, the association of traumatic experiences and disturbed sleep remains to be explained. Objective: To examine the incidence of sleep onset and maintenance problems in children after road traffic accidents and identify potential predictors of sleep onset and maintenance problems, including putative psychopathological mechanisms as well as stressors affecting the family system. Method: In 33 children treated for injuries after road traffic accidents, sleep and measures of psychopathology were assessed 10 days, 2 months, and 6 months after hospital admission. The predictive value of four clusters of predictor variables for children's sleep onset and maintenance problems was prospectively tested by multiple regression analyses. These clusters included socio-demographic, injury- and accident-related, and psychopathological variable clusters as well as factors reflecting stressors concerning mothers and family. Results: Children suffering from posttraumatic stress reported a prolonged subjective sleep latency. The severity of sleep onset and maintenance problems was predicted by female sex and the child's as well as mothers’ posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD severity. Conclusions: Sleep onset and maintenance problems in children after trauma appear to result from a complex interaction of multiple factors. Our findings support the transactional model of sleep-wake regulation that bears implications for the development of adequate intervention strategies.

  8. Characteristics of Patients Injured in Road Traffic Accidents According to the New Injury Severity Score

    Lee, Jung Soo; Kim, Yeo Hyung; Yun, Jae Sung; Jung, Sang Eun; Chae, Choong Sik

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients involved in road traffic accidents according to the New Injury Severity Score (NISS). Methods In this study, medical records of 1,048 patients admitted at three hospitals located in different regions between January and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Only patients who received inpatient treatments covered by automobile insurance during the period were included. Accidents were classified as pedestrian, driver, passenger, motorcycle, or bicycle; and the severity of injury was assessed by the NISS. Results The proportion of pedestrian traffic accident (TA) was the highest, followed by driver, passenger, motorcycle and bicycle TA. The mean NISS was significantly higher in pedestrian and motorcycle TAs and lower in passenger TA. Analysis of differences in mean hospital length of stay (HLS) according to NISS injury severity revealed 4.97±4.86 days in the minor injury group, 8.91±5.93 days in the moderate injury group, 15.46±11.16 days in the serious injury group, 24.73±17.03 days in the severe injury group, and 30.86±34.03 days in the critical injury group (prehabilitation are necessary to reduce disabilities in TA patients. PMID:27152279

  9. An epidemiological study on the road traffic accidents from hills of north India

    Narinder Mahajan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic injuries are increasingly being reported as an important cause of morbidity and disability worldwide. Various epidemiologic factors related to road traffic crash cases were examined to identify potential targets for future preventative strategies. This hospital-based descriptive study collected relevant information by use of a predesigned and pretested questionnaire given to total of 401 consecutive individuals that received nonfatal injuries from road traffic crashes who reported to the Indira Gandhi Medical College Hospital in Shimla, India between June 2005 to May 2006. The percentage of cases corresponding to preselected categories were compared using chi-square analyzes to determine statistical significance. A majority of the injured victims included in this study were between 20-49 years of age, with a male to female ratio of 5.3:1. The largest numbers of victims were employees and occupants of transport vehicles. Human error was the most reported cause of crash, and the most common mode of crash was skidding and/or rolling down. The highest proportion of crashes occurred on curved roads. The most at-risk population in Shimla, India for receiving nonfatal traffic-related injuries is males between 20 and 49 years of age who utilize transport vehicles. As the majority of nonfatal injuries occur in passengers of light transport vehicles (LMVs in accidents at road curves, road safety strategies should target these locations and the drivers of these vehicles in order to most effectively protect their occupants.

  10. Differences between attendance in emergency care of male and female victims of traffic accidents in Porto alegre, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

    Raquel Forgiarini Saldanha; Flavio Pechansky; Daniela Benzano; Carlos Alberto Sampaio Martins de Barros; Raquel Brandini De Boni

    2014-01-01

    Driving under the influence of alcohol/ drugs (DUI) is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents, and men and women have different consumption patterns. The scope of this paper is to analyze differences in alcohol and drug consumption, as well as on behavior associated with traffic accidents among men and women. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 609 sequential traffic accident victims attended in emergency care from Porto Alegre. Subjects gave a structured interview, were ...

  11. Trends of Mortality of Road Traffic Accidents in Fars Province, Southern Iran, 2004 - 2010.

    Jafar Hasanzadeh; Mehdi Moradinazar; Farid Najafi; Touraj Ahmadi-Jouybary

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the trends in mortality from road traffic accidents (RTA) in Fars Province, southern Iran. Methods The Age and sex-standardized mortality rate attributed to RTA from 2004 to 2010 in Fars Province was calculated using world standard population. We also used linear regression and chi-squared tests. Results Over the period of study (7 years), 12954 people died in RTA. The age- and sex-standardized mortality rate was 27 per 100,000. Whi...

  12. Traffic

    This chapter deals with passenger and freight traffic, public and private transportation, traffic related environmental impacts, future developments, traffic indicators, regional traffic planning, health costs due to road traffic related air pollution, noise pollution, measures and regulations for traffic control and fuels for traffic. In particular energy consumption, energy efficiency, pollutant emissions ( CO2, SO2, NOx, HC, CO, N2O, NH3 and particulates) and environmental effects of the different types of traffic and different types of fuels are compared and studied. Legal regulations and measures for an effective traffic control are discussed. (a.n.)

  13. A drug cost model for injuries due to road traffic accidents.

    Riewpaiboon A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to develop a drug cost model for injuries due to road traffic accidents for patients receiving treatment at a regional hospital in Thailand. Methods: The study was designed as a retrospective, descriptive analysis. The cases were all from road traffic accidents receiving treatment at a public regional hospital in the fiscal year 2004. Results: Three thousand seven hundred and twenty-three road accident patients were included in the study. The mean drug cost per case was USD18.20 (SD=73.49, median=2.36. The fitted drug cost model had an adjusted R2 of 0.449. The positive significant predictor variables of drug costs were prolonged length of stay, age over 30 years old, male, Universal Health Coverage Scheme, time of accident during 18:00-24:00 o’clock, and motorcycle comparing to bus. To forecast the drug budget for 2006, there were two approaches identified, the mean drug cost and the predicted average drug cost. The predicted average drug cost was calculated based on the forecasted values of statistically significant (p<0.05 predictor variables included in the fitted model; predicted total drug cost was USD44,334. Alternatively, based on the mean cost, predicted total drug cost in 2006 was USD63,408. This was 43% higher than the figure based on the predicted cost approach.Conclusions: The planned budget of drug cost based on the mean cost and predicted average cost were meaningfully different. The application of a predicted average cost model could result in a more accurate budget planning than that of a mean statistic approach.

  14. ACCIDENT PREDICTION METHODOLOGY USING CONFLICT ZONE METHOD FOR “TRANSIT TRANSPORT-PEDESTRIAN” CONFLICT SITUATION AND MODELS OF TRAFFIC FLOWS AT CONTROLLED INTERSECTION

    D. V. Kapsky; P. A. Pegin

    2015-01-01

    Accidents are considered as the most significant cost of road traffic. Therefore any measures for road traffic management should be evaluated according to a minimization  criterion of accident losses. In order to develop a method for evaluation of the accident losses it is necessary to prepare a methodology for cost estimate of road accidents of various severity with due account of their consequences and prediction (economic assessment) and severity level of their consequences (quantitative r...

  15. Sleep habits and road traffic accident risk for Iranian occupational drivers

    Mohammad Hossein Ebrahimi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the sleep quality and sleep disorders (prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea and sleepiness among occupational drivers in Iran and to determine which demographic factors and occupational habits are linked to road traffic accidents. Material and Methods: In this analytic cross-sectional study 556 occupational road drivers from Shahroud city (in the northeast of Iran participated, upon a prior verbal informed consent, during 2013–2014. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI standard questionnaire that scored on 7 point scale, the 8-item Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS questionnaire and the 8-question STOP-Bang questionnaire along with demographic information and occupational data were used. To explore the independent factors associated with odds of poor sleep quality and road accident, multiple logistic regression models were used. Results: Prevalence of previous road accidents, sleepiness while driving, and obstructive sleep apnea scored ≥ 3 in the study, and drivers accounted for 23.8%, 29%, and 24.8%, respectively. The global mean score of sleep quality and excessive sleepiness score were 5.2 and 4.8, respectively. The main factors related to the odds of poor sleep quality were snoring (odds ratio (OR = 2.34; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.15–4.77, smoking (OR = 2.12; 95% CI: 1.15–3.97, and driving times in a day (OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03–1.21. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.07–1.23 and suffering from apnea (OR = 4.89; 95% CI: 1.07–23.83 were the best predictors for odds (increased risk of road accidents. Conclusions: A considerable proportion of Iranian drivers had records of road accidents; poor sleep quality, sleepiness while driving, and sleep disorder breathing (obstructive sleep apnea – OSA. Snoring, smoking, driving time in a day, excessive sleepiness, and presumably apnea increase the odds of poor sleep quality and road traffic accident for Iranian

  16. Clinical analysis of 28 children suffering from intracranial hematoma and multiple injuries following traffic accidents

    李江山; 程成; 江勇豪

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the result of diagnosis and treatment of intracranial hematoma and multiple injuries caused by road traffic accidents. Methods: Twenty-eight patients, aged from 1 to 14 years, receiving craniotomy and other surgical treatments were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Among the 28 cases, 23 cured with the recovery rate of 82.3%, 2 had a sequel of moderate disability, and 3 died from severe brain injury, hemorrhagic shock, and other visceral complications. The clinical sympotoms and signs were severe and perplexing. The major characters included: severe head injury, usually combined by multiple injuries, and easy of access to missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis. Conclusions: The occurrence of infection is high after traffic accidents as a result of depression of humoral and cellular immunity, long-term bed rest, and fractures of limbs. Hence, on the basis of maintaining vital signs, the management of primary wound is essential to reduce infection and underlying death. In addition to the management of brain injury, concurrent injuries should also be highlighted so as to reach a good result for their patients.

  17. Economic Burden of Road Traffic Accidents; Report from a Single Center from South Eastern Iran

    Aliyeh Sargazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the economic burden of road traffic accidents (RTAs in patients admitted to a single center in south eastern Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Amir-Al-Momenin hospital of Zabol affiliated with Zabol University of Medical Sciences during a 12-month period from April 2012 to April 2013. All the RTAs patients who were admitted to our emergency department were included. The direct expenses of hospital care were recorded according to their medical charts and the accountant registration information. Data are presented according to different RTAs characteristics. Results: Overall 1155 patients were included in the current study with mean age of 36.7 ± 5.14 years among whom there were 673(58.3% men and 482 (41.7% women. The annual incidence of RTAs were calculated to be 288 per 100,000 population. The RTAs economic burden in our center was 589,448.49 USD which accounted for 10.4% of total hospital expenses during the study period. The money spend on RTAs in our center was 130 times more than gross national income per capita. Cost of each patient in road traffic was 15 times more than cost of an average patient of the hospital in other sections. Conclusion: With considerable high ratio of accidents in Zabol, proper intervention is needed for controlling and preventing RTAs in order to decrease its injuries, impact and the associated economic burden.

  18. Effects of heterogeneous traffic with speed limit zone on the car accidents

    Marzoug, R.; Lakouari, N.; Bentaleb, K.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-06-01

    Using the extended Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) model, we numerically study the impact of the heterogeneity of traffic with speed limit zone (SLZ) on the probability of occurrence of car accidents (Pac). SLZ in the heterogeneous traffic has an important effect, typically in the mixture velocities case. In the deterministic case, SLZ leads to the appearance of car accidents even in the low densities, in this region Pac increases with increasing of fraction of fast vehicles (Ff). In the nondeterministic case, SLZ decreases the effect of braking probability Pb in the low densities. Furthermore, the impact of multi-SLZ on the probability Pac is also studied. In contrast with the homogeneous case [X. Li, H. Kuang, Y. Fan and G. Zhang, Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 25 (2014) 1450036], it is found that in the low densities the probability Pac without SLZ (n = 0) is low than Pac with multi-SLZ (n > 0). However, the existence of multi-SLZ in the road decreases the risk of collision in the congestion phase.

  19. Surgical correction of buried penis after traffic accident – a case report

    Masuda Hiroshi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Buried penis, most commonly seen in children, is particularly debilitating in adults, resulting in inability to void while standing and it also affects vaginal penetration. We report a case of buried penis due to a traffic accident, which caused dislocation of the fractured pubic bone that shifted inside and pulled the penis by its suspensory ligament. Case presentation A 55-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a chief complaint of hidden penis while in the sitting position. He had suffered a pelvic fracture in a traffic accident four years previously, and his penis was covered with suprapubic fat when he was in a sitting position. He was unable to have sexual intercourse. We performed a penile lengthening procedure, including inverse V-Y-plasty of the dorsal skin of the penile root, suspensory desmotomy and fat removal, under general anesthesia. There was a good cosmetic result with satisfactory penile erection, which allowed successful sexual intercourse after surgery. Conculsion We performed penile elongation surgery with inverse V-Y-plasty of the dorsal skin of the penile root, suspensory desmotomy, and fat removal. Surgical treatment of buried penis achieves marked aesthetic and functional improvement, and benefits the majority of patients, resulting in satisfactory erection and successful sexual intercourse.

  20. A retrspective study of rescuing severe open craniocerebral injuries caused by traffic accidents

    陈长才; 宁可; 等

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the rescuing principles of severe open craniocerebral injuries caused by traffic accidents.Methods:A retrospective study was performed for 36 patients admitted to our hospital from January 1986 to December 1995,who suffered from severe open craniocerebral injuries in traffic accidents.Results:These 36 cases occupied 52.10% of all the severe open craniocerebral injuries during the same period.The clinical features included confusion of consciousness, extensive cerebral contusion and laceration,severe contamination of the wound,high incidence of intracranial hematoma and multiple system injuries.Nineteen patients.(63.34%)ecovered normal neurological function,7 were (23.33%)mild disabled,4(13.33%)severe disabled,2(5.56%) vegetative survival,and 4(11.11%)dead.Conclusions:The main principles of salvage should emphasize the importance of emergent prehospital rescue,and be transfered to a specialized hospital as soon as possible.Postoperative complications included severe brain edema,intracerebral infection,and pneumonia,Debriding thoroughly at early stage and treating complications effectively would lower the rate of mortality and disability.

  1. Risky driving behaviors for road traffic accident among drivers in Mekele city, Northern Ethiopia

    Hassen Abrahim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to its perception as a disease of development, road traffic accident and related injuries tend to be under recognized as a major health problem in developing countries. However, majority of the world's fatalities on the roads occur in low income and middle income countries. Since the main cause of road traffic accident is attributed to human risky behaviors, it is important to identify significant factors for risky behaviors of drivers. Methods A quantitative cross-sectional study with a sample size of 350 drivers was conducted in April 2011. The study was conducted among Taxi, Bajaj (three tire vehicles and private owned car drivers. After proportion to size allocation for Taxi (75, Baja (103 and private owned car (172 drivers, we used systematic random sampling method to identify illegible study subjects. Data was collected with face to face interview using a pretested questioner. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis was done using SPSS version 16. Results The mean age of the respondents was 28.7 (SD 9.9. Majority were 339 (96.9% males. Significant number of the study subjects 233 (66.6% had risky driving behaviors. More than a quarter 100 (28.6% had less knowledge about basic traffic signs. Majority of drivers 181 (51.7% had negative attitude towards risky driving behaviors. Significant percent of them 148 (42.3% had a habit of using mobile phone while driving vehicle and 28 (9.7% had experience of driving after drinking alcohol. All the Bajaj, 97(62.6% house car and 58(37.4% taxi unfasten their seat belt while driving. Majority 303 (86.6% followed the recommended speed limit of driving. About 66 (18.9% of them had experience of punishment or warning by traffic polices in the previous 1 year and 77 (22% ever had car accident while driving. Conclusions Drivers of secondary education and with high average monthly income were more likely to have risky driving behavior. Having supportive attitude towards risky

  2. Hybrid and electric low-noise cars cause an increase in traffic accidents involving vulnerable road users in urban areas.

    Brand, Stephan; Petri, Maximilian; Haas, Philipp; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Due to resource scarcity, the number of low-noise and electric cars is expected to increase rapidly. The frequent use of these cars will lead to a significant reduction of traffic related noise and pollution. On the other hand, due to the adaption and conditioning of vulnerable road users the number of traffic accidents involving pedestrians and bicyclists is postulated to increase as well. Children, older people with reduced eyesight and the blind are especially reliant on a combination of acoustic and visual warning signals with approaching or accelerating vehicles. This is even more evident in urban areas where the engine sound is the dominating sound up to 30 kph (kilometres per hour). Above this, tyre-road interaction is the main cause of traffic noise. With the missing typical engine sound a new sound design is necessary to prevent traffic accidents in urban areas. Drivers should not be able to switch the sound generator off. PMID:23083396

  3. Trauma score and evaluation in 341 cases of thoracic injuries due to traffic accidents

    石应康; 杨建; 等

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the prognosis value of a severity characteristics of trauma(ASCOT)for thoracic patents injured from traffic accidents.Methods:Three hundred and forty-one traffic thoracic victime out of 6009 cases from west China Trauma Database were assessed with RTS.AIS-ISS and ASCOT,and the prognostic survival and deaths were compared with the actual outcome.Results:It showed that the ASCOT was satisfactory in the prognosis to survival patients,but not sensitive to the deaths,e.g.,there was a high incidence of mistaking deaths as survivals.The causes of such aberration ight be:1) systemic errors of using foreigh standard of trauma score to evaluate Chinese traffic victims;2) deficiencies of trauma score system;and 3) technical errors of ones who perform trauma score assessment.Conclusions:It is necessary to establish Chinese database of trauma material and,hereby,to enact trauma score standard or rectification coefficient of weight congruouns China.

  4. Complaints of Poor Sleep and Risk of Traffic Accidents: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Pierre Philip

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the sleepiness-related factors associated with road traffic accidents.A population based case-control study was conducted in 2 French agglomerations. 272 road accident cases hospitalized in emergency units and 272 control drivers matched by time of day and randomly stopped by police forces were included in the study. Odds ratios were calculated for the risk of road traffic accidents.As expected, the main predictive factor for road traffic accidents was having a sleep episode at the wheel just before the accident (OR 9.97, CI 95%: 1.57-63.50, p<0.05. The increased risk of traffic accidents was 3.35 times higher in subjects who reported very poor quality sleep during the last 3 months (CI 95%: 1.30-8.63, p<0.05, 1.69 times higher in subjects reporting sleeping 6 hours or fewer per night during the last 3 months (CI 95%: 1.00-2.85, p<0.05, 2.02 times higher in subjects reporting symptoms of anxiety or nervousness in the previous day (CI 95%: 1.03-3.97, p<0.05, and 3.29 times higher in subjects reporting taking more than 2 medications in the last 24 h (CI 95%: 1.14-9.44, p<0.05. Chronic daytime sleepiness measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, expressed heavy snoring and nocturnal leg movements did not explain traffic accidents.Physicians should be attentive to complaints of poor sleep quality and quantity, symptoms of anxiety-nervousness and/or drug consumption in regular car drivers.

  5. Virtopsy -- noninvasive detection of occult bone lesions in postmortem MRI: additional information for traffic accident reconstruction.

    Buck, Ursula; Christe, Andreas; Naether, Silvio; Ross, Steffen; Thali, Michael J

    2009-05-01

    In traffic accidents with pedestrians, cyclists or motorcyclists, patterned impact injuries as well as marks on clothes can be matched to the injury-causing vehicle structure in order to reconstruct the accident and identify the vehicle which has hit the person. Therefore, the differentiation of the primary impact injuries from other injuries is of great importance. Impact injuries can be identified on the external injuries of the skin, the injured subcutaneous and fat tissue, as well as the fractured bones. Another sign of impact is a bone bruise. The bone bruise, or occult bone lesion, means a bleeding in the subcortical bone marrow, which is presumed to be the result of micro-fractures of the medullar trabeculae. The aim of this study was to prove that bleeding in the subcortical bone marrow of the deceased can be detected using the postmortem noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging. This is demonstrated in five accident cases, four involving pedestrians and one a cyclist, where bone bruises were detected in different bones as a sign of impact occurring in the same location as the external and soft tissue impact injuries. PMID:19034476

  6. Management of severe pelvic injury following road traffic accident in a resource-limited setting

    A 34 year old woman involved in road traffic accident with severe anterior and posterior pelvic fractures with associated soft tissue injury was referred from Wa Regional Hospital 18 hours after the accident to Tania Specialist Hospital in Tamale. Emergency resuscitative measures such as catheterization and management of pain with analgesics were initiated. Computed tomography (CT scan) or Magnetic resonance imaging has been recommended as the appropriate tools for risk assessment in such cases however none of this was available at the time of the accident. The only assessment tool available was the C-arm machine which was used to X-ray the pelvis in the following plane; anterio - posterior pelvic - inlet and pelvic - outlet. Early internal reduction and stabilization of pelvis was immediately carried out using the procedure of open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Approximately 2 weeks after the operation, radiographs showed signs of healing and the patient was discharged on partial body weight bearing. Upon second review 12 weeks post operatively, complete recovery was accomplished.

  7. Pain and pain treatment were associated with traffic accident involvement in a cohort of middle-aged workers

    Lagarde, E.; CHASTANG, JF; Lafont, S.; COEURET-PELLICER, M; CHIRON, M

    2005-01-01

    Background and Objective: To assess the influence of medical conditions on road traffic accidents among a cohort of middle-aged workers and pensioners. Study Design and Setting: A longitudinal study of 13,548 participants from a cohort study of French workers. Follow-up data covered the 1989-2000 period. Adjusted hazards ratios (HRadj) for serious accidents were computed by Cox's proportional hazards regression with time-dependent covariates adjusted for age, occupation, annual mileage in 2...

  8. Effective Factors in Severity of Traffic Accident-Related Traumas; an Epidemiologic Study Based on the Haddon Matrix

    Kambiz Masoumi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traffic accidents are the 8th cause of mortality in different countries and are expected to rise to the 3rd rank by 2020. Based on the Haddon matrix numerous factors such as environment, host, and agent can affect the severity of traffic-related traumas. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effective factors in severity of these traumas based on Haddon matrix. Methods: In the present 1-month cross-sectional study, all the patients injured in traffic accidents, who were referred to the ED of Imam Khomeini and Golestan Hospitals, Ahvaz, Iran, during March 2013 were evaluated. Based on the Haddon matrix, effective factors in accident occurrence were defined in 3 groups of host, agent, and environment. Demographic data of the patients and data regarding Haddon risk factors were extracted and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: 700 injured people with the mean age of 29.66 ± 12.64 years (3-82 were evaluated (92.4% male. Trauma mechanism was car-pedestrian in 308 (44% of the cases and car-motorcycle in 175 (25%. 610 (87.1% cases were traffic accidents and 371 (53% occurred in the time between 2 pm and 8 pm. Violation of speed limit was the most common violation with 570 (81.4% cases, followed by violation of right-of-way in 57 (8.1% patients. 59.9% of the severe and critical injuries had occurred on road accidents, while 61.3% of the injuries caused by traffic accidents were mild to moderate (p < 0.001. The most common mechanisms of trauma for critical injuries were rollover (72.5%, motorcycle-pedestrian (23.8%, and car-motorcycle (13.14% accidents (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, the most important effective factors in severity of traffic accident-related traumas were age over 50, not using safety tools, and undertaking among host-related factors; insufficient environment safety, road accidents and time between 2 pm and 8 pm among environmental factors; and finally, rollover, car

  9. Suicide Mortality in Comparison to Traffic Accidents and Homicides as Causes of Unnatural Death. An Analysis of 14,441 Cases in Germany in the Year 2010

    Karoline Lukaschek; Natalia Erazo; Karl-Heinz Ladwig; Jens Baumert

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess suicide mortality in comparison to traffic accidents and homicide deaths in Germany in the year 2010 and to compare years of life lost (YLL) due to these unnatural deaths. Methods: Mortality data were provided by the Federal Statistical Office giving death rates (related to 100,000 inhabitants) and proportions (related to 100 deaths of individuals) for suicide, traffic accidents and homicide as well as YLL data. Results: A total of 14,441 unnatural deaths (suicide, traffic acci...

  10. The burden of road traffic accidents in a French Departement: the description of the injuries and recent changes

    Chiron Mireille

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant reduction in road traffic accidents has been observed since prevention measures were introduced by the French public authorities in 2002. The goals of this study are to describe the burden of road traffic accidents in a French Departement, and to identify changes if any between the periods 1997-2001 and 2002-2006 on the basis of the disability adjusted life years (DALY. Methods Years of lost life (YLL and years lived with disability (YLD were calculated for two periods using the mortality and incidence data in the Rhone Departement Registry of Road Traffic Accident Casualties. Results YLD and YLL that are related to road traffic accidents are at their maximum value between 15 and 24 years of age. For men, intracranial fractures and intracranial injuries dominate, and for women it is spinal cord injuries that account for highest rates of YLD. A reduction in the rates of YLL and YLD has been observed for both genders and all age groups between 1997-2001 and 2002-2006. Conclusion The reduction in DALY between the two periods is explained both by the reduction in the number of fatalities and injuries but also by an increase in the age at which they occur.

  11. Injuries from traffic accidents and use of protection equipment in the Brazilian population, according to a population-based study.

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; Gomes, Nayara; da Silva, Marta Maria Alves; de Morais Neto, Otaliba Libânio; dos Reis, Ademar Arthur Chioro; Nardi, Antônio Carlos Figueiredo

    2016-02-01

    The article aims to describe the injuries in traffic according to demographic characteristics, use of protective equipment, use of health services, activity limitations and disabilities. The percentage involvement in traffic accidents with injuries, the percentage of use of protective equipment, use of health services, limitation of daily activities, disability and sequelae, according to educational level, race, color, sex, age and region of residence it estimated.The use of safety belt in the adult population was 79.4%and 50.2% in the front seats and back, respectively; the helmet use among motorcycle drivers and passengers were respectively 83.4 and 80.1. Safety equipment are less used in the North and Northeast and in the countryside. Reported car accident last month 3.1%, being higher in males 4.5%, the people of complete primary schooling and School graduate, young adult and the brown race-color. Among the injured received some form of health care due to this accident 52.4%, were admitted 7.7%. They reported having had limitation of daily activities, disabilities and consequences arising from traffic accidents 14.1%. Car accidents are high in the country. PMID:26910148

  12. A STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS AND ITS RISK FACTORS IN JHANSI AND AROUND JHANSI CITY (U . P .

    Sanjeev Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expansion in network, motorization and urbanization in the country has been accompanied by a rise in road accidents leading to road traffic injuries (RTIs. Accident represents a major epidemic of non - communicable disease in present century. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs and its risk factors in Jhansi & around Jhansi city. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A hospital based cross sectional study was carried out in MLB Medical College and Hospital , Jhansi and the cases sustaining ro ad traffic injuries registering from 1 January 2013 to 31 July 2014 were taken irrespective of the place of accident. The data was entered in excel sheet and results were expressed as proportions and percentages. RESULTS: Among them maximum number of cases were in 21 - 30 years age group (30.53% followed by 31 - 40 years (21.66% and >60 years (4.65% shows the least no. of victims. In the study majority of cases were reported from Orchha Road (11.5%. In the study it was observed that majority of accidents oc cur in winter season (37.24% and in night time (34.47%.Among them 19.68% victims stated that defective road as the most common condition associated with RTA followed by poor lighting (18.54%. CONCLUSIONS: In this study majority of victims were younger, males, less educated and labourer by occupation. Among risk factors defective roads, poor lighting, excessive speed, overloading and alcohol consumption were found causing RTAs.

  13. Road traffic accidents; An observational and analytical study exploring the hidden truths in Pakistan and South East-Asian Countries

    Tabish Hussain1, Li Yu Shu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite national traffic legislation and known safety benefits of traffic laws, awareness remains low in Pakistan. Study aim was to determine level of knowledge about traffic legislation and attitudes towards their observation in capital city Islamabad to provide baseline data for formulation of an intervention aimed at strengthening road safety law enforcement. Survey-Analysis with Random Observational study was conducted by using standard survey questionnaire focusing Roadsafety awareness levels and use of helmets/seatbelts on MainRoads and StreetRoads.Drivers/passengers/pedestrian were randomly selected to participate in face-to-face interview to ascertain attitudes. Overall, Deficient Road-Safety Awareness was at top(27%followed by wrong use/no use of seatbelts/helmets(21% and legislative aspects were at last(17%including under-age driving,vehicles without fitness and licensure problems exploring the bitter hidden truths. Actions areas for preventing Road Traffic Accidents(RTAs include interventions to improve road-safety education, identification /implementation of safety measures for traffic black-spots, enforcement of seatbelt/helmet laws and the development of highway ordinances. PRECAUTION IS BETTER THAN CURE as Road Traffic Accidents are 100% preventable.

  14. The years lived with disability due to road traffic accidents based on the nature of injuries in Kermanshah province (2010

    Neda Izadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traffic accidents, with lots of casualties and injuries, cause a lot of economic loss. This study was conducted to determine the Years Lived with Disability (YLD due to road traffic accidents according to the nature of injuries in Kermanshah province. Methods: following a pilot study, a sample of 3258 people was analyzed in order to calculate the YLD. Then, based on various factors, the age, gender and nature of injury of 10070 people were estimated. The YLD was calculated using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD (2010. The data concerning age and gender of the total population of the province was taken from the Statistical Center of Iran. All calculations were performed based on age and gender in Excel software. Results: The mean age of the injured people was 32.7±17.1. Men constituted 67.7 % of patients. The incidence rate of traffic accidents was 283.6 per 100,000. The highest levels of YLD in outpatients, men and women were reported for patella, tibia, fibula and ankle fractures and fractures of clavicle, scapula, humerus and skull, respectively. The highest rate of inpatient YLDs by nature of injury belonged to the fractures of sternum, ribs and face bone. The years lived with disability was calculated to be 2365.96 years (2.46 per 1000 and 1039.01 years (1.1 per 1000 for men and women, respectively. It was 3404.97 years (1.79 per 1000 in both genders. The highest YLD was in the age group of 15–29. Conclusion: Traffic accidents are high rate of YLD is resulted by traffic accidents. The most affected age group are youngsters and fracture are more frequent.

  15. Assessing Traffic Accident Occurrence of Road Segments through an Optimized Decision Rule

    Lu Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical models for estimating the safety status of transportation facilities have received great attention in the last two decades. These models also perform an important role in transportation safety planning as well as diagnoses of locations with high accident risks. However, the current methods largely rely on regression analyses and therefore they could ignore the multicollinearity characteristics of factors, which may provide additional information for enhancing the performance of forecasting models. This study seeks to develop more precise models for forecasting safety status as well as addressing the issue of multicollinearity of dataset. The proposed mathematical approach is indeed a discriminant analysis with respect to the goal of minimizing Bayes risks given multivariate distributions of factors. Based on this model, numerical analyses also perform with the application of a simulated dataset and an empirically observed dataset of traffic accidents in road segments. These examples essentially illustrate the process of Bayes risk minimization on predicating the safety status of road segments toward the objective of smallest misclassification rate. The paper finally concludes with a discussion of this methodology and several important avenues for future studies are also provided.

  16. 论交通事故豪车险%On Traffic Accident Insurance for Luxury Cars

    黄燕香

    2015-01-01

    Owners of ordinary cars and owners of luxury cars have equal legal status,bearing the same responsibilities and obligations,but in traffic accidents involving both ordinary cars and luxury cars,the compensation results are not in line with people’s concept of justice. Therefore,it is of significance to balance the rights and obligations of owners of ordinary cars and luxury cars when traffic accidents occur. The current legal system and insurance system cannot solve the problem of unreasonable compensation after the accident. The author holds that conflicts between ordinary and luxury car owners can be eased by setting insurance for luxury cars which can help achieve substantial justice,protecting equal road rights,and the weaker party in traffic accidents. The luxury vehicle insurance compensation covers only property damage caused by ordinary vehicles. For this purpose,the insurance system is to be reformed to clearly define the maximum amount of compensation and the lowest amount of premium for luxury vehicle insurance.%普通车车主与豪车车主在法律上具有平等的主体地位,承担相同的责任与义务,但是在普通车辆撞上豪车后,赔偿结果却不符合人们的正义观。在交通事故发生时,有效平衡普通车车主和豪车车主的权利义务显得至关重要,但是目前的法律体系及相应的保险制度还无法解决交通事故中存在的普通车辆需要承担巨额赔偿的不合理现象。本文认为,通过设置豪车险,可以缓解目前普通车辆与豪车发生交通事故时存在的矛盾冲突,实现实质正义、路权平等、保护弱势等目的。在交通事故中,豪车险的赔偿范围主要适用于普通车辆造成豪车财产损害的情形。同时,为了与豪车险的设置相配套,应对现行保险制度进行改革,明确保险公司的最高赔偿额以及豪车险的最低强制投保额。

  17. A case-control study of non-fatal traffic accidents on hospital patients in Bangkok metropolis.

    Böhning, D; Na Ayutha, R S

    1997-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from road traffic accidents in Bangkok metropolis is high with a trend strictly increasing in time, thus establishing one of the major public health problems and targets of the Kingdom of Thailand. An unmatched case-control study was undertaken to evaluate various risk patterns connected with the occurrence of traffic accidents. 350 cases were sampled from five major hospitals distributed over the Bangkok Metropolitan area and 350 controls were included from out-patients of Rajawithi hospital. The major interest in this case-control analysis is to estimate relative risk (through odds ratio) and measure statistical significance of association between road traffic accident and the following risk factors: the demographic risk factors are age (age between 15 and 19 years has odds ratio of 8.25 [1.01, 67.72]; age above 40 is baseline), marital status (single has odds ratio of 2.74 [1.26, 5.95]; baseline is not-single), sex (males have an odds ratio of 2.05 [0.51, 8.24], occupation (salespersons have an odds ratio of 4.27 [1.47, 12.46]; baseline are office workers); the driving related exposure factors type of vehicle (motorbikers have an odds ratio of 6.22 [2.82, 13.78]; baseline are other vehicle drivers), driving time per day (odds ratio 1.35 [0.88, 2.09]) and the number of accidents in the last three years (odds ratio of 4.36 [2.51, 7.58]); the behavioral factors one hour before driving such as the consumption of alcohol (odds ratio 3.01 [1.53, 5.94]; baseline in no alcohol) and the consumption of a lot of food (odds ratio of 0.07 [0.03, 0.16]; baseline is not eating a lot before driving). The odds ratios for traffic accident when being under allergic medication and the consumption of tranquilizer were not significant. The results are consistent with current results in traffic accident research and point to target groups for potential prevention programmes in traffic accident prevention. PMID:9499466

  18. Correlation between the Ship Grounding Accident and the Ship Traffic – A Case Study Based on the Statistics of the Gulf of Finland

    Arsham Mazaheri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ship traffic is one of the factors that is presented in almost all of the existing grounding models, and is considered as one of the affecting factors on the likelihood of grounding accident. This effect in grounding accident is mostly accepted by the experts as a common sense or simply by just generalizing the ship-ship collision cases to grounding accidents. There is no available research on the actual causal link between the ship traffic and grounding accident in the literature. In this paper, authors have utilized the statistical analysis on historical grounding accident data in the Gulf of Finland between the years 1989 and 2010 and the AIS data of the same area in year 2010, as the source of ship traffic data, to investigate the possible existence of any correlation between the ship traffic and the grounding accident. The results show that for the studied area (Gulf of Finland there is no correlation between the traffic density and the grounding accident. However, the possibility of the existence of minor relation between the traffic distribution and grounding accident is shown by the result. This finding, however, needs further investigation for more clarification.

  19. A combined M5P tree and hazard-based duration model for predicting urban freeway traffic accident durations.

    Lin, Lei; Wang, Qian; Sadek, Adel W

    2016-06-01

    The duration of freeway traffic accidents duration is an important factor, which affects traffic congestion, environmental pollution, and secondary accidents. Among previous studies, the M5P algorithm has been shown to be an effective tool for predicting incident duration. M5P builds a tree-based model, like the traditional classification and regression tree (CART) method, but with multiple linear regression models as its leaves. The problem with M5P for accident duration prediction, however, is that whereas linear regression assumes that the conditional distribution of accident durations is normally distributed, the distribution for a "time-to-an-event" is almost certainly nonsymmetrical. A hazard-based duration model (HBDM) is a better choice for this kind of a "time-to-event" modeling scenario, and given this, HBDMs have been previously applied to analyze and predict traffic accidents duration. Previous research, however, has not yet applied HBDMs for accident duration prediction, in association with clustering or classification of the dataset to minimize data heterogeneity. The current paper proposes a novel approach for accident duration prediction, which improves on the original M5P tree algorithm through the construction of a M5P-HBDM model, in which the leaves of the M5P tree model are HBDMs instead of linear regression models. Such a model offers the advantage of minimizing data heterogeneity through dataset classification, and avoids the need for the incorrect assumption of normality for traffic accident durations. The proposed model was then tested on two freeway accident datasets. For each dataset, the first 500 records were used to train the following three models: (1) an M5P tree; (2) a HBDM; and (3) the proposed M5P-HBDM, and the remainder of data were used for testing. The results show that the proposed M5P-HBDM managed to identify more significant and meaningful variables than either M5P or HBDMs. Moreover, the M5P-HBDM had the lowest overall mean

  20. Educational level and age as contributing factors to road traffic accidents

    Ashkan Sami; Ghasem Moafian; Arman Najafi; Mohammad Reza Aghabeigi; Navid Yamini; Seyed Taghi Heydari; Kamran B Lankarani

    2013-01-01

    Objective:This research analyzes data on road traffic accidents (RTA) in Fars province,whose roads are among the highly dangerous ones in Iran.It investigates educational level and age involved in RTA in order to discover patterns that can prevent or decrease accidents.Methods:This research made use of data visualization techniques to find hidden patterns.The data included mortality rate related to RTA in Fars province and were obtained from Fars Forensic Medicine Registry covering a period of 1 year from March 21,2010 to March 21,2011.All data were analyzed using SPSS 11.5.The results were reported as descriptive indices such as frequency (percentage).The Chisquare test was applied to the data concerning educational level and age.P value less than 0.05 was considered significant.Results:In the mentioned period,1 831 people were killed,out of whom un/lowly educated people (69.6%) accounted for the highest mortality rate.The significant relationship between educational level and mortality rate was found (X2=275.98,P<0.0001).Also three was a significant association between age and mortality rate (x2=371.20,P<0.0001).Young people (age between 20 and 29 years)contribute to higher RTA mortality rate compared with other age groups.Conclusion:The educational level and age are significantly correlated to mortality rate.The youth and un/lowly educated people suffer more fatal RTA.

  1. 0BOccupational Risk Factors in Iranian Professional Drivers and their Impacts on Traffic Accidents

    MEHDI JAHANGIRI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available   In many countries road crashes are the main cause of fatal accidents related to job. The aim of our study was to characterize a population of Iranian professional drivers with regard to history of drivers’ road crash incidents and some occupational factors. Using Swedish version of the Nordic Questionnaire information about musculoskeletal pain prevalence in last 12 months, demographic features, smoking habits, age, job experience, road crash, job consent, self-perceived job stress, working load and fatigue were obtained from 403 drivers. Ninety seven (25% of the study population reported having one or more traffic accident during their driving job history. The association between self-report incident of road crash and driving duration, smoking, lack of exercise, fatigue, lack of health education and musculoskeletal complaints were statistically significant(p<0.05. Data analysis also revealed positive significant association between fatigue as dependent variable and driving duration, self perceived stress and lack of job consent as independent variables (p<0.01. The questionnaire data indicated that signs of fatigue in smoker drivers, old drivers (>50 years, high experienced drivers (>10 years, drivers without sport activities, night drivers, fat and over weighted drivers, old vehicle drivers (age of vehicle >10 years, bus and truck drivers were more than other groups of professional drivers but the differences were not significant. It can be said that occupational risk factors influence the safe operation of drivers. However, prevention strategies such as organizational changes for reducing work-related stress, recording and analysis of road incidents, national health and safety law for drivers are needed.

  2. ACCIDENT PREDICTION METHODOLOGY USING CONFLICT ZONE METHOD FOR “TRANSIT TRANSPORT-PEDESTRIAN” CONFLICT SITUATION AND MODELS OF TRAFFIC FLOWS AT CONTROLLED INTERSECTION

    D. V. Kapsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidents are considered as the most significant cost of road traffic. Therefore any measures for road traffic management should be evaluated according to a minimization  criterion of accident losses. In order to develop a method for evaluation of the accident losses it is necessary to prepare a methodology for cost estimate of road accidents of various severity with due account of their consequences and prediction (economic assessment and severity level of their consequences (quantitative risk assessment. The research has been carried with the purpose to devise appropriate models for accident prediction at a decision-making stage while organizing road traffic in respect of  the “transport-pedestrian” conflict. An interaction of pedestrian and transit road traffic flows  is characterized by rather high risk level. In order to reduce number of road accidents  and  severity of their consequences in the observed conflict, it is necessary to evaluate  proposed solutions, in other words to predict accidents at the stage of object designing and  development of measures.The paper presents its observations on specificity of road traffic and pedestrian flow interactions and analysis of spatial conflict point formation and conflict zone creation in the studied conflict between transport facilities and pedestrians at controlled pedestrian crossings which are located in the area of intersections. Methodology has been developed for accident prediction in accordance with the conflict zone method for various traffic modes at intersections. Dependences of the represented road traffic accidents (according to consequence severity on potential danger of conflicts have been determined for various traffic modes and various conditions of conflict interaction.

  3. Smoothing Strategies Combined with ARIMA and Neural Networks to Improve the Forecasting of Traffic Accidents

    Lida Barba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two smoothing strategies combined with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA and autoregressive neural networks (ANNs models to improve the forecasting of time series are presented. The strategy of forecasting is implemented using two stages. In the first stage the time series is smoothed using either, 3-point moving average smoothing, or singular value Decomposition of the Hankel matrix (HSVD. In the second stage, an ARIMA model and two ANNs for one-step-ahead time series forecasting are used. The coefficients of the first ANN are estimated through the particle swarm optimization (PSO learning algorithm, while the coefficients of the second ANN are estimated with the resilient backpropagation (RPROP learning algorithm. The proposed models are evaluated using a weekly time series of traffic accidents of Valparaíso, Chilean region, from 2003 to 2012. The best result is given by the combination HSVD-ARIMA, with a MAPE of 0 : 26%, followed by MA-ARIMA with a MAPE of 1 : 12%; the worst result is given by the MA-ANN based on PSO with a MAPE of 15 : 51%.

  4. Smoothing strategies combined with ARIMA and neural networks to improve the forecasting of traffic accidents.

    Barba, Lida; Rodríguez, Nibaldo; Montt, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Two smoothing strategies combined with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and autoregressive neural networks (ANNs) models to improve the forecasting of time series are presented. The strategy of forecasting is implemented using two stages. In the first stage the time series is smoothed using either, 3-point moving average smoothing, or singular value Decomposition of the Hankel matrix (HSVD). In the second stage, an ARIMA model and two ANNs for one-step-ahead time series forecasting are used. The coefficients of the first ANN are estimated through the particle swarm optimization (PSO) learning algorithm, while the coefficients of the second ANN are estimated with the resilient backpropagation (RPROP) learning algorithm. The proposed models are evaluated using a weekly time series of traffic accidents of Valparaíso, Chilean region, from 2003 to 2012. The best result is given by the combination HSVD-ARIMA, with a MAPE of 0:26%, followed by MA-ARIMA with a MAPE of 1:12%; the worst result is given by the MA-ANN based on PSO with a MAPE of 15:51%. PMID:25243200

  5. Identification of Behavior Based Safety by Using Traffic Light Analysis to Reduce Accidents

    Mansur, A.; Nasution, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    This work present the safety assessment of a case study and describes an important area within the field production in oil and gas industry, namely behavior based safety (BBS). The company set a rigorous BBS and its intervention program that implemented and deployed continually. In this case, observers requested to have discussion and spread a number of determined questions related with work behavior to the workers during observation. Appraisal of Traffic Light Analysis (TLA) as one tools of risk assessment used to determine the estimated score of BBS questionnaire. Standardization of TLA appraisal in this study are based on Regulation of Minister of Labor and Occupational Safety and Health No:PER.05/MEN/1996. The result shown that there are some points under 84%, which categorized in yellow category and should corrected immediately by company to prevent existing bad behavior of workers. The application of BBS expected to increase the safety performance at work time-by-time and effective in reducing accidents.

  6. Linguistic diversity and traffic accidents: lessons from statistical studies of cultural traits.

    Seán Roberts

    Full Text Available The recent proliferation of digital databases of cultural and linguistic data, together with new statistical techniques becoming available has lead to a rise in so-called nomothetic studies [1]-[8]. These seek relationships between demographic variables and cultural traits from large, cross-cultural datasets. The insights from these studies are important for understanding how cultural traits evolve. While these studies are fascinating and are good at generating testable hypotheses, they may underestimate the probability of finding spurious correlations between cultural traits. Here we show that this kind of approach can find links between such unlikely cultural traits as traffic accidents, levels of extra-martial sex, political collectivism and linguistic diversity. This suggests that spurious correlations, due to historical descent, geographic diffusion or increased noise-to-signal ratios in large datasets, are much more likely than some studies admit. We suggest some criteria for the evaluation of nomothetic studies and some practical solutions to the problems. Since some of these studies are receiving media attention without a widespread understanding of the complexities of the issue, there is a risk that poorly controlled studies could affect policy. We hope to contribute towards a general skepticism for correlational studies by demonstrating the ease of finding apparently rigorous correlations between cultural traits. Despite this, we see well-controlled nomothetic studies as useful tools for the development of theories.

  7. The role of radiology and its pattern in road traffic accidents in Khartoum state

    This hospital based study was undertaken to report on the role of radiology and its pattern in road traffic accident. It is a prospective study of 400 patients with R.T. injuries presenting to Khartoum teaching hospital during the first six months of 1998 during the first shift. The affected age group was between (20-50) years and the great majority of them were males (305) (76%). The pedestrians were (109) represent (27.25%) of cases. The commonest causative factor of injury with lower extremities (281) (70.4%), and the commonest causative factor of injury was vehicle pick up (24) represent (37.5%). Multiple injuries (147) (36%) were mostly seen in pedestrians. The injuries of the skull were (69) (17.3%), upper extremities (140) (35%), chest (42) (10.5%), abdomen and spine (20) (5% each) and pelvis (5 patients) represent (1.25%). Plain radiography done to all of the patients (100%). U/S was required in 20 patients (5%) and C.T. was also required in 13 patients (3.3%). I.V.U. urethrogram and Ba examinations were carried out in selective cases. MRI and others radiological modalities were not done in this study. Chronic osteomyelitis was developed in (3 patients) (0.75%), amputation was carried out in (5 patients) (1.25%)

  8. Framework for consistent traffic and accident statistical data bases = Cadre pour des bases de données statistiques cohérentes sur la circulation et les accidents.

    OECD Scientific Expert Group T8

    1988-01-01

    The OECD Road Transport Research Scientific Expert Group T8 "Framework for Consistent Traffic and Accident Statistical Data Bases" was confronted with the old problem of the inconsistency of data between countries, and the lack of some data altogether, especially traffic data for use as a measure of

  9. An Evaluation of the Role that Traffic Culture Plays in Reducing Consequences of Accidents and Promoting Social Security and Order

    Nasser Pourmoallem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAccidents and traffic security have become serious issues in our country, to the extent that most of the people and authorities are severely concerned about them. On the other hand, research shows that human factor has the most important role in the occurrence of accidents. According to the records, only %1 of all accidents in Iran are resulted from "vehicle malfunction" and “immunodeficiency of the roads”; while other events, directly or indirectly, are caused by human wrong operations. Analysis of various factors shows that the human factor is not an element, but is characterized by three axes: (1 drivers and pedestrians, (2 planning and legislation and (3 control factors. In this paper, approaches to develop transportation and traffic security through teaching traffic behaviors to road users are investigated in the framework of three scenarios. Also, the solutions for improving safety, traffic and transportation through culture and education have been investigated. Moreover, the behavior of road users has been studied in the form of these traffic scenarios. Material & MethodsIn scenario No. 1, the importance and the role of traffic culture and behavior in the development of traffic flow is investigated and the process of AHP is used to investigate the decision making processes about the improvement of traffic culture and behavior. In this scenario, the importance of culture together with the role that it plays in improving the safety and facilitative factors of transportation is evaluated. To this end, “improving traffic behavior and culture alongside of the improvement of transport safety and facilitation” is intended to be the assumed target. Therefore, all the factors and parameters effective on the improvement of traffic behavior and culture are the statistical variables in this study:•The training method (culture•The enforcement of traffic laws and regulations variable•The variable of social and psychological

  10. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY ON THE DEMOGRAPHIC, GEOGRAPHIC PROFILE AND TREND ANALYSIS OF FATAL & NONFATAL ROAD TRAFFIC ACCID ENT IN TRICHY CITY, TAMIL NADU

    Karthikeyan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Each year nearly 1.3 million people die as a result of a road traffic collision with more than 3000 deaths each day and more than half of these people are not travelling in a car. More than half the people killed in traffic crashes are young adults aged between 15 and 44 years. AIM: To analyse the profile of road traffic accidents that happened in Trichy city during the year 2011. OBJECTIVES: 1. To analyse the burden of road traffic accident cases reported in Trichy city over a period of one year 2. To de termine the age and gender profile of fatal and non - fatal accidents. 3. To study the distribution of road traffic accidents by time and season of occurrence. MATERIALS & METHODS: STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. STUDY AREA: Trichy city. The traffic polic e department of Trichy traffic police headquarters was approached. The investigator and guide approached the office of the chief of Trichy city traffic police. After clearly explaining the purpose of this study to the chief stating that the data collected is only for the research purpose and will not be used for any other purpose, the data was collected. All the collected data were then entered in SPSS 17 and analyzed using the same software. Considering that the data were of categorical nature, descriptive statistics was used to describe the data. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: The fatal and non - fatal accidents follow a pattern in their incidence according to the week days and months in a year. However further in depth analysis is needed to analyse these pattern and to validate these findings. Overall the findings of this study will be useful for planning accident prevention programs in the future.

  11. Analysis of Traffic Accidents in the Area of Small Towns in the Republic of Croatia

    Višnjić, Vinko; Pušić, Marko

    2009-01-01

    The safety of road traffic in small towns in the Republic of Croatia is not at a satisfactory level. As proof, the safety of road traffic participants in the area of the town of Nova Gradiška and its wider environment has been studied and analyzed. The paper includes the available data in the period from 2000 to 2007. The analysis and the assessment of road traffic safety can be applied also to other towns and counties of the Republic of Croatia. Having in mind that there are 531 settlements ...

  12. SEASONAL VARIATION OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN THE CITY OF KRASNODAR

    Pogorelov A. V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews some aspects of the seasonal variation of road accidents in the city of Krasnodar on the extensive statistical data (2001-2011. The regularities of the temporal variability of the road accidents, as well as their factors are shown

  13. Video-recorded accidents conflicts and road user behaviour: A step forward in traffic safety research

    Horst, A.R.A. van der

    2013-01-01

    TNO conducted long-term video observations to collect data on the pre-crash phase of real accidents (what exactly happened just before the collision?). The video recordings of collisions were used to evaluate and validate the safety value of in-depth accident analyses, road scene analyses, and behav

  14. [Neuro-otological Studies of Patients Suffering from Dizziness with Cerebrospinal Fluid Hypovolemia after Traffic Accident-associated Whiplash Injuries].

    Yokota, Jun-Ichi; Shimoda, Satoe

    2015-05-01

    Vertigo and dizziness are common clinical manifestations after traffic accident-associated whiplash injury. Recently, Shinonaga et al. (2001) suggested that more than 80% of patients with whiplash injury complaining of these symptoms showed cerebrospinal (CSF) hypovolemia on radioisotope (RI) cisternography (111In-DTPA). However, neuro-otological studies to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these symptoms have been insufficient. In the present study, patients complaining of these symptoms with CSF hypovolemia after traffic accidents were investigated with posturography and electronystagmography (ENG). Fourteen patients (4 men, 10 women; 24-52 yr) were examined with posturography and showed parameters (tracking distance & area) significantly (pwomen; 31-52 yr) were further investigated with ENG. The slow phase peak velocities of optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) and optokinetic-after nystagmus (OKAN) were significantly (p<0.01) reduced (62.64±6.9 SD deg/sec, 60.76±10.74 SD deg/sec, respectively) and frequencies of OKN were reduced (139.7±10.75 SD), while the ocular smooth pursuit was relatively preserved. Magnetic resonance images (sagittal view) of these five patients demonstrated the downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils and flattening of the pons, which are characteristic features of CSF hypovolemia, called "brain sagging." Our results suggest that brain sagging due to CSF hypovolemia impairs vestibular and vestibulocerebellar functions, which may cause dizziness and vertigo. PMID:25957209

  15. Characteristics of maxillofacial injuries resulting from road traffic accidents – a 5 year review of the case records from Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Katowice, Poland

    Drugacz Jan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of employing numerous devices improving the safety in motor vehicles, traffic accidents are still among the main reasons of maxillofacial injuries. The maxillofacial injuries remain the serious clinical problem because of the specificity of this anatomical region. The knowledge of etiologic factors and mechanisms of injuries can be helpful in a satisfactory trauma prevention. The aim of this study was to find out the incidence and the pattern of maxillofacial injuries resulting from traffic accidents in the patients treated in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery (Silesian Medical Academy in Katowice, Poland from January 2001 to December 2005. Methods The material consisted of 1024 case records of patients with maxillofacial injuries treated in the Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Silesian Medical Academy. The detailed analysis was carried out on the case records of 198 patients in the age of 3 to 68 with maxillofacial injuries resulting from traffic accidents. On the basis of data from a history, examination on admission, consultations and radiological examinations, patients' age and gender, we obtained the information on a pattern of injury and detailed description of an accident (the date and the time of an accident, the role of the patient in an accident. Results The traffic accidents were the cause of 19,93% maxillofacial injuries in the analyzed period of time. Most of the patients had injuries to the soft tissues of the face (22,21%, followed by tooth and alveolar process injuries (20,71% and mandibular fractures (18,69%. All the types of injuries were more common in men than in women. The majority of the patients were car drivers followed by car passengers, pedestrians, cyclists and motor cyclists. The peak age of the patients was between 18 to 25 years. The prevalent number of accidents resulting in injuries to this region took place in spring, especially between noon and 4 PM. Conclusion Our results

  16. An epidemiological study on pattern of thoraco-abdominal injuries sustained in fatal road traffic accidents of Bangalore: Autopsy-based study

    N Bayapa Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The statistical profile reflects a global estimate of 5.1 million deaths in 2000, which was due to injuries that accounted for 10% of deaths due to all causes. Out of this, a quarter of injury-related deaths occurred in the South-East Asian region. Road Traffic Accident (RTA is one among the top 5 causes of morbidity and mortality in South-East Asian countries. Most common cause of blunt abdominal trauma in India is road traffic accident followed by pedestrian accidents, abdominal blows, and fall from heights. Aims: To analyze the epidemiology and pattern of fatal thoraco-abdominal injuries in road traffic accidents. Materials and Methods: An autopsy-based cross-sectional study conducted. A purposive sampling technique was applied to select the study sample of 100 post-mortems of road traffic accident between November 2008 and May 2010 subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the department of Forensic Medicine, KIMS Hospital Bangalore. Results: The majority of the victims were aged 21 to 40 years, 50 (50.0%, most of the victims were male 92 (92.0%; and male/female ratio was 11.5:1. Commonest offending agents in heavy motor vehicles were 54 (54.0%. Bony cage sustained injuries were observed in 71; out of this, fractures of ribs were observed in 45 (63.3% victims, clavicle in 14 (19.7%, sternum was 6 (8.4%, and vertebrae 6 (8.4% of fatal road traffic accidents. Internal thoracic injuries were observed in 26 cases. Among internal thoracic injuries, lungs were the most commonly involved organ 24 (92.3% followed by the heart 2 (7.6%. Lung sustained more lacerations 19 (79.1% than contusions 5 (20.8%. Internal abdominal injuries were observed in 49 cases. In road traffic accidents, the most commonly injured abdominal organs were solid organs such as liver 16 (32.6% followed by spleen 9 (18.3%. Conclusions: Majority of the times in road traffic accidents, young and productive males were injured or lost their life. This study may help the

  17. Psychological nursing for patients with traffic accident operation%车祸手术患者的心理护理

    祝洁新

    2015-01-01

    目的:探究如何对车祸手术患者进行心理护理。方法选取30例车祸手术患者对其进行术后心理护理,观察其效果。结果通过正确的心理护理使车祸手术患者能够尽快摆脱车祸所造成的心理阴影。结论科学细致的心理护理能使患者安全度过心理危机期,并能以健康的心态去面对疾病、生活和工作。%objective to explore how to carry out psychological nursing for the patients who had the accident operation. Methods 30 patients with car accident operation were treated with psychological nursing,and the effect of the patients were observed.results the psychological shadow of the traffic accident can be caused by the correct psychological nursing.conclu-sion scientific and meticulous psychological nursing can make the patients safely through the psychological crisis,and can face disease,life and work with a healthy mentality.

  18. An Analysis of the Definition of Road Traffic Accident in Road Traffic Safety Law---Thinking from a Case in Traffic Accidents%评析我国法律对“道路交通事故”的界定--从案例引发的思考

    温晓燕

    2015-01-01

    Road Traffic Accident is defined in Chinaˊs Road Traffic Safety Law,but it is too broad,and there are some questions leaving unanswered. For example,it does not clearly define the scope of traffic accident on road. This results in the contradiction with Liability for Tort Law and the relevant legislation in judicial practice. To define the conception of road traffic accident,this paper points out that we should consider the following elements,such as elements of vehicles,roads and road condition,the subjective elements and the elements of consequence so that the definition of road traffic accident can be perfected.%我国的《道路交通安全法》对道路交通事故进行了界定,但结合具体案例来看,该定义存在着对交通事故的定义过于宽泛,没有对道路交通事故的范围作出明确界定,导致在与《侵权责任法》及相关立法的衔接上存在矛盾,引起司法实践中的混乱等问题。给道路交通事故下定义,应当从车辆、道路、运行、主观、后果等构成要件进行考虑,完善对道路交通事故的界定。

  19. Road Traffic Accidents in Uganda in view of Taxi Drivers Masaka District

    Nnajjuma, Hellen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how psychosocial lived experiences of taxi drivers explain accident involvement in Uganda. Face to face in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with six male taxi drivers who survived accidents while driving and still served as taxi drivers. The sample was identified with purposive and snowball sampling techniques. Ethical considerations were observed during data collection through transcription, analysis to the final compilation. Interpretive p...

  20. Evaluation of the status of the pre-hospital trauma care in road traffic accidents in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava; Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava; Jegadeesh Ramasamy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the status of the pre-hospital trauma care in a road traffic accidents in a rural area of Kancheepuram district. Methods: A cross-sectional study of two months duration (June and July 2014) was conducted in the tertiary care hospital of a medical college, and its affiliated urban/rural health centers. Universal sampling was used and all road accident victims were enrolled as study participants. The required information was obtained with the help of a semi...

  1. Characteristics and Countermeasures of Traffic Accidents in Qinghai Province——From the Perspective of Analyzing Hundred Cases of Road Traffic Accident%青海省道路交通事故特点及对策——以分析百起道路交通事故案例为视角

    陈艳

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic accident has become the "number one killer" that threat to people's lives and property safety. How to curb the occurrence of road traffic accident, objective and fair to investigate and deal with the accident, is one of the major issues that the public security traffic management departments and traffic police must face.%道路交通事故已然成为了威胁人们生命、财产安全的"头号杀手".如何遏制道路交通事故案件的发生,客观、公正地查处事故,是公安交通管理部门和交通民警必须正视的重大问题之一.

  2. Effectiveness of a single-session early psychological intervention for children after road traffic accidents: a randomised controlled trial

    Meuli Martin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic accidents (RTAs are the leading health threat to children in Europe, resulting in 355 000 injuries annually. Because children can suffer significant and long-term mental health problems following RTAs, there is considerable interest in the development of early psychological interventions. To date, the research in this field is scarce, and currently no evidence-based recommendations can be made. Methods To evaluate the effectiveness of a single-session early psychological intervention, 99 children age 7-16 were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The manualised intervention was provided to the child and at least one parent around 10 days after the child's involvement in an RTA. It included reconstruction of the accident using drawings and accident-related toys, and psychoeducation. All of the children were interviewed at 10 days, 2 months and 6 months after the accident. Parents filled in questionnaires. Standardised instruments were used to assess acute stress disorder (ASD, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depressive symptoms and behavioural problems. Results The children of the two study groups showed no significant differences concerning posttraumatic symptoms and other outcome variables at 2 or at 6 months. Interestingly, analyses showed a significant intervention × age-group effect, indicating that for preadolescent children the intervention was effective in decreasing depressive symptoms and behavioural problems. Conclusions This study is the first to show a beneficial effect of a single-session early psychological intervention after RTA in preadolescent children. Therefore, an age-specific approach in an early stage after RTAs may be a promising way for further research. Younger children can benefit from the intervention evaluated here. However, these results have to be interpreted with caution, because of small subgroup sizes. Future studies are needed to examine specific

  3. Risk of traffic accidents in patients with sleep-disordered breathing: reduction with nasal CPAP.

    Cassel, W; Ploch, T; Becker, C; Dugnus, D; Peter, J H; von Wichert, P

    1996-12-01

    Sleepiness whilst driving constitutes a road safety risk. Sleep-related breathing disorders are the most frequent medical cause of daytime sleepiness, and untreated patients with this condition have been shown to be at a higher risk of having accidents while driving. This study addressed the question of the extent to which treatment of sleep-disordered breathing by nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is related to changes in patient's accident risk. Seventy eight male patients requiring treatment of sleep-related breathing disorders with nCPAP were enrolled in the study. The protocol included a questionnaire dealing with alertness-related problems while driving, an 80 min vigilance test, and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test. These baseline evaluations were repeated after 1 year of treatment with nCPAP. Fifty nine patients completed the study. The accident rate was significantly decreased from 0.8 per 100,000 km (untreated) to 0.15 per 100,000 km with nCPAP treatment. Variables that were considered to be likely to increase accident risk (sleeping spells, fatigue, vigilance test reaction time, daytime sleep latency) also improved with treatment. We conclude that treatment of sleep-disordered breathing by nasal continuous positive airway pressure is related to reduction in patient motor vehicle accident rates, probably due to the reversal of excessive daytime sleepiness. PMID:8980976

  4. The status of preventive behaviors in traffic accidents in junior high school students in Isfahan

    Leila Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: According to the results obtained, the majority of students walk to school and have the lowest practice score in this respect. It is recommended that as the first step, students be given necessary road traffic rules training, particularly how to cross the street.

  5. Epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases in Greater Noida: Hospital Based Study

    Rupali Roy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road accidents are associated with numerous problems each of which needs to be addressed separately [1]. Accidents, therefore, can be studied in terms of agent, host and environmental factors and epidemiologically classified into time, place and person distribution [2]. Objectives: 1.To assess the prevalence of RTAs coming to hospital and 2.To know the epidemiological factors related to RTAs and associated prevalence in hospital based study. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at SMSR, Gr Noida, in 2012. The study group consisted of all the RTA victims reporting to casualty in the last one year. The victims of the accidents were interviewed on a pretested semi structured performa. Results: In that one year period total number of reported accident cases was 144. The age groups of the study subjects were between 13-65 years. Out of total study subjects, only 16 were female. Again out of the total accident cases 45% were attended by police and of all injured, 45.8% were driver by occupation (7% without driving license. Among these drivers, 11% were not attentive during driving because of various reasons. Ambulance services had reached in 46.5% cases. Fracture was the most common type (60% of injury among all types of injuries. Among the applicable population only 33% wore helmet or seat belts. Conclusions: Only half of the total accident cases were attended by police and again only half of them received ambulance services. One third injuries were because of not wearing seat belt and helmets.

  6. Differences between attendance in emergency care of male and female victims of traffic accidents in Porto alegre, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

    Raquel Forgiarini Saldanha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Driving under the influence of alcohol/ drugs (DUI is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents, and men and women have different consumption patterns. The scope of this paper is to analyze differences in alcohol and drug consumption, as well as on behavior associated with traffic accidents among men and women. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 609 sequential traffic accident victims attended in emergency care from Porto Alegre. Subjects gave a structured interview, were breathalyzed and had a saliva test for alcohol/drug screening. Results showed that women were mainly passengers or pedestrians (p < 0.001. There was no significant difference in positive blood alcohol concentration. However, men reported more binge drinking and THC use, while women had more benzodiazepine in their saliva (p<0.05. This is the first Brazilian study to compare alcohol and drug use among men and women who were the victims of traffic accidents. Results point to differences in the pattern of substance abuse, as well on risk behavior. Data may be useful for specific prevention strategies that take gender differences into consideration.

  7. Suicide Mortality in Comparison to Traffic Accidents and Homicides as Causes of Unnatural Death. An Analysis of 14,441 Cases in Germany in the Year 2010

    Karoline Lukaschek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess suicide mortality in comparison to traffic accidents and homicide deaths in Germany in the year 2010 and to compare years of life lost (YLL due to these unnatural deaths. Methods: Mortality data were provided by the Federal Statistical Office giving death rates (related to 100,000 inhabitants and proportions (related to 100 deaths of individuals for suicide, traffic accidents and homicide as well as YLL data. Results: A total of 14,441 unnatural deaths (suicide, traffic accidents, homicide were reported in 2010 in Germany. Of those, 10,021 subjects (69.4% committed suicide, 3,942 (27.3% died in traffic accidents, 478 (3.3% were murdered. Suicide death rates were by far the highest, with rates for men (18.6 three times higher than for women (6.1. For both sexes, suicide rates increased with age, whereas suicide as a proportion of all causes of death was higher in younger age groups. In both sexes, suicide was the leading cause of YLL (men: 314 YLL, women: 90 YLL. Conclusions: Suicide is the leading cause of unnatural death and YLL. The sex- and age- specific patterns in suicide mortality call for different action plans to target high risk groups.

  8. 交通事故对城市道路通行能力的影响--基于车流波动理论分析%Influence of Traffic Accident on Traffic Capacity of Urban Road---Based on Analysis of Traffic Stream Fluctuation Theory

    张恺鸽; 许妮妮; 杨希媚; 马国春

    2014-01-01

    笔者基于改进的车流波动理论,利用车道变换数、总延误时间、排队队长三个指标,研究交通事故所影响路段的车辆排队长度与事故横断面实际通行能力、事故持续时间、路段上游车流量间的优化函数关系。%The authors researched function relationship of vehicle queue length affected by traffic accidents, actual capacity accident of accident cross-sectional, accident duration and upstream traffic of road segment, based on modified traffic stream fluctuation theory, number of lane change, total delay time and queue length.

  9. Studies on Urban Traffic Capacity Change under the Influence of Traffic Accident%交通事故影响下事发路段通行能力变化研究

    程望斌; 罗艳; 张浩; 尹丽; 袁媛; 雷新平; 贺利苗

    2013-01-01

    With the development of social economy and the speeding up of urbanization, transport problems have became increasingly prominent, urban road traffic capacity is influenced by many factors, but the most significant is traffic accident .To study the road capacity ,two typical traffic accidents as the example are used in this paper. Combining with the actual situation of road traffic accident, setting up the model of traffic wave theory, using MATLAB software to analyze and process traffic data, we received the actual capacity changes line and curve fitting during an accident in cross section. Through contrastive analysis, two kind of typical reasons of traffic changes are gotten, and traffic capacity changes are elaborated and evaluated scientifically. So the research methods and results in this paper are scientific, and also provides an important reference basis for urban road traffic management.%随着社会经济的发展和城市化进程的加快,城市交通问题日益严重,城市道路通行能力受诸多因素影响,其中交通事故影响最为显著。本文以两起典型交通事故为例,对事发路段通行能力进行研究。结合交通事故中的实际情况,建立交通波理论模型,用 MATLAB 软件对交通数据进行分析和处理,得到事故所处横断面实际通行能力变化的折线和拟合曲线图。通过对比分析,得到两种典型事故中实际通行能力的变化情况,并对通行能力变化原因进行了详细阐述和科学评价。因此,文中的研究方法和结果具有一定的科学性,为城市道路交通管理提供了重要的参考依据。

  10. Study of patients of road traffic accidents a rriving in emergency department [ED] of V.S hospital at Ahmedabad city, single centre pilot study.

    Aharnish Shah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of the study According to the latest world status report on road safety released by WHO, we are now the world leaders in road traffic accident rate & related mortality. Our study intends to find out the epidemiological factors, risk factors, use of safety measures, compliance with traffic laws, presenting injuries & ED intervention required, in patients with road traffic accidents. Materials & methods Our study is a cross sectional observational study in which data was obtained from 150 patients of road traffic accidents arriving at any time to emergency department. Collected data included information about basic details, basic crash characteristics, risk factors, use of safety measures, injuries sustained, ED intervention required & disposition. Results Approximately 77% of the patients belong to 11-50 yr age group. The most common time of RTA is between 6 am to 12 noon [36.67%]. However accidents requiring admission were more during night time [62.74%]. Innocent passengers & pedestrians contributed to 41% of the accident cases. Non compliance with traffic laws & safety measures like driving without license [20%], using mobile phones while driving [10%], not using headlights at night [26%], not using seatbelts [80%], not using helmets [91%], etc were found in a substantial number of cases. Intracranial bleed & skull fractures were significantly (31.2% v/s 0% more in drivers without helmets than those with helmets. ED intervention required in decreasing order were dressing ( 38%, laceration repair (27.33%, splinting (24%, crash intubation (10%, ICD (2.66%. Conclusion: Well equipped secondary & tertiary level trauma centres, specially dedicated to management of trauma patients, with a proper triage plan, are necessary for proper management of trauma patients & better utilisation of resources. Our study shows that an ER physician should be trained in l aceration repair, dressing, splint/slab application, fracture/dislocation reduction

  11. Clinical Presentation and Time-Based Mortality in Patients With Chest Injuries Associated With Road Traffic Accidents

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Abdelrahman, Husham; Al-Hassani, Ammar; Ellabib, Mohammad; Asim, Mohammad; Zarour, Ahmad; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Blunt chest trauma (BCT) poses significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Objectives: We investigated the clinical presentation and outcome of BCT related to road traffic accidents (RTA). Patients and Methods: A retrospective observational analysis for patients who sustained BCT secondary to RTA in terms of motor vehicle crash (MVC) and pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents (PMVA) who were admitted to the trauma center at Hamad general hospital, Doha, Qatar, between 2008 and 2011. Results: Of 5118 traumatic injury cases, 1004 (20%) were found to have BCT secondary to RTA (77% MVC and 23% PMVA). The majority were males (92%), and expatriates (72%). Among MVCs, 84% reported they did not use protective devices. There was a correlation between chest abbreviated injury score (AIS) and injury severity scoring (ISS) (r = 0.35, r2 = 0.12, P < 0.001). Regardless of mechanism of injury (MOI), multivariate analysis showed that the head injury associated with chest AIS and ISS was a predictor of mortality in BCT. Overall mortality was 15%, and the highest rate was observed within the first 24 hours post-trauma. Conclusions: Blunt chest trauma from RTA represents one-fifth of the total trauma admissions in Qatar, with a high overall mortality. Pedestrians are likely to have more severe injuries and higher fatality rates than MVC victims. Specific injury prevention programs focusing on road safety should be implemented to minimize the incidence of such preventable injuries.

  12. [Sleep habits and traffic accidents in inter-provincial bus drivers of Arequipa, Peru].

    Caso, Alex; Rey de Castro, Jorge; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine sleep habits in bus drivers and their relationship to accidents in the city of Arequipa, Peru, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a non-probabilistic sample of 166 drivers. Driving hours per day were 9.4 ± 3.7. 54% (89) drive over 4 hours without stopping; 74% (123) drive at night; and 87% (145) sleep on the bus. 75% reported fatigue while driving (124). 27% (45) had drowsiness; 24% (40) reported having been in or on the verge of an accident while driving. Sleepiness or fatigue while driving was common in this population and their driving and rest habits could contribute to this. PMID:25597722

  13. 0BOccupational Risk Factors in Iranian Professional Drivers and their Impacts on Traffic Accidents

    MEHDI JAHANGIRI; ALI KARIMI; SAMIRA SLAMIZAD; MOHAMMAD OLYAEI; SEKHAVAT MOOSAVI; FATEMEH AMIRI

    2015-01-01

      In many countries road crashes are the main cause of fatal accidents related to job. The aim of our study was to characterize a population of Iranian professional drivers with regard to history of drivers’ road crash incidents and some occupational factors. Using Swedish version of the Nordic Questionnaire information about musculoskeletal pain prevalence in last 12 months, demographic features, smoking habits, age, job experience, road crash, job consent, self-perceived job stress, working...

  14. [Fatal hyperpyrexia in an adolescent patient with severe burns after a traffic accident].

    Jaehn, T; Sievers, R; Junger, A; Graunke, F; Blings, A; Reichert, B

    2016-07-01

    After a motorcycle accident a 16-year-old patient suffered severe burns to 40.5 % of the total body surface area (TBSA) of which 37 % were deep subdermal burns. After tangential and partly epifascial necrosectomy, Integra® was used as a temporary dermis replacement material for the lower extremities, combined with extensive negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). In the further course of the treatment the patient developed uncontrollable hyperpyrexia with a fatal outcome. Possible influencing factors, such as the dermis replacement material combined with NPWT over large areas as well as the differential diagnoses propofol infusion syndrome, heatstroke and malignant hyperthermia are discussed. PMID:26767381

  15. A Video-based Method of Traffic Accident Detection%一种基于视频的交通事故检测方法

    拜佩; 李金屏

    2012-01-01

    针对目前交通事故检测中存在因疲劳等原因造成交通事故漏检的现象,提出一种基于视频的交通事故检测方法.该方法包括3部分:预处理模块,检测车辆和分析车辆状态;交通事故检测模块,判断是否会发生碰撞;报警模块,主要进行事故实时报警且实时存储事发图片.以车流量较小的路口为例进行仿真实验,结果表明,该系统能准确地预测并判断交通事故的发生.%For the phenomenon existing in current traffic incident detection,which accidents are undetected due to fatigue,an effective intelligent traffic incident detection method is presented. This method includes three parts; preprocessing,detecting and analyzing vehicle conditions. Traffic detection section is to determine whether collisions occur or not,and alarm part is mainly for real-time alerting and real-time storing accident incident image. Taking intersections of smaller vehicle flows for simulation experiment, this system can accurately forecast and determine the incidence of traffic accidents.

  16. Examination of Plastic in Traffic Accidents%交通事故中塑料物证的检验

    罗仪文; 孙其然; 徐彻; 卞新伟

    2015-01-01

    Plastic fragments are frequently present in traffic accident scene, especially the hit-and-run accidents. Samples collected from the scene are often very small, sometimes even smaller than one square millimeter in size. Forensic labs need to do comparison of the scene samples with the plastic of suspected car. In this paper, examinations of plastic in three traffic accidents were described and the characteristics of these plastic evidences summarized. The key points involved the collection and analysis of plastic samples were discussed along with the evaluation of the findings. Vehicles are usually fitted with the plastics, chemically different but visually similar, in positions close to each other for functional and aesthetic purposes. It should be careful for both accident investigators and laboratory analysts that some plastics might be altered in shape, color or other physical characteristics, after being affected by force or heat in the process of transfer. Micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (Micro-FTIR) is a quick, informative and non-destructive method for plastics analysis, therefore, both comparison and identification of plastics could be achieved by their FTIR spectrum.%塑料是交通事故中的重要物证,其鉴定结果对确定或排除嫌疑肇事车辆具有重要的意义。本文详细介绍了三起交通事故中塑料物证的鉴定过程,总结了交通事故中塑料物证的特点。塑料物证在勘验时的查找、取样,在检验时的外观、成分分析以及如何评判结果的证据价值这一整个过程中应注意的问题,均在本文的三个典型案例中有具体表现。特别是部分塑料物证在转移过程中因受到力与热的影响,会呈现出形状及颜色的变化,这一特征在事故勘验及实验室检验时都应加强重视。在诸多检测方法中,显微红外光谱仪是检验塑料的有效手段,不仅可对未知样品与已知样品进行比对,还可通过谱

  17. Road traffic accidents and posttraumatic stress disorder in an orthopedic setting in south-eastern Nigeria: a controlled study

    Uwakwe Richard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric liaison services are rare in trauma units of various hospitals in Nigeria and other sub-Saharan African countries. The occurrence of road traffic accidents (RTAs resulting from low standard of road construction and inadequate maintenance have been on the increase in Nigeria. While the physical consequences of such RTAs are obvious, the psychological consequences are often not apparent. This study assessed the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD among victims of RTAs and compared same with controls drawn from a population who have not experienced RTAs. It also assessed the associated socio-demographic variables. Method Study population consisted of one hundred and fifty RTA victims and two different control groups drawn from the population consisting of staffs of Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria and that of National Orthopedic Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria, 150 people in each control group were matched for age and sex with the RTA victims and they were interviewed with PTSD module of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI and their socio-demographic variables obtained with socio-demographic questionnaire. Results The prevalence of PTSD among RTA victims and the two control groups were 26.7%, 8.0% and 8.7% respectively. The difference in prevalence was statistically significant with RTA victims more likely to experience PTSD compared to the two control groups (X2 = 27.23, df = 2, p = 0.001. Gender influenced the prevalence of PTSD among victims of RTAs and the controls, with females more likely to experience PTSD when compared to the males. Among victims of RTAs, being gainfully employed prior to the accidents increased the likelihood of developing PTSD and this was statistically significant (X2 = 20.09, df = 1, p = 0.000. Conclusions There is urgent need to pay more attention to developing consultation-liaison psychiatry services in trauma units of Nigerian hospitals

  18. The Scientific Precautions of Traffic Accidents on Rural Roads%农村道路交通事故之科学预防

    张新海

    2011-01-01

    农村道路交通参与者安全意识淡薄,缺乏必要的交通安全知识,人、车、路、环境及信息等要素不协调,是农村交通事故高发、致死率较高的重要原因。科学预防农村道路交通事故,需要重视交通安全文化建设,提高参与者素质、改善交通环境;充分发挥各级政府的宏观调控作用,构建农村道路交通安全社会化管理体系;完善农村道路交通安全管理日常工作制度,建立标本兼治的长效管理机制。%The fact that participants of rural road traffic lack safety awareness and adequate traffic safety knowledge and there is a disharmony in the factors of people,vehicles,roads,surroundings and information,which is the culprit of high traffic accident rates and high fatality rate in rural areas.How to prevent rural traffic accidents lies on emphasizing the improvement of traffic safety culture and participants per se,bringing out the regulating functions of local governments to establish rural road traffic safety administration system,and enhancing the routine work of rural road traffic safety administration as to formulate a long-term effective mechanism.

  19. Socioeconomic inequality and road traffic accidents in Thailand: comparing cases treated in government hospitals inside and outside of Bangkok.

    Yongchaitrakul, Teerachai; Juntakarn, Chantip; Prasartritha, Thavat

    2012-05-01

    The study aims to report annual demographic characteristics and to compare the differences of socioeconomic inequality, type of motor vehicles, and seating relating to major bone injuries among hospitals in and outside Bangkok. Six public hospitals in Bangkok and six regional hospitals in the provinces were studied over a one year period (2008-2009). There were 3,650 cases: 3,596 injured patients and 54 deaths. Patients with a lower education level accounted for the largest number of cases, both in the provinces (46.3%) and Bangkok (17.1%). Their incomes were less than THB 10,000/yearly. Total number of motorcycle cases (3,360) was higher (11.6:1) than 290 cases of motor vehicles. Pickup cars were used more commonly. Riding a motorcycle was likely to be fatal. The front seat was the most common involvement. Passengers occupying the middle and rear seat of the motorcycle were involved in 16.0% and 1.0% cases, respectively. Long bone and joints were the most common injuries. The results strongly confirmed the striking contribution of motorcycles and pickups to road traffic accidents. People with a low educational level, in conjunction with low income, and in areas outside of Bangkok were more at risk. Specific education on road safety should be delivered, preferably in primary schools. PMID:23077859

  20. A longitudinal follow-up of posttraumatic stress: from 9 months to 20 years after a major road traffic accident

    Rydelius Per-Anders

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although road traffic accidents (RTA are a major cause of injury and a cause of posttraumatic stress (PTS in the aftermath, little is known about the long-term psychological effects of RTA. Methods This prospective longitudinal study assessed long-term PTS, grief, and general mental health after a bus carrying 23 sixth-grade schoolchildren crashed on a school outing and 12 children died. Directly affected (i.e., children in the crash and indirectly affected children (i.e., all pupils in the sixth grade who were not in the crash were surveyed at 9 months (N = 102, 4 years (N = 51, and 20 years (N = 40 after the event. Psychological distress was assessed by single items, including sadness, avoidance, intrusions, and guilt. After 20 years, PTS was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Results Stress reactions were prevalent 9 months after the event, with sadness (69% and avoidance (59% being highly represented in both directly and indirectly affected groups, whereas, nightmares (60% and feelings of guilt (50% were only frequent in those directly affected. The frequency of sadness and avoidance decreased after 4 years in the indirectly exposed (ps p = .003, but not decreased general mental health (p = .14, than those indirectly affected. Conclusions The limitations preclude assertive conclusions. Nonetheless, the findings corroborate previous studies reporting traumatic events are associated with long-term PTS, but not with decreased general mental health.

  1. 车辆交通事故视频监测算法研究%Research on Video Detection Algorithm of Vehicle Traffic Accident

    李月娥; 申海洋

    2014-01-01

    In order to detect the vehicle traffic accident quickly and accurately ,a method based on Computer vision and image processing technology was proposed .The result showed that Vehicle traffic accidents will produce smoke ,debris and vehicle velocity will drop drastically .Detected the parameters of the smoke ,debris and the change of vehicle velocity in the traffic surveillance video .Combined with the Marquardt method to fit formula and got the traffic accident probability formula .Then calculated the probability of an accident .Exper-iments showed that :the proposed method can detect the vehicle traffic accident effectively ,the detection ac-curacy rate can reach 89 .4% which verified the effectiveness of the method .By using this method in the in-telligent transportation system ,it will be effective in win the time for subsequent accident treatment which re -flected the practical value .%为快速准确地检测出车辆交通事故的发生,本文提出一种基于计算机视觉和图像处理技术的事故监测算法.统计发现车辆交通事故中会因碰撞伴随产生烟雾、碎片,同时车辆的运动速度会发生锐减.故通过提取交通监控视频中的烟雾、碎片和运动目标速度的变化等参数,结合麦夸特法进行公式拟合可得到交通事故发生概率公式,并计算出事故发生概率.实验结果表明,这种方法能有效地监测出车辆交通事故,检测准确率达89.4%,验证了算法的有效性.此方法应用在智能交通系统中将能及时监测到事故发生,可为后续事故处理赢得时间,故有一定的实用价值.

  2. Characteristics of maxillofacial injuries resulting from road traffic accidents – a 5 year review of the case records from Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Katowice, Poland

    Drugacz Jan; Malara Beata; Malara Piotr

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background In spite of employing numerous devices improving the safety in motor vehicles, traffic accidents are still among the main reasons of maxillofacial injuries. The maxillofacial injuries remain the serious clinical problem because of the specificity of this anatomical region. The knowledge of etiologic factors and mechanisms of injuries can be helpful in a satisfactory trauma prevention. The aim of this study was to find out the incidence and the pattern of maxillofacial inju...

  3. A B C分类管理方法在海事安全管理中的应用%ABC Classification in Waterborne Traffic Accidents Safety Management

    熊振南

    2001-01-01

    将仓储管理ABC分类法引入海事的安全管理中,以便于安全管理部门针对不同水域的海事发生频率、危险程度,制定不同的安全管理对策,并能够充分利用有限的管理资源以提高海事安全管理水平.%If the ABC classification is applied to the management of the waterborne traffic safety,it is convenient for the safety management department to establish different management countermeasures according to the different frequency and criticality of waterborne traffic accidents in different shipping area,shipping company,etc,and to make full use the best of the limited resources in order to improve the management level of waterborne traffic safety.

  4. On the Influence on Urban Road Traffic Transit Capacity Caused by Roadway Taking-up of Traffic Accident%交通事故占道对城市道路通行能力影响的研究

    崔延硕; 郑辉

    2015-01-01

    The traditional queuing theory only uses the relationship between demand and transit capacity to calculate queuing length, so the discrepancy between estimation results and the reality is very large. Combined with traffic volume undulation theory, Greenshields flow-density mode, this paper considers the influence by upstream intersection signals and uses traffic volume undulation theory to analyze and build the traffic volume undulation queuing model. The model mainly embodies changes of a stable traffic flow caused by the sudden traffic accidents.%传统的排队论单纯使用需求量和通行能力关系推算排队长度,因而估算结果与实际出入很大。本文结合车辆波动理论, Greenshields流—密模型考虑上游路口信号灯的影响并运用车流波动理论分析构建车流波动排队模型,主要体现了一个稳定的交通流受突发交通事故的变化情况。

  5. Persistence on airline accidents.

    L. A. GIL-ALANA; Barros, C.P. (Carlos P.); J.R. Faria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses airline accidents data from 1927-2006. The fractional integration methodology is adopted. It is shown that airline accidents are persistent and (fractionally) cointegrated with airline traffic. Thus, there exists an equilibrium relation between air accidents and airline traffic, with the effect of the shocks to that relationship disappearing in the long run. Policy implications are derived for countering accidents events.

  6. Persistence in Airline Accidents

    Carlos Pestana Barros; João Ricardo Faria; Luis A. Gil-Alana

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses airline accident data from 1927-2006, through fractional integration. It is shown that airline accidents are persistent and (fractionally) cointegrated with airline traffic. There exists a negative relation between air accidents and airline traffic, with the effect of the shocks to that relationship disappearing in the long run. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events.

  7. Evaluation of the status of the pre-hospital trauma care in road traffic accidents in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the status of the pre-hospital trauma care in a road traffic accidents in a rural area of Kancheepuram district. Methods: A cross-sectional study of two months duration (June and July 2014 was conducted in the tertiary care hospital of a medical college, and its affiliated urban/rural health centers. Universal sampling was used and all road accident victims were enrolled as study participants. The required information was obtained with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. Ethical clearance was obtained before the start of the study. SPSS version 18 was used for data entry and statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all the variables. Results: A total of 80 (77.7% study subjects were from the productive age group (15–45 years. Most of the accidents were reported at night time [43 (41.7%], on weekends [59 (56.5%], and involved two-wheelers [81 (78.6%]. In addition, 69 cases (67% of the victims were not aware of the existence of emergency ambulance services, while only 6 (5.8% of the victims were brought to the hospital in an emergency ambulance. Conclusions: The study findings clearly suggest that the quality of the pre-hospital trauma care for road traffic accident victims in a rural area of Kancheepuram district lacks on multiple dimensions and there is an immense need to improve and strengthen the range of services to save the lives of the victims.

  8. A Discussion on Interrogation Techniques in Handling Road Traffic Accidents%谈道路交通事故处理中讯问的技巧

    何树林

    2013-01-01

    Those suspects whose acts constitute a crime and shall be prosecuted for criminal liability in accordance with the law in traffic accident cases will be implemented interrogations. Interrogations in handling road traffic accidents, a serious law enforcement activity, must be proceeded strictly according to the law and regulations. It is of great significance for the work of handling road traffic accidents to guarantee interrogations timely and effectively, guarantee suspects provide authentic materials related to the traffic accidents objectively and comprehensively. On the basis of making clear the concept and requirements of interrogation, this article elaborates interrogation techniques profoundly so as to provide help for business departments and the police in handling road traffic accidents.%  对构成犯罪、依法追究刑事责任的交通事故案件,对交通肇事犯罪嫌疑人要实施讯问。道路交通事故处理中的讯问,是一项严肃的执法活动,必须严格按照法律、法规的规定进行。在道路交通事故处理中,保障讯问及时、有效地进行,保障被讯问人客观、全面地提供有关事故的真实材料,对于道路交通事故的处理工作具有十分重要的意义。文章在明确道路交通事故处理中讯问的概念与要求的基础上,深刻阐述了道路交通事故处理中讯问的技巧,目的是为道路交通事故处理的业务部门和办案民警提供帮助。

  9. 浅谈道路交通事故车速鉴定%On the Identification of Vehicle Speed in Road Traffic Accident

    王秋泉; 李永清; 李亮

    2012-01-01

    In the course of identification of road traffic accident, the identification of vehicle speed when the accident took place is the important basis for accident identification. The confirmation of vehicle speed is the necessary link of evidence chain in the formation of accident and the important evidence for case handling agency in confirming whether the driver of responsible party violated in speed controlling. So in the identification of vehicle speed, reasonable computational method of vehicle speed should be chosen connected with the reality based on the form of the accident and collected information. The paper summarized and analyzed theoretical computational method of vehicle speed in road traffic accident, mensuration with monitoring information and the analyzing method through human inju-ry.%在道路交通事故认定过程中,事故发生时车辆速度的鉴定是事故认定中需要的重要依据。事故车速的确认是形成事故过程证据链中必要的环节,也是为办案机构提供事故方驾驶员在控制车速方面是否存在违规行为的重要证据。因此,在进行车速鉴定时要根据事故的形态和采集的信息,结合实际选择合理的车速计算方法。这里系统地归纳分析了交通事故车辆行驶速度的理论计算方法以及监控信息测定法和人体特征损伤分析法。

  10. The Multi-factor Grey Correlative Analysis of Traffic Accident Causation%交通事故致因的多因素灰色关联分析

    马苹苹

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid increasing of urban transportation and the rhythm speeding up in modern society, the road traffic safety of the world situation is increasingly serious, it is not optimistic also in China. In this paper, using the grey system theory, with the traffic accident statistic data in Henan province for six years as an example, through calculation and analysis, determine the main related fac-tors affecting traffic accidents, traffic accidents more factors and quantitative analysis of the relationship between accidents. This study provides a relatively scientific method for the determination of the relationship between factors, and is beneficial for the effective coun-termeasures and for reducing the accidents to the social stability.%随着城市交通工具的迅速增加,现代社会节奏的加快,世界道路交通安全形势日趋严峻,我国道路交通安全更不容乐观。本文运用灰色系统理论,以河南省6年的交通事故统计数据为例,通过计算和分析多因素与交通事故间的灰色关联度,确定出影响交通事故的主要相关因素,得出交通事故多因素与事故间关系的定量化分析结果。该研究为确定交通事故因素间的关系提供了一种较为科学的方法,对分析事故主要原因和提出有效对策有重要的理论意义,有利于减少和预防事故的发生,促进了社会的安定。

  11. Legal Study on Confirming Subject Holding Liability in Road Traffic Accidents%道路交通事故责任主体认定法律研究

    白婕; 刘学斌

    2012-01-01

    道路交通事故案件的法律现象和后果影响已经日益成为一个重要的社会问题。以道路交通事故责任主体的认定原则作为切入点,对交通事故责任认定的一般原则和实践中的赔偿情形进行探讨,并从实践角度对《侵权行为法》提出了立法和司法的建议。%The legal phenomena and the consequences of road traffic accident cases has increasingly become an important social issue.This paper,staring from the principles of confirming the subject holding liability in traffic accidents,explores the general principles and the case of accidents compensation in practice,and proposes legislative and judicial recommendations on legislation from the practical angle.

  12. 高速公路交通事故起数时空分析模型%Temporal-spatial analysis model of traffic accident frequency on expressway

    马壮林; 邵春福; 胡大伟; 马社强

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze the relationships among traffic accident frequency and potential influencing factors such as time,road space structure and traffic running environment,nine independent variables were selected from the aspects of time and space,two kinds of section divided methods were adopted,which were fixed-length consistent segment and longitudinal grade consistent segment,and the hourly,weekly and monthly distribution models of traffic accident frequency were constructed.A typical accident-prone section was selected,and Poisson regression model,negative binomial regression model,zero-inflated Poisson regression model and zero-inflated negative binomial regression model were used to fit hourly,weekly and monthly distribution models respectively.The best forms of three models were determined,and the temporal-spatial analysis model of traffic accident frequency was established based on the goodness of fit test.Analysis result shows that the fitting effect of negative binomial regression model is better for traffic accident hourly and monthly distribution models based on fixed-length consistent segment from the views of AIC and BIC,and the fitting effect of Poisson regression model is better for other models.The prediction errors of traffic accident hourly,weekly and monthly distribution model based on fixed-length consistent segment are less than those of longitudinal grade consistent segment.4 tabs,15 refs.%为了分析交通事故起数与时间、道路空间结构及交通运行环境等潜在影响因素之间的关系,从时间和空间角度选择9个自变量,分别从路段长度一致和路段坡度一致2个角度,构建交通事故起数时段、周日和月分布模型。以某典型交通事故多发段为例,分别运用泊松回归模型、负二项回归模型、零堆积泊松回归模型和零堆积负二项回归模型拟合交通事故起数时段、周日和月分布模型,根据模型的拟合优度检验,分别确定3个模型的最佳

  13. A feasibility study of the use of incidents and accidents reports to evaluate effects of team resource management in air traffic control

    Andersen, V.; Bove, T.

    2000-01-01

    domain of Air Traffic Control under the heading of 'Team Resource Management'. In this adaptation phase, it is important to obtain knowledge concerning the effectiveness of such training programmes in relation to enhancing human factors awareness and knowledge. This requires a methodology for detecting...... training effects. For this purpose a feasibility study has been conducted concerning the use of paper cases - short written reports on real or fictitious incidents or accidents - to discriminate air traffic controllers with regard to their ability to identify 'human factors' determinants involved in such......Valuable improvements in performance have been obtained by 'Crew Resource Management' (CRM) courses performed in the domain of aviation related to the crew in a cockpit, and in the maritime domain related to the crew on the bridge of large ships. CRM courses are currently being adapted to the...

  14. 基于Vega交通事故的3D场景仿真重现%3D Reconstruction of Traffic Accident Scene Based on Vega

    崔海龙

    2014-01-01

    中国拥有全世界1.9%的汽车,引发的交通死亡事故却占了全球的15%,已成为交通事故最多发的国家。鉴于交通事故的如此频发,事故的责任判定成为了热点问题。该课题以Vega三维仿真软件作为开发平台,通过设置Lyn图形界面和API编程,驱动两辆小车在设定的道路上行驶,检测碰撞并触发特效。真实的还原交通事故场景,可为交通肇事的责任判定提供参考。经仿真实验,该场景系统在可以流畅的运行,满足课题要求。%With only 1.9% of the world’s automobile causing 15% of the global traffic fatalities, China has become a country with the most traffic accidents. Due to the high frequency of traffic accidents in China, how to determine the liability is now a hot issue. In a virtual scene stimulated by Vega, a three-dimensional reconstruction software, by setting LynX graphical interface and the API programming, two cars run along the set course, and then collide together. The collision can be detected and then trigger the special effects, which helps determine the liability in the accident. Through our preliminary experiment, the system could be smoothly operated to meet the requirements of the subject.

  15. Pre-hospital care among victims of road traffic accident in a rural area of Tamil Nadu: A cross-sectional descriptive study

    Shrivastava, Saurabh R.; Pradeep Pandian; Shrivastava, Prateek S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization has estimated that globally almost 1.24 million people die annually on the world′s roads. The aim of the study was to assess the attributes of pre-hospital care in road traffic accidents (RTAs) victim brought to the health care establishment and to evaluate the pre-hospital trauma care provided in the rural areas of Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study of 3 months duration (June 2014 to August...

  16. 基于 iOS 的交通事故预警系统设计与开发%Design and Development of Traffic Accident Pre-warning System Based on iOS

    王春; 王鸣宇; 吕傲冰; 丁世杰

    2015-01-01

    In order to settle road jam and secondary accidents caused by traffic accidents , this paper designs a traffic accident pre -warning system based on iOS .By comparing traffic information of different types, the paper adopts text and voice as pre -warning information.The paper develops a traffic accident management service platform in MyEclipse environment and applies it to Tomcat server .The paper adopts Objective-C language for programming and develops a traffic accident pre -warning program in Xcode environment .%为解决交通事故产生的道路拥堵和2次事故,设计了基于iOS的交通事故预警系统。通过对不同类型的交通信息进行对比,采用文字和语音作为预警信息。在MyEclipse环境下开发了交通事故管理服务平台并将其应用于Tomcat服务器。使用Objective-C语言进行编程,在Xcode环境下开发了交通事故预警应用程序。

  17. EQUIVALENT QUEUE LENGTH MODEL FOR THE TWO-LANE HIGHWAY UNDER THE TRAFFIC ACCIDENT%双车道公路交通事故下当量排队长度的数学模型

    杨晨姊

    2014-01-01

    The traffic capacity of the highway and queue length of vehicles under the traffic accident are important to analyze the traffic accident.Firstly,the paper discusses the lane-changing during the traffic accident on the two-lane highway and analyzes the status of traffic flow during the Lane -Changing.Then it builds the equivalent queue length model for the two-lane highway under the traffic accident based on the two-fluid theory. Finally,it simulates and analyzes the model.%交通事故下道路的通行能力和车辆排队长度等问题是交通事故分析的重要内容。笔者探讨了双车道公路交通事故持续期间的换道行为,分析了换道期间车流运行的状态,在此基础上,结合二流理论建立了双车道公路交通事故下当量排队长度的数学模型。最后对该模型进行了仿真分析和计算。

  18. Based on the Intelligence of Mining Association Particles Traffic Accident Liability Judge Method%基于智能关联微粒挖掘的交通事故责任判断方法

    魏红娟

    2012-01-01

    道路交通事故的发生原因是多方面的,实际的交通事故存在潜在的规律性,挖掘这种潜在的规律可以更好地改善交通事故现状.提出一种基于智能微粒群的交通事故成因关联挖掘的方法,通过实际的交通事故发生时现场数据对粒子进行编码,使用后代繁殖变异的方法对粒子进行更新,设置支持度与置信度构造优化的目标函数寻找符合的粒子做为挖掘的规则.实验仿真结果证明,本文的算法能够对交通事故的数据进行合理建模,对实际的人工调控交通有很好的指导意义.%Road traffic accident reason is various, the actual traffic accident potentially regularity, and mining the potential law can better improve traffic accident situation. Is proposed based on a particle swarm intelligence of the traffic accident causes associated mining method, through the actual traffic accident happened to particles on data coding, use the method of offspring breeding variation of particle to update and set up support for the confidence and the optimization of the structure of the objective function looking for particle as a mining rules. The experiment the simulation results show that this algorithm can for the traffic accident on the reasonable data modeling, artificial regulation to the actual traffic has a good guide.

  19. Incidental detection of a small solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas after a traffic accident in a 12-year-old girl: a case report

    Kim Y

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Younglim Kim, Suk-Bae MoonDepartment of Surgery, Kangwon National University Hospital, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Chuncheon, South KoreaAbstract: Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN is a rare tumor of the pancreas that tends to grow silently in patients at a young age, to a large size and mass. We report here a case of a small-sized SPN detected incidentally in a 12-year-old girl following a traffic accident. The tumor was 3.5 cm in maximal diameter and was found to have hemorrhagic necrosis without a solid component. Laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy was performed which cured the patient. SPN is generally accepted to be a low grade malignant tumor, but its clinical behavior is sometimes unpredictable. Tumor size and the proportion of solid portion of the tumor have both recently been identified as predictors of malignancy. Although the initial presentation in this case was that of the traffic accident, the subsequent detection of a small, totally cystic SPN, and then the complete eradication of the lesion, led to a favorable outcome for the patient. Long-term monitoring should prevent any chance of recurrence.Keywords: pancreatic neoplasm, children, distal pancreatectomy

  20. 视频检测在高速公路交通事件中的应用研究%Research on application of video detection in traffic accidents on expressways

    陆洋

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes the features of the traffic accidents on expressways and their influential factors, illustrates the principle for the video detection in the traffic accidents and the advantages of all these detection calculations, and explores the composites of the detection system model of the traffic accidents based on the video by taking some section as the example, so as to direct the practice.%对高速公路交通事件的特点及影响因素进行了分析,阐述了交通事件中视频检测原理及各种检测算法的优点,并以某路段为例,探讨了基于视频的交通事件检测系统模型的构成及性能提高方法,以指导实践。

  1. Tube thoracostomy complications in patients with acute blunt thoracic trauma due to road traffic accidents - a comparative study

    Objective: To determine the differences in the frequency and types of Tube thoracostomy complications (TICs) between two groups of patients (A and B)With blunt thoracic trauma (BIT), as a result of road traffic accidents (RTA). Study Design: Prospective, comparative study. Place and duration of Study: Dawadrrii General Hospital (DGH), a level II trauma center, Riyadh, from December 4, 2011 to December 3, 2012. Methodology: The problem of a high number and variety of TICs' resulting due to various technical aspects of tube thoracostomy (IT) are highlighted in this study. This is a prospective comparative study enrolling a total of 140 patients with BTT due to RTA, referred to this hospital with indwelling Tube thoracostomies (TIs) (group A) or undergoing TTs at this hospital (group B) by a single thoracic surgeon within 10-15 minutes of arrival. Patients' demographic and clinical details were recorded and confirmed with the referring physicians, if necessary. The two groups were matched for age, gender, indications for ITs and the number and types of accompanying injuries. Informed consent was obtained before the procedure. Results were analyzed using SPSS v 19. Statistical significance achieved was translated into p values at 95% confidence interval. Results: Of the J 19 patients, who satisfied the inclusion criteria, group A had 49 (41.2%) and group B, 70 (58.8%) patients. Males were in he majority in both groups. A total of 130 chest tubes were placed in 119 patients. Contralateral chest tubes were indicated in 3 patients in group A and 8 patients in group B (table I). The overall TTCs rate was 61.5% (80/130), with the majority in group A (88.7%; p= 0.0001). The number of technical, infective and miscellaneous TTC in group A and B were 47 (92.2%), 6 (85.7%), 18 (81.8%), and 4 (7.8%), 1(14.3%), and 4 (18.2%), respectively (table II). The majority of the chest tubes in group A were smaller than 28 Fr (p=0.0001; RR=2.98; 95% CI=2.17-4.10). Mortality due to TT in

  2. 城市交通消散期事故高峰现象及成因%Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Peak Traffic Accidents in the City of Huizhou

    周素红; 郑重; 柳林

    2012-01-01

    学界对于交通事故高峰出现在交通高峰期还是之后的消散期存在争论,以惠州市中心城区为例,对城市交通事故进行研究,判别交通消散期事故高峰现象的存在性。以交通事故空间点数据为研究对象,使用核心密度估算法,分析交通事故的结构性特征和时空分布特征,并针对三个交通消散期研究其事故的具体特征及其成因。研究表明:惠州市中心城区交通消散期存在事故高峰现象,主要发生在上午和下午;机动车在交通事故中占主导地位;临近商业设施的交通消散期事故高峰现象最为明显;支路事故在晚间交通消散期后段出现了事故高峰;从上午到晚上,交通事故黑点从交通相关设施转移到商业设施。交通消散期事故高峰现象的形成与居民集中在交通消散期的非通勤交通行为、特定路段的小时交通量高峰出现在交通消散期,以及交通消散期内松懈的交通管制和驾驶行为等有一定的关系。%The rapid growth of automobile industries has increased traffic flows and traffic related accidents in urban areas during the recent years. Traffic jams and traffic accidents have major impacts on people' s daily life. There has been a growing body of literature investigating the characteristics and reasons of traffic accidents. A number of studies have focused on the temporal patterns of accidents and revealed that more accidents occur in day-time than night-time, afternoon than morning. However, there is no general agreement on whether peak traffic accidents always happen during the rush hours. This study aims to analyze the spatio-temporal patterns of traffic accidents in Huicheng District in Huizhou City, China. Specifically this study examines the temporal patterns of peak traffic accidents and their relationship with nearby land use. The study reveals that peak traffic accidents do not coincide with rush hours. Motor

  3. Temporal-spatial Analysis Model of Traffic Accident Severity Based on Cumulative Logistic Model%基于累积Logistic模型的交通事故严重程度时空分析

    马壮林; 邵春福; 董春娇; 王抢

    2011-01-01

    交通事故的发生具有随机性和偶然性,为尽可能地降低交通事故的伤害程度,根据某高速公路典型事故多发段的交通事故统计资料,以交通事故严重程度为因变量,从时间、道路空间结构和交通运行环境等因素中初步选择12个候选自变量,采用混合逐步选择法分析候选自变量与因变量是否显著相关.采用累积Logistic模型建立交通事故严重程度时空分析模型,并从成比例检验、拟合优度检验和预测准确度检验3个方面对模型进行检验.研究结果表明:事故发生时段、季节因素、发生地点、道路线形、坡度、事故涉及车辆数和日标准交通量与年平均日交通量之比与交通事故严重程度显著相关.%The occurrence of traffic accidents has the randomicity and contingency, this article attempts to make a research on the rules of traffic accidents to minimize the severity of traffic accidents. Firstly, according to the statistical data of a typical accident-prone section, accident severity was selected as the dependent variable, and twelve factors from the three aspects of time, road spatial structure and traffic environment were selected as the candidate independent variables. Then, the combined stepwise method was used to analyze the significant correlation between dependent variable and independent variables, and a temporal-spatial analysis model of traffic accident based on cumulative Logistic model was built. The developed model was tested from three aspects, which are score test for the proportional odds assumption, goodness of fit and predictive accuracy. The results show that seven independent variables, which are accident time, seasonal factors, accident location, road alignment, gradient, the number of vehicles involved in accidents and the ratio of daily traffic to annual average daily traffic, are significantly associated with the dependent variable.

  4. 交通事故致因中的人为因素分析%Human Factors in Causation of Traffic Accidents

    孔令铮

    2013-01-01

    为改善交通安全状况,减少交通事故,从最主要的因素——人为因素出发,分析其影响.导致事故发生的主要原因是:驾驶员处理交通事件的能力(包括新手、老年、酒精、药物、疲劳、压力等),驾驶员在驾驶时采取冒险行为(包括不正确使用安全带、超速、犯罪、自杀等).结果表明:新手驾驶、饮酒驾驶、疲劳驾驶、不正确使用安全带驾驶等仍是影响交通安全的主要因素.%In order to improve the traffic safety and decrease the amount of traffic accidents, this article analyses the impact of the main factors influencing the traffic safety - - human factors. This paper distinguishes between those human factors that reduce capability to meet traffic contingencies (including inexperience, old age, alcoholism, drug abuse, fatigue and acute psychological stress) and those that modulate risk taking while driving (including incorrect use of seatbelt, speeding, crime and suicide) , then analyses comprehensively their influence on drivers. The results show that inexperience driving, drinking driving, fatigue driving and incorrect use of seatbelt driving are still the major aspects which should be taken into consideration.

  5. Liuzhou city from 2006 to 2014 epidemiological characteristics of serious road traffic accident investigation%2006~2014年柳州市重大道路交通事故流行病学特征分析

    刘华; 李兵; 黄福文; 杨家有; 汤中飞; 邓旺生; 陆菊; 阮海林

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查分析柳州市重大道路交通事故发生的特点及规律,为控制和预防道路交通创伤提供科学依据。方法回顾性分析2006~2014年柳州市重大道路交通事故监测统计资料。结果(1)2006~2014年柳州市重大道路交通事故发生例数、死亡人数、受伤人数呈总体下降趋势。以1月份发生事故最多,占事故总数的11.5%;6月份发生事故最少,为6.8%。夜间19:00~23:00时事故发生最多,凌晨3:00~6:00时发生最少。(2)重大道路交通事故多数发生在平直道路上。(3)白天发生事故最多,夜间无路灯照明的路段事故伤亡和受伤人数明显高于夜间有路灯照明的路段。(4)重大道路交通事故发生的主要原因为人为因素,占总数的96.7%。结论减少重大道路交通事故发生,必须加强交通安全宣传、教育,提高全民安全意识;交管部门严格执法,尤其要加强交通事故高发时段、路段的管理;加强道路安全设施建设,改善交通环境。%Objective Investigation and analysis of Liuzhou significant characteristics and law of road traffic acci‐dents ,which will provide a scientific basis for control and prevention of road traffic trauma . Methods From 2006 to 2014 were retrospectively analyzed to collect statistics of serious road traffic accidents monitoring . Results (1)Liuzhou serious road traffic accident cases ,the number of deaths ,injury in the overall downward trend ,most ac‐cidents in January ,accounted for 11.5% of total number of accidents ,accidents in June at least (6 .8% ) .Most clearly 19 :00~23 :00 when the accident happened at night ,there was at least 3 :00~6:00 in the morning .(2)The most serious road traffic accident happened on the straight path .(3)Accidents occur most often during the day and night with no street lamp lighting significantly better than the number of road accident casualties and injuries have

  6. A Study to Assess the Factors and Out of Pocket Expenditures in the Patients of Road Traffic Accidents Admitted in a Tertiary Care Hospital in a Central India District

    Srivastava DK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic injuries are estimated to be the eighth leading cause of death globally, with an impact similar to that caused by many communicable diseases, such as malaria. road traffic injuries are estimated to cost low- and middle-income countries between 1–2 % of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP, an estimate of about US$ 100 billion a year. Objectives: To study the epidemiological profile of Road Traffic Injuries among the patients admitted in a tertiary care centre and too find out the various out of pocket expenditure in the patients of Road Traffic Accidents. Material and Method: The present study was a hospital based Descriptive Prospective Study. A list of all the patients admitted due to Road Traffic Accident in last one week was obtained from the ward sisters of Orthopedic Department. All the selected participants were interviewed on the two fixed days. A pre tested structured open ended questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Of the 48 participants interviewed, 34male and 14 females. Most common age group affected was 21-25 years followed by 16-20 years. The rate of accidents was most common on the weekends. The rate of accidents was more in users of two wheelers. Majority of the expenditure in the First week of admission was on the purchase of medicines followed by diagnosis. Majority of the victims also suffered huge financial loss due to loss of salary, closure of shop, loss due to daily wages etc. Conclusion: The present study hereby concludes that there is an urgent need for creating awareness about Road Traffic Accident. The study also concludes that majority of the out of pocket expenditure in the first week of admission is on the medication.

  7. 一起道路交通事故引发重大火灾的调查与分析%Fire investigation and analysis of a road traffic accident

    刘兴华

    2013-01-01

    通过调查和重建一起道路交通事故引发重大火灾的过程,分析引起事故的原因,提出预防和应对此类安全事故处理的措施和意见.%Through investigation and reconstruction a great fire caused by a road traffic accident, analyze the cause of the accident reason, put forward measures and opinions to prevent similar accident.

  8. On the Problems of Road Traffic Accident Appraisal in China and Countermeasure%论我国道路交通事故鉴定存在的问题与对策

    蔡立红

    2011-01-01

    At present there exist a lot of problems in the process of road traffic accident appraisal in China, such as lack of a clear definition to appraisal subject and content, absence of appraisal institutions and imperfection of appraisal system. In practice, the scope of road traffic accident appraisal tends to be too broad and some accident dealers shift the trouble to appraisal in the process of dealing with road traffic accident. The way - out is to define the scope of road traffic accident appraisal, clarify the methods for both appraisers and accident dealers in dealing with the accident, establish a top - down appraisal system and strengthen the management system of appraisers and related supervision mechanism.%当前道路交通事故鉴定存在着鉴定项目及其内容缺乏清晰界定,鉴定机构缺失,鉴定制度建设不完善等问题,事故处理实践中存在鉴定范围扩大化倾向,部分事故处理人员在事故处理过程中遇到难题往鉴定上推,推卸对事故证据的具体分析和案情的综合评判责任。解决的方法是界定交通事故鉴定项目的范围,明确鉴定与事故处理人员分析认定的处理方法,建立自上而下的鉴定系统体系,加强鉴定人的管理制度并完善相应的监督机制。

  9. Analysis on traffic accident caused by dump truck in Shanghai, 2006-2009%2006-2009年上海市自卸货车及全市交通事故特征分析

    喻彦; 侯心一; 周峰; 周德定; 苏慧佳; 高宁

    2012-01-01

    [目的]了解上海市2006-2009年自卸货车道路交通事故的特点,为重型货车道路交通伤害预防提供理论依据.[方法]分析上海市交警部门提供的全市道路交通伤害数据以及自卸货车道路交通伤害数据.[结果]2006-2009年期间全市道路交通事故数以2006年最高,为6588次,2007年后逐步下降,分别为3952次、2745次和2831次,而同期自卸货车道路交通事故数呈现U型趋势,分别为177次、99次、86次和147次.自卸货车事故性质较为严重,98.1%的事故均有人员伤亡.全市道路交通事故一般以二三季度发生较多,且时间段集中在12-18时之间,而自卸货车以二季度发生较多,时间段集中在上午6-12时或12-18时两个时间段.无论是全市还是自卸货车道路交通事故均以年轻驾驶员为主.全市和自卸货车道路交通事故的首要责任认定均为机动车违法,分别占63.8%和73.0%,碰撞特点前3位均为侧面相撞(全市53.0%、自卸53.0%)、正面相撞(全市20.7%、自卸17.3%)和尾随相撞(全市8.8%、自卸8.1%).[结论]自卸货车的交通伤害性质严重,必须从人、车、路3方面入手,采取综合性的干预措施才能有效地降低交通伤害的发生和死亡.%Objective To understand the feature of toad traffic accident caused by dump truck from 2006 to 2009 in Shanghai, and provide evidence for intervention on dump truck accident Methods Data on shanghai traffic accident and accident caused by dump truck were provided by Traffic Police Corps of Shanghai Public Security Bureau. Results From 2006 to 2009, the number of road traffic injuries in 2006 was 6588 which was highest in 4 years. The number was decreased from 2007, 3952 in 2007, 2745 in 2008 and 2831 in 2009, respectively. Meanwhile the number of road traffic injury caused by dump truck showed "U" shape, and the numbers were 177 in 2006, 99 in 2007, 86 in 2008, 147 in 2009, respectively. The accidents caused by dump

  10. Suicidio disimulado como accidente de tráfico: A propósito de un caso Suicide masquerading as traffic accident: case report

    ME. Domínguez Pedroso

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Los motivos que inducen a una persona a enmascarar un suicidio simulando una muerte accidental pueden ser varios. Exponemos un caso en el que la víctima utiliza un accidente de tráfico para disimular un suicidio por arma de fuego y de esta forma conseguir que fuesen abonadas tanto la indemnización del Seguro de Automóviles como los incluidos en un seguro privado contratado poco antes. Sólo a través de una adecuada investigación del lugar de los hechos y de los antecedentes de la víctima junto a la realización del indispensable estudio necrópsico será posible determinar la verdadera etiología médico-legal de las muertes en accidente de tráfico, con especial atención en las que interviene sólo un vehículo con un único ocupante.There are several reasons that induce somebody to mask a suicide simulating an accidental death. We expose a case in which the victim uses a traffic accident to masquerade a suicide by shotgun. By this way, the author tries to receive the reimbursement of the car’s insurance as well as the money included in a private life insurance contracted just few days before. Only with the careful local death examination and the study of the victim's personal history, plus the essential autopsy, could we manage to understand the real aetiology of deaths in traffic accidents, especially focusing on those cases where there is a single car with a single passenger affected.

  11. Application of UNIVAID-HAS in Highway Monitoring Timely and Detection of Traffic Accidents%交通事件检测系统在高速公路中的应用

    郑玉兴

    2009-01-01

    介绍了新一代智能交通信息管理系统,它融合了车辆跟踪检测技术、虚拟线圈技术,极大地满足了高速公路运营管理部门对实时交通事件的监控管理需求.%The paper introduces a new era system UNIVAID-HAS for traffic information intelligence management,system for traffic accidents administration.Its hardware mixes together with the techniques for vehicle tracing detection,fictitious coil techniques and a series of relevant techniques,which greatly meet the requirement of highway running administrative authority for traffic unexpected accidents monitoring timely.

  12. Accident: Reminder

    2003-01-01

    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  13. Stress, Fatigue, Health and Risk of Road Traffic Accidents Among Professional Drivers: The Contribution of Physical Inactivity.

    Taylor, Adrian H; Dorn, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Strategies to achieve ambitious targets for reducing road accidents (34) have largely focused on engineering and technological advancements, the modification of occupational demands, and, to a lesser extent, human factors. These factors include stress and psychological states; sleep, fatigue, and alertness; and health status. Physical activity appears to influence all these human factors but has not previously been systematically considered as a direct or indirect risk factor for d...

  14. Analysis on death caused by traffic accidents in Hongkou District, Shanghai from 2004 to 2009%2004-2009年上海市虹口区车祸死亡分析

    姚文; 邓华; 谢之辉; 冯学山

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the situation of deaths caused by road traffic accidents in Hongkou district, Shanghai from 2004 to 2009, so as to provide evidence for road traffic accident prevention and control. Methods The death data was obtained from all death surveillance system in Hongkou district. Descriptive method was used to analyze the mortality of traffic accidents, the proportion of occupation of death and potential years of life lost (PYLL) , etc. Results The mortality of traffic accident was 6. 08 per 100000 population in Hongkou district, which was the top causes for all injured deaths, accounted for 14. 22% of all injured deaths. The mortality of traffic accident was higher in males than in females. During a period of six years, the mortality of traffic accident presented wave trends. The walking people accounted for 37. 15% of all deaths. The mortality of motorcycle drivers was higher than those of non-motor vehicles and other motor vehicles drivers. The potential years of life lost of traffic accident was 4785. 00 person years in six years. The persons dying from traffic accidents whose potential years of life lost most seriously were car collision. Conclusions The death of traffic accident can be controlled through relevant measures.%目的 了解2004-2009年上海市虹口区车祸的死亡情况,为预防道路交通伤害提供依据.方法 根据上海市虹口区全死因登记监测系统收集的车祸死亡资料,用描述性方法分析车祸死亡率、死亡人员职业构成、减寿人年数(PYLL)等.结果 虹口区2004-2009年车祸死亡率为6.08/10万,占伤害总死亡的14.22%,居伤害死亡的第一位.男性车祸死亡率高于女性,且6年中上海市虹口区居民车祸死亡率呈波动趋势.行人的死亡占交通事故总死亡的37.15%.摩托车驾驶员的死亡率为16.19/10万,远高于非机动车人员及其他机动车驾驶员的死亡率.6年来,交通事故总的减寿年数为4785.00人年,减寿最严重

  15. Late-onset secondary nocturnal enuresis in adolescents associated with post-traumatic stress disorder developed after a traffic accident

    Serkan Akan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary nocturnal enuresis is generally seen between 5 and 7 years of age and it is rarely encountered when compared with the primary incontinence. Patients with suggested diagnosis of secondary nocturnal enuresis should be examined for neurological and spinal anomalies and diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, renal failure and urinary tract infection should be ruled out in differential diagnosis (1-3. Herein, we are presenting case reports of adolescent patients with secondary nocturnal enuresis refractory to medical therapy and developed after in-vehicle and extravehicular accidents.

  16. Late-onset secondary nocturnal enuresis in adolescents associated with post-traumatic stress disorder developed after a traffic accident.

    Akan, Serkan; Ürkmez, Ahmet; Yildirim, Caglar; Sahin, Aytac; Yüksel, Özgür Haki; Verit, Ayhan

    2015-09-01

    Secondary nocturnal enuresis is generally seen between 5 and 7 years of age and it is rarely encountered when compared with the primary incontinence. Patients with suggested diagnosis of secondary nocturnal enuresis should be examined for neurological and spinal anomalies and diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, renal failure and urinary tract infection should be ruled out in differential diagnosis (1-3). Herein, we are presenting case reports of adolescent patients with secondary nocturnal enuresis refractory to medical therapy and developed after in-vehicle and extravehicular accidents. PMID:26428651

  17. Future lines of research in the field of toxic and psychological factors in road accidents : a study made on request of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Toxic and Psychological Factors in Road Traffic Accidents of the Committee of Medical Research and Public Health of the Commission of European Communities, Directorate General for Research Science and Education.

    1976-01-01

    The scope of this report is to state, discuss and forecast the various aspects related to toxic and psychological factors in road traffic accidents. The more specific aim is to prepare a basis on which future action (and more particularly the different priorities for these actions), can be defined.

  18. 论道路交通事故自行协商处理机制的完善%On Mechanism of Negotiation Processing in Road Traffic Accidents

    马悦宸

    2015-01-01

    道路交通事故自行协商处理机制是一项重要的纠纷解决机制。目前,该机制存在适用条件不明确、宣传不到位、保险公司履行赔付义务不及时等问题。考察域外美、英、日、法等发达国家道路交通事故快速处理机制,结合我国实际情况,应依法明确自行协商处理机制的适用条件、增加保险公司的赔付义务以及加强相关处理机关的配合,以更好地完善我国道路交通事故自行协商处理机制。%The negotiating processing mechanism in road traffic accidents is an important dispute solution mechanism. Currently, the mechanism's application conditions are not explicit. Its publicity is not sufficient. The insurance compa⁃ny's obligation of compensation can not be paid in time. Inspecting the quick processing systems of road traffic acci⁃dents in US, UK, Japan and France, and considering the factual situation in China, we should define the application conditions in negotiation processing mechanism, increase compensation obligation of insurance companies and related organizations, so as to perfect the mechanism.

  19. Brain Activity in Response to Trauma-specific, Negative, and Neutral Stimuli. A fMRI Study of Recent Road Traffic Accident Survivors

    Nilsen, Andre S.; Blix, Ines; Leknes, Siri; Ekeberg, Øivind; Skogstad, Laila; Endestad, Tor; Østberg, Bjørn C.; Heir, Trond

    2016-01-01

    Most studies of neuro-functional patterns in trauma-exposed individuals have been conducted considerable time after the traumatic event. Hence little is known about neuro-functional processing shortly after trauma-exposure. We investigated brain activity patterns in response to trauma reminders as well as neutral and negative stimuli in individuals who had recently (within 3 weeks) been involved in a road traffic accident (RTA). Twenty-three RTA survivors and 17 non-trauma-exposed healthy controls (HCs) underwent functional MRI while viewing Trauma-specific, Negative, and Neutral pictures. Data were analyzed from four a priori regions of interest, including bilateral amygdala, subcallosal cortex, and medial prefrontal cortex. In addition, we performed a whole brain analysis and functional connectivity analysis during stimulus presentation. For both groups, Negative stimuli elicited more activity in the amygdala bilaterally than did Neutral and Trauma-specific stimuli. The whole brain analysis revealed higher activation in sensory processing related areas (bilateral occipital and temporal cortices and thalamus) as well as frontal and superior parietal areas, for the RTA group compared to HC, for Trauma-specific stimuli contrasted with Neutral stimuli. We also observed higher functional connectivity for Trauma-specific stimuli, between bilateral amygdala and somatosensory areas, for the RTA group compared to controls, when contrasted with Neutral stimuli. We argue that these results might indicate an attentional sensory processing bias toward Trauma-specific stimuli for trauma exposed individuals, a result in line with findings from the post-traumatic stress disorder literature.

  20. Recent trends of severe head injury in Japan Neurotrauma Data Bank with special reference to road traffic accident. Comparison of clinical features and outcome between Project 1998 and Project 2004

    This study was conducted to clarify the recent trends of severe head injury in the Japan Neurotrauma Data Bank (JNTDB) with special reference to traffic accident. In the JNTDB, the number of severely head-injured patients (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 8 or less) were 832 in Project 1998 and 797 in Project 2004. Those were divided into 2 groups: traffic accident (TA) group, and non-TA (nTA) group. In addition, the former group was classified into 4 groups: 4 wheel vehicle (4WV) group, motorcycle (MC) group, bicycle (BC) group, and pedestrian (P) group. Analyzed here were cause of injury, age distribution, incidence of alcohol intake, means of transportation, clinical severity (GCS and injury severity score), initial CT findings (Traumatic Coma Data Bank), and outcome at discharge (Glasgow Outcome Scale). In the Project 2004; Traffic accident was less common as the cause of injury. The proportion of younger patients was lower in the TA group, especially in the 4WV and MC groups. Incidence of alcohol intake was lower in the TA group, particularly in the MC groups. Patient transfer by helicopter was more common in both the TA and nTA groups. The proportion of GCS of 3 to 5 was lower in the TA group, especially in the MC group. In the initial CT findings, type 3 of diffuse injury and evacuated mass were less frequent in both groups, and in the 4WV, BC, and P groups. Outcome at discharge: Mortality rate was lower in both groups, and in the 4WV, MC and P groups, but the percentage of good outcomes was unchanged. These results indicated the recent trends of severely head-injured patients who were injured by traffic accident. But there were some problems, such as study protocol and meaningless results, so that further verification is indispensable in the JNTDB study. (author)

  1. A mulher e o acidente de trânsito: caracterização do evento em Maringá, Paraná Women and traffic accidents: characterization of occurrences in Maringá, Paraná

    Pedro Paulo Davantel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Os acidentes de trânsito são atualmente a primeira causa de mortalidade no conjunto de causas externas entre as mulheres. A mulher atual, pelas mudanças em seu papel na sociedade, vem se expondo a novos riscos. Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a mulher envolvida em acidente de trânsito, assim como os eventos. Foi realizado um estudo transversal, com dados secundários obtidos nos Boletins de Ocorrência de Acidente de Trânsito - BOAT, do 4º Batalhão da Polícia Militar de Maringá, Setor de Trânsito. Os dados foram categorizados e analisados por meio de testes não-paramétricos, de correlações (Spearman e teste de independência entre as variáveis (qui-quadrado. As mulheres envolvidas em acidente de trânsito eram em sua maioria solteiras (34,0%, com idade entre 21 e 30 anos (49,0%, nível de escolaridade acima do ensino médio (58,0% e predominantemente condutoras (65,0%. Os eventos ocorreram principalmente em dias úteis e nos período da tarde e da noite. As lesões foram mais frequentes em mulheres até os 20 anos e acima dos 51. Maior envolvimento em colisões com automóveis (69,%, com grande proporção de atropelamentos (14,2%, envolveram mulheres acima dos 50 anos e com menor nível de escolaridade. Foram mais atentas ao uso de dispositivos de segurança quando casadas e com maior nível de escolaridade. Estes dados sugerem novo perfil da mulher no trânsito, devendo o acompanhamento destas características e das consequências destes acidentes serem mais constantes em pesquisas, direcionando medidas e campanhas preventivas.Today traffic accidents are the first cause of morbidity in the group of external causes among women. Modern women have changed their role, exposing themselves to new risks. So, this study had as its purpose, characterize women involved in traffic accidents and to describe these accidents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with information obtained from the Traffic Accident Report

  2. 法医临床鉴定中道路交通事故脊柱损伤的特点分析%Characteristics Analysis on Spinal Injury in Forensic Clinical Identification of Road Traffic Accidents

    刘伟; 朱春瑞

    2014-01-01

    文章以笔者所在单位处理的164例道路交通事故脊柱损伤案例为研究对象,通过分析案例中脊柱损伤的不同特征,研究道路交通事故脊柱损伤中法医临床学的临床应用,目的在于为法医临床学鉴定道路交通事故脊柱损伤提供一些参考。%In this paper, the author collects 164 cases of spinal injury caused by road traffic accidents han-dled by the author's working place as the research object, analyzes the different characteristics of spinal injury, studies clinical application of road traffic accidents of spinal injury in clinical forensic, aiming at providing some references for forensic clinical identification of road traffic accident spinal injury.

  3. Practical research into the cognitive reliability and error analysis of the human factors in traffic accidents%CREAM追溯法在交通事故人因分析中的应用研究

    付琴; 陈沅江; 邓奇春

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is aiming to analyze the root cause of human errors leading to disastrous human casualty and other kinds of traffic or transportation accidents by using the retrospective analysis method known as CREAM (cognitive reliability and error analysis method) . CREAM is also known as the representative second-generation human reliability analysis method to retrospect the deep-rooted cause of the traffic accidents and ways to predict their chance probability . The paper emphasizes the key influence of the context of the scenario on human behaviors and the drivers' performance because their driving behaviors are not isolated but influenced by the contextual situations they are involved in. In pursuing our research goal, we have analyzed the deep-rooted cause of human errors in the road traffic accidents with the retrospective analysis method in CREAM. First of all, a brief introduction to CREAM method, stressing the importance of intuitive understanding of the ineffective psychology and establishing human error identification model of road traffic accidents including four aspects, including slip, omission, violation and fault-commission. And, next, detailed recognized statistical data table of the accidents on the highway are given", which prove that human error is the key factor leading to the road traffic accidents. Moreover, the human errors are classified according to the relationship between the consequential and predictable factors, and then reorganized and complemented according to the actual facts. A data table of predictable causes can be shown. A simple consequential-antecedent retrospective table has been offered which is fit for the complex human error analysis and the process of the retrospective analysis has been prepared for practical application. We have also proposed items for further discussion of the quantitative and qualitative calculations so as to disclose the root causes leading to such disasters. In addition, we have also worked out

  4. Trace Analysis of Driver Behavior on Traffic Violator by Using Big Data (Traffic Program in Korea

    Lee, Jonghak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to prove the effectiveness of traffic safety education program for traffic violators. Traffic violators who finished the traffic safety education programs were tracked down. In order to analyze the effectiveness of traffic safety education program, traffic violator’s data during ten-year period were used. This study analyzed how traffic violators changed their attitudes about traffic law abidance. Also predicted social benefits from traffic safety education program for traffic violators. Effectiveness of traffic accident prevention through traffic safety education program is approximately 93%. In terms of social benefits, it shows more than $12 billion Even though the effectiveness of traffic safety education program represents remarkable results, but this program is made for traffic violators who have already committed traffic offenses in the past. So in order to prevent traffic violations in advance, specific education program for potentially risky drivers is necessary.

  5. Acidentes de trânsito: uma análise a partir da perspectiva das vítimas em Campinas Traffic accidents: an analysis based on the perspective of the victims in Campinas, Brazil

    Marcos S. Queiroz

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo focaliza, numa perspectiva interdisciplinar qualitativa, o problema de acidente de trânsito a partir da visão de 20 vítimas hospitalizadas. Através de dados obtidos por meio de entrevistas, características sociais do acidentado e as circunstâncias do acidente foram analisados. O artigo focaliza, ainda, as representações sociais do acidentado sobre vários temas, tais como o hospital, as causas do acidente, o trânsito, o trabalho, o sistema de transporte coletivo e individual, a motocicleta e as perspectivas para o futuro. Concluímos que as representações sociais do acidentado sobre o trânsito e o acidente de trânsito estão fortemente relacionadas com as dimensões comportamentais e culturais dos indivíduos envolvidos. Tais achados sugerem que, em um nível mais abrangente, a solução do problema de acidente de trânsito requer, sobretudo, a implementação de políticas públicas que levem em conta a dimensão cultural e enfatizem programas de educação para o trânsito.This article focuses, through a qualitative interdisciplinary perspective, the problem of traffic accidents, according to the view of 20 hospitalized victims. Based on the data obtained from interviews, the social characteristics of the victims and the circumstances of the accident were studied. The article proceeds by focusing the social representations of the victims about several aspects, such as the hospital, the cause of the accident, the traffic, the collective transport system, the work situation and the perspectives for the future. We conclude that the social representations from the victims about the traffic accidents are strongly connected to both behavioral and cultural dimensions. These findings suggest that, in a wider perspective, the solution to the problem of traffic accidents require, above all, the implementation of public policies which take into account the cultural dimension and emphasizes traffic educational programs.

  6. Motociclistas de entrega: algumas características dos acidentes de trânsito na região sul do Brasil Motorcycle couriers: characteristics of traffic accidents in southern Brazil

    Dorotéia Fátima Pelissari de Paula Soares

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: conhecer características dos acidentes de trânsito ocorridos com motoboys nos municípios de Londrina e Maringá, Estado do Paraná. MÉTODOS: Foram considerados 327 motoboys que relataram, em 2005/2006, acidentes de motocicleta nos 12 meses anteriores à pesquisa (147 de Londrina e 180 de Maringá. RESULTADOS: Dos entrevistados, 39,6% relataram mais de um acidente de trânsito. Os acidentes foram percebidos como graves por 21,4% dos motoboys e 56,3% relataram conhecer motoboy afastado do trabalho por acidente. A maioria dos acidentes (82,9% ocorreu durante o trabalho. Foram observadas diferenças significativas, entre os municípios, para condições climáticas (p=0,013, período do dia (p=0,002, atendimento pré-hospitalar (p=0,032 e necessidade de internação hospitalar (pOBJECTIVE: This study aimed at understanding characteristics of traffic accidents with motorcycle couriers in the cities of Londrina and Maringá, in the State of Paraná (Brazil. METHODS: A total of 327 couriers who reported, in 2005/2006, motorcycle accident in the previous 12 months took part in the study (147 in Londrina and 180 in Maringá. RESULTS: Of all the interviewed, 39.6% reported more than one traffic accident. The accidents were perceived as serious by 21.4% of them and 56.3% reported knowing a convalescing courier due to a traffic accident. Most injuries (82.9% occurred during work hours. Significant differences were observed between the cities concerning climatic conditions (p=0.013, time of the day (p=0.002, pre-hospital care (p=0.032 and hospital admission (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: The high incidence and the recurrence of traffic accidents highlight the susceptibility of motorcycle couriers to these events and the need for strategies and specific prevention policies.

  7. Propostas para minimizar os riscos de acidentes de trânsito envolvendo crianças e adolescentes Proposals for controlling traffic accident risks for children and adolescents

    Eloir de Oliveira Faria

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto analisa a situação de insegurança de crianças e adolescentes no trânsito e propõe um programa de ação para a prevenção de acidentes, com medidas de urbanismo, educação, engenharia e fiscalização de trânsito. Propõe um programa de prevenção de atropelamentos, que consiste na implantação de um sistema de informações sobre acidentes de trânsito, na verificação das rotas de circulação de pedestres e dos principais pontos de travessia, na revisão dos semáforos, no tratamento e na ação educativa junto às travessias de pedestres, no tratamento de pontos críticos, na melhoria dos passeios e na ampliação e melhoria da fiscalização do trânsito e do atendimento aos acidentados. A análise da prática brasileira na educação para o trânsito indicou que não é possível mudar comportamentos no trânsito abordando o tema como tem sido feito, portanto, as bases de uma nova proposta são esboçadas.This paper analyses traffic safety problems concerning children and adolescents. It proposes a programme aimed at preventing traffic accidents, including measures related to urban aspects and to traffic education, engineering and enforcement. The programme proposed aims at preventing pedestrian accidents and includes a traffic accident data system, the checking of all pedestrian routes and main crossings, with special attention to traffic lights, traffic education actions, blackspot treatment, remedial measures directed to pavements, enforcement and rescue services with medical care for the injured. The analyses focusing on traffic education practice in Brazil have indicated that it will not promote changes in users' behaviour. Therefore, the article suggests the basis of a new approach.

  8. CASE-CONTROL STUDY ON THE TAXI DRIVERS' RISK FACTORS FOR THE TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS%出租车驾驶员道路交通事故危险因素的病例对照研究

    卢国良; 鲍鲸; 夏昭林

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨道路交通事故中出租车驾驶员的危险因素,为进一步开展交通事故的预防提供科学依据.[方法]采用病例对照研究方法,通过问卷调查方法收集事故组驾驶员和非事故组驾驶员的一般情况、家庭状况、生活习惯、交通安全意识和驾驶行为等情况.用SPSS11.5软件进行统计分析. [结果]单因素分析显示教育程度、驾龄、驾驶水平评价、驾驶员的一些安全意识和驾驶行为是交通事故的重要危险因素.[结论]应针对这些危险因素加强道路交通管理的力度,同时进一步加强对驾驶员的安全意识和安全驾驶行为的教育宣传,提高驾驶员的安全意识和行为,预防和减少交通事故的发生.%[Objective] To explore the taxi drivers' risk factors for the road traffic accidents, and provide scientific evidence for traffic accidents preventing and control. [Methods] Case-control study was used in research, and self designed questionnaire were used to collect data. The information in questionnaire included basic characteristics, family condition, living habit, drive behavior and traffic consciousness. Data were analyzed by using the software SPSS11.5. [Results] Single factor analysis result showed that the degree of study, driving years, self evaluate of road sense and some of drive behavior and traffic consciousness were significantly relative to traffic accidents. [Conclusion] According to the risk factors, road traffic management should be strengthened and drive safety education should be used to improve the drivers' behavior and traffic consciousness.

  9. Traffic incidents analysis on Slovenian motorway network

    Jakše, Bojan

    2013-01-01

    In my bachelor thesis we were analysing traffic incidents (such as accidents, congestions, heavy snow, etc.) on Slovenian road network, specifically we focused on incidents on motorways. We were starting from database of incidents provided by Prometno-informacijski center (Traffic information center) and added information about hourly traffic at the moment of incident. We were also researching possible correlations between weather and traffic congestions and accidents as well as behaviour of ...

  10. 基于信息感知的高速公路事故路段限速方案及仿真%Speed-limited Scheme and Simulation of Traffic Accident Scenes on Freeway Based on Information Perception

    张文会; 徐慧智; 张刑磊

    2012-01-01

    事故现场的存在改变了交通流状态,影响车辆的安全行驶,如果事故现场处置不合理,易诱发二次交通事故.根据车辆行驶特征以及驾驶员行为特性,将高速公路事故路段进行区域划分;参考驾驶员的动视力和视野范围,建立基于信息感知的高速公路事故路段限速逻辑模型.在仿真环境下,选取通行能力、最大排队长度、平均速度和速度样本标准偏差等评价参数,比对限速方案和不限速方案,结果表明:在各特征交通流量下,通行能力变化不大,限速方案下平均速度降低,最大排队长度和速度标准差也降低.%Accident scenes change the station of traffic flow and affect driving safely. Unreasonable disposal of accident scenes induces secondary traffic accidents. The accidents scenes on freeway were divided into microcosmic region according to the characteristics of vehicles driving and driver behavior. Speed-limit models based on information perception was established according to visual acuity and visual field of drivers. Evaluation indexes including traffic capacity, the max queue length, average velocity and standard deviation of speed sample were chosen to be compared for speed-limited scheme and not. The results show that traffic capacity has not significant difference, average velocity is lower in speed limited scheme, the max queue length and standard deviation of speed sample decrease in various traffic volume.

  11. Hospitalization Costs of Traumatic Brain Injuries Caused by Traffic Accidents in Eastern China%华东地区颅脑交通伤住院费用调查

    袁强; 姚海军; 刘华; 孙一害; 吴惺; 胡锦

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the hospitalization costs and related factors of traumatic brain injuries(TBl)caused by traffic accidents in eastern China, and to analyze the direct economic burden of traffic accident associated TBI. Methods; The pool of 7 369 TBI patients in association with traffic accidents were derived from the database based on the investigation of hospitalized patients with traumatic brain injury in eastern China in 2004. Data were analyzed through using SPSS 13.0 software. Results; The highest total cost for hospitalized traffic associated TBI reached 380 000.00 RMB (average 16 158.90 RMB; median 8 402.50 RMB). The avenge of daily cost of hospitalization was 1 121.47 RMB (median 692.28 RMB). Cox regression model showed that province, sex, residence status, aurgery, CCS, payment type, ward type, age, hospital level, time of traffic injuries and multiple injuries are likely the main factors causing the high hospitalization cost of traumatic brain injuries caused by traffic accidents. Conclusion: The disease burden of TBI caused by traffic accidents are so heavy. The health education should be strengthened for those people between 25 to 44 years old and for the elderly male people. The first aid at 0-7 o'clock should he enhanced, and the hospitalization costs of traffic injuries be minimized.%目的:对华东地区颅脑交通伤住院患者的住院费用及相关影响因素进行分析,掌握颅脑交通伤住院患者的疾病负担.方法:整群抽取2004年华东地区颅脑创伤住院患者数据库中颅脑交通伤患者7369例,用SPSS 15.0统计软件包分析.结果:7 369例患者住院费用平均16 158 90元,中位住院费用8 402 50元.日住院费用平均1 121 47元,中位日住院费用692 28元.COX回归模型显示省份、性别、居住状态、手术、GCS评分、费用支付方式、病房类型、年龄、医院级别、交通伤发生时间及多发伤都可能是造成颅脑交通伤患者住院费用高低的重要影响因素.结论:

  12. On Importance and Methods of Confirming Driver Causing Traffic Accidents in Transportation Cases%浅谈认定交通肇事驾驶人的重要性及其方法

    于力; 孙乃勤

    2014-01-01

    正确认定交通肇事驾驶人是交通民警公平、公正处理交通事故的前提,对提高办案质量和效率,避免形成冤假错案,切实保护受害人利益,及时化解矛盾,维护社会稳定有着极为重要的意义。在实践中,办案交警可通过肇事车辆碰撞痕迹与可疑人员身体损伤部位对应关系的分析、现场遗留物的比对、DNA检验、证人证言收集、视频资料分析等方法来认定交通肇事驾驶人。%It is a premise to confirm the driver causing traffic accident in handling traffic case fair and justly for police. And it is of great significance to improve the quality and efficiency of case solution, avoid unjust charges, protect the rights of victims, dissolve conflicts in time and maintain the social stability. In the practice, police can analyze and compare the crash mark on cars, the wound of the suspected drivers, the remains on the scene, DNA test, the confession of the witnesses, and video data to confirm the driver causing the traffic accident.

  13. Status of road traffic injury rescue and current work in China

    JIANG Bao-guo

    2011-01-01

    STATUS OF TRAFFIC INJURY IN CHINA According to WHO statistics,every year there are more than 1.2 million people who die in traffic accident,around three thousand every day,and about 50 million people injured in traffic accident.Economic loss due to traffic accidents is as high as 518 billion US dollar.

  14. 基于改进模糊数量化理论的事故微观预测模型%Micro Prediction Model of Traffic Accident Based on Improved Fuzzy Quantitative Theory

    秦利燕; 秦玉权; 邵春福

    2012-01-01

    针对道路交通事故发生的随机性及影响事故发生的因素很多,而且影响因素中既有定量因素又有定性因素的情况.首先分析了道路交通事故事故4项指标和事故率,确定事故率作为微观预测目标;然后从人-车-路组成的系统观点出发对事故因素分析,选取驾驶员的驾龄、车道数、平曲线半径、纵坡度、路面情况、路口路段类型、道路宽度和交通流量等变量作为主要影响因素,其中前7项作为定性影响因素,交通流量作为定量影响因素,各定性因素下分为若干类目;最后在数量化理论的基础之上建立了改进的模糊道路交通事故微观预测模型.该模型以某国道466.678~559.792 km段作为算例进行计算,计算结果表明:三枝交叉口对事故影响最大,针对该路段提出具体的道路整改意见.%The random feature of traffic accidents with multiple influencing factors includes qualitative and quantitative ones. The accident rate was selected as the microscopic prediction objective after analyzing 4 traffic accident indexes and accident rates. Then several factors, including driving years, number of lanes, radius of horizontal curve, longitudinal grade, road surface status, types of intersection and road section, width of road surface and traffic volume were selected as major influencing factors for analyzing the influencing factors from a systematic perspective with the combination of human, vehicle and road. Among these factors, traffic volume was quantative factor, and the other were qualitative factors which were divided into several categories respectively. An improved fuzzy microscopic model for predicting traffic accidents was established based on quantitative theory. To verify the model, the data of road accidents and a 466. 678 -559. 792 km section on certain national highway was taken for example calculation. The calculation result indicates that three-way intersection has the greatest

  15. 交通事故中脊柱损伤法医鉴定的特点分析%Characteristics Analysis of Spinal Injury Forensic Identification in Traffic Accidents

    秦志东; 张磊

    2015-01-01

    In order to analyze the characteristics of spinal injury forensic identification in traffic accidents, 134 cases of spinal injury in traffic accidents from January 2013 to December 2014 are selected. Through the analysis on spinal injury parts, nature and characteristics, it is found that in all cases, spinal injury mainly ap-pears in lumbar, thoracic, and vertebra; and joint dislocation and fracture are the main damage types. Spinal in-jury in traffic accidents is relatively complex, therefore the identification conclusion should be made with the con-sideration of the age, gender, recovery time of the injured, and whether the injured has a chronic disease or injury should be taken into consideration as well.%为分析交通事故中脊柱损伤法医鉴定的特点,本文选取了2013年1月至2014年12月期间的134例交通事故脊柱损伤案例,通过分析脊柱损伤的部位、性质和特点,发现所有案例中脊柱损伤部位主要集中在腰椎、胸椎、颈椎,而损伤类型主要则以关节脱位、骨折为主。交通事故脊柱损伤情况较为复杂,要结合伤者年龄、性别、伤后恢复时间、是否有陈旧性疾病或损伤等情况,仔细甄别才能作出鉴定结论。

  16. Are falls more common than road traffic accidents in pediatric trauma?Experience from a Level 1 trauma centre in New Delhi, India

    Annu Babu; Amulya Rattan; Piyush Ranjan; Maneesh Singhal; Amit Gupta; Subodh Kumar; Biplab Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose:The epidemiology of pediatric trauma is different in different parts of the world.Some researchers suggest falls as the most common mechanism,whereas others report road traffic accidents (RTAs) as the most common cause.The aim of this study is to find out the leading cause of pediatric admissions in Trauma Surgery in New Delhi,India.Methods:Inpatient data from January 2012 to September 2014 was searched retrospectively in Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre Trauma Registry.All patients aged 18 years or less on index presentation admitted to surgical ward/ICU or later taken transfer by the Department of Trauma Surgery were included.Data were retrieved in predesigned proformas.Information thus compiled was coded in unique alphanumeric codes for each variable and subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS version 21.Results:We had 300 patients over a 33 month period.Among them,236 (78.6%) were males and 64 (21.3%) females.Overall the predominant cause was RTAs in 132 (43%) patients.On subgroup analysis of up to 12 years age group (n =147),the most common cause was found to be RTAs again.However,falls showed an incremental upward trend (36.05% in up to 12 age group versus 27% overall),catching up with RTAs (44.89%).Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS) ranged from 0 to 12 with a mean of 8.12 + 2.022.223 (74.33%) patients experienced trauma limited to one anatomic region only,whereas 77 (25.66%) patients suffered polytrauma.288 patients were discharged to home care.Overall,12 patients expired in the cohort.Median hospital stay was 6 days (range 1-182).Conclusion:Pediatric trauma is becoming a cause of increasing concern,especially in the developing countries.The leading cause of admissions in Trauma Surgery is RTAs (43%) as compared to falls from height (27%);however,falls from height are showing an increasing trend as we move to younger age groups.Enhancing road safety alone may not be a lasting solution for prevention of pediatric trauma and

  17. Traffic Signal Using Smart Agent System

    Cheonshik Kim; You S. Hong

    2008-01-01

    In this research, we propose an electro-sensitive traffic light using the smart agent algorithm to reduce traffic congestion and traffic accidents. The multi-agent system approach can provide a new and preferable solution. The proposed method adaptively controls the cycle of traffic signals even though the traffic volume varies. Consequently, we reduce the car waiting time and start-up delay time using fuzzy control of feedback data. In particular, we have designed and implemented a system to...

  18. 机动车道路交通事故民事损害赔偿若干问题研究——以实际案例为研究载体%On Motor Vehicle Civil Damages in Road Traffic Accidents -Take Actual Case as Studying Carrier

    张迅雷

    2012-01-01

    In this article, through a case study, motor vehicle traffic accident civil damage compensation liability principle as the basic cut point, road traffic accident damage compensation scope is studied. Solution of insurance compensation in a road traffic accident civil compensation is in the central role. It also helps improve road traffic accident social rescue fund system, thereby making it more fair and reasonable to handle traffic accident damage%以案例为研究载体,以机动车交通事故民事损害赔偿归责原则为切入点,注重研究道路交通事故损害赔偿责任的适用范围。在研究过程中突出解决保险赔偿问题在解决道路交通事故民事赔偿问题中的核心作用,并完善道路交通事故社会救助基金制度,从而更公平合理地处理交通事故造成的损害后果。

  19. 一种基于物联网的智慧交通事件检测算法%An Algorithm of Intelligent Traffic Accident Detection Based on the Internet of Things

    韩丽; 闫红岩

    2011-01-01

    Through research on the public techniques and the application prospects of the Internet of Things , an intelligent traffic management system was designed and built. In the system, a high-efficiency layered accident detection algorithm was proposed: the 1st layer accident detection for small flow, the 2nd layer accident detection for free flow, and 3rd layer accident detection for large flow. Finally, by experiment on the Zhengzhou Southwest City-surrounding Highway, validity of the algorithm was proved and a better efficiency was obtained.%在研究了物联网的公共技术及应用前景的基础上,设计建立了智慧交通管理系统.在系统中提出了一种新的分层的事件自动检测算法:检测小流量的第一层事件检测算法、检测自由流量的第二层事件检测算法和检测大流量的第三层事件检测算法.最后通过对郑州西南绕城高速进行实验,验证了本算法的正确性和有效性,并得到了较好的检测效率.

  20. Acidentes de trânsito: uma visão qualitativa no Município de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil Traffic accidents: a qualitative approach from Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    Marcos S. Queiroz

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo focaliza, numa perspectiva interdisciplinar qualitativa, o problema de acidentes de trânsito no Município de Campinas. Ele começa analisando o processo de municipalização do transporte e trânsito no município, com base nas representações sociais de técnicos da Secretaria Municipal de Transporte. Alguns números são trazidos à tona para mostrar uma queda significativa de mortes no trânsito em Campinas nos últimos dez anos. Esses números demonstram que as políticas públicas implementadas nesse setor têm sido positivas em vários aspectos. Atenção especial é dada aos objetivos, estratégias e obstáculos encontrados pelo poder local no processo de municipalização do trânsito. O artigo conclui enfatizando que, além da municipalização, o Estado necessita implementar políticas públicas específicas consistentes, principalmente aquelas voltadas à revitalização do transporte coletivo e a programas de educação no trânsito, a fim de se poder avançar no controle do problema.This article takes an interdisciplinary qualitative approach to the problem of traffic accidents in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. The authors begin by analyzing the "municipalization" (i.e., decentralization to the municipal level of transport and traffic management in Campinas based on social representations by members of the local government's technical staff. Data demonstrate a significant drop in traffic accident mortality in Campinas in the last ten years. The findings illustrate how new transport and traffic policies had several positive effects. Special attention is given to the objectives, strategies, and obstacles dealt with by local government in the "municipalization" of traffic. The paper concludes by emphasizing the need for specific public policies to revitalize urban mass transportation, including special traffic safety educational programs.

  1. 广西道路交通事故BP人工神经网络预测模型的建立及效果评价%Establishment and Efficacy Evaluation of BP Neural Network Model for Prediction of Road Traffic Accidents in Guangxi

    刘勇; 杨莉; 彭振仁; 黄开勇

    2013-01-01

    目的 构建广西道路交通事故BP人工神经网络预测模型,为研究广西道路交通事故提供新方法.方法 在分析道路交通事故与人、车、路等因素关系的基础上,选取人口数、客运周转量、民用车辆拥有量和公里里程数作为输入变量,交通事故发生数作为输出变量,应用BP人工神经网络技术,对2010年广西道路交通发生数进行预测.结果 2010年广西交通事故预测数为4 562次,实际发现4 351次,预测值与实际值误差为4.85%,建立的模型拟合效果较好.结论 BP人工神经网络模型适用于广西交通事故数的预测,为交通部门进行交通事故预测研究提供新方法.%Objective To construct the prediction model of road traffic accidents in Guangxi by BP neural network, and to provide a new method for studying road traffic accidents. Methods Based on the analysis of the relation between road traffic accidents and factors,including human,vehicle and road,the predicting model of road traffic accidents, which used population,passenger turnover,number of civilian vehicles and Km mileage as the input neurons and the road traffic accidents as the output neuron, was established by BP neural network to predict the road traffic accidents of Guangxi in 2010. Results The predicted value and actual one in 2010 for the road traffic accidents were 4 562 and 4 351,respectively, and the percentage of error was 4. 85%. The fitting of the model established was more effective. Conclusion The predicting model established by BP neural network is suited for predicting road traffic accidents in Guangxi, and it has provided a new method for traffic department.

  2. Autorreporte de accidentes de tránsito en una encuesta nacional en la población urbana de Perú Self-reporting of road traffic accidents in a national survey of urban population in Peru

    Paolo Wong

    2010-06-01

    accidents in the previous year in the general population and to determine the associated factors. Materials and methods. We conducted a secondary analysis of the data of the III National Survey of Drug Use in the General Population of Peru, 2006. We measured socio-demographical variables: age, gender, place of origin, educational level and marital status. We also evaluated the use of legal, illegal and medical drugs. The independent variable was the self-reporting of a road traffic accident. We performed the descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analysis of the socio-demographical variables and the drug use (legal and illegal, together with the self-reporting of the traffic accident. Results. The frequency of reporting of road traffic accidents in the last year according to the survey was 2.93% (95%CI: 2.92-2.94. The associated factors for self-reporting of a road traffic accident were: to live in the jungle areas (OR: 2.03; 95%CI:1.55-2.65, male gender (OR: 1.79; 95%CI: 1.46-2.22, legal drugs use in the last year (OR: 1.98, 95%CI: 1.53-2.55, alcohol consumption in the last year (OR: 1.82; 95%CI: 1.44-2.32 and medical drugs use in the last year (OR: 2,45, 95%CI 1,63-3,68. Conclusions. The prevalence of self-reporting of road traffic accidents in the last year was very high compared to similar studies and other reporting sources. The variables associated with having had a traffic accident were: living in the jungle area, being male, legal drug use in the last month, especially alcohol and medical drug use in the last month. It is necessary to think carefully about the information system of the road traffic accidents in order to achieve a better picture of the problem putting emphasis in the legal drugs use.

  3. 零膨胀泊松回归模型及其在交通事故中的应用%Zero-inflated Poisson Regression Model and Its Application in Traffic Accident

    陈异; 戴琳; 寇鹏

    2013-01-01

    零点膨胀泊松回归模型是利用零处的概率质量退化分布和一个泊松回归模型进行混合所得到的,该模型是分析零点膨胀计数数据的有效工具。文中采用零膨胀泊松回归模型对某高速公路数据进行拟合并对该数据采用score检验统计量就是否存在零膨胀进行了检验,研究结果表明当车流量达到1.8辆万/日以上交通事故发生的频率会明显增加,有关部门应采取相应的措施,如限制收费站进口车辆或者采取分流等,特别是在极端天气出现时,更应及时控制好车流量并提醒驾驶员保持车距。%Zero-inflated Poisson regression modeluses the zero probability mass distribution and a Poisson regression model for mixing. The model is very effective to analyze and research the problem of excessive containing zero. In this paper,adopt the zero-inflated Pois-son regression model to research and analyze the relationship about highway traffic flow and traffic accident frequency,and use score test statistic for test whether there is zero-inflation existed in this count data,obtaining the zero-inflated model is valid. Research results show that when the traffic flow reached 1. 8 million/day or more traffic accident frequencies will increase obviously,the relevant departments should take the corresponding measures,such as restrictions on imported vehicle toll station or adopting billabong,especially in extreme weather occurs,it should prompt control car traffic and remind the driver to keep distance.

  4. Traffic accidents and road surface skidding resistance : paper presented to the Second Internation Skid Prevention Conference, Columbus, Ohio, May 2-6, 1977.

    Schlösser, L.H.M

    1999-01-01

    In this research a statistical relation was sought between the skidding resistance of road surfaces and the relative road risks. In the concept of accident quotient the number of accidents that occurs on a certain section of road within a certain period of time is related to the total number of kilometres travelled on that section in the period concerned. The involvement quotient is the number of vehicles which, per million vehicle-kilometers travelled, subdivided into the categories passenge...

  5. Real-Time Road Traffic Anomaly Detection

    Jamal Raiyn; Tomer Toledo

    2014-01-01

    Many modeling approaches have been proposed to help forecast and detect incidents. Accident has received the most attention from researchers due to its impacts economically. The traffic congestion costs billions of dollars to economy. The main reasons of major percentage of traffic congestion are the incidents. Road accidents continue to increase in digital age. There are many reasons for road accidents. This paper will discuss and introduce new algorithm for road ac...

  6. Current statistical tools, systems and bodies concerned with safety and accident statistics. Contribution to the OECD seminar `International Road Traffic and Accident Databases IRTAD', Helsinki, Finland, September 19, 1995.

    Koornstra, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The current use of road safety information systems and the few systems for international use are discussed. Recommendations are formulated for a more efficient, less costly and improved accident registration on the local, national and international levels.

  7. Characterization of mortality rates resulting from traffic accidents involving cycles Caracterización de la mortalidad por accidentes del tránsito con participación de ciclos

    Mavis Ortis Sagasta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traffic accidents are a highly complex phenomenon due to the variety of factors involved in their occurrence. They have become more relevant as the fight against illnesses becomes more effective. Objective: To characterize the mortality rates resulting from traffic accidents involving cycles. Methods: Descriptive study on case series conducted at the General University Hospital "Dr. Gustavo Lima Aldereguía " in Cienfuegos on all deaths related to traffic accidents involving cycles from January 1st to December 31st , 2009. Variables that were analyzed: age, sex, time of the accident, predominantly affected anatomical region, direct cause of death and ingestion of alcohol. Results: There were 26 deaths (6.4 per 100 000 inhabitants, mainly in the group from 15 to 29 years old, predominantly males with 23 cases (88.4%.53, 8% of them were workers and 23% were students. There was a predominance of fatalities in the hours between 6:00 pm and 11:59 pm. The most affected anatomic region was the head (61.5%, 46, 2 % of deaths had more than 50 mg of alcohol in blood and the predominant direct cause of death was the injuries of higher nervous centers. Conclusions: Traffic accidents involving cycles are more frequent in young males . They are related to the ingestion of alcohol and usually affect the head region.Introducción: los accidentes constituyen un fenómeno sumamente complejo debido a los numerosos y variados factores que intervienen en su producción. Estos se hacen más relevantes en la medida que se hace más eficaz la lucha contra las enfermedades. Objetivo: caracterizar la mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito con participación de ciclos. Métodos: estudio descriptivo de serie de casos, realizado en el Hospital General Universitario “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” de Cienfuegos sobre todos los

  8. 急救护理流程在高速公路患者救护中的应用%Application of nursing process to the emergency rescue in expressway traffic accident

    吴燕娟; 王芙蓉; 黄超红; 张爱华; 王美丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the application effect of nursing process to the emergency rescue in expressway traffic accident .Methods One hundred and eighty patients from January 2009 to January 2010 in our hospital were not given the nursing process to the emergency rescue in expressway traffic accident as the control group , and 200 patients from March 2010 and March 2011 in our hospital were given the nursing process to the emergency rescue in expressway traffic accident as the experimental group .The time of ambulance to depart the hospital , arriving to the location of the accident , rescuing the patients in the scene of accident , arriving to the hospital and the success rate of rescuing were compared in two groups .Results The time of ambulance to depart the hospital , arriving to the location of the accident , rescuing the patients in the scene of accident, arriving to the hospital in the experimental groups were respectively (1.33 ±0.35), (6.74 ±1.78), (6.25 ±3.61), (28.61 ±6.03) min, and were lower than (2.62 ±0.64), (9.34 ±2.62), (13.5 ±8.27), (43.1 ±7.36) min in the control group , and the differences were statistically significant ( t =2.63, 8.18, 2.51, 4.84, respectively;P<0.01).Ten cases in the experimental group were death due to the invalid rescue in the scene of accident , two cases were death 5 days after the operation , and the remaining cases were successfully rescued.The success rate of rescuing in the experimental group was 91.5%, and was 85.6% in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (χ2 =3.91, P<0.05).Conclusions Nursing processes to the emergency rescue in expressway traffic accident can shorted the time of arriving to the location of the accident and rescuing the patients in the scene of accident , and can improve the success rate of rescuing , and are of high practicability and maneuverability .%目的:探讨急救护理流程在高速公路交通事故伤员救护中的应用效果。方法将本院2009

  9. Forensic analysis of 201 cases of knee injury in traffic accidents%201例交通事故导致膝关节损伤的法医学分析

    朱英; 李红卫; 赵鹏; 唐任宽; 朱士胜; 李剑波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the characteristics of knee injury in traffic accidents so as to provide an objective basis for its forensic identification. Methods Retrospective analysis was carried out on 201 cases of knee injury in traffic accidents identified by our department from 2006 to 2009. Results According to the types of knee injury,all cases were divided into bone injury group,soft tissue injury group and bone combined soft tissue injury group.Analysis of the knee joint function in the three groups revealed that there were significant differences between bone injury or bone combined soft tissues injury groups and soft tissue injury group in weight bearing including the normal bearing rate and nonbearing rate( P < 0.05,respectively). Conclusions If patients' weight loading,walking functions as well as their gait conditions are introduced into the process of forensic identification for the knee injury in traffic accidents,the identification results will be more reasonable.%目的 探讨交通事故导致膝关节损伤的特点,为其法医学鉴定提供客观依据. 方法 对2006 -2008年间经重庆法医验伤所鉴定的201例交通事故导致的膝关节损伤案例进行回顾性研究. 结果 根据膝关节的损伤类型,将本组案例分为骨损伤组、软组织损伤组及骨合并软组织损伤组.通过对各组膝关节功能情况的分析发现:对于负重情况,其正常率以及不能负重率,骨损伤组以及骨合并软组织损伤组均与软组织损伤组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05). 结论 将患者的负重情况、行走功能以及步态情况纳入鉴定过程,会使交通事故导致膝关节损伤的法医学鉴定更为合理.

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF CEREBRAL INJURY CAUSED BY ALCOHOL-RELATED MOTORCYCLE TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS%醉酒后摩托车驾驶致颅脑损伤的临床诊治

    蔡新琦; 崔华中; 黄铿; 韩溟; 蔡桂嘉; 陈泽锋

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical characteristics and misdiagnosis causes associated with alcohol-related motorcycle traffic accidents.Method All patients were given pre-hospital care,treated with naloxone hydrochloride in hospital,and underwent the CT and other examinations.Serious cerebral injuries were operated timely.Result 43 patients suffered from the traffic accident caused by alcohol-related motorcycle.26 of them had simple cerebral injury;17 were serious.5 of all patients were companied by complex injury,6 were delayed accurate diagnosis,and 5 were dead.Conclusion Motorcycle traffic accidents related alcohol result in easily the cerebral injury,and combined injury has high incidences.All patients should be examined CT and treated as soon as possible so as to improve prognosis,decrease the misdiagnosis,and mortality.%目的 探讨醉酒后摩托车驾驶所致颅脑外伤病人的临床特点及误诊原因.方法 对43例醉酒驾驶摩托车导致颅脑损伤者,给予及时的院前急救,入院后予纳洛酮进行催醒治疗,所有伤者及早进行头颅CT检查和其他部位的辅助检查,对重伤患者及时进行手术治疗.结果 43例全部为醉酒后驾驶摩托车所致的交通意外,单纯型颅脑外伤26例;重型颅脑外伤17例.其中复合伤5例,占11.6%,延误诊断6例,占13.95%,死亡5例,占11.6%.31例经保守和手术治疗愈合,7例有不同程度的肢体功能障碍.38例经半年随访,其中3例有反复发作的癫痫.结论 醉酒后摩托车交通意外易致颅脑损伤.及时进行CT头颅检查和应用纳络酮治疗,可以提高治愈率,降低误诊率和死亡率.

  11. 一种基于OBB包围盒算法的交通事故检测方法%A Method of Traffic Accident Detection Based on Oriented Bounding Box Algorithm

    刘纬琪; 王夏黎; 荆树旭

    2014-01-01

    给出了一种用虚拟环境下的OBB碰撞检测算法对真实环境下城市道路交通事故进行检测的方法。该方法的主要思想是利用OBB算法计算车辆的包围盒,通过对包围盒的地面平面投影得到车辆矩形二维包围盒,然后检测这些矩形在同一平面上是否相交从而判断车辆是否发生碰撞,最后根据车辆的碰撞方式确认事故的类型,从而完成事故检测。为了提高算法效率,还给出了OBB包围盒数量的控制方法。实验结果表明,该方法能够快速地检测到交通事故的发生。%Propose a method of testing the urban road traffic accidents in real environment using the OBB collision detection algorithm in virtual environment. The main idea is to calculate the bounding box of vehicles with OBB algorithm,and to obtain the two-dimensional rectangular bounding box of vehicles with planar projection of the bounding box,then to judge whether the vehicles collide each other by detecting whether the rectangular on the same plane,and according the collision mode,the type of accident is recognized,finishing the ac-cident detection. In order to improve algorithm efficiency,the method of control is also provided for OBB amount. Experimental result in-dicates that the proposed method can rapidly detect accidents.

  12. Análisis edad-periodo-cohorte de la mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico en España Age-period-cohort analysis of traffic accident mortality in Spain

    Carmen Saiz-Sánchez

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Estudiar la evolución de la mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico en España y su posible aplicación a un modelo edad-periodo-cohorte, así como el efecto que pueden tener algunas medidas de seguridad vial seleccionadas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se obtuvieron las tasas de mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico y las tasas en intervalos quinquenales de edad para cada sexo, lo que permite su estudio como tasas específicas de edad por cohortes de nacimiento. Para determinar la asociación entre las medidas de seguridad vial seleccionadas y la mortalidad se han construido modelos de regresión de Poisson. RESULTADOS. Se observaron dos ondas evolutivas en la mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico. Respecto a la edad, no podemos hablar de un efecto claro; tampoco se encontró un efecto cohorte ni para varones ni para mujeres. En relación con las medidas de seguridad vial, se discutió la consistencia que guardaban los modelos seleccionados con los resultados gráficos, y se obtuvo que el uso obligatorio del casco y de las luces de cruce en motocicletas se ha asociado significativamente a la reducción de la mortalidad (RR 0.73, pOBJECTIVE. To study the evolution of traffic accidents mortality in Spain and its possible application to an age-period-cohort analysis, as well as the effect of selected road safety measures. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Road accidents rates of mortality were obtained, and five-year interval age rates for each sex, which allows the study of specific rates of age by birth cohorts. To determine the association between the selected road safety measures and mortality, Poisson regression models were adjusted. RESULTS. Two waves emerge in the evolution of traffic accidents. There was no clear effect with respect to age, nor was there a cohort effect for men or women. As to the road safety measures, we discuss the consistency between the selected models and graphic results. The compulsory use of helmet and of crossing lights is

  13. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. PMID:20618386

  14. Investigation of epidemic characteristics and emergency nursing on patients suffered from traffic accidents%交通事故伤害患者流行病学特点及急救护理的调查研究

    唐灵芝; 陈由珠; 李云燕

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解交通伤患者的性别、年龄、受伤部位、车祸发生的时间等特征,为临床救护提供依据.方法 以2005年6月至2007年6月收治的2 955例交通事故伤害的急诊患者为研究对象,进行回顾性、描述性统计分析.结果 交通伤比例高的时间段为5~11月、双休日、每年3个长假,1 d内以11:00~13:00、16:00~19:00为多.交通伤患者男多于女,年龄以16~35岁的青年最多,伤害部位以头面部和四肢为主,需立即实施抢救措施者945例.结论 应加强节假日、双休日、中晚班急诊护理人员的配备,保证有足够的人力参与抢救;同时应加强护士急救意识、各种穿刺能力、抢救技能以及应急应变能力训练,进一步规范交通伤的救治.%Objective To understand the sex,age,injured portion,time of accident on patients suf-fered from traffic accidents in order to provide evidences for clinical emergency rescue.Methods For retrospective analysis and descriptive statistics,2955 patients who suffered from traffic accidents between Jun 2005 and Jun 2007 were as study objects.Results The periods with high traffic wounds were in May to September,weekends,three long holidays.Among a day,accidents happened more in 11Am to 13Pro,16Pm to 19Pm.Male patients were more than females.16 to 35 year old young people were at most.Injured portions were mainly in head,face and four limbs.945 patients needed emergency rescue immediately.Conclusion In order to have sufficient poople to take part in rescues,emergency nurses for holidays,weekends,mid and night duties should be prepared in-creasingly.Meanwhile,nurses'emergency consciousness,various kinds puncture techniques,rescuing and strin-gency skills should be strengthened.Remedy for traffic wounds should be further specified.

  15. 道路交通事故致胸部损伤813例救治体会%Management of thoracic injuries in traffic accident: in 813 cases

    王建柏; 高劲谋; 胡平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the experience of management of thoracic injuries in traffic accident. Methods The clinical data of 813 cases of thoracic injuries ( AIS ≥ 3 ) in traffic accident treated in our unit from Jan. 2002 to Nov. 2009 were studied retrospectively. Results There were 813 cases in this study. Of which 239 cases were drivers, 308 pedestrians, 132 passengers, 129 motorcycle riders, 5 cyclists. There were 182 cases (22.4% ) of cardiac injury, 171 cases ( 21% ) of flail chest, 696 cases of polytrauma ( 85.6% ). And 449 cases presented with shock on admission (55.2% ). Thoracotomy was done in 55 cases (6.8% ) , unplanned re - thoracotomy in 4 cases. The overall mortality rate was 6.8%. Among them, 16 cases of thoracic injuries directly resulted from hemorrhagic shock and extensive cardiac and pulmonary contusion/laceration;19 cases died of secondary injury, the main complications included pulmonary infection and ARDS;the remaining cases died of associated injury.Conclusion Different type of the victims in traffic accident has its own injury mechanism. Strengthening the recognition of high incidence rate of blunt cardiac injury and attaching importance to the management of flail chest can improve the success rate of treatment of thoracic injuries in traffic accident.%目的 总结道路交通事故致胸部损伤的救治经验.方法 回顾分析2002年1月~2009年12月收治的道路交通事故致胸部损伤(AIS≥3分)病例813例的临床资料.结果 本组伤员中汽车驾驶员239例,行人308例,乘员132例,摩托车驾驶员129例,骑自行车人5 例.其中心脏损伤182例(22.4%),连枷胸171例(21%),多发伤696例(85.6%);入院时休克449例(55.2%).剖胸手术55例(6.8%),再剖胸4例.治愈760例(93.5%),死亡53例(6.5%),直接死于胸伤16例,主要为失血性休克和广泛的心脏、肺挫裂伤;死于继发性损伤19例,肺部感染及ARDS为主要并发症;其余死于合并伤.结论 交通事故致胸部损

  16. Traffic Signal Using Smart Agent System

    Cheonshik Kim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we propose an electro-sensitive traffic light using the smart agent algorithm to reduce traffic congestion and traffic accidents. The multi-agent system approach can provide a new and preferable solution. The proposed method adaptively controls the cycle of traffic signals even though the traffic volume varies. Consequently, we reduce the car waiting time and start-up delay time using fuzzy control of feedback data. In particular, we have designed and implemented a system to create optimum traffic signals in congested conditions. The effectiveness of this method was shown through simulation of multiple intersections.

  17. Perfil epidemiológico de los accidentes de tránsito en el Perú, 2005-2009 Epidemiological profile of road traffic accidents in Peru, 2005-2009

    Víctor Choquehuanca-Vilca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar las características del perfil epidemiológico de los accidentes de tránsito (AT en el Perú, en el periodo 2005 -2009. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, se analizó fuentes secundarias de información de AT de la Policía Nacional del Perú y la Estrategia Sanitaria Nacional de Accidentes de Tránsito (ESNAT del Ministerio de Salud. Resultados. En el quinquenio estudiado se produjeron 404 120 AT, el 63,8% de éstos sucedió en Lima. Los automóviles y las camionetas representan los tipos de vehículo más veces involucrados en estos accidentes. El exceso de velocidad y la imprudencia del conductor son las principales causas de la siniestralidad. El tipo de accidente más común es el choque (57%. Los varones de 20 a 34 años son la población más vulnerable. Los AT han provocado 17 025 muertos y 235 591 lesionados en el Perú durante este periodo. Conclusiones. Los AT son un problema emergente de salud pública en el Perú. La tendencia de las cifras de mortalidad y morbilidad por accidentes de tránsito en el Perú ha seguido una curva ascendente entre los años 2005 y 2008; sin embargo, estas cifras durante el 2009 se han reducido de manera muy poco significativa. Los sistemas de información deben integrarse para proporcionar información confiable a las instituciones nacionales involucradas en esta problemática, de manera que sirvan de referencia para futuras decisiones políticas.Objective. To determine the characteristics and epidemiological profile of road traffic injuries (RTI in Peru during the period 2005-2009. Materials and methods. Descriptive, retrospective study, secondary sources of information on RTI from the National Police of Peru and the National Sanitary Strategy for the Control of Traffic Accidents (ESNAT of the Ministry of Health were analyzed. Results. During the 5 years of study, there were 404120 TA, of which 63.8% occurred in Lima. Cars and vans are the types of vehicle

  18. Analysis of Forensic Injury Characteristics on Death Caused by Motorcycle Traffic Accident%摩托车交通事故所致死亡的法医学损伤特征分析

    张冬先; 洪仕君; 赵丽萍; 李利华

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究摩托车交通事故所致死亡案件的特点,探讨分析伤亡人员的损伤特征.方法 抽取摩托车交通事故鉴定案件资料365例,对其损伤类型、特征、部位分布、死亡原因进行统计分析.结果 死亡原因以颅脑损伤居多,现场死亡占大部分,头颈部、胸部、背部、腹盆部、会阴部损伤在伤亡分组中的发生率有统计学差异(P<0.05),颅骨骨折、胸廓骨折和下肢骨折在伤亡分组中的发生率有统计学差异(P<0.05),锁骨骨折在摩托车驾驶员与摩托车乘员相比有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论 摩托车交通事故所致死亡的死亡原因以颅脑损伤居多,且大部分在现场死亡;损伤部位主要分布在四肢和头颈部;摩托车驾驶员锁骨骨折的发生率明显高于摩托车乘员.%0bjective To study the feature of the dead cases caused by motorcycle traffic accident, and discuss the characteristics of the death and the injured. Methods We collected 365 cases about motorcycle traffic accident judicial expertise to analyse the injury type, characteristics, distribution and the causes of death. Results Craniocerebral injury was the common cause leading to death. Death on accident scene was the most. The incidence rate about injury of head and neck, injury of chest, injury of back, injury of abdominal and pelvic part, injury of perineal region had obvious statistical difference between the death group and the injured group. The incidence rate of craniocerebral fracture, thoracic cage fracture, lower limb fracture had statistical difference between the death group and the injured group. The incidence rate of clavicle fracture had statistical difference between motor-cyclist group and motor-passenger group. Conclusions Craniocerebral injury is the most common cause leading to death in motorcycle traffic accident, and most cases of death took place on the accident scene. Injuries are most localized on extremities, head and neck. The

  19. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures

  20. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  1. Epidemiological characteristics of road traffic injuries in AP Vojvodina

    Đurić Predrag; Miladinov-Mikov Marica

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Traffic accidents are one of the leading epidemiological problems in developed countries as well as in developing ones. It is estimated that every day in the world 1308 person die in car accidents. Causes of traffic accidents are factors of road, vehicle and human factors, the latter one being the cause of more than 90% car accidents, isolated or linked with other factors. Material and methods .Data from the Ministry of Internal Affairs - Department in Novi Sad were collected fo...

  2. Emergency treatment and nursing management of group patients of traffic accident%成批车祸事故患者的急救与护理管理

    黄宁静

    2015-01-01

    目的 分析成批车祸事故患者的急救与护理.方法 采取2013年7月份至2014年10月份本院收治的4批车祸事故患者共94例,回顾性分析这94例患者的临床资料,总结患者的急救与护理措施.结果 通过采取相应的急救与护理管理后,94例患者中,88例抢救脱险,2例现场死亡,4例抢救无效死亡,死亡率为6.4%.结论 有效的急救与护理管理能有效地降低成批车祸事故中的死亡率,提高车祸事故患者的生存率.%Objective analyze emergency treatment and nursing of group patients of trafifc accident.Method review and analyze 94 patients treated in our hospital from July 2013 to October 2014, 4 groups of patients with trafifc accidents. Summarize their clinical data and emergency treatment and nursing measures.Result after taking corresponding measures of emergency treatment and nursing management, 88 cases of 94 patients survived, 2 cases died on the spot, 4 cases died after emergency treatment, mortality was 6.4%.Conclusion effective emergency management and nursing management can effectively reduce mortality and improve survival rate of patients with trafifc accident.

  3. Analysis of vehicular traffic flow using a macroscopic model

    Pérez-Sánchez, Fernando Luis; Bautista, Alejandro; Salazar, Martin; Macias, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Today the most cities in the world face different problems caused by vehicular traffic due to the increasing number of vehicles on road, such as traffic congestion, environmental pollution, excessive noise, increased accidents on the road, etc. Therefore it is important to represent the phenomenon by applying models so as to find better traffic flow patterns in a given city. In this work we introduce a simple macroscopic model to describe traffic flow in traffic congestion and we obtain the e...

  4. Aspectos metodologicos de la medición en el sitio de ocurrencia de lesiones por accidentes de tráfico Methodological aspects of measuring injuries from traffic accidents at the site of occurrence

    Martha C. Híjar-Medina

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Os acidentes de trânsito de veículos a motor representam problema de saúde pública, em nível mundial. No México, a pesquisa, nesse campo, é limitada e a metodologia para seu estudo é pouco desenvolvida. Na literatura científica internacional são escassos os artigos que discutem os aspectos metodológicos de pesquisa nesse campo. Assim, realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de apresentar alguns aspectos metodológicos úteis para os interessados em pesquisar lesões por acidentes de trânsito. Foram discutidos aspectos sobre como medir, no local de ocorrência, as variáveis básicas para o estudo dessas lesões, tais como: se o motorista sofreu ou não lesões, uso de cinto de segurança, velocidade e consumo de álcool.Los accidentes de tráfico de vehículos de motor, representan un problema de Salud Pública a nivel mundial. En México la investigación en este campo es limitada y la metodología para su estudio está poco desarrollada. Por otro lado, son relativamente escasos los artículos publicados en revistas científicas internacionales que abunden, en la discusión sobre aspectos metodológicos de la investigación. El objetivo del trabajo es el presentar algunas consideraciones metodológicas que pueden ser de utilidad para los investigadores interesados en el tema de las lesiones por accidentes de tráfico. Se discuten aspectos que deben tenerse en cuenta cuando se miden en el sitio de ocurrencia algunas variables fundamentales para el estudio de las lesiones, como son: Si el conductor está o no lesionado, uso de cinturón de seguridad, velocidad y consumo de alcohol.Traffic accidents are a well-known public health problem worldwide. In Mexico research into risk factors for motor involving vehicles accidents and their consequences has recentlly been taken into account. The relevant literature does not normally describe the methodological aspects involved in the collection of primary data, since most studies have used secondary

  5. Disability related to road traffic crashes among adults in Spain

    Rocío Palmera-Suárez

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of disability due to road traffic accidents in Spain is lower than in other developed countries, with middle-aged and socio-economically underprivileged persons being the most affected. Disability due to road traffic accidents is related to a greater demand for social/health care support, problems of accessibility/commuting, and major changes in economic activity.

  6. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures known to us, the various road locations are treated as isolated spots. With small accident figures it is difficult to detect such places in the known procedures. An alternative procedure starts from...

  7. 刍议痕迹检验技术在勘查检验交通肇事案件现场中的作用%Discussion on the role of trace inspection technology in the scene investigation of traffic accident

    由明文

    2011-01-01

    Over the years,when the technical staff using the trace inspection technology to inspect the traffic accident, they often only take into account the special test of the overall separation of traces and the tire prints to identify the vehicle,but seldom know that the other traces have special roles in determining the nature of the case and the direction of investigation.This paper,through a series of specific traffic accident,indicated that the trace inspection technology has a wide range of applications in the scene investigation of traffic accident,which has a positive meaning for the detection of traffic accident.%长期以来,技术人员在应用痕迹检验技术勘验和检验交通肇事案件时,往往只考虑到特殊痕迹检验中整体分离痕迹和轮胎印痕来认定肇事车辆,对于其他痕迹在确定案件的性质,侦查方向有着特殊作用却少有所知。本文通过一系列具体的交通肇事案件,说明整个痕迹检验技术在交通肇事案件现场中有着广泛应用,对交通肇事案件的侦破具有积极的意义。

  8. An Approach to Simulate Autonomous Vehicles in Urban Traffic Scenarios

    figueiredo, mc; rossetti, rjf; braga, ram; reis, lp

    2009-01-01

    The most common cause of traffic accidents is arguably the driver error due to lack of attention. And it is very unlikely this is going to change soon thanks to increasingly cell-phone usage, in-car entertainment systems, and naturally the more frequent traffic jams in highly populated areas. Autonomous vehicles, such as driverless cars, are a promising approach to decrease traffic accidents, as well as congestions. To test this approach, simulations are a safer, more efficient, and cheaper w...

  9. Acute severe head injury resulted from road traffic accidents:a report on 231 cases

    刘敬业; 张赛; 等

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the epidemiology and clinical outcome of acute severe head injurey induced by road traffic accidents.Methods:The data of 231 patients with acute severe head injury induced by road traffic accidents were retrospectively studied.Results:The major victim-maker was automobiles (98.8%).The first three common types of traffic accidents were automobiles crashing into automobiles,automobiles crashing into bicycles(42.9%),and automobiles crashing pedestrians(40.3%).Eighty-seven patients out of 231 died,with the mortality of 37.7%.Conclusions:It suggests tat improving traffic administration and traffic safety consciousness may significantly reduce traffic trauma.

  10. 36 CFR 1004.4 - Report of motor vehicle accident.

    2010-07-01

    ... accident. 1004.4 Section 1004.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.4 Report of motor vehicle accident. (a) The operator of a motor vehicle involved in an accident resulting in property damage, personal injury or death shall report the accident to the...

  11. Statistical modelling of the frequency and severity of road accidents

    Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær

    reporting traffic accidents. The second questionnaire was administered to stakeholders in the transportation field and was made to detect strengths, threats and opportunities for reporting traffic accidents within the police. This Ph.D. study contributes significantly to the literature about under......Under-reporting of traffic accidents is a well-discussed subject in traffic safety and it is well-known that the degree of under-reporting of traffic accidents is quite high in many countries. Nevertheless, very little literature has been made to investigate what causes the high degree of under......-reporting. The problem of under-reporting is not unique for traffic accidents as severe under-reporting is a challenge in many other fields of incident reporting. In other incidents fields with intended or unintended harm, research has investigated the behavioural reasons for why people choose to report an...

  12. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  13. Assessment of Traffic Noise Impacts

    Rich, Jeppe Husted; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2004-01-01

    A steady growth in traffic intensities in most urban areas throughout the world has forced planners and politicians to seriously consider the resulting environmental impact, such as traffic noise, accidents and air pollution. The assessment of such negative factors is needed in order to reveal...... the true social benefit of infrastructure plans. The paper presents a noise assessment model for the Copenhagen region, which brings together GIS technology and non-linear hedonic regression models to reveal the implicit costs of traffic noise measured as the marginal percentage loss in property values...... with respect to the decibel traffic noise. The model distinguishes between houses and apartments and shows that the ability to include refined accessibility variables have significant impact on estimated prices....

  14. Research on green channel system of first aid to highway traffic accident injury in Kunming city%昆明市军警联动高速公路急救绿色通道体系研究

    刘军; 郝江; 边革元; 江岩

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the current situation in the first aid of highway traffic accident injury in Kunming city, and to discuss and improve the first aid pattern through highway green channel established by the joint military and police. Methods Through the establishment of joint military and police first aid system, the coordination in calling emergency, sending an ambulance, field first aid,conveying,and hospitalized emergency care were specified by regulations and strengthened. Results Joint military and police green channel of highway first aid was superior to the traditional first aid system in the aspects of reaction time, successful rescue rate. Conclusion It is worthwhile to further promote the joint military and police green channel of highway first aid.%目的 研究昆明市高速公路交通伤急救的现状,探讨完善军警联动高速公路绿色通道急救模式.方法 通过设立紧急军警联动急救体系,在呼救协调、出车、现场急救、转运、院内抢救等方面给予制度规范及加强.结果 军警联动急救高速公路绿色通道在反应时间、抢救成功率上,均明显优于传统急救体系.结论 军警联动急救高速公路绿色通道值得进一步推广.

  15. Modelling traveler information and its effects on traffic

    Nguyen, Thai Phu

    2010-01-01

    Traffic conditions on a road network often suffer from congestion. According to sources, the traffic congestion can be classified into two categories : recurrent congestion determined by the physic laws of traffic and non-recurrent congestion due to incidents, accidents or other hazards on the road. Thanks to the advancement of technologies, including computers, communications and data processing, the traffic operator is now able to detect disturbances, to measure the effects and even to anti...

  16. Tendência dos acidentes de trânsito em Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil: importância crescente dos motociclistas Trends in traffic accidents in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil: the increasing involvement of motorcyclists

    Leticia Marín-León

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de descrever a tendência de ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito, sua mortalidade, tipo de veículo envolvido, tamanho da frota e perfil das vítimas em Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, entre 1995 e 2008, foram estimadas taxas de motorização e ocorrência de acidentes, letalidade, mortalidade proporcional, taxas de mortalidade e razões entre taxas. A frota de motocicletas cresceu 241%. Apesar da queda da letalidade dos acidentes de ocupantes de motos entre 2000 e 2008, esta categoria representou 49,3% do total de acidentes fatais em vias públicas em 2008. As motos foram responsáveis pelas maiores taxas de atropelamento (66,7 atropelados/mil acidentes e de atropelamentos seguidos de morte (4 óbitos/mil acidentes. Os homens mantiveram risco de morrer no trânsito muito superior ao das mulheres. Nos atropelamentos, predominaram elevadas taxas de mortalidade em idosos; entre os ocupantes de veículos, os mais atingidos foram os de 15 a 29 anos. Na faixa de 15 a 39 anos, entre 2006 e 2008, quase 80% eram ocupantes de moto. Ações pluri-institucionais devem priorizar a prevenção de acidentes entre motociclistas.In order to describe trends in traffic accidents, mortality, vehicle types, fleet sizes, and victims' characteristics in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 1995 to 2008, this study analyzed vehicle rates, traffic accident rates per inhabitant and per vehicle, case-fatality rates, proportional mortality, mortality rates, and rates ratios. The motorcycle fleet increased 241%. Although the case-fatality rate of motorcycle users from 2000 to 2008 decreased, in 2008 they accounted for 49.3% of fatal accidents on public byways in Campinas. Motorcycles were responsible for the highest run-over rate (66.7 pedestrians/1,000 accidents and highest pedestrian fatality rate (4 deaths/1,000 accidents. Men showed much higher mortality rates than women. Pedestrian victims were mainly elderly; most vehicle occupants in traffic

  17. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Young road users still constitute a high-risk group with regard to road traffic accidents. The crash rate of a moped is four times greater than that of a motorcycle, and the likelihood of being injured in a road traffic accident is 10-20 times higher among moped riders compared to car drivers...

  18. In-depth analysis of accidents : a pilot study and possibilities for further research.

    Oude Egberink, H. Stoop, J. & Poppe, F.

    1988-01-01

    Until recently The Netherlands did not have a tradition in the field of in-depth research of road traffic accidents. Due to the high number and severity of road traffic accidents and in response to a particularly large motorway accident, it was considered to explore the possibility of using the resu

  19. Economic analysis of traffic safety

    Delhaye, Eef

    2007-01-01

    In this dissertation I focus on the behaviour of people – and more particularly on the choice of speed/level of care and the number of trips they make - as 85 percent of all accidents are mainly due to road users’ error. This behaviour can be influenced by the use of different instruments such as traffic regulation, liability rules, infrastructural and technical measures, education and sensitisation. The focus of this work lies on regulation and its enforcement, liability rules and economic i...

  20. Uso da prótese e retorno ao trabalho em amputados por acidentes de transporte Use of prosthesis and return to work by amputees involved in traffic accidents

    Lílian de Fátima Dornelas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o uso de prótese de membro inferior e o retorno ao trabalho em amputados por acidentes de transporte (AT. MÉTODO: Estudo de série de casos por meio de uma entrevista, com amputados por AT, cadastrados no período de dezembro de 2002 a dezembro de 2004, após a alta da reabilitação na AACD/MG. A amostra foi composta por 26 amputados, 22 homens e quatro mulheres, com média de idade de 37,7 anos. Quinze amputações eram transfemorais e 11 transtibiais. Dezoito (69,2% pessoas tinham grau de instrução fundamental. RESULTADOS: Todos os amputados receberam a prótese e 16 (61,5% deles, relataram utilizá-la para passeio. Todos os indivíduos permaneceram afastados do trabalho após o acidente, sendo que 16 (66,7% afastaram pelo INSS, seis (25% aposentaram por invalidez e dois (8,3% por idade. Cinco das pessoas afastadas pelo INSS retornaram ao trabalho e três aposentadas por invalidez e uma por idade, declararam que praticam atividade para suplementar à aposentadoria. CONCLUSÃO: O uso da prótese é comumente para passeio e é baixa a taxa de retorno ao trabalho após a reabilitação.. O baixo nível de instrução e qualificação podem ter sido responsáveis por estes resultados.OBJECTIVE: To detect the use of a prosthetic leg and the return to work in amputees by traffic accidents (TA. METHOD: A case series by means of an interview with AT amputees who were registered between December 2002 and December 2004, after discharge from rehabilitation at the AACD/MG. The sample consisted of 26 amputees, 22 men and four women, mean age of 37.7 years. Fifteen amputations were above the knee and 11 below the knee. Eighteen (69.2% people had completed elementary education. RESULTS: All amputees received prostheses and 16 (61.5% of them reported using it for walking. All subjects remained off work after the accident, and 16 (66.7% remained off work by utilizing the INSS, six (25% retired due to disability and two (8.3% retired

  1. 论自首制度在司法适用中的认定——以交通肇事案件为视角%On the Surrendered Regime Identified in the Application of the Judicial --On the Perspective of Traffic Accident

    邓忠

    2012-01-01

    The Traffic Accident Whether has surrendered problem has always been a focus of controversy theorists and practical,in judicial practice,has different judgment in different places,resulting in the phenomenon of "codefendant different sentence" in judicial practice,the Supreme People's Court is affirmed in the form of judicial interpretation.Traffic Accident alarm and remain at the scene waiting to be processed,whether it should be regarded as an automatic surrendered voluntarily surrendered to the nature of the system,and surrendered the key is how to understand.Traffic Accident alarm and stay in the behavior of the field waiting to be processed is in full compliance with the voluntary surrender of the time,manner and purpose requirements.The behavior of police and retain the site waiting to be processed after the Traffic Accident identified as surrendered is proper meaning surrendered the system,and is in line with the original intention of the legislation and the essential characteristics of surrendered.Their behavior is also the administrative law obligations,but that does not negate the surrender,they will perform the evaluation of the administrative law obligations for the criminal law on the obligations ,no violations of the ban repeat evaluation principles conform to surrender conditions, should be recognized as surrender.%交通肇事案件是否存在自首问题,历来都是理论界及实务界的一大争议焦点。各地判决不一,导致司法实践中出现"同案不同判"现象。本文认为,交通肇事后报警并留在现场等候处理的行为完全符合自动投案的时间、方式及目的性要求。将交通肇事后报警并留住现场等候处理的行为认定为自动投案,是自首制度的应有之义,符合自首的立法初衷和本质特征。其行为虽也是行政法规定的义务,但并不因此否定自首的成立,将履行行政法上的义务评价为刑法上的义务,不违反禁止重复评价原则,符合

  2. Physics of Traffic Flow

    Davis, L. C.

    2015-03-01

    The Texas A&M Transportation Institute estimated that traffic congestion cost the United States 121 billion in 2011 (the latest data available). The cost is due to wasted time and fuel. In addition to accidents and road construction, factors contributing to congestion include large demand, instability of high-density free flow and selfish behavior of drivers, which produces self-organized traffic bottlenecks. Extensive data collected on instrumented highways in various countries have led to a better understanding of traffic dynamics. From these measurements, Boris Kerner and colleagues developed a new theory called three-phase theory. They identified three major phases of flow observed in the data: free flow, synchronous flow and wide moving jams. The intermediate phase is called synchronous because vehicles in different lanes tend to have similar velocities. This congested phase, characterized by lower velocities yet modestly high throughput, frequently occurs near on-ramps and lane reductions. At present there are only two widely used methods of congestion mitigation: ramp metering and the display of current travel-time information to drivers. To find more effective methods to reduce congestion, researchers perform large-scale simulations using models based on the new theories. An algorithm has been proposed to realize Wardrop equilibria with real-time route information. Such equilibria have equal travel time on alternative routes between a given origin and destination. An active area of current research is the dynamics of connected vehicles, which communicate wirelessly with other vehicles and the surrounding infrastructure. These systems show great promise for improving traffic flow and safety.

  3. 36 CFR 4.4 - Report of motor vehicle accident.

    2010-07-01

    ... accident. 4.4 Section 4.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.4 Report of motor vehicle accident. (a) The operator of a motor vehicle involved in an accident resulting in property damage, personal injury or death shall report...

  4. Calculation features of traffic light regulation regimesat the signal group control

    Єресов, Володимир Іванович; Трушевський, Вячеслав Едуардович

    2014-01-01

    The differences between the existing technologies of traffic light control by phases and signal groups were determined in the paper. It was proved that the signal group control technology is more perfect and to a greater extent corresponds to the changing traffic conditions at intersections. Approach for compiling the traffic light regulation cycle structure based on the analysis of conflict of traffic and pedestrian flows, taking into account traffic volume, the number of road accidents in t...

  5. Mining and Analysis of Traffic Safety and Roadway Condition Data

    Lin, Hong; Cheedella, Sudheer; Rushing, John; Anderson, Michael; Keiser, Ken; Graves, Sara J.

    2005-01-01

    Decision makers working to improve transportation systems must constantly balance the need to improve roadway safety through infrastructure investment with constraints of available resources. We have explored the additional information available to transportation decision makers by integrating two independent datasets, traffic accident and roadway pavement condition data. The roadway condition data are collected by the Alabama Department of Transportation. The traffic accident data are availa...

  6. Knowledge-based expert systems for traffic safety.

    Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    1990-01-01

    An expert system for traffic safety uses a "knowledge-base" for the interpretation of the "databases" in which accident data and the characteristics of roads and traffic are stored. Computerized procedures are developed for detection, diagnosis, and remedy. The procedures will be based on what is kn

  7. Driver and vehicle type parameters’ contribution to traffic safety in UAE

    Hany El Naggar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Former traffic safety studies showed clearly that driver or human factor is a major contributor to road accidents. Hence, to better understand the traffic accident nature it’s so vital to analyze all characteristics related to drivers involved in these accidents. This article focuses on this aspect through using a dataset representing UAE traffic accidents in the time interval between 2007 and 2010. A major focus was given in this article to analyzing the relation between traffic accidents and driver citizenship for all types of involved vehicles. This was due to the fact that drivers in UAE came from different backgrounds (over than 100 citizenships and hence it’s so important to identify citizenships with major involvement in road accidents for each vehicle type. This will allow traffic authorities to give special attentions to these citizenships and vehicle types through special traffic awareness programs, fining system or other preventive measures aiming to reduce the accidents frequency and severity levels. Results indicated that for all types of vehicles emirates nationals drivers represent the citizenship with the highest involvement rate in traffic accidents (30.02% followed by Pakistanis (21.26% then comes the Indians drivers with a percentage of 11.95%. Light vehicle type traffic accidents statistics shows that a general trend can be seen for all citizenships where there is an increase in the number of traffic accidents over the course of the three years. The main contribution of the paper is its uniqueness in analyzing such accidents database after the implementation of the new unified traffic law in UAE.

  8. 车祸致颈4~5椎体骨折伴脊髓损伤的救治%T reatment of fracture of cervci al spine caused by traffic accident

    周凤鸣; 李银和; 向强

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To develop fracture of cervical spine treatment level through investigate clinical characteristics and treatment measures of patients with traumatic fracture of 4-5 cervical spine.Methods:34 patients cured in our emergency surgery with traumatic fracture of 4-5 cervical spine accompany spinal cord injury from March,2011 to May, 2013 were selected to retrospectively analyze all patients'age, sex, traffic accident types and Frankerl grading.Results:Frankerl grading before treatment :Grade A 4 cases, Grade B 10 cases, Grade C 18 cases, Grade D 11 cases, 28 cases gained greater than or equal one grade functional recovery, the total effective rates were 82.35%.Conclusion:In the medical treatments of patients with traumatic fracture of 4-5 cervical spine, early neck braking, should operate as early as possible,select the correct surgical approach according the conditions of spinal compression and positively preventing and treating the complications can improve curative effect.%目的:探讨车祸致颈4~5椎体骨折伴脊髓损伤患者的临床特点及相应的救治措施,以提高颈椎骨折的救治水平。方法:选取2011年3月~2013年5月期间我院急诊外科收治的34例车祸致颈4~5椎体骨折伴脊髓损伤患者作为本组研究的观察对象,对所有患者的年龄、性别、车祸类型、Frankel分级进行回顾性分析。结果:治疗前Frankel分级:A级4例,B级10例,C级18例,D级2例;术后Frankel分级:A级2例,B级3例,C级18例,D级11例,功能恢复≥1级者28例,总有效率为82.35%。结论:在车祸致颈4~5椎体骨折伴脊髓损伤患者的救治过程中,要及早对其颈部进行制动处理,并争取尽早手术,手术入路要根据脊髓受压情况来选择,并积极预防并处理并发症,提高治疗效果。

  9. Decentralized Traffic Management Strategies for Sensor-Enabled Cars

    Wang, Ziyuan; Kulik, Lars; Ramamohanarao, Kotagiri

    2009-01-01

    Traffic Congestions and accidents are major concerns in today's transportation systems. This thesis investigates how to optimize traffic flow on highways, in particular for merging situations such as intersections where a ramp leads onto the highway. In our work, cars are equipped with sensors that can detect distance to neighboring cars, and communicate their velocity and acceleration readings with one another. Sensor-enabled cars can locally exchange sensed information about the traffic and...

  10. Modernity on the Road Traffic of Surabaya in 1920s

    Johny A Khusyairi

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the process and effects of modernization on the road traffic of Surabaya between 1920 and 1930 as reported by the newspapers. Two issues highlighted are the institutionalization of driver's license and traffic accidents. Besides newspapers, also used were films about the road traffic situation in Surabaya in the late 1920s. The modernization of the road of Surabaya implied social differences. People’s appreciation of modern vehicles was demonstrated by their ability to m...

  11. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network

    P. Gokulakrishnan; Ganeshkumar, P.

    2015-01-01

    A Road Accident Prevention (RAP) scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN) structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET). The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident) is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities...

  12. Fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Koch-Henriksen, Nils;

    2006-01-01

    -1996. The end of follow-up was 1 January 1999. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for various types of fatal accidents. A total of 76 persons (48 men and 28 women) died from accidents, whereas the expected number of fatalities from such causes was 55.7 (31.4 men and 24.3 women). Thus, the...... particularly high for deaths from burns (SMR = 8.90) and suffocation (SMR = 5.57). We conclude that persons with MS are more prone to fatal accidents than the general population. The excess risk is due not to traffic accidents but to burns and suffocation....

  13. “Are traffic violators criminals? Searching for answers in experiences of European countries”

    José I. Castillo-Manzano; Mercedes Castro-Nuño; Xavier Fageda

    2014-01-01

    The connection between road traffic safety and criminal behavior has recently become a topic of interest in the literature, although little emphasis placed on the relationship with road accidents. Evidence worldwide shows that people who commit other offences characteristic of antisocial attitudes, are more prone to suffer road traffic accidents and infringe traffic laws. Here we examine the records of the 28 current member states of the European Union over the period 1999 - 2010. Our aim is ...

  14. Acute subdural hematoma and diffuse axonal injury in fatal road traffic accident victims: a clinico-pathological study of 15 patients Hematoma subdural agudo e lesão axonal difusa em vítimas fatais de acidente de trânsito: estudo clínico-patológico de 15 pacientes

    Sebastião Nataniel Silva Gusmão

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although acute subdural hematoma (ASDH and diffuse axonal injury (DAI are commonly associated in victims of head injury due to road traffic accidents, there are only two clinico-pathological studies of this association. We report a clinical and pathological study of 15 patients with ASDH associated with DAI. METHOD: The patients were victims of road traffic accidents and were randomly chosen. The state of consciousness on hospital admission was evaluated by the Glasgow coma scale. For the identification of axons the histological sections of the brain were stained with anti-neurofilament proteins. RESULTS: Twelve of the 15 patients were admitted to hospital in a state of coma; in three patients, the level of consciousness was not evaluated, as they died before hospital admission. CONCLUSION: The poorer prognosis in patients with ASDH who lapse into coma immediately after sustaining a head injury, as described by several authors, can be explained by the almost constant association between ASDH and DAI in victims of fatal road traffic accidents.OBJETIVO: Embora o hematoma subdural agudo (HSDA e a lesão axonal difusa (LAD estejam frequentemente associados em vítimas de trauma crânio-encefálico causado por acidentes de trânsito, há somente dois estudos clínico-patológicos sobre esta associação. Relatamos o estudo clínico-patológico de 15 pacientes com HSDA associado com LAD. MÉTODO: Os pacientes, vítimas de acidentes de trânsito, foram selecionados aleatoriamente. O estado de consciência à admissão hospitalar foi avaliado pela escala de coma de Glasgow. Para a identificação dos axônios, os cortes histológicos do cérebro foram corados com antisoro anti-proteínas do neurofilamento. RESULTADOS: Doze dos 15 pacientes foram admitidos no hospital em estado de coma; em três pacientes, o nível de consciência não foi avaliado, pois eles faleceram antes da admissão hospitalar. CONCLUSÃO: O pior prognóstico em pacientes

  15. A knowledge-based system for controlling automobile traffic

    Maravas, Alexander; Stengel, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Transportation network capacity variations arising from accidents, roadway maintenance activity, and special events as well as fluctuations in commuters' travel demands complicate traffic management. Artificial intelligence concepts and expert systems can be useful in framing policies for incident detection, congestion anticipation, and optimal traffic management. This paper examines the applicability of intelligent route guidance and control as decision aids for traffic management. Basic requirements for managing traffic are reviewed, concepts for studying traffic flow are introduced, and mathematical models for modeling traffic flow are examined. Measures for quantifying transportation network performance levels are chosen, and surveillance and control strategies are evaluated. It can be concluded that automated decision support holds great promise for aiding the efficient flow of automobile traffic over limited-access roadways, bridges, and tunnels.

  16. Nuclear accidents

    On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

  17. Traffic at risk in Mediterranean

    The Mediterranean Sea represents only about 0.7% of the planet's total water surface area, yet it is host to as much as one-quarter of the world's total maritime oil traffic. Statistics indicate that from 47 to 77,000 tonnes of crude oil are now being released annually into the Sea through accidental spills; and over the last decade, its tourism dependent coastlines have been fouled by the highest levels of tar contamination in the world. Oil carrier traffic, routed within the Sea's already overcrowded shipping lanes, is intense and this traffic is expected to increase, as a result of rises in world energy demand, to levels of from 7 to 8 million barrels a day. It has been estimated that, at the end of 1992, 90% of all large tankers operating in this area, will have reached a service life of 15-16 years which is very close to the average recommended life cycle limit of 15-20 years. Only 20% of the world's 3,000 tankers are currently equipped with double bottomed hulls. This paper uses these and other facts and figures to argue that the risks of future severe oil tanker accidents in the Mediterranean Sea are high, and that these must be countered with the development of a new set of stricter marine traffic safety regulations at the Italian, national, as well as, European level

  18. Radiation accidents

    Radiation accidents may be viewed as unusual exposure event which provide possible high exposure to a few people and, in the case of nuclear plants events, low exposure to large population. A number of radiation accidents have occurred over the past 50 years, involving radiation machines, radioactive materials and uncontrolled nuclear reactors. These accidents have resulted in number of people have been exposed to a range of internal and external radiation doses and those involving radioactive materials have involved multiple routs of exposure. Some of the more important accidents involving significant radiation doses or releases of radioactive materials, including any known health effects involves in it. An analysis of the common characteristics of accidents is useful resolving overarching issues, as has been done following nuclear power, industrial radiography and medical accidents. Success in avoiding accidents and responding when they do occur requires planning in order to have adequately trained and prepared health physics organization; well defined and developed instrument program; close cooperation among radiation protection experts, local and state authorities. Focus is given to the successful avoidance of accidents and response in the events they do occur. Palomares, spain in late 1960, Goiania, Brazil in 1987, Thule, Greenland in 1968, Rocky flats, Colorado in 1957 and 1969, Three mile island, Pennsylvania in 1979, Chernobyl Ukraine in april 1986, Kyshtym, former Soviet Union in 1957, Windscale, UK in Oct. 1957 Tomsk, Russian Federation in 1993, and many others are the important examples of major radiation accidents. (author)

  19. The effect of roundabout design features on cyclist accident rate

    Hels, Tove; Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka

    2007-01-01

    yearly rate of cyclist accidents on one hand and roundabout geometry, age and traffic volume (vehicles and cyclists) on the other. We related all roundabout cyclist accidents recorded by the hospital emergency department of the town of Odense, Denmark, through the years 1999-2003 (N = 171) to various...... geometric features, age and traffic volume of all roundabouts on the Danish island of Funen (N = 88). Cyclist and vehicle volumes turned out to be significant predictors in most of our models-the higher the volumes, the more accidents. Moreover, potential vehicle speed was a significant predictor, and so...... was age of the roundabout-older roundabouts related to more accidents and higher accident probability. Excluding 48 single cyclist accidents strengthened the relationship between accidents on one hand and vehicle and cyclist volume and potential vehicle speed on the other. This stresses the...

  20. Družbenoekonomsko vrednotenje posledic prometnih nezgod na cestah v Sloveniji: Socioeconomic evaluation of road accident consequences in Slovenia:

    Bensa, Bruno; Kristl, Marko

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the research was to collect and merge data on traffic accidents and their consequences, collected by different institutions. The information formed the basis for calculations of socio-economic costs for the dead and injured in traffic accidents, as well as for estimates of material costs. In addition, an opinion poll on individual evaluation of costs related to trafficaccidents was conducted, and a traffic-accident information system was modeled with the purpose to enhance integra...

  1. Explosão lobar em vítimas fatais de acidente de trânsito: frequência e associação com outras lesões encefálicas traumáticas Burst lobe in victims of fatal road traffic accident: frequency and association with other head injury lesions

    SEBASTIÃO SILVA GUSMÃO

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se análise morfológica, macro e microscópica, das lesões encefálicas de 120 vítimas fatais de acidente de trânsito. A explosão lobar foi observada em 12 pacientes (10,0%. O lobo acometido foi o frontal em seis pacientes (50,0%, o temporal em dois (16,7% e ambos em quatro (33,3%. A fratura de crânio ocorreu em 8 (66,7% pacientes e a hipertensão intracraniana em metade dos casos. Nove pacientes foram admitidos em coma e três faleceram imediatamente após o acidente. Todos os casos de explosão lobar estavam associados a lesão axonal difusa, associação essa que explica a alteração grave de consciência observada à admissão dos pacientes.A morphological study, macro and microscopical, was made of brain lesions in 120 victims of fatal road traffic accidents. Burst lobes were identified in 12 (10.0% of the patients. It occurred in the frontal lobe in 6 (50.0% patients, in the temporal lobe in 2 (16.7% and in both lobes in 4 (33.3% patients. A skull fracture occurred in 8 (66.7% patients and intracranial hipertension occurred in half of cases. Nine patients were admitted in coma and three patients died immediately after the road traffic accident. All cases of burst lobes were associated with diffuse axonal injury, which explains the severe alteration of consciousness observed at the patients' admission.

  2. Portable Telematic System as an Effective Traffic Flow Management in Workzones

    Ščerba Marek; Apeltauer Tomáš; Apeltauer Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Traffic infrastructure localities with temporal restrictions for example due to reconstructions, or modernization, are important aspects influencing the traffic safety and traffic flow. On the basis of our research, we can identify main factors, which generate travel time loses, and which often cause traffic accidents in bottlenecks. First of all, it is improper late merge, speeding, tailgating, lower tolerance and consideration to other road users. Nervousness and ignorance of drivers also p...

  3. Intelligent Traffic Information System Based on Integration of Internet of Things and Agent Technology

    Hasan Omar Al-Sakran

    2015-01-01

    In recent years popularity of private cars is getting urban traffic more and more crowded. As result traffic is becoming one of important problems in big cities in all over the world. Some of the traffic concerns are congestions and accidents which have caused a huge waste of time, property damage and environmental pollution. This research paper presents a novel intelligent traffic administration system, based on Internet of Things, which is featured by low cost, high scalability, high compat...

  4. Modeling accident frequency in Denmark for improving road safety

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Kaplan, Sigal;

    Traffic accidents result in huge costs to society in terms of death, injury, lost productivity, and property damage. The main objective of the current study is the development of an accident frequency model that predicts the expected number of accidents on a given road segment, provided the...... infrastructure characteristics and the traffic conditions of the road. The model can be used to point out high risk road segments and support road authorities in planning interventions for the improvement of road safety on Danish roads. The number of accidents on a road link was modeled using a count model after...... concerning police recorded accidents, link characteristics of the road network, traffic volumes from the national transport models are merged to estimate the model. Spatial correlation between road sections is taken into account for correcting for unobserved correlation between contiguous locations....

  5. Unrecorded Accidents Detection on Highways Based on Temporal Data Mining

    Shi An

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic traffic accident detection, especially not recorded by traffic police, is crucial to accident black spots identification and traffic safety. A new method of detecting traffic accidents is proposed based on temporal data mining, which can identify the unknown and unrecorded accidents by traffic police. Time series model was constructed using ternary numbers to reflect the state of traffic flow based on cell transmission model. In order to deal with the aftereffects of linear drift between time series and to reduce the computational cost, discrete Fourier transform was implemented to turn time series from time domain to frequency domain. The pattern of the time series when an accident happened could be recognized using the historical crash data. Then taking Euclidean distance as the similarity evaluation function, similarity data mining of the transformed time series was carried out. If the result was less than the given threshold, the two time series were similar and an accident happened probably. A numerical example was carried out and the results verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Jamitons: Phantom Traffic Jams

    Kowszun, Jorj

    2013-01-01

    Traffic on motorways can slow down for no apparent reason. Sudden changes in speed by one or two drivers can create a chain reaction that causes a traffic jam for the vehicles that are following. This kind of phantom traffic jam is called a "jamiton" and the article discusses some of the ways in which traffic engineers produce…

  7. Accidents, aberrant behaviours, and speeding of young moped riders

    Steg, L.; Van Brussel, A.

    2009-01-01

    Moped riders, particularly youngsters, are amongst the highest risk group in traffic. We used an adapted version of the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire to examine why moped riders are often involved in traffic accidents. We conducted a questionnaire study among 146 young moped riders in the Netherlan

  8. Survey of accidents in suburban Tehran and the prediction of future events based on a time-series model

    Heidar Teymuri, Ghulam; Bahmani, Rahman; Asghari, Mehdi; Madrese, Elham; Rahmani, Abdolrasoul; Abbasinia, Marzieh; Ahmadnezhad, Iman; Samavati, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Car accidents are currently a social issue globally because they result in the deaths of many people. The aim of this study was to examine traffic accidents in suburban Tehran and forecast the number of future accidents using a time-series model. Methods: The sample population of this cross-sectional study was all traffic accidents that caused death and physical injuries in suburban Tehran in 2010 and 2011, as registered by the Tehran Emergency Section. In the present study, Minit...

  9. Epidemiological characteristics of expressway traffic trauma in 2 040 cases

    赵小纲; 马岳峰; 江观玉; 干建新; 黄欣建

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the epidemiologic characteristics of expressway traffic trauma in 2 040 cases in Zhejiang Province.Methods: The data of 2 040 cases of expressway traffic trauma taken from Zhejiang Provincial Expressway Traffic Bureau were analyzed with computer techniques.Results: A total of 2 040 persons were injured in 7 963 expressway traffic accidents in Zhejiang Province from January 1999 to December 2001. Among them, 435persons died (mortality, 21.3 %) and 1 605 were injured.The economic losses were over 170 million yuan RMB. The accidents caused by human factors accounted for 84.9%(vehicle drivers accounting for 79.2% ), which mainly included improper measures (20.4%), steering failure (17.7%), insufficient longitudinal space (15.9%), overspeed drive (12.5%), fatigue drive (6.4%), loading violation (5.9 %) and careless drive (6.3 %). Mechanical troubles and other factors took up 15.1%. There existed obvious uneven distribution among various regions. Jiaxing and Shaoxing were the sections with high incidence of accidents. The accidents mostly happened at 12:00-18:00,but the causing-dead ones most concentrated at 0:00-6:00.The main victims were young and middle-aged people (accounting for 72.3 %), but accident-stricken children and elderly persons (over 70 years old) took up higher mortalities (30.2 % and 40.7 %, respectively).Conclusions: The number of expressway traffic accidents and the economic losses are increasing year by year, with obvious uneven distribution at different places,different time and under different weather conditions. To reduce the accident frequency, it is important to strengthen the enforcement of traffic regulation, to balance the system of "person-vehicle-road", and to improve the safety consciousness of people.

  10. TRANSIMS traffic flow characteristics

    Nagel, Kai; Stretz, Paula; Pieck, Martin; Donnelly, Rick; Barrett, Christopher L.

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge of fundamental traffic flow characteristics of traffic simulation models is an essential requirement when using these models for the planning, design, and operation of transportation systems. In this paper we discuss the following: a description of how features relevant to traffic flow are currently under implementation in the TRANSIMS microsimulation, a proposition for standardized traffic flow tests for traffic simulation models, and the results of these tests for two different ve...

  11. Investigation of Key Factors for Accident Severity at Railroad Grade Crossings by Using a Logit Model

    Hu, Shou-Ren; Li, Chin-Shang; Lee, Chi-Kang

    2010-01-01

    Although several studies have used logit or probit models and their variants to fit data of accident severity on roadway segments, few have investigated accident severity at a railroad grade crossing (RGC). Compared to accident risk analysis in terms of accident frequency and severity of a highway system, investigation of the factors contributing to traffic accidents at an RGC may be more complicated because of additional highway–railway interactions. Because the proportional odds assumption ...

  12. 我国机动车交通侵权责任反思--寻找多元救济机制的合理性基础%Reflections on infringement liability of motor vehicle traffic accidents in China- Looking for multivariate rational basis for a multi-relief mechanism

    梁婷婷

    2014-01-01

    In recent years,traffic accident is frequent and its accountability is not just a legal issue,but also a so-cial problem.Traditional private law concept of fault liability in motor vehicle accidents is slightly less an accounta-bility issues,and no-fault liability is obviously unfair.In the process of building a multi-relief mechanism of motor vehicle accident liability,we should put the traditional private law regime of the“self-responsibility”law and norms of modern society “risk-sharing”reasonable convergence together in order to find its legality,legitimacy ethical foundation.%近年我国道路交通事故频发,其责任承担不仅是一个法律问题,更是一个社会问题。传统私法理念下的过错责任在机动车交通事故责任承担问题上略显不足,而无过错责任却又显失公平。在我国机动车交通事故责任多元救济机制的构建过程中,只有将传统私法制度中的“自己责任”与现代社会法规范中的“风险分摊”合理衔接,才能为其寻找到合法性、合理性的伦理基础。

  13. Impact of traffic states on freeway crash involvement rates.

    Yeo, Hwasoo; Jang, Kitae; Skabardonis, Alexander; Kang, Seungmo

    2013-01-01

    Freeway traffic accidents are complicated events that are influenced by multiple factors including roadway geometry, drivers' behavior, traffic conditions and environmental factors. Among the various factors, crash occurrence on freeways is supposed to be strongly influenced by the traffic states representing driving situations that are changed by road geometry and cause the change of drivers' behavior. This paper proposes a methodology to investigate the relationship between traffic states and crash involvements on the freeway. First, we defined section-based traffic states: free flow (FF), back of queue (BQ), bottleneck front (BN) and congestion (CT) according to their distinctive patterns; and traffic states of each freeway section are determined based on actual measurements of traffic data from upstream and downstream ends of the section. Next, freeway crash data are integrated with the traffic states of a freeway section using upstream and downstream traffic measurements. As an illustrative study to show the applicability, we applied the proposed method on a 32-mile section of I-880 freeway. By integrating freeway crash occurrence and traffic data over a three-year period, we obtained the crash involvement rate for each traffic state. The results show that crash involvement rate in BN, BQ, and CT states are approximately 5 times higher than the one in FF. The proposed method shows promise to be used for various safety performance measurement including hot spot identification and prediction of the number of crash involvements on freeway sections. PMID:22795398

  14. Determinantes e padrões de utilização da bicicleta e acidentes de trânsito sofridos por ciclistas trabalhadores da cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Determinants and patterns of bicycle use and traffic accidents among bicycling workers in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Giancarlo Bacchieri

    2005-10-01

    required by the Brazilian Traffic Code, and 15.0% did not even have brakes. Nearly 6.0% of workers who commuted by bicycle had suffered accidents resulting in injuries during the previous 12 months. The authors conclude that bicycling workers are a priority for interventions aimed at reducing traffic accidents.

  15. Intervenção comunitária para prevenção de acidentes de trânsito entre trabalhadores ciclistas Intervención comunitaria para la prevención de accidentes de tránsito entre trabajadores ciclistas A community intervention to prevent traffic accidents among bicycle commuters

    Giancarlo Bacchieri

    2010-10-01

    resultado.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an educational intervention designed to prevent traffic accidents among workers that use the bicycle for commuting. METHODS: A longitudinal intervention study with a stepped wedge implementation was carried out between January 2006 and May 2007. Five neighborhoods with distinct geographic characteristics were selected in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, and 42 census tracts were randomly selected from these neighborhoods. All households were screened for male bicycle commuters, resulting in a sample of 1,133 individuals. The outcomes analyzed were "traffic accidents" and "near accidents". The cyclists were interviewed monthly by phone to record traffic accidents and "near accidents". Every 15 days, from the second month of study, a group of about 60 cyclists was invited to attend the intervention meeting that included an educational component (a talk and a video presentation, distribution of a safety kit (reflective belt & sash, reflective tape and an educational booklet and a bicycle breaks check-up (maintenance performed if necessary. Poisson regression adjusted for time effect was used to assess the intervention effect. RESULTS: Nearly 45% of the cyclists did not attend the intervention. During the study period, 9% of the study individuals reported a traffic accident and 88% reported a "near accident". In total there were 106 accidents and 1,091 near accidents. There was no effect observed from the intervention on either of the outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention tested was not capable of reducing traffic accidents among bicycle commuters. Lack of interest in safety by commuters and external factors, such as road design and motorist behavior, may have together influenced this result.

  16. Road traffic flow and impact on environment in Hyderabad city

    In Hyderabad city due to dramatic increase in traffic intensity on the roads, traffic flow have been much beyond the comfortable limits. High values of traffic flow density have been recorded on Court Road (34.05%), Tilak Road (19.87%), Risala Road (22.91%) and Cafe George (23.14%) of Hyderabad city. Above 80% people are found to be annoyed due to traffic congestion, noise and smoke resulting in health ailments. Slow Moving Vehicles (SMVs) comprising of animal and hand drawn vehicles (rehras) cause serious disruption in the traffic stream on city roads, which are ultimately causing traffic-jam condition resulting a serious impact on environment. No definite parking places exist for public vehicles because of encroachment on roads. Proper foot paths are not available for pedestrian, which results in increase in accidents. (author)

  17. Road traffic automation system; Doro kotsu jidoka system

    NONE

    1997-06-10

    For the purpose of solving automobile traffic problems such as traffic accidents, heavy traffic and environmental pollution, an investigational study on road traffic automation systems was conducted by the committee. The road traffic automation system is a system which enables correction or automatic formation of targets of the driving control by supporting drivers. In the investigation, systems overseas and in Japan were examined including not only an automatic operation system using induction cable buried in the road and an automatic operation system, but driver supporting systems such as various alarming systems. Relating to the element technology, technologies on the following were studied: sensor, data processing, control, actuator, telecommunication, infrastructure, etc. Concerning the peripheral technology, studied were human factors between driver and system, effects of facilitating the heavy traffic flow, etc. 232 refs., 127 figs., 31 tabs.

  18. Zagreb and Tenerife: Airline Accidents Involving Linguistic Factors

    Cookson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is currently implementing a program to improve the language proficiency of pilots and air traffic controllers worldwide. In justifying the program, ICAO has cited a number of airline accidents that were at least partly caused by language factors. Two accidents cited by ICAO are analysed in this…

  19. Accident Statistics

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  20. Statistical modelling of traffic safety development

    Christens, Peter

    2004-01-01

    there were 6861 injury trafficc accidents reported by the police, resulting in 4519 minor injuries, 3946 serious injuries, and 431 fatalities. The general purpose of the research was to improve the insight into aggregated road safety methodology in Denmark. The aim was to analyse advanced statistical...... methods, that were designed to study developments over time, including effects of interventions. This aim has been achieved by investigating variations in aggregated Danish traffic accident series and by applying state of the art methodologies to specific case studies. The thesis comprises an introduction...

  1. A priori assessment of safety impacts of traffic management operations: Level of service based approach

    PRINCETON, J; Cohen, S.

    2011-01-01

    The number of accidents that occur on a road is often linked to traffic flow whereas the severity is related to mean speed. The method developed in this paper links the level of service-described by both traffic mean flow and speed-to the number of accidents observed on a road section. The objective is to use this relationship in a priori assessment of traffic management strategies by using traffic simulation tools. Flows and speed represent the main outputs of such models and are assumed to...

  2. A Marine Traffic Flow Model

    Tsz Leung Yip

    2013-01-01

    A model is developed for studying marine traffic flow through classical traffic flow theories, which can provide us with a better understanding of the phenomenon of traffic flow of ships. On one hand, marine traffic has its special features and is fundamentally different from highway, air and pedestrian traffic. The existing traffic models cannot be simply extended to marine traffic without addressing marine traffic features. On the other hand, existing literature on marine traffic focuses on...

  3. SELF-SIMILAR TRAFFIC GENERATOR

    Linawati Linawati; I Made Suartika

    2009-01-01

    Network traffic generator can be produced using OPNET. OPNET generates the traffic as explicit traffic or background traffic. This paper demonstrates generating traffic in OPNET 7.0 as background traffic. The traffi generator that was simulated is self-similar traffic with different Hurst parameter. The simulation results proved that OPNET with background traffic function can be as a qualified self-similar traffic generator. These results can help in investigating and analysing network perfor...

  4. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  5. Vehicular Traffic Flow Controlled by Traffic Light on a Street with Open Boundaries

    Mhirech, Abdelaziz; Ismaili, Assia Alaoui

    2013-08-01

    The Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) cellular automata (CA) model for describing the vehicular traffic flow in a street with open boundaries is studied. To control the traffic flow, a traffic signalization light operating for a fixed-time scheme is placed in the middle of the street. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are carried out to calculate various model characteristics. Essentially, we investigate the formation of the cars queue behind traffic light dependence on the duration of green light Tg, injecting and extracting probabilities α and β, respectively. Two phases of average training queues were found. Besides, the dependence of car accident probability per site and per time step on Tg, α and β is computed.

  6. A Structural Model of Traffic Congestion

    Verhoef, Erik T.; Rouwendal, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Conventional economic models of traffic congestion assume that therelation between road use and speed is a technical one. In this paper wederive the speed-flow relationship from more fundamental considerationsconcerning driving behaviour. We develop a structural model in which driverschoose their own optimal speed, by trading off various cost aspects of making atrip: time costs, expected accident costs and fuel costs. Since the optimalspeed depends on the presence of other drivers on the road...

  7. Fatores associados ao uso de serviço de atenção pré-hospitalar por vítimas de acidentes de trânsito Factors associated with pre-hospital care in victims of traffic accidents

    Roberto Marini Ladeira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Em um estudo de corte transversal foram avaliadas as características das vítimas de acidentes de trânsito ocorridos em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, com o objetivo de conhecer as características dos acidentes e das vítimas que usaram o serviço de atendimento pré-hospitalar, e investigar se o uso deste serviço está associado a um menor tempo até o atendimento hospitalar. Participaram do estudo todas as 1.564 vítimas de acidente de trânsito atendidas nos três maiores hospitais públicos de referência para emergência na cidade entre 10 de novembro e 14 de dezembro de 2003. As associações foram investigadas utilizando-se razões de prevalência obtidas por regressão de Poisson. Os resultados mostraram que 49,7% das vítimas usaram o serviço de atendimento pré-hospitalar, sendo a utilização menor entre ocupantes de bicicleta e pedestres. A gravidade (AIS = 2 e AIS ³ 3, idade (30-39 anos, 40-49, ³ 50 anos, relato de uso de álcool e tempo de admissão hospitalar This was a cross-sectional study of all victims of traffic accidents in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, admitted to the three largest public hospitals in the city from November 10 to December 14, 2003, to identify characteristics associated with the use of pre-hospital emergency treatment and investigate whether the time between the accident and hospital admission was shorter among these victims. The association between pre-hospital treatment and target variables was assessed by prevalence ratios obtained from Poisson regression. Among 1,564 victims, 778 (49.7% were transported in vehicles with pre-hospital treatment. Pre-hospital treatment was less common for bicyclists and pedestrians. The prevalence ratio was higher among victims with more severe injuries (AIS = 2 and AIS ³ 3, older victims (30-39 years, 40-49 years, ³ 50 years, those who reported alcohol use, and when the time between accident and hospital admission was less than 60 minutes

  8. Detecting Anomaly in Traffic Flow from Road Similarity Analysis

    Liu, Xinran

    2016-06-02

    Taxies equipped with GPS devices are considered as 24-hour moving sensors widely distributed in urban road networks. Plenty of accurate and realtime trajectories of taxi are recorded by GPS devices and are commonly studied for understanding traffic dynamics. This paper focuses on anomaly detection in traffic volume, especially the non-recurrent traffic anomaly caused by unexpected or transient incidents, such as traffic accidents, celebrations and disasters. It is important to detect such sharp changes of traffic status for sensing abnormal events and planning their impact on the smooth volume of traffic. Unlike existing anomaly detection approaches that mainly monitor the derivation of current traffic status from history in the past, the proposed method in this paper evaluates the abnormal score of traffic on one road by comparing its current traffic volume with not only its historical data but also its neighbors. We define the neighbors as the roads that are close in sense of both geo-location and traffic patterns, which are extracted by matrix factorization. The evaluation results on trajectories data of 12,286 taxies over four weeks in Beijing show that our approach outperforms other baseline methods with higher precision and recall.

  9. En un accidente de tráfico ¿las lesiones pueden ayudar a dictaminar si llevaba el cinturón puesto? In a traffic accident, injuries may help to establish if the safety belt was used?

    A. Ortega Pérez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En dos juicios distintos se discutió sobre si las accidentadas llevaban puesto el cinturón de seguridad en el momento del accidente. Las características del accidente y las de las lesiones, junto a la revisión de la bibliografía médica nacional e internacional sobre el asunto llevan a concluir que las fracturas esternales y costales tienen una gran posibilidad de haber sido causadas por el cinturón, especialmente cuando el accidentado no presenta lesiones en el cráneo, en la cara, en el abdomen o en las extremidades superiores. Asimismo, también aumentan con la edad los riesgos de fracturas esternales, costales o ambas.In two different Courts, the lawyers asked if the injured person was using the safety belt when the accident happened. The characteristics of the accident and those of the injuries, along with the review of the national and international medical literature about the question lead to the conclusion that sternal and rib fractures have a great possibility to have been caused by the safety belt itself, specially when the person does not have injuries in the cranium, in the face, in the abdomen or in the arms. On the same way, the risk of sternal and/or costal fractures increases with the age of the person.

  10. The design and simulation of traffic networks in virtual environments

    Applegate, Chris

    2013-01-01

    For over half a century, researchers from a diverse set of disciplines have been studying the behaviour of traffic flow to better understand the causes of traffic congestion, accidents, and related phenomena. As the global population continues to rise, there is an increasing demand for more efficient and effective transportation infrastructures that are able to accommodate a greater number of civilians without compromising travel times, journey quality, cost, or accessibility. With recent adv...

  11. Road traffic safety in conjunction with in-vehicle ITS

    Darja TOPOLŠEK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in Intelligent Transportation Systems comes from the problems caused by traffic congestion, road accidents and air pollution. Traffic congestion continues to grow worldwide as a result of increased motorization, population growth, changes in population density and urbanization. Interest in ITS can also be attributed to reducing road accidents and increasing traffic safety. The most common causes for road accidents are excessive speed, inattentive driving and ignorance of the right-of-way rules. To eliminate these causes, experience, knowledge of traffic regulations and a new car are not enough – vehicle safety systems have to take part as well. Therefore, the European Union issued a directive on the installation of intelligent systems, whose functions are active support during driving, warning the driver in dangerous situations and alerting passengers of the car in case of irregularities in motor function or actions carried out by the driver that may cause danger, such as swerving while falling asleep. These systems help drivers to avoid accidents, and in the event of a collision, an emergency call is automatically made. Furthermore, they can be used to regulate traffic patterns or to reduce engine performance, which would reduce pollution. With these benefits in mind, the EU has indicated to the automotive industry that installation of these new Intelligent Transportation Systems should be mandatory in their new vehicles.

  12. 对交通意外骨伤患者早期应用积极心理干预的临床研究%The clinical research of early positive psychological intervention on the fracture patient caused by traffic accident

    管正通; 何少波; 宫本宏; 罗献明

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveThe early positive psychological intervention on the fracture patient with various of surgical treatments caused by the traffic accident could slow down the progress of psychological problems, promote the recovery and improve the degree of treatment satisfaction.Methods100 pationts with fracture caused by the traffic accident were randomly diveded into two groups,each group 50 named treatment group and control group. In the treatment group, 24 hours after hospitalized when the condition stabilized, the interview methods of HAMA and HAMD were tested and immediately the measure of early positive psychological intervention were taken.ResultsThe patients in intervention group had less anxiety and depression the former`s scale score (P<0.01).ConclusionThe early positive psychological intervention on the fracture patients with surgical operation caused by traffic accident could slow down the negative emotions of anxiety and depression, help patients to keep a good state of body and mind.%目的:通过对交通意外所致的各种需要手术治疗的的骨折患者进行早期积极的心理干预,以降低患者各种心理问题的发生发展,促进疾病的康复,提高治疗满意度,使医患关系更和谐。方法在骨科病房中分两组医生,每组中按随机分配方法各选取上述病情患者50例,分为干预组和对照组。对干预组患者在入院病情稳定后24小时内采用固定访谈法给予汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)和汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)测验后即刻采取积极有效的心理干预措施。结果经干预后,干预组患者的焦虑和抑郁均较对照组有明显好转,其量表分对比明显下降,经统计学检测P<0.001,有明显意义。结论通过早期积极的心理干预可以较低各种交通意外骨折需手术患者的焦虑、抑郁等负面情绪,帮助其保持良好的身心状态,促进骨折康复,提高满意度,能使医患关系更和谐。

  13. Traffic Flow Theory

    Maerivoet, Sven; De Moor, Bart

    2005-01-01

    The scientific field of traffic engineering encompasses a rich set of mathematical techniques, as well as researchers with entirely different backgrounds. This paper provides an overview of what is currently the state-of-the-art with respect to traffic flow theory. Starting with a brief history, we introduce the microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of vehicular traffic flows. Moving on, we review some performance indicators that allow us to assess the quality of traffic operations. A f...

  14. Optimizing Traffic Flow

    Huberman, Bernardo A.; Helbing, Dirk

    1998-01-01

    We present an economics-based method for deciding the optimal rates at which vehicles are allowed to enter a highway. The method exploits the naturally occuring fluctuations of traffic flow and is flexible enough to adapt in real time to the transient flow characteristics of road traffic. Simulations based on realistic parameter values show that this strategy is feasible for naturally occuring traffic, and that even far from optimality, injection policies can improve traffic flow. Our results...

  15. Traffic-flow simulation

    OMAHEN, ANDRAŽ

    2015-01-01

    This diploma thesis presents the behavior of program, which uses the traffic light enhanced transport network to simulate the traffic flow of vehicles that behave according to the IDM model. We upgraded the program to allow, for the given network, to optimize the traffic flow. Because of the overwhelming problem of road closures or their rearrangement, we added a graphical user interface with which a user can create or modify the road network to observe changes in traffic. The objective of...

  16. Radioactive materials transport accident analysis

    Over the last 25 years, one of the major issues raised regarding radioactive material transportation has been the risk of severe accidents. While numerous studies have shown that traffic fatalities dominate the risk, modeling the risk of severe accidents has remained one of the most difficult analysis problems. This paper will show how models that were developed for nuclear spent fuel transport accident analysis can be adopted to obtain estimates of release fractions for other types of radioactive material such as vitrified highlevel radioactive waste. The paper will also show how some experimental results from fire experiments involving low level waste packaging can be used in modeling transport accident analysis with this waste form. The results of the analysis enable an analyst to clearly show the differences in the release fractions as a function of accident severity. The paper will also show that by placing the data in a database such as ACCESS trademark, it is possible to obtain risk measures for transporting the waste forms along proposed routes from the generator site to potential final disposal sites

  17. Traffic Flow Estimates.

    Hart, Vincent G.

    1981-01-01

    Two examples are given of ways traffic engineers estimate traffic flow. The first, Floating Car Method, involves some basic ideas and the notion of relative velocity. The second, Maximum Traffic Flow, is viewed to involve simple applications of calculus. The material provides insight into specialized applications of mathematics. (MP)

  18. External cost of traffic. A comparison of environmental, safety and congestion cost

    The annual cost of congestion are less high than the annual cost of traffic accidents and the environmental effects. It is therefore not right that the media and politicians pay more attention to congestion than to safety and environmental aspects

  19. 道路交通事故致颅脑损伤后智力缺损法68例医学鉴定分析%Judicial Expertise on 68 Cases of Intelligence Defect Caused by Craniocerebral Injury Resulted from Traffic Accidents

    谢夏德; 张冬先

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics of medicolegal investigation cases about intelligence defect caused by craniocerebral injury resulted from traffic accidents, and to discuss how to evaluate the intelligence defect through clinical data such as detection report of IQ and forensic examinaiton. Method We collected 68 cases of intelligence defect caused by craniocerebral injury after traffic accidents, and analyzed the difference among individual character, injury condition, grandiosity, camouflage and expertise conclusion. Results Adult man and victims with education background of middle school level accounted for the majority of the 68 cases. Grandiosity and camouflage were found in some victims. Contusion and laceration of brain and subarachnoid hemorrhage were more common in the craniocerebral injury. Conclusion Judicial expertise of craniocerebral injury should be done by synthetically analyzing the details of cases, carefully reviewing the case history, scientifically examining the wound and objectively analyzing IQ detection result.%目的 研究道路交通事故致颅脑损伤后智力损缺法医学鉴定案件的特点,探讨如何运用临床资料包括IQ检测报告和法医学检验,对智力缺损者进行法医学鉴定.方法 抽取因道路交通事故致颅脑损伤后智力缺损的鉴定资料68例,对其个体特征、损伤情况、夸大伪装情况与鉴定结论的差异性进行分析.结果 68例中以成年男性为多,初中文化程度者为主,夸大伪装者具有一定的比例,颅脑损伤中以脑挫裂伤及蛛网膜下腔出血较多.结论 鉴定过程要结合案情,细心复习病历资料,科学的法医学检验和客观地采用IQ检测结果.

  20. Uso de anfetaminas por motoristas de caminhão em rodovias do Estado de São Paulo: um risco à ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito? Amphetamine use by truck drivers on highways of Sao Paulo State: a risk for the occurrence of traffic accidents?

    Mauricio Yonamine

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, é comum o uso de anfetaminas por motoristas de caminhão, o que pode culminar na ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito. O objetivo deste artigo é estimar a prevalência do uso de anfetaminas entre caminhoneiros. Motoristas (N = 134 foram abordados em duas rodovias do Estado de São Paulo e solicitados a responder um questionário, assim como a fornecer uma amostra de urina para realização de análises toxicológicas. Todos os dados foram analisados em Stata 8.0. Todos os participantes eram do sexo masculino, de idade média de 40,8 anos e de baixa escolaridade. A presença de anfetaminas foi detectada em 10,8% das amostras de urina, cujo uso foi justificado para manter a vigília durante o trabalho. O uso de anfetaminas foi detectado entre caminhoneiros em rodovias de São Paulo. Cessado o efeito estimulante, a sonolência advinda de uma possível privação de sono diminui a atenção e o bom desempenho na direção, predispondo o condutor aos acidentes de trânsito e seus custos relacionados.The use of amphetamines in Brazil is common among truck drivers, which may be an important factor in the occurrence of traffic accidents. This article seeks to estimate the prevalence of amphetamine use among truck drivers. Drivers (N = 134 were stopped on two different highways in Sao Paulo state and they were asked to answer a questionnaire and provide a urine sample for toxicological analysis. All data were analyzed on Stata 8.0. All participants were males with low levels of schooling, whose mean age was 40.8 years. The presence of amphetamines was detected in 10.8% of all urine samples collected, being commonly justified in order to make truck drivers able to maintain their state of awareness. Amphetamine use was detected among truck drivers on Sao Paulo highways. The problem is that when the stimulant effects wear off, sleepiness due to sleep deprivation reduces concentration and good driver performance, making drivers vulnerable to

  1. Factores de riesgo de lesión por accidentes de tráfico y el impacto de una intervención sobre la carretera Risk factors of injury by traffic accidents and the impact of an intervention on the road

    Martha C Híjar-Medina

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de intervenciones realizadas en la autopista, tanto en la ocurrencia de lesiones por accidentes de tráfico, como en la gravedad de las mismas. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un análisis comparativo de dos estudios transversales realizados en 1994 y 1996 en los que se investigó la ocurrencia de lesiones en los conductores de vehículos a motor que sufrieron accidente en la autopista, Cuernavaca, México. RESULTADOS: Para 1994 la tasa de accidentes fue de 7,96 / 100.000 vehículos y para 1996 fue de 8,49 / 100.000 vehículos, incremento no significativo (p>0,05. Para 1994 la tasa de lesionados fue de 2,10 / 100.000 vehículos y para 1996 de 1,35 / 100.000 vehículos, disminución significativa (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito das intervenções em uma rodovia, na ocorrência e gravidade de ferimentos por acidente. MÉTODOS: Foi feita uma análise comparativa de dois estudos transversais em 1994 e 1996. RESULTADOS: Em 1994 a taxa foi de 7,96 acidentes/100.000 veículos e em 1996, 8,49/100.000 veículos. O aumento não foi significante (p>0.05. O índice de motoristas feridos em 1994 foi de 2,10/100.000 veículos e de 1,35/100.000 veículos em 1996, o que representa uma redução significante (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of interventions at a highway, in the occurrence and severity of injuries by traffic accidents. METHOD: It was made a comparative analysis of two cross-sectional studies in 1994 and 1996. RESULTS: In 1994 the rate was 7.96 accidents/ 100,000 vehicles and in 1996 8.49 / 100,000 vehicles. The increase was not significant (p>0.05. The rate of injured drivers in 1994 was of 2.10 / 100,000 vehicles and of 1.35 / 100,000 vehicles in 1996, which was a significant decrease (p<0.000. The self-report of use of seat belt (63.46% versus 76.6%, the small vehicles involved in accidents (7.9% versus 37.7%, nocturnal schedule (23.7% versus 31.8% and in Mexico-Cuernavaca direction (45% versus 66.7%, were more frequent in

  2. Incapacidade por traumatismo raquimedular secundário a acidentes de trânsito Incapacidad por lesiones de la médula espinal debido a accidentes de tráfico Disability by spinal cord injuries due to traffic accidents

    Jon Mark Praga Xavier De Brito

    2011-01-01

    : De los 32 casos de incapacidad total (4,5%, 11 pacientes tenían lesiones de médula espinal (34,37% (RR = 13,245, 95% CI 0,267 a 0.966. La discapacidad funcional se observó en 360 pacientes (50,1%, y 7 tenían TRM (1,9% (RR = 0.508 IC 95%: 0,267 a 0,966. Hubo una discapacidad funcional en 327 pacientes (45,48%, y 6 de estas víctimas sufrieron TRM (1,83% (RR = 0,398, IC 95% 0,211 a 0,765. Coches representaron el 70,83% de estos pacientes, mientras que las motocicletas y peatones 20,83 % y 12,5 % respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: Lo TRM es la segunda causa de discapacidad entre los supervivientes de accidentes de tráfico , y la dispacidad funcional ocupa un segundo plano. La incidencia de las secuelas debidas a lesión medular fue de 0,38%, la mayor parte en los ocupantes de coches (70,83%.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the victims of traffic accidents that have disability due to spinal cord injury. METHODS: We evaluated the records of 719 victims of traffic accidents that requested benefit arising from injuries causesd by traffic accidents and selected victims who suffered spinal cord injury. The variables age, sex, type of accident, injury resulting, and degree of disability according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health were then analyzed. RESULTS: A total disability was found in 32 (4.5% patients, 27 (84.37% male and 5 (15.62% females (RR = 0.780, 95% CI of 0.306 to 1.990. Of this total, 11 patients had spinal cord injuries (34.37% (RR = 13.245, 95% CI 0.267 to 0.966. Functional disability was observable in 360 (50.1% patients, 307 (85.27% were male and 53 (14.72% female. Of these, 7 (1.9% had SCI (RR = 0.508, 95% CI 0.267 to 0.966. There was mild disability in 327 patients (45.48%, and 6 of these victims suffered SCI (1.83% (RR = 0.398, 95% CI 0.211 to 0.765. Car crashes accounted for 70,83% of these patients, while motorcycles and pedestrians 30,83 % and 12,5% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The SCI represents the second largest cause of

  3. Communication and Networking Techniques for Traffic Safety Systems

    Chisalita, Ioan

    2006-01-01

    Accident statistics indicate that every year a significant number of casualties and extensive property losses occur due to traffic accidents. Consequently, efforts are directed towards developing passive and active safety systems that help reduce the severity of crashes, or prevent vehicles from colliding with one another. To develop these systems, technologies such as sensor systems, computer vision and vehicular communication have been proposed. Safety vehicular communication is defined as ...

  4. Looked-but-failed-to-see-errors in traffic

    Herslund, Mai-Britt; Jørgensen, N O

    2003-01-01

    Danish studies of traffic accidents at priority intersections have shown a particular type of accidents. In these accidents a car driver supposed to give way has collided with a bicycle rider on the priority road. Often the involved car drivers have maintained that they did not see the bicycle un......, especially for well experienced drivers. The other study based on Gap Acceptance shows that the car driver acceptance of gaps towards cyclists depends on whether or not another car is present. Hypotheses for driver perception and for accident countermeasures are discussed.......Danish studies of traffic accidents at priority intersections have shown a particular type of accidents. In these accidents a car driver supposed to give way has collided with a bicycle rider on the priority road. Often the involved car drivers have maintained that they did not see the bicycle...... until immediately before the collision even though the bicycle must have been clearly visible.Similar types of accidents have been the subject of studies elsewhere. In literature they are labelled "looked-but-failed-to-see", because it seems clear that in many cases the car drivers have actually been...

  5. Traffic Square Management System

    Sujata V. Padole

    2013-01-01

    If the traffic is more on one side and less on other side so there all way a waste of time and fuel on the traffic signal. Which is serious problem now day so there an need to have an intelligent traffic system which can detect the amount of traffic and make the change accordingly by using sensor and tranducer. Also by using motion detection camera at the lane we can find out the vehicle owner who break the traffic rules at the signal.

  6. Modelling the Traffic System

    Važan Pavel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the simulation study results of the traffic system in the city of Hlohovec. The authors describe the process of building the model in Witness 2013c simulator. The individual entities of simulation model are explained in details, as the Witness simulator is primarily suitable for manufacture or service simulation and not for traffic system simulation. The goal of this paper is to analyse the traffic system and to suggest the changes for improving the traffic in the city of Hlohovec. All proposed measures will bring about 20% improvement of traffic when compared to the current state.

  7. En-Route Vehicular Traffic Optimization

    Saravanan M

    2015-02-01

    separately for each locality from the available data set. For efficient control in mobility of vehicles an advanced dynamic digital board is introduced, which displays the speed limit set by the central node time to time. The normalized speed could be used to estimate the effective time taken between destinations precisely. By comparing normalized speed with real time values anomalies in the locality like congestion and presence of uneven roads is predicted. Accident detection model is integrated with the central node which sends a message to dynamic board indicating location of the accident along with the time taken. It even improves traffic flow around the accident occurred location. Central node together with navigation tools could provide re-routed path to the drivers during congestion or accident.

  8. Robust PCA-Based Abnormal Traffic Flow Pattern Isolation and Loop Detector Fault Detection

    JIN Xuexiang; ZHANG Yi; LI Li; HU Jianming

    2008-01-01

    One key function of intelligent transportation systems is to automatically detect abnormal traffic phenomena and to help further investigations of the cause of the abnormality. This paper describes a robust principal components analysis (RPCA)-based abnormal traffic flow pattern isolation and loop detector fault detection method. The results show that RPCA is a useful tool to distinguish regular traffic flow from abnor-mal traffic flow patterns caused by accidents and loop detector faults. This approach gives an effective traffic flow data pre-processing method to reduce the human effort in finding potential loop detector faults. The method can also be used to further investigate the causes of the abnormality.

  9. Stabilization of traffic flow in optimal velocity model via delayed-feedback control

    Jin, Yanfei; Hu, Haiyan

    2013-04-01

    Traffic jams may occur due to various reasons, such as traffic accidents, lane reductions and on-ramps. In order to suppress the traffic congestion in an optimal velocity traffic model without any driver's delay taken into account, a delayed-feedback control of both displacement and velocity differences is proposed in this study. By using the delay-independent stability criteria and the H∞-norm, the delayed-feedback control can be determined to stabilize the unstable traffic flow and suppress the traffic jam. The numerical case studies are given to demonstrate and verify the new control method. Furthermore, a comparison is made between the new control method and the method proposed by Konishi et al. [K. Konishi, M. Hirai, H. Kokame, Decentralized delayed-feedback control of an optimal velocity traffic model, Eur. Phys. J. B 15 (2000) 715-722]. The results show that the new control method makes the traffic flow more stable and improves the control performance.

  10. Investigation and Nursing of Psychological Reaction of Patients with Traffic Accident Injury%车祸伤患者心理反应的调查及护理对策

    黄小兰

    2015-01-01

    This article through to January 2014 ~December 2014 in the emergency surgery ward of the accident injury patients 100 cases of car accident injury patients questionnaire survey, after investigation, we have col ected the questionnaire analysis and summary, we focused on the psychological situation of the patients were analyzed, found that the patient is widespread dependence, fear, anxiety and other psychological. The patient's degree of dif erence, which requires the nursing staf in the process of continuous summary of experience, adjustment method. According to dif erent psychological reaction to the patients to make the corresponding psychological nursing, give the patient with strong psychological support, make it bet er with treatment and nursing, have achieved satisfactory results, for the patient recovery plays a very important role.%本文通过对对2014年1月~12月因车祸伤住急诊外科病房的患者100例车祸伤患者问卷调查,经过调查后,我们对所收集的问卷进行了分析与总结,我们着重对患者的心理情况进行了分析,发现患者普遍存在依赖、恐惧、焦虑等心理。患者的程度所以差异,这都需要护理人员在护理过程中不断总结经验、调整方法。根据不同的心理反应对患者作出相应的心理护理,给患者以有力的心理支持,使其更好地配合治疗和护理,取得了较满意的效果,为患者康复起到了非常重要的作用。

  11. Implications of traffic characteristics on interdomain traffic engineering

    Uhlig, Steve

    2004-01-01

    This thesis discusses the implications of the traffic characteristics on interdomain traffic engineering with BGP. We first provide an overview of the interdomain traffic control problem. Then, we present results concerning the characteristics of the interdomain traffic, based on the analysis of real traffic traces gathered from non-transit ASes. We discuss the implications of the topological properties of the traffic on interdomain traffic engineering. Based on this knowledge of the...

  12. 新的WBO算子及其在城市道路网交通事故预测中的应用研究%New Weakening Buffer Operator and Its Application in Forecasting Traffic Accidents of Road Network of Urban Agglomeration

    王宏; 王冬冬; 崔杰

    2014-01-01

    以有效提高系统特征数据序列的光滑性为目的,在已有缓冲算子研究的基础上,根据新息优先原理,构建了一个新的WBO(Weakening Buffer Operator),克服了现有算子对新信息利用不充分的缺陷,并通过城市道路网交通事故预测案例与已有的系列WBO进行了弱化效果的比较。研究结果表明,受扰动因素冲击后的系统特征序列经新WBO作用后,建模精度得到了显著提高。%The aim of this paper is to advance the smoothing of original data sequence. According to the theory of prior using of new information, based on the present theories of buffer operators and some already existed weakening buffer operators, a new weakening buffer operator is established. Meanwhile, it is compared with the existed weakening buffer operators in effectiveness through traffic accident prediction of urban road network.The contradictions between quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis in pretreatment for vibration data sequences is resolved effectively. The research shows that the new weakening buffer operator increases the forecast precision of grey forecast model remarkably.

  13. BY USING BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY AUTOMATIC VEHICLE ACCIDENT DETECTION & LOCALIZATION OF AUTOMOBILE

    Nitin Thakre; Nitin Raut; Shyam Dubey; Abdulla Shaikh

    2014-01-01

    Traffic accidents are one of the leading causes of fatalities in the world. An important indicator of survival rates after an accident is the time between the accident and when emergency medical personnel are dispatched to the location. Eliminating the time between when an accident occurs and when first responders are dispatched to the location decreases mortality rates by 6%. We propose an Android based application that location of the vehicle through an positive detectio...

  14. The prevalence and the predictive factors of acute stress disorder among survivors of road traffic accidents%交通事故幸存者急性应激障碍的流行情况及预测因素分析

    李秀丽; 王力; 孙鲁毅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyze the prevalence and risk factors of acute stress disorder (ASD) among survivors of road traffic accidents.Methods A total of 206 participants ( 168 men,38 women) were administrated with the acute stress disorder scale (ASDS) 2 to 23 days after the traffic accidents.Results There was a total of 61 (29.6%) possible ASD patients among all participants.Women had more serious ASD symptoms than men (male:36.70 ± 11.42; female:41.18 ± 12.58; P< 0.05 ),the married's ASD symptom severity was higher than the single's ( married:38.37 ± 11.94 ; single/widowed/divorced:30.86 ± 8.37 ; P < 0.01 ),people with low degree of education had more severe ASD symptoms than the people who had high degree of education (P<0.05) ; being elder( r=0.43,P<0.01 ),having fear / helpless / horror experience of accident ( r=0.21,P< 0.01 ) were significantly correlated with the severity of ASD symptoms.According to linear regression analysis,age could positively predicted ASD symptoms ( β =0.29,P < 0.01 ) too.Conclusion ASD is a common mental problems among Chinese survivors of road traffic accident,and the main predictive factors of ASD include gender,age,marital status,the degree of education,whether there is fear / helpless / horror experience of accident.%目的 了解交通事故幸存者人群中急性应激障碍(Acute Stress Disorders,ASD)的流行情况,并分析相关的预测因素.方法 采用急性应激障碍量表(Acute Stress Disorders Scale,ASDS)对206名交通事故幸存者的急性应激症状进行评估,临床评估距离被试经历车祸时间为2 ~23d.结果 206名中国交通事故幸存者中共有61人为可能的ASD患者,发生率为29.6%;女性较男性ASD症状严重[(男(36.70±11.42)分;女(41.18±12.58)分;t=-2.14,P<0.05],已婚者较单身者ASD症状严重[已婚(38.37±11.94)分;未婚/丧偶/离异(30.86±8.37)分;t=5.22,P<0.01],文化程度低者较文化程度高

  15. A Study of Wireless Sensor Networks for Urban Traffic Monitoring: Applications and Architectures

    Kafi, Mohamed Amine; Challal, Yacine; Djenouri, Djamel; Doudou, Messaoud; Bouabdallah, Abdelmadjid; Badache, Nadjib

    2013-01-01

    International audience With the constant increasing of Vehicular traffic around the world, especially in urban areas, existing traffic management solutions become inefficient. This can be clearly seen in our life through persistent traffic jam and rising number of accidents. Wireless sensor networks (WSN) based intelligent transportation systems (ITS) have emerged as a cost effective technology that bear a pivotal potential to overcome these difficulties. This technology enables a new broa...

  16. China : Road Traffic Safety, the Achievements, the Challenges, and the Way Ahead

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    Road traffic injuries are a major but neglected global public health problem. Worldwide, the number of people killed in road traffic accidents each year is estimated at almost 1.2 million, while the number injured could be as high as 50 million. Without increased efforts and new initiatives, the total number of road traffic injuries and fatalities worldwide is forecast to rise by 65 percen...

  17. YOUNG DRIVERS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY

    Topolšek, Darja; Andrijana MOĆIĆ; Knez, Matjaž; Sternad, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    We have to consider the fact that alcohol is a legal drug. The spread of alcohol consumption reflects also in the road traffic safety; nevertheless, alcohol is a significant factor in traffic accidence occurrence, especially in those with serious consequences. In the last few years traffic crashes with fatalities are just following one another and are mostly caused by drivers who consumed alcohol. Adolescents between ages 15 and 24 are one of the most endangered groups of people in traffi...

  18. Traffic Safety and Vehicle Choice: Quantifying the Effects of the "Arms Race" on American Roads

    Li, Shanjun

    2009-01-01

    The increasing market share of light trucks in the U.S. in recent years has been characterized as an “arms race” where individual purchase of light trucks for better self-protection in collisions nevertheless leads to worse traffic safety for the society. This paper investigates the interrelation between traffic safety and vehicle choice by quantifying the effects of the arms race on vehicle demand, producer performance, and traffic safety. The empirical analysis shows that the accident exter...

  19. Tchernobyl accident

    First, R.M.B.K type reactors are described. Then, safety problems are dealt with reactor control, behavior during transients, normal loss of power and behavior of the reactor in case of leak. A possible scenario of the accident of Tchernobyl is proposed: events before the explosion, possible initiators, possible scenario and events subsequent to the core meltdown (corium-concrete interaction, interaction with the groundwater table). An estimation of the source term is proposed first from the installation characteristics and the supposed scenario of the accident, and from the measurements in Europe; radiological consequences are also estimated. Radioactivity measurements (Europe, Scandinavia, Western Europe, France) are given in tables (meteorological maps and fallouts in Europe). Finally, a description of the site is given

  20. A comparison of the hazard perception ability of accident-involved and accident-free motorcycle riders.

    Cheng, Andy S K; Ng, Terry C K; Lee, Hoe C

    2011-07-01

    Hazard perception is the ability to read the road and is closely related to involvement in traffic accidents. It consists of both cognitive and behavioral components. Within the cognitive component, visual attention is an important function of driving whereas driving behavior, which represents the behavioral component, can affect the hazard perception of the driver. Motorcycle riders are the most vulnerable types of road user. The primary purpose of this study was to deepen our understanding of the correlation of different subtypes of visual attention and driving violation behaviors and their effect on hazard perception between accident-free and accident-involved motorcycle riders. Sixty-three accident-free and 46 accident-involved motorcycle riders undertook four neuropsychological tests of attention (Digit Vigilance Test, Color Trails Test-1, Color Trails Test-2, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test), filled out the Chinese Motorcycle Rider Driving Violation (CMRDV) Questionnaire, and viewed a road-user-based hazard situation with an eye-tracking system to record the response latencies to potentially dangerous traffic situations. The results showed that both the divided and selective attention of accident-involved motorcycle riders were significantly inferior to those of accident-free motorcycle riders, and that accident-involved riders exhibited significantly higher driving violation behaviors and took longer to identify hazardous situations compared to their accident-free counterparts. However, the results of the regression analysis showed that aggressive driving violation CMRDV score significantly predicted hazard perception and accident involvement of motorcycle riders. Given that all participants were mature and experienced motorcycle riders, the most plausible explanation for the differences between them is their driving style (influenced by an undesirable driving attitude), rather than skill deficits per se. The present study points to the importance of

  1. Road accidents as causes of injuries of adults

    Goniewicz, Mariusz; Marciniak-Niemcewicz, Anna; Rzońca, Patryk; Goniewicz, Krzysztof; Pawłowski, Witold

    2010-01-01

    Road accidents are a serious problem of the modern world. They are one of the main causes of injuries and are the third most numerous cause of death. Every year, about one million people, adults and children, die on the roads and several millions are injured. Mor-tality rate due to injuries from road accidents amounts to 2,2% of all deaths in the world. The research presents a mechanism of traffic accidents, pathophysiology of injury, partition of car accidents and characterized the insults o...

  2. Costs of traffic injuries

    Kruse, Marie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the socioeconomic costs of traffic injuries in Denmark, notably the healthcare costs and the productivity costs related to traffic injuries, in a bottom-up, register-based perspective. METHOD: Traffic injury victims were identified using national...... emergency room data and police records. Victims were matched with five controls per case by means of propensity score, nearest-neighbour matching. In the cohort, consisting of the 52 526 individuals that experienced a traffic injury in 2000 and 262 630 matched controls, attributable healthcare costs were...... assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic...

  3. Trajectory Based Traffic Analysis

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin;

    2013-01-01

    We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point-and-click a......We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point......-and-click analysis, due to a novel and efficient indexing structure. With the web-site daisy.aau.dk/its/spqdemo/we will demonstrate several analyses, using a very large real-world data set consisting of 1.9 billion GPS records (1.5 million trajectories) recorded from more than 13000 vehicles, and touching most of...

  4. Internet Traffic Engineering

    Bonaventure, Olivier; Trimintzios, Panos; Pavlou, George; Quoitin, Bruno; Azcorra, Arturo; Bagnulo, Marcelo; Fegkas, Paris; García-Martínez, Alberto; Georgatsos, Panos; Georgiadis, Leonidas; Jacquenet, Christian; Swinnen, Louis; Tandel, Sebastien; Uhlig, Steve

    2004-01-01

    Traffic engineering encompasses a set of techniques that can be used to control the flow of traffic in data networks. We discuss several of those techniques that have been developed during the last few years. Some techniques are focused on pure IP networks while others have been designed with emerging technologies for scalable Quality of Service (QoS) such as Differentiated Services and MPLS in mind. We first discuss traffic engineering techniques inside a single domain. We show that by using...

  5. Distraction in traffic.

    2013-01-01

    Many drivers, as well as cyclists and pedestrians, are occupied with all kinds of activities that can distract their attention from traffic, like listening to music, conducting a conversation on their mobile phone, or texting. Distraction has negative effects on traffic behaviour. Most studies estimate that distraction plays a role in the occurrence of about 5-25% of the car crashes. Considering the increasing diffusion of electronic devices in traffic, portable media devices as well as advan...

  6. Traffic Signs Inventory System

    J. Ružbarský

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on practical application of Cambridge Correlator. The goal is to propose a traffic signs inventory system by using excellent characteristics of correlator in the rapid optical correlation. The proposal of this inventory system includes obtaining of traffic signs to create the database either collecting the GPS coordinates. It is necessary to know the traffic signs position and also to document the entire surface route for later evaluation in offline mode.

  7. Traffic Light Options

    Løchte, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic light solvency stress test system introduced by the Danish Financial Supervisory Authority (DFSA) in June 2001. This monitoring system requires L&P companies to submit regular reports documenting the ...

  8. Network Traffic Anomaly Detection

    Huang, Hong; Al-Azzawi, Hussein; Brani, Hajar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a tutorial for network anomaly detection, focusing on non-signature-based approaches. Network traffic anomalies are unusual and significant changes in the traffic of a network. Networks play an important role in today's social and economic infrastructures. The security of the network becomes crucial, and network traffic anomaly detection constitutes an important part of network security. In this paper, we present three major approaches to non-signature-based network detect...

  9. Traffic Flow Management System

    Department of Transportation — TFMS is a set NAS operational tools that predict demand, identify constraints, and facilitates collaboration among NAS users to support efficient traffic flow while...

  10. Subjective safety in traffic.

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the reasons it warrants policy-related attention. However, research has shown that, at most, there is a weak link between objective and subjective safety in traffic. There are even indications that some subj...

  11. Frequency of road accidents in prishtina in the period 2007-2010

    Basri Lenjani; Salih Krasniqi; Njiazi Gashi; Ilaz Bunjaku; Thaxhedin Zaimi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the predictors of fatal road traffic accidents following the war during the year 1999. Methods: The period January 2007-December 2010 has been considered for this research. The used criterion for this research was the distribution of vehicle accidents on a yearly basis, injuries based on systems, vehicle drivers based on their sex, age, causes, accident location, road type, accident type and presence of driving permit. Results: The injured in traffic accidents who have sought emergency medical assistance in the Emergency Center from January 2008 until December 2010. In the period January to December 2007 was 44 111, from which 2 235 or 5.06% were the injured in the road traffic accidents. In the period January to December 2008 the total number of sick, injured and poisoned persons who have sought emergency medical assistance in the Emergency Center was 43 610, with a total number of 2 148 or 5.00% injured in the road traffic accidents. In the period January to December 2009 the total number of sick, injured and poisoned persons who have sought emergency medical assistance in the Emergency Center was 44 228, and the total number of injured in the road traffic accidents was 2 774, or 6.27%. In the period January to December 2010 the total number of sick, injured and poisoned who have sought emergency medical assistance in the Emergency Center was 41 614, and injured from road traffic accidents were 2 384, or 5.72%. Conclusions: Young age, high speed, and alcohol are predictors of fatal road traffic accidents in Pristine district.

  12. Transportation accidents

    Predicting the possible consequences of transportation accidents provides a severe challenge to an analyst who must make a judgment of the likely consequences of a release event at an unpredictable time and place. Since it is impractical to try to obtain detailed knowledge of the meteorology and terrain for every potential accident location on a route or to obtain accurate descriptions of population distributions or sensitive property to be protected (data which are more likely to be more readily available when one deals with fixed-site problems), he is constrained to make conservative assumptions in response to a demanding public audience. These conservative assumptions are frequently offset by very small source terms (relative to a fixed site) created when a transport vehicle is involved in an accident. For radioactive materials, which are the principal interest of the authors, only the most elementary models have been used for assessing the consequences of release of these materials in the transportation setting. Risk analysis and environmental impact statements frequently have used the Pasquill-Gifford/gaussian techniques for releases of short duration, which are both simple and easy to apply and require a minimum amount of detailed information. However, after deciding to use such a model, the problem of selecting what specific parameters to use in specific transportation situations still presents itself. Additional complications arise because source terms are not well characterized, release rates can be variable over short and long time periods, and mechanisms by which source aerosols become entrained in air are not always obvious. Some approaches that have been used to address these problems will be reviewed with emphasis on guidelines to avoid the Worst-Case Scenario Syndrome

  13. A theory of traffic congestion at heavy bottlenecks

    Spatiotemporal features and physics of vehicular traffic congestion occurring due to heavy highway bottlenecks caused for example by bad weather conditions or accidents are found based on simulations in the framework of three-phase traffic theory. A model of a heavy bottleneck is presented. Under a continuous non-limited increase in bottleneck strength, i.e., when the average flow rate within a congested pattern allowed by the heavy bottleneck decreases continuously up to zero, the evolution of the traffic phases in congested traffic, synchronized flow and wide moving jams, is studied. It is found that at a small enough flow rate within the congested pattern, the pattern exhibits a non-regular structure: a pinch region of synchronized flow within the pattern disappears and appears randomly over time; wide moving jams upstream of the pinch region exhibit a complex non-regular dynamics in which the jams appear and disappear randomly. At greater bottleneck strengths, wide moving jams merge onto a mega-wide moving jam (mega-jam) within which low-speed patterns with a complex non-regular spatiotemporal dynamics occur. We show that when the bottleneck strength is great enough, only the mega-jam survives and synchronized flow remains only within its downstream front separating free flow and congested traffic. Theoretical results presented can explain why no sequence of wide moving jams can often be distinguished in non-homogeneous traffic congestion measured at very heavy bottlenecks caused by bad weather conditions or accidents

  14. Factors that dissuade young drivers from committing traffic violations.

    Félonneau, Marie-Line; Aigrot, Florence; Causse, Elsa

    2009-04-01

    During a period of overinvolvement of young drivers in road accidents and an increasing number of police checks, this study was done to identify factors dissuading individuals from committing traffic violations in this segment of the population. The model used examines the perceptions of accident risk and risk of getting a ticket. A special questionnaire was designed to investigate the following subscales: Driving Offences Declared, Perceived Danger, Perceived Police Check, and Perceived Impunity. The sample tested included 514 young adults (324 men, 187 women). Analysis showed committing traffic violations was inhibited mainly by fear of danger. Sex and mileage covered influenced violations: women had a lower Driving Offences Declared score than men, and high-mileage drivers declared committing more violations than low-mileage drivers. Further, those who had ever been ticketed and who had been involved in an accident had higher scores for Driving Offences Declared. PMID:19610479

  15. The Traffic Light Challenge

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic lights are an important part of the transportation infrastructure, regulating traffic flow and maintaining safety when crossing busy streets. When they go awry or become nonfunctional, a great deal of havoc and danger can be present. During power outages, the street lights go out all over the affected area. It would be good to be able to…

  16. Distraction in traffic.

    2013-01-01

    Many drivers, as well as cyclists and pedestrians, are occupied with all kinds of activities that can distract their attention from traffic, like listening to music, conducting a conversation on their mobile phone, or texting. Distraction has negative effects on traffic behaviour. Most studies estim

  17. Road Traffic in China

    Jie, L.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is tightly related to the social and economic development in a country. In China the development of the economy has been very fast in the past 30 years and this is still continuing. The transport infrastructure shows a similar pattern, while traffic is also rapidly growing. In urban areas th

  18. Controlled Traffic Farming

    Controlled Traffic Farming Europe

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record Controlled Traffic Farming (CTF) is a farming method used to reduce soil compaction, decrease inputs, and improve soil structure when coupled with reduced-till or no-till practices. This practices utilizes permanent traffic/wheel zones to limit soil compaction to a specific area. This website provides practical information on CTF, case studies, workshops, and links to additional resources.

  19. National registration of accidents in Iceland.

    Olafsson, O; Axelsson, J

    1992-01-01

    Community based registration of accidents has been employed in Iceland from 1987. A form developed in the emergency ward at the city Hospital of Reykjavik has been used for the registration. The following issues have been registered: the type and the seriousness of the injury, treatment, place of accident and time of accident. Health centres in Iceland have been computerized from 1976. At the time being about half of the health centres participate in the registration with the information included in the form as the source. Every health center has its well defined district. The accidents among the inhabitants in each district is registered, while accidents among other people, e.g. tourists, is registered separately. At this moment 183,000 out of a total number of 259,000 inhabitants are covered by the registration, i.e. 71% of the population. In 1989 the frequency of accidents was 198 per 100,000 inhabitants. 26% of the accidents occurred at home, 11% at work, 9% during physical activity, 6% was traffic accidents, whereas the same proportion occurred at school. This registration system has been created as a result of annual conferences on accidents arranged by the Director General of public health since 1984. Representatives for the following parties have been invited; medical doctors working in hospitals and health centres, clinical nurses, physiotherapists, the National Insurance Service, other insurance companies, rescue and ambulance personal, fire departments, the Automobile Association, the communication Council. Local communities members of the parliament, voluntary organizations, e.g. Red Cross, the Sea Rescue Service and the Aviation Board. This activity has stimulated measures aiming at preventing accidents in several local communities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1285816

  20. Traffic Light Options

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... light solvency stress test system introduced by the Danish Financial Supervisory Authority (DFSA) in June 2001. This monitoring system requires L&P companies to submit regular reports documenting the sensitivity of the companies' base capital to certain pre-defined market shocks - the red and yellow...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  1. Traffic Light Options

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... light solvency stress test system introduced by the Danish Financial Supervisory Authority (DFSA) in June 2001. This monitoring system requires L&P companies to submit regular reports documenting the sensitivity of the companies' base capital to certain pre-defined market shocks - the red and yellow...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  2. Acidentes de transporte terrestre em cidade da Região Sul do Brasil: avaliação da cobertura e qualidade dos dados Traffic accidents in a city in Southern Brazil: an evaluation of coverage and quality of data

    Selma Maffei de Andrade

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi o de avaliar a cobertura policial e a validade dos dados registrados em fichas de pronto-socorro, internação e nas declarações de óbito de vítimas de acidentes de transporte terrestre ocorridos em Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. Foram estudadas 3.643 vítimas resultantes de acidentes ocorridos no primeiro semestre de 1996, para as quais observou-se um prazo de seguimento de 180 dias para verificar a ocorrência de óbito devido ao acidente. A cobertura policial desses acidentes foi bastante baixa (32,5% sendo maior para os ocupantes de carro (71,6% e menor para ciclistas (8,1% e pedestres (24,8%. A concordância entre as informações registradas originalmente e a obtida após investigação foi pequena nas declarações de óbito (coeficiente Kappa 0,10; IC 95%: 0,02-0,17 regular nas fichas de internação (coeficiente Kappa 0,33; IC 95%: 0,27-0,40 e substancial nas fichas de pronto-socorro (coeficiente Kappa 0,63; IC 95%: 0,61-0,65. Os resultados indicam que os registros policiais subestimam o número de vítimas por esses acidentes. Sugerem, ainda, ser necessário investir na melhoria da qualidade dessas informações, principalmente nos níveis de internação e óbito.The aim of this study was to analyze police coverage and the validity of data on emergency and hospitalization records as well as on death certificates for traffic casualties in Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. Victims (3,643 of road accidents during the first semester of 1996 were investigated and followed up after 180 days to confirm whether death was due to the accident. Police data recorded only 32.5% of the casualties, the coverage being higher for car occupants (71.6% and lower for cyclists (8.1% and pedestrians (24.8%. Agreement was low between original information and that derived from investigation of death certificates (Kappa coefficient 0.10; 95% CI: 0.02-0.17, fair for hospitalization records (Kappa coefficient 0.33; 95% CI: 0.27-0.40, and

  3. 负压封闭引流在车祸伤四肢皮肤缺损中的临床应用%Study on Clinical Application of VSD in the Treatment of Skin Defect of Extremities Caused by Traffic Accidents

    丁宝志; 黎晓华; 庄蕾; 王惠东; 陈铿

    2013-01-01

    [目的] 研究封闭负压引流(VSD)技术在车祸外伤致四肢创面污染或感染修复治疗中的临床疗效.[方法]本院收治的16例车祸外伤后四肢皮肤软组织缺损伴严重污染或感染患者.其中男10例,女6例,上肢2例,下肢14例.受伤至手术时间:24 h者6例,平均22.8 d.创面面积15 cm×4 cm~80 cm×20 cm.所有病例均彻底清创后覆盖VSD 6~10 d,1~4次.7例皮瓣修复,6例植皮,3例皮肤脱套伤者予以皮肤修薄后原位回植.[结果]13例创面均无感染,肉芽生长良好,修复术后移植皮片及皮瓣一期愈合;3例原位回植皮肤全部成活.[结论]VSD有非常良好的控制污染创面感染的作用,可促进肉芽生长,为深部组织修复重建及创面的修复打下良好的基础,其临床优良的效果具有推广价值.%[Objective]To explore the clinical efficacy of continuous vacuum sealing dressing(VSD) in the treatment of polluted or infected wounds of extremities caused by traffic accidents. [Methods]Sixteen patients with serious polluted or infected skin and soft tissue defect of extremities caused by traffic accidents were treated in our hospital. All patients included 10 men and 6 women. Among all patients, 6 patients were the defect of upper extremities and 14 patients were the defect of lower extremities. The time of injury to operation of 7 patients was less than 6h(mean 4. 2 h) , and that of 3 patients was 6~12h(mean 7. 8h) , and that of 6 patients was more than 24 h(mean 22. 8d). The area of wounds was from 15 cm×4cm to 80cm×20cm. All the patients were treated with VSD after thorough debrid-ment for 6~10d and 1~4 times. Seven patients underwent skin flap operation, and 3 patients underwent dermatoplasty, and 3 patients with degloving skin injury underwent skin orthotopic transplantation after skin thickening. [Re-sults]The wounds of 13 patients had no infection, and the granulation grew well, and the free skin grafts and flaps were healed for one stage after

  4. Níveis de alcoolemia e mortalidade por acidentes de trânsito na cidade do Rio de Janeiro Niveles de alcoholemia y mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito en la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro Alcoholemy levels and mortality by traffic accidents in the city of Rio de Janeiro

    Ângela Maria Mendes Abreu

    2007-12-01

    significativo de mortalidad con niveles abajo del limite legal establecido en el Brasil.This is an epidemiologic descriptive study. With the objective to describe the profile of the fatal victims by traffic accidents in the city of Rio de Janeiro from the records of the Medical-Legal Institute and to compare it to the levels of alcoholemy detected trough laboratorial examination. The data collection was made according to the Resolution 196/96 of the National Council of Health. The data was raised in archives of the MLI, trough the medical records of the fatal victims of traffic accidents, of the victims' universe by all the external causes, and recorded from a specific information system, grouped and tabulated by the statistic program EPI INFO, in the period between January and February of 2005. It became evident that 27.8% of the fatal victims presented detected alcoholemy. In 64% of these, the alcoholemy level was above 0.6 g/L, while 36% presented a significant perceptual of mortality with levels below the legal limit established in Brazil.

  5. The Analysis on the Relationship between Insurance Law and Tort Liability Law ——Taking the Liability in Motor Vehicle Traffic Accident as Study Object%保险法与侵权责任法关系辨析——以机动车交通事故责任为重点考察对象

    郝磊; 马映平

    2011-01-01

    In our country the Liability Insurance System was introduced into Liability for Motor Vehicle Traffic Accident.There are mutual integration and independence on the norm and function between Insurance Law and Tort Liability Law,so Tort Liability Law is different from the traditional rules of tort law,and Insurance Law cannot completely substitute for Tort Liability Law as well.Current legislation in our country pay attention to organically coordinating the relationship between Insurance Law and Tort Liability Law,but there are some places demanding to improve further: The balance on the interests of all the parties should be completed further in the law system;We should pay attention to the coordination of commercial insurance and tort liabilities system;The problem on law application should be formulated further explicit as well.%我国立法在机动车交通事故责任中引入了责任保险制度,由于保险法和侵权责任法在规范与功能等方面既有其相互融合的一面,又有其相互独立的一面,故侵权责任法不同于传统的侵权规则,保险法也不能完全取代侵权责任法。我国现行立法注重对保险法与侵权责任法的关系予以有机协调,但是也有一些需要进一步改进的地方:对各方利益的平衡应从法律上进一步完善;要注意商业保险与侵权责任机制的协调;对具体适用中的问题亦应进一步明确规范。

  6. Decentralized Traffic Management Strategies for Sensor-Enabled Cars

    Wang, Ziyuan; Ramamohanarao, Kotagiri

    2009-01-01

    Traffic Congestions and accidents are major concerns in today's transportation systems. This thesis investigates how to optimize traffic flow on highways, in particular for merging situations such as intersections where a ramp leads onto the highway. In our work, cars are equipped with sensors that can detect distance to neighboring cars, and communicate their velocity and acceleration readings with one another. Sensor-enabled cars can locally exchange sensed information about the traffic and adapt their behavior much earlier than regular cars. We propose proactive algorithms for merging different streams of sensor-enabled cars into a single stream. A proactive merging algorithm decouples the decision point from the actual merging point. Sensor-enabled cars allow us to decide where and when a car merges before it arrives at the actual merging point. This leads to a significant improvement in traffic flow as velocities can be adjusted appropriately. We compare proactive merging algorithms against the conventio...

  7. Traffic accidents with motorcycles and their relationship to mortality Ocurrencias de tránsito con motocicleta y su relación con la mortalidad Ocorrências de trânsito com motocicleta e sua relação com a mortalidade

    Nelson Luiz Batista de Oliveira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes traffic accidents involving motorcycles according to local conditions, data concerning the type of accident, date and time, and identifies among these variables those associated with the death of victims. This retrospective study uses data from traffic collision reports from 2004 and death records from the institute of forensic medicine. A total of 99.4% of the events occurred in urban areas, where illumination (87.4%, weather conditions (80.6%; and traffic signs (70.6% were satisfactory. Collisions between motorcycles and cars or pickup trucks prevailed (55.5%, followed by motorcycle falls (18.0%. In relation to the type of collision, the highest percentage was observed in broadside collision category (35.2%. There were differences between the groups of fatalities and survivors in relation to the area and illumination in the collision’s site, in addition to the types of collision and impact. The conclusion is that local conditions and types of collision and impact stand out among the multiple variables defining the severity of accidents involving motorcycles.Se tuvo por objetivo caracterizar las ocurrencias de tránsito con motocicleta, según condiciones locales, datos relacionados al tipo de accidente, fecha y hora, además de identificar entre esas variables las que se asociaron con la muerte de las víctimas. Se trata de un estudio retrospectivo utilizando datos de los Boletines de Ocurrencia de Tránsito referentes al año de 2.004 y los registros de muerte del Instituto Médico Legal. El 99,4% de las ocurrencias sucedieron en área urbana, en locales donde las condiciones de luminosidad (87,4%, condición meteorológica (80,6% y señalización (70,6% eran satisfactorias. Predominó la colisión de motocicleta con automóvil o camioneta (55,5% y las caídas de motocicleta fueron las más frecuentes (18,0%. En el tipo de impacto, el mayor porcentaje fue observado en la categoría colisión transversal (35,2%. El

  8. Characteristics of Traumatic Brain Injury Hospitalized Patients due to Traffic Accidents in a General Hospital in Shantou City, 2008-2012%汕头市某综合医院2008-2012年颅脑交通伤住院患者特征分析

    朱瑶; 李丽萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective Analysis the epidemiological characteristics of road-related traumatic brain injury hospitalized patients. Explore the influence factors of severe traumatic brain injury due to road traffic accidents so as to provide scientific basis for prevention of the severe traumatic brain injury. Methods ICD-10 coding was used to retrospectively analysis the epidemiological characteristics of the traumatic brain injury admitted from January 1 2008 to December 31 2012 in neurosurgery department and the factors affecting the severe traumatic brain injury were discussed. Results There were 1 858 patients, with 1 343 males (72.3%) and 515 females (27.7%), male-to-female ratio was 2.61:1. The highest frequency of severe traumatic brain injury was among the age group 15~44 (44.3%). Majority of the victims were motorcyclists (44.3%), followed by pedestrians (21.5%). The mean hospital stay was 30.40±42.22 days, the average hospital cost was 29 146.30± 43 243.00 RMB. Chi-square test showed that age, sex, marital status, type of road users, patients on admission conditions, multiple trauma patients with traumatic brain injury was statistically significant difference between the groups. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that gender, age, admissions, patients with multiple injuries that affect the severity of the traumatic brain injury due to traffic accidents. Conclusions Men, children under 14, admitted the situation is urgent and multiple injuries as risk factors for severe traumatic brain injury due to traffic accidents.%目的:分析汕头市某综合医院2008─2012年交通事故致颅脑损伤住院患者的流行病学特征,探索交通事故致严重颅脑损伤的影响因素,为严重颅脑交通伤的预防控制提供科学依据。方法采用国际疾病分类标准ICD-10,对某大型综合性医院2008年1月1日至2012年12月31日神经外科收治的因道路交通伤害入院的颅脑损伤患者进行回顾性分析,并探讨

  9. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira; Andy Petroianu; Dafne Maria Villar Gonçalves; Gisele Araújo Pereira; Luiz Ronaldo Alberti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the regio...

  10. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark.

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2016-02-01

    Young road users still constitute a high-risk group with regard to road traffic accidents. The crash rate of a moped is four times greater than that of a motorcycle, and the likelihood of being injured in a road traffic accident is 10-20 times higher among moped riders compared to car drivers. Nevertheless, research on the behaviour and accident involvement of young moped riders remains sparse. Based on analysis of 128 accident protocols, the purpose of this study was to increase knowledge about moped accidents. The study was performed in Denmark involving riders aged 16 or 17. A distinction was made between accident factors related to (1) the road and its surroundings, (2) the vehicle, and (3) the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. Thirteen accident factors were identified with the majority concerning the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. The average number of accident factors assigned per accident was 2.7. Riding speed was assigned in 45% of the accidents which made it the most frequently assigned factor on the part of the moped rider followed by attention errors (42%), a tuned up moped (29%) and position on the road (14%). For the other parties involved, attention error (52%) was the most frequently assigned accident factor. The majority (78%) of the accidents involved road rule breaching on the part of the moped rider. The results indicate that preventive measures should aim to eliminate violations and increase anticipatory skills among moped riders and awareness of mopeds among other road users. Due to their young age the effect of such measures could be enhanced by infrastructural measures facilitating safe interaction between mopeds and other road users. PMID:26619285

  11. VBR video traffic models

    Tanwir, Savera

    2014-01-01

    There has been a phenomenal growth in video applications over the past few years. An accurate traffic model of Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video is necessary for performance evaluation of a network design and for generating synthetic traffic that can be used for benchmarking a network. A large number of models for VBR video traffic have been proposed in the literature for different types of video in the past 20 years. Here, the authors have classified and surveyed these models and have also evaluated the models for H.264 AVC and MVC encoded video and discussed their findings.

  12. Road Traffic Injuries

    WANG Zheng-guo

    2005-01-01

    @@ As everybody knows that automobiles have been greatly changing our life. However, everything has two sides, motor vehicles have also caused a huge number of people's deaths, injuries and property damage. Traffic crashes are perhaps the number one public health problem in developed countries [1]. In the United States, pre-retirement years of life lost in traffic crashes are more than that of the two combined leading diseases: cancer and heart disease [1]. Today road traffic crash (RTC) ranks 11th in leading cause of death and accounts for 2.1% of all deaths globally.

  13. Integration of Radar System with GPS-Based Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) for Approach Control Separation

    Bakare, Ayeni K.; Junaidu, Sahalu B.

    2013-01-01

    The air traffic control system is a vast network of people and necessary navigational equipment that ensures the safe operation of commercial and private aircraft throughout the world. Air traffic controller service is responsible for area, approach and aerodrome control. Aircraft fatal accident data for commercial jet airplanes between 1959 and 2008 show that 36% of the accidents happen in the final approach and landing phase, possibly due to mechanical failure or human error resulting from ...

  14. Two dimensional mixed traffic flow considering the transit traffic

    Lingjiang Kong; Junhui Hu; Li Yang

    2012-01-01

    Based on the two-dimension cellular automaton traffic flow model (BML model), a mixed traffic flow model for urban traffic considering the transit traffic is established in this paper by using the Don't block the box rules. We have investigated the influences of the transit traffic ratio, and found that, in most cases, the urban traffic flow exhibited jam phase. Moreover, focusing on the traffic lights cycle, it is found that the average flow has the periodic fluctuation phenomenon, and we ha...

  15. Detection and analysis of black spots with even small accident figures. Contribution to the Seminar on Short-term and Area-wide Evaluation of Safety Measures, Amsterdam, April 19-21, 1982, p. 75-84.

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    In order to detect accident black spots we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures known to us, the various road locations are treated as isolated spots. With small accident figu

  16. Alternative method of highway traffic safety analysis for developing countries using delphi technique and Bayesian network.

    Mbakwe, Anthony C; Saka, Anthony A; Choi, Keechoo; Lee, Young-Jae

    2016-08-01

    Highway traffic accidents all over the world result in more than 1.3 million fatalities annually. An alarming number of these fatalities occurs in developing countries. There are many risk factors that are associated with frequent accidents, heavy loss of lives, and property damage in developing countries. Unfortunately, poor record keeping practices are very difficult obstacle to overcome in striving to obtain a near accurate casualty and safety data. In light of the fact that there are numerous accident causes, any attempts to curb the escalating death and injury rates in developing countries must include the identification of the primary accident causes. This paper, therefore, seeks to show that the Delphi Technique is a suitable alternative method that can be exploited in generating highway traffic accident data through which the major accident causes can be identified. In order to authenticate the technique used, Korea, a country that underwent similar problems when it was in its early stages of development in addition to the availability of excellent highway safety records in its database, is chosen and utilized for this purpose. Validation of the methodology confirms the technique is suitable for application in developing countries. Furthermore, the Delphi Technique, in combination with the Bayesian Network Model, is utilized in modeling highway traffic accidents and forecasting accident rates in the countries of research. PMID:27183516

  17. Turning Traffic Jams to Jelly

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Beijing, known for having the worst traffic in China, is brewing up a traffic plan with the harshest ever measures to ensure smooth traffic flow as the capital's gridlock during rush hour and private car sales soar. On December 13, the Beijing Municipal Government started soliciting public opinions for a draft plan designed to relieve the city's traffic problems.

  18. Traffic-Adaptive Routing

    Kammenhuber, Nils

    2011-01-01

    Despite the bursty and highly volatile traffic, routing in the Internet today is optimised only on coarse time scales, as load-adaptive routing is known to induce performance deterioration by causing massive oscillations. We describe ReplEx, an universally applicable distributed algorithm for dynamic routing/traffic engineering, which is based on game theory. We show through extensive realistic simulations that ReplEx does not oscillate, and that it achieves performance gains comparable to tr...

  19. Traffic engineering eye diagram

    Kowalik, Karol; Collier, Martin

    2005-01-01

    It is said that a picture is worth a thousand words - this statement also applies to networking topics. Thus, to effectively monitor network performance we need tools which present the performance metrics in a graphical way which is also clear and informative. We propose a tool for this purpose which we call the traffic engineering eye diagram (TEED). Eye diagrams are used in digital communications to analyse the quality of a digital signal; the TEED can similarly he used in the traffic engin...

  20. Traffic Management Systems

    Wei Chen; David Levinson

    2004-01-01

    This study uses regression analysis to evaluate long-run traffic management system performance. Three important traffic management systems in the Twin Cities metro area - Ramp Metering, Variable Message Signs (VMS), and Freeway Service Patrol (the Highway Helper Program) were evaluated with multiple regression models to predict link speed and incident rate. We find that ramp meters increase freeway link speed and reduce incident rate. Freeway Service Patrols increase link speed when incidents...

  1. Penalties in traffic.

    2009-01-01

    Traffic offenders are penalized in various ways: fines, (temporary) driving licence suspensions, confiscation of their vehicles, penalty points, mandatory participation in rehabilitation programmes, prison sentences or community service. The aim of penalties is to punish offenders, to protect society and to influence the behaviour of offenders and all citizens (prevention). Many studies have found that the combination of enforcement and penalties prevent the violation of traffic regulations a...

  2. Criticality Accident

    At a meeting of electric utility presidents in October, 1999, the Federation Power Companies (FEPCO) officially decided to establish a Japanese version of WANO, following the JCO criticality accident. The Japanese WANO is expected to be launched by the end of the year: initially, with some 30 private sector companies concerned with nuclear fuel. It is said that the private sector had to make efforts to ensure that safety was the most important value in management policy throughout the industry, and that comprehensive inspections would be implemented. In anything related to nuclear energy, sufficient safety checks are required even for the most seemingly trivial matters. Therefore, the All-Japan Council of Local Governments with Atomic Power Stations has already proposed to the Japanese government that it should enact the special law for nuclear emergency, providing that the unified responsibility for nuclear disaster prevention should be shifted to the national government, since the nuclear disaster was quite special from the viewpoint of its safety regulation and technical aspects. (G.K.)

  3. Ant traffic rules.

    Fourcassié, Vincent; Dussutour, Audrey; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2010-07-15

    Many animals take part in flow-like collective movements. In most species, however, the flow is unidirectional. Ants are one of the rare group of organisms in which flow-like movements are predominantly bidirectional. This adds to the difficulty of the task of maintaining a smooth, efficient movement. Yet, ants seem to fare well at this task. Do they really? And if so, how do such simple organisms succeed in maintaining a smooth traffic flow, when even humans experience trouble with this task? How does traffic in ants compare with that in human pedestrians or vehicles? The experimental study of ant traffic is only a few years old but it has already provided interesting insights into traffic organization and regulation in animals, showing in particular that an ant colony as a whole can be considered as a typical self-organized adaptive system. In this review we will show that the study of ant traffic can not only uncover basic principles of behavioral ecology and evolution in social insects but also provide new insights into the study of traffic systems in general. PMID:20581264

  4. Exploring the potential of data mining techniques for the analysis of accident patterns

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Galtzur, Ayelet;

    2010-01-01

    Research in road safety faces major challenges: individuation of the most significant determinants of traffic accidents, recognition of the most recurrent accident patterns, and allocation of resources necessary to address the most relevant issues. This paper intends to comprehend which data mining...... association rules) data mining techniques are implemented for the analysis of traffic accidents occurred in Israel between 2001 and 2004. Results show that descriptive techniques are useful to classify the large amount of analyzed accidents, even though introduce problems with respect to the clear...... importance of input and intermediate neurons, and the relative importance of hundreds of association rules. Further research should investigate whether limiting the analysis to fatal accidents would simplify the task of data mining techniques in recognizing accident patterns without the “noise” probably...

  5. Comparative analysis of characteristics and risk factors of traffic injury in aged people from urban and rural areas in Chongqing

    ZHANG Liang; ZHOU Ji-hong; QIU Jun; ZHANG Xiu-zhu; YUAN Dan-feng; GAO Zhi-ming; DAI Wei

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the epidemiologic characteristics of traffic injuries among people over 60 years old in the Nan' an district(urban)and Jiangjin district(rural)of Chongqing,and to discuss the corresponding strategies for its prevention and cure.Methods:Records of traffic injuries in people over 60 years old registered by the traffic police between 2000 and 2006 in Nan'an district and Jiangjin district were collected in the Database of Road Traffic Accidents and Traffic Injuries.Epidemiologic characteristics of traffic injuries among the aged people were analyzed and compared.Results:Between the year 2000 and 2006,the average annual incidence of traffic injuries and mortality rate in the aged people in Nan' an district were 124.62/100 000 and 13.85/100 000 respectively,higher than that in Jiangjin district(27.49/100 000,7.13/100 000,P<0.01).However,the mortality rate for the aged people who were involved in traffic injuries in Jiangjin district was 20.60%,higher than that in Nan'an district(10.00%,P<0.01).Head injury was the primary cause of death.Totally 76.58% of casualties were pedestrians.Over 90% of the traffic accidents occurred in the areas with no traffic signal or traffic control system.Conclusions:The traffic environment is unfavorable to the aged people.It is important to enhance traffic safety consciousness of drivers and the elderly and to strengthen traffic safety system and traffic law,so as to provide a safe road traffic environment for the aged people.

  6. A Cooperative Traffic Control Strategy

    BORG, Dora Lee; Bhouri, Neila; SCERRI, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    With one-third of the global population living in cities by 2030 and the need for mobility fueling traffic growth all over the world, the traffic congestion problem in major cities is becoming more and more acute. Besides economic losses, traffic congestion has detrimental effects on our standard of living and on the environment. A viable solution to the traffic congestion problem is intelligent traffic control. The main aim of this work is to test a Model Predictive Control Strategy (MPC) on...

  7. Traffic violation alert and management

    Aliane, Nourdine; Fernández Andrés, Javier; Bemposta Rosende, Sergio; Mata Ortega, Mario

    2011-01-01

    The present paper presents an in-vehicle system for traffic violation alert and management. The system hardware consists of a combination of an on-board computer vision system for traffic sign detection and recognition with a data recorder device for traffic violation alert and management. At present, traffic violations are only focused on three signs: namely speed limit, stop sign, and forbidden turning. The system is designed to warn drivers about potential traffic violations by emitting ac...

  8. Traffic Information System for Hanoi

    Sohr, Alexander; Brockfeld, Elmar; Sauerländer-Biebl, Anke; Melde, Eric

    2016-01-01

    To improve the traffic situation in Hanoi it is necessary to have a good overview of the existing traffic situation and to monitor the development of the traffic over longer time periods. Floating Car Data (FCD) Systems can help to acquire area wide traffic information; here a FCD system based on taxis, busses and motor-cycles is described. It consists of Web and App tools and a Hotspot-Monitoring for long term traffic analysis.

  9. Severe accident phenomena

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  10. Analysis of the On the Spot (OTS) Road Accident Database

    Mansfield, H.; Bunting, A.; Martens, M.; Horst, A.R.A. van der

    2008-01-01

    The UK Government is seeking to substantially reduce the number of road traffic accidents (RTAs) leading to injury or loss of life. Specifically, relative to the average figures for 1994–98, the Government would like to meet the following road casualty reduction targets by 2010: • a 40% reduction in

  11. ROAD TRANSPORT ACCIDENTS IN NIGERIA AND THE ROLE

    Olasunkanmi Oriola AKINYEMI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of road traffic accidents revealed that most accidents are as a result of drivers’ errors. Over the years, active safety systems (ASS were devised in vehicle to reduce the high level of road accidents, caused by human errors, leading to death and injuries.This study however evaluated the impacts of ASS inclusions into vehicles in Nigeria road transportation network. The objectives was to measure how ASS contributed to making driving safer and enhanced transport safety. Road accident data were collected, for a period of eleven years, from Lagos State Ministry of Economic Planning and Budget, Central Office of Statistics. Quantitative analysis of the retrospective accident was conducted by computing the proportion of yearly number of vehicles involved in road accident to the total number of vehicles for each year. Results of the analysis showed that the proportion of vehicles involved in road accidents decreased from 16 in 1996 to 0.89 in 2006, the injured persons reduced from 15.58 in 1998 to 0.3 in 2006 and the death rate diminished from 4.45 in 1998 to 0.1 in 2006. These represented 94.4%, 95% and 95% improvement respectively on road traffic safety. It can therefore be concluded that the inclusions of ASS into design of modern vehicles had improved road safety in Nigeria automotive industry.

  12. The Conception Approach to the Traffic Control in Czech Cities - Examples from Prague

    Tichý, Tomáš; Krajčír, Dušan

    Modern and economic development of contemporary towns is without question highly dependent upon traffic infrastructure progress. Automobile transport intensity is dramatically rising in large towns and other Czech and European cities. At the same time number of traffic congestions and accidents is increasing, standing times are becoming longer and ecological stress is also escalated. To solve this situation seems to be the most effective solution to design intelligent traffic light intersection control system, variable message signs, preference of public transportation, road line traffic control and next telematics subsystems. This control system and subsystems should improve permeability of traffic road network with a respect for all demands on recent trends of traffic development in towns and regions.

  13. Safety and risk in road traffic: selected problems

    Zbigniew ŁUKASIK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of road safety, the concept of "risk" is used to define a measurable level of road safety dependent on numerical accident exposure value. This is an approach different (even contradictory to calculate the level of security, measured by the number of accidents or injuries. So, whether otherwise - risk assessment is needed to improve the safety of road transport and define priorities in the field of public health. The article presents the concept of risk and selected problems of risk analysis in road traffic.

  14. To Investigate the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms of those Patients Suffered from Serious Collective Traffic Accidents%集体特大交通事故所致创伤后应激障碍症状的分析

    王芳; 宋永斌; 张桂青

    2012-01-01

    评估经历两次撞击的集体特大交通事故中36名伤员1周内的创伤后应激障碍症状.以PCL-C为提纲,结合伤员自身、家属和同病房伤员的描述由评估者经过个体晤谈后完成评定.结果显示伤员最常见的症状是:创伤提示异常心理痛苦(83.33%),闯入性回忆(69.44%),回避创伤提示物品或境遇(66.67%),惊跳反应(63.89%),回避创伤相关思考(61.11%)和睡眠障碍(61.11%);63.89%的伤员PCL-C总分≥41;维吾尔族伤员创伤后应激障碍症状严重程度高于汉族伤员.%The post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology of 36 wounded suffered from two successive serious collective traffic accidents within a week were evaluated. Based on PCL -C, and combined the description from the wounded themselves, their families and the wounded with the ward, the evaluation could be completed through the individual interviews by the evaluators. The most common symptoms include abnormal mental suffering trauma Tips (83. 33%), intrusion of memories (69. 44%), avoiding the object or situation prompted trauma (66. 67%), startle response (63. 89%), a-voiding the trauma-related thinking (61.11% ), and sleep disorder (61.11%), 63. 89% of the injured PCL-C total score ≥41; Uygur nationality wounded have more high level of the post - traumatic stress symptoms than the severity of Han nationality wounded.

  15. [Medicolegal and compensation scientific approach to automobile accident].

    Yamanouchi, Haruo

    2002-09-01

    Multiple injuries are frequently observed over the whole body of traffic victims in medico-legal autopsy cases. The assessment of a traffic casualty must include not only the victim but also the vehicle and the circumstances of the accident. Only consideration of all available data permits a better assessment of the mechanism of the crash and causation of injuries. J. M. Thevenet drove the first car carried from France to Japan on February 6, 1898. On October 28th, 1905, the first death by a road traffic accident occurred in Osaka. We performed a retrospective analysis of 279 traffic fatalities examined by medico-legal autopsy in Niigata that occurred over a twenty-two-year period from 1980 to 2001. All persons who had an ICD-10 code were grouped by 153 pedestrians, 43 pedal cyclists, 20 motorcycle riders, 45 car occupants, 11 occupants of pick-up trucks or vans, 4 occupants of heavy transport vehicles and 3 others. The average of ISS (injury scale score) is 40.7 in pedestrians, 26.7 in pedal cyclists, 32.4 in motorcycle riders, 25.1 in car occupants, 16.5 in occupants of pick-up trucks or vans, 24.0 in heavy transport vehicles and 69.0 in others. Rib fractures were observed in 170 cases (60.9%) and the frequency of other injuries was shown in Table 2. Criminal Punishment for drivers involved in 261 traffic accidents amounted to 35 sentences of imprisonment (13.4%), 46 suspension of execution of sentence (17.6%) and 60 sentence of fine (23.0%). Forty prone pedestrians run over by cars showed high ethanol levels in their blood. It was necessary to identify the driver of a vehicle in twelve car accidents and simulation with a computer is very useful. The average of ISS was 34.0 in ten drivers and 22.0 in fourteen fellow passengers. Four sudden natural deaths of drivers at the wheel, eight cases of death immediately after and from one day to five months after road traffic accidents, nine suicides and one intentional accident are excluded from traffic death. Both a

  16. Analyzing the severity of accidents on the German Autobahn.

    Manner, Hans; Wünsch-Ziegler, Laura

    2013-08-01

    We study the severity of accidents on the German Autobahn in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia using data for the years 2009 until 2011. We use a multinomial logit model to identify statistically relevant factors explaining the severity of the most severe injury, which is classified into the four classes fatal, severe injury, light injury and property damage. Furthermore, to account for unobserved heterogeneity we use a random parameter model. We study the effect of a number of factors including traffic information, road conditions, type of accidents, speed limits, presence of intelligent traffic control systems, age and gender of the driver and location of the accident. Our findings are in line with studies in different settings and indicate that accidents during daylight and at interchanges or construction sites are less severe in general. Accidents caused by the collision with roadside objects, involving pedestrians and motorcycles, or caused by bad sight conditions tend to be more severe. We discuss the measures of the 2011 German traffic safety programm in the light of our results. PMID:23628941

  17. Forensic intelligence as a useful tool for reducing traffic fatalities: the Brazilian Federal District case

    Wilson X. Camargo Filho

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents in Brazil kill more than 40,000 people a year and injure another 400,000, with largely permanent health impacts. This paper proposes the use of Forensic Intelligence, a field of Forensic Science that is able to convert forensic data into useful information, as a means to support policy measures and strategies, in order to prevent accidents. The selected study site was a small stretch on a Federal Highway (BR-040, where four fatal crashes occurred at the beginning of 2012. This highway had good mobility conditions and had no problems that could be correlated with these four fatal events, although speeding, alcohol abuse, and/or driver inattention were present in the crashes. We propose some possible interventions here, such as the use of advertising campaigns, strengthening traffic law enforcement, reduction of the speed limit, and the installation of electronic speed control devices in order to avoid future traffic accidents.

  18. Emergent traffic jams

    Nagel, K; Nagel, Kai; Paczuski, Maya

    1995-01-01

    We study a single-lane traffic model that is based on human driving behavior. The outflow from a traffic jam self-organizes to a critical state of maximum throughput. Small perturbations of the outflow far downstream create emergent traffic jams with a power law distribution P(t) \\sim t^{-3/2} of lifetimes, t. On varying the vehicle density in a closed system, this critical state separates lamellar and jammed regimes, and exhibits 1/f noise in the power spectrum. Using random walk arguments, in conjunction with a cascade equation, we develop a phenomenological theory that predicts the critical exponents for this transition and explains the self-organizing behavior. These predictions are consistent with all of our numerical results.

  19. Traffic Engineering in Metro Ethernet

    Padmaraj Nair

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic engineering is one of the major issues that has to be addressed in Metro Ethernet networks for quality of service and efficient resource utilization. This paper aims at understanding the relevant issues and outlines novel algorithms for multipoint traffic engineering in Metro Ethernet. We present an algorithmic solution for traffic engineering in Metro Ethernet using optimal multiple spanning trees. This iterative approach distributes traffic across the network uniformly without overloading network resources. We also introduce a new traffic specification model for Metro Ethernet, which is a hybrid of two widely used traffic specification models, the pipe and hose models.

  20. Two dimensional mixed traffic flow considering the transit traffic

    Lingjiang Kong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the two-dimension cellular automaton traffic flow model (BML model, a mixed traffic flow model for urban traffic considering the transit traffic is established in this paper by using the Don't block the box rules. We have investigated the influences of the transit traffic ratio, and found that, in most cases, the urban traffic flow exhibited jam phase. Moreover, focusing on the traffic lights cycle, it is found that the average flow has the periodic fluctuation phenomenon, and we have explained this periodical oscillation change under different boundary conditions. The comparison to practical measured data shows that our stimulation results are accordant with the changes of real traffic flow, which confirms the accuracy and rationality of our model.

  1. Traffic Light Detection

    Philipsen, Mark Philip; Jensen, Morten Bornø; Møgelmose, Andreas;

    2015-01-01

    Traffic light recognition (TLR) is an integral part of any intelligent vehicle, which must function in the existing infrastructure. Pedestrian and sign detection have recently seen great improvements due to the introduction of learning based detectors using integral channel features. A similar push...... database is collected based on footage from US roads. The database consists of both test and training data, totaling 46,418 frames and 112,971 annotated traffic lights, captured in continuous sequences under a varying light and weather conditions. The learning based detector achieves an AUC of 0.4 and 0...

  2. Study on traffic accidents mechanism with automatic recording systems. Part 2. Application of data from ADR and DMR for practical driver education; Jidosha kiroku sochi ni yoru kotsu jiko hassei mechanism no kenkyu. 2. Jiko data kirokukei (ADR) to unko kirokukei (DMR) no untensha kyoiku eno katsuyo

    Ueyama, M.; Ogawa, S. [National Research Inst. of Police Science, Tokyo (Japan); Chikasue, H.; Muramatsu, K. [Yazaki Meter Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A field trial are carried out using automatic receding system; ADR (Accident Data Recorder) and DMR (Driving Monitoring Recorder) installed on 20 commercial vehicles, in order to assess the implications for driver behavior and accidents. The data suggest that the accident mechanism can be explained in terms of situation-specific factor and behavior of drivers just before accident that is, their attitude to the handing and control of vehicles. The data might offer a new information for practical driver education. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Safety in traffic for vulnerable military road users

    Aleksandar J. Bulajić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Army of Serbia, as a relatively closed system, regulates the field of traffic safety; however, during peacetime, general rules apply to all participants in traffic circulation. The Republic of Serbia is in the group of countries with a high number of road fatalities. The level of traffic safety in the Serbian Army has been on constant increase since 2000, although the relevant transport authorities in the military are not yet satisfied with the achieved level (even one lost life is too much. The increase can be deceptive, since if we take into account the substantial reduction in vehicle use due to various factors in the last few years (poor financial situation in the country as well as in the military, under-investment in the purchase of new vehicles, purchase of transportation services, fewer drivers drafted and more vehicles driven by trained officers, etc., it is not surprising that there are fewer accidents and fewer road deaths and injuries among military personnel. This paper aims at approaching the problem of pedestrian safety as a segment of road safety and at making an educational impact on all members of the military, because they all participate in traffic daily, if not as drivers or passengers, then certainly in large numbers as pedestrians. The basis of this paper is aimed at shedding light on the causes of pedestrian road fatalities due to their mistakes, i. e. 'negligence' of the participants in car accidents with the participation of pedestrians, as well as at proposing measures to reduce and prevent traffic accidents with pedestrians.

  4. Study of the Severity of Accidents in Tehran Using Statistical Modeling and Data Mining Techniques

    Hesamaldin Razi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackgrounds and Aims: The Tehran province was subject to the second highest incidence of fatalities due to traffic accidents in 1390. Most studies in this field examine rural traffic accidents, but this study is based on the use of logit models and artificial neural networks to evaluate the factors that affect the severity of accidents within the city of Tehran.Materials and Methods: Among the various types of crashes, head-on collisions are specified as the most serious type, which is investigated in this study with the use of Tehran’s accident data. In the modeling process, the severity of the accident is the dependent variable and defined as a binary covariate, which are non-injury accidents and injury accidents. The independent variables are parameters such as the characteristics of the driver, time of the accident, traffic and environmental characteristics. In addition to the prediction accuracy comparison of the two models, the elasticity of the logit model is compared with a sensitivity analysis of the neural network.Results: The results show that the proposed model provides a good estimate of an accident's severity. The explanatory variables that have been determined to be significant in the final models are the driver’s gender, age and education, along with negligence of the traffic rules, inappropriate acceleration, deviation to the left, type of vehicle, pavement conditions, time of the crash and street width.Conclusion: An artificial neural network model can be useful as a statistical model in the analysis of factors that affect the severity of accidents. According to the results, human errors and illiteracy of drivers increase the severity of crashes, and therefore, educating drivers is the main strategy that will reduce accident severity in Iran. Special attention should be given to a driver’s age group, with particular care taken when they are very young.

  5. Mobile Phone Based RIMS for Traffic Control a Case Study of Tanzania

    Angela-Aida Karugila Runyoro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles saturation in transportation infrastructure causes traffic congestion, accidents, transportation delays and environment pollution. This problem can be resolved with proper management of traffic flow. Existing traffic management systems are challenged on capturing and processing real-time road data from wide area road networks. The main purpose of this study is to address the gap by implementing a mobile phone based Road Information Management System. The proposed system integrates three modules for data collection, storage and information dissemination. The modules works together to enable real-time traffic control. Disseminated information from the system, enables road users to adjust their travelling habit, also it allows the traffic lights to control the traffic in relation to the real-time situation occurring on the road. In this paper the system implementation and testing was performed. The results indicated that there is a possibility to track traffic data using Global Positioning System enabled mobile phones, and after processing the collected data, real-time traffic status was displayed on web interface. This enabled road users to know in advance the situation occurring on the roads and hence make proper travelling decision. Further research should consider adjusting the traffic lights control system to understand the disseminated real-time traffic information.

  6. Intelligent Traffic Information System Based on Integration of Internet of Things and Agent Technology

    Hasan Omar Al-Sakran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years popularity of private cars is getting urban traffic more and more crowded. As result traffic is becoming one of important problems in big cities in all over the world. Some of the traffic concerns are congestions and accidents which have caused a huge waste of time, property damage and environmental pollution. This research paper presents a novel intelligent traffic administration system, based on Internet of Things, which is featured by low cost, high scalability, high compatibility, easy to upgrade, to replace traditional traffic management system and the proposed system can improve road traffic tremendously. The Internet of Things is based on the Internet, network wireless sensing and detection technologies to realize the intelligent recognition on the tagged traffic object, tracking, monitoring, managing and processed automatically. The paper proposes an architecture that integrates internet of things with agent technology into a single platform where the agent technology handles effective communication and interfaces among a large number of heterogeneous highly distributed, and decentralized devices within the IoT. The architecture introduces the use of an active radio-frequency identification (RFID, wireless sensor technologies, object ad-hoc networking, and Internet-based information systems in which tagged traffic objects can be automatically represented, tracked, and queried over a network. This research presents an overview of a framework distributed traffic simulation model within NetLogo, an agent-based environment, for IoT traffic monitoring system using mobile agent technology.

  7. Spinal cord injuries from road traffic crashes in southeastern Iran

    Mohammad R Rasouli; Mohsen Nouri; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the data of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) induced by road traffic crashes in southeastern Iran for better understanding the pattern of these injuries and therefore for better designing health system planning.Methods: In this historical cohort study, the patients who had been transferred to Level I trauma center in southeastern Iran due to road traffic accidents with radiographic documented SCI were evaluated.Results: Among 64 patients with SCI, 38 patients (59.4%, 36 males and 2 females, aged 27.42 years ± 9.44 years on average) were injured by road traffic accidents.Car and motorcycle accidents were responsible for 26 cases (68.4%) and 12 cases (31.6%), respectively. And 31 patients (81. 6%) had complete SCI. Conus medularis (T12-L2) was the most affected level.Conclusions: Results are discussed in terms of preventive measures, specifically those concerning the use of restraint and helmet and driving behavior. This study should be extended nationally to gain a larger case series so that the SCI risk of particular vehicle configurations,considering other crash factors, can be more precisely quantified and the characteristics for low occurrence of SCI can be more precisely identified.

  8. Prescription Medicines and the Risk of Road Traffic Crashes: A French Registry-Based Study

    Orriols, Ludivine; Delorme, Bernard; Gadegbeku, Blandine; Tricotel, Aurore; Contrand, Benjamin; Laumon, Bernard; Salmi, Louis-Rachid; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Editors' Summary About 1.3 million people die each year on the world's road. 90% of road traffic deaths occur in developing countries, with pedestrians, cyclists, and users of two-wheel vehicles (scooters, motorbikes) the most vulnerable road users. Although the use of prescribed benzodiazepines has already been documented to be associated with road traffic accidents in industrialized countries, the effects of other medicines have not been well studied or have inconsistent results (for exampl...

  9. Knowledge of Traffic Laws and Drivers Behavior on the Roads of Tripoli City, Libya

    Hussin A.M. Yahia; Amiruddin Ismail

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the knowledge of traffic rules and laws among a sample of drivers from the city of Tripoli and their behavior with respect to the same. A random sample of 416 drivers was selected from various regions for Tripoli, namely: Tajura, Abo Saleem, City Centre and Janzour and administered a questionnaire that would elicit and record their knowledge and behavior regarding road rules and regulations. The study revealed that traffic accidents are most affected by and positiv...

  10. A review of the effect of traffic and weather characteristics on road safety.

    Theofilatos, Athanasios; Yannis, George

    2014-11-01

    Taking into consideration the increasing availability of real-time traffic data and stimulated by the importance of proactive safety management, this paper attempts to provide a review of the effect of traffic and weather characteristics on road safety, identify the gaps and discuss the needs for further research. Despite the existence of generally mixed evidence on the effect of traffic parameters, a few patterns can be observed. For instance, traffic flow seems to have a non-linear relationship with accident rates, even though some studies suggest linear relationship with accidents. On the other hand, increased speed limits have found to have a straightforward positive relationship with accident occurrence. Regarding weather effects, the effect of precipitation is quite consistent and leads generally to increased accident frequency but does not seem to have a consistent effect on severity. The impact of other weather parameters on safety, such as visibility, wind speed and temperature is not found straightforward so far. The increasing use of real-time data not only makes easier to identify the safety impact of traffic and weather characteristics, but most importantly makes possible the identification of their combined effect. The more systematic use of these real-time data may address several of the research gaps identified in this research. PMID:25086442

  11. SEVERE ACCIDENT MANAGEMENT TRAINING

    The purpose of this paper is (a) to define the International Atomic Energy Agency's role in the area of severe accident management training, (b) to briefly describe the status of representative severe accident analysis tools designed to support development and validation of accident management guidelines, and more recently, simulate the accident with sufficient accuracy to support the training of technical support and reactor operator staff, and (c) provide an overview of representative design-specific accident management guidelines and training. Since accident management and the development of accident management validation and training software is a rapidly evolving area, this paper is also intended to evolve as accident management guidelines and training programs are developed to meet different reactor design requirements and individual national requirements

  12. Automatic Penalty Charging For Violation of Traffic Rules

    ADITI DAMBE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, traffic accidents & congestion has increased enormously. Even in our daily life, we come across many problems caused due to traffic rule violation by some people. Also when we go through the daily newspaper, we realize that road accidents is one of the major problems now a days in every city. These problems cause disturbance to the whole system and also consumes our precious time. So in an attempt to reduce it & improve the traffic discipline, advanced technological solutions has been proposed. In this project, we are designing a system which will automatically incur penalty to the car driver for violation of traffic rules. The penalty will be automatically charged to the car owner if PUC has been expired or if car is standing on zebra crossing when the signal is red, for illegal signal crossing, crossing the speed limit in speed limit zone or parking the car in no parking zone. Also the car will not start if the driver does not have license or if he is drunk. This will help to bring discipline on roads.

  13. Traffic Light Detection

    Philipsen, Mark Philip; Jensen, Morten Bornø; Møgelmose, Andreas; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    database is collected based on footage from US roads. The database consists of both test and training data, totaling 46,418 frames and 112,971 annotated traffic lights, captured in continuous sequences under a varying light and weather conditions. The learning based detector achieves an AUC of 0.4 and 0...

  14. Traffic Engineering in Metro Ethernet

    Padmaraj Nair; Suku Nair; Girish Chiruvolu

    2010-01-01

    Traffic engineering is one of the major issues that has to be addressed in Metro Ethernet networks for quality of service and efficient resource utilization. This paper aims at understanding the relevant issues and outlines novel algorithms for multipoint traffic engineering in Metro Ethernet. We present an algorithmic solution for traffic engineering in Metro Ethernet using optimal multiple spanning trees. This iterative approach distributes traffic across the network uniformly without overl...

  15. Traffic flow modeling: a Genealogy

    Van Wageningen-Kessels, F.L.M.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Vuik, C.; Lint, van J. W. C.

    2014-01-01

    80 years ago, Bruce Greenshields presented the first traffic flow model at the Annual Meeting of the Highway Research Board. Since then, many models and simulation tools have been developed. We show a model tree with four families of traffic flow models, all descending from Greenshields' model. The tree shows the historical development of traffic flow modeling and the relations between models. Based on the tree we discuss the main trends and future developments in traffic flow modeling and si...

  16. Virtualized Traffic at Metropolitan Scales

    Wilkie, David; Sewall, Jason; Li, Weizi; Lin, Ming C.

    2015-01-01

    Few phenomena are more ubiquitous than traffic in urban scenes, and few are more significant economically, socially, or environmentally. Many virtual-reality applications and systems, including virtual globes and immersive multi-player worlds that are often set in a large-scale modern or futuristic setting, feature traffic systems. Virtual-reality models can also aid in addressing the challenges of real-world traffic – the ever-present gridlock and congestion in cities worldwide: traffic engi...

  17. Coordination of traffic lights evaluation

    Ordeig Vila, Enric

    2012-01-01

    This case study consists in the evaluation of the Kaunas city traffic speed taking into consideration that traffic lights were coordinated. Kaunas suffers from high traffic intensity and, as a consequence, traffic jams often, and happens mainly because the city can only be crossed by the center. Lithuania, as the rest of Europe experienced a big growth, from 1995 to 2005 coinciding with the crisis, that is to say that number of cars increased to highest levels as well as the ...

  18. Automated Traffic Enforcement in France

    BRIQUET, Philippe; CANEL, A

    2002-01-01

    One of the goals of traffic safety in cities and between cities is to increase compliance with Traffic Regulations. For this purpose, the French Ministry of Transportation decided to set up an automated traffic enforcement program. This program currently focuses on several types of violations : speeding, spacing between vehicles, and traffic light and railway crossing. This article presents the main goals of the program and the expected challenges and characteristics of operations that have b...

  19. Psychology of nuclear accidents

    Tysoe, M.

    1983-03-31

    Incidents involving nuclear weapons are described, as well as the accident to the Three Mile Island-2 reactor. Methods of assessment of risks are discussed, with particular reference to subjective judgements and the possible role of human error in civil nuclear accidents. Accidents or misunderstandings in communication or human actions which might lead to nuclear war are also discussed.

  20. Traffic sign detection and analysis

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    Traffic sign recognition (TSR) is a research field that has seen much activity in the recent decade. This paper introduces the problem and presents 4 recent papers on traffic sign detection and 4 recent papers on traffic sign classification. It attempts to extract recent trends in the field and...

  1. Risk analysis of emergent water pollution accidents based on a Bayesian Network.

    Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To guarantee the security of water quality in water transfer channels, especially in open channels, analysis of potential emergent pollution sources in the water transfer process is critical. It is also indispensable for forewarnings and protection from emergent pollution accidents. Bridges above open channels with large amounts of truck traffic are the main locations where emergent accidents could occur. A Bayesian Network model, which consists of six root nodes and three middle layer nodes, was developed in this paper, and was employed to identify the possibility of potential pollution risk. Dianbei Bridge is reviewed as a typical bridge on an open channel of the Middle Route of the South to North Water Transfer Project where emergent traffic accidents could occur. Risk of water pollutions caused by leakage of pollutants into water is focused in this study. The risk for potential traffic accidents at the Dianbei Bridge implies a risk for water pollution in the canal. Based on survey data, statistical analysis, and domain specialist knowledge, a Bayesian Network model was established. The human factor of emergent accidents has been considered in this model. Additionally, this model has been employed to describe the probability of accidents and the risk level. The sensitive reasons for pollution accidents have been deduced. The case has also been simulated that sensitive factors are in a state of most likely to lead to accidents. PMID:26433361

  2. Modeling and analysis of ship traffic by observation and numerical simulation

    Aarsæther, Karl Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    The continuing losses of vessels and the ever increasing volume of cargo carried by ship marks marine traffic as a high risk activity where a single accident has the potential to incur large human, environmental and economic losses. Collision and grounding contributes a significant portion of the total number of accidents at sea and are a manifestation of the fundamental situation where by vessels are at the wrong place at the wrong time. In order to quantify the probability of these unfortun...

  3. Social Anomie and Observance of Traffic Rules (Case Study: Tabriz Drivers)

    Mohammad Abbaszadeh; Esa Abedini; Mohammad Reza Hasani; Morteza Mobarak Bakhshayesh

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionOne of the social factors influencing law-evading behavior is social distress or feelings of anomie. When society is in a chaotic situation, respecting the law is unenforceable. Previous research has shown how this situation contributes to a state of lawlessness. About the importance of this issue we can say that according to statistics many of road accidents in Iran stem from law-evading behavior and insufficient attention to traffic rules. Comparing the high rates of road accide...

  4. Attitudes and Awareness of Traffic Safety among Drivers in Tripoli-Libya

    Hussin A.M. Yahia; Amiruddin Ismail; Shaban Ismael Albrka; Aldukali Salem Almselati; Mohd. Azizul Ladin

    2014-01-01

    Road accidents are one of the major challenges faced by most countries worldwide. It has been recognized as one of the major causes for human and economic losses both in developed and developing countries. Road accidents cause social and economic problems. This study investigated age and gender related differences in driver's attitudes towards violations of traffic laws in Tripoli-Libya. A total of 384 drivers were sampled for the study drawn from, work places as companies and banks in the ci...

  5. Effects of Traffic Lights on CA Traffic Model

    SuweiFENG; GuoqingGU

    1997-01-01

    Cellular automaton traffic models can include various factors in traffic system with simple regulations and the corresponding computations and simulations are rather convenient and effective.In this paper,the Biham-Middleton-Levine model(briefly saying the BML model)is improved by removing its limitation of synchronized change of traffic lights.In new model,the traffic light at each crossing could arbitrarily change its starting time and tempo of variation and hence the model could more realistically describe the influence of traffic lights on the performance of traffic systems.The cases of traffic light with unsynchronized starting time and different tempo of variation are simulated in this paper.

  6. Traffic flow on realistic road networks with adaptive traffic lights

    de Gier, Jan; Rojas, Omar

    2010-01-01

    We present a model of traffic flow on generic urban road networks based on cellular automata. We apply this model to an existing road network in the Australian city of Melbourne, using empirical data as input. For comparison, we also apply this model to a square-grid network using hypothetical input data. On both networks we compare the effects of non-adative vs adaptive traffic lights, in which instantaneous traffic state information feeds back into the traffic signal schedule. We observe that not only do adaptive traffic lights result in better averages of network observables, they also lead to significantly smaller fluctuations in these observables. We furthermore compare two different systems of adaptive traffic signals, one which is informed by the traffic state on both upstream and downstream links, and one which is informed by upstream links only. We find that, in general, the total travel time is smallest when using the joint upstream-downstream control strategy.

  7. Human Behavior Factors and Road Traffic Safety%人的行为因素与道路交通安全

    张艳群; 周彤梅

    2015-01-01

    近年来,道路交通事故依然呈高发态势,道路交通事故频发造成大量人员伤亡和严重经济损失。作为交通的基本参与元素,人的行为直接影响交通安全。研究人的行为,有助于降低道路交通事故率,提高交通安全性。文章概述了我国道路交通安全现状,从驾驶人、行人和乘车人三方面,对影响道路交通安全的人为因素进行分析,讨论其与交通安全问题高发之间的联系,从规范交通参与者行为的角度出发,提出提高道路交通安全的相关措施及建议。%In recent years, road traffic accidents still showed a high trend. The frequent road traffic accidents cause heavy casualties and severe economic losses. As a basic element of the traffic, human behavior directly affects traffic safety. The study of human behavior could help reduce the rate of road traffic accidents and improve traffic safety. The paper summarizes the current situation of road safety in China, analyzes human factors influence the traffic safety from drivers, pedestrians and passengers, discusses the contact between human factors and the high level of traffic accidents, and then proposes measures and recommendations to improve traffic safety from regulating the behavior of traffic participants.

  8. Supervisor's accident investigation handbook

    This pamphlet was prepared by the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EH and S) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to provide LBL supervisors with a handy reference to LBL's accident investigation program. The publication supplements the Accident and Emergencies section of LBL's Regulations and Procedures Manual, Pub. 201. The present guide discusses only accidents that are to be investigated by the supervisor. These accidents are classified as Type C by the Department of Energy (DOE) and include most occupational injuries and illnesses, government motor-vehicle accidents, and property damages of less than $50,000

  9. Urban Road Traffic Simulation Techniques

    Ana Maria Nicoleta Mocofan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available For achieving a reliable traffic control system it is necessary to first establish a network parameter evaluation system and also a simulation system for the traffic lights plan. In 40 years of history, the computer aided traffic simulation has developed from a small research group to a large scale technology for traffic systems planning and development. In the following thesis, a presentation of the main modeling and simulation road traffic applications will be provided, along with their utility, as well as the practical application of one of the models in a case study.

  10. Framework for accident management

    Accident management is an essential element of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Integration Plan for the closure of severe accident issues. This element will consolidate the results from other key elements; such as the Individual Plant Examination (IPE), the Containment Performance Improvement, and the Severe Accident Research Programs, in a form that can be used to enhance the safety programs for nuclear power plants. The NRC is currently conducting an Accident Management Program that is intended to aid in defining the scope and attributes of an accident management program for nuclear power plants. The accident management plan will ensure that a plant specific program is developed and implemented to promote the most effective use of available utility resources (people and hardware) to prevent and mitigate severe accidents. Hardware changes or other plant modifications to reduce the frequency of severe accidents are not a central aim of this program. To accomplish the outlined objectives, the NRC has developed an accident management framework that is comprised of five elements: (1) accident management strategies, (2) training, (3) guidance and computational aids, (4) instrumentation, and (5) delineation of decision making responsibilities. A process for the development of an accident management program has been identified using these NRC framework elements

  11. Exploiting Witness for Traffic Simulation

    Azhar Ismail

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion in urban cities is an increasing problem. Not only does it lead to an increase in pollution, but the time spent waiting in traffic queues wastes valuable time in addition to causing frustration. A system that can control and manage traffic efficiently is one way that this issue can be reduced. A specific road traffic intersection in South Manchester, UK, was selected for investigation as it experiences high levels of traffic flow through it during the evening peak time. This has led to large queues and long waiting times due to the fixed timings of the traffic lights. This paper explores strategies to better control the traffic flow through it. A model of the selected traffic junction has been built using Witness simulation software. Data for this junction has been obtained partially from observations and mostly from traffic surveys enabling a simulation of the traffic flow. Analysing the results allowed two alternative scenarios to be developed and simulated. Results from one of the scenarios showed noticeable reductions in the average queue waiting times at the traffic junction.

  12. Web traffic and firm performance

    Farooq, Omar; Aguenaou, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Does the traffic generated by websites of firms signal anything to stock market participants? Does higher web-traffic translate into availability of more information and therefore lower agency problems? And if answers to above questions are in affirmative, does higher web-traffic traffic translate...... into better firm performance? This paper aims to answer these questions by documenting a positive relationship between the extent of web-traffic and firm performance in the MENA region during the 2010. We argue that higher web-traffic lowers the agency problems in firms by disseminating more information...... to stock market participants. Consequently, lower agency problems translate into better performance. Furthermore, we also show that agency reducing role of web-traffic is more pronounced in regimes where information environment is already bad. For example, our results show stronger impact of web...

  13. O trabalho em equipe no atendimento pré-hospitalar à vítima de acidente de trânsito El trabajo en equipo en la atención prehospitalaria a las víctimas de accidente de tráfico Prehospital teamwork life support service for traffic accident victims

    Waleska Antunes da Porciúncula Pereira

    2009-06-01

    this study is to characterize prehospital teamwork service for traffic accident victims, identifying the actors' activities, the teamwork and the relations with actors from other areas. This is a qualitative study, in which data collection took place by observing the events that occurred at a public service in the city of Porto Alegre, in addition to interviews with each professional involved in the service. The results showed that prehospital care is founded on teamwork and that the understanding among professionals should go beyond the historical hierarchic relation existing in health organizations. There is a need to value the broad field of knowledge, which is associated with the core of care activities that meet most trauma victim needs.

  14. Relação entre a gravidade do trauma e padrões de analgesia utilizados em acidentados de transporte Relación entre la gravedad del trauma y los estándares de analgesia utilizados en accidentados de tránsito Relationship between trauma severity and analgesia standarts used in traffic accident victims

    Ana Maria Calil

    2009-06-01

    estudios en un área con tantas lagunas de conocimiento en nuestro medio.This is a first-time study in Brazil, which identified the relations between the analgesic standard and trauma severity. To do this, an analysis was performed in a population of 200 traffic accident victims admitted for treatment at the emergency unit of a referral hospital for trauma care in the city of São Paulo. Trauma and lesion severity were characterized by anatomic severity indexes. Based on the analysis of the analgesic therapy, analgesia standards were constructed, founded on the World Health Organization analgesic scale. The results permitted to identify the statistic association between trauma severity and distinct analgesia standards. The dissemination of these findings could serve as the basis to design analgesia protocols in trauma and improve care quality, besides encouraging the development of studies in an area with so many knowledge gaps.

  15. Traffic Light Detection

    Philipsen, Mark Philip; Jensen, Morten Bornø; Møgelmose, Andreas; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    Traffic light recognition (TLR) is an integral part of any intelligent vehicle, which must function in the existing infrastructure. Pedestrian and sign detection have recently seen great improvements due to the introduction of learning based detectors using integral channel features. A similar push...... database is collected based on footage from US roads. The database consists of both test and training data, totaling 46,418 frames and 112,971 annotated traffic lights, captured in continuous sequences under a varying light and weather conditions. The learning based detector achieves an AUC of 0.4 and 0...... have not yet been seen for the detection sub-problem of TLR, where detection is dominated by methods based on heuristic models. Evaluation of existing systems is currently limited primarily to small local datasets. In order to provide a common basis for comparing future TLR research an extensive public...

  16. Inaccuracy in traffic forecasts

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Holm, Mette K. Skamris; Buhl, Søren Ladegaard

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results from the first statistically significant study of traffic forecasts in transportation infrastructure projects. The sample used is the largest of its kind, covering 210 projects in 14 nations worth US$58 billion. The study shows with very high statistical significance...... that forecasters generally do a poor job of estimating the demand for transportation infrastructure projects. The result is substantial downside financial and economic risk. Forecasts have not become more accurate over the 30-year period studied. If techniques and skills for arriving at accurate demand...... reference class forecasting. Highly inaccurate traffic forecasts combined with large standard deviations translate into large financial and economic risks. But such risks are typically ignored or downplayed by planners and decision-makers, to the detriment of social and economic welfare. The paper presents...

  17. Organic traffic control

    Prothmann, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Modern cities cannot be imagined without traffic lights controlling the road network. To handle the network's changing demands efficiently, the signal plan specification needs to be shifted from the design time to the run-time of a signal system. The generic observer/controller architecture proposed for Organic Computing facilitates this shift. A two-levelled learning mechanism optimises signal plans on-line while a distributed coordination mechanism establishes green waves in the road network.

  18. Untieing the Traffic Knot

    2007-01-01

    Beijing is working to resolve its longtime transportation problems before the 2008 Olympics One traffic jam after another, annoying horns, endless lines of cars,impatient sighs from passengers on an overcrowded bus, the youstomped-on-my-toe quarreling in the subway train, all have led to the unsurprising result that Beijing scored at the tail end of a survey of 287 cities in the category of transport satisfaction in China’s 2006 Report on the Quality of Urban Life.

  19. Assessing road traffic expression

    Fábio Silva; Cesar Analide; Paulo Novais

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Inte...

  20. The Physics of Traffic

    Davis, L. Craig

    2006-03-01

    Congestion in freeway traffic is an example of self-organization in the language of complexity theory. Nonequilibrium, first-order phase transitions from free flow cause complex spatiotemporal patterns. Two distinct phases of congestion are observed in empirical traffic data--wide moving jams and synchronous flow. Wide moving jams are characterized by stopped or slowly moving vehicles within the jammed region, which widens and moves upstream at 15-20 km/h. Above a critical density of vehicles, a sudden decrease in the velocity of a lead vehicle can initiate a transition from metastable states to this phase. Human behaviors, especially delayed reactions, are implicated in the formation of jams. The synchronous flow phase results from a bottleneck such as an on-ramp. Thus, in contrast to a jam, the downstream front is pinned at a fixed location. The name of the phase comes from the equilibration (or synchronization) of speed and flow rate across all lanes caused by frequent vehicle lane changes. Synchronous flow occurs when the mainline flow and the rate of merging from an on-ramp are sufficiently large. Large-scale simulations using car-following models reproduce the physical phenomena occurring in traffic and suggest methods to improve flow and mediate congestion.

  1. Effects of traffic noise

    Gottlob, D.

    1986-02-01

    One of the main sources of noise is road traffic. In 1984 there were over 25 million cars, 1.2 million lorries, 1.3 million motor cycles and 1.6 million mopeds using our roads. Opinion polls showed that 21% of the population felt that they were affected by traffic noise as a nuisance factor. An outline of the effects of this noise on the affected population is given, illustrated by diagrams. Details about noise emissions (drive-past level) of the different types of vehicles in city traffic are stated and the effects of noise described. The author goes into the nuisance effect (noise is not a physical factor, but a psychosocial one), changes in behaviour (ways of speaking, reduction of stress on households in proportion to rising income and higher educational levels) and the consequences for health (the reaction of the body to noise is primarily a consequence of the psychosomatic organisation of ow bodies). In conclusion, the author deals with the subjective efficiency of noise protection measures. (HWJ).

  2. Assessing Road Traffic Expression

    Fábio Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Intelligence and Intelligent Decision Making processes can benefit from the knowledge gathered by these devices to improve decisions on everyday tasks such as deciding navigation routes by car, bicycle or other means of transportation and avoiding route perils. The concept of computational sustainability may also be applied to this problem. Current applications in this area demonstrate the usefulness of real time system that inform the user of certain conditions in the surrounding area. On the other hand, the approach presented in this work aims to describe models and approaches to automatically identify current states of traffic inside cities and use methods from computer science to improve overall comfort and the sustainability of road traffic both with the user and the environment in mind. Such objective is delivered by analyzing real time contributions from those mobile ubiquitous devices to identifying problematic situations and areas under a defined criteria that have significant influence towards a sustainable use of the road transport infrastructure.

  3. Traffic Behavior Recognition Using the Pachinko Allocation Model.

    Huynh-The, Thien; Banos, Oresti; Le, Ba-Vui; Bui, Dinh-Mao; Yoon, Yongik; Lee, Sungyoung

    2015-01-01

    CCTV-based behavior recognition systems have gained considerable attention in recent years in the transportation surveillance domain for identifying unusual patterns, such as traffic jams, accidents, dangerous driving and other abnormal behaviors. In this paper, a novel approach for traffic behavior modeling is presented for video-based road surveillance. The proposed system combines the pachinko allocation model (PAM) and support vector machine (SVM) for a hierarchical representation and identification of traffic behavior. A background subtraction technique using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) and an object tracking mechanism based on Kalman filters are utilized to firstly construct the object trajectories. Then, the sparse features comprising the locations and directions of the moving objects are modeled by PAMinto traffic topics, namely activities and behaviors. As a key innovation, PAM captures not only the correlation among the activities, but also among the behaviors based on the arbitrary directed acyclic graph (DAG). The SVM classifier is then utilized on top to train and recognize the traffic activity and behavior. The proposed model shows more flexibility and greater expressive power than the commonly-used latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) approach, leading to a higher recognition accuracy in the behavior classification. PMID:26151213

  4. Traffic Behavior Recognition Using the Pachinko Allocation Model

    Thien Huynh-The

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available CCTV-based behavior recognition systems have gained considerable attention in recent years in the transportation surveillance domain for identifying unusual patterns, such as traffic jams, accidents, dangerous driving and other abnormal behaviors. In this paper, a novel approach for traffic behavior modeling is presented for video-based road surveillance. The proposed system combines the pachinko allocation model (PAM and support vector machine (SVM for a hierarchical representation and identification of traffic behavior. A background subtraction technique using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs and an object tracking mechanism based on Kalman filters are utilized to firstly construct the object trajectories. Then, the sparse features comprising the locations and directions of the moving objects are modeled by PAMinto traffic topics, namely activities and behaviors. As a key innovation, PAM captures not only the correlation among the activities, but also among the behaviors based on the arbitrary directed acyclic graph (DAG. The SVM classifier is then utilized on top to train and recognize the traffic activity and behavior. The proposed model shows more flexibility and greater expressive power than the commonly-used latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA approach, leading to a higher recognition accuracy in the behavior classification.

  5. Research advances of traffic medicine in China

    王正国; 蒋建新

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To briefly introduce the increase in the number of motor vehicles in our country and main research advances of traffic medicine.Methods:To collect the relative data issued by government and the papers pulished in the newspapers or medical journals,and analyze them with combination of our own research work. Results:1.The number of motor vehicles in our country in 1997 was 680.02 times more than that in 1951,and increases t 42.0932 million from 1.5887 million over the past two decades(1978-1997)since the reform and opening,with net increase of 40.5045 million,increasing about 25 times.During the same period,the number of motorcycles increased to 20.2221 million from 104.3 thousand,increasing about 193 times.There were 4.4 hundred million bicycles,accounting for one third or the total world wide,Over 30% to 50% of eople in cities used bicycles as their transport tool when they go out.2.In the 1990's (9190 to 1997),the number of motor vehicles increased 1.85 times,while road traffic accidents(RATs) only increased 0.22 times,the deaths and the injuries 0.5 and 0.23 times only,respectively,indicating that the increasing tendency of RTAs and casualties was controlled to some extent.3.The prople of 21 to 45 years old were dominant among all casualties.The sequence of deaths in order was pedestrians(26.5%),vehicle drivers(24.8%),passengers(24.3%),bicyclists(18.4%)and others (6.1%).4.Concerning the accident causes,human faults accounted for 92.9%,83.6% of RTAs wre due to the faults of motor vehicle drivers,and 1.5% of RTAs were due to driving after drinking with deaths occupying 2.9% of the total.5.Proneness to RTSs:6%-8% of motor vehical drivers had proneness to RTA,causing 35%-40% fo the totoal RTAs.6.Various bio-impact machines were developed.The maximum impact velocity could reach 324 km/h.They can be used to induce impact injuries on different animals,at different patterns and even on different regions of body.7.The inflicting mechanisms for cranioserebral and

  6. Trace Analysis of Driver Behavior on Traffic Violator by Using Big Data (Traffic Program) in Korea

    Lee, Jonghak

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to prove the effectiveness of traffic safety education program for traffic violators. Traffic violators who finished the traffic safety education programs were tracked down. In order to analyze the effectiveness of traffic safety education program, traffic violator’s data during ten-year period were used. This study analyzed how traffic violators changed their attitudes about traffic law abidance. Also predicted social benefits from traffic safety education program...

  7. Mapping injuries in traffic accident victims: a literature review Identificación de lesiones en víctimas de accidentes de tránsito: revisión sistemática de la literatura Mapeamento das lesões em vítimas de acidentes de trânsito: revisão sistemática da literatura

    Ana Maria Calil

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the body regions most affected in traffic accident victims and to map the trauma and severity of the lesions. A systematic literature review using key words related to traffic accidents, transportation accidents, wounds and injuries found a total of 248 articles. The electronic bases LILACS, MEDLINE, and PAHO were surveyed between the years 1990 and December 2006. This review emphasized a series of conclusive studies about the most frequent body regions involved and the major injuries occurring in these situations. It also indicated information gaps in the Brazilian literature. We believe that these findings are valuable for pre-hospital and intra-hospital teams and point the way to new investigations.El objetivo del estudio fue identificar las regiones corpóreas más afectadas en víctimas de accidentes de transporte e identificar la gravedad de las lesiones y del trauma. Fue realizada una revisión sistemática de la literatura, utilizándose descriptores relacionados a los accidentes de tránsito, accidentes de transporte, heridas y lesiones, totalizando 248 artículos. Las bases electrónicas investigadas fueron LILACS, MEDLINE y PAHO, entre 1990 y diciembre de 2006. Esta revisión destacó una serie de estudios conclusivos sobre las regiones corpóreas más frecuentes y aquellas de mayor gravedad afectadas en esos eventos y apuntó lagunas de conocimiento en la literatura nacional. Pensamos que lo encontrado puede ser de gran importancia para los equipos en los escenarios de prehospitalario e intrahospitalario y apuntan caminos en dirección de nuevas investigaciones.O objetivo do estudo foi identificar as regiões corpóreas mais atingidas em vítimas de acidentes de transporte e mapear a gravidade das lesões e do trauma. Foi realizada revisão sistemática da literatura, utilizando-se descritores relacionados aos acidentes de trânsito, acidentes de transporte, ferimentos e les

  8. Paciente vítima de violência no trânsito: análise do perfil socioeconômico, características do acidente e intervenção do Serviço Social na emergência A patient victim of car traffic violence: an analysis of socioeconomic profile, accident characteristics and Social Services intervention in the emergency room

    Kátia Campos dos Anjos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e analisar o perfil dos pacientes; o meio de transporte que causou o acidente; as normas do Código de Trânsito Brasileiro, se foram ou não seguidas; a rede de apoio e as intervenções do Serviço Social. MÉTODO: A pesquisa foi realizada com 100% dos pacientes internados nesta Instituição no período de 15/08/04 a 19/11/04, que foram vítimas de acidente no trânsito. Entrevistamos: 37 condutores de motocicletas, 26 pedestres, 15 condutores de veículo a motor e 06 passageiros, totalizando 84 pacientes. Foram utilizados formulários com questões abertas e fechadas de abordagem quantitativa e qualitativa. Resultado: A maior demanda foi de motociclistas, sendo que 83% são do sexo masculino, jovens com escolaridade até o ensino médio e renda mensal de dois salários mínimos. 62% residem em São Paulo e somente 36,5% possuem vínculo formal de trabalho. A maior parte das fraturas ocorreu nos membros inferiores (54%. Todos os pacientes necessitaram de cuidados após alta hospitalar, sendo que 98% contaram com o apoio familiar. CONCLUSÃO: Os elevados números de acidentes nos indicam que a violência no trânsito pode ser considerada um problema de saúde pública e estudos devem ser realizados para subsidiar as políticas públicas nesta área.OBJECTIVE: To identify and analyze patients' profile; the means of transportation that caused the accident; whether the rules of the Brazilian Traffic Code were respected or not; and the support network and actions of social services. METHODS: A survey was conducted with 100% of the patients admitted in this institution between August 15th and November 19th, 2004, who were victims of car accidents. We interviewed 37 motorcycle riders, 26 pedestrians, 15 drivers and 6 passengers, totaling 84 patients. Forms with open and closed questions, adopting both a quantitative and a qualitative approach were used. RESULTS: The greatest demand was from motorcyclists, of whom 83% were male

  9. Improving Highway Safety Manpower: Traffic Engineering Technician Project at Longview Community College and Community College of Denver. Phase 2. Final Report.

    Korim, Andrew S.

    In Phase 2, materials on traffic accident investigation were introduced into the curriculum to determine the appropriateness of such materials in preparing traffic engineering technicians. This report gives findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on the testing efforts. The primary conclusion is that the curriculum being tested was…

  10. Framework for accident management

    A program is being conducted to establish those attributes of a severe accident management plan which are necessary to assure effective response to all credible severe accidents and to develop guidance for their incorporation in a plant's Accident Management Plan. This program is one part of the Accident Management Research Program being conducted by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The approach used in establishing attributes and developing guidance includes three steps. In the first step the general attributes of an accident management plan were identified based on: (1) the objectives established for the NRC accident management program, (2) the elements of an accident management framework identified by the NRC, and (3) a review of the processes used in developing the currently used approach for classifying and analyzing accidents. For the second step, a process was defined that uses the general attributes identified from the first step to develop an accident management plan. The third step applied the process defined in the second step at a nuclear power plant to refine and develop it into a benchmark accident management plan. Step one is completed, step two is underway and step three has not yet begun

  11. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The questionnaires included demographic information (age, gender, skin color, education level, profession and questions about years of licensed driving practice, how often they would drive an automobile, how long they had had a motorcycle driver’s license, how often they would ride a motorcycle, the number of prior accidents involving a car, and the number of prior accidents not involving a car. Results: of the 100 consecutive accidents studied, 91 occurred with men and 9 with women, aged between 16 and 79 (m = 29 ± 11 years. Regarding their reason for using a motorcycle, 83% reported using it for transport, 7% for work, and 10% for leisure. Most of these accident victims had secondary or higher education (47%. Of the motorcyclists who held a car driver’s license, 68.3% drove the vehicle daily or weekly and held the license for more than one year. Sixty-seven percent of the accident victims used a motorcycle daily and had a motorcycle driver’s license for at least one year. Conclusion: among the motorcyclists injured, most were men aged 20 years or older, with complete secondary education, and experienced in driving both motorcycles and cars, indicating that recklessness while driving the motorcycle is the main cause of traffic accidents.

  12. Traffic Control by Traffic Wardens in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

    P. N. NDOKE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic control by traffic wardens on three at-grade interactions in Minna, Northern Nigeria has been analysed. During the morning peak periods, it was observed that with traffic warden control, none of the approaches of the intersections operated beyond level of service E. However, when the wardens did not control traffic, the approaches operated at level of service, F, which has been shown in studies to be unacceptable to most drivers. Taking other factors like stability of electricity supply, motorists’ behaviour and society’s acceptance of innovations into consideration, it has been concluded that for now, there is no alternative to the traffic warden in traffic control in developing cities.

  13. Robust and reactive traffic engineering for dynamic traffic demands

    Casas Hernandez, Pedro; Fillatre, Lionel; Vaton, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Traffic engineering (TE) has become a challenging mechanism for network management and resources optimization due to uncertain and difficult to predict traffic patterns. Recent works have proposed robust optimization techniques to cope with uncertain traffic, computing a stable routing configuration that is immune to demand variations within certain uncertainty set. However, using a single routing configuration for longtime periods can be highly inefficient. Even more, the presence of abnorma...

  14. Dividing the Traffic Matrix to Approach Optimal Traffic Engineering

    Balon, Simon; Leduc, Guy

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new method to approach optimal Traffic Engineering routing. The method consists of dividing the traffic matrix into $N$ sub-matrices, called strata, and route each of these independently. We propose two different implementations of our method in routers. Our method can also be used to compute a very precise approximation of the optimal value of a given objective function for comparison to heuristic Traffic Engineering algorithms. For this application, our algorithm ...

  15. Traffic Data and Their Implications for Consistent Traffic Flow Modeling

    Helbing, Dirk

    1998-01-01

    The paper analyzes traffic data of the Dutch freeway A9 with respect to certain aspects which are relevant for traffic flow modeling as well as the calibration of model parameters and functions. Apart from the dynamic velocity distribution, the density-dependence and the temporal evolution of various, partly lane-specific quantities is investigated. The results are well compatible with recent macroscopic traffic flow models which have been derived from the dynamics of driver-vehicle units. Th...

  16. Evaluation of Traffic Management Measures on Road Traffic Noise

    Bhaskar, A.; Chung, E; Dumont, A.-G.

    2006-01-01

    Road traffic noise affects the quality of life in the areas adjoining the road. The effect of traffic noise on people is wide ranging and may include sleep disturbance and negative impact on work efficiency. To address the problem of traffic noise, it is necessary to estimate the noise level. For this, a number of noise estimation models have been developed which can estimate noise at the receptor points, based on simple configuration of buildings. Howe...

  17. Optimal traffic states in a cellular automaton for city traffic

    Barlovic, Robert; Brockfeld, Elmar; Schreckenberg, Michael; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    The impact of global traffic light control strategies for city networks is analyzed in a recently proposed cellular automaton model. The model combines basic ideas of the Biham-Middleton-Levine model for city traffic and the Nage-Schreckenberg model for highway traffic. The city network has a simple square lattice geometry. All streets and intersections are treated equally, i.e., there are no dominant streets.

  18. Traffic jam driving with NMV avoidance

    Milanés, Vicente; Alonso, Luciano; Villagrá, Jorge; Godoy, Jorge; de Pedro, Teresa; Oria, Juan P.

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, the development of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) - mainly based on lidar and cameras - has considerably improved the safety of driving in urban environments. These systems provide warning signals for the driver in the case that any unexpected traffic circumstance is detected. The next step is to develop systems capable not only of warning the driver but also of taking over control of the car to avoid a potential collision. In the present communication, a system capable of autonomously avoiding collisions in traffic jam situations is presented. First, a perception system was developed for urban situations—in which not only vehicles have to be considered, but also pedestrians and other non-motor-vehicles (NMV). It comprises a differential global positioning system (DGPS) and wireless communication for vehicle detection, and an ultrasound sensor for NMV detection. Then, the vehicle's actuators - brake and throttle pedals - were modified to permit autonomous control. Finally, a fuzzy logic controller was implemented capable of analyzing the information provided by the perception system and of sending control commands to the vehicle's actuators so as to avoid accidents. The feasibility of the integrated system was tested by mounting it in a commercial vehicle, with the results being encouraging.

  19. Principled negotiation and distributed optimization for advanced air traffic management

    Wangermann, John Paul

    Today's aircraft/airspace system faces complex challenges. Congestion and delays are widespread as air traffic continues to grow. Airlines want to better optimize their operations, and general aviation wants easier access to the system. Additionally, the accident rate must decline just to keep the number of accidents each year constant. New technology provides an opportunity to rethink the air traffic management process. Faster computers, new sensors, and high-bandwidth communications can be used to create new operating models. The choice is no longer between "inflexible" strategic separation assurance and "flexible" tactical conflict resolution. With suitable operating procedures, it is possible to have strategic, four-dimensional separation assurance that is flexible and allows system users maximum freedom to optimize operations. This thesis describes an operating model based on principled negotiation between agents. Many multi-agent systems have agents that have different, competing interests but have a shared interest in coordinating their actions. Principled negotiation is a method of finding agreement between agents with different interests. By focusing on fundamental interests and searching for options for mutual gain, agents with different interests reach agreements that provide benefits for both sides. Using principled negotiation, distributed optimization by each agent can be coordinated leading to iterative optimization of the system. Principled negotiation is well-suited to aircraft/airspace systems. It allows aircraft and operators to propose changes to air traffic control. Air traffic managers check the proposal maintains required aircraft separation. If it does, the proposal is either accepted or passed to agents whose trajectories change as part of the proposal for approval. Aircraft and operators can use all the data at hand to develop proposals that optimize their operations, while traffic managers can focus on their primary duty of ensuring

  20. Camouflaging Timing Channels in Web Traffic

    Sellke, Sarah H; Wang, Chih-Chun; Bagchi, Saurabh; Shroff, Ness B.

    2009-01-01

    Web traffic accounts for more than half of Internet traffic today. Camouflaging covert timing channels in Web traffic would be advantageous for concealment. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of disguising network covert timing channels as HTTP traffic to avoid detection. Extensive research has shown that Internet traffic, including HTTP traffic, exhibits self-similarity and long range persistence. Existing covert timing channels that mimic i.i.d. legitimate traffic cannot imitate ...