WorldWideScience

Sample records for accidents rapport fait

  1. Report made in the name of the Commission of cultural affairs, familial and social on the law proposition (n.1258) of Misses Christiane Taubira relative to the admission and the indemnification of the victims of the nuclear weapons tests or nuclear accidents; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires culturelles, familiales et sociales sur la proposition de loi (n. 1258) de Mme christiane taubira relative a la reconnaissance et a l'indemnisation des victimes des essais ou accidents nucleaires

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The present proposition of law has for object to come up to the expectations of persons having participated to nuclear weapons test made by France between the 13. february 1960 and the 27 january 1996, in Sahara or French polynesia. The consequences on health can not be ignored even after several decades of years. Furthermore, the present proposition of law chooses to extend this measure to the victims of nuclear accidents. The Chernobylsk accident has shown that the French territory did not avoid to a risk inherent to this kind of activity. This project makes a census of the different nuclear tests with incidents, different accidents in France and the different kind of pathologies among the veterans and their progeny. The different steps for the victims to claim are detailed. Other states have adopted laws of compensation for the victims of their populations, civil or military ones. That is why this proposition of law comes today to be adopted. (N.C.)

  2. Groupement des faits

    Langlois, Charles-Victor; Seignobos, Charles

    2014-01-01

    I. La première nécessité qui s’impose à l’historien mis en présence du chaos des faits historiques, c’est de limiter son champ de recherches. Dans l’océan de l’histoire universelle quels faits choisira-t-il pour les recueillir ? – Puis, dans la masse des faits ainsi choisis, il lui faudra distinguer des groupes et faire des sections. – Enfin dans chacune de ces sections il aura à ranger les faits un à un. Ainsi toute construction historique doit commencer par trouver un principe pour trier, e...

  3. Traitement automatique de rapports d’incidents et accidents : application à la gestion du risque dans l’aviation civile

    Tulechki, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the applications of natural language processing (NLP) to industrial risk management. We focus on the domain of civil aviation, where incident reporting and accident investigations produce vast amounts of information, mostly in the form of textual accounts of abnormal events, and where efficient access to the information contained in the reports is required. We start by drawing a panorama of the different types of data produced in this particular domain. We analyse the do...

  4. Il fait couvre-feu

    Bontemps, Véronique

    2002-01-01

    L'article décrit les conditions de vie et l'étirement du temps à Naplouse pendant le long siège imposé par Israël dans les principales villes de Cisjordanie à l'été 2002. L'expression consacrée pour parler de ce couvre-feu était "Id-dunia mana'", littéralement, "Il fait couvre-feu" comme on dirait "il fait froid" ou "le temps est à l'orage.

  5. Accidents par temps de pluie : Demande et offre d'adhérence en situation d'urgence et perte de contrôle : Rapport d'avancement à 3 ans

    DELANNE, Y; LABORATOIRE CENTRAL DES PONTS ET CHAUSSEES - LCPC

    2002-01-01

    La démarche de l'étude consiste à observer le comportement des usagers y compris jusqu'aux situations limites (sortie de route) pour différentes conditions de précipitation et mouillage de la chaussée et, d'analyser par voie de modélisation la marge de sécurité : écart entre la demande d'adhérence et le potentiel offert. Les simulations sont faites pour les cas observés puis étendues à des comportements et des manoeuvres possibles constatées dans les études détaillées d'accidents....

  6. Discours rapporté et particules

    Peuvergne, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Cet article concerne l’observation d’occurrences de discours rapporté (DR) extraites d’un corpus recueilli au Cameroun. Cette étude s’inscrit dans un questionnement plus large sur le morphème que. Son extrême fréquence dans le DR en fait un lieu d’observation privilégié. Le fonctionnement de que ne peut se comprendre indépendamment du faisceau d’indices au sein duquel il intervient : verbes de parole, pauses, prosodie, particules. Ces dernières en particulier jouent des rôles multiples, struc...

  7. Détermination des faits particuliers

    Langlois, Charles-Victor; Seignobos, Charles

    2014-01-01

    L’analyse critique aboutit seulement à constater des conceptions et des affirmations, accompagnées de remarques sur la probabilité de l’exactitude des faits affirmés. Il reste à examiner comment on peut en tirer les faits historiques particuliers avec lesquels doit se construire la science. Conceptions et affirmations sont deux espèces de résultats qu’il faut traiter par deux méthodes différentes. I. Toute conception exprimée soit dans un écrit, soit par une représentation figurée, est un fai...

  8. Le genre à l'épreuve de l'Occupation : différence des sexes et répression judiciaire pour faits de collaboration, approche comparée des deux guerres mondiales

    Bergère, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Par leur dimension totale, les deux guerres mondiales ont affecté l'ensemble des rapports sociaux. Elles invitent donc tout particulièrement à questionner le masculin et le féminin. Dans cette dynamique, la répression judiciaire des faits de la collaboration avec l'ennemi constitue un observatoire d'autant plus privilégié que, dans les deux cas, elle traduit un moment spécifique du rapport des sexes à la justice. Dès lors, après avoir établi les faits, il nous importera surtout de clarifier l...

  9. La reconnaissance factuelle: Le récit itératif d’un accident pour rétablir un rapport à soi et à autrui

    Alexandre Dubuis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This text draws on the concepts of narrative identity and selfhood to analyze stories about accidents that resulted in severe facial burns. These adjustable accounts, regularly set out by the people concerned, are considered across two axes: for oneself and for others. The “story for oneself” mainly ensures the preservation of an identity fractured by severe trauma. For the severely burned person, it establishes continuity between an identity prior to the burn and an identity post-burn, which drastic changes to their appearance have shattered. As to the “story for others,” it serves other purposes. It is aimed, in particular, at helping to identify after-effects and in this way reducing discomfort around interaction. Whatever the varied forms that they can take, these two types of stories become the expression of a struggle for recognition, led by the burn victim, to restore a relationship as much with himself as with others.

  10. Fessenheim plant - Report on the complementary safety assessment of nuclear facilities in the light of the Fukushima accident; Fessenheim - Rapport d'evaluation complementaire de la surete des installations nucleaires au regard de l'accident de Fukushima

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This CSA (Complementary Safety Assessment) analyses the robustness of the Fessenheim plant to extreme situations such as those that led to the Fukushima accident and proposes a series of improvements. Robustness is the ability for the plant to withstand events beyond the level for which the plant was designed. Robustness is linked to safety margins but also to the situations leading to a sudden deterioration of the accident sequence. Safety is not only a matter of design or of engineered systems, it is also a matter of organization. So issues like EDF's crisis organization, the organization of radiation protection, and work organization via subcontracting are also taken into consideration. The creation of a nuclear rapid action force (FARN) is proposed: this will be a national emergency force made up of specialized teams equipped to intervene in less than 24 hours on a nuclear site hit by an accident. This report is divided into 8 main chapters: 1) features of the site, 2) earthquake risk, 3) flooding risk, 4) risks due to other extreme natural disasters, 5) the loss of electrical power supplies and of heat sink, 6) management of severe accidents (accidents with core melt), 7) task subcontracting policy, 8) synthesis and list of improvements. 4 following appendices review: EDF's crisis organization, the FARN, radiation protection organization and accidental event trees. (A.C.)

  11. L’étude scientifique du politique est-elle une science de l’observation des faits politiques ?

    Tournay, Virginie

    2016-01-01

    Peut-on rapporter les analyses sociologiques des objets politiques à une science de l’observation des faits politiques ? L’objectif de cet article est de discuter les biais cognitifs induits par les logiques explicatives issues des sciences de l’observation dans l’analyse du fait politique. Le naturalisme social intervient comme le symptôme d’un biais cognitif plus général qui prend sa source dans un réductionnisme ontologique. Tout en admettant un monisme épistémologique des sciences contemp...

  12. Rapportering med ABC modellen

    Wiese, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    I denne artikel diskuteres Activity Based Costing (ABC) som rapporterings-teknik for kunde profitabilitet. Der argumenteres for, at indtægtserhvervel-sen inkl. dens direkte omkostningsforbrug bør adskilles fra omkostnings-beskrivelsen til produktfremstilling. Dvs. der gennemføres en aktivitetsba...

  13. Rapports de sexe, genre et rapports sexuels

    Delphy, Christine

    2013-01-01

    La culture française est exceptionnelle, plus exceptionnelle que les autres - comme si ce n’était pas la définition même d’une culture que d’être unique ! Les Français n’ont pas de mal à croire cette bêtise, ni à croire que le monde entier partage cette perception qui n’est que le résultat abruti d’une éducation cocardière et abrutissante. Et tout ce qui fait partie de cette culture « exceptionnelle » est à préserver jalousement du complot international visant à nous dénier notre supériorité....

  14. Report made on behalf of the inquiry commission for the enforcement of the measures preconized for the safety of the maritime transport of hazardous or polluting products and for the evaluation of their efficiency; Rapport fait au nom de la commission d'enquete sur l'application des mesures preconisees en matiere de securite du transport maritime des produits dangereux ou polluants et l'evaluation de leur efficacite

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    On February 5, 2003, three years after the creation of an inquiry commission about the Erika tanker-ship wreck, the principle of a new inquiry commission about the safety of maritime transports was decided by the French house of commons. Its mission is: to evaluate the efficiency of the existing measures of prevention of marine pollution by hydrocarbons, to examine if the preconized safety measures for the transport of dangerous or polluting products are effectively enforced, and to evaluate the status of the transposition of the European directives relative to the control of hazardous ships. This document is the first tome of the report made on behalf of this inquiry commission. It comprises four parts dealing with: 1 - the Prestige tanker-ship wreck and the pollution of Spanish and French coasts: similarities with the Erika wreck but differences in the conditions of crisis management, diverging accident analyses, problems encountered in Spain, a significantly improved management of the crisis by the French administration, the public opinion and the local economy, the global increase of maritime transport and the reduction of accidents frequency; 2 - the real improvements after the Erika wreck: the significant advances but their partial implementation, the acceleration of actions following the Prestige wreck; 3 - the expected and realistic perspectives: the sustain of the political will at the national scale, the concretizing of the European decisions and the follow up of the retained trends, the need for more outstanding evolutions at the international scale; 4 - the international liability and compensation regime: its limitation to the hydrocarbons pollution, the lack of victims indemnification in the case of chemical pollution, the need for an increase of the liability of all actors of the maritime transport and the improvement of the compensation system, a community compensation fund to compensate the inefficiencies of the international compensation mechanisms

  15. 1996 outstanding facts; Faits marquants 1996

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This progress report of the Direction of Studies and Research (DER) of Electricite de France (EdF) reports on some outstanding studies carried out during the year 1996 and concerning: new applications of electric power (thermal comfort, heating floors, building diagnosis, energy management, customers communicating interfaces, services, air conditioning, off-peak tariffs, power demand mastery in the industry, infrared dryers for paper industry); production means (automatic systems for nuclear power plants operation, management of reactors shutdown schedules for refuelling operations, optimization of fuel loading patterns for PWRs, neutronic and thermohydraulic computer codes for steam pipes rupture accidents, thermo-hydraulic modeling of the confinement building during post-accidental situation, 3D numerical simulation of overpressures inside reactor valves and of vortex and two-phase flow inside auxiliary pipes, control of vibrating fatigue of pipe nozzles, qualification of the adjustable speed drives of the Gravelines` cooling pumps, 3D analysis of new steam turbine designs, identification of bi-metal welding surface defects, a simple method for the evaluation of in-service fatigue of components, the probabilistic dimensioning of safety coefficients, the modeling of thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling of geo-materials for radioactive wastes storage, the supply of isolated sites using renewable energies); environment protection (batteries for electric-powered vehicles, modeling of atmospheric reactive flows, chlorination of the Dampierre`s cooling circuits for pathogen amoebas elimination, in-situ treatment of PCBs isolated transformers); and development and exploitation of materials for power networks. (J.S.).

  16. Slut rapport for STALPK

    Svensson, Ingemar; Tiedje, Niels; Sørensen, Rasmus Kirkegaard

    2004-01-01

    delar: A Kortare ledtider - Rapid Tooling B Förbättrade materialegenskaper Här föreliggande rapport avser delprojekt A. I projektet har två nya tekniker för snabb verktygstillverkning vidareutvecklats och testats. Sen ena metoden MST-metoden baseras på indirekt tillverkning av verktyget genom att en...... metallslurry vid rumstemperatur gjuts över en modell. Slurryn består av olika metallpulver, stålpulver och pulver av en kopparlegering. Bindning va metallpulvret och därigenom hållfasthet erhålls genom sintring i en inert atmosfär. Den andra metoden, MST-metoden, baseras på en kombination av sprayformning och...... precisionsgjutning i keramiska formar. Båda teknikerna har provats. Försök har gjorts med verktyg tillverkade med MST-metoden vid såväl statisk kokillgjutning som vid lågtryckskokillgjutning och pressgjutning. Verktyg tillverkat med PSF-metoden har testats dels som ett smidesverktyg, dels vid pressgjutning...

  17. Stylistique, science de l’expression, linguistique de la parole. Notes sur la nature du fait linguistique selon Charles Bally

    Anamaria Curea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La spécificité de la discipline scientifique conçue par Charles Bally sous le nom de stylistique réside en une pensée singulière de la complexité du fait linguistique. À l’origine de son projet se croisent l’adhésion à une science générale de l’expression et la volonté de faire avancer la linguistique saussurienne dans une nouvelle direction. À travers les concepts d’expression et de langue parlée, Charles Bally invite la perspective linguistique à s’ouvrir aux dimensions psychologique et sociologique du langage afin d’appréhender les rapports complexes entre la pensée et la langue dans l’activité de parler.

  18. Rapport om digitale oplysninger ved Aalborg Universitet

    Bønsing, Sten

    Rapport til Aalborg Universitets ledelse vedr. brug af digitale oplysninger i forbindelse med e-mailing, databaser, hjemmesider mv.......Rapport til Aalborg Universitets ledelse vedr. brug af digitale oplysninger i forbindelse med e-mailing, databaser, hjemmesider mv....

  19. Rapports de générations et parcours de vie

    Attias-Donfut, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    Par rapport au titre initialement prévu, je vais quelque peu modifier ma communication pour tout d’abord cerner la notion même de génération avant d’aborder les relations entre parcours de vie et rapports inter-générations. Régine Robin m’a, en effet, demandé d’essayer de clarifier cette notion qui est très complexe, polysémique et qui fait l’objet de controverses importantes. Pour cela, je procéderai à un retour en arrière, en recherchant les divers usages de la notion de génération au cours...

  20. La théorie des rapports chez Augustus de Morgan

    Gandon, Sébastien

    2008-01-01

    Dans cet article, je présente l'interprétation que A. de Morgan développe de la théorie des rapports euclidiens. Je montre comment la lecture que le mathématicien anglais fait du livre V des Eléments s'intègre dans le cadre de sa propre pratique mathématique. Je mets également en relation son interprétation à sa nouvelle logique des relations.

  1. Intentionally Building Rapport with Students

    Starcher, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Developing rapport with students is important. Carson (1996) found that when alumni reflected on professors they had encountered 30 years ago, the quality most frequently associated with effective teachers was this: their attitude toward and relationship with students. In this article, the author shares the positive consequences of intentionally…

  2. Une étude de cohorte prospective d'accidentés de la route dans le Rhône : enquêtes auprès des sujets et analyse de la représentativité

    Boulanger, A

    2005-01-01

    La participation a une étude épidémiologique de cohorte prospective d'accidentés de la route dans le Rhône a permis de réaliser deux expériences. Le travail d'enquêteur a d'abord permis d'appréhender sur le terrain l'utilisation du questionnaire d'entretien comme outil de collecte de données ; les informations recueillies ont ensuite fait l'objet d'une analyse de représentativité des sujets de la cohorte correspondant aux six premiers mois de la phase d'inclusion, par rapport aux données du R...

  3. Report on the consequences of Chernobylsk accident in France Minister missions from the 25. february to 6. august 2002; Rapport sur les consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France missions ministerielles du 25 fevrier et du 6 aout 2002

    Aurengo, A

    2006-04-15

    Actually, we have not any map that gives reliable quantitative data of Chernobylsk accident fallout on soils. The maps proposed for these deposits give order of magnitude; they find east-west gradient conform to the origin of the accident and confirm the importance of the rain. But the quantitative value is only an approximation where the precision is not known (error interval). It does not allow to know the radiation doses to the thyroid because the food contamination does not increase like the soils contamination. It could be possible to improve the models but the scientific council of I.R.S.N. proposes to realize a periodic ground state of soils contamination in cesium. It would be a better step of a more reliable mapping of Chernobylsk accident fallout. (N.C.)

  4. Rapport social de service, client et valeur

    Zarifian, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Ce texte développe une double idée. La première est que l’on peut parler de « rapport social de service », au sens plein du concept de « rapport social », en en assumant toutes les implications et en le différenciant nettement de la notion de « relation de service ». La seconde, qui découle de la première, est que l’on peut parler de « composition » entre rapports sociaux différents, non réductibles l’un à l’autre. Nous montrons ainsi qu’il existe une composition entre rapport social de servi...

  5. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  6. ASIRPA - Analyse des Impacts de la Recherche Publique Agronomique. Rapport final

    Laurence Colinet; Pierre Benoit Joly; Ariane Gaunand; Mireille Matt; Philippe Laredo; Stephane Lemarié

    2014-01-01

    Le rapport fait le bilan de trois années de recherche concernant les méthodologies d'évaluation d'un organisme public de recherche finalisée. Au cours de trois années de recherche, l’équipe ASIRPA a construit une approche d’évaluation fondée sur la réalisation d’études de cas standardisées, conciliant analyse qualitative et quantitative des impacts des recherches selon cinq dimensions d’analyse. La démarche a été utilisée avec succès par les départements de recherche de l’institut. Une analys...

  7. Summary of the report A.S.N. n. 2006 ENSTR 019 - IGAS n. RM 2007-015P on the Epinal radiotherapy accident; Resume du rapport ASN n. 2006 ENSTR 019 - IGAS n. RM 2007-015P sur l'accident de radiotherapie d'Epinal

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The Nuclear Safety Authority (A.S.N.) and the General Inspection of Social Affairs (I.G.A.S.) have been in charge by the Ministry of an inquiry on the accident that has lead to the overdose of 23 patients irradiated for a prostate cancer at the Hospital of Epinal. This event constitutes the most important accident implying the ionizing radiations occurring in France. In may 2004, the protocol of conformal radiotherapy applied to the prostate cancers has been modified, it uses dynamics corners in place of static corners. This change supposes to modify the parameters definition that gives the calculation of irradiation intensity, that will not not be made for some of patients. This mistake could be changed if the in vivo dosimetry that allows to check the real dose received by the patients had been kept. but this line of safety has been removed, the use of dynamic corners making it ineffective. The period of over irradiation has been from the 6. may 2004 to the 1. august 2005. During the summer 2005, the radiotherapist and radio physicist find the overdose error by examining the patients files again. On the 15. september 2005, the two doctors of the service warn the director of the C.H.J.M. (hospital center of Jean Monnet) of the accident that informs D.D.A.S.S. (departmental direction of sanitary and social affairs) and A.R.H. (regional agencies of hospitalization). But the national authorities (A.F.S.S.A.P.S., A.S.N., I.R.S.N.) have not been warned, and so nobody can recognize the unsuitable character of the decided measures. Only seven patients are informed of the overdose of radiations they received during the last trimester 2005. The assistance to the victims is not organised the first year. All the patients have received usual treatments when they should receive a treatment by graft of mesenchymatous stem cells. Between september 2005 and september 2006 four patients died and ten present serious complications. propositions have been made to help the victims and

  8. Analysis and discussion on reports of additional safety assessment of nuclear installations with respect to the Fukushima accident; Analyse et commentaire des rapports d'evaluation complementaire de la surete des installations nucleaires au regard de l'accident de Fukushima

    Sene, Monique; Sene, Raymond

    2011-11-15

    This document proposes an analysis of the reports made by the different operators of nuclear installations within the frame of a safety audit of the French nuclear installations with respect to the Fukushima accident. Operators (mainly AREVA, the CEA and EDF) were asked to perform additional safety assessments. In a first part, the conclusions of EDF reports are analysed regarding the seismic risk, the flooding risk, the situation of some specific sites (Fessenheim, Tricastin), other phenomena (rains, winds), loss of electricity supplies and of cooling systems, severe accidents, hydrogen issue, chemical hazards, subcontractors, crisis management. Conclusions of AREVA reports are analysed for the different sites (Tricastin, La Hague, MELOX factory, Romans factory). Conclusions of CEA reports are analysed for the different concerned installations (ATPu, Masurca, Osiris, Phenix, Jules Horowitz reactor). A second part proposes a global analysis of EDF's additional safety assessment reports regarding earthquake, flooding, other extreme natural phenomena, loss of electricity supplies and cooling system, subcontracting conditions, crisis management, and radiation protection organisation. AREVA's and CEA's reports are then analysed in terms of report structure and content, and for the different concerned sites

  9. Laïcité et faits religieux : une question encore sensible pour les enseignants ?

    Hardouin, Magali

    2007-01-01

    La question du fait religieux est vive dans le débat social. La problématique des faits religieux n'est pas facile à enseigner. Bien au contraire, elle est difficile, délicate et sensible. Elle pose bon nombre de questions d'ordre pédagogique. Que doit-on enseigner exactement ? Il ne s'agit pas de foi religieuse, il ne s'agit pas d'un enseignement religieux, ni même d'une culture religieuse. Tout le monde s'est accordé autour de la formule consensuelle du " fait religieux ". Qu'entend-on par ...

  10. Chernobylsk: some bothering facts; Tchernobyl: quelques faits derangeants

    Belbeach, B

    2005-07-01

    First, are some preliminary comments about the official sanitary assessment of the Chernobyl disaster. The second point concerns the liquidators with the hot particles ( very radioactive particles of some microns) knowledge got from autopsies, from the bronchi pulmonary washing made on sick persons. Always about the liquidators the neurological disorders as post radiative encephalopathy. A third point is relative to the hot particles and the populations. The fourth point is devoted to the birth malformations, in Belarus and Ukraine with an incidence in report with the level of soil contamination (Belarus). The fifth point concerns the alteration of the genome (animals and humans), new mutations appear. The sixth point is devoted to the leukemia in Greece, increase of leukemia incidence among the infants in utero irradiated following Chernobylsk accident. The incidence leukemia of babies ( less than one year old) exposed in utero increases with the soil contamination ( 32.2/10{sup 6}/year in low contaminated soils, 71.4/10{sup 6}/year for average contaminated areas and 141.3/10{sup 6}/year for the most contaminated areas). A final point treats the question of the contamination situation in France and if there is a correlation with an increase of thyroid cancers in Corsica, East and South East of France. The lack of registers that inscribe the cancer cases in the different regions does not allow to make comparison between before and after Chernobylsk accident. But a comparison using the British incidence (0.5/10{sup 6}/year) before Chernobylsk ( in agreement with the incidence found in Belarus before Chernobylsk) shows an increase to 1.17/10{sup 6}/year for the Lorraine area and to 2.25/10{sup 6}/year for the South East and Corsica areas. (N.C.)

  11. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  12. Examining the positive effects of rapport building: when and why does rapport building benefit adult eyewitness memory?

    Kieckhaefer, Jenna Mitchell; Vallano, Jonathan Patrick; Schreiber Compo, Nadja

    2014-01-01

    Most investigative interviewing protocols recommend building rapport with cooperative adult witnesses to increase the accuracy of their reports. Although a few recent studies support the benefits of rapport building on adult witness recall, no study has examined whether the timing of rapport in relation to post-event misinformation affects recall accuracy, and whether these effects are related to witness anxiety levels throughout the interview. The present study provided two hundred and thirty-three undergraduates with a videotaped mock crime followed by building high or low rapport either before or after they received post-event misinformation. All witnesses were then interviewed about the mock crime. Results indicated that high rapport before misinformation increased the amount of accurate information reported in a subsequent witness interview compared to low rapport. However, these recall benefits were not due to a reduction in anxiety. Theoretical implications and practical recommendations for police interviewing practices are discussed. PMID:24304449

  13. Professor-Student Rapport Scale: Six Items Predict Student Outcomes

    Wilson, Janie H.; Ryan, Rebecca G.

    2013-01-01

    Rapport between students and teachers leads to numerous positive student outcomes, including attitudes toward the teacher and course, student motivation, and perceived learning. The recent development of a Professor-Student Rapport scale offers assessment of this construct. However, a Cronbach's [alpha] of 0.96 indicated item redundancy, and the…

  14. Organisasjonstenkningen i 22.juli-kommisjonens rapport

    Røgenes, Kristine Nordbø

    2013-01-01

    Sammendrag Denne studien omhandler organisasjonstenkningen i 22.juli-kommisjonens rapport. Fredag 22.juli 2011 ble Norge rammet av den verste terrorhandlingen på norsk jord i fredstid. Ufattelige tragedier utspant seg og viktige samfunnsorganisasjoner som politiet, helsevesenet, brannvesenet og regjeringen ble satt på en kraftig prøve. For å gi befolkningen de svar de hadde krav på, nedsatte regjeringen en uavhengig kommisjon. Kommisjonen fikk ett år på seg til å finne svarene og legge ...

  15. « Savez-vous ce que vous faites ? Ce que fait un médecin qui saigne dans la crise »

    Pialoux, Albane

    2012-01-01

    En septembre 1728, alors que l’accommodement du cardinal de Noailles avec Rome trouve enfin sa réalisation, le pape Benoît XIII s’avise de fixer pour la fête de saint Grégoire VII une nouvelle légende qui met en exergue la soumission de l’empereur Henri IV devant la puissance pontificale. En France, le décret de la Congrégation des Rites s’attire immédiatement les foudres conjuguées des appelants, du Parlement et du ministère. De fait, ce qu’il faut considérer comme une vraie maladresse polit...

  16. Direction Committee for the management of the post-accident phase of a nuclear accident or of a radiological event (CODIRPA). Work group nr 3: 'Assessment of radiological and dose consequences in a post-accident situation'. Final report; Comite Directeur pour la gestion de la phase post-accidentelle d'un accident nucleaire ou d'une situation radiologique (CODIRPA). Groupe de travail n. 3 'Evaluation des consequences radiologiques et dosimetriques en situation post-accidentelle'. Rapport final

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This report first describes how radioactive contamination occurs after a nuclear accident, whether it concerns plants, animals, people, and buildings, how people can be exposed, and how a post-accidental zoning is implemented either to protect population or to control territories. It describes principles and methods for the assessment of the contamination of the environment (radiological values, characterization of radioactive deposits, of agriculture products, and of wastes, materials and manufactured products). It describes how to organise radioactivity measurements in the environment (principles and objectives of measurement programmes, sampling organisation and management, laboratory radioactivity measurements, identification and preparation of radioactivity measurement operators, results management). It describes how to assess doses received by exposed people (measurement techniques, retrospective assessment, proposition of a dose assessment strategy for exposed population)

  17. Nuclear accidents

    On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

  18. Radiation accidents

    Radiation accidents may be viewed as unusual exposure event which provide possible high exposure to a few people and, in the case of nuclear plants events, low exposure to large population. A number of radiation accidents have occurred over the past 50 years, involving radiation machines, radioactive materials and uncontrolled nuclear reactors. These accidents have resulted in number of people have been exposed to a range of internal and external radiation doses and those involving radioactive materials have involved multiple routs of exposure. Some of the more important accidents involving significant radiation doses or releases of radioactive materials, including any known health effects involves in it. An analysis of the common characteristics of accidents is useful resolving overarching issues, as has been done following nuclear power, industrial radiography and medical accidents. Success in avoiding accidents and responding when they do occur requires planning in order to have adequately trained and prepared health physics organization; well defined and developed instrument program; close cooperation among radiation protection experts, local and state authorities. Focus is given to the successful avoidance of accidents and response in the events they do occur. Palomares, spain in late 1960, Goiania, Brazil in 1987, Thule, Greenland in 1968, Rocky flats, Colorado in 1957 and 1969, Three mile island, Pennsylvania in 1979, Chernobyl Ukraine in april 1986, Kyshtym, former Soviet Union in 1957, Windscale, UK in Oct. 1957 Tomsk, Russian Federation in 1993, and many others are the important examples of major radiation accidents. (author)

  19. Ce que fait la politique de contrôle de l’immigration

    Stefan Le Courant

    2010-01-01

    Chaque année en France, des milliers d’étrangers en situation irrégulière sont arrêtés sans que l’administration soit en mesure de procéder à leur éloignement. Ils sont libérés après un enfermement en rétention durant lequel ils font l’expérience du rapport policier et de la coercition qui l’accompagne. A travers une enquête ethnographique au sein d’un local de rétention et le suivi au quotidien des étrangers qui n’ont pas été expulsés, il s’agit ici de montrer comment ce dispositif transform...

  20. Le triple assassinat de la rue Montaigne : le sacre du fait divers

    Chauvaud, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    En 1887, un crime sanglant devient le révélateur de la place prise par les faits-divers. L’affaire Pranzini, surnommé le « chéri magnifique » ou le « tueur de courtisanes », a enflammé l’imagination d’une époque. Elle s’avère aussi importante que l’affaire Troppmann pour comprendre comment la « Belle Affaire » est devenue un « art de masse ». Le Grand Dictionnaire universel de Pierre Larousse lui consacre un article, attestant de son importance. Aussi, dans la présente contribution, il s’agit...

  1. La question de Galilée les faits et leurs conséquences

    de L'Épinois, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Extrait : ""Galileo Galilei, que dans la langue française nous nommons Galilée, naquit le 18 février 1564 à Pise, où se trouvaient alors sa mère, Giulia Ammanati, et son père Vincenzo Galilei, issu d'une famille noble de Florence. Après avoir fait ses premières classes dans cette dernière ville et avoir achevé ses humanités et sa logique au monastère de Vallombrosa où il revêtit un instant l'habit de novice...""À PROPOS DES ÉDITIONS LIGARANLes éditions LIGARAN proposent des versions numériques de qualité de grands livres de la littérature classique mais également des livres rares en partenari

  2. Accident Statistics

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  3. La presse anglo-saxonne et la prédominance des faits : un constat toujours d’actualité ? The Anglo-Saxon Press and the Predominance of Event-Centred Reporting : Still a Valid State of Affairs ?

    Christophe Chambost

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article analyse les caractéristiques du journalisme anglo-saxon établies dès le 19e siècle pour déterminer si elles permettent toujours de définir la spécificité des périodiques de nos jours. Dans la première partie, diverses remarques viendront souligner la prédominance des faits rapportés sur les commentaires des journalistes. La deuxième section montrera quels sont les critères faisant qu’une information factuelle est publiée ou non. Enfin, malgré la factualité revendiquée par la presse anglo-saxonne, il apparaît que celle-ci tend désormais de plus en plus vers l’analyse des faits rapportés. Les raisons de ce phénomène seront abordées et l’on conclura en esquissant les dangers éventuels d’une telle évolution journalistique.This article analyses the essential features of Anglo-Saxon journalism that were established in the 19th century to determine whether they can still be used to characterise the specificity of today’s newspapers. In the first part, various points highlight the predominance of event-centred reporting over news analysis. The second part shows the criteria that are taken into account when deciding to publish some event-centred news items and not others. Lastly, although facts supposedly play a major part in the Anglo-Saxon press, one will see that these newspapers give a more and more analytic account of the reported events. The causes of this phenomenon are examined and the conclusion outlines the risks that such a journalistic evolution entails.

  4. Bourges (Cher), ZAC Avaricum. Évolution d'un quartier urbain de Bourges du 1er s. ap. J.-C. jusqu'à nos jours, Rapport final d'opération de fouille préventive, volume 1 à 4 : Volume 1 à 4 : texte, plans et études spécialisées.

    Fondrillon, Mélanie; Marot, Emmanuel; Troadec, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Ces quatre volumes sont issus du rapport final d'opération de fouille préventive qui présente les découvertes archéologiques faites sur le site de la ZAC Avaricum à Bourges (Cher, France). Le premier concerne la présentation diachronique de la stratification du site et des structures. Le deuxième porte sur les plans. Les troisième et quatrième concernent les différentes études de spécialistes.

  5. Bijlagen behorend bij Agromere rapport: Stadslandbouw in Almere

    Jansma, J.E.; Dekking, A.J.G.; Migchels, G.; de Buk, A.J.; Ruijs, M.N.A.; Galema, P.J.; Visser, A J

    2010-01-01

    Dit zijn de bijlagen behorend bij het rapport Agromere Stadslandouw in Almere. Deed-framework, Stakeholdermanagement, Leefstijlen Almere, Potentiële bewoners Agromere, Communicty supported Agriculture, Verslag eerste workshop, Verslag tweede workshop, Consumptie en productie verse groente, Consumptie en productie fruit, De ‘7 Almere Principles’ en De verbruiksnormen glastuinbouw.

  6. La double-page chez Hirohiko Araki : l’ubris faite norme

    Aurélien Pigeat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Le style d’Araki se caractérise par un usage massif de la double-page, loin de l’usage ponctuel que l’on trouve habituellement dans les shonen. Elle témoigne d’une forme d’ubris qui se fait norme de composition c’est-à-dire qu’elle érige le principe de débordement en règle de structuration de l’action et des planches Elle est ainsi la marque de la démesure d’un auteur qui, sous l’apparence du manga populaire, et à travers les codes de ce dernier, élabore une œuvre d’une puissance et d’une sophistication rares..

    Pour appréhender ce phénomène, il nous faut d’abord observer concrètement l’usage que fait Hirohiko Araki de la double-page, les lieux du récit que celle-ci investit, la fréquence de ses manifestations, et la manière dont elle caractérise les différentes parties de la saga Jojo’s bizarre Adventure. L’ubris de la double-page met alors particulièrement en relief deux éléments centraux de la poétique d’Hirohiko Araki : le corps et le temps.  La double-page apparaît comme la réponse matérielle à ces corps qui débordent de la page classique, qui éclatent ou se dispersent de telle sorte que l’auteur doit étendre les limites de ce cadre pour les représenter. Le temps entre lui en scène à travers le détail : la double-page devient le règne d’un détail sur lequel le lecteur passe trop vite et auquel le héros accorde toute son attention. Enfin, la double-page possède chez Hirohiko Araki une dimension proprement esthétique que révèle clairement l’usage presque absolu qui en est fait dans la septième partie de Jojo’s bizarre Adventure, Steel Ball Run, et dans le volume Rohan au Louvre, même si l’on peut la deviner déjà auparavant. La double-page est un moment où l’énigme se présente au héros, se met en mouvement ou se trouve élucidée. Le règne de l’ubris s’affirme là, dans ces doubles-pages qui n’en sont finalement plus, dans cette

  7. Scientific report 1998; Rapport scientifique 1998

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this report is to outline the main developments of the ''Departement des Reacteurs Nucleaires'', (DRN) during the year 1998. DRN is one of the CEA Institution. This report is divided in three main parts: the DRN scientific programs, the scientific and technical publications (with abstracts in english) and economic data on staff, budget and communication. Main results of the Department, for the year 1998, are presented giving information on the reactors technology and safety, the neutronics, the transmutation and the hybrid systems, the dismantling and the sites improvement, the nuclear accidents, the nuclear matter transport, the thermonuclear fusion safety, the fuel cladding materials and radioactive waste control. (A.L.B.)

  8. Dutch report on the post-Fukushima stress test. Explanation, main findings and conclusions; Nationaal Rapport over de post-Fukushima stresstest. Toelichting, belangrijkste bevindingen en conclusies

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    The nuclear accident in Fukushima, March 2011, gave cause for conducting a so-called stress test. The stress test has been analyzed and the findings have been presented in a national report (in English - Netherlands' National Fukushima Stress Test for the Borssele Nuclear Power Plant, December 2011). This Dutch report sketches the background of the stress test in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 looks at the goal and scope of the National report and the stress test. Chapter 3 describes the organization and planning of the assessment by competent authorities. Chapter 4 briefly describes the analysis of the licensee and its assessment by the competent authorities [Dutch] Naar aanleiding van het kernongeval in Fukushima in maart 2011 is een zogenaamde 'stresstest' uitgevoerd. De stresstest is geanalyseerd en in een Engelstalig Nationaal Rapport zijn bevindingen gepresenteerd (Netherlands' National Fukushima Stress Test for the Borssele Nuclear Power Plant, December 2011). In dit Nederlandstalige rapport worden in hoofdstuk 1 de achtergronden van de stresstest geschetst. Hoofdstuk 2 vervolgt met het doel en de reikwijdte van het Nationaal Rapport en de stresstest. Hoofdstuk 3 beschrijft de organisatie en planning van de beoordeling door de het bevoegde gezag. Hoofdstuk 4 beschrijft zeer beknopt de analyses van de vergunninghouder en de beoordeling daarvan door het bevoegde gezag.

  9. Friese Front Alk / Zeekoet: Oktober / November 2012, cruise rapport

    Leopold, M.F.; Bemmelen, van, R.S.A.; Kuhn, S; Lagerveld, S

    2012-01-01

    Het Friese Front, zoals omschreven en geografisch aangeduid in het rapport van Lindeboom et al. (2005) zal binnenkort worden aangewezen als Natura 2000 gebied. Vanwege de bijzondere status van het gebied is het belangrijk om te weten welke aantallen Zeekoeten het gebied bezoeken. De aantallen moeten daarom worden gevolgd, maar een monitoringsprogramma dat de benodigde gegevens kan aanleveren is er nog niet. Daarbij is het niet uitgesloten dat ook de aantallen Alken die het Friese Front bezoek...

  10. Strangers in sync: Achieving embodied rapport through shared movements

    Vacharkulksemsuk, Tanya; Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the emergence of behavioral synchrony among strangers in the context of self-disclosure, and their path in predicting interaction quality. Specifically, we hypothesize that behavioral synchrony mediates the direct effect of self-disclosure on the development of embodied rapport. Same-sex stranger pairs (n=94) were randomly assigned to a videorecorded self-disclosure or control condition, and afterward each member rated their social interaction. Following the procedure used...

  11. Effects of perceived employee emotional competence on customer satisfaction and loyalty: The mediating role of rapport

    Delcourt, C.C.; Gremler, D.D.; Riel, A.C.R. van; Birgelen, M.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – During service encounters, emotionally competent employees are likely to succeed in building rapport with their customers, which in turn leads to customer satisfaction and loyalty. However, the relationship between emotional competence and rapport has not been empirically examined. In the present study, we investigate effects of customer perceived employee emotional competence (EEC) on satisfaction and loyalty. We also examine how and to what extent rapport mediates these effects. ...

  12. Tchernobyl accident

    First, R.M.B.K type reactors are described. Then, safety problems are dealt with reactor control, behavior during transients, normal loss of power and behavior of the reactor in case of leak. A possible scenario of the accident of Tchernobyl is proposed: events before the explosion, possible initiators, possible scenario and events subsequent to the core meltdown (corium-concrete interaction, interaction with the groundwater table). An estimation of the source term is proposed first from the installation characteristics and the supposed scenario of the accident, and from the measurements in Europe; radiological consequences are also estimated. Radioactivity measurements (Europe, Scandinavia, Western Europe, France) are given in tables (meteorological maps and fallouts in Europe). Finally, a description of the site is given

  13. Accident: Reminder

    2003-01-01

    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  14. Published White House Internal Memos: Legal Transparency or Subtle Electoral Canvassing? La publication officielle des rapports internes de la Maison Blanche : transparence légale ou subtile stratégie électorale ?

    Mounir Triki

    2009-01-01

    Dans quelle mesure la manipulation du « genre » est-elle une stratégie utile  à des fins pragmatiques ? Les rapports internes de la Maison Blanche et les décrets officiels présentent un intérêt d’analyse stimulant : celui de « l’affiliation générique ». D’un côté, ce sont des exemples de discours officiels, d’où leur vocabulaire légal. D’autre part, le fait qu’ils sont publiés et non tenus secrets signifie que le bureau de presse de la Maison Blanche y voit une utilité politique certaine en l...

  15. Le registre des victimes d'accidents de la circulation routière du Rhône. Validation des données. Actualisation des statistiques de base avec l'ajout des accidents de 2000 et 2001. Analyse des facteurs de risque de gravité des accidents, chez les enfants de 0 à 14 ans occupants de voiture

    Moskal, A.

    2003-01-01

    Le Registre des victimes d'accidents de la circulation routière du Rhône rassemble depuis 1995 des informations sur les accidents, les victimes et leurs blessures. Il est une source de données pour de nombreuses études. Ce rapport présente le travail réalisé dans le cadre de la réactualisation des statistiques de base du rapport sur les données du Registre avec l'intégration des accidents de 2000 et 2001 ainsi que les traitements effectués pour le contrôle de la qualité des données du Registr...

  16. Section traumatique de l'utérus non gravide chez une accidentée de voie publique: à propos d'un cas

    Cédrick, Sangwa Milindi; Marius, Kitembo Feruzi; Mireille, Kakinga Zabibu; Nelly, Mukonda Sompo; Chamy, Cham Lubamba; Numbi, Kabamge; Mutomb, Jean Felix

    2015-01-01

    Dans cet article les auteurs rapportent un rare cas de section traumatique d'un utérus non gravide, chez une accidentée de voie publique reçu dans un tableau d'hemopéritoine aux services des urgences de l'hôpital General Provincial de Reference Jason Sendwe.

  17. Transportation accidents

    Predicting the possible consequences of transportation accidents provides a severe challenge to an analyst who must make a judgment of the likely consequences of a release event at an unpredictable time and place. Since it is impractical to try to obtain detailed knowledge of the meteorology and terrain for every potential accident location on a route or to obtain accurate descriptions of population distributions or sensitive property to be protected (data which are more likely to be more readily available when one deals with fixed-site problems), he is constrained to make conservative assumptions in response to a demanding public audience. These conservative assumptions are frequently offset by very small source terms (relative to a fixed site) created when a transport vehicle is involved in an accident. For radioactive materials, which are the principal interest of the authors, only the most elementary models have been used for assessing the consequences of release of these materials in the transportation setting. Risk analysis and environmental impact statements frequently have used the Pasquill-Gifford/gaussian techniques for releases of short duration, which are both simple and easy to apply and require a minimum amount of detailed information. However, after deciding to use such a model, the problem of selecting what specific parameters to use in specific transportation situations still presents itself. Additional complications arise because source terms are not well characterized, release rates can be variable over short and long time periods, and mechanisms by which source aerosols become entrained in air are not always obvious. Some approaches that have been used to address these problems will be reviewed with emphasis on guidelines to avoid the Worst-Case Scenario Syndrome

  18. Student—teacher Rapport in Secondary English Classes

    LuYunZhou

    2000-01-01

    The student teacher rapport,which is a special Kind of interpersonal and social relationships,influences the process of teaching and learning to such an extent that the result of teaching and learning will be a good one if the teacher and the students have built up a harmonious relationship and vice versa it is extremely important that the teacher should be a good user of the target language and teaching methods.In addition,the teacher has to have the knowledge of students physiological and psychological development.

  19. Que fait le salariat au militantisme dans les associations féministes ?

    Dominique Loiseau

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Les associations de défense des droits des femmes, créées en France dans le contexte militant du féminisme des décennies 1960/1970 (MFPF, SOS femmes, CIDFF, affrontent aujourd'hui des difficultés paradoxales, au sens où elles résultent en partie de leur succès et de leur pérennisation. En effet, pour accroître l'efficacité militante, pour satisfaire aux besoins toujours existants de la population féminine à laquelle elles s'adressent, elles ont eu recours à la salarisation et se sont transformées en associations employeuses. Dans un contexte où elles ne peuvent guère offrir à leurs salariées que des emplois dévalorisés du fait de leur difficulté à assurer leur survie économique, elles entrent en contradiction avec leurs valeurs, sans en avoir toujours conscience dans un premier temps. L’arrivée des salariées interroge donc le militantisme des « militantes employeuses ». Mais passés les premiers temps de déstabilisation, les associations tentent de rebondir et de mettre en place des solutions ménageant les deux dimensions militante et professionnelle qu’elles souhaitent continuer à concilier.Las asociaciones de defensa de los derechos de las mujeres, creadas en Francia en el contexto del feminismo militante de las décadas 1960/1970 (MFPF, SOS CIDFF mujeres, se enfrentan actualmente a dificultades paradójicas, en el sentido de que, en parte, resultan de su éxito y su sostenibilidad. De hecho, para aumentar la eficiencia de la militancia, para satisfacer las necesidades aún existentes de la población femenina a la que se dirigen, han recurrido a empleados y se han convertido en asociaciones de empleadores. En un contexto en el que sólo pueden ofrecer a sus empleados puestos de trabajo devaluados a causa de su dificultad para garantizar su supervivencia económica, están en contradicción con sus valores, pero no siempre son conscientes de esto. La llegada de las empleadas entrevistadas, por lo tanto

  20. Report realized on behalf of the information mission on the greenhouse effect; Rapport fait au nom de la mission d'information sur l'effet de serre

    Le Defaut, J.Y

    2006-04-15

    This report shows the violent acceleration of the climatic change. It examines the different aspects of the greenhouse effect, studies the impacts of international negotiations, takes stock and evaluates the community policies and the national experience, and proposes a method and a pedagogy. The first part presents the today situation, the second part the first actions at the world, european and national scales. The third part presents and analyzes solutions to propose in the last part priority axis and the necessity of an international cooperation and participation. (A.L.B.)

  1. Safety report concerning Melusine (after power increase to 4 MW). Descriptive part. Volumes 1 and 2; Rapport de surete de ''melusine'' (apres augmentation de puissance a 4 MW). Partie descriptive. Tomes 1 et 2

    Baas, C.; Delcroix, V.; Jacquemain, M.; Marouby, R.; Meunier, C.; De Robien, E.; Rossillon, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-03-01

    d'avril 1960; 2 MW A partir de septembre 1961; 4 MW a partir de decembre 1965. Diverses modifications ont ete apportees depuis la construction. Elles concernent: - L'adjonction d'une cellule chaude. - Les effluents: 2 cuves de 15 m{sup 3} pour effluents liquides ont ete mises en place. L'installation de regeneration des resines a ete entierement modifiee. - Le batiment: des bureaux ont ete ajoutes - des aires experimentales ont ete construites dans le hall. - L'alimentation electrique. - Les circuits de refroidissement et d'epuration (mise en place d'un second echangeur, remplacement des pompes primaires, creation d'une couche chaude, etc... ). - Les elements combustibles (actuellement elements type MTR enrichis a 90 pour cent). - La piscine (qui a ete munie partiellement d'un revetement en acier inoxydable). - Le coeur (mise en place de 'tabourets', d'un plongeoir, etc...). - La ventilation: le hall a ete mis en depression en fonctionnement normal, en cas d'incident, le hall peut etre isole et un circuit de secours peut etre demarre. Une cheminee a ete installee. - Le hall (qui a ete renforce et dont l'etancheite a ete amelioree). - L'electronique de controle (modifiee dans son principe et maintenant entierement transistorisee). L'ensemble a si profondement evolue que le reacteur n'a plus que de lointains rapports avec la realisation initiale. Il a paru necessaire de faire une breve synthese de ces ameliorations afin de mieux permettre de juger des caracteristiques de surete actuelles de l'installation, caracteristiques du reste beaucoup mieux connues du fait des experiences realisees tant a GRENOBLE au Service des Transferts Thermiques qu'a CADARACHE (Cabri) et TOULON (travaux de M. PASCOUET). (auteurs)

  2. Criticality Accident

    At a meeting of electric utility presidents in October, 1999, the Federation Power Companies (FEPCO) officially decided to establish a Japanese version of WANO, following the JCO criticality accident. The Japanese WANO is expected to be launched by the end of the year: initially, with some 30 private sector companies concerned with nuclear fuel. It is said that the private sector had to make efforts to ensure that safety was the most important value in management policy throughout the industry, and that comprehensive inspections would be implemented. In anything related to nuclear energy, sufficient safety checks are required even for the most seemingly trivial matters. Therefore, the All-Japan Council of Local Governments with Atomic Power Stations has already proposed to the Japanese government that it should enact the special law for nuclear emergency, providing that the unified responsibility for nuclear disaster prevention should be shifted to the national government, since the nuclear disaster was quite special from the viewpoint of its safety regulation and technical aspects. (G.K.)

  3. Persistence on airline accidents.

    L. A. GIL-ALANA; Barros, C.P. (Carlos P.); J.R. Faria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses airline accidents data from 1927-2006. The fractional integration methodology is adopted. It is shown that airline accidents are persistent and (fractionally) cointegrated with airline traffic. Thus, there exists an equilibrium relation between air accidents and airline traffic, with the effect of the shocks to that relationship disappearing in the long run. Policy implications are derived for countering accidents events.

  4. Persistence in Airline Accidents

    Carlos Pestana Barros; João Ricardo Faria; Luis A. Gil-Alana

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses airline accident data from 1927-2006, through fractional integration. It is shown that airline accidents are persistent and (fractionally) cointegrated with airline traffic. There exists a negative relation between air accidents and airline traffic, with the effect of the shocks to that relationship disappearing in the long run. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events.

  5. Severe accident phenomena

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  6. Un rapport précoce de Kurt Gerstein

    Florent Brayard

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La connaissance historique, on l’oublie trop souvent, est parfois le fruit du hasard. Le passé, en somme, est non pas exactement ce qui a été, mais ce qu’il nous a été donné de connaître. L’histoire du rapport sur l’extermination des Juifs, publié ici pour la première fois dans une autre langue que le néerlandais, en est l’illustration exemplaire. Il aura fallu, en effet, pas moins d’un demi-siècle pour que l’on puisse prendre la mesure de l’importance réelle de ce document – inconnu, ignoré...

  7. Projet d'école ÉNERGIE Rapport Final

    Borel, Lucien; Morf, J. J.; Sarlos, Gerard; Suter, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Le Projet d'Ecole ENERGIE est issu de la prise de conscience de la gravité du problème de l'énergie, la menace essentielle étant l'épuisement des ressources énergétiques à une échéance qu'il faut qualifier de proche. Pour la Suisse, le problème d'approvisionnement en énergie primaire se complique du fait de notre dépendance de l'étranger dans une proportion extrêmement élevée, qui se situe autour de 80%, de sorte que certains évènements ou décisions politiques sont susceptibles de pertu...

  8. Stylistique, science de l’expression, linguistique de la parole. Notes sur la nature du fait linguistique selon Charles Bally

    Anamaria Curea

    2013-01-01

    La spécificité de la discipline scientifique conçue par Charles Bally sous le nom de stylistique réside en une pensée singulière de la complexité du fait linguistique. À l’origine de son projet se croisent l’adhésion à une science générale de l’expression et la volonté de faire avancer la linguistique saussurienne dans une nouvelle direction. À travers les concepts d’expression et de langue parlée, Charles Bally invite la perspective linguistique à s’ouvrir aux dimensions psychologique et ...

  9. Tillæg til rapport om Havvindmøller i Nissum Bredning

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben

    Nærværende rapport er udført for NOE, A.m.b.a. og Nissum Bredning Vindmølle Laug af Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg i henhold til konsulentaftale af 30.11.2011, som tillæg til tidligere rapport jf. konsulentaftale af 6.7.2010. /1/. Dette tillæg omfatter kun den såkaldte dæmning...

  10. Training in Compensatory Strategies Enhances Rapport in Interactions Involving People with Möbius Syndrome

    Michael, John; Bogart, Kathleen; Tylén, Kristian; Krueger, Joel; Bech, Morten; Østergaard, John Rosendahl; Fusaroli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    In the exploratory study reported here, we tested the efficacy of an intervention designed to train teenagers with Möbius syndrome (MS) to increase the use of alternative communication strategies (e.g., gestures) to compensate for their lack of facial expressivity. Specifically, we expected the intervention to increase the level of rapport experienced in social interactions by our participants. In addition, we aimed to identify the mechanisms responsible for any such increase in rapport. In t...

  11. Rapportering og revisjon av olje- og gassreserver : med utgangspunkt i Shell-skandalen 2004.

    Olsen, Olav Søvik

    2007-01-01

    Denne utredningen starter med å presentere oljeselskapet Royal Dutch Shell og deretter tar den for seg Shell sin skandale i 2004 vedrørende rapportering av olje- og gassreserver. Det fokuseres her på hvordan toppledelsen til Shell håndterte situasjonen, samt hvilke rapporteringsregelverk som var gjeldende. Etter dette tar utredningen for seg hvordan rapporteringen av olje- og gassreserver foregår og hvilke rammeverk for rapportering som er det beste i dag. Det kommer frem av de...

  12. Training in Compensatory Strategies Enhances Rapport in Interactions Involving People with Möbius Syndrome

    John eMichael

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the exploratory study reported here, we tested the efficacy of an intervention designed to train teenagers with Möbius Syndrome (MS to increase the use of alternative communication strategies (e.g. gestures to compensate for their lack of facial expressiveness. Specifically, we expected the intervention to increase the level of rapport experienced in social interactions by our participants. In addition, we aimed to identify the mechanisms responsible for any such increase in rapport. In the study, five teenagers with MS interacted with three naïve participants without MS before the intervention, and with three different naïve participants without MS after the intervention. Rapport was assessed by self-report and by behavioral coders who rated videos of the interactions. Individual nonverbal behavior was assessed via behavioral coders, while verbal behavior was automatically extracted from the sound files. Alignment was assessed using cross recurrence quantification analysis and mixed effects models. The results showed that observer-coded rapport was greater after the intervention, whereas self-reported rapport did not change significantly. Observer-coded gesture and expressivity increased in participants with and without MS, while overall linguistic alignment decreased. Fidgeting and repetitiveness of verbal behavior also decreased in both groups. In sum, the intervention may impact nonverbal and verbal behavior in participants with and without MS, increasing rapport as well as overall gesturing, while decreasing alignment.

  13. Training in Compensatory Strategies Enhances Rapport in Interactions Involving People with Möbius Syndrome

    Michael, John; Bogart, Kathleen; Tylén, Kristian; Krueger, Joel; Bech, Morten; Østergaard, John Rosendahl; Fusaroli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    In the exploratory study reported here, we tested the efficacy of an intervention designed to train teenagers with Möbius syndrome (MS) to increase the use of alternative communication strategies (e.g., gestures) to compensate for their lack of facial expressivity. Specifically, we expected the intervention to increase the level of rapport experienced in social interactions by our participants. In addition, we aimed to identify the mechanisms responsible for any such increase in rapport. In the study, five teenagers with MS interacted with three naïve participants without MS before the intervention, and with three different naïve participants without MS after the intervention. Rapport was assessed by self-report and by behavioral coders who rated videos of the interactions. Individual non-verbal behavior was assessed via behavioral coders, whereas verbal behavior was automatically extracted from the sound files. Alignment was assessed using cross recurrence quantification analysis and mixed-effects models. The results showed that observer-coded rapport was greater after the intervention, whereas self-reported rapport did not change significantly. Observer-coded gesture and expressivity increased in participants with and without MS, whereas overall linguistic alignment decreased. Fidgeting and repetitiveness of verbal behavior also decreased in both groups. In sum, the intervention may impact non-verbal and verbal behavior in participants with and without MS, increasing rapport as well as overall gesturing, while decreasing alignment. PMID:26500605

  14. Summary of the report Asn n. 2006 E.N.S.T.R. 019 - I.G.A.S. n. R.M. 2007-015 P. on the radiotherapy accident occurring at Epinal, presented by Guillaume WACK (Asn) and the doctor Francoise LALANDE, member of the General Inspection of social affairs, with the help of Marc David SELIGMAN; Resume du rapport ASN n. 2006 ENSTR 019 - IGAS n. RM 2007-015P sur l'accident de radiotherapie d'Epinal, presente par Guillaume WACK (ASN), et le docteur Francoise LALANDE, membre de l'Inspection Generale des affaires sociales, avec le concours de Marc David SELIGMAN

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    In may 2004, the protocol of conformal radiotherapy applied to the prostate tumors has been modified. The change concerned the use of dynamic wedges in place of static wedges. This change supposed to change also the parameters of the calculation of irradiation intensity but this will not be made for some patients. This error could be corrected if the in vivo dosimetry had been kept and if the calculation of the number of monitors units had been maintained. 23 patients were submitted to an overexposure between the 6. may 2004 and the 1. august 2005. The first symptoms appeared in january 2005. The patients consulted their personal practitioner who sent them to a gastro-enterologist. The endoscopy revealed the existence of a rectitis which went by aggravating. In August, 2005 they were ten patients with severe hurts. During summer 2005, a radiotherapist doctor and a radio physicist found the error of overdose, They warned the manager of the hospital who warned in her turn, the D.D.A.S.S. (department direction of sanitary and social affairs) and A.R.H. (regional authority of hospitalization). Only seven patients were informed of the overdose, the sixteen other ones supposed wrongly unhurt, were not informed about the accident. The national authorities (I.R.S.N.) were warned in july 2006. Between september 2005 and september 2006 four patients died. Ten patients had severe damages, nine a moderate one. The report gives some propositions to avoid these kind of accidents in the future. (N.C.)

  15. L’image du français et le « fait francophone » dans l’enseignement supérieur au Danemark

    Verstraete Hansen, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    s article examines the representation of French as it can be interpreted through the curriculum at the two major Danish universities still offering a full university program (BA-Master-Doctoral degree) in French Studies. The article analyses the presence of the fait francophone in the curriculum at...... distinction between “French” and “francophone” phenomena and a type of course organization largely based on the philological model that divides the subjects into three disciplines – language, literature and culture – focusing on the national reference, France. The article concludes that the fait francophone...

  16. Safety report concerning the reactor Pegase - volume 1 - Description of the installation - volume 2 - Safety of the installations; Rapport de surete du reacteur pegase - tome 1 - Description des installations - tome 2 - Surete des installations

    Lacour, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Legoin, P. [S.E.M. Hispano-Suiza, 92 - Colombes (France)

    1964-07-01

    In the first volume: This report is a description of the reactor Pegase, given with a view to examine the safety of the installations. The Cadarache site at which they are situated is briefly described, in particular because of the consequences on the techniques employed for building Pegase. A description is also given of the original aspects of the reactor. The independent loops which are designed for full-scale testing of fuel elements used in natural uranium-gas-graphite reactor systems are described in this report, together with their operational and control equipment. In the second volume: In the present report are examined the accidents which could cause damage to the Pegase reactor installation. Among possible causes of accidents considered are the seismicity of the region, an excessive power excursion of the reactor and a fracture in the sealing of an independent loop. Although all possible precautions have been taken to offset the effects of such accidents, their ultimate consequences are considered here. The importance is stressed of the security action and regulations which, added to the precautions taken for the construction, ensure the safety of the installations. (authors) [French] Dans le volume 1: Ce rapport est une description du reacteur Pegase, afin d'examiner la surete des installations. Le site de CADARACHE ou elles sont situees, a ete sommairement decrit, en particulier, a cause des consequences sur les techniques mises en oeuvre pour la realisation de Pegase. Nous nous sommes egalement attache a decrire les aspects originaux du reacteur. Les boucles autonomes destinees a tester en vraie grandeur des elements combustibles de la filiere uranium naturel graphite-gaz, ainsi que leurs dispositifs de controle et d'exploitation, figurent egalement dans ce rapport. Dans le volume 2: Dans le present rapport, nous examinons des accidents pouvant endommager des installations du reacteur Pegase. Les origines d'accidents examines

  17. SEVERE ACCIDENT MANAGEMENT TRAINING

    The purpose of this paper is (a) to define the International Atomic Energy Agency's role in the area of severe accident management training, (b) to briefly describe the status of representative severe accident analysis tools designed to support development and validation of accident management guidelines, and more recently, simulate the accident with sufficient accuracy to support the training of technical support and reactor operator staff, and (c) provide an overview of representative design-specific accident management guidelines and training. Since accident management and the development of accident management validation and training software is a rapidly evolving area, this paper is also intended to evolve as accident management guidelines and training programs are developed to meet different reactor design requirements and individual national requirements

  18. Traffic Congestion and Accidents

    Schrage, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Obstructions caused by accidents can trigger or exacerbate traffic congestion. This paper derives the efficient traffic pattern for a rush hour with congestion and accidents and the corresponding road toll. Compared to the model without accidents, where the toll equals external costs imposed on drivers using the road at the same time, a new insight arises: An optimal toll also internalizes the expected increase in future congestion costs. Since accidents affect more drivers if traffic volumes...

  19. Psychology of nuclear accidents

    Tysoe, M.

    1983-03-31

    Incidents involving nuclear weapons are described, as well as the accident to the Three Mile Island-2 reactor. Methods of assessment of risks are discussed, with particular reference to subjective judgements and the possible role of human error in civil nuclear accidents. Accidents or misunderstandings in communication or human actions which might lead to nuclear war are also discussed.

  20. Supervisor's accident investigation handbook

    This pamphlet was prepared by the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EH and S) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to provide LBL supervisors with a handy reference to LBL's accident investigation program. The publication supplements the Accident and Emergencies section of LBL's Regulations and Procedures Manual, Pub. 201. The present guide discusses only accidents that are to be investigated by the supervisor. These accidents are classified as Type C by the Department of Energy (DOE) and include most occupational injuries and illnesses, government motor-vehicle accidents, and property damages of less than $50,000

  1. Est-ce que le fumeur connaît les méfaits du tabac?

    Janah, Hicham; Elouazzani, Hanane; Souhi, Hicham; Naji-Amrani, Hicham; Zegmout, Adil; Rhorfi, Ismail Abderrahmani; Abid, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Le tabagisme est une des principales causes de morbidité et de mortalité évitable. Le but de ce travail est d’évaluer les connaissances du fumeur vis-à-vis les risques du tabac et son motivation pour cesser de fumer. Nous avons réalisé une enquête transversale chez les malades tabagiques hospitalisés au service en répondant à un questionnaire précisant leur niveau socio-économique et culturel, l'histoire du tabagisme, les méfaits connus du tabac, la dépendance pharmacologique à la nicotine et leur motivation pour cesser de fumer. Il s'agit de 120 patients, l’âge moyen était de 45 ans±15. Les principaux motifs d'hospitalisation étaient: pathologie tumorale (54%), pathologie infectieuse (35%) BPCO (9%). 85% des patients étaient scolarisés jusqu'au cycle secondaire. Pour l'ensemble des patients, l’âge moyen de la première cigarette était précoce (avant de 20 ans) et la dépendance pharmacologique à la nicotine était légère (82% avaient un score de Fagerström < 8). Plus d'un tiers des patients (38%) avaient au moins fait une tentative d'arrêt. La connaissance des effets néfastes du tabac était variable: les pathologies cancéreuses (88%), les maladies cardiovasculaires (65%) et la BPCO (31%). La majorité des patients (78%) avaient cessé de fumer depuis l'hospitalisation. Notre enquête met en évidence l'intérêt de la médiatisation dans l'information de la population sur les risques du tabac. Les pneumologues, qui prennent en charge la grande majorité de ces patients, doivent donc s'impliquer activement dans ce domaine. PMID:25745534

  2. Framework for accident management

    Accident management is an essential element of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Integration Plan for the closure of severe accident issues. This element will consolidate the results from other key elements; such as the Individual Plant Examination (IPE), the Containment Performance Improvement, and the Severe Accident Research Programs, in a form that can be used to enhance the safety programs for nuclear power plants. The NRC is currently conducting an Accident Management Program that is intended to aid in defining the scope and attributes of an accident management program for nuclear power plants. The accident management plan will ensure that a plant specific program is developed and implemented to promote the most effective use of available utility resources (people and hardware) to prevent and mitigate severe accidents. Hardware changes or other plant modifications to reduce the frequency of severe accidents are not a central aim of this program. To accomplish the outlined objectives, the NRC has developed an accident management framework that is comprised of five elements: (1) accident management strategies, (2) training, (3) guidance and computational aids, (4) instrumentation, and (5) delineation of decision making responsibilities. A process for the development of an accident management program has been identified using these NRC framework elements

  3. Direction Committee for the management of the post-accident phase of a nuclear accident or of a radiological event (CODIRPA). Work group 'Hypotheses'. Contextual data and hypotheses to perform predictive assessments of radiological and dose consequences at the beginning of a post-accidental transition phase. 2007-2009 work report; Comite Directeur pour la gestion de la phase post-accidentelle d'un accident nucleaire ou d'une situation radiologique (CODIR-PA). Groupe de travail 'Hypotheses'. Donnees contextuelles et hypotheses pour mener les evaluations predictives des consequences radiologiques et dosimetriques en debut de phase de transition post-accidentelle. Rapport des travaux 2007-2009

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This report first describes how to examine the various exposure ways of a person present on a contaminated territory and formulates hypotheses for the calculation of radioactive doses received by ingestion of contaminated food products, by external irradiation, or by involuntary inhalation of radioactive particles. It identifies factors which may influence the contamination of food products, and gives recommendations for the predictive calculation of their contamination during the first month following the accident. It indicates available methods for the predictive assessment of radioactive deposits at the beginning of the transition phase. It proposes an expertise method to assess the post-accident consequences

  4. Published White House Internal Memos: Legal Transparency or Subtle Electoral Canvassing? La publication officielle des rapports internes de la Maison Blanche : transparence légale ou subtile stratégie électorale ?

    Mounir Triki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Dans quelle mesure la manipulation du « genre » est-elle une stratégie utile  à des fins pragmatiques ? Les rapports internes de la Maison Blanche et les décrets officiels présentent un intérêt d’analyse stimulant : celui de « l’affiliation générique ». D’un côté, ce sont des exemples de discours officiels, d’où leur vocabulaire légal. D’autre part, le fait qu’ils sont publiés et non tenus secrets signifie que le bureau de presse de la Maison Blanche y voit une utilité politique certaine en les rendant public, d’où la présence d’une coloration propagandiste subtile des messages. Afin d’illustrer ce « jeu générique », l’étude des rapports internes de G.W. Bush sur la politique des Indiens d’Amérique est au cœur de notre réflexion. Il est intéressant de noter que la période de publications de ces écrits coïncide curieusement avec des événements politiques de grande importance, servant ainsi des ambitions plus ou moins voilées.

  5. Framework for accident management

    A program is being conducted to establish those attributes of a severe accident management plan which are necessary to assure effective response to all credible severe accidents and to develop guidance for their incorporation in a plant's Accident Management Plan. This program is one part of the Accident Management Research Program being conducted by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The approach used in establishing attributes and developing guidance includes three steps. In the first step the general attributes of an accident management plan were identified based on: (1) the objectives established for the NRC accident management program, (2) the elements of an accident management framework identified by the NRC, and (3) a review of the processes used in developing the currently used approach for classifying and analyzing accidents. For the second step, a process was defined that uses the general attributes identified from the first step to develop an accident management plan. The third step applied the process defined in the second step at a nuclear power plant to refine and develop it into a benchmark accident management plan. Step one is completed, step two is underway and step three has not yet begun

  6. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Analyse et impact local d'un rapport d'expertise. : Le cas du rapport QUERRIEN. La prévention des risques professionnels dans le bâtiment.

    Guy, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    A travers l'analyse de l'impact local d'un rapport d'expertise, l'objectif de cette communication est de dégager des orientations méthodologiques en matière d'évaluation des dispositifs d'aide à la décision. Nos observations montrent que l'évaluation de l'impact d'un rapport d'expertise gagne à analyser en amont du rapport la prise de décision dans le système observé et la structure des rapports de force qui en assurent la dynamique ; en aval, à l'étude du système de diffusion du rapport et d...

  8. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  9. The Chernobyl accident consequences

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  10. Communication and industrial accidents

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the concept of role distance, which emphasizes the organizational characteristics. The general hypothesis is that communication failures are a main cause of role distance and accident-proneness within orga...

  11. Nuclear accidents and epidemiology

    A consultation on epidemiology related to the Chernobyl accident was held in Copenhagen in May 1987 as a basis for concerted action. This was followed by a joint IAEA/WHO workshop in Vienna, which reviewed appropriate methodologies for possible long-term effects of radiation following nuclear accidents. The reports of these two meetings are included in this volume, and cover the subjects: 1) Epidemiology related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident. 2) Appropriate methodologies for studying possible long-term effects of radiation on individuals exposed in a nuclear accident. Figs and tabs

  12. À l’ère de la transparence, la nomination des juges : un geste politique qui doit être à l’abri du fait partisan1

    Comeau, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    La désignation des juges ne peut se concevoir à l’extérieur du système politique. Le « judiciaire» fait partie intégrante du cadre qui structure le processus politique au sein de la société québécoise. La sélection des nouveaux juges doit faire appel à des mécanismes qui écartent l’influence du fait partisan. Elle suppose néanmoins une forme de collaboration entre le législatif et l’exécutif. Tout le processus de sélection des candidats doit être confié à un comité permanent qui respecte les ...

  13. Criticality accident in Argentina

    A recent criticality type accident, ocurred in Argetina, is commented. Considerations about the nature of the facility where this accident took place, its genesis, type of operation carried out on the day of the event, and the medical aspects involved are done. (Author)

  14. Chernobyl accident and Danmark

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  15. Radiation accidents in hospitals

    Some of the radiation accidents that have occurred in Indian hospitals and causes that led to them are reviewed. Proper organization of radiation safety minimizes such accidents. It has been pointed out that there must be technical competence and mental preparedness to tackle emergencies when they do infrequently occur. (M.G.B.)

  16. Communication and industrial accidents

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the conc

  17. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  18. Accidents with orphan sources

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has specifically defined statutory functions relating to the development of standards of safety and the provision for their application. It also has responsibilities placed on it by virtue of a number of Conventions, two of which are relevant to nuclear accidents or radiological emergencies - the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. An overview of the way in which these functions are being applied to prevent and respond to radiological accidents, particularly those involving orphan sources, is described in this paper. Summaries of a number of such accidents and of the Agency's Action Plan relating to the safety and security of radiation sources are given. (orig.)

  19. Accident report 1975/76

    The statistics previously published on the development of accidents were completed. It is the purpose of this accident report: 1) to present a survey of the development of the number of accidents (no radiation accidents) for the years 1960 - 1976, 2) to break down the accidents by different characteristics in order to be able to recognize the preventive measures to be taken so as to avoid further accidents, 3) to report about accidents experienced and to indicate activities performed with respect to accident prevention and health protection. (orig.)

  20. Wat blijft en wat verandert in het onderwijs (naar aanleiding van het rapport-Dijsselbloem)

    Thoomes, D.T.

    2008-01-01

    Wie de discussies naar aanleiding van het rapport-Dijsselbloem volgt, kan de indruk krijgen dat alle onderwijsvernieuwingen uit de afgelopen jaren fout zijn geweest en dat het onderwijs vóór die tijd veel beter was en dat het daarom het beste is om maar weer terug te keren naar de didactiek van vroeger.

  1. Security report on Siloe - the descriptive part. (1963); Rapport de surete de Siloe - partie descriptive (1963)

    Ageron, P.; Chatoux, J.; Denielou, G.; Jacquemain, M.; Mitault, G.; Robien, E. de; Rossillon, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    This report is a full description of the site, the reactor, the building and the experimental facilities. It gives the nuclear, thermodynamic and hydrodynamic characteristics of the core. (authors) [French] Ce rapport decrit completement le site, le reacteur, les batiments et les installations experimentales. Il donne les caracteristiques nucleaires, thermodynamiques et hydrodynamiques du coeur. (auteurs)

  2. Technisch rapport TR3 MP0.4 - Case study industriegebouw

    Pyl, Lincy; Lansival, Jean-Baptiste; Hanus, François

    2010-01-01

    Ce rapport décrit le calcul de la résistance au feu d'un hall industriel sous feu naturel et contient trois parties : l'évaluation de la distribution de température dans le compartiment, l'échauffement de la structure et sa stabilité.

  3. How to Establish Good Teacher-Pupil Rapport in the Classroom?

    李晶

    2015-01-01

    for the past few decades, the way to achieve good teacher-pupil rapport in the classroom has been at the center of heated debate all over the world. All teachers should provide a good studying environment for pupils. This paper will focus on four parts to discuss this issue.

  4. Saving Face: Managing Rapport in a Problem-Based Learning Group

    Robinson, Leslie; Harris, Ann; Burton, Rob

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the complex social aspects of communication required for students to participate effectively in Problem-Based Learning and explored how these dynamics are managed. The longitudinal study of a group of first-year undergraduates examined interactions using Rapport Management as a framework to analyse communication…

  5. Humor, Rapport, and Uncomfortable Moments in Interactions with Adults with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Kovarsky, Dana; Schiemer, Christine; Murray, Allison

    2011-01-01

    We examined uncomfortable moments that damaged rapport during group interactions between college students in training to become speech-language pathologists and adults with traumatic brain injury. The students worked as staff in a community-based program affiliated with a university training program that functioned as a recreational gathering…

  6. Database on aircraft accidents

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating

  7. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. PMID:20618386

  8. Management of severe accidents

    The definition and the multidimensionality aspects of accident management have been reviewed. The suggested elements in the development of a programme for severe accident management have been identified and discussed. The strategies concentrate on the two tiered approaches. Operative management utilizes the plant's equipment and operators capabilities. The recovery managment concevtrates on preserving the containment, or delaying its failure, inhibiting the release, and on strategies once there has been a release. The inspiration for this paper was an excellent overview report on perspectives on managing severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants and extending plant operating procedures into the severe accident regime; and by the most recent publication of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) considering the question of risk reduction and source term reduction through accident prevention, management and mitigation. The latter document concludes that 'active development of accident management measures by plant personnel can lead to very large reductions in source terms and risk', and goes further in considering and formulating the key issue: 'The most fruitful path to follow in reducing risk even further is through the planning of accident management.' (author)

  9. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  10. Accidents, risks and consequences

    Although the accident at Chernobyl can be considered as the worst accident in the world, it could have been worse. Other far worse situations are considered, such as a nuclear weapon hitting a nuclear reactor. Indeed the accident at Chernobyl is compared to a nuclear weapon. The consequences of Chernobyl in terms of radiation levels are discussed. Although it is believed that a similar accident could not occur in the United Kingdom, that possibility is considered. It is suggested that emergency plans should be made for just such an eventuality. Even if Chernobyl could not happen in the UK, the effects of accidents are international. The way in which nuclear reactor accidents happen is explored, taking the 1957 Windscale fire, Three Mile Island and Chernobyl as examples. Reactor designs and accident scenarios are considered. The different reactor designs are listed. As well as the Chernobyl RBMK design it is suggested that the light water reactors also have undesirable features from the point of view of safety. (U.K.)

  11. Soviet submarine accidents

    Although the Soviet Union has more submarines than the NATO navies combined, and the technological superiority of western submarines is diminishing, there is evidence that there are more accidents with Soviet submarines than with western submarine fleets. Whether this is due to inadequate crews or lower standards of maintenance and overhaul procedures is discussed. In particular, it is suggested that since the introduction of nuclear powered submarines, the Soviet submarine safety record has deteriorated. Information on Soviet submarine accidents is difficult to come by, but a list of some 23 accidents, mostly in nuclear submarines, between 1966 and 1986, has been compiled. The approximate date, class or type of submarine, the nature and location of the accident, the casualties and damage and the source of information are tabulated. (U.K.)

  12. Accident resistant transport container

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  13. Boating Accident Statistics

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  14. Talking about accidents

    It is argued that the public's emotional fear of the hypothetical, very unlikely, gigantic nuclear accident is partly caused by the nuclear industry's incorrect use of language within its own professional discussions. Improved terminology is suggested. (U.K.)

  15. FATAL ACCIDENT REPORTING SYSTEM (FARS)

    The Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) database consist of three relational tables, containing data on automobile accidents on public U.S. roads that resulted in the death of one or more people within 30 days of the accident. Truck and trailer accidents are also included.

  16. The Chernobyl accident

    In connection with the Chernobyl accident the report gives a description of the technical features of importance to the accident, the course of events, and the estimated health hazards in the local environment. Dissimilarities in western and Sovjet reactor safety philosophy are dealt with, as well as conceivable concequences in relation to technology and research in western nuclear power programmes. Results of activity level measurements of air and foodstuff, made in Norway by Institute for Energy Technology, are given

  17. Accident and emergency management

    There is an increasing potential for severe accidents as the industrial development tends towards large, centralised production units. In several industries this has led to the formation of large organisations which are prepared for accidents fighting and for emergency management. The functioning of these organisations critically depends upon efficient decision making and exchange of information. This project is aimed at securing and possibly improving the functionality and efficiency of the accident and emergency management by verifying, demonstrating, and validating the possible use of advanced information technology in the organisations mentioned above. With the nuclear industry in focus the project consists of five main activities: 1) The study and detailed analysis of accident and emergency scenarios based on records from incidents and rills in nuclear installations. 2) Development of a conceptual understanding of accident and emergency management with emphasis on distributed decision making, information flow, and control structure sthat are involved. 3) Development of a general experimental methodology for evaluating the effects of different kinds of decision aids and forms of organisation for emergency management systems with distributed decision making. 4) Development and test of a prototype system for a limited part of an accident and emergency organisation to demonstrate the potential use of computer and communication systems, data-base and knowledge base technology, and applications of expert systems and methods used in artificial intelligence. 5) Production of guidelines for the introduction of advanced information technology in the organisations based on evaluation and validation of the prototype system. (author)

  18. Accident management information needs

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Historical aspects of radiation accidents

    Radiation accidents are extremely rare events; however, the last two years have witnessed the largest radiation accidents in both the eastern and western hemispheres. It is the purpose of this chapter to review how radiation accidents are categorized, examine the temporal changes in frequency and severity, give illustrative examples of several types of radiation accidents, and finally, to describe the various registries for radiation accidents

  20. Cyclical Fluctuations in Workplace Accidents

    Boone, J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    This Paper presents a theory and an empirical investigation on cyclical fluctuations in workplace accidents. The theory is based on the idea that reporting an accident dents the reputation of a worker and raises the probability that he is fired. Therefore a country with a high or an increasing unemployment rate has a low (reported) workplace accident rate. The empirical investigation concerns workplace accidents in OECD countries. The analysis confirms that workplace accident rates are invers...

  1. Scientific and Technical Report, 1997; Rapport scientifique et technique, 1997

    Metivier, Henri; Mur, Emmanuelle [eds.] [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1998-07-01

    This report highlights the most significant scientific and technical achievements of the Institute of Nuclear Protection and Safety in 1997. In all 23 reports are grouped in the following 7 sections: 1.Reactor safety; 2.Safety of nuclear facility; 3.Safeguards for radioactive materials and transports; 4.Public protection; 5.Environment protection; 6.Radioactive waste safety; 7.Crisis management. Special attention is paid to the pressurized water and fast neutron reactors and, accordingly, the program PHEBUS PF and the first results obtained with it concerning nuclear safety are reported. The safety of nuclear fuel cycle and spent fuel storage is addressed in a couple of reports, as well as the problem of inspection, measurement and containers for nuclear materials. Concerning the public and environment protection, studies are reported on medical surveillance of people working with CEA Group, and clinical dosimetric follow-up of radiological events as well as the strategy of contaminated site rehabilitation. In the field of radioactive waste management, the IPSN project of Tournemire tunnel and the project of deep disposal are presented. Finally, the issue of major nuclear accidents is approached through the exercise Becquerel, the SESAME system of predicting the radioactive products release in PWR reactors and ASTRAL, the evaluation system of aftermath of an accidental environmental contamination by radioactive release. Each section of this IPSN report is opened by a review paper.

  2. [Psychogenesis of accidents].

    Giannattasio, E; Nencini, R; Nicolosi, N

    1988-01-01

    After having carried out a historical review of industrial psychology with specific attention to the evolution of the concept of causality in accidents, the Authors formulate their work hypothesis from that research which take into highest consideration the executives' attitudes in the genesis of the accidents. As dogmatism appears to be one of the most negative of executives' attitudes, the Authors administered Rockeach's Scale to 130 intermediate executives from 6 industries in Latium and observed the frequency index for accidents and the morbidity index (absenteeism) of the 2149 workhand. The Authors assumed that to high degree of dogmatism on the executives' side should correspond o a higher level of accidents and absenteeism among the staff. The data processing revealed that, due to the type of machinery employed, three of the industries examined should be considered as High Risk Industrie (HRI), while the remaining three could be considered as Low Risk Industries (LRI): in fact, due to the different working conditions, a significant lower number of accidents occurred in last the three. A statistically significant correlation between the executives' dogmatism and the number of accidents among their workhand in the HRI has been noticed, while this has not been observed in the LRI. This confirms, as had already been pointed out by Gemelli in 1944, that some "objective conditions" are requested so that the accident may actually take place. On the other hand the morbidity index has not shown any difference related to the different kind of industries (HRI, LRI): in both cases statistically significant correlations were obtained between the executives' dogmatism and the staff's absenteeism. absenteeism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3154344

  3. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  4. Accidents in nuclear ships

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10-3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  5. Femicidio: la forma più estrema di violenza contro le donne / Fémicide : la forme la plus extrême de violence faite aux femmes / Femicide: the most extreme form of violence against women

    Karadole Cristina

    2012-04-01

    the victims and, especially, the clear links between this crime and violence against women. Le fémicide, comme forme extrême de violence faite aux femmes, est un phénomène encore méconnu car il existe encore peu d’études sur le sujet en Italie. À l’issue d’une revue de la littérature criminologique et féministe internationale, cet article vise à définir le concept de « fémicide » et ses différentes déclinaisons dans la recherche scientifique et dans la lutte politique féministe. Le texte met en évidence la particularité de ce délit, qui doit être considéré différemment par rapport aux autres formes d’homicides. En effet, il s’agit d’un crime qui découle de la relation de pouvoir entre les hommes et les femmes ; le fémicide est l'acte final du cycle de la violence masculine contre les femmes, dont il représente le point culminant. Contrairement au sens commun et à la représentation médiatique et comme cet essai tente de le démontrer, le fémicide n’existe pas dans les cultures autres qu’occidentales, pas plus qu’il n’est particulièrement rattaché aux situations de difficulté sociale ou de marginalité culturelle, mais il s'inscrit, en tant que violence à l’égard des femmes, dans des rapports « normaux » et dans le conflit homme/femme. Cela signifie que des situations considérées comme « sûres » peuvent pourtant comporter des facteurs de risque d’être victimes de fémicide pour les femmes concernées. En effet, les fémicides peuvent intervenir chez soi ou au domicile de la famille, dans une relation conjugale comme pour des couples non mariés.Ensuite, l’auteur analyse aussi bien les premières études sociologiques et criminologiques italiennes que des données sur le phénomène. La seconde partie de ce texte est dédiée à la lecture des informations tirées d’une étude sur les articles de presse menée par le Groupe d'études sur le fémicide de l'association bolognaise contre la violence

  6. Scoping accident(s) for emergency planning

    At the request of the Conference of State Radiation Control Program Director's (CRCPD), in November 1976 the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission formed a joint Task Force with representatives of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to answer a number of questions posed by the States regarding emergency planning. This Task Force held monthly meetings through November 1977. In December 1977 a draft report was prepared for limited distribution for review and comment by selected State and local organizations. The NRC/EPA Task Force deliberations centered on the CRCPD request for '... a determination of the most severe accident basis for which radiological emergency response plans should be developed by offsite agencies...' in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. Federal Interagency guidance to the States in this regard has been that the scoping accident should be the most serious conservatively analyzed accident considered for siting purposes, as exemplified in the Commission's Regulations at 10 CFR Part 100 and the NRC staffs Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4, and as presented in license applicant's Safety Analysis Reports and the USNRC Staffs Safety Evaluation Reports. The draft report of the Task Force amplifies on this recommendation: to present a clearer picture of its import and introduces the concept of protective action zones (PAZs) within which detailed emergency plans should be developed; one zone for the plume exposure pathway and a second, larger zone for contamination pathways. The time dependence of potential releases and atmospheric transport, and important radionuclide groups of possible import are also discussed in the draft Task Force report. A status report regarding this effort, as of June 1978, will be presented. (author)

  7. Training in Compensatory Strategies Enhances Rapport in Interactions Involving People with Möbius Syndrome

    Michael, John; Bogart, Kathleen; Tylén, Kristian;

    2015-01-01

    in participants with and without MS, while overall linguistic alignment decreased. Fidgeting and repetitiveness of verbal behavior also decreased in both groups. In sum, the intervention may impact nonverbal and verbal behavior in participants with and without MS, increasing rapport as well as overall gesturing......In the exploratory study reported here, we tested the efficacy of an intervention designed to train teenagers with Möbius Syndrome (MS) to increase the use of alternative communication strategies (e.g. gestures) to compensate for their lack of facial expressivity. Specifically, we expected......, and with three different naïve participants without MS after the intervention. Rapport was assessed by self-report and by behavioral coders who rated videos of the interactions. Individual nonverbal behavior was assessed via behavioral coders, while verbal behavior was automatically extracted from the sound...

  8. Etude en laboratoire de l’effet du rapport de surconsolidation sur le comportement non drainé des sols. Laboratory study of overconsolidated ratio of the undrained soil behavior.

    Khelafi H.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, on présente une étude en laboratoire de l’influence du rapport de surconsolidation sur le comportement non drainé d’un sable limoneux. L’étude est basée sur des essais triaxiaux non drainés qui ont été réalisés pour des rapports de surconsolidation (OCR = 1, 2, 4 et 8 , à des fractions de fines particules du mélange variant entre 0% et 40% .Les essais ont été effectués sur des échantillons ayant une densité initiale Dr =50 %. L’article est scindé en deux parties principales. La première partie présente les sols étudiés ; la seconde partie donne une analyse des essais réalisés et discute de l’influence du rapport de surconsolidation sur la résistance du sol. Les essais montrent que l’augmentation du rapport de surconsolidation (OCR fait croître d’une manière considérable la résistance du sol se traduisant par une augmentation de la dilatance. L’augmentation de la fraction des fines ( Fc de 0 à 40 % augmente la phase de la contractance et par consequent reduit la phase de dilatance du sol étudié. Une décroissance de l’angle de frottement φ° est due a une forte teneur en fine (Fc =40% et à OCR = 1 ( sol normalement consolidé. In this paper, we present a laboratory study of the influence of overconsolidation ratio on the undrained behavior of silty sand. This study is based on the undrained triaxial tests which were performed for the overconsolidation ratio at OCR = 1, 2, 4 and 8, with fractions of fines of mixture varying between 0 % and 40 %. Tests were carried out on samples with an relative density Dr= 50% and confinement pressure σ’c = 100 kPa . The article is divided into two main parts. The first one presents the soils studied and the second one gives an analysis of the results and discusses the influence of overconsolidation ratio on the shear strength of the soil. The tests show that the shear strength of the soil increases with increasing overconsolidation ratio

  9. Important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident

    After the Fukushima accident several investigation committees issued reports with lessons learned from the accident in Japan. Among those lessons, several recommendations have been made on severe accident research. Similar to the EURSAFE efforts under EU Program, review of specific severe accident research items was started before Fukushima accident in working group of Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) in terms of significance of consequences, uncertainties of phenomena and maturity of assessment methodology. Re-investigation has been started since the Fukushima accident. Additional effects of Fukushima accident, such as core degradation behaviors, sea water injection, containment failure/leakage and re-criticality have been covered. The review results are categorized in ten major fields; core degradation behavior, core melt coolability/retention in containment vessel, function of containment vessel, source term, hydrogen behavior, fuel-coolant interaction, molten core concrete interaction, direct containment heating, recriticality and instrumentation in severe accident conditions. Based on these activities and also author's personal view, the present paper describes the perspective of important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident. Those are specifically investigation of damaged core and components, advanced severe accident analysis capabilities and associated experimental investigations, development of reliable passive cooling system for core/containment, analysis of hydrogen behavior and investigation of hydrogen measures, enhancement of removal function of radioactive materials of containment venting, advanced instrumentation for the diagnosis of severe accident and assessment of advanced containment design which excludes long-term evacuation in any severe accident situations. (author)

  10. Report of Activity, 1997; Rapport d'activite, 1997

    Lacoste, Andre-Claude; Livolant, Michel [eds.] [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1998-07-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Protection and Safety (Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire) - IPSN carries out research and expert studies needed in managing nuclear risk and consequences of nuclear events on population and environment, i.e. supervises the safety of installations, the prevention and study of accidents, the human health and environmental conditions, the safety of transport and has also the task of organizing the management of the crisis situations. IPSN has the mission of informing the public and participates in numerous international actions. Thus, since 1989 IPSN and its German counterpart, GRS, co-operate towards improving of the nuclear safety in Europe and developing a common approach of international issues. As acting for public authorities (government departments in charge with industry, environment, health or labor), IPSN grants technical authorizations on request of DSIN exploiters. The IPSN personnel amounts up to 1300 employees of whom around two thirds are engineers, researchers, physicians, agronomists, and veterinarians. This IPSN annual report contains in the 'Free Tribune' section two general papers entitled: 'The federalist role of research at IPSN' by Catherine Lecompte and 'The dose, a central issue in radioprotection debates' by Annie Sugier. Then five sub-reports follow: 1.The safety of nuclear facilities and radioactive wastes; 2.Crisis management; 3. The management of sensitive materials (protection and control of sensitive materials and safety analysis of the radioactive materials transport); 4.Protection of human health; 5.Environment protection. The report also presents the international activities, the cooperation IPSN/GRS, the budget, the staff and the human resource policy and the communication activity.

  11. Methodological Issues Related to the Rapport and Data Collection while Qualitative Researches in Special Andragogy Areas

    Borowska-Beszta, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research on the disability cultures and environments that support or perform lifelong education of adults with disabilities in Poland are carried out intensively since the late 90s of the twentieth century. This paper clarifies the dilemmas and delicate issues while the rapport process of qualitative research and associated with collection of the data on socially vulnerable groups, disability cultures and adults with intellectual mental, physical disabilities or psychiatr...

  12. Le rapport Sicard: une étape au milieu du gué

    Jacquemin, Dominique; Mallet, Donatien

    2013-01-01

    Le rapport Sicard de décembre 2012, outre la reprise d'une insuffisance prise en charge de la fin de vie et du développement des soins palliatifs, ouvre à une "solution à la fran,çaise" de gestion de la fin de vie. Suicide assisté et sédation terminale se trouvent questionnés par les auteurs.

  13. Høringssvar over rapport om revision af kørelæreruddannelsen

    Møller, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Et udvalg nedsat under Justitsministeriet har afgivet rapport, hvori det foreslås, at der stilles skærpede krav for at opnå godkendelse som kørelærer samt stilles krav om obligatorisk efteruddannelse. Rapporten sendes nu i høring med henblik på at kunne danne grundlag for fremsættelse af et...

  14. Om SIDAs rapport: "Towards an urban world - urbanization and development assistance"

    Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen

    Byerne i ulandene har et dårligt ry. De er centre for prostitution, kriminalitet og arbejdsløshed. Befolkningerne lever i armod i elendige endeløse slumområder uden udsigt til forbedrede levevilkår. Byernes infrastruktur er mangelfuld, nedslidt og fungere stort set kun i de nedarvede koloniale de...... udkommet rapport: Towards an Urban World af den svenske bistandsorganisation Sida.   Udgivelsesdato: 1996...

  15. Helicopter accident survivability.

    Vyrnwy-Jones, P; Thornton, R

    1984-10-01

    Army Air Corps accident and fatality rates have now reached levels which compare favourably with data from other civilian and military sources. This improvement is the result of enhanced helicopter design and parallel progress in aircrew training. The introduction of new generations of turbine powered rotor craft has largely eliminated mechanical failure as the cause of accident. As a result 75% of Army Air Corps accidents are due to pilot error. This contribution is likely to increase in the future as the pilot's task is made more difficult by the incumberance of personal equipment. Methods whereby occupant protection and aircraft crashworthiness can be improved are reviewed and it is concluded that it would make sound economic sense to implement some of these well proven design features. PMID:6527344

  16. Information at radiation accidents

    This study was undertaken in order to plan an information strategy for possible future accidents involving radioactivity. Six health visitors and six farmers working in the districts of Norway which received the largest amounts of fallout from the Chernobyl accident, were interviewed. The questions were intended to give an indication of their knowledge about radioactivity and radiation, as well as their needs for information in case of a future accident. The results indicate a relatively low educational background in radiation physics and risk estimation. On the other hand the two groups showed a remarkable skill and interest in doing their own evaluation on the background of information that was linked to their daily life. It is suggested that planning of information in this field is done in close cooperation with the potential users of the information

  17. Radiation accidents and dosimetry

    On September 2nd 1982 one of the employees of the gamma-irradiation facility at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway entered the irradiation cell with a 65.7 kCi *sp60*Co- source in unshielded position. The victim received an unknown radiation dose and died after 13 days. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy, the radiation dose in this accident was subsequently determined based on the production of longlived free radicals in nitroglycerol tablets borne by the operator during the accident. He used nitroglycerol for heart problems and free radical are easily formed and trapped in sugar which is the main component of the tablets. Calibration experiments were carried out and the dose given to the tablets during the accident was determined to 37.2 +- 0.5 Gy. The general use of free radicals for dose determinations is discussed. (Auth.)

  18. Big nuclear accidents

    Much of the debate on the safety of nuclear power focuses on the large number of fatalities that could, in theory, be caused by extremely unlikely but imaginable reactor accidents. This, along with the nuclear industry's inappropriate use of vocabulary during public debate, has given the general public a distorted impression of the safety of nuclear power. The way in which the probability and consequences of big nuclear accidents have been presented in the past is reviewed and recommendations for the future are made including the presentation of the long-term consequences of such accidents in terms of 'reduction in life expectancy', 'increased chance of fatal cancer' and the equivalent pattern of compulsory cigarette smoking. (author)

  19. The management of accidents

    R. B. Ward

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This author’s experiences in investigating well over a hundred accident occurrences has led to questioning how such events can be managed - - - while immediately recognising that the idea of managing accidents is an oxymoron, we don’t want to manage them, we don’t want not to manage them, what we desire is not to have to manage not-them, that is, manage matters so they don’t happen and then we don’t have to manage the consequences.Design/methodology/approach: The research will begin by defining some common classes of accidents in manufacturing industry, with examples taken from cases investigated, and by working backwards (too late, of course show how those involved could have managed these sample events so they didn’t happen, finishing with the question whether any of that can be applied to other situations.Findings: As shown that the management actions needed to prevent accidents are control of design and application of technology, and control and integration of people.Research limitations/implications: This paper has shown in some of the examples provided, management actions have been know to lead to accidents being committed by others, lower in the organization.Originality/value: Today’s management activities involve, generally, the use of technology in many forms, varying from simple tools (such as knives to the use of heavy equipment, electric power, and explosives. Against these we commit, in control of those items, the comparatively frail human mind and body, which, again generally, does succeed in controlling these resources, with (another generality by appropriate management. However, sometimes the control slips and an accident occurs.

  20. Mortal radiological accident

    After defining the concept of 'Radiological accident', statistical data from Radiation Emergency Assistance Center of ORNL (United States of America) are given about the deaths caused by acute irradiation between 1944 and April 24, 1986 -ie, the day before Chernobyl nuclear accident- as well as on the number of deaths caused by the latter. Next the different clinical stages of the Acute Irradiation Syndrome (AIS) as well as its possible treatment are described, and finally the different physical, clinical and biological characteristics linked to the AIS and to its diagnosis and prognosis are discussed. (M.E.L.)

  1. The TMI-2 accident

    A critical study about the technical and man-related facts in order to establish what is considered the worst commercial nuclear power accident until 1986. Radiological consequences and stress to the public are considered in contrast to antinuclear groups. This descriptive and technical study has the purpose to document written and oral opinions obtained abroad and then explain to the public in an easy language terminology. Preliminary study describing safety related systems fails and the accident itself with minute to minute description, conduct to the consequences and then, to learned lessons

  2. Description of the accident

    The TMI-2 accident occurred in March 1979. The accident started with a simple and fairly common steam power plant failure--loss of feedwater to the steam generators. Because of a combination of design, training, regulatory policies, mechanical failures and human error, the accident progressed to the point where it eventually produced the worst known core damage in large nuclear power reactors. Core temperatures locally reached UO2 fuel liquefaction (metallic solution with Zr) and even fuel melt (3800-51000F). Extensive fission product release and Zircaloy cladding oxidation and embrittlement occurred. At least the upper 1/2 of the core fractured and crumbled upon quenching. The lower central portion of the core apparently had a delayed heatup and then portions of it collapsed into the reactor vessel lower head. The lower outer portion of the core may be relatively undamaged. Outside of the core boundary, only those steel components directly above and adjacent to the core (≤1 foot) are known to have suffered significant damage (localized oxidation and melting). Other portions of the primary system outside of the reactor vessel apparently had little chance of damage or even notable overheating. The demonstrated coolability of the severely damaged TMI-2 core, once adequate water injection began, was one of the most substantial and important results of the TMI-2 accident

  3. Fifteen years after accident

    This book is devoted to 15th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. Four problems have been reflected in the book: contamination of territories of Western Europe, Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation by cesium-137; plutonium, americium and other actinides on territory of Belarus; problems of radioactive wastes management of Chernobyl origin; influence of various factors on oncology morbidity in the Republic of Belarus

  4. Measures against nuclear accidents

    A select committee appointed by the Norwegian Ministry of Social Affairs put forward proposals concerning measures for the improvement of radiation protection preparedness in Norway. On the basis on an assessment of the potential radiation accident threat, the report examines the process of response, and identifies the organizational and management factors that influence that process

  5. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP)

  6. Lessons learned from accident investigations

    Accidents in three main practices - medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators - are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned from them. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the accidents described are approached bearing in mind: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  7. Lessons learned from accidents investigations

    Accidents from three main practices: medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the described accidents are approached by subjects covering: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  8. Road Traffic Accidents in Kazakhstan

    Alma Aubakirova; Alibek Kossumov; Nurbek Igissinov

    2013-01-01

    Background: The article provides the analysis of death rates in road traffic accidents in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2010 and explores the use of sanitary aviation. Methods: Data of fatalities caused by road traffic accidents were collected and analysed. Descriptive and analytical methods of epidemiology and biomedical statistics were applied. Results: Totaly 27,003 people died as a result of road traffic accidents in this period. The death rate for the total population due to road traffic accid...

  9. The Chernobyl accident

    The accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the most severe in the nuclear industry. The accident caused the rapid death of 31 power plant employees and firemen, mainly from acute radiation exposures and burns, and brought about the evacuation of 116,000 people within a few weeks. In addition, about half a million workers and four million members of the public have been exposed, to some extent, to radiation doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident. A large number of radiation measurements have been made since the accident in order to reconstruct the doses received by the most exposed populations. On the basis of currently available information, it appears that: (1) average doses received by clean-up workers from external irradiation decreased with time, being about 300 mGy for the persons who worked in the first three months after the accident, about 170 mGy for the remainder of 1986, 130 mGy in 1987, 30 mGy in 1988, and 15 mGy in 1989; (2) the evacuees received, before evacuation, effective doses averaging 11 mSv for the population of Pripyat, and 18 mSv for the remainder of the population of the 30 km zone, with maximum effective doses ranging up to 380 mSv; and (3) among the populations living in contaminated areas, the highest doses were those delivered to the thyroids of children. Thyroid doses derived from thyroid measurements among Belarussian and Ukrainian children indicate median thyroid doses of about 300 mGy, and more than 1% of the children with thyroid doses in excess of 5000 mGy. A description is provided of the epidemiological studies that the National Cancer Institute has, since 1990, at the request of the Department of Energy, endeavoured to undertake, in cooperation with Belarus and Ukraine, on two possible health effects resulting from the Chernobyl accident: (1, thyroid cancer in children living in contaminated areas during the first few weeks following the accident, and (2) leukaemia among workers involved in clean

  10. The psychology of nuclear accidents

    Incidents involving nuclear weapons are described, as well as the accident to the Three Mile Island-2 reactor. Methods of assessment of risks are discussed, with particular reference to subjective judgements and the possible role of human error in civil nuclear accidents. Accidents or misunderstandings in communication or human actions which might lead to nuclear war are also discussed. (U.K.)

  11. Radiological accidents balance in medicine

    This work deals with the radiological accidents in medicine. In medicine, the radiation accidents on medical personnel and patients can be the result of over dosage and bad focusing of radiotherapy sealed sources. Sometimes, the accidents, if they are unknown during a time enough for the source to be spread and to expose a lot of persons (in the case of source dismantling for instance) can take considerable dimensions. Others accidents can come from bad handling of linear accelerators and from radionuclide kinetics in some therapies. Some examples of accidents are given. (O.L.). 11 refs

  12. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be...... initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... identified during a total of 31 140 years at sea. Among these, 209 accidents resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. The mean risk of having an occupational accident was 6.4/100 years at sea and the risk of an accident causing a permanent disability of 5% or more was 0.67/100 years...

  13. Chernobyl reactor accident

    On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described

  14. The ultimate nuclear accident

    The estimated energy equivalent of Chernobyl explosion was the 1/150 th of the explosive energy equivalent of atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima; while the devastation that could be caused by the world's stock pile of nuclear weapons, could be equivalent to 160 millions of Chernobyl-like incidents. As known, the number of nuclear weapons is over 50,000 and 2000 nuclear weapons are sufficient to destroy the world. The Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been blamed on human factors but also the human element, particularly in the form of psychological stresses on those operating the nuclear weapons, could accidentally bring the world to a nuclear catastrophe. This opinion is encouraged by the London's Sunday Times magazine which gave a graphic description of life inside a nuclear submarine. So, to speak of nuclear reactor accidents and not of nuclear weapons is false security. (author)

  15. Nuclear ship accidents

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  16. Reactor accidents in perspective

    In each of the three major reactor accidents which have led to significant releases to the environment, and discussed in outline in this note, the reactor has been essentially destroyed - certainly Windscale and Chernobyl reactors will never operate and the cleanup operation for Three Mile Island is currently estimated to have cost in excess of US Pound 500 000 000. In each of the accidents there has not been any fatality off site in the short term and any long-term health detriment is unlikely to be seen in comparison with the natural cancer incidence rate. At Chernobyl, early fatalities did occur amongst those concerned with fighting the incident on site and late effects are to be expected. The assumption of a linear non-threshold risk, and hence no level of zero risk is the main problem in communication with the public, and the author calls for simplification of the presentation of the concepts of radiological protection. (U.K.)

  17. The Chernobylsk reactor accident

    The construction, the safety philosophy, the major reactor physical parameters of RBMK-1000 type reactor units and the detailed description of the Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident, its causes and conclusions, the efforts to reduce the consequences on the reactor site and in the surroundings are discussed based on different types of Soviet documents including the report presented to the IAEA by the Soviet Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986. (V.N.)

  18. Ship accident studies

    This paper summarizes ship accident studies performed by George G. Sharp, Inc. for the U.S. Maritime Administration in connection with the Nuclear Ship Project. Casualties studied include fires/explosions, groundings and collisions for which a method for calculating probability on a specific route was developed jointly with the Babcock and Wilcox Co. Casualty data source was the Liverpool's Underwriters Association Casualty Returns

  19. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

  20. Accident Monitoring Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    In the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the instrumentation provided for accident monitoring proved to be ineffective for a combination of reasons. The accident has highlighted the need to re-examine criteria for accident monitoring instrumentation. This publication covers all relevant aspects of accident monitoring in NPPs. The critical issues discussed reflect the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident, involve accident management and accident monitoring strategies for nuclear power plants, selection of plant parameters for monitoring plant status, establishment of performance, design, qualification, display, and quality assurance criteria for designated accident monitoring instrumentation, and design and implementation considerations. Technology needs and techniques for accident monitoring instrumentation are also addressed

  1. Discours RSE, la réalité sociale décalée " Du rapport de développement durable au rapport CHSCT : tension sur l'expertise sociale dans l'entreprise

    Bodet, Catherine; Lamarche, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Les auteurs interprètent la RSE au regard de l'évolution du rapport salarial et des rapports de pouvoir hors et dans l'entreprise. Ils constatent que la RSE ignore les pénibilités et les souffrances issues des transformations récentes du travail, liées aux nouvelles formes de concurrence. La finance de marché et l'environnement s'imposent désormais aux directions des grands groupes. La RSE est donc présente dans le nouveau compromis institutionnalisé. Contrairement au bilan social, la RSE n'e...

  2. Barrages de tufs calcaires et cascades dans le Centre-Var : rapport avec les eaux des sources karstiques, historique et déclin actuel

    Jean Nicod

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dans les vallées de l'intérieur de la Provence, de grandes accumulations de tufs et de travertins sont liées aux sources karstiques importantes. En rapport avec l'évolution géomorphologique, les travertins anciens forment des balcons et des terrasses. La période récente de grande construction travertineuse débute souvent au Préboréal et se généralise dans l'Atlantique. Au cours du Néolithique final, cette sédimentation décroît en fonction de la détérioration climatique et de la déforestation liée à la pression anthropique. Cependant quelques barrages (dômes stromatolitiques et marais, avec dépôts de tourbes, persistent jusqu'à l'âge historique. Dans le Centre-Var, les dépôts de tufs restent actifs dans quelques sites refuges, dans les hautes vallées forestières, proches des sources karstiques, et sur quelques grandes cascades. De plus, le long des rivières, des cascades à tufs sont issues des aménagements de moulins et de canaux d'irrigation.La sédimentation des tufs dépend de nombreux facteurs en interaction, dont :- la minéralisation carbonatée des eaux des sources karstiques,- le régime hydrologique saisonnier,- l'écosystème régional et local (forêts, ripisylves,- le biotope algo-bryophytique.De nos jours, la sédimentation stromatolitique est en situation critique du fait de l'impact de multiples facteurs en rapport avec l'accroissement de l'urbanisation et les changements environnementaux :- pollution, accroissement de la turbidité sur les petits affluents résultant de l'agriculture mécanisée,- diminution drastique des débits dans les saisons de printemps-été, où l'activité algo-bryophytique est la plus favorable, du fait de l'augmentation générale des prélèvements.La période de sécheresse récente (2006-2008 a accentué ces impacts sur les barrages de tufs. Et la protection de ces sites de grand intérêt environnemental et patrimonial pose des problèmes complexes.In the

  3. Rapport de Stage : BTS Comptabilité et Gestion des Organisations

    Bouvier, M.

    2014-01-01

    An internship report in the Financial Sector from IRSTEA Lyon-Villeurbanne. Description of the institute, the accounting system, the computer system and the tasks executed. Graphic distribution of costs and incomes for 2013. / Un rapport de stage au sein du Pôle Finance du centre de Lyon-Villeurbanne. Description de l'institut, du système comptable, du système informatique et des tâches réalisées. Graphiques de la répartition des dépenses et des recettes pour 2013.

  4. Maîtrise technique de la production de poissons lagonaires Rapport 2008 et annexes

    Maamaatuaiahutapu, Moana; Joufoques, Vaiana; Tamata, Thiery; Dupieux, Sylvain; Teissier, Alexandre; Rarahu, David; Remoissenet, Georges; Gasset, Eric; Knockaert, Camille; Gueguen, Yannick; Coves, Denis

    2008-01-01

    Ce rapport traite de la poursuite de l’acquisition de connaissances, du début du transfert vers le secteur privé et des futurs travaux sur de l’élevage du Paraha peue (Platax orbicularis). Acquisition de connaissances porte sur (i) Grossissement en cages en fonction du site d’élevage, tests de produits immuno-stimulants, définition de traitements anti-parasitaires, mise au point des méthodes de transport d’alevins et la mise en cages précoces d’animaux de 1 g pour le transport par voie a...

  5. Accidents and human factors

    When the TMI accident occurred it was 4 a.m., an hour when the error potential of the operators would have been very high. The frequency of car and train accidents in Japan is also highest between 4 a.m. and 6 a.m. The error potential may be classified into five phases corresponding to the electroencephalogramic pattern (EEG). At phase 0, when the delta wave appears, a person is unconscious and in deep sleep; at phase I, when the theta wave appears, he is very tired, sleepy and subnormal; at phase II, when the alpha wave appears, he is normal, relaxed and passive; at phase III, when the beta wave appears, he is normal, clear-minded and active; at phase IV, when the strong beta or epileptic wave appears, he is hypernormal, excited and incapable of normal judgement. Should an accident occur at phase II, the brain condition may jump to phase IV. At this phase the error or accident potential is maximum. The response of the human brain to different types of noises and signals may vary somewhat for different individuals and for different groups of people. Therefore, the possibility that such differences in brain functions may influence the mental structure would be worthy of consideration in human factors and in the design of man-machine systems. Human reliability and performance would be affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it would be important to develop a theory by which both non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measure is considered a special case of fuzzy measure. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. To minimize human error and the possibility of accidents, new safety systems should not only back up man and make up for his

  6. Radiation accident/disaster

    Described are the course of medical measures following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) Accident after the quake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) and the future task for radiation accident/disaster. By the first hydrogen explosion in FNPP (Mar. 12), evacuation of residents within 20 km zone was instructed, and the primary base for measures of nuclear disaster (Off-site Center) 5 km afar from FNPP had to work as a front base because of damage of communicating ways, of saving of injured persons and of elevation of dose. On Mar. 13, the medical arrangement council consisting from stuff of Fukushima Medical University (FMU), National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Safety Research Association and Prefectural officers was setup in residents' hall of Fukushima City, and worked for correspondence to persons injured or exposed, where communication about radiation and between related organizations was still poor. The Off-site Center's head section moved to Prefectural Office on Mar. 15 as headquarters. Early in the period, all residents evacuated from the 20 km zone, and in-hospital patients and nursed elderly were transported with vehicles, >50 persons of whom reportedly died mainly by their base diseases. The nation system of medicare for emergent exposure had consisted from the network of the primary to third facilities; there were 5 facilities in the Prefecture, 3 of which were localized at 4-9 km distance from FNPP and closed early after the Accident; and the secondary facility of FMU became responsible to all exposed persons. There was no death of workers of FNPP. Medical stuff also measured the ambient dose at various places near FNPP, having had risk of exposure. At the Accident, the important system of command, control and communication was found fragile and measures hereafter should be planned on assumption of the worst scenario of complete damage of the infrastructure and communication. It is desirable for Disaster Medical Assistance Team which

  7. Systematic register of nuclear accidents

    The Systematic Register of Nuclear Accidents is a consolidation of important accidents occurred in the world during the period 1945-1984. Important accidents can be defined as those involving high radiation doses, which require the exposed individuals to undergo medical treatment. The organization and structuring of this register rests on the necessity for the availability of a database specifically oriented to researchers interested in studying the different nuclear accidents reported. Approximately 150 accidents in that period are presented in a summary form; these accidents had been described or reported in the scientific literature or made known through informal communications of Brazilian and foreign institutions and researchers. This register can be of interest particularly to all professionals who either directly of indirectly work in the area of nuclear or radioactive installations safety. In order to facilitate analysis by the researcher, that casuistic system was divided into 3 groups: criticality accidents (table I), fall-out on Marshall Islands (table II) and external irradiation accidents (table III). It is also included an overview of accidents in that period, indicating the total number of victims, fatal cases, and number of survivors. The author offers to the reader an extensive bibliography on the accidents described. (Author)

  8. Severe accident analysis methodology in support of accident management

    The author addresses the implementation at BELGATOM of a generic severe accident analysis methodology, which is intended to support strategic decisions and to provide quantitative information in support of severe accident management. The analysis methodology is based on a combination of severe accident code calculations, generic phenomenological information (experimental evidence from various test facilities regarding issues beyond present code capabilities) and detailed plant-specific technical information

  9. Revisorns granskning och rapportering av intern kontroll : Inom ramen för Svensk kod för bolagsstyrning

    Samppala, Terese; Danska, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur den externa revisorn önskar att styrelsens rapport angående den interna kontrollen ska granskas, samt hur denna granskning ska rapporteras. Målet är att utveckla ett förslag med egna modeller för hur den externa revisorns granskning och rapportering kan utformas inom ramen för Svensk kod för bolagsstyrning. Uppsatsens huvudfråga är: Hur vill de externa revisorerna, i rollen som utförare av tjänsten, att granskningen och rapporteringen angående sty...

  10. Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl

    The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author)

  11. Accident management insights from IPE's

    In response to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Generic Letter 88-20, each utility in the U.S.A. has undertaken a probabilistic severe accident study of each plant. This paper provides a high level summary of the generic PWR accident management insights that have been obtained from the IPE reports. More importantly, the paper details some of the limitations of the IPE studies with respect to accident management. The IPE studies and the methodology used was designed to provide a best estimate of the potential for a severe accident and/or for severe consequences from a core damage accident. The accepted methodology employs a number of assumptions to make the objective attainable with a reasonable expenditure of resources. However, some of the assumptions represent limitations with respect to developing an accident management program based solely on the IPE and its results. (author)

  12. Accident management insights after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, that took place on 11 March 2011, initiated a significant number of activities at the national and international levels to reassess the safety of existing NPPs, evaluate the sufficiency of technical means and administrative measures available for emergency response, and develop recommendations for increasing the robustness of NPPs to withstand extreme external events and beyond design basis accidents. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is working closely with its member and partner countries to examine the causes of the accident and to identify lessons learnt with a view to the appropriate follow-up actions to be taken by the nuclear safety community. Accident management is a priority area of work for the NEA to address lessons being learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP following the recommendations of Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), and Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). Considering the importance of these issues, the CNRA authorised the formation of a task group on accident management (TGAM) in June 2012 to review the regulatory framework for accident management following the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The task group was requested to assess the NEA member countries needs and challenges in light of the accident from a regulatory point of view. The general objectives of the TGAM review were to consider: - enhancements of on-site accident management procedures and guidelines based on lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident; - decision-making and guiding principles in emergency situations; - guidance for instrumentation, equipment and supplies for addressing long-term aspects of accident management; - guidance and implementation when taking extreme measures for accident management. The report is built on the existing bases for capabilities to respond to design basis

  13. Accident management approach in Armenia

    In this lecture the accident management approach in Armenian NPP (ANPP) Unit 2 is described. List of BDBAs had been developed by OKB Gydropress in 1994. 13 accident sequences were included in this list. The relevant analyses had been performed in VNIIAES and the 'Guidelines on operator actions for beyond design basis accident (BDBA) management at ANPP Unit 2' had been prepared. These instructions are discussed

  14. Chernobyl reactor accident

    Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

  15. Serious accident in Peru

    A peruvian man, victim of an important accidental irradiation arrived on the Saturday twenty ninth of may 1999 to the centre of treatment of serious burns at the Percy military hospital (Clamart -France). The accident spent on the twentieth of February 1999, on the site of a hydroelectric power plant, in construction at 300 km at the East of Lima. The victim has picked up an industrial source of iridium devoted to gamma-graphy operations and put it in his back pocket; of trousers. The workman has serious radiation burns. (N.C.)

  16. The accident of Chernobyl

    RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

  17. Accident prevention programme

    This study by the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission was made within the context of the application by undertakings of the principles of accident and disease prevention previously adopted by the said Commission. It puts forward recommendations for the effective and gradual implementation of a programme of action on occupational health and safety in the various departments of an undertaking and in the undertaking as a whole. The methods proposed in this study are likely to be of interest to all undertakings in the metallurgical industry and other industrial sectors

  18. Psychological response of accident

    The psychological status of rescuers of consequences of Chernobyl[s accidents, having planned stationary examination and treatment of common somatic diseases, has been examined. THe age of men represented the study group was 35-54 years old. The results of medical-psychological examination showed the development in rescuers of common dysadaptation and stress state, characterized by depressive-hypochondriac state with high anxiety. The course of psychotherapeutic activities made possible to improve essentionally the psychological status of the patients. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  19. Reactor accident in Chernobyl

    The bibliography contains 1568 descriptions of papers devoted to Chernobylsk accident and recorded in ''INIS Atomindex'' to 30 June 1990. The descriptions were taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and are presented in accordance with volumes of this journal (chronology of recording). Therefore all descriptions have numbers showing first the number of volume and then the number of record. The bibliography has at the end the detailed subject index consisting of 465 main headings and a lot of qualifiers. Some of them are descriptors taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and some are key words taken from natural language. The index is in English as descriptions in the bibliography. (author)

  20. CAMS: Computerized Accident Management Support

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project has initiated a new research programme on computerised accident management support, the so-called CAMS project (CAMS = Computerized Accident Management Support). This work will investigate the possibilities for developing systems which provide more extensive support to the control room staff and technical support centre than the existing SPDS (Safety Parameter Display System) type of systems. The CAMS project will utilize available simulator codes and the capabilities of computerized tools to assist the plant staff during the various accident stages including: identification of the accident state, assessment of the future development of the accident, and planning accident mitigation strategies. This research programme aims at establishing a prototype system which can be used for experimental testing of the concept and serve as a tool for training and education in accident management. The CAMS prototype should provide support to the staff when the plant is in a normal state, in a disturbance sate, and in an accident state. Even though better support in an accident state is the main goal of the project, it is felt to be important that the staff is familiar with the use of the system during normal operation, when they utilize the system during transients

  1. Iodine releases from reactor accidents

    The airborne releases of iodine from water reactor accidents are small fractions of the available iodine and occur only slowly. However, in reactor accidents in which water is absent, the release of iodine to the environment can be large and rapid. These differences in release fraction and rate are related to the chemical states attained by iodine under the accident conditions. It is clear that neither rapid issue of blocking KI nor rapid evacuation of the surrounding population is required to protect the public from the radioiodine released in the event of a major water reactor accident

  2. Guidance on accidents involving radioactivity

    This annex contains advice to Health Authorities on their response to accidents involving radioactivity. The guidance is in six parts:-(1) planning the response required to nuclear accidents overseas, (2) planning the response required to UK nuclear accidents a) emergency plans for nuclear installations b) nuclear powered satellites, (3) the handling of casualties contaminated with radioactive substances, (4) background information for dealing with queries from the public in the event of an accident, (5) the national arrangements for incident involving radioactivity (NAIR), (6) administrative arrangements. (author)

  3. Radiation accident grips Goiania

    On 13 September two young scavengers in Goiania, Brazil, removed a stainless steel cylinder from a cancer therapy machine in an abandoned clinic, touching off a radiation accident second only to Chernobyl in its severity. On 18 September they sold the cylinder, the size of a 1-gallon paint can, to a scrap dealer for $25. At the junk yard an employee dismantled the cylinder and pried open the platinum capsule inside to reveal a glowing blue salt-like substance - 1400 curies of cesium-137. Fascinated by the luminescent powder, several people took it home with them. Some children reportedly rubbed in on their bodies like carnival glitter - an eerie image of how wrong things can go when vigilance over radioactive materials lapses. In all, 244 people in Goiania, a city of 1 million in central Brazil, were contaminated. The eventual toll, in terms of cancer or genetic defects, cannot yet be estimated. Parts of the city are cordoned off as radiation teams continue washing down buildings and scooping up radioactive soil. The government is also grappling with the political fallout from the accident

  4. Serious reactor accidents reconsidered

    The chance is determined for damage of the reactor core and that sequel events will cause excursion of radioactive materials into the environment. The gravity of such an accident is expressed by the source term. It appears that the chance for such an accident varies with the source term. In general it is valid that how larger the source term how smaller the chance is for it and vice versa. The chance for excursion is related to two complexes of events: serious damage (meltdown) of the reactor core, and the escape of the liberated radionuclides into the environment. The results are an order of magnitude consideration of the relation between the extent of the source term and the chance for it. From the spectrum of possible source terms three representative ones have been chosen: a large, a medium and a relative small source term. This choice is in accordance with international considerations. The hearth of this study is the estimation of the chance for occurrence of the three chosen source terms for new light-water reactors. refs.; figs.; tabs

  5. Safety apparatus for serious radioactive accidents (1962); Materiel d'intervention en cas d'accident radioactif grave (1962)

    Estournel, R.; Rodier, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    In the case of a serious radioactive accident, radioactive dust and gases may be released into the atmosphere. It is therefore necessary to be able to evaluate rapidly the importance of the risk to the surrounding population, and to be able to ensure, even in the event of an evacuation of the Centre, the continuation of the radioactivity analyses and the decontamination of the personnel. For this, the Anti-radiation Protection Service at Marcoule has organised mobile detection teams and designed a mobile laboratory and a mobile shower-unit. After describing the duty of the mobile teams, the report gives a description of the apparatus which would be used at the Marcoule Centre in the case of a serious radioactive accident. The method of using this apparatus is given. (authors) [French] Lors d'un accident radioactif grave, des poussieres et des gaz radioactifs peuvent etre relaches dans l'atmosphere. II est alors indispensable d'evaluer rapidement l'importance du risque couru par les populations environnantes, et de pouvoir assurer, meme dans le cas de l'evacuation du Centre, la poursuite des analyses radioactives et la decontamination du personnel. Pour cela, le Service de Protection contre les Radiations du Centre de Marcoule a mis sur pied des equipes mobiles de detection et realise une semi-remorque laboratoire ainsi qu'une semi-remorque douches. Apres avoir defini la mission des equipes mobiles, le rapport donne la description du materiel d'intervention qui serait mis en oeuvre par le Centre de Marcoule dans le cas d'un accident radioactif grave. Il precis le mode d'utilisation de ce materiel. (auteurs)

  6. Expert software for accident identification

    Each type of an accident in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) causes immediately after the start of the accident variations of physical parameters that are typical for that type of the accident thus enabling its identification. Examples of these parameter are: decrease of reactor coolant system pressure, increase of radiation level in the containment, increase of pressure in the containment. An expert software enabling a fast preliminary identification of the type of the accident in Krsko NPP has been developed. As input data selected typical parameters from Emergency Response Data System (ERDS) of the Krsko NPP are used. Based on these parameters the expert software identifies the type of the accident and also provides the user with appropriate references (past analyses and other documentation of such an accident). The expert software is to be used as a support tool by an expert team that forms in case of an emergency at Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) with the task to determine the cause of the accident, its most probable scenario and the source term. The expert software should provide initial identification of the event, while the final one is still to be made after appropriate assessment of the event by the expert group considering possibility of non-typical events, multiple causes, initial conditions, influences of operators' actions etc. The expert software can be also used as an educational/training tool and even as a simple database of available accident analyses. (author)

  7. Health Problems in Radiation Accidents

    The authors define a radiation accident as a situation which has led or could have led to the unexpected irradiation of persons or contamination of the environment over and above the levels accepted as safe. Several categories of accidents are distinguished as a function of the consequences to be expected. The suggested system of classifying accidents makes it possible to plan post-accident measures within a single system of 'concentric circles', taking into account at the same time whether it will be possible to carry out the post-accident measures unaided or whether it will be necessary to bring in additional manpower and resources from outside. The authors consider the possibility of countering the effects of accidents as a function of their nature, with reference to the biological, economic and psychological aspects. They evaluate the part played by the health service in planning and carrying out accident prevention measures, and consider the function of radiological units attached to epidemiological health stations ; these units are essentially centres providing for precautionary measures to avert accidents and action to counter their effects. (author)

  8. Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena

    This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

  9. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  10. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    Frid, W.; Højerup, C.F.; Lindholm, I.;

    2001-01-01

    Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies, the ...

  11. The Chernobyl accident. Appendix B

    In appendix B, the models introduced in chapter 6 are applied to the study of the Chernobyl accident. This event is very important in the teaching of nuclear engineering, and I have included in this Appendix a relatively detailed description of the accident. However, the analysis is limited to the physics of the relevant phenomena. (author)

  12. Preventing accidents at intake towers

    Villegas, F. (INTEGRAL S.A., Medellin, CO (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Strong air blow-outs occurring in the intake tower of Guatape Hydroelectric Power Plant in Colombia have caused two serious accidents recently. The causes of the accidents were investigated and recommendations are made here to prevent future repetitions of these dangerous events. (UK)

  13. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    Hansen, H; Nielsen, D; Frydenberg, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be initiated.

  14. Probability of spent fuel transportation accidents

    McClure, J. D.

    1981-07-01

    The transported volume of spent fuel, incident/accident experience and accident environment probabilities were reviewed in order to provide an estimate of spent fuel accident probabilities. In particular, the accident review assessed the accident experience for large casks of the type that could transport spent (irradiated) nuclear fuel. This review determined that since 1971, the beginning of official US Department of Transportation record keeping for accidents/incidents, there has been one spent fuel transportation accident. This information, coupled with estimated annual shipping volumes for spent fuel, indicated an estimated annual probability of a spent fuel transport accident of 5 x 10/sup -7/ spent fuel accidents per mile. This is consistent with ordinary truck accident rates. A comparison of accident environments and regulatory test environments suggests that the probability of truck accidents exceeding regulatory test for impact is approximately 10/sup -9//mile.

  15. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...... occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA...... method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents...

  16. Severe accidents, a US approach

    The attitude of the American nuclear industry and the regulatory authorities in the United States toward severe accidents has often seemed ambivalent. It was common a few years ago to assume the position that severe accidents should not be included in the design basis of the plant. This view was associated with the concept of the maximum credible accident. A severe accident that would lead to a large release of fission products from the reactor core was simply regarded as having so low a likelihood as not to be credible. That does not mean that it had a zero probability of occurring. Because of the way the plant was designed, built, and operated, severe accidents were regarded as having a low enough probability that no further special measures were necessary regarding them. (author)

  17. Severe accident management. Prevention and Mitigation

    Effective planning for the management of severe accidents at nuclear power plants can produce both a reduction in the frequency of such accidents as well as the ability to mitigate their consequences if and when they should occur. This report provides an overview of accident management activities in OECD countries. It also presents the conclusions of a group of international experts regarding the development of accident management methods, the integration of accident management planning into reactor operations, and the benefits of accident management

  18. Accidents, probabilities and consequences

    Following brief discussion of the safety of wind-driven power plants and solar power plants, some aspects of the safety of fast breeder and thermonuclear power plants are presented. It is pointed out that no safety evaluation of breeders comparable to the Rasmussen investigation has been carried out and that discussion of the safety aspects of thermonuclear power is only just begun. Finally, as an illustration of the varying interpretations of risk and safety analyses, four examples are given of predicted probabilities and consequences in Copenhagen of the maximum credible accident at the Barsebaeck plant, under the most unfavourable meterological conditions. These are made by the Environment Commission, Risoe Research Establishment, REO (a pro-nuclear group) and OOA (an anti-nuclear group), and vary by a factor of over 1000. (JIW)

  19. The Fukushima accident

    The accident happened on March 11, 2011 in the nuclear reactors at the Fukushima plant, Japan, is described. The reactors of the Fukushima plant have been power reactors. The electrical energy is produced by use of the heat released in the fission. Nuclear reactors were affected after of the power outage as a result of the earthquake and the tsunami, and this has kept in operation the refrigeration systems. The japanese reactors have been fission reactors and have used uranium 235 or plutonium 239 as fissionable material. The nuclear reactions of fission are explained. The control of the nuclear reactions at Fukushima was complicated by the decreased of the neutrons absorption and has produced more reactions, generating great amounts of heat. The steam contaminated with the products of fission is produced by to cool the reactor with water. The fissionable material released is dragged until the atmosphere. Radioactive contamination at sites near the reactor was covered in a zone of exclusion with a radius of 30 km. The effects of radioactive contamination in the zone of exclusion are mentioned. The radioactive material from Japan has traveled with the wind in direction toward the north pole. The radioactive cloud has continued until to reach the north Africa and south of Europe. The cloud has approximated to Costa Rica, but the activity of the material found has been less of 0,01 Bq/m3. The Centro de Investigacion en Ciencias Atomicas, Nucleares y Moleculares (Cicanum) has initiated the collection of soil samples, water and earth products to detect part of the radioactive material from the cloud. The Cicanum has had modern equipments to quantify the specific concentrations of radioactive isotope, alpha emitters, beta and gamma, in food, water and milk. The Cicanum has maintained the radiological surveillance of foods after the Chernobyl accident

  20. Congestion by accident? Traffic and accidents in England

    Pasidis, Ilias-Nikiforos

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is the estimation of the effect of accidents on traffic congestion and vice versa. In order to do this, I use ?big data? of highway traffic and accidents in England for the period 2007-2013. The data exhibit some remarkably stable cyclical pattern of highway traffic which is used as a research setting that enables the identification of the causal effect of accidents on traffic congestion and vice versa. The estimation draws on panel data methods that have previously bee...

  1. Il fait couvre-feu

    Bontemps, Véronique

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the life conditions and experience of time in Nablus during the long siege imposed by the Israeli army on the cities of the West Bank. The expression people used to talk about the curfew was "Id-dunia mana'", which would mean "the weather is curfew"

  2. Faits divers - inforozrywka w prasie

    Worsowicz, Monika

    2002-01-01

    The article has been dedicated to profile of the press texts’ specific group called fails divers. According to the author they may be considered as an example of linking information to an entertainment. Owing to them we obtain a piece of information that is not as essential as incredible, the reading provides us firstly with an entertainment. Because of this it may be improper to consider fails divers as a specific variety of a press note. However, formal determinants do not suppl...

  3. Rapport de définition de l’ensemble des essais

    Garnier, Sébastien; Furet, Benoît; ZIMMER-CHEVRET, Sandra; LANGLOIS, Laurent; Abba, Gabriel; JEMAL, Nejah

    2014-01-01

    Ce rapport contient la définition des pièces d’essais utilisées pour la validation des tâches, d’une part en soudage FSW et d’autre part en usinage, qu’il soit de pièces aluminium ou de pièces en matériaux composites. La robotisation du FSW est envisagée pour les soudures complexes pouvant occuper un volume de travail conséquent. La déformation du robot, à efforts de soudage équivalent, peuvent donc évoluer tout au long de la soudure. Les pièces de démonstration doivent permettre de valide...

  4. Du rapport au dire: sexe, amour et discours d'expertise au Caire

    Kreil, Aymon; Décobert, Christian; Ghasarian, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Cette thèse s’attache à comprendre les attentes façonnant les perceptions de la vie de couple en Égypte et des normes la régissant. Le rapport à la parole sur l’amour et le sexe offre le fil rouge de cette recherche. L’étude du champ de la psychologie et de la sexologie dans le pays révèle en effet une rhétorique du bris de silence omniprésente, renvoyant à la quête d’un monopole sur le discours légitime sur la sexualité. Or, des répertoires discursifs concurrents à cette expertise sont prése...

  5. Eating Animals to Build Rapport: Conducting Research as Vegans or Vegetarians

    Katie MacDonald

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Notions of hospitality, community, and the fostering of rapport and connection are foundational concerns for conducting research across difference. Drawing on methodological literature, this paper considers how access to various communities and “good” data is structured by the notion that in order to develop rapport researchers accept the “food”, specifically “meat” offered by their hosts. When researchers are vegetarians or vegans, this can entail a conflict in which questions of hospitality, relationships, and responsibility to ethical commitments come to the fore. As such, we analyze methodological literature in which the logic of nonhuman animal sacrifice is considered a means to the ends of research through the development of “rapport”—often coded as an ethical relationship of respect to the participant. We draw on experiences of veg*n researchers to explore how this assumption functions to position the consumption of meat as a necessary undertaking when conducting research, and in turn, denies nonhuman animal subjecthood. We interrogate the assumption that culture and communities are static inasmuch as this literature suggests ways to enter and exit spaces leaving minimal impact, and that posits participants will not trust researchers nor understand their decisions against eating nonhuman animals. We argue that because food consumption is figured as a private and individual choice, animals are not considered subjects in research. Thus, we articulate a means to consider vegan and/or vegetarians politics, not as a marker of difference, but as an attempt to engage in ethical relationships with nonhuman animals. In so doing, we call for the inclusion of nonhuman animals in relationships of hospitality, and thereby attempt to politicize the practice of food consumption while conducting research.

  6. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning

    Research highlights: → Lightning impact caused relevant industrial accidents. → Atmospheric storage tanks are the equipment item more susceptible to lightning damage. → Specific damage and release modes may be identified for lightning damage. Specific event trees should be adopted for the identification of post-release final scenarios characterizing lightning-induced major accidents. - Abstract: Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents.

  7. International aspects of nuclear accidents

    The accident at Chernobyl revealed that there were shortcomings and gaps in the existing international mechanisms and brought home to governments the need for stronger measures to provide better protection against the risks of severe accidents. The main thrust of international co-operation with regard to nuclear safety issues is aimed at achieving a uniformly high level of safety in nuclear power plants through continuous exchanges of research findings and feedback from reactor operating experience. The second type of problem posed in the event of an accident resulting in radioactive contamination of several countries relates to the obligation to notify details of the circumstances and nature of the accident speedily so that the countries affected can take appropriate protective measures and, if necessary, organize mutual assistance. Giving the public accurate information is also an important aspect of managing an emergency situation arising from a severe accident. Finally, the confusion resulting from the unwarranted variety of protective measures implemented after the Chernobyl accident has highlighted the need for international harmonization of the principles and scientific criteria applicable to the protection of the public in the event of an accident and for a more consistent approach to emergency plans. The international conventions on third party liability in the nuclear energy sector (Paris/Brussels Conventions and the Vienna Convention) provide for compensation for damage caused by nuclear accidents in accordance with the rules and jurisdiction that they lay down. These provisions impose obligations on the operator responsible for an accident, and the State where the nuclear facility is located, towards the victims of damage caused in another country

  8. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  9. Rapport social de service, client et valeur Service-based social relationships, customers and and value Vínculo social de servicio, cliente y valor

    Philippe Zarifian

    2013-01-01

    Ce texte développe une double idée. La première est que l’on peut parler de « rapport social de service », au sens plein du concept de « rapport social », en en assumant toutes les implications et en le différenciant nettement de la notion de « relation de service ». La seconde, qui découle de la première, est que l’on peut parler de « composition » entre rapports sociaux différents, non réductibles l’un à l’autre. Nous montrons ainsi qu’il existe une composition entre rapport social de servi...

  10. Accident response in France

    French PWR power plant design relies basically on a deterministic approach. A probabilistic approach was introduced in France in the early seventies to define safety provisions against external impacts. In 1977 an overall safety objective was issued by the safety authority in terms of an upper probability limit for having unacceptable consequences. Additional measures were taken (the ''H'' operating procedures) to complement the automatic systems normally provided by the initial design, so as to safisfy the safety objective. The TMI-2 accident enhanced the interest in confused situations in which possible multiple equipment failure and/or unappropriate previous actions of the operators impede the implementation of any of the existing event-oriented procedures. In such situations, the objective becomes to avoid core-melt by any means available: this is the goal of the Ul symptom-oriented procedure. Whenever a core-melt occurs, the radioactive releases into the environment must be compatible with the feasibility of the off-site emergency plans; that means that for some hypothetical, but still conceivable scenarios, provisions have to be made to delay and limit the consequences of the loss of the containment: the U2, U4 and U5 ultimate procedures have been elaborated for that purpose. For the case of an emergency, a nationwide organization has been set up to provide the plant operator with a redundant technical expertise, to help him save his plant or mitigate the radiological consequences of a core-melt

  11. Preparedness against nuclear power accidents

    This booklet contains information about the organization against nuclear power accidents, which exist in the four Swedish counties with nuclear power plants. It is aimed at classes 7-9 of the Swedish schools. (L.E.)

  12. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  13. The management of radioactive waste from accidents

    Two accident case histories are reviewed - the Three Mile Island (TMI-2) reactor accident in 1979 and the Seveso accident in 1976. The status of the decontamination and radioactive waste management operations at TMI-2 as at 1986 is presented. 1986 estimates of reactor accident and recovery costs are given. 12 refs., 8 tabs

  14. 29 CFR 1960.29 - Accident investigation.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accident investigation. 1960.29 Section 1960.29 Labor... MATTERS Inspection and Abatement § 1960.29 Accident investigation. (a) While all accidents should be investigated, including accidents involving property damage only, the extent of such investigation shall...

  15. 49 CFR 195.54 - Accident reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 195.54 Section 195.54... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.54 Accident reports. (a) Each operator that experiences an accident that is required to be reported under § 195.50 shall as soon...

  16. 49 CFR 801.32 - Accident reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 801.32 Section 801.32... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Accident Investigation Records § 801.32 Accident reports. (a) The NTSB....S. civil transportation accidents, in accordance with 49 U.S.C. 1131(e). (b) These reports may...

  17. The measurement of accident-proneness

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the measurement of accident-proneness. Accidents seem easy to observe, however accident-proneness is difficult to measure. In this paper I first define the concept of accident-proneness, and I develop an instrument to measure it. The research is mainly executed within chemical

  18. 49 CFR 230.22 - Accident reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 230.22 Section 230.22... Requirements § 230.22 Accident reports. In the case of an accident due to failure, from any cause, of a steam... persons, the railroad on whose line the accident occurred shall immediately make a telephone report of...

  19. 49 CFR 845.40 - Accident report.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident report. 845.40 Section 845.40... RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRANSPORTATION; ACCIDENT/INCIDENT HEARINGS AND REPORTS Board Reports § 845.40 Accident report. (a) The Board will issue a detailed narrative accident report in connection with...

  20. Nuclear laws and radiologic accidents

    Some aspects of the nuclear activities in Brazil, specially concerning the Goiania s accident are demonstrated using concepts from environmental and nuclear law. Nuclear and environmental competence, the impossibility of the states of making regional laws, as the lack of regulation about the nuclear waste, are discussed. The situation of Goiania when the accident happened, the present situation of the victims and the nuclear waste provisionally stored in Abadia de Goias is reported

  1. Iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents

    These proceedings of the Joint WHO/CEC workshop on iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents are presented under the following headings: normal thyroid function and the response to iodine, theoretical basis for stable iodine prophylaxis, risks and benefits of stable iodine prophylaxis, indications for the use of stable iodine, recommendations and rationale for the use of stable iodine prophylaxis in event of future accidents. (UK)

  2. Nuclear accident countermeasures: iodine prophylaxis

    In January 1989 the Department of Health convened a working group to consider and advise on the indications for the use of stable iodine, in the United Kingdom, in the event of nuclear accident. In formulating its advice the working group was to consider the International Guidelines for Iodine Prophylaxis following Nuclear Accidents, drawn by the World Health Organisation, and their applicability to the UK. This report summarises the findings of the working group and gives its conclusions and recommendations. (author)

  3. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH

  4. CARNSORE: Hypothetical reactor accident study

    Two types of design-basis accident and a series of hypothetical core-melt accidents to a 600 MWe reactor are described and their consequences assessed. The PLUCON 2 model was used to calculate the consequences which are presented in terms of individual and collective doses, as well as early and late health consequences. The site proposed for the nucelar power station is Carnsore Point, County Wexford, south-east Ireland. The release fractions for the accidents described are those given in WASH-1400. The analyses are based on the resident population as given in the 1979 census and on 20 years of data from the meteorological stations at Rosslare Harbour, 8.5 km north of the site. The consequences of one of the hypothetical core-melt accidents are described in detail in a meteorological parametric study. Likewise the consequences of the worst conceivable combination of situations are described. Finally, the release fraction in one accident is varied and the consequences of a proposed, more probable ''Class 9 accident'' are presented. (author)

  5. The vver severe accident management

    The basic approach to the VVER safety management is based on the defence-in-depth principle the main idea of which is the multiplicity of physical barriers on the way of dangerous propagation on the one hand and the diversity of measures to protect each of them on the other hand. The main events of severe accident with loss of core cooling at NPP with WWER can be represented as a sequence of NPP states, in which each subsequent state is more severe than the previous one. The following sequence of states of the accident progression is supposed to be realistic and the most probable: -) loss of efficient core cooling; -) core melting, relocation of the molten core to the lower head and molten pool formation, -) reactor vessel damage, and -) containment damage and fission products release. The objectives of accident management at the design basis stage, the determining factors and appropriate determining parameters of processes are formulated in this paper. The same approach is used for the estimation of processes parameters at beyond design basis accident progression. The accident management goals and the determining factors and parameters are also listed in that case which is characterized by the loss of integrity of the fuel cladding. The accident management goal at the stage of core melt relocation implies the need for an efficient core-catcher

  6. JAERI's activities in JCO accident

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was actively involved in a variety of technical supports and cooperative activities, such as advice on terminating the criticality condition, contamination checks of the residents and consultation services for the residents, as emergency response actions to the criticality accident at the uranium processing facility operated by the JCO Co. Ltd., which occurred on September 30, 1999. These activities were carried out in collaborative ways by the JAERI staff from the Tokai Research Establishment, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Oarai Research Establishment, and Headquarter Office in Tokyo. As well, the JAERI was engaged in the post-accident activities such as identification of accident causes, analyses of the criticality accident, and dose assessment of exposed residents, to support the Headquarter for Accident Countermeasures of the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Accident Investigation Committee and the Health Control Committee of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC). This report compiles the activities, that the JAERI has conducted to date, including the discussions on measures for terminating the criticality condition, evaluation of the fission number, radiation monitoring in the environment, dose assessment, analyses of criticality dynamics. (author)

  7. Radiological accidents: education for prevention and confrontation

    The purpose of this work is to train and inform on radiological accidents as a preventive measure to improve the people life quality. Radiological accidents are part of the events of technological origin which are composed of nuclear and radiological accidents. As a notable figure is determined that there have been 423 radiological accidents from 1944 to 2005 and among the causes prevail industrial accidents, by irradiations, medical accidents and of laboratories, among others. Latin American countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Peru are some where most accidents have occurred by radioactivity. The radiological accidents can have sociological, environmental, economic, social and political consequences. In addition, there are scenarios of potential nuclear accidents and in them the potential human consequences. Also, the importance of the organization and planning in a nuclear emergency is highlighted. Finally, the experience that Cuba has lived on the subject of radiological accidents is described

  8. Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees

    Hakobyan, Aram P.

    In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a

  9. SOS: var god dröj! : En kvalitativ textanalys av Aftonbladet och Dagens Nyheters rapportering kring SOS Alarm

    Månsson, Annajohanna; Swärd, Emma

    2011-01-01

    Syftet med denna studie är att studera mediernas rapportering kring ett antal specifika händelser kopplade till SOS Alarm. Med vår undersökning avser vi att bidra till kunskapen om hur tidningarna Aftonbladet och Dagens Nyheter framställer SOS Alarm i sina nyhetspubliceringar. Mediernas rapportering är viktig att studera då mediebilden av SOS Alarm kan påverka allmänhetens förtroende för denna viktiga samhällsaktör. Detta är viktigt på grund av att den bild och på det vis som medierna framstä...

  10. Accident Tolerant Fuel Analysis

    Curtis Smith; Heather Chichester; Jesse Johns; Melissa Teague; Michael Tonks; Robert Youngblood

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional “accident-tolerant” (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  11. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather [Idaho National Laboratory; Johns, Jesse [Texas A& M University; Teague, Melissa [Idaho National Laboratory; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant

  12. Information report made on the behalf of the European Affairs Commission on the second strategic analysis of the energy policy; Rapport d'information fait au nom de la commission des affaires europeennes (1) sur la deuxieme analyse strategique de la politique energetique (E4140)

    Bourzai, B.

    2009-11-15

    This report first discusses the challenges faced in terms of energy, stresses the need to give up a pure commercial logic and to diversify the energy sources in the European Union. It discusses how to develop energy solidarity in Europe as far as gas and electricity are concerned. It addresses the issue of diversification of energy supply, notably after the gas crisis of January 2009, comments the Russian position, and evokes the great number of projects with still uncertain results. It questions the objectives defined for renewable energies, outlines the still insufficient efforts in the field of energy efficiency, and highlights the crucial role of research (variety of innovation fields, necessary investments)

  13. N.3278 report realized for the economical Affairs Commission, of the environment and the territory on the law project relative to the sector of the energy (n.3201); N.3278 rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Affaires economiques, de l'Environnement et du Territoire sur le projet de loi relatif au secteur de l'energie (n.3201)

    Lenoir, J.C

    2006-08-15

    In the framework of the natural gas and electric power market opening, this law project relative to the energy sector discusses three series of dispositions: the dispositions relative to the electric power and natural gas distribution, the dispositions relative to the Gaz de France capital and the government control, and the dispositions relative to the display contracts of electric power and natural gas. Transient dispositions are also presented. (A.L.B.)

  14. Habiter la ville, accéder aux territoires. : Articulations habitat-déplacements-développement économique dans les politiques d'aménagement intercommunales. Rapport final de contrat, L'intercommunalité à l'épreuve des faits, PUCA-MEEDDM, janvier 2011

    GALLEZ, Caroline; Thébert, Mariane; Vilmin, Thierry; Ollivier-Trigalo, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Dans un contexte marqué par des préoccupations à l'égard de la protection de l'environnement et par une crise économique qui tend à s'amplifier et dont les effets touchent d'abord les populations les plus fragiles, les questions relatives à l'accès à la ville et à la régulation des mobilités spatiales se caractérisent par d'importants conflits d'intérêt. Il existe par exemple une contradiction potentielle entre la nécessité de maîtriser l'accroissement des circulations motorisées et la défens...

  15. Information report realized on behalf of the Senate delegation for the planning on the environmental nuisances of motor vehicle; Rapport d'information fait au nom de la delegation du Senat pour la planification sur les nuissances environnementales de l'automobile

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    Contrary to the public idea, the air pollution, from the transportation sector, decreases in France. Forecasts indicate that this tendency will continue. The main environmental stake at long-dated seems to be the carbon dioxide emissions control. In this framework the diesel is ecologically better than the gasoline. Another point discussed in this report is the compensation of nuisances caused the non motorists, by the taxes. The report is presented in two main parts: the motor vehicles nuisances and the public policies aiming to reduce these environmental nuisances. (A.L.B.)

  16. Report made on behalf of the parity mixed commission in charge of proposing a text about the dispositions of the project of energy orientation law remaining to be discussed; Rapport fait au nom de la commission mixte paritaire (1) chargee de proposer un texte sur les dispositions restant en discussion du projet de loi d'orientation sur l'energie

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The project of energy orientation law aims at fixing the main principles of the French energy policy for the next decades. It foresees: the re-launching of the French nuclear program (building of an experimental European pressurized reactor (EPR)), the reinforcement of the mastery of energy demand (3% per year, creation of energy saving certificates and reinforcement of buildings energy efficiency rules), and the sustain of renewable energies development. This document presents, first, a direct comparison, article by article, of the text adopted in second lecture by the House of Commons, with the text adopted in second lecture by the Senate. Then, a text is proposed for the last dispositions that remained to be discussed and is presented in the second part of the report. (J.S.)

  17. Report on the bill project related to the struggle against proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems; Rapport fait au Nom de la Commission de la Defense Nationale et des Forces Armees sur le Projet de Loi (n. 1652) relatif a la lutte contre la proliferation des armes de destruction massive et de leurs vecteurs

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    In a first part presenting the various forms of proliferations, the author first gives a quantitative overview of illegal activities concerning nuclear materials, and then discusses the existence and activities of proliferation networks, explaining how international trade liberalization creates a favourable context for proliferations of any kind, and describing how a typical network is organised. He also discusses the example of Iraq and the case of the network created by the Pakistani scientist Abdul Q. Khan. The risk created by the hypothetical relationship between terrorism and nuclear weapon of mass destruction is also questioned. Then, after having recalled the existing international texts and the present national legislation, the author comments the contribution on the bill project and outlines aspects which are not dealt with by this bill project: radiological devices and cybernetic attacks. Then he reports the comments made by the commission on the bill project articles which define interdictions, sanctions and sentences, or procedures against people or organisations involved in the financing or the use of weapons of mass destruction (biological and chemical). A table gives a comparison between the bill project text and the commission's propositions

  18. Information report realized for the Senate delegation to the territory management and sustainable development on the local energies; Rapport d'information fait au nom de la delegation du Senat a l'amenagement et au developpement durable du territoire sur les energies locales

    Belot, C.; Juilhard, J.M

    2006-06-15

    This report deals with the renewable energies and the local development called the territory intelligence in action. Taking into account the place of the electricity in the french energy accounting and the part of the nuclear in its production, the local authorities have to act in the heat domain, which is the first energy need in France, far in front of the specific electricity (those which cannot be replace by other type of energy). But 80% of the heat is today covered by fossil energies. No actions to change this situation will be done without a real implication of the local government. The authors preconize an ambitious objective: cover 50% of the heat needs from renewable energies in the next generat This objective must rely on a program called ''alternative energies''. In this framework the authors provide recommendations on the implementation of the renewable energies as an essential challenge for the local authorities. (A.L.B.)

  19. Cours de magnétisme en sept leçons augmenté du rapport sur les expériences magnétiques faites par la commission de l'Académie Royale de Médecine en 1831

    du Potet, Baron

    2015-01-01

    Extrait : ""Pénétré des bienfaits qui doivent résulter pour le genre humain de la découverte du magnétisme animal, je me suis décidé à venir vous en entretenir. Ce n'est pas sans quelque crainte toutefois, car les phénomènes magnétiques que j'ai à vous faire connaître sont si étonnants qu'ils pourront souvent vous paraître exagérés : mais plus ils vous paraîtront extraordinaires et plus ils mériteront de fixer votre attention, s'ils sont vrais.""

  20. Report made on behalf of the commission of economical affairs, of environment and territory about the project of energy trend law (no. 1586); Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des affaires economiques, de l'environnement et du territoire sur le projet de loi (no. 1586), d'orientation sur l'energie

    Poignant, S.

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this report is to present to the French deputies the comments made by the commission of economic affairs, environment and territory about the project of energy trend law. This law aims at defining in its first article the goals and trends of the French energy policy, and then at completing the existing energy dispositions in order to more efficiently implement these trends. The goals of the French energy plan are: the guarantee of supplies security, the environment protection, the warranty of energy prices competitiveness, and the energy access to the whole French people. These goals imply to keep up the nuclear option with the construction of the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) and to develop the renewable energies. The first title of the law is devoted to the mastery of energy demand and foresee the implementation of a system of energy saving certificates, the reinforcement of the thermal building codes law, and a better information of consumers. The second title aims at promoting the development of renewable energy sources. Finally, the third title aims at better warranting the equilibrium of power networks and the quality of power supplies. The first part of the document reports on the general discussions about the law project while the second part makes a detailed analysis of each article with the proposals of modifications made by the commission. (J.S.)

  1. N.6 report realized for the economical Affairs Commission on the law project, adopted by the National Assembly after urgency declaration, relative to the energy sector; N.6 rapport fait au nom de la commission des Affaires economiques sur le projet de loi, adopte par l'Assemblee Nationale apres declaration d'urgence, relatif au secteur de l'energie

    Poniatowski, L

    2006-10-15

    This law project concerns the organization of the french energy sector and the definition of the public utilities. After a presentation of the juridical environment of the european energy sector, the author shows, in the framework of the world energy situation, that the evolution of the juridical aspects of Gaz de France answers a real necessity. He then presents the initial law project dispositions, the modifications of the National Assembly and the amendment of the commission. (A.L.B.)

  2. Théories de la fréquence linguistique et interprétations des faits quantitatifs en sémantique

    Loiseau Sylvain

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available L'intérêt pour les phénomènes de fréquence dans la modélisation sémantique a crû particulièrement avec les modèles dits « usage-based » développés en linguistique cognitive. Dans ces modèles, les signes linguistiques sont le résultat d'une habituation et d'une conventionnalisation qui prend ses racines dans la répétition de l'usage. À partir de cette modélisation, plusieurs travaux ont visé à développer de nouvelles méthodes de description utilisant l'observation, en corpus, des fréquences. On passe alors d'une fréquence théorique et abstraite – même si elle est censée être garante d'une certaine empiricité – à une fréquence mesurée au moyen de méthodes quantitatives. Plusieurs auteurs ont souligné la difficulté d'« opérationaliser » cette fréquence. Ils ont souligné la nécessité de prendre en compte des phénomènes textuels. Dans cette article, je propose d'ajouter une contribution à la démonstration de la nécessité de prendre en compte les normes textuelles dans l'utilisation des faits de fréquence pour la modélisation sémantique. L'expérience proposée permet de montrer que les phénomènes de fréquence peuvent être utilisés pour distinguer des emplois d'un même mot entre le début et la fin de textes relevant d'un même genre. Ces résultats plaident, avec d'autres, pour une prise en compte des phénomènes textuels dans l'utilisation de données quantitatives pour la description sémantique. Ils plaident également pour une certaine prudence dans la tentation de considérer la fréquence comme un phénomène interprétable en termes causalistes et univoques plutôt que relevant de procédures interprétatives.

  3. Télétravail à domicile et nouveaux rapports au travail

    Françoise Sitnikoff

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Le travail à domicile est une organisation ancienne. Il se décline dans une série d’activités salariées ou indépendantes, réalisées pour partie ou en totalité dans l’espace domestique. Le télétravail à domicile, basé sur l’utilisation de l’informatique et des technologies de l’information et de la communication, en représente un aspect moderne. Il redéfinit les frontières spatio-temporelles qui ont fortement structuré le monde du travail. Obligeant souvent à une forte implication, valorisé pour la liberté et la créativité, questionnant la séparation des sphères professionnelle et privée, le télétravail à domicile, lorsqu’il est pratiqué par des populations qualifiées et amatrices d’autonomie, peut être considéré comme emblématique des transformations contemporaines du rapport au travail et du rapport à l’emploi. Cette thématique mêle des enjeux transversaux et nous interroge sur l’évolution des modes de vie, sur de nouvelles figures de l’autorité et sur de nouvelles formes de recherche du bonheur au travail.Home work is an old type of organization. It corresponds to many activities which are salaried or independent and which are realized partially or entirely in domestic space. Home telework, using ICT, represents a modern form of home work. It changes space-time frontiers which have traditionally characterized work organization. It can require a strong implication, it can bring freedom and creativity, it questions the frontiers between work and non work: home telework, concerning qualified people who want autonomy, can be regarded as a symbol of contemporary transformations of work and employment. Theses themes question us about new ways of life, about the evolution of authority, and about happiness in working life.

  4. Les dimensions spatiales du risque routier des deux-roues à moteur. Rapport final

    HANFF,N; Fleury, D.; Peytavin, Jf; GODILLON,S; CLABAUX,N; SAINT-GERAND,T; MEDJKANE,M; BENSAID,K; PROPECK,E; MILLOT, M

    2011-01-01

    Cette recherche repose sur le dépouillement et l‟analyse d‟un corpus de PV d‟accident de la circulation routière ayant eu lieu dans le département du Nord de février 2003 à décembre 2008 et dont les 2001 impliqués à DRM (conducteurs et passagers) sont des habitants de LMCU. Les informations, codées manuellement, sont absentes du fichier BAAC (Bulletin d‟Analyse des Accidents Corporels). Elles portent sur les caractéristiques socio-économiques des impliqués, les blessur...

  5. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    Sims, C S

    1989-09-01

    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry. PMID:2777549

  6. The radiological accident in Gilan

    The use of radioactive materials continues to offer a wide range of benefits throughout the world in medicine, research and industry. Precautions are, however, necessary in order to protect people from the detrimental effects of the radiation. Where the amount of radioactive material is substantial, e.g. with sources used in radiotherapy or industrial radiography, extreme care is necessary to prevent accidents that may have severe consequences for the individuals affected. Nevertheless, in spite of all precautions, accidents with radiation sources continue to occur. As part of its activities dealing with the safety of radiation sources, the IAEA follows up severe accidents in order to provide an account of their circumstances and medical aspects from which those organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources may learn. On 24 July 1996 a serious accident occurred at the Gilan combined cycle fossil fuel power plant in the Islamic Republic of Iran, when a worker who was moving thermal insulation materials around the plant noticed a shiny, pencil sized metal object lying in a trench and put it in his pocket. He was unaware that the metal object was an unshielded 185 GBq 192Ir source used for industrial radiography. This report compiles information about the medical and other aspects of the accident. As a result of exposure to the iridium source, the worker suffered from severe haematopoietic syndrome (bone marrow depression) and an unusually extended localized radiation injury requiring plastic surgery

  7. The radiological accident in Cochabamba

    In April 2002 an accident involving an industrial radiography source containing 192Ir occurred in Cochabamba, Bolivia, some 400 km from the capital, La Paz. A faulty radiography source container had been sent back to the headquarters of the company concerned in La Paz together with other equipment as cargo on a passenger bus. This gave rise to a potential for serious exposure for the bus passengers as well as for the company employees who were using and transporting the source. The Government of Bolivia requested the assistance of the IAEA under the terms of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. The IAEA in response assembled and sent to Bolivia a team composed of senior radiation safety experts and radiation pathology experts from Brazil, the United Kingdom and the IAEA to investigate the accident. The IAEA is grateful to the Government of Bolivia for the opportunity to report on this accident in order to disseminate the valuable lessons learned and help prevent similar accidents in the future

  8. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

  9. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs

  10. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...... of accidents in normally Danish winter seasons are remarkable alike the amount of salt used in praxis in the winter 2011/2012. • 2.7 ton NaCl/km when using brine spread with nozzles • 5 ton NaCl/km when using pre wetted salt. • 5.7 ton NaCl/km when using kombi spreaders The explanation is that spreading...... of brine with nozzles is precision spreading, while spreading of salt with rotation plate are very imprecise; you can measure 80% residual salt when using brine and only 40% when using pre wetted salt. Of course the result would be worse if dry (solid) salt were used on dry roads. A winter route in Denmark...

  11. [Venomous animal accidents in childhood

    Oliveira, J S; Campos, J A; Costa, D M

    1999-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: To highlight the importance of venomous animal accidents in childhood. The conducts are based on the proposals of the Ministério da Saúde do Brasil [Ministry of Health of Brazil] to standardize medical care in this kind of accident. This article shows the importance of early clinical diagnosis and assistance.METHODS: Review of international and national literature that includes original articles, official standards and books.RESULTS: Pediatricians may always feel insecure when they have to attend children who had venomous animal accidents because this kind of pathology is not very common. This article tries to offer easy guidelines and describes the main steps to be followed. Besides, peculiar or unusual aspects of these accidents are to be found in the literature referred to in the end of this article. Venomous animal accidents are always more severe in children, therefore resulting in higher mortality and sequelae. We assert that the early antivenom sera is extremely helpful.CONCLUSIONS: The systematization of the assistance may guarantee that the essential steps are followed thus making the assistance itself more effective. This is the purpose of the guidelines presented in this article. PMID:14685472

  12. Radioactive materials transport accident analysis

    Over the last 25 years, one of the major issues raised regarding radioactive material transportation has been the risk of severe accidents. While numerous studies have shown that traffic fatalities dominate the risk, modeling the risk of severe accidents has remained one of the most difficult analysis problems. This paper will show how models that were developed for nuclear spent fuel transport accident analysis can be adopted to obtain estimates of release fractions for other types of radioactive material such as vitrified highlevel radioactive waste. The paper will also show how some experimental results from fire experiments involving low level waste packaging can be used in modeling transport accident analysis with this waste form. The results of the analysis enable an analyst to clearly show the differences in the release fractions as a function of accident severity. The paper will also show that by placing the data in a database such as ACCESS trademark, it is possible to obtain risk measures for transporting the waste forms along proposed routes from the generator site to potential final disposal sites

  13. The TMI-2 accident evaluation program

    The accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor, now 10 years old, remains as the United States' worst commercial nuclear reactor accident. Although the consequences of the accident were restricted primarily to the plant itself, the potential consequences of the accident, should it have progressed further, are large enough to warrant close scrutiny of all aspects of the event. TMI-2 accident research is being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to provide the basis for more accurate calculations of source terms for postulated severe accidents. Research objectives supporting this goal include developing a comprehensive and consistent understanding of the mechanisms that controlled the progression of core damage and subsequent fission product behavior during the TMI-2 accident, and applying that understanding to the resolution of important severe accident safety issues. Developing a best-estimate scenario of the core melt progression during the accident is the focal point of the research and involves analytical work to interpret and integrate: (1) data recorded during the accident from plant instrumentation, (2) the post-accident state of the core, (3) results of the examination of material from the damaged core, and (4) related severe-accident research results. This paper summarizes the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Program that is being conducted for the USDOE and briefly describes the important results that have been achieved. The Program is divided into four parts: Sample Acquisition and Plant Examination, Accident Scenario, Standard Problem Exercise, and Information and Industry Coordination

  14. Une analyse d’une production de discours rapporté : l’introduction des tours de parole dans “Hills Like White Elephants” d’Ernest Hemingway

    Grégoire LACAZE

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cette nouvelle d’Ernest Hemingway est construite principalement autour du report de paroles au discours direct des deux personnages principaux. Elle a déjà fait l’objet de nombreuses études critiques, notamment sur le style de son auteur. Nous nous intéressons ici à un aspect souvent négligé dans ces études, l’introduction du discours direct, car celle-ci nous semble relativement importante dans la réception1 de la nouvelle.À partir de cette production de discours rapporté, nous étudierons comment le narrateur choisit d’introduire les différents tours de parole. Cette réflexion, s’inscrivant dans une perspective énonciative, s’appuiera sur une étude grammaticale et sémantique prenant en compte les spécificités du genre de la nouvelle et leur influence sur les choix stylistiques de l’auteur. Une étude statistique sur la composition des structures d’introduction du discours des personnages viendra étayer l’analyse.Hemingway’s short story, “Hills Like White Elephants”, is largely built around a reported dialogue involving two main characters. Although many critical studies have been devoted to this short story, focusing especially on Hemingway’s style, this paper seeks to explore a relatively neglected theme, namely the introduction of direct speech, which acquires significant importance in the reception of the short story.Thanks to the dialogue that materializes as an occurrence of reported speech produced by a reporter, we will study how the narrator chooses to introduce the various turns constituting the dialogue. This analysis, inscribed within the framework of an enunciative approach, aims at pointing out the stylistic devices used by the author. Both linguistic and semantic aspects will be taken into account as well as the specificities induced by the genre of the short story and their influence on the stylistic choices made by the author. The analysis will be backed up with statistical data

  15. Perceptions of rapport across the life span: Gaze patterns and judgment accuracy.

    Vicaria, Ishabel M; Bernieri, Frank J; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2015-06-01

    Although age-related deficits in emotion perception have been established using photographs of individuals, the extension of these findings to dynamic displays and dyads is just beginning. Similarly, most eye-tracking research in the person perception literature, including those that study age differences, have focused on individual attributes gleaned from static images; to our knowledge, no previous research has considered cue use in dyadic judgments with eye-tracking. The current study employed a Brunswikian lens model analysis in conjunction with eye-tracking measurements to study age differences in the judgment of rapport, a social construct comprised of mutual attentiveness, positive feelings, and coordination between interacting partners. Judgment accuracy and cue utilization of younger (n = 47) and older (n = 46) adults were operationalized as correlations between a perceiver's judgments and criterion values within a set of 34 brief interaction videos in which 2 opposite sex college students discussed a controversial topic. No age differences emerged in the accuracy of judgments; however, pathways to accuracy differed by age: Younger adults' judgments relied on some behavioral cues more than older adults. In addition, eye-tracking analyses revealed that older adults spent more time looking at the bodies of the targets in the videos, whereas younger adults spent more time looking at the targets' heads. The contributions from both the lens model and eye-tracking findings provide distinct but complementary insights to our understanding of age-related continuities and shifts in social perceptual processing. PMID:25894485

  16. Nuclear law and radiological accidents

    Nuclear activities in Brazil, and particularly the radiological accident of Goiania, are examined in the light of the environmental and nuclear laws of Brazil and the issue of responsibility. The absence of legislation covering radioactive wastes as well as the restrictions on Brazilian States to issue regulations covering nuclear activities are reviewed. The radiological accident and its consequences, including the protection and compensation of the victims, the responsibility of the shareholders of the Instituto Goiano de Radioterapia, operator of the radioactive source, the provisional storage and the final disposal at Abadia de Goias of the radioactive waste generated by the accident are reviewed. Finally, nuclear responsibility, the inapplicability of the Law 6453/77 which deals with nuclear damages, and the state liability regime are analysed in accordance with the principles of the Brazilian Federal Constitution. (author)

  17. Fukushima accident study using MELCOR

    Randall O Gauntt

    2013-01-01

    The accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station stunned the world as the sequences played out over severals days and videos of hydrogen explosions were televised as they took place.The accidents all resulted in severe damage to the reactor cores and releases of radioactivity to the environment despite heroic measures had taken by the operating personnel.The following paper provides some background into the development of these accidents and their root causes,chief among them,the prolonged station blackout conditions that isolated the reactors from their ultimate heat sink — the ocean.The interpretations given in this paper are summarized from a recently completed report funded by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE).

  18. Air cleaning in accident situations

    The Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) through its subsidiaries the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) established in 1979 a Group of Experts or Air Cleaning in Accident Situations. This group met seven times to establish a draft report based on its Terms of Reference which were to: 1) review the performance of off-gas cleaning systems in accident conditions; 2) collect information about operating experience with these systems; 3) seek to establish common principles for the design of off-gas systems; 4) review methods used in the different countries for testing filters from the standpoint of accident conditions; and 5) suggest specific mechanisms for improving cooperation, with regard, for example, to filter testing. The conclusions and recommendations of the Group are summarized

  19. Nuclear accidents - Liabilities and guarantees

    The 1992 Symposium on Nuclear Accidents - Liabilities and guarantees, organized by the OECD NUCLEAR Energy Agency in collaboration with the international Atomic Energy Agency, discussed the nuclear third party liability regime established by the Paris and Vienna Conventions, its advantages and shortcomings, and assessed the teachings of the Chernobyl accident in the context of that regime. The topics included the geographical scope of the Conventions, the definition of nuclear damage, in particular environmental damage, insurance cover and capacity, supplementary compensation by means of a collective contribution from the nuclear industry or governments, and finally, the international liability of States in case of a nuclear accident. This proceeding contains 26 papers which have been selected

  20. Severe accident simulation at Olkiuoto

    Tirkkonen, H.; Saarenpaeae, T. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), Olkiluoto (Finland); Cliff Po, L.C. [Micro-Simulation Technology, Montville, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A personal computer-based simulator was developed for the Olkiluoto nuclear plant in Finland for training in severe accident management. The generic software PCTRAN was expanded to model the plant-specific features of the ABB Atom designed BWR including its containment over-pressure protection and filtered vent systems. Scenarios including core heat-up, hydrogen generation, core melt and vessel penetration were developed in this work. Radiation leakage paths and dose rate distribution are presented graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an 486 DX2-66, PCTRAN-TVO achieves a speed about 15 times faster than real-time. A convenient and user-friendly graphic interface allows full interactive control. In this paper a review of the component models and verification runs are presented.

  1. Severe accident management guidelines tool

    Severe Accident is addressed by means of a great number of documents such as guidelines, calculation aids and diagnostic trees. The response methodology often requires the use of several documents at the same time while Technical Support Centre members need to assess the appropriate set of equipment within the adequate mitigation strategies. In order to facilitate the response, TECNATOM has developed SAMG TOOL, initially named GGAS TOOL, which is an easy to use computer program that clearly improves and accelerates the severe accident management. The software is designed with powerful features that allow the users to focus on the decision-making process. Consequently, SAMG TOOL significantly improves the severe accident training, ensuring a better response under a real situation. The software is already installed in several Spanish Nuclear Power Plants and trainees claim that the methodology can be followed easier with it, especially because guidelines, calculation aids, equipment information and strategies availability can be accessed immediately (authors)

  2. Internal Accident Report on EDH

    SC Department

    2006-01-01

    The A2 Safety Code requires that, the Internal Accident Report form must be filled in by the person concerned or any witness to ensure that all the relevant services are informed. Please note that an electronic version of this form has been elaborated in collaboration with SC-IE, HR-OPS-OP and IT-AIS. Whenever possible, the electronic form shall be used. The relative icon is available on the EDH Desktop, Other tasks page, under the Safety heading, or directly here: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Accident/. If you have any questions, please contact the SC Secretariat, tel. 75097 Please notice that the Internal Accident Report is an integral part of the Safety Code A2 and does not replace the HS50.

  3. Hindsight Bias in Cause Analysis of Accident

    Atsuo Murata; Yasunari Matsushita

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that hindsight becomes an obstacle to the objective investigation of an accident, and that the proper countermeasures for the prevention of such an accident is impossible if we view the accident with hindsight. Therefore, it is important for organizational managers to prevent hindsight from occurring so that hindsight does not hinder objective and proper measures to be taken and this does not lead to a serious accident. In this study, a basic phenomenon potentially related to accidents, that is, hindsight was taken up, and an attempt was made to explore the phenomenon in order to get basically insights into the prevention of accidents caused by such a cognitive bias.

  4. Road Traffic Accidents in Kazakhstan

    Alma Aubakirova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The article provides the analysis of death rates in road traffic accidents in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2010 and explores the use of sanitary aviation.Methods: Data of fatalities caused by road traffic accidents were collected and analysed. Descriptive and analytical methods of epidemiology and biomedical statistics were applied.Results: Totaly 27,003 people died as a result of road traffic accidents in this period. The death rate for the total population due to road traffic accidents was 25.0±2.10/0000. The death rate for men was (38.3±3.20/0000, which was higher (P<0.05 than that for women (12.6±1.10/0000. High death rates in the entire male population were identified among men of 30-39 years old, whereas the highest rates for women were attributed to the groups of 50-59 years old and 70-79 years old. In time dynamics, death rates tended to decrease: the total population (Тdec=−2.4%, men (Тdec=−2.3% and women (Тdec=−1.4%. When researching territorial relevance, the rates were established as low (to 18.30/0000, average (between18.3 and24.00/0000 and high (from 24.00/0000 and above. Thus, the regions with high rates included Akmola region (24.30/0000, Mangistau region (25.90/0000, Zhambyl region (27.30/0000, Almaty region (29.30/0000 and South Kazakhstan region (32.40/0000.Conclusion: The identified epidemiological characteristics of the population deaths rates from road traffic accidents should be used in integrated and targeted interventions to enhance prevention of injuries in accidents.

  5. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    In 2001, we summarized the circumstances surrounding termination of the JCO criticality accident based on testimony in the Mito District Court on December 17, 2001. JCO was the company for uranium fuels production in Japan. That document was assembled based on actual testimony in the belief that a description of the work involved in termination of the accident would be useful in some way for preventing nuclear disasters in the future. The description focuses on the witness' own behavior, and what he saw and heard, and thus is written from the perspective of action by one individual. This was done simply because it was easier for the witness to write down his memories as he remembers them. Description of the activities of other organizations and people is provided only as necessary, to ensure that consistency in the descriptive approach is not lost. The essentials of this report were rewritten as a third-person objective description in the summary of the report by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). Since then, comments have been received from sources such as former members of the Nuclear Safety Commission (Dr. Kenji Sumita and Dr. Akira Kanagawa), concerned parties from the former Science and Technology Agency, and reports from the JCO Criticality Accident Investigation Committee of the AESJ, and thus this report was rewritten to correct incorrect information, and add material where that was felt to be necessary. This year is the tenth year of the JCO criticality accident. To mark this occasion we have decided to translate the record of what occurred at the accident site into English so that more people can draw lessons from this accident. This report is an English version of JAEA-Technology 2009-073. (author)

  6. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    The techniques currently used in off-site consequence modelling are applied to the Chernobyl accident. Firstly, the time dependent spread of radioactive material across the European continent is considered, followed by a preliminary assessment of the dosimetric impact (in terms of collective and mean individual doses) on the various countries of Eastern and Western Europe. The consequences of the accident in the USSR are also discussed. Finally, the likely implications of the Chernobyl event on research in the field of environmental consequence assessment are outlined. (author)

  7. Severe accident source term reassessment

    This paper summarizes the status of the reassessment of severe reactor accident source terms, which are defined as the quantity, type, and timing of fission product releases from such accidents. Concentration is on the major results and conclusions of analyses with modern methods for both pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs), and the special case of containment bypass. Some distinctions are drawn between analyses for PWRs and BWRs. In general, the more the matter is examined, the consequences, or probability of serious consequences, seem to be less. (author)

  8. The nature of reactor accidents

    Reactor accidents are events which result in the release of radioactive material from a nuclear power plant due to the failure of one or more critical components of that plant. The failures, depending on their number and type, can result in releases whose consequences range from negligible to catastrophic. By way of examples, this paper describes four specific accidents which cover this range of consequence: failure of a reactor control system, loss of coolant, loss of coolant with impaired containment, and reactor core meltdown. For each a possible sequence of events and an estimate of the expected frequency are presented

  9. Civil liability concerning nuclear accidents

    France and the USA wish to cooperate in order to promote an international regime of civil liability in order to give a fair compensation to victims of nuclear accidents as it is recommended by IAEA. On the other hand the European Commission has launched a consultation to see the necessity or not to harmonize all the civil liability regimes valid throughout Europe. According to the Commission the potential victims of nuclear accidents would not receive equal treatment at the European scale in terms of insurance cover and compensation which might distort competition in the nuclear sector. (A.C.)

  10. Ignalina accident localisation system response to maximum design basis accident

    In this paper the study of the accident localisation system (ALS) of the Ignalina nuclear power plant (NPP) with RBMK-1500 reactors (large-power channel-type water-cooled graphite-moderated reactor) with regard to a maximum design basis accident (MDBA) is presented. The MDBA for Ignalina NPP constitutes a guillotine rupture of the maximum diameter pipe. The thermal-hydraulic and structural analyses were performed using the RELAP5, CONTAIN and ALGOR codes. The coolant mass and energy discharge source terms to the accident compartment were established using the RELAP5 code. This was then used as a source term for the long-term accident thermal-hydraulic analysis of ALS compartments employing the CONTAIN code. Results obtained by the CONTAIN calculations establish a basis for the structural analysis. A finite-element method has been used for ALS structural analysis using the ALGOR code, the results of which show that the structures of the ALS would not be breached by the pressure attained in the event of an MDBA. (author)

  11. Industrial accidents in nuclear power plants

    In 12 nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany with a total of 3678 employees, 25 notifiable company personnel accidents and 46 notifiable outside personnel accidents were reported for an 18-month period. (orig./HP)

  12. Road Accident Trends in Africa and Europe

    Jørgensen, N O

    1997-01-01

    The paper decribes trends and suggests prediction models for accident risks in African and European countries......The paper decribes trends and suggests prediction models for accident risks in African and European countries...

  13. 49 CFR 229.17 - Accident reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 225. ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 229.17 Section 229.17..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS General § 229.17 Accident reports. (a)...

  14. How to reduce the number of accidents

    2012-01-01

    Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. HSE Unit

  15. Lessons of the radiological accident in Goiania

    On the basis of the lessons teamed from the radiological accident of Goiania, actions are described which a nuclear regulatory body should undertake while responding to an accident of this nature. (author)

  16. New technology for accident prevention

    Byne, P. [Shiftwork Solutions, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This power point presentation examined the effects of fatigue in the workplace and presented 3 technologies designed to prevent or monitor fatigue. The relationship between mental fatigue, circadian rhythms and cognitive performance was explored. Details of vigilance related degradations in the workplace were presented, as well as data on fatigue-related accidents and a time-line of meter-reading errors. It was noted that the direct cause of the Exxon Valdez disaster was sleep deprivation. Fatigue related accidents during the Gulf War were reviewed. The effects of fatigue on workplace performance include impaired logical reasoning and decision-making; impaired vigilance and attention; slowed mental operations; loss of situational awareness; slowed reaction time; and short cuts and lapses in optional or self-paced behaviours. New technologies to prevent fatigue-related accidents include (1) the driver fatigue monitor, an infra-red camera and computer that tracks a driver's slow eye-lid closures to prevent fatigue related accidents; (2) a fatigue avoidance scheduling tool (FAST) which collects actigraphs of sleep activity; and (3) SAFTE, a sleep, activity, fatigue and effectiveness model. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. Traffic accident with radioactive material

    A traffic accident with a package with radioactive contents of the category 'III-YELLOW' remaining undamaged, caused complete confusion among the responsible rescue services. All forces active until professional fire-brigades arrived showed a deficit of tactical radiation protection behaviour. Even a medical unit with an equipped emergency task force in situ and radiation protection equipment did not feel responsible. (DG)

  18. Accident consequence assessment code development

    This paper describes the new computer code system, OSCAAR developed for off-site consequence assessment of a potential nuclear accident. OSCAAR consists of several modules which have modeling capabilities in atmospheric transport, foodchain transport, dosimetry, emergency response and radiological health effects. The major modules of the consequence assessment code are described, highlighting the validation and verification of the models. (author)

  19. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

  20. Standby after the Chernobyl accident

    The report is an investigation concerning strandby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The final report is divided into two parts: 'I: Facts' and 'II: Analyzes'. 'Facts': The Swedish model for information: radio, press. Basic knowledge about ionizing radiation in the society. Resources for information. Need for information. Message forms for information. Announcements from the authorities in TV, radio, press, meeting, advertisements. Statements concerning the reactor accident and its consequences in Swedish mass media. How did the public recieve the information? 'Analyzis': Information responsibilities and policies. SSI information activities concerning radiologic accidents, conditions, methods and resources. Ditto for SKI, Swedish National Food Administration and the National Board of Agriculture. Appendix I: Information from authorities in the press three weeks after the Chernobyl accident: The material and the methods. The acute phase, the adoptation phase, the extension of the persective. What is said about the authorities in connection with Chernobyl? Appendix II: The fallout from Chernobyl, the authorities and the media coverage: The nationwide, regional and local coverage from radio and television. Ditto from the press. Topic and problem areas in reporting. Instructions from the authorities in media. Contribution in the media from people representing the authorities. Fallout in a chronologic perspective. (L.F.)

  1. Calculating nuclear accident probabilities from empirical frequencies

    Ha-Duong, Minh; Journé, V.

    2014-01-01

    International audience Since there is no authoritative, comprehensive and public historical record of nuclear power plant accidents, we reconstructed a nuclear accident data set from peer-reviewed and other literature. We found that, in a sample of five random years, the worldwide historical frequency of a nuclear major accident, defined as an INES level 7 event, is 14 %. The probability of at least one nuclear accident rated at level ≥4 on the INES scale is 67 %. These numbers are subject...

  2. Trismus: An unusual presentation following road accident

    Thakur Jagdeep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trismus due to trauma usually follows road accidents leading to massive faciomaxillary injury. In the literature there is no report of a foreign body causing trismus following a road accident, this rare case is an exception. We present a case of isolated presentation of trismus following a road accident. This case report stresses on the thorough evaluation of patients presenting with trismus following a road accident.

  3. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures

  4. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause...

  5. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention....

  6. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  7. Computerised severe accident management aids

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project in Norway is running two development projects in the area of computerised accident management in cooperation with the Swedish nuclear plant Forsmark unit 2. Also other nuclear organisations in the Nordic countries take part in the projects. The SAS II system is installed at Forsmark and is now being validated against the plant compact simulator and is later to be installed in the plant control room. It is designed to follow all defined critical safety functions in the same manner as is done in the functionally oriented Emergency Operating Procedures. The shift supervisor thus uses SAS II as a complementary information system after a plant disturbance . The plant operators still use the ordinary instrumentation and the event oriented procedures. This gives to a high extent both redundancy and diversity in information channels and in procedures. Further, a new system is under discussion which goes a step further in accident management than SAS II. It is called the Computerised Accident Management Support (CAMS) system. The objective is to make a computerised tool that can assist both the control room crew and the technical support centre in accident mitigation, especially in the early stages of an accident where the integrity of the core still can be maintained if proper counteractions to the accident sequence are taken. In CAMS another approach is taken than in SAS II by putting the process parameters in focus. A more elaborate signal validation is proposed. The validated signals are input to models that calculates mass and energy balances of the primary system. Among parameters calculated are residual heat. Experiences from these two approaches to computerised accident management support are presented and discussed. In summary: The original project proposal aimed particularly for operator and TSC support during severe accidents. In the CAMS design proposal we have, however, promoted the SMABRE code which is not designed for such

  8. Natural Afsluitdijk. Phase 1. Report Marketing Research Afsluitdijk; Natuurlijk Afsluitdijk. Fase 1 rapport Marktverkenning Afsluitdijk

    NONE

    2008-07-15

    An overview is given of sketches and ideas for an integral vision on the Afsluitdijk, Netherlands with regard to safety, sustainability and innovation. Chapter 2 sheds a light on the original idea and explains the elaborated vision. Chapter 3 contains the integral vision, discussing the development process, the design models and the elaboration of the various functions, including their synergy. Chapter 4 addresses the feasibility of the vision. Chapter 5 examines the effects and the stakeholders. Chapter 6 provides the legal and administrative frameworks and chapter 7 provides a preliminary analysis of the shaping of the public-private process. Finally, chapter 8 provides a state of the art at the end of phase 1 of the marketing research Afsluitdijk. [Dutch] Dit rapport van het consortium 'Natuurlijk Afsluitdijk' bevat schetsen en ideeen voor een integrale visie op de Afsluitdijk t.a.v. veiligheid, duurzaamheid en innovatie. Het Consortium Natuurlijk Afsluitdijk bestaat uit de volgende partijen: Wubbo Ockels B.V.; Haskoning Nederland B.V.; Cooperatieve Centrale Raiffeisen-Boerenleenbank B.A. (Rabobank); Van Oord Dredging and Marine Contractors B.V.; Koninklijke BAM Groep N.V. (BAM); Raadgevend Ingenieursbureau Lievense B.V.; Eneco Milieu B.V. Hoofdstuk 2 belicht het oorspronkelijke idee en geeft de uitgewerkte visie weer. Hoofdstuk 3 is de 'Integrale visie', waarbij zowel het ontwikkelproces, de ontwerpmodellen en de uitwerking van de verschillende functies, inclusief hun synergie worden weergegeven. In hoofdstuk 4 komt de haalbaarheid aan de orde. In hoofdstuk 5 komen de effecten en stakeholders aan de orde. In hoofdstuk 6 de wettelijke en bestuurlijke kaders en in hoofdstuk 7 wordt een eerste analyse gegeven van de vormgeving van het publiekprivate proces. Hoofdstuk 8 tenslotte geeft de stand van zaken aan het einde van fase 1 van de Marktverkenning Afsluitdijk.

  9. Sociographie d’un rapport au temps comme fondement de la culture professionnelle

    Abou Ndiaye

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Signer un contrat de travail c’est convenir de louer à une entreprise, contre rétribution, une partie de son temps personnel. Cet usage est borné par la loi, les accords de branche et les accords d’entreprise. Mais, dans certaines conditions, pour certaines raisons et pour des motivations jugées plus ou moins personnelles, un travailleur peut faire des « gratuités » et des arrangements exorbitants au regard de la réglementation et semble-t-il, en accord avec ses propres principes et valeurs… C’est ce que nous nommons le rapport au temps. D’où, en signalant que l’emploi du temps individuel et sa rétribution constituent les principaux objets de transaction dans le monde salarial, on conçoit donc que le rapport au temps est l’élément structurant de la culture professionnelle. Celle-ci correspond à un ensemble de prescriptions et/ou de proscriptions, de manières de se comporter, d’agir… relevant a priori d’un bon sens (professionnel partagé par les membres d’un groupe professionnel. Cette culture professionnelle amalgame, englobe et transcende les cultures spécifiques d’entreprise. Chez les agents d’animation, par exemple, quel que soit l’employeur, chacun trouve « normal » de travailler dans un temps scandé et « déritualisé », haché et fragmenté, bref décalé de la temporalité sociale dominante, là où, ailleurs, dans un autre domaine d’activité, cette situation aurait été jugée inacceptable ou refusée… De même que l’animateur attend que son travail lui donne plaisir et respecte sa vie personnelle, ce qui n’est pas forcément vrai chez le salarié ordinaire.Sociography of a « culture of time » as a foundation of professional cultureThe example of sociocultural officersWorking for a company means renting to it for money a part of a personal time. This time is used according law, branch agreements and company level. But, in certain conditions, for some personal

  10. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures known to us, the various road locations are treated as isolated spots. With small accident figures it is difficult to detect such places in the known procedures. An alternative procedure starts from...

  11. Occupational accidents in Turkey and providing and development of safety culture in preventing occupational accidents

    Dursun, Salih

    2011-01-01

    Occupational accidents cause socially and economically significant loss both in developed and developing countries. According to ILO each year, 2.2 million people lost their lives in the occupational accident. In Turkey, over 1600 people die in these accidents every year. In this case, an important part of occupational accidents like 95% based on “human”, requires more people-oriented approaches towards the prevention of accidents. In this context, to provide and develop the safety culture, w...

  12. Use of PSA and severe accident assessment results for the accident management

    The objectives for this study are to investigate the basic principle or methodology which is applicable to accident management, by using the results of PSA and severe accident research, and also facilitate the preparation of accidents management program in the future. This study was performed as follows: derivation of measures for core damage prevention, derivation of measures for accident mitigation, application of computerized tool to assess severe accident management

  13. Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    On the evening of April 20, 2010, a well control event allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in explosions and fire on the rig. Eleven people lost their lives, and 17 others were injured. The fire, which was fed by hydrocarbons from the well, continued for 36 hours until the rig sank. Hydrocarbons continued to flow from the reservoir through the wellbore and the blowout preventer (BOP) for 87 days, causing a spill of national significance. BP Exploration and Production Inc. was the lease operator of Mississippi Canyon Block 252, which contains the Macondo well. BP formed an investigation team that was charged with gathering the facts surrounding the accident, analyzing available information to identify possible causes and making recommendations to enable prevention of similar accidents in the future. The BP investigation team began its work immediately in the aftermath of the accident, working independently from other BP spill response activities and organizations. The ability to gather information was limited by a scarcity of physical evidence and restricted access to potentially relevant witnesses. The team had access to partial real-time data from the rig, documents from various aspects of the Macondo well's development and construction, witness interviews and testimony from public hearings. The team used the information that was made available by other companies, including Transocean, Halliburton and Cameron. Over the course of the investigation, the team involved over 50 internal and external specialists from a variety of fields: safety, operations, subsea, drilling, well control, cementing, well flow dynamic modeling, BOP systems and process hazard analysis. This report presents an analysis of the events leading up to the accident, eight key findings related to the causal chain of events and recommendations to enable the prevention of a similar accident. The investigation team worked

  14. Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report

    On the evening of April 20, 2010, a well control event allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in explosions and fire on the rig. Eleven people lost their lives, and 17 others were injured. The fire, which was fed by hydrocarbons from the well, continued for 36 hours until the rig sank. Hydrocarbons continued to flow from the reservoir through the wellbore and the blowout preventer (BOP) for 87 days, causing a spill of national significance. BP Exploration and Production Inc. was the lease operator of Mississippi Canyon Block 252, which contains the Macondo well. BP formed an investigation team that was charged with gathering the facts surrounding the accident, analyzing available information to identify possible causes and making recommendations to enable prevention of similar accidents in the future. The BP investigation team began its work immediately in the aftermath of the accident, working independently from other BP spill response activities and organizations. The ability to gather information was limited by a scarcity of physical evidence and restricted access to potentially relevant witnesses. The team had access to partial real-time data from the rig, documents from various aspects of the Macondo well's development and construction, witness interviews and testimony from public hearings. The team used the information that was made available by other companies, including Transocean, Halliburton and Cameron. Over the course of the investigation, the team involved over 50 internal and external specialists from a variety of fields: safety, operations, subsea, drilling, well control, cementing, well flow dynamic modeling, BOP systems and process hazard analysis. This report presents an analysis of the events leading up to the accident, eight key findings related to the causal chain of events and recommendations to enable the prevention of a similar accident. The investigation team worked separately

  15. Rapport de Master-recherche : Estimation de canal à évanouissements lents pour les communications radio-mobiles

    Ghandour - Haidar, Soukayna

    2010-01-01

    encadrants du laboratoire Gipsa-lab: Ros Laurent, Brossier Jean-Marc Ce rapport de stage de Master Recherche traite du problème de l'estimation du canal de transmission en communication radio-mobile. Les domaines d'applications visés concernent plus généralement les communications sans fil (WIFI, UMTS, WIMAX, 4G, LTE, ..). Le " modèle de Rayleigh à spectre Doppler de Jakes " est le modèle aléatoire le plus largement accepté dans la littérature pour modéliser les variations temporelles (ou ...

  16. ACI sécurité informatique KAA (Key Authentification Ambient) : Rapport final ACI sécurité informatique

    Galice, Samuel; Legrand, Veronique; Le Mouël, Frédéric; Minier, Marine; Ubéda, Stéphane; Morvan, Michel; Sené, Sylvain; Guihéry, Laurent; Rabagny, Agnès; Moret-Bailly, Joël,; Neuville, Jean-Philippe; Pousin, Jérome

    2007-01-01

    " Rapport de recherche issue de l'Action Concertée Interdisciplinaire (ACI) Sécurité Informatique KAA (Key Authentification Ambient). " Inscrit dans l'Action Concertée Interdisciplinaire "Sécurité informatique" (ACI SI 2004 Ministère délégué à la Recherche et aux Nouvelles Technologies en collaboration avec le département Sciences et Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication du CNRS, avec l'INRIA et la DGA) ayant pour objectif de proposer un "modèle de confiance pour les objets com...

  17. Rapport d'étude : La perception des risques majeurs par les riverains du CEA de Cadarache

    Lopez, Alexia; Régner, Isabelle; Schleyer-Lindenmann, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Ce rapport d'étude vient répondre aux interrogations de son commanditaire, la CLI (Commission Local d'Information) du CEA (Commissariat à l'énergie Atomique) de Cadarache. Il s'organise en trois partie : une première partie établit un état des lieux des connaissances des risques majeurs par les habitants. Les risques majeurs officiellement recensés sont : le risque feu de forêt, le risque inondation, le risque sismique, le risque de mouvement de terrain, le risque de rupture de barrage, et le...

  18. Fertilité des sols : conclusions du rapport sur l’état des sols de France

    Arrouays, Dominique; Antoni, V. (ed.); Bardy, Marion; Bispo, A; Brossard, M.; Jolivet, Claudy; Le Bas, Christine; Martin, Manuel; Saby, Nicolas; Schnebelen, Nathalie; Villanneau, Estelle; STENGEL, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Les sols constituent une ressource naturelle non renouvelable. Leurs usages et leur devenir représentent un enjeu collectif majeur, tant pour les activités agricoles ou sylvicoles que pour la préservation de la qualité de notre environnement. Après dix ans de travaux, le Groupement d’Intérêt Scientifique sur les sols, le Gis Sol, a dressé le premier bilan scientifiquement quantifié de l’état des sols de France métropolitaine et d’Outre-mer dans un rapport sur l’état des sols de France publié ...

  19. Development of TRAIN for accident management

    Severe accident management can be defined as the use of existing and alternative resources, systems, and actions to prevent or mitigate a core-melt accident in nuclear power plants. TRAIN (Training pRogram for AMP In NPP), developed for training control room staff and the technical group, is introduced in this paper. The TRAIN composes of phenomenological knowledge base (KB), accident sequence KB and accident management procedures with AM strategy control diagrams and information needs. This TRAIN might contribute to training them by obtaining phenomenological knowledge of severe accidents, understanding plant vulnerabilities, and solving problems under high stress. (author)

  20. Cost per severe accident as an index for severe accident consequence assessment and its applications

    The Fukushima Accident emphasizes the need to integrate the assessments of health effects, economic impacts, social impacts and environmental impacts, in order to perform a comprehensive consequence assessment of severe accidents in nuclear power plants. “Cost per severe accident” is introduced as an index for that purpose. The calculation methodology, including the consequence analysis using level 3 probabilistic risk assessment code OSCAAR and the calculation method of the cost per severe accident, is proposed. This methodology was applied to a virtual 1,100 MWe boiling water reactor. The breakdown of the cost per severe accident was provided. The radiation effect cost, the relocation cost and the decontamination cost were the three largest components. Sensitivity analyses were carried out, and parameters sensitive to cost per severe accident were specified. The cost per severe accident was compared with the amount of source terms, to demonstrate the performance of the cost per severe accident as an index to evaluate severe accident consequences. The ways to use the cost per severe accident for optimization of radiation protection countermeasures and for estimation of the effects of accident management strategies are discussed as its applications. - Highlights: • Cost per severe accident is used for severe accident consequence assessment. • Assessments of health, economic, social and environmental impacts are included. • Radiation effect, relocation and decontamination costs are important cost components. • Cost per severe accident can be used to optimize radiation protection measures. • Effects of accident management can be estimated using the cost per severe accident

  1. Emergency department radiation accident protocol.

    Leonard, R B; Ricks, R C

    1980-09-01

    Every emergency department faces the potential problem of handling one or more victims of a radiation accident. While emergency departments near nuclear power plants or isotope production laboratories probably have a detailed protocol for such emergencies, a similar protocol is needed for the emergency department that may have to handle an isolated event, such as a vehicular accident that spills radioactive material and contaminates passengers or bystanders. This communication attempts to answer that need, presenting a step-by-step protocol for decontamination of a radiation victim, the rationale on which each step is based, a list of needed supplies, and a short summary of decorporation procedures that should be started in the emergency department. PMID:7425419

  2. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1987-01-01

    A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC......); 59% above 0.08%. In all cases where a pillion passenger was killed, the operator of the motorcycle had a BAC greater than 0.08%. Of the killed counterparts 2 were non-intoxicated, 2 had a BAC greater than 0.08%, and 4 were not tested. The results advocate that the law should restrict alcohol...... consumption by pillion passengers as well as by the motorcycle operator. Suggestions made to extend the data base needed for developing appropriate alcohol countermeasures by collecting sociodemographic data on drivers killed or seriously injured should be supported....

  3. Psychological factors of radiation accidents

    With reference to world, internal and personal experience, an attempt is made to reveal psychological mechanisms determining the attitude of a person to ionizing radiation using for this purpose the conceptions of mental stress and psychological adaptation. On the example of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, in the light of the above conceptions, the paper describes psychic reactions of the personnel of the nuclear power plant and other groups of people to the heavy radiation accident. For improvement of the activity for liquidation of the accident after-effects it is suggested to use the system of psychophysiological support of the rescue units, including psychophysiological training and support, as well as functional rehabilitation of specialists. 11 refs

  4. Accident Simulation: Design and Results

    Idasiak, Vincent; David, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    International audience The French legislation regulates the functioning of factories that may be dangerous towards their environment. This legislation imposes the creation of an Internal Operation Plan (P.O.I.) on the plant managers. Those plans describe the proceedings that have to be implemented in case of an accident. Within a framework involving our laboratory and a gas company we have designed a software to create, maintain and execute P.O.I.s . In this paper, in addition to the softw...

  5. Transport accident emergency response plan

    To comply with the IAEA recommendations for the implementation of an Emergency Response Plan as described in Safety Series 87, Transnucleaire, a company deeply involved in the road and rail transports of the fuel cycle, masters means of Emergency Response in the event of a transport accident. This paper aims at analyzing the solutions adopted for the implementation of an Emergency Response Plan and the development of a technical support and adapted means for the recovery of heavy packagings. (authors)

  6. Standards for reactor accident cases

    The Committee on Standards for reactor accident cases in the Netherlands published its recommendations to the Minister of Health. Maximum permissible quantities of radiation and radionuclide intake are presented for adults and children as well as pregnant women. Exposure limit standards for the whole body as well as specific organs and other parts are given. Also considered is the contamination of cattle and cows' milk. The standards are compared with those of the ICRP and the English Medical Research Council

  7. Radiation accident in Viet Nam

    In November 1992 a Vietnamese research physicist was working with a microtron accelerator when he received a radiation overexposure that required the subsequent amputation of his right hand. A team from the International Atomic Energy Agency visited Hanoi in March 1993 to carry out an investigation. It was concluded that the accident occurred primarily due to a lack of safety systems although the lack of both written procedures and training in basic radiation safety were also major contributors. (author)

  8. Accident/Mishap Investigation System

    Keller, Richard; Wolfe, Shawn; Gawdiak, Yuri; Carvalho, Robert; Panontin, Tina; Williams, James; Sturken, Ian

    2007-01-01

    InvestigationOrganizer (IO) is a Web-based collaborative information system that integrates the generic functionality of a database, a document repository, a semantic hypermedia browser, and a rule-based inference system with specialized modeling and visualization functionality to support accident/mishap investigation teams. This accessible, online structure is designed to support investigators by allowing them to make explicit, shared, and meaningful links among evidence, causal models, findings, and recommendations.

  9. The reactor accident of Chernobyl

    The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.)

  10. Thyroid blocking after nuclear accidents

    Following the Chernobyl accident a marked increase in thyroid cancer incidence among the children in Belarus, the Ukraine and Russia has been detected, strongly suggesting a causal relationship to the large amounts of radioactive iodine isotopes in the resulting fallout. Taking into account the Chernobyl experience the German Committee on Radiation Protection decided to reduce the intervention levels on the basis of the 1989 WHO recommendations and adopted a new concept concerning thyroid blocking in response to nuclear power plant accidents. Experimental animal studies and theoretical considerations show that thyroid blocking with potassium iodide (KI) in a dose of about 1.4 mg per kg body weight is most effective in reducing irradiation to the thyroid from the intake of radioiodine nuclides, provided KI is given within 2 hours after exposure. According to the new concept, persons over 45 years of age should not take iodine tablets because the drug could cause a greater health risk due to prevalent functional thyroid autonomy in this age group than the radioactive iodine averted by KI. On the basis of accident analysis and the new philosophy suitable distribution strategies and logistics are proposed and discussed. (orig.)

  11. Chernobyl accident. Exposures and effects

    The Chernobyl accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986 happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance. The operators, in violation of safety regulations, had switched off important control systems and allowed the reactor to reach unstable, low-power conditions. A sudden power surge caused a steam explosion that ruptured the reactor vessel and allowed further violent fuel-steam interactions that destroyed the reactor and the reactor building. The Chernobyl accident was the most serious to have ever occurred in the nuclear power industry. The accident caused the early death of 30 power plant employees and fire fighters and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by several million people. Radionuclides released from the reactor that caused exposure of individuals were mainly iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Iodine-131 has a short radioactive half-life (8 days), but it can be transferred relatively rapidly through milk and leafy vegetables to humans. Iodine becomes localized in the thyroid gland. For reasons of intake of these foods, size of thyroid gland and metabolism, the thyroid doses are usually greater to infants and children than to adults. The isotopes of caesium have relatively long half-lives (caesium-134: 2 years; caesium-137: 30 years). These radionuclides cause long-term exposures through the ingestion pathway and from external exposure to these radionuclides deposited on the ground. In addition to radiation exposure, the accident caused long-term changes in the lives of people living in the contaminated regions, since measures intended to limit radiation doses included resettlements, changes in food supplies, and restrictions in activities of individuals and families. These changes were accompanied by major economic, social and political changes in the affected countries resulting

  12. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Galstyan I.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS, developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

  13. Leukaemia incidents after Chernobyl accident

    Romania and especially its Eastern territory were among the most heavily affected area after Chernobyl accident. The objective of our study was to investigate whether or not the nuclear accident determined an increased number of leukaemia cases. The specific rates of leukaemia incidents by age group were calculated in 588167 children aged 0-6 years in April 1986 and 99917 children which have been exposed 'in utero'. The rates of 1989-1994 period were compared with the rates of 1980-1985 period. The incidence rates were lower in the exposed group than that in controls for children under 1 year (20.52/105 inh vs 23.11/105 inh), 1-3 years (13.26/105 inh vs 16.11/105 inh) and 4-6 years (9.58/105 inh vs 10.58/105 inh). The cohort of 'in utero' exposed children presented a leukaemia incidences insignificantly higher than that before the accident (23.10/105 inh vs 15.93/105 inh)

  14. Accident analysis and DOE criteria

    In analyzing the radiological consequences of major accidents at DOE facilities one finds that many facilities fall so far below the limits of DOE Order 6430 that compliance is easily demonstrated by simple analysis. For those cases where the amount of radioactive material and the dispersive energy available are enough for accident consequences to approach the limits, the models and assumptions used become critical. In some cases the models themselves are the difference between meeting the criteria or not meeting them. Further, in one case, we found that not only did the selection of models determine compliance but the selection of applicable criteria from different chapters of Order 6430 also made the difference. DOE has recognized the problem of different criteria in different chapters applying to one facility, and has proceeded to make changes for the sake of consistency. We have proposed to outline the specific steps needed in an accident analysis and suggest appropriate models, parameters, and assumptions. As a result we feed DOE siting and design criteria will be more fairly and consistently applied

  15. Severe accidents at nuclear power plants. Their risk assessment and accident management

    This document is to explain the severe accident issues. Severe Accidents are defined as accidents which are far beyond the design basis and result in severe damage of the core. Accidents at Three Mild Island in USA and at Chernobyl in former Soviet Union are examples of severe accidents. The causes and progressions of the accidents as well as the actions taken are described. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is a method to estimate the risk of severe accidents at nuclear reactors. The methodology for PSA is briefly described and current status on its application to safety related issues is introduced. The acceptability of the risks which inherently accompany every technology is then discussed. Finally, provision of accident management in Japan is introduced, including the description of accident management measures proposed for BWRs and PWRs. (author)

  16. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B4C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding rate

  17. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Hoejerup, F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Puska, E.K. [VTT Energy, Helsinki (Finland); Nilsson, Lars [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Sjoevall, H. [Teoliisuuden Voima Oy (Finland)

    1999-11-01

    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B{sub 4}C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding

  18. Activity report of the DPHD 2000; Rapport d'activite du DPHD 2000

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report concerns the activities of the department of protection of health for man and dosimetry at I.P.S.N. for the year 2000. It studied and presents dosimetry, the first chapter is relative to external, internal and in case of accident, the second chapter discusses radiobiology and radio-pathology through biological dosimetry, diagnosis and prognosis of radioinduced damages and therapy of radioinduced damage, the third chapter is devoted to evaluation and management of risks with radiation protection, epidemiology and management of risks, the fourth chapter concerns the dosimetric and radio-toxicologic surveillance with the surveillance of internal exposure and the radio-toxicologic surveillance. (N.C.)

  19. Safety criteria and guidelines for MSR accident analysis

    Accident analysis for Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) has been investigated at ORNL for MSRE in 1960s. Since then, safety criteria or guidelines have not been defined for MSR accident analysis. Regarding the safety criteria, the authors showed one proposal in this paper. In order to establish guidelines for MSR accident analysis, we have to investigate all possible accidents. In this paper, the authors describe the philosophy for accident analysis, and show 40 possible accidents. They are at first classified as external cause accidents and internal cause accidents. Since the former ones are generic accidents, we investigate only the latter ones, and categorize them to 4 types, such as power excursion accident, flow decrease accident, fuel-salt leak accident, and other accidents mostly specific to MSR. Each accident is described briefly, with some numerical results by the authors. (author)

  20. Radiation Accident Experience: Causes and Lessons Learned

    Since inception of the nuclear energy program in the United States of America, the Atomic. Energy Commission (USAEC) has maintained an extensive system for the reporting and review of radiation accidents in USAEC federal and licensing activities. Accidents required to be reported fall-into two main categories: (1) Accidents causing or threatening to cause radiation exposure to industrial workers or to the general public; (2) Accidents causing damage to or shutdown of facilities, or damage to public property. While many of the reported accidents carry with them the potential for exposure of persons to radioactivity, the cases reported, in this analysis are limited to those where certain prescribed levels of exposure have been exceeded or where significant uptake by the critical organ has occurred. This paper presents detailed analyses of the accident experience encountered in USAEC programs over the past nine years, including: (1) A breakdown of the types of work activities in the nuclear industry under which radiation accidents have occurred; (2) Characterization of the causes of such accidents as related to the types of work activities; (3) Lessons to be learned both in avoiding such accidents and in emergency planning, should such accidents occur. (author)

  1. Strategy generation in accident management support

    An increased interest for research in the field of Accident Management can be noted. Several international programmes have been started in order to be able to understand the basic physical and chemical phenomena in accident conditions. A feasibility study has shown that it would be possible to design and develop a computerized support system for plant staff in accident situations. To achieve this goal the Halden Project has initiated a research programme on Computerized Accident Management Support (CAMS project). The aim is to utilize the capabilities of computerized tools to support the plant staff during the various accident stages. The system will include identification of the accident state, assessment of the future development of the accident and planning of accident mitigation strategies. A prototype is developed to support operators and the Technical Support Centre in decision making during serious accident in nuclear power plants. A rule based system has been built to take care of the strategy generation. This system assists plant personnel in planning control proposals and mitigation strategies from normal operation to severe accident conditions. The ideal of a safety objective tree and knowledge from the emergency procedures have been used. Future prediction requires good state identification of the plant status and some knowledge about the history of some critical variables. The information needs to be validated as well. Accurate calculations in simulators and a large database including all important information form the plant will help the strategy planning. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs

  2. The severe accident research program at KIT

    The understanding of the plant behaviour under beyond design basis accidents as well as the interaction of the operators with the plant is the most important prerequisite to develop proper strategies to both control the accident progression and to minimize the radiological risk that may derive from operating nuclear power plants. In view of the Fukushima accident, a review of many issues important to safety e.g. severe accident analysis methodologies and assumptions, emergency operational procedures, severe accident management procedures (SAM), decision lines of the emergency team, etc. is needed to draw conclusions in order to avoid a repetition of Fukushima-like accidents.In addition, situations like the ‘black control room’ need to be reconsidered and a re-evaluation of the necessary instrumentation for hypothetical severe accident situations is urgently needed. If the real plant state during core meltdown accidents is unknown, no effective measures can be initiated by the emergency team in order to assure the integrity of the safety barriers and hence the release of radioactive material to the environment. The work performed in this area is integrated in the European Networks such as SARNET (Severe Accident Research Network) for the severe accidents, and for emergency management in the NERIS-TP. In future all the activities will be included in the NUGENIA platform. A brief overview of the KIT activities together with the experimental test facilities is given

  3. Temporal Statistic of Traffic Accidents in Turkey

    Erdogan, S.; Yalcin, M.; Yilmaz, M.; Korkmaz Takim, A.

    2015-10-01

    Traffic accidents form clusters in terms of geographic space and over time which themselves exhibit distinct spatial and temporal patterns. There is an imperative need to understand how, where and when traffic accidents occur in order to develop appropriate accident reduction strategies. An improved understanding of the location, time and reasons for traffic accidents makes a significant contribution to preventing them. Traffic accident occurrences have been extensively studied from different spatial and temporal points of view using a variety of methodological approaches. In literature, less research has been dedicated to the temporal patterns of traffic accidents. In this paper, the numbers of traffic accidents are normalized according to the traffic volume and the distribution and fluctuation of these accidents is examined in terms of Islamic time intervals. The daily activities and worship of Muslims are arranged according to these time intervals that are spaced fairly throughout the day according to the position of the sun. The Islamic time intervals are never been used before to identify the critical hour for traffic accidents in the world. The results show that the sunrise is the critical time that acts as a threshold in the rate of traffic accidents throughout Turkey in Islamic time intervals.

  4. Risk and protection factors in fatal accidents.

    Dupont, Emmanuelle; Martensen, Heike; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2010-03-01

    This paper aims at addressing the interest and appropriateness of performing accident severity analyses that are limited to fatal accident data. Two methodological issues are specifically discussed, namely the accident-size factors (the number of vehicles in the accident and their level of occupancy) and the comparability of the baseline risk. It is argued that - although these two issues are generally at play in accident severity analyses - their effects on, e.g., the estimation of survival probability, are exacerbated if the analysis is limited to fatal accident data. As a solution, it is recommended to control for these effects by (1) including accident-size indicators in the model, (2) focusing on different sub-groups of road-users while specifying the type of opponent in the model, so as to ensure that comparable baseline risks are worked with. These recommendations are applied in order to investigate risk and protection factors of car occupants involved in fatal accidents using data from a recently set up European Fatal Accident Investigation database (Reed and Morris, 2009). The results confirm that the estimated survival probability is affected by accident-size factors and by type of opponent. The car occupants' survival chances are negatively associated with their own age and that of their vehicle. The survival chances are also lower when seatbelt is not used. Front damage, as compared to other damaged car areas, appears to be associated with increased survival probability, but mostly in the case in which the accident opponent was another car. The interest of further investigating accident-size factors and opponent effects in fatal accidents is discussed. PMID:20159090

  5. Specific features of RBMK severe accidents progression and approach to the accident management

    Fundamental construction features of the LWGR facilities (absence of common external containment shell, disintegrated circulation circuit and multichannel reactor core, positive vapor reactivity coefficient, high mass of thermally capacious graphite moderator) predetermining development of assumed heavy non-projected accidents and handling them are treated. Rating the categories of the reactor core damages for non-projected accidents and accident types producing specific grope of damages is given. Passing standard non-projected accidents, possible methods of attack accident consequences, as well as methods of calculated analysis of non-projected accidents are demonstrated

  6. Report by the Delegate for major risks for 2010; Rapport 2010 du delegue aux risques majeurs

    Michel, Laurent [Ministere de l' Ecologie, du Developpement durable, des Transports et du Logement, Grande Arche, Tour Pascal A et B, 92055 La Defense Cedex (France)

    2011-07-01

    The first part of this report comments the major natural and industrial disasters which occurred in 2010 in France (Xynthia tempest, flooding, and forest fires) and in other countries. It also proposes some lessons from these disasters. The second part discusses the evolution towards a resilient society by a combined approach of sustainable development, of cultural good safeguarding, and person protection. It also discusses a prospective approach regarding natural hazards and technological accidents, adapted procedures, governance and land planning, the evolution of information and alarm systems, and emerging risks. The third part addresses the adaptation to natural hazards: frameworks and strategies, actions (regulatory prevention, flooding management, safety of hydraulic works, seismic plan). It assesses the financial and budgetary means brought by the State and its partners, and discusses some perspectives. It addresses the technological risks: legal and regulatory evolutions, safety of hazardous industrial installations, consequences of technological accidents. The next part deals with the control of civilian nuclear installations by the ASN. The last part presents the different involved structures and authorities

  7. Worst case reactor accidents: a paradox

    The preliminary results from the application of improved source term methodology indicate a diversity of results for plants of different design, and for different accident sequences postulated for the same plant. While significant reductions from previous estimates are calculated with the new methodology for some accident scenarios, the same methodology predicts release magnitudes of minor difference from those produced with earlier methods for other accident sequences and plants. This divergence of calculated results precludes the adoption of a worst case as a meaningful characterization of severe accident consequences. This situation reinforces the need to consider the consequences of severe accidents only in light of their probability, even in those applications outside the traditional risk assessment process, and may necessitate re-consideration of a probability threshold for extremely low probability events. A practical approach to such a threshold value is discussed, based on NRC's experience with severe accident considerations in environmental impact statements

  8. Public health response to the nuclear accident

    The Act on Special Measures Concerning Nuclear Emergency Preparedness was established in 2000 as a specific act within the broader Disaster Control Measures and Reactor Regulation Act which was written in response to the JCO Criticality Accident of 1999. However, this regulatory system did not address all aspects of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. This was especially evident with public health issues. For example, radioactive screening, prophylactic use of potassium iodide, support for vulnerable people, and management of contaminated dead bodies were all requested immediately after the occurrence of the nuclear power plant accident but were not included in these regulatory acts. Recently, the regulatory system for nuclear accidents has been revised in response to this reactor accident. Herein we review the revised plan for nuclear reactor accidents in the context of public health. (author)

  9. Accident scenario diagnostics with neural networks

    Nuclear power plants are very complex systems. The diagnoses of transients or accident conditions is very difficult because a large amount of information, which is often noisy, or intermittent, or even incomplete, need to be processed in real time. To demonstrate their potential application to nuclear power plants, neural networks axe used to monitor the accident scenarios simulated by the training simulator of TVA's Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant. A self-organization network is used to compress original data to reduce the total number of training patterns. Different accident scenarios are closely related to different key parameters which distinguish one accident scenario from another. Therefore, the accident scenarios can be monitored by a set of small size neural networks, called modular networks, each one of which monitors only one assigned accident scenario, to obtain fast training and recall. Sensitivity analysis is applied to select proper input variables for modular networks

  10. L'administration du travail et la production du droit du travail (1906-1960). : Note de synthèse du rapport de recherche

    Le Crom, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Synthèse d'un rapport de recherche dont l'objectif est d'appréhender le rôle de l'administration centrale du travail dans la production du droit du travail. Deux dimensions sont explorées : le profil des rédacteurs et l'organisation des structures.

  11. A + (B[subscript 1]) Professor--student Rapport + (B[subscript 2]) Humor + (B[subscript 3]) Student Engagement = (Y) Student Ratings of Instructors

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Berglund, Majken B.; Epelbaum, Vadim B.; Klein, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching effectiveness is often evaluated through student ratings of instruction (SRI). Research suggests that there are many potential factors that can predict student's perceptions of teaching effectiveness such as professor-student rapport, student engagement, and perceived humor of the instructor. Therefore, we sought to assess whether…

  12. Barriers to learning from incidents and accidents

    Dechy, N.; Dien, Y.; Drupsteen, L.; Felicio, A.; Cunha, C; Roed-Larsen, S.; Marsden, E.; Tulonen, T.; Stoop, J.; Strucic, M.; Vetere Arellano, A.L.; Vorm, J.K.J. van der; Benner, L.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides an overview of knowledge concerning barriers to learning from incidents and accidents. It focuses on learning from accident investigations, public inquiries and operational experience feedback, in industrial sectors that are exposed to major accident hazards. The document discusses learning at organizational, cross-organizational and societal levels (impact on regulations and standards). From an operational standpoint, the document aims to help practitioners to identify...

  13. Social disparities and correlates of domestic accidents.

    Baumann, Michèle; Spitz, E.; Ravaud, J.; Guillemin, F.; Chau, N

    2009-01-01

    Domestic accidents are a public health problem. This study assessed the disparities between socioeconomic positions and the confounding role of gender, age, education, living alone, income, poor health, obesity, current tobacco use, alcohol abuse, fatigue/sleep disorders, and physical, sensorial and cognitive disabilities. Methods: 6,198 people aged ≥15, randomly selected in north-eastern France completed a post-mailed questionnaire including domestic accident(s) during the last two years. Th...

  14. Psychiatric consequences of road traffic accidents.

    Mayou, R; Bryant, B.; Duthie, R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the psychiatric consequences of being a road traffic accident victim. DESIGN--Follow up study of road accident victims for up to one year. SETTING--Emergency department of the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford. SUBJECTS--188 consecutive road accident victims aged 18-70 with multiple injuries (motorcycle or car) or whiplash neck injury, who had not been unconscious for more than 15 minutes, and who lived in the catchment area. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Present state examinat...

  15. Transportation accident scenarios for commercial spent fuel

    A spectrum of high severity, low probability, transportation accident scenarios involving commercial spent fuel is presented together with mechanisms, pathways and quantities of material that might be released from spent fuel to the environment. These scenarios are based on conclusions from a workshop, conducted in May 1980 to discuss transportation accident scenarios, in which a group of experts reviewed and critiqued available literature relating to spent fuel behavior and cask response in accidents

  16. Accidents with biological material in workers

    Cleonice Andréa Alves Cavalcante; Elisângela Franco de Oliveira Cavalcante; Maria Lúcia Azevedo Ferreira de Macêdo; Eliane Cavalcante dos Santos; Soraya Maria de Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to describe the accidents with biological material occurred among workers of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, between 2007 and 2009. Secondary data were collected in the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System by exporting data to Excel using Tabwin. Among the types of occupational accidents reported in the state, the biological accidents (no. = 1,170) accounted for 58.3% with a predominance of cases among nurses (48.6%). The percutaneous exposure was the most frequent ...

  17. Transportation accident scenarios for commercial spent fuel

    Wilmot, E L

    1981-02-01

    A spectrum of high severity, low probability, transportation accident scenarios involving commercial spent fuel is presented together with mechanisms, pathways and quantities of material that might be released from spent fuel to the environment. These scenarios are based on conclusions from a workshop, conducted in May 1980 to discuss transportation accident scenarios, in which a group of experts reviewed and critiqued available literature relating to spent fuel behavior and cask response in accidents.

  18. Synergy effect in accident simulation

    Accidental breaking of PWR coolant canalization would entail water vaporization into confinement enclosure. Equipments would be simultaneously subjected to temperature and pressure increase, chemical spray, and radiation action of reactor core products. Some equipments have to work after accident in order to stop reactor running and blow out water calories. Usually, in France, accident simulation tests are carried out sequentialy: irradiation followed by thermodynamical and chemical tests. Equipments working is essentially due to those polymer materials behaviour. Is the polymers behaviour the same when they are either subjected to sequential test, or an accident (simultaneous action of irradiation and thermodynamical and chemical sequence). In order to answer to this question, nine polymer materials were subjected to simultaneous and sequential test in CESAR cell. Experiments were carried out in CESAR device with thermodynamical chocks and a temperature and pressure decrease profil in presence or without irradiation. So, the test is either simultaneous or sequential. Mechanical properties change are determined for the following polymeric materials. Two polyamide-imide varnishes used in motors and coils; one epoxydic resin, glass fiber charged (electrical insulating); polyphenylene sulfide, glass fiber charged, the Ryton R4 (electrical insulating); three elastomeric materials: Hypalon, fire proof by bromine or by alumina EPDM (cables jacket); VAMAC which is a polyethylene methyl polymethacrylate copolymer; then a silicon thermoset material glass fiber charged (electrical insulating). After test, usually, mechanical and electrical properties change of polymer materials show sequential experiment is more severe than simultaneous test however, Hypalon does not follow this law. For this polymer simultaneous test appears more severe than sequential experiment

  19. Nuclear-powered submarine accidents

    Most of nuclear-powered ships are military ships and submarines represent 95% of the total. Most of the propulsion reactors used are of PWR type. This paper gives the principal technical characteristics of PWR ship propulsion reactors and the differences with their civil homologues. The principal accidents that occurred on US and Russian nuclear-powered submarines are also listed and the possible effects of a shipwreck on the reactor behaviour are evaluated with their environmental impact. (J.S.). 1 tab., 1 photo

  20. Elements to diminish radioactive accidents

    In this work it is presented an application of the cause-effect diagram method or Ichikawa method identifying the elements that allow to diminish accidents when the radioactive materials are transported. It is considered the transport of hazardous materials which include radioactive materials in the period: December 1996 until March 1997. Among the identified elements by this method it is possible to mention: the road type, the radioactive source protection, the grade driver responsibility and the preparation that the OEP has in the radioactive material management. It is showed the differences found between the country inner roads and the Mexico City area. (Author)

  1. Guidance on accidents involving radioactivity

    This booklet sets out United Kingdom government policy on the management of the effects of radioactivity accidents by the Health Service. Monitoring of persons affected will be undertaken by hospital staff in order to assess damage levels for the whole population as well as treat individuals, while general practitioners will disseminate information from the Department of Health. The National Response Plan is set out, covering incidents connected with the use or transport of radioactive substances, and emergency plans for incidents in civil nuclear installations. (UK)

  2. The radiological accident in Goiania

    The report is based on a meeting held in Brazil, 19-27 July 1988. It describes how the accident occurred, examines how it was managed and how its consequences were contained, and sets out observations and recommendations based upon lessons learned. Many people received large doses of radiation, due to both external and internal exposure. Four of the casualties ultimately died and 28 people suffered radiation burns. Residences and public places were contaminated. The decontamination necessitated the demolition of seven residences and various other buildings, and the removal of the topsoil from large areas. In total 3,500 m3 of radioactive waste was generated. Refs, figs, tabs and photographs

  3. The Tokay-Mura accident

    On the 30. september 1999 occurred a criticality accident in the fuel fabrication plant of Tokai-Mura in Japan. 49 persons were irradiated but we present the case of the most seriously injured three workers. The radiation doses that would have been received by the three operators near the incriminated container have been evaluated to 17, 10 and 3 Grays. For the operators situated at five meters from the container and that has received three Grays, the first peak of criticality has been estimated at 2.1017 fissions. The number of fissions posterior to the first peak has been estimated between 4.1017 and 5.1018. In the three cases, the dose received by the organism has been attributed for about 40% to the neutrons and 60% to gamma radiations. The first operator presented an initial intense phase of acute irradiation syndrome. He received a graft of hematopoietic cells given by a sister of him on the sixth day, he was still alive 29 days later during the visit of the Commission, but he was in a coma and died shortly afterwards. The second victim has been equally reached by an acute irradiation syndrome, accompanied by a severe myeloid depression. At the ninth day, he received a blood graft coming from umbilical cord. He recovered a part of his own marrow, platelets excepted. He suffers from intense pains. A survival chance exists. The third victim was in an adjoining room, at about five meters far from the accident. He has been reached, but in a lower extent, by the acute irradiation syndrome and a low myeloid depression, that has decreased after a growth factors treatment. The prognosis is optimist in his case. The fact that patients have survived for the first time such a long time has revealed a very particular pathology of neutrons-gamma mixed irradiation, with an appearance of new medical problems due to the multiple failure of organs. To notice, the week before the accident, stood at Paris the 6. International conference devoted to the control of criticality

  4. Interventions after serious reactor accidents

    Manifold and promising approaches to active measures to be taken during accidents were studied hypothetically at the HTR which already has outstanding inherent safety properties in respect of afterheat removal. Based on incident scenarios prepared for hypothetical air inleakage incidents, in particular into the core of the HTR module reactor, many and various peripheral conditions for intervention possibilities could be studied. In addition, intervention possibilities appropriate for the respective incidents were examined as to their feasibility and consequences to be expected after their application. From these studies suggestions were derived for verifying experiments. (orig./HP) With 66 refs., 24 tabs., 79 figs

  5. Probabilistic accident sequence recovery analysis

    Recovery analysis is a method that considers alternative strategies for preventing accidents in nuclear power plants during probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Consideration of possible recovery actions in PRAs has been controversial, and there seems to be a widely held belief among PRA practitioners, utility staff, plant operators, and regulators that the results of recovery analysis should be skeptically viewed. This paper provides a framework for discussing recovery strategies, thus lending credibility to the process and enhancing regulatory acceptance of PRA results and conclusions. (author)

  6. Design basis accident calculation problems

    Sudden failures of the primary circuit is the design basis accident of pressurized water reactors, being liable to affect the other two barriers separating the fission products from the environment. The calculation of the thermohydraulic behavior of the core and primary circuit is at present based, for the CEA, on the RELAP 4 code. However a second-generation code, POSEIDON, is being developed by the CEA, EDF and FRAMATOME to obtain a better description of the physical phenomena and a better estimate of safety margins. Other difficult problems arise in connection with the calculation of structural stresses and the behavior of the vessel during decompression

  7. Industrial Safety and Accidents Prevention

    Accident Hazards, dangers, losses and risk are what we would to like to eliminate, minimize or avoid in industry. Modern industries have created many opportunities for these against which man's primitive instincts offer no protection. In today's complex industrial environment safety has become major preoccupation, especially after the realization that there is a clear economic incentive to do so. Industrial hazards may cause by human error or by physical or mechanical malfunction, it is very often possible to eliminate the worst consequences of human error by engineering modification. But the modification also needs checking very thoroughly to ensue that it has not introduced some new and unsuspected hazard. (author)

  8. The cost of nuclear accidents in France

    IRSN has produced estimates for costs of possible nuclear accidents on French PWRs. This paper outlines the strong differences between severe accidents, which feature a core melt but more or less controlled radioactive releases, and major accidents implying massive releases. In the first case, crisis managers would be faced with a mainly 'economic' accident, the larger part of costs being borne in a diffused fashion by the economy at large (image costs and impacts on electricity production). In the second case, authorities would be faced with the challenges of a full-scale radiological crisis involving sizeable areas of contaminated territories and large numbers of radiological refugees. (author)

  9. Monitoring severe accidents using AI techniques

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011, there has been increasing concern regarding severe accidents in nuclear facilities. Severe accident scenarios are difficult for operators to monitor and identify. Therefore, accurate prediction of a severe accident is important in order to manage it appropriately in the unfavorable conditions. In this study, artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as support vector classification (SVC), probabilistic neural network (PNN), group method of data handling (GMDH), and fuzzy neural network (FNN), were used to monitor the major transient scenarios of a severe accident caused by three different initiating events, the hot-leg loss of coolant accident (LOCA), the cold-leg LOCA, and the steam generator tube rupture in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The SVC and PNN models were used for the event classification. The GMDH and FNN models were employed to accurately predict the important timing representing severe accident scenarios. In addition, in order to verify the proposed algorithm, data from a number of numerical simulations were required in order to train the AI techniques due to the shortage of real LOCA data. The data was acquired by performing simulations using the MAAP4 code. The prediction accuracy of the three types of initiating events was sufficiently high to predict severe accident scenarios. Therefore, the AI techniques can be applied successfully in the identification and monitoring of severe accident scenarios in real PWRs.

  10. SAMSON: Severe Accident Management System Online Network

    SAMSON, Severe Accident Management System Online Network, is a computational tool used in the event of a nuclear power plant accident by accident managers in the Technical Support Centers (TSC) and Emergency Offsite Facilities (EOF). SAMSON examines over 150 status points monitored by nuclear power plant process computers during a severe accident and makes predictions about when core damage, support plate failure, and reactor vessel failure will occur. These predictions are based on the current state of the plant assuming that all safety equipment not already operating will fail. The status points analyzed include radiation levels, flow rates, pressure levels, temperatures and water levels. SAMSON uses an expert system as well as neural networks trained with the back propagation learning algorithm to make predictions. Previous training on data from accident analysis code allows SAMSON to associate different states in the plant with different times to critical failures. The accidents currently recognized by SAMSON include steam generator tube ruptures (SGTR), with breaks ranging from one tube to eights tubes, and loss of coolant accidents (LOCA), with breaks ranging from 0.001 square feet in size to breaks 3.0 square feet. SAMSON contains several neural networks for each accident type and break size, and chooses the correct network after accident classification by in expert system. SAMSON also provides information concerning the status of plant sensors and recovery strategies

  11. Medical experience: Chernobyl and other accidents

    A radiation accident can be defined as an involuntary relevant exposure of man to ionising radiation or radioactive material. Provided one of the ensuing criteria is met with at least one person involved in an excursion of ionising radiation and or radioactive material, the respective incident can be considered a radiation accident in accordance with ICRP, NCRP (US), and WHO: ≥0.25 Sv total body irradiation with lesions of the rapidly dividing tissues; ≥6 Sv cutaneous and local irradiation; ≥0.4 Sv local irradiation of other organ systems through external sources; incorporation equal to or in excess of more than half of the maximum permissible organ burden; and medical accidents meeting one of the above criteria. Several actions have been taken to categorise radiation accidents in order to learn from previous accidents in terms of both managerial and medical experience. For this presentation three approaches will be discussed concerning their relevance to the individual treatment and risk management. This will be obtained by applying three classification schemes to all known radiation accidents: 1. classification with respect to the accident mechanism, 2. classification concerning the radiation injury, and 3. classification concerning the extent of the accident. In a fourth chapter the efficacy of bone marrow transplantation will briefly be commented on based on the accumulated experience of about 400 radiation accidents world-wide. (author)

  12. Systematics of Reconstructed Process Facility Criticality Accidents

    Pruvost, N.L.; McLaughlin, T.P.; Monahan, S.P.

    1999-09-19

    The systematics of the characteristics of twenty-one criticality accidents occurring in nuclear processing facilities of the Russian Federation, the United States, and the United Kingdom are examined. By systematics the authors mean the degree of consistency or agreement between the factual parameters reported for the accidents and the experimentally known conditions for criticality. The twenty-one reported process criticality accidents are not sufficiently well described to justify attempting detailed neutronic modeling. However, results of classic hand calculations confirm the credibility of the reported accident conditions.

  13. Fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Koch-Henriksen, Nils;

    2006-01-01

    -1996. The end of follow-up was 1 January 1999. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for various types of fatal accidents. A total of 76 persons (48 men and 28 women) died from accidents, whereas the expected number of fatalities from such causes was 55.7 (31.4 men and 24.3 women). Thus, the...... particularly high for deaths from burns (SMR = 8.90) and suffocation (SMR = 5.57). We conclude that persons with MS are more prone to fatal accidents than the general population. The excess risk is due not to traffic accidents but to burns and suffocation....

  14. Review of specific radiological accident considerations

    Specific points of guidance provided in the forthcoming document A Guide to Radiological Accident Considerations for Siting and Design of Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities are discussed. Of these, the following are considered of particular interest to analysts of hypothetical accidents: onsite dose limits; population dose, public health effects, and environmental contamination as accident consequences which should be addressed; risk analysis; natural phenomena as accident initiators; recommended dose models; multiple organ equivalent dose; and recommended methods and parameters for source terms and release amount calculations. Comments are being invited on this document, which is undergoing rewrite after the first stage of peer review

  15. Accident selection methodology for TA-55 FSAR

    In the past, the selection of representative accidents for refined analysis from the numerous scenarios identified in hazards analyses (HAs) has involved significant judgment and has been difficult to defend. As part of upgrading the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the TA-55 plutonium facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, an accident selection process was developed that is mostly mechanical and reproducible in nature and fulfills the requirements of the Department of Energy (DOE) Standard 3009 and DOE Order 5480.23. Among the objectives specified by this guidance are the requirements that accident screening (1) consider accidents during normal and abnormal operating conditions, (2) consider both design basis and beyond design basis accidents, (3) characterize accidents by category (operational, natural phenomena, etc.) and by type (spill, explosion, fire, etc.), and (4) identify accidents that bound all foreseeable accident types. The accident selection process described here in the context of the TA-55 FSAR is applicable to all types of DOE facilities

  16. Genetic effects of the Chernobyl accident

    Genetic radiation effects resulted from the Chernobyl accident were considered for the population of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Techniques of the assessment of genetic risk of exposure of a man was discussed. Results of cytogenetic examination of the population were presented as well as health state of pregnants and newborns following the Chernobyl accident. Elevated level of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of peripheric blood in participants of the Chernobyl accident response and in population of contaminated zones. This fact testifies on the real genetic injury in cells due to accident. Growth of intrauterine losses in pregnancy, congenital anomalies, hereditary diseases in descendants of exposed parents. 17 figs

  17. Development of severe accident training support system

    In order for appropriate decision-making during plant operation and management, the professional knowledge, expert's opinion, and previous experiences as well as information for current status are utilized. The operation support systems such as training simulators have been developed to assist these decision-making process, and most of them cover from normal operation to emergency operation because of the very low frequency of severe accident and of uncertaintics included in severe accident phenomena and scenarios. However, the architectures for severe accident management are being established based on severe accident management guidelines in some developed countries. Recentrly, in Korea, as teh severe accident management guideline was developed, the basis for establishing severe accident management architecture is prepared and this leads to the development of tool for systematic education and training for personnel related to severe accident management. The severe accident taining support system thus is developed to assist decision-making during execution of severe accident management guidelines by providing plant status information, prefessional knowledge for phenomena and scenarios, expected behavior for strategy execution, and so on

  18. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

  19. Chernobylsk NPP accident and its medical effects

    Medical effects of the Chernobyl accident for various groups of people engaged in liquidation of the accident aftereffects and residents of the regions affected are assessed. Specific medical and social recommendations for each of the five groups of patients are made. Special attention is paid to the health of children who were exposed to external radiation in combination with intake of iodine isotopes. Extremely unfavourable influence of the mass media on the health of people involved in the Chernobyl accident is painted out. The necessity of adequate rehabilitation measures for various categories of patients involved in a large-scale accident is emphasized

  20. Mapping patterns and characteristics of fatal road accidents in Israel

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    without a priori assumptions about the expected outcome of the study. Kohonen neural networks reveal five accident patterns: (i) single-vehicle accidents of young drivers; (ii) multiple-vehicle accidents between young drivers; (iii) accidents involving either motorcycles or bicycles; (iv) accidents where...

  1. 41 CFR 101-39.407 - Accident records.

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Accident records. 101-39...-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.4-Accidents and Claims § 101-39.407 Accident records. If GSA's records of vehicle accidents indicate that a particular activity has had an unusually high accident...

  2. 22 CFR 102.17 - Reports on accident.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports on accident. 102.17 Section 102.17... Accidents Abroad Foreign Aircraft Accidents Involving United States Persons Or Property § 102.17 Reports on accident. When an accident occurs to a foreign aircraft in the district of a Foreign Service post...

  3. Simulation of severe accident in reactor core for training and accident management

    An Advanced Real-time Severe Accident Simulation (ARTSAS) train reactor operators and accident management teams for scenarios simulating severe accidents in nuclear reactors. The code has been integrated with the real-time tools and the RAINBO graphic package to provide training and analysis tools on workstations as well as on full-scope simulators. (orig.) (4 refs., 1 fig.)

  4. Diversité des faits et unité de vue. Herder et la construction de la philosophie de l’histoire au siècle des Lumières1

    Pross, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Pendant sa jeunesse, Herder avait recopié une phrase en français, d’origine inconnue, que l’on considéra toujours comme une des idées de base de sa philosophie de l’histoire : « L’univers, pour qui sauroit l’embrasser d’un seul point de vue, ne seroit qu’un fait unique et une grande vérité. » La phrase est de Diderot, dans le Discours préliminaire de l’Encyclopédie ; cette identification de la source permet de mieux reconstituer les déplacements conceptuels qui conduisirent Herder à une natur...

  5. CANDU safety under severe accidents

    The characteristics of the CANDU reactor relevant to severe accidents are set first by the inherent properties of the design, and second by the Canadian safety/licensing approach. The pressure-tube concept allows the separate, low-pressure, heavy-water moderator to act as a backup heat sink even if there is no water in the fuel channels. Should this also fail, the calandria shell itself can contain the debris, with heat being transferred to the water-filled shield tank around the core. Should the severe core damage sequence progress further, the shield tank and the concrete reactor vault significantly delay the challenge to containment. Furthermore, should core melt lead to containment overpressure, the containment behaviour is such that leaks through the concrete containment wall reduce the possibility of catastrophic structural failure. The Canadian licensing philosophy requires that each accident, together with failure of each safety system in turn, be assessed (and specified dose limits met) as part of the design and licensing basis. In response, designers have provided CANDUs with two independent dedicated shutdown systems, and the likelihood of Anticipated Transients Without Scram is negligible. Probabilistic safety assessment studies have been performed on operating CANDU plants, and on the 4 x 880 MW(e) Darlington station now under construction; furthermore a scoping risk assessment has been done for a CANDU 600 plant. They indicate that the summed severe core damage frequency is of the order of 5 x 10-6/year. 95 refs, 3 tabs

  6. CANDU safety under severe accidents

    The characteristics of the CANDU reactor relevant to severe accidents are set first by the inherent properties of the design, and second by the Canadian safety/licensing approach. Probabilistic safety assessment studies have been performed on operating CANDU plants, and on the 4 x 880 MW(e) Darlington station now under construction; furthermore a scoping risk assessment has been done for a CANDU 600 plant. They indicate that the summed severe core damage frequency is of the order of 5 x 10-6/year. CANDU nuclear plant designers and owner/operators share information and operational experience nationally and internationally through the CANDU Owners' Group (COG). The research program generally emphasizes the unique aspects of the CANDU concept, such as heat removal through the moderator, but it has also contributed significantly to areas generic to most power reactors such as hydrogen combustion, containment failure modes, fission product chemistry, and high temperature fuel behaviour. Abnormal plant operating procedures are aimed at first using event-specific emergency operating procedures, in cases where the event can be diagnosed. If this is not possible, generic procedures are followed to control Critical Safety Parameters and manage the accident. Similarly, the on-site contingency plans include a generic plan covering overall plant response strategy, and a specific plan covering each category of contingency

  7. The Manche storage centre: Annual report 2010; Centre de stockage de la Manche Rapport annuel 2010

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report presents the installations of the CSM (Centre de Stockage de la Manche), the first French centre for the surface storage of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. It briefly describes the site and its buildings, the multi-layer principle which is used to cover the wastes, how surface and drainage waters are managed, which controls are performed. It presents the different nuclear safety measures: principles, prevention measures, technical measures to meet the requirements, the legal plan for the control of the Centre and its environment, the quality management organization. It presents the measures regarding radioprotection and safety, indicates incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, gives information and data on release management (effluents, controls, obtained data on surface and underground waters in different points). It briefly comments how the Centre's wastes are managed, evokes the case of other pollutions, and indicates actions performed in terms of public information

  8. Energies and raw material. Annual report; Energies et matieres premieres. Rapport annuel

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The annual report of the french General Direction of the Energy and the Raw Material (DGEMP) deals with the energy policy. The following subjects are analysed: the french program of fight against the global warming; the biogas; the radioactive wastes management program; the french nuclear industry re-organization; Tchernobyl; the electric power and gas public service; the risk prevention concerning the electric power production; the international Gaz De France protocol; the closing of the Ales mine; the cooperation ELF and TOTAL; the french para-petroleum industry; the raw material prices; the french mining situation; the french energy policy audit by the AIE; the energy accidents of december. The DGEMP organization chart with contacts and the publications are also included. (A.L.B.)

  9. Correspondence model of occupational accidents

    Juan C. Conte

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a new generalized model for the diagnosis and prediction of accidents among the Spanish workforce. Based on observational data of the accident rate in all Spanish companies over eleven years (7,519,732 accidents, we classified them in a new risk-injury contingency table (19×19. Through correspondence analysis, we obtained a structure composed of three axes whose combination identifies three separate risk and injury groups, which we used as a general Spanish pattern. The most likely or frequent relationships between the risk and injuries identified in the pattern facilitated the decision-making process in companies at an early stage of risk assessment. Each risk-injury group has its own characteristics, which are understandable within the phenomenological framework of the accident. The main advantages of this model are its potential application to any other country and the feasibility of contrasting different country results. One limiting factor, however, is the need to set a common classification framework for risks and injuries to enhance comparison, a framework that does not exist today. The model aims to manage work-related accidents automatically at any level.Apresentamos aqui um modelo generalizado para o diagnóstico e predição de acidentes na classe de trabalhadores da Espanha. Baseados em dados sobre a frequência de acidentes em todas as companhias da Espanha em 11 anos (7.519.732 acidentes, nós os classificamos em uma nova tabela de contingência risco-injúria (19×19. Através de uma análise por correspondência obtivemos uma estrutura composta por 3 eixos cuja combinação identifica 3 grupos separados de risco e injúria, que nós usamos como um perfil geral na Espanha. As mais prováveis ou frequentes relações entre risco e injúrias identificadas nesse perfil facilitaram o processo de decisão nas companhias em um estágio inicial de apreciação do risco. Cada grupo de risco-injúria tem suas próprias caracter

  10. Severe Accident Research Program plan update

    In August 1989, the staff published NUREG-1365, ''Revised Severe Accident Research Program Plan.'' Since 1989, significant progress has been made in severe accident research to warrant an update to NUREG-1365. The staff has prepared this SARP Plan Update to: (1) Identify those issues that have been closed or are near completion, (2) Describe the progress in our understanding of important severe accident phenomena, (3) Define the long-term research that is directed at improving our understanding of severe accident phenomena and developing improved methods for assessing core melt progression, direct containment heating, and fuel-coolant interactions, and (4) Reflect the growing emphasis in two additional areas--advanced light water reactors, and support for the assessment of criteria for containment performance during severe accidents. The report describes recent major accomplishments in understanding the underlying phenomena that can occur during a severe accident. These include Mark I liner failure, severe accident scaling methodology, source term issues, core-concrete interactions, hydrogen transport and combustion, TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project, and direct containment heating. The report also describes the major planned activities under the SARP over the next several years. These activities will focus on two phenomenological issues (core melt progression, and fuel-coolant interactions and debris coolability) that have significant uncertainties that impact our understanding and ability to predict severe accident phenomena and their effect on containment performance SARP will also focus on severe accident code development, assessment and validation. As the staff completes the research on severe accident issues that relate to current generation reactors, continued research will focus on efforts to independently evaluate the capability of new advanced light water reactor designs to withstand severe accidents

  11. Atouts et possibilités de l’insertion curriculaire de l’intercompréhension: rapport

    Araújo e Sá, M. H.; Andrade, Ana Isabel; Simões, Ana Raquel; Pinho, Ana Sofia; Fanara, Antonella; Ferreira, Cláudia; Spita, Doina; Gilles, Fabrice; Martins, Filomena; Carrington, Margarida; Varchetta, Maria Carmela; Vito, Sonia di

    2014-01-01

    Ce rapport a été préparé par le lot 7 (Insertion Curriculaire de l’Intercompréhension) du projet MIRIADI. Il s'agit d'un lot dont l’objectif est de développer des processus d’intégration curriculaire de l’Intercompréhension (IC) à distance dans des groupes plurilingues, à partir de travaux expérimentaux menés sur le terrain et réalisés dans une logique de recherche-action, pour comprendre les "conditions de faisabilité" de cette approche didactique dans les programmes d'apprentissage et ...

  12. Rapport de faisabilité de l’estimation de l’âge du Platax (Platax orbicularis) à Tahiti

    Elleboode, Romain; Mahe, Kelig

    2013-01-01

    L’équipe de l’IFREMER du centre de Polynésie et celle de la Cellule Innovation et Valorisation de la Direction des Ressources Marines de Polynésie Française mènent des travaux afin de maîtriser la zootechnie de l’élevage du Platax (Platax orbicularis) en lagon. Des connaissances sur la physiologie de la reproduction s’est faite sur ces animaux, mais aucune information n’est disponible quant à l’évolution de la productivité de ces animaux en fonction de leur croissance (pas de données d’âge). ...

  13. Rapports familiaux et dynamique de l’exclusion dans « La Métamorphose » de Franz KAFKA

    Hébatallah Emad El-Dine Abdel-Razek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dans cette recherche nous étudions les rapports familiaux et la dynamique de l’exclusion dans « La Métamorphose » de Franz KAFKA. Nous mettons en lumière l’impact de la vie de l’auteur sur cette nouvelle, notamment sa relation conflictuelle avec son père. Porte-parole de l’écrivain, Grégoire Samsa imagine qu’un jour il s’est transformé en vermine. Au lieu de chercher la cause de cette métamorphose, ses parents le boycottent et finissent par chercher à se débarrasser de lui. Notre étude aborde les rapports que tient le protagoniste avec sa mère, sa sœur et son père qui, à leur tour, subissent une métamorphose imprévue. Effacée et fragile, la mère est impuissante devant la violence du père et de la sœur.  Nous analysons également les étapes de la dégénérescence du héros (perte de la voix, insomnie, perte de l’appétit, perte de la mobilité. A la fin de notre recherche nous constatons que cette métamorphose est un moyen de s’échapper au monde du travail étouffant et à l’aliénation éprouvée par le protagoniste au sein de la famille.  

  14. Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-05-15

    The conventional PSA techniques cannot adequately evaluate all events. The conventional PSA models usually focus on single internal events such as DBAs, the external hazards such as fire, seismic. However, the Fukushima accident of Japan in 2011 reveals that very rare event is necessary to be considered in the PSA model to prevent the radioactive release to environment caused by poor treatment based on lack of the information, and to improve the emergency operation procedure. Especially, the results from PSA can be used to decision making for regulators. Moreover, designers can consider the weakness of plant safety based on the quantified results and understand accident sequence based on human actions and system availability. This study is for PSA modeling of combined accidents including total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident. The TLOFW accident is a representative accident involving the failure of cooling through secondary side. If the amount of heat transfer is not enough due to the failure of secondary side, the heat will be accumulated to the primary side by continuous core decay heat. Transients with loss of feedwater include total loss of feedwater accident, loss of condenser vacuum accident, and closure of all MSIVs. When residual heat removal by the secondary side is terminated, the safety injection into the RCS with direct primary depressurization would provide alternative heat removal. This operation is called feed and bleed (F and B) operation. Combined accidents including TLOFW accident are very rare event and partially considered in conventional PSA model. Since the necessity of F and B operation is related to plant conditions, the PSA modeling for combined accidents including TLOFW accident is necessary to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities.The PSA is significant to assess the risk of NPPs, and to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities. Even though the combined accident is very rare event, the consequence of combined

  15. Radiological accidents balance in medicine; Bilan des accidents radiologiques en medecine

    Nenot, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    This work deals with the radiological accidents in medicine. In medicine, the radiation accidents on medical personnel and patients can be the result of over dosage and bad focusing of radiotherapy sealed sources. Sometimes, the accidents, if they are unknown during a time enough for the source to be spread and to expose a lot of persons (in the case of source dismantling for instance) can take considerable dimensions. Others accidents can come from bad handling of linear accelerators and from radionuclide kinetics in some therapies. Some examples of accidents are given. (O.L.). 11 refs.

  16. Medical consequences of a nuclear plant accident

    The report gives background information concerning radiation and the biological medical effects and damages caused by radiation. The report also discusses nuclear power plant accidents and efforts from the medical service in the case of a nuclear power plant accident. (L.F.)

  17. Occupational blood exposure accidents in the Netherlands.

    Wijk, P.T.L. van; Schneeberger, P.M.; Heimeriks, K.; Boland, G.J.; Karagiannis, I.; Geraedts, J.; Ruijs, W.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To make proper evaluation of prevention policies possible, data on the incidence and associated medical costs of occupational blood exposure accidents in the Netherlands are needed. METHODS: Descriptive analysis of blood exposure accidents and risk estimates for occupational groups. Cost

  18. Light-water reactor accident classification

    The evolution of existing classifications and definitions of light-water reactor accidents is considered. Licensing practice and licensing trends are examined with respect to terms of art such as Class 8 and Class 9 accidents. Interim definitions, consistent with current licensing practice and the regulations, are proposed for these terms of art

  19. Chernobyl NPP accident. Overcoming experience. Acquired lessons

    This book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of accident on the Chernobyl NPP unit 4. History of construction, causes of the accident and its consequences, actions for its mitigation are described. Modern situation with Chernobyl NPP decommissioning and transferring of 'Ukryttya' shelter into ecologically safe system are mentioned. The future of Chernobyl site and exclusion zone was discussed

  20. Radiological accident 'The Citadel' medical aspects

    The work exposes the medical actions carried out in the mitigation of the consequences of the accident and its main results. In a facility of storage of radioactive waste in Caracas, Venezuela, it was happened a radiological accident. This event caused radioactive contamination of the environment, as well as the irradiation and radioactive contamination of at least 10 people involved in the fact, in its majority children. Cuban institutions participated in response to the accident. Among the decisions adopted by the team of combined work Cuban-Venezuelan, we find the one of transferring affected people to Cuba, for their dosimetric and medical evaluation. Being designed a work strategy to develop the investigations to people affected by the radiological accident, in correspondence with the circumstances, magnitude and consequences of the accident. The obtained main results are: 100% presented affectations in its health, not associate directly to the accident, although the accident influenced in its psychological state. In 3 of studied people they were detected radioactive contamination with Cesium -137 with dose among 2.01 X 10-4 Sv up to 2.78 X 10-4 Sv. This accident demonstrated the necessity to have technical capacities to face these events and the importance of the international solidarity. (author)

  1. Light-water reactor accident classification

    Washburn, B.W.

    1980-02-01

    The evolution of existing classifications and definitions of light-water reactor accidents is considered. Licensing practice and licensing trends are examined with respect to terms of art such as Class 8 and Class 9 accidents. Interim definitions, consistent with current licensing practice and the regulations, are proposed for these terms of art.

  2. Multiple Myeloma in Post Nuclear Accident Crisis

    Wiwanitkit, Somsri; Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2012-01-01

    The problem of 2011 nuclear accident crisis draws attention of physicians and medical scientists around the world. The cancer induction is an important adverse effect of exposure to radionuclide. In this specific article, the multiple myeloma, an important hematological cancer, in the post nuclear accident crisis will be discussed.

  3. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36.513 Section 36.513 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  4. 76 FR 55079 - Recreational Vessel Accident Reporting

    2011-09-06

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... SECURITY Coast Guard Recreational Vessel Accident Reporting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... to improve the recreational boating accident reporting process. NBSAC recommended that the...

  5. 49 CFR 659.33 - Accident notification.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident notification. 659.33 Section 659.33 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION... Agency § 659.33 Accident notification. (a) The oversight agency must require the rail transit agency...

  6. Structural and containment response to LMFBR accidents

    The adequacy of the containment of fast reactors has been traditionally evaluated by analyzing the response of the containment to a spectrum of core disruptive accidents. The current approach in the U.S. is to consider fast reactor response to accidents in terms of four lines of assurance (LOAs). Thus, LOA-1 is to prevent accidents, LOA-2 is to limit core damage, LOA-3 is to control accident progression and LOA-4 is to attenuate radiological consequences. Thus, the programs on the adequacy of containment response fall into LOA-3. Significant programs to evaluate the response of the containment to core disruptive accidents and, thereby, to assure control of accident progression are in progress. These include evaluating the mechanical response of the primary system to core disruptive accidents and evaluating the thermal response of the reactor structures to core melting, including the effects this causes on the secondary containment. The analysis of structural response employs calculated pressure-volume-time loading functions. The results of the analyses establish the response of the containment to the prescribed loadings. The analysis of thermal response requires an assessment of the distribution and state of the fuel, fission products and activated materials from accident initiation to final disposition in a stable configuration

  7. The screening approach for review of accident management programmes

    In this lecture the screening approach for review of accident management programmes are presented. It contains objective trees for accident management: logic structure of the approach; objectives and safety functions for accident management; safety principles

  8. Post-Traumatic Stress After a Traffic Accident

    ... Stress Disorder | Post-traumatic Stress After a Traffic Accident Each year more than 6 million traffic accidents occur in the United States. If you've been in an accident, you might have experienced many different feelings at ...

  9. Medical consequences of radiation accidents

    Since 1945, more than 1.8 x 1021 Bq of artificial radionuclides have been released into the atmosphere. Approximately 2.04 x 1018B, i.e. approx. 0.11%, are the result of accidents at nuclear industrial facilities. This percentage is causing increased interest among researchers. This is due to the fact that in the wake of accidental release radionuclides become distributed unevenly across the Earth's surface, and the associated exposures, fluctuating from background level to several grays, an induce both stochastic and deterministic effects in the irradiated population. A comparative analysis of the medical consequences of the twentieth century's most serious nuclear events, namely the authorized dumping of high level radioactive waste into the river Techa in 1950, the explosion of a storage tank containing long lived radioactive waste in the Southern Urals in 1957, the fire at Sellafield in 1957 and the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986, has shown that when timely countermeasures are taken, the worst immediate and delayed medical consequences of an accident can be avoided. The consequences that have since been ascertained are a brief rise in the mortality rate during the first five years, with a dose in excess of 500 mSv; an increase in the incidence of leukaemia, with an absolute risk of up to 1.1. x 10-4 man·years/Gy; and increased mortality among children with external radiation doses of up to 1000 mSv, and internal doses of 99-190 mSv on the bone surfaces of neonates or 170-600 mSv on the bone surfaces of the mother. There is reliable evidence that, with external gamma radiation doses in excess of 520 mSv, the mortality rate for all malignant tumorous increases by 45-58% compared with the control level. There is also a significant increase in thyroid cancer frequency four to ten years after the incorporation of iodine isotopes by children aged up to 7 years, including an accumulation period in the womb. (author). 12 refs, 7 tabs

  10. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  11. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M andO 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  12. Severe accidents in Nuclear Power Plants

    For the assessment of the safety of nuclear power plants it is of great importance the analyses of severe accidents since they allow to estimate the possible failure models of the containment, and also permit knowing the magnitude and composition of the radioactive material that would be released to the environment in case of an accident upon population and the environment. This paper presents in general terms the basic principles for conducting the analysis of severe accidents, the fundamental sources in the generation of radionuclides and aerosols, the transportation and deposition processes, and also makes reference to de main codes used in the modulation of severe accidents. The final part of the paper contents information on how severe accidents are dialed with the regulatory point view in different countries

  13. Methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions. An accident modification function is a mathematical function describing systematic variation in the effects of road safety measures. The paper describes ten guidelines. An example is given of how to use...... the guidelines. The importance of exploratory analysis and an iterative approach in developing accident modification functions is stressed. The example shows that strict compliance with all the guidelines may be difficult, but represents a level of stringency that should be strived for. Currently the...... main limitations in developing accident modification functions are the small number of good evaluation studies and the often huge variation in estimates of effect. It is therefore still not possible to develop accident modification functions for very many road safety measures. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All...

  14. General Aspects of the JCO Criticality Accident

    A criticality accident occurred on September 30, 1999, at a uranium processing plant of JCO Company in Tokaimura. Delayed criticality continued for approximately 20 hours after the first few prompt critical peaks. Two employees subsequently died. Nearby residents were evacuated or told to remain indoors. This accident was at Level 4 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. A table of radiation exposures resulting from the accident is given. Besides dealing with health physics, the investigation committee's final report covered technical observations and the nature of the accident. The direct causes of the accident were found to be violation of rules and technical specifications and deviation from licensing conditions; some of these were permitted by the company itself, and fatal mistakes were made by employees on the job without consulting with authorized persons. Many recommendations to revise government regulations on licensing of nuclear fuel handling were discussed in the report

  15. Review of Severe Accident Phenomena in LWR and Related Severe Accident Analysis Codes

    Muhammad Hashim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, importance of severe accident provision is highlighted in view of Fukushima Daiichi accident. Then, extensive review of the past researches on severe accident phenomena in LWR is presented within this study. Various complexes, physicochemical and radiological phenomena take place during various stages of the severe accidents of Light Water Reactor (LWR plants. The review deals with progression of the severe accidents phenomena by dividing into core degradation phenomena in reactor vessel and post core melt phenomena in the containment. The development of various computer codes to analyze these severe accidents phenomena is also summarized in the review. Lastly, the need of international activity is stressed to assemble various severe accidents related knowledge systematically from research organs and compile them on the open knowledge base via the internet to be available worldwide.

  16. Research of severe accident induced by small LOCA and accident mitigation

    Fangjiashan nuclear power plant is modeled, by using MAAP4 code. Base on this model, the small LOCA accident is calculated, which will cause the worst consequence. The response of the plant and relevant severe accident phenomena are obtained. The phenomena of DCH (direct containment heat) happened during the accident, containment failure and release of the fission production are analyzed. Then, according to the related severe accident management and characteristic of this accident, the strategy of mitigating the accident consequence is studied and calculated. The result indicated that the mitigation action is very efficient. Therefore, a feasible strategy of mitigating the severe accident consequence is provided for the three-loop plant like Fangjiashan in China. (authors)

  17. National registration of accidents in Iceland.

    Olafsson, O; Axelsson, J

    1992-01-01

    Community based registration of accidents has been employed in Iceland from 1987. A form developed in the emergency ward at the city Hospital of Reykjavik has been used for the registration. The following issues have been registered: the type and the seriousness of the injury, treatment, place of accident and time of accident. Health centres in Iceland have been computerized from 1976. At the time being about half of the health centres participate in the registration with the information included in the form as the source. Every health center has its well defined district. The accidents among the inhabitants in each district is registered, while accidents among other people, e.g. tourists, is registered separately. At this moment 183,000 out of a total number of 259,000 inhabitants are covered by the registration, i.e. 71% of the population. In 1989 the frequency of accidents was 198 per 100,000 inhabitants. 26% of the accidents occurred at home, 11% at work, 9% during physical activity, 6% was traffic accidents, whereas the same proportion occurred at school. This registration system has been created as a result of annual conferences on accidents arranged by the Director General of public health since 1984. Representatives for the following parties have been invited; medical doctors working in hospitals and health centres, clinical nurses, physiotherapists, the National Insurance Service, other insurance companies, rescue and ambulance personal, fire departments, the Automobile Association, the communication Council. Local communities members of the parliament, voluntary organizations, e.g. Red Cross, the Sea Rescue Service and the Aviation Board. This activity has stimulated measures aiming at preventing accidents in several local communities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1285816

  18. Accident analysis in research reactors

    With the sustained development in computer technology, the possibilities of code capabilities have been enlarged substantially. Consequently, advanced safety evaluations and design optimizations that were not possible few years ago can now be performed. The challenge today is to revisit the safety features of the existing nuclear plants and particularly research reactors in order to verify that the safety requirements are still met and - when necessary - to introduce some amendments not only to meet the new requirements but also to introduce new equipment from recent development of new technologies. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an overview of the accident analysis technology applied to the research reactor, with emphasis given to the capabilities of computational tools. (author)

  19. FFTF containment of hypothetical accidents

    The FFTF facility was evaluated for the consequences of an HCDA followed by failure of in-vessel post-accident heat removal, reactor vessel melt-through, and release of core debris and sodium coolant to the reactor cavity. Two cases are presented based on parameters considered to represent upper limits for rates of chemical and thermal attack of the reactor cavity concrete containment structure. The reactor containment building temperature, pressure, and leak rate histories were computed with the CACECO code which provided input into the HAA-3C code for prediction of aerosol behavior, and to the COMRADEX-H code for prediction of radioactivity dispersion. The resultant 30-day doses at the site boundary were judged to be acceptable considering the conservatism in the analysis and the low probability of the event

  20. Thyroid diseases after Chernobyl accident

    Radioactive iodine is released at every atomic-bomb testings and nuclear plants accidents and radioactive iodine is taken up by thyroid glands (internal radiation). In addition to the internal radiation, radioactive fallout causes the external radiation and thyroid glands are known to be sensitive to the external radiation. Furthermore, patients with radiation-induced thyroid disease can survive for a long time regardless of the treatment. The survey of thyroid diseases, therefore, is very sensitive and reliable ways to investigate the effects of radiation caused by atomic bomb explosion, testing and various types of nuclear plants' accidents. Our group from Nagasaki University was asked to investigate the thyroid diseases and jointed to the Sasakawa Project. In order to investigate the effects of radiation on thyroid disease, it is essential 1) to make a correct diagnosis in each subject, 2) to calculate a correct radiation dose in each subject and finally, 3) to find out the correlation between the radiation dose and thyroid diseases including age-, sex- and area-matched controls. We have established 5 centers (1 in Russia, 2 in Belarus, 2 in Ukraine) and supplied the most valuable ultrasonography instruments, commercial kits for the determination of serum free T4 and TSH level and for the autoantibodies, instrument for urinary iodine measurements, syringers, tubes, refrigerators, etc. We visit each center often and asked people at centers to come to Japan for training. Protocol of investigation is essentially the same as that in Nagasaki, and we are planning to investigate more than 50,000 children within 5 years. We are hoping to show a definite conclusion in the near future. Recent articles are also discussed. (author)

  1. The Fukushima accident was preventable.

    Synolakis, Costas; Kânoğlu, Utku

    2015-10-28

    The 11 March 2011 tsunami was probably the fourth largest in the past 100 years and killed over 15 000 people. The magnitude of the design tsunami triggering earthquake affecting this region of Japan had been grossly underestimated, and the tsunami hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP), causing the third most severe accident in an NPP ever. Interestingly, while the Onagawa NPP was also hit by a tsunami of approximately the same height as Dai-ichi, it survived the event 'remarkably undamaged'. We explain what has been referred to as the cascade of engineering and regulatory failures that led to the Fukushima disaster. One, insufficient attention had been given to evidence of large tsunamis inundating the region earlier, to Japanese research suggestive that large earthquakes could occur anywhere along a subduction zone, and to new research on mega-thrusts since Boxing Day 2004. Two, there were unexplainably different design conditions for NPPs at close distances from each other. Three, the hazard analysis to calculate the maximum probable tsunami at Dai-ichi appeared to have had methodological mistakes, which almost nobody experienced in tsunami engineering would have made. Four, there were substantial inadequacies in the Japan nuclear regulatory structure. The Fukushima accident was preventable, if international best practices and standards had been followed, if there had been international reviews, and had common sense prevailed in the interpretation of pre-existing geological and hydrodynamic findings. Formal standards are needed for evaluating the tsunami vulnerability of NPPs, for specific training of engineers and scientists who perform tsunami computations for emergency preparedness or critical facilities, as well as for regulators who review safety studies. PMID:26392611

  2. Chernobyl reactor accident: medical management

    Chernobyl reactor accident on 26th April, 1986 is by far the worst radiation accident in the history of the nuclear industry. Nearly 500 plant personnel and rescue workers received doses varying from 1-16 Gy. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was seen only in the plant personnel. 499 individuals were screened for ARS symptoms like nausea, vomitting, diarrhoea and fever. Complete blood examination was done which showed initial granulocytosis followed by granulocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Cytogenetic examinations were confirmatory in classifying the patients on the basis of the doses received. Two hundred and thirty seven cases of ARS were hospitalised in the first 24-36 hrs. No member of general public suffered from ARS. There were two immediate deaths and subsequently 28 died in hospital and one of the cases died due to myocardial infarction, making a total of 31 deaths. The majority of fatal cases had whole body doses of about 6 Gy, besides extensive skin burns. Two cases of radiation burns had thermal burns also. Treatment of ARS consisted of isolation, barrier nursing, replacement therapy with fluid electrolytes, platelets and RBC transfusions and antibiotic therapy for bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Bone marrow transplantations were given to 13 cases out of which 11 died due to various causes. Radiation burns due to beta, gamma radiations were seen in 56 cases and treated with dressings, surgical excision, skin grafting and amputation. Oropharangeal syndrome, producing extensive mucous in the oropharynx, was first seen in Chernobyl. The patients were treated with saline wash of the mouth. The patients who had radioactive contamination due to radioactive iodine were given stable iodine, following wash with soap, water and monitored. Fourteen survivors died subsequently due to other causes. Late health effects seen so far include excess of thyroid cancer in the children and psychological disorders due to stress. No excess leukemia has been reported so

  3. Nuclear accident and medical staff

    Described is the commentary concerning normative action of medical staff at radiation emergency and actual actions taken/to be taken for the Nuclear Power Plant Accident (NPPA) in Fukushima. The normative medical staff's action at radiation emergency is essentially based on rules defined by such international authorities as United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Basic Safety Standard (BSS) and by network in IAEA, World Health Organization (WHO) and so on. The rules stand on past atomic events like those in Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Three Mile Isl., Chernobyl, and in Japanese Tokai JCO accident. The action above is required as a medical teamwork over specialized doctors. At Fukushima NPPA, medicare flowed from the on-site first-aid station (doctors for industry and labors), then the base for patient transfer (doctors of Japanese Association of Acute Medicine and Tokyo Electric Power Comp.), to the primary hospital for acute exposure (Iwaki Kyoritsu Hos.), from which patients were further transported to the secondary (contamination detected or severe trauma, Fukushima Medical Univ.) and/or tertiary facilities (serious contamination or acute radiation injury, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) and Hiroshima Univ.). The flow was built up by the previous lead of national official guidance and by urgent spontaneous network among medical facilities; exempli gratia (e.g.), Fukushima Medical Univ. rapidly specialized in coping with the radiation medicare by partial discontinuance of daily clinical practice. Specialists of acute radiation medicare are generally rare, for which measures for it are more desirable along with health risk communication in facilities concerned. The professional function and endowment required for medical staff at emergency are concluded to be their guts and devotion as well as medical

  4. Understanding accident investigators : a study of the required skills and behaviours for effective UK inspectors of accidents

    Flaherty, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    In the UK, accidents associated with maritime, aviation and rail transport are conducted by the Inspectors of Accidents at the Marine, Air and Rail Accident Investigation Branches. A review of current academic literature provides little insight into the qualities and attributes essential for the role of accident investigator. A wealth of material exists about accidents themselves but as yet, a study into the profile of the accident investigator has not been conducted. This research soug...

  5. Development of integrated accident management assessment technology

    This project aims to develop critical technologies for accident management through securing evaluation frameworks and supporting tools, in order to enhance capabilities coping with severe accidents. For the research goal, firstly under the viewpoint of accident prevention, on-line risk monitoring system and the analysis framework for human error have been developed. Secondly, the training/supporting systems including the training simulator and the off-site risk evaluation system have been developed to enhance capabilities coping with severe accidents. Four kinds of research results have been obtained from this project. Firstly, the framework and taxonomy for human error analysis has been developed for accident management. As the second, the supporting system for accident managements has been developed. Using data that are obtained through the evaluation of off-site risk for Younggwang site, the risk database as well as the methodology for optimizing emergency responses has been constructed. As the third, a training support system, SAMAT, has been developed, which can be used as a training simulator for severe accident management. Finally, on-line risk monitoring system, DynaRM, has been developed for Ulchin 3 and 4 unit

  6. Monitoring Severe Accidents Using AI Techniques

    It is very difficult for nuclear power plant operators to monitor and identify the major severe accident scenarios following an initiating event by staring at temporal trends of important parameters. The objective of this study is to develop and verify the monitoring for severe accidents using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques such as support vector classification (SVC), probabilistic neural network (PNN), group method of data handling (GMDH) and fuzzy neural network (FNN). The SVC and PNN are used for event classification among the severe accidents. Also, GMDH and FNN are used to monitor for severe accidents. The inputs to AI techniques are initial time-integrated values obtained by integrating measurement signals during a short time interval after reactor scram. In this study, 3 types of initiating events such as the hot-leg LOCA, the cold-leg LOCA and SGTR are considered and it is verified how well the proposed scenario identification algorithm using the GMDH and FNN models identifies the timings when the reactor core will be uncovered, when CET will exceed 1200 .deg. F and when the reactor vessel will fail. In cases that an initiating event develops into a severe accident, the proposed algorithm showed accurate classification of initiating events. Also, it well predicted timings for important occurrences during severe accident progression scenarios, which is very helpful for operators to perform severe accident management

  7. Upper respiratory tract illnesses and accidents.

    Smith, A P; Harvey, I; Richmond, P; Peters, T J; Thomas, M; Brockman, P

    1994-07-01

    Anecdotal accounts suggest that colds and influenza may increase human error. This view is supported by laboratory studies of the effects of upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTIs) on performance efficiency, which have shown that both experimentally induced and naturally occurring URTIs reduce aspects of performance efficiency. The present research examined the relationship between accidents and URTIs by studying 923 patients attending an Accident and Emergency department at a time of year when upper respiratory tract viruses were circulating. The results revealed no significant associations between URTIs and workplace accidents, and, similarly, no significant associations emerged when all accidents were compared with other attenders. The only effect which was close to statistical significance was a protective effect of influenza against workplace accidents, which could be explained in terms of a person with influenza or who has recently had influenza being less likely to work and therefore less likely to be at risk of experiencing a workplace accident. Further research must examine this topic with different methodologies, such as selecting controls from fellow workers of the index case, and these studies will provide us with a clearer view as to whether or not there is an association between URTIs and workplace accidents. PMID:7919298

  8. On the application of near accident data to risk analysis of major accidents

    Major accidents are low frequency high consequence events which are not well supported by conventional statistical methods due to data scarcity. In the absence or shortage of major accident direct data, the use of partially related data of near accidentsaccident precursor data – has drawn much attention. In the present work, a methodology has been proposed based on hierarchical Bayesian analysis and accident precursor data to risk analysis of major accidents. While hierarchical Bayesian analysis facilitates incorporation of generic data into the analysis, the dependency and interaction between accident and near accident data can be encoded via a multinomial likelihood function. We applied the proposed methodology to risk analysis of offshore blowouts and demonstrated its outperformance compared to conventional approaches. - Highlights: • Probabilistic risk analysis is applied to model major accidents. • Two-stage Bayesian updating is used to generate informative distributions. • Accident precursor data are used to develop likelihood function. • A multinomial likelihood function is introduced to model dependencies among data

  9. Investigation of Qom Rural Area Water Network Accident in 2010 and Minimization Approaches of Accident Frequencies

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study : Accidents in water networks can lead to increase the uncounted water, costs of repair, maintenance, restoration and enter water contaminants to water network. The aim of this study is to survey the accidents of Qom rural water network and choose the right approaches to reduce the number of accidents. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, four sector of Qom province (Markazi, Dastjerd, Kahak and Qahan, were assessed over a period of 8 months (July – January 2010. This study was conducted through questionnaire of Ministry of Energy. Results: The total number of accidents was 763. The highest number of accidents in the four sectors was related to Markazi sector with 228 accidents. According to the time of the accident, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to September (19.7% and November (6.8%, respectively. According to the location of the accident on network, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to distribution network (64% and connections (17.5% and transmission pipe (18.34%, respectively. According to the type of the accident, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to breaking (47.8% and gasket failure (1.2%, respectively. Considering with the pipes’ material, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to polyethylene pipes (93% and steel and cast iron pipes (0.5%, 0.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Due to the high break rate of Polyethylene pipes, it is recommended to be placed in priority of leak detection and rehabilitation.   .

  10. Dutch National Plan combat nuclear accidents

    This document presents the Dutch National Plan combat nuclear accidents (NPK). Ch. 2 discusses some important starting points which are determining for the framework and the performance of the NPK, in particular the accident typology which underlies the plan. Also the new accident-classification system for the Dutch nuclear power plants, the standardization for the measures to be taken and the staging around nuclear power plants are pursued. In ch. 3 the legal framework of the combat nuclear accidents is described. In particular the Nuclear-power law, the Accident law and the Municipality law are pursued. Also the role of province and municipality are described. Ch. 4 deals with the role of the owner/licensee of the object where the accident occurs, in the combat of accident. In ch. 5 the structure of the nuclear-accident combat at national level is outlined, subdivided in alarm phase, combat phase and the winding-up phase. In ch.'s 6-12 these phases are elaborated more in detail. In ch.'s 10-13 the measures to be taken in nuclear accidents, are described. These measures are distinguished with regard to: protection of the population and medical aspects, water economy, drinking-water supply, agriculture and food supply. Ch. 14 describes the responsibility of the burgomaster. Ch.'s 15 and 16 present an overview of the personnel, material, procedural and juridical modifications and supplements of existing structures which are necessary with regard to the new and modified parts of the structure. Ch. 17 indicates how by means of the appropriate education and exercise it can be achieved that all personnel, services and institutes concerned possess the knowledge and experience necessary for the activities from the NKP to be executed as has been described. Ch. 18 contains a survey of activities to be performed and a proposal how these can be realized. (H.W.). figs.; tabs

  11. Planning for the Handling of Radiation Accidents

    The developing atomic energy programmes and the widespread use of radiation sources in medicine, agriculture, industry and research have had admirable safety records. Throughout the world the number of known accidents in which persons have been exposed to harmful am ounts of ionizing radiation is relatively small, and only a few deaths have occurred. Meticulous precautions are being taken to maintain this good record in all work with radiation sources and to keep the exposure of persons as low as practicable. In spite of all the precautions that are taken, accidents may occur and they may be accompanied by the injury or death of persons and damage to property. It is only prudent to take those steps that are practicable to prevent accidents and to plan in advance the emergency action that would limit the injuries and damage caused by those accidents that do occur. Emergency plans should be sufficiently broad to cover unforeseen or very improbable accidents as well as those that are considered credible. Some accidents may involve only the workers in an establishment, those working directly with the source and possibly their colleagues. Other accidents may have consequences, notably in the form of radioactive contamination of the environment, that affect the general public, possibly far from the site of the accident. The preparation of plans for dealing with radiation accidents is therefore obligatory both for the various authorities that are responsible for protecting the health and the food and water supplies of the public, and for the operator of an installation containing radiation sources.

  12. Accidents in radiotherapy: Lack of quality assurance?

    About 150 radiological accidents, involving more than 3000 patients with adverse effects, 15 patient's fatalities and about 5000 staff and public exposures have been collected and analysed. Out of 67 analysed accidents in external beam therapy 22% has been caused by wrong calculation of the exposure time or monitor units, 13% by inadequate review of patient's chart, 12% by mistakes in the anatomical area to be treated. The remaining 35% can be attributed to 17 different causes. The most common mistakes in brachytherapy were wrong activities of sources used for treatment (20%), inadequate procedures for placement of sources applicators (14%), mistakes in calculating the treatment time (12%), etc. The direct and contributing causes of radiological accidents have been deduced from each event, when it was possible and categorized into 9 categories: mistakes in procedures (30%), professional mistakes (17%), communication mistakes (15%), lack of training (8.5%), interpretation mistakes (7%), lack of supervision (6%), mistakes in judgement (6%), hardware failures (5%), software and other mistakes (5.5%). Three types of direct and contributing causes responsible for almost 62% of all accidents are directly connected to the quality assurance of treatment. The lessons learnt from the accidents are related to frequencies of direct and contributing factors and show that most of the accident are caused by lack, non-application of quality assurance (QA) procedures or by underestimating of QA procedures. The international system for collection of accidents and dissemination of lessons learnt from the different accidents, proposed by IAEA, can contribute to better practice in many radiotherapy departments. Most of the accidents could have been avoided, had a comprehensive QA programme been established and properly applied in all radiotherapy departments, whatever the size. (author)

  13. Les accidents de scooter chez l'enfant au CHU Aristide Le Dantec de Dakar: à propos de 74 cas

    Mohamed, Azhar Salim; Ngom, Gabriel; Sow, Mamadou; Mbaye, Papa Alassane; Camara, Souleymane; Seck, Ndeye Fatou; Ndour, Oumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Les accidents de scooter sont de plus en plus fréquents à Dakar. Le but de ce travail est de rapporter les aspects épidémiologiques et lésionnels des ces accidents chez l'enfant à Dakar. Méthodes Une étude rétrospective et descriptive a été menée dans le Service de Chirurgie Pédiatrique du CHU Aristide Le Dantec de Dakar entre le 1er janvier 2009 et le 31 décembre 2011. Nous avons étudié divers paramètres dont la fréquence, les aspects sociodémographiques et lésionnels. Résultats Les accidents de scooter représentaient 12% des accidents de la voie publique. Ils étaient fréquents entre 12 heures et 14 heures (27%) et entre 18 heures et 20 heures (28,4%). Ils pouvaient survenir tous les jours et étaient fréquents pendant les mois d'avril (17,6%) et de juin (13,5%). Ils survenaient essentiellement dans la périphérie de Dakar (78%). La tranche de 3 à 8 ans (60,8%) était la plus touchée. Le sexe masculin était prédominant (sexe ratio de 1,5). Les piétons étaient les plus vulnérables (93,2%). La chute était le mécanisme dominant (98,7%). Les lésions touchaient surtout le membre inférieur (51,1%) et étaient constituées essentiellement de fracture. Conclusion La fréquence des accidents de scooter chez l'enfant est liée à l'urbanisation galopante et à l'accroissement du parc automobile dans une presqu’île. Les victimes sont essentiellement des piétons et présentent le plus souvent des fractures. PMID:27200137

  14. Thyroid carcinomas induced by Chernobyl nuclear accident

    The Chernobyl nuclear station accident is the unprecedented catastrophic accident in human nuclear industry with a large of quantity of radioactive nucleons resulting in contamination in many countries of the northern Hemisphere. After almost 20 years studying, it is approved that Belarus is the most serious affected country by the accident. Especially thyroid carcinomas in the people exposed to radioactive fall-out is considered to be the only one late radiation effect. RET gene in the happening of thyroid carcinomas is being paid close attention at present

  15. Containment severe accident management - selected strategies

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) organized in June 1994, in collaboration with the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI), a Specialist Meeting on Selected Containment Severe Accident Management Strategies, to discuss their feasibility, effectiveness, benefits and drawbacks, and long-term impact. The meeting focused on water reactors, mainly on existing systems. The technical content covered topics such as general aspects of accident management strategies in OECD Member countries, hydrogen management techniques and other containment accident management strategies, surveillance and protection of the containment function. The main conclusions of the meeting are summarized in the paper. (author)

  16. Development of criticality accident analysis code AGNES

    A one-point kinetics code, AGNES2, has been developed for the evaluation of the criticality accident of nuclear solution fuel system. The code has been evaluated through the simulation of TRACY experiments and used for the study of the condition of the JCO criticality accident. A code, AGNES-P, for the criticality accident of nuclear powder system has been developed based on AGNES2. It is expected that these codes be useful for the evaluation of criticality safety for fuel reprocessing and fabrication plants. (author)

  17. Compilation of accident statistics in PSE

    The objective of the investigations on transportation carried out within the framework of the 'Project - Studies on Safety in Waste Management (PSE II)' is the determination of the risk of accidents in the transportation of radioactive materials by rail. The fault tree analysis is used for the determination of risks in the transportation system. This method offers a possibility for the determination of frequency and consequences of accidents which could lead to an unintended release of radionuclides. The study presented compiles all data obtained from the accident statistics of the Federal German Railways. (orig./RB)

  18. Accident prevention in a contextual approach

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang

    2003-01-01

    Many recommendations on how to establish an accident prevention program do exist. The aim of many agencies is to promote the implementation of these recommendations in enterprises. The discussion has mainly focused on incentives either in the form of an effective enforcement of the law or as a...... such a contextual approach is shortly described and demonstrated in relation to a Danish case on accident prevention. It is concluded that the approach presently offers a post-ante, descriptive analytical understanding, and it is argued that it can be developed to a frame of reference for planning...... actions and programs on accident prevention....

  19. Ophidic accident and twin pregnancy

    Saavedra-Orozco Héctor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: around of 3000 types of snakes are known, from which just 15% arevenomous. Depending of the environmental, geographical and socio-demographiccharacteristics, there are significant differences in the incidence of cases of ophidicaccidents. Colombia reports 6 by each 100.000 habitants, 2.300 cases/year, with amortality of 5.6%. In a pregnant woman it is a rare event, between 1.4% and 4%, andit usually complicates seriously to the mother and to the product of the gestation. Theprevious thing will depend of the opportunity with which the suitable management isfulfilled and of the severity of the poisoning. Nowadays it isn´t clear the security of theantiophidic serum for the product, it has been related with miscarriage in early stagesof pregnancy and fetal death at the end of the pregnancy. Nevertheless, its appropriateadministration is the unique effective measure to avoid serious consequences andmaternal death.Clinical case: patient of 16 years old, G2 C1, with diagnosis of diamniotic dichorionic twinpregnancy of 36 weeks and ophidic accident of bothropic type of 16 hours of evolution.Right inferior limb with pain, edema grade III, blush, heat, formation of flictenas andecchymosis in its distal third. Laboratory tests indicate prolongation of the clotting time,elevated transaminases and elevated creatinine. It is considered the presence of severepoisoning and management with antiophidic serum is initiated. The pregnancy is finishedby cesarean as a result of maternal renal and hepatic dysfunction, and postoperativecare in UCI. The products are born with severe respiratory depression; they are carriedto neonatal intensive care unit with good evolution and hospital expenditure to thefive days. Next day to the cesarean, the patient presents compartment syndrome,for which fasciotomy is fulfilled. When the patient gets adequate recovery, it is donea cutaneous hanging tatter and after 27 days of hospitalization one gives exit withadequate

  20. Estimating the Influence of Accident Related Factors on Motorcycle Fatal Accidents using Logistic Regression (Case Study: Denpasar-Bali

    Wedagama D.M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Denpasar the capital of Bali Province, motorcycle accident contributes to about 80% of total road accidents. Out of those motorcycle accidents, 32% are fatal accidents. This study investigates the influence of accident related factors on motorcycle fatal accidents in the city of Denpasar during period 2006-2008 using a logistic regression model. The study found that the fatality of collision with pedestrians and right angle accidents were respectively about 0.44 and 0.40 times lower than collision with other vehicles and accidents due to other factors. In contrast, the odds that a motorcycle accident will be fatal due to collision with heavy and light vehicles were 1.67 times more likely than with other motorcycles. Collision with pedestrians, right angle accidents, and heavy and light vehicles were respectively accounted for 31%, 29%, and 63% of motorcycle fatal accidents.

  1. Radiation accidents and defence of population

    Full text: Development of nuclear physics, the fundamental and the applied researches in the field of radioactive insured wide possibility for application of radionuclides and ionizing radiation source in the different fields of national economy. Application of radionuclides in chemical, metallurgical, food industry, in agriculture and etc. Fields provide a large economic profit. It's hard to apprise significance of ionizing radiation source using in medicine for diagnostics and treatment of different disease. Nuclear power engineering and nuclear industry are developing intensively. At same time nuclear power, ionizing radiation sources incur potential treat for surroundings and health of population. As even that stage of protective measure development: there is no possibility of that happening of radiation accidents. A radiation accident qualifies as loss of ionizing radiation sources direction, which provoked by disrepair equipment, natural calamity or other causes which could bring to unplanned irradiation of population or radioactive pollution of surroundings. At present some following typical cases connected with radiation accident have been chosen: Contentious using or keeping of ionizing radiation source with breach of established requires; Loss, theft of ionizing radiation sources or radiation plants, instruments; Leaving the sources of ionizing radiation in the holes; Refusal radiation technic exploited in industry, medicine, SRI and etc; Disrepair in nuclear transport means of conveyance; Crashes and accidents at NPP and at other enterprises of nuclear industry. The radiation accidents according to character, degree and scales have been divided into two groups: Radiation accidents not connected with NPP; Accidents in the nuclear engineering and industry; The radiation accidents not connected with NPP according their consequence divide into 5 groups; accidents which do not come to irradiation of personal, persons from population (more PN-permissible norm

  2. Two serious accidents at the A-1 NPP. Analysis of the accidents the A-1 NPP

    In this presentation author describes the nuclear reactor A-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia). Author analyzes two reactor accidents which took off at this reactor. The first accident proceeded on January 5, 1976 during exchange of fuel elements when coolant - carbon dioxide - escaped. The second serious accident became on February 22, 1977 again during exchange of spent fuel elements. At this accident moderator - heavy water penetrated into the primary circuit of the reactor. Heavy water was subsequently removed from the reservoirs into the reserve tank in order not to leak out into the primary circuit. Inserting fuel element was melted. This accident was evaluated as grade 4 on seven-grade the international INES scale. A crash course and course parameters of the both accidents are analyzed.

  3. Accident evolution and barrier function and accident evolution management modeling of nuclear power plant incidents

    Every analysis of an accident or an incident is founded on a more or less explicit model of what an accident is. On a general level, the current approach models an incident or accident in a nuclear power plant as a failure to maintain a stable state with all variables within their ranges of stability. There are two main sets of subsystems in continuous interaction making up the analyzed system, namely the human-organizational and the technical subsystems. Several different but related approaches can be chosen to model an accident. However, two important difficulties accompany such modeling: the high level of system complexity and the very infrequent occurrence of accidents. The current approach acknowledges these problems and focuses on modeling reported incidents/accidents or scenarios selected in probabilistic risk assessment analyses to be of critical importance for the safety of a plant

  4. Application of PCTRAN-3/U to studying accident management during PWR severe accident

    In order to improve the safety of nuclear power plant, operator action should be taken into account during a severe accident. While it takes a long time to simulate the plant transient behavior under a severe accident in comparison with the design based accident, a transient simulator should have both high speed calculation capability and interactive functions to model the operating procedures. PCTRAN has been developing to be a simple simulator by using a personal computer to simulate plant behavior under an accident condition. While currently available means usually take relatively long time to simulate plant behavior, using a current high-powered personal computer (PC), PCTRAN-3/U code is designed to operate at a speed significantly faster than real-time. The author describes some results of PCTRAN application in studying the efficiency of accident management for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) during an severe accident

  5. An Application of CICCT Accident Categories to Aviation Accidents in 1988-2004

    Evans, Joni K.

    2007-01-01

    Interventions or technologies developed to improve aviation safety often focus on specific causes or accident categories. Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of those interventions is dependent upon mapping the historical aviation accidents into those same accident categories. To that end, the United States civil aviation accidents occurring between 1988 and 2004 (n=26,117) were assigned accident categories based upon the taxonomy developed by the CAST/ICAO Common Taxonomy Team (CICTT). Results are presented separately for four main categories of flight rules: Part 121 (large commercial air carriers), Scheduled Part 135 (commuter airlines), Non-Scheduled Part 135 (on-demand air taxi) and Part 91 (general aviation). Injuries and aircraft damage are summarized by year and by accident category.

  6. Propriété de soi et indifférence morale du rapport à soi

    Nathalie Maillard Romagnoli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Je m’interroge dans cet article sur les implications du principe libertarien de la pleine propriété de soi sur la question du rapport moral à soi-même. À travers le principe de la pleine propriété de soi, les libertariens défendent la liberté entière de chacun de vivre comme il l���entend, pourvu que les droits des autres soient respectés. Apparemment, ce principe n’a pas grand-chose à nous dire sur ce que nous sommes moralement autorisés à nous faire à nous-mêmes ou non. Certains libertariens, comme Vallentyne, soutiennent toutefois que le principe de la pleine propriété de soi est incompatible avec l’existence de devoirs envers soi. La pleine propriété de soi impliquerait l’indifférence morale du rapport à soi. Je soutiens dans cet article que le principe de la pleine propriété de soi n’implique pas que ce que nous nous faisons à nous-mêmes soit moralement indifférent. Je veux aussi montrer que même si les libertariens, et en particulier Vallentyne, soutiennent la thèse de l’indifférence morale du rapport à soi, celle-ci n’est pas liée à la thèse de la pleine propriété de soi, mais bien plutôt à leur subjectivisme moral.ABSTRACTI ask in this article what the libertarian principle of full self-ownership has to say about volontary actions directed towards oneself. Through the principle of full self-ownership, libertarians defend the persons’ individual liberty to live as they choose to do, as long as they don’t infringe on the rights of others. Apparently, this principle doesn’t have much to say about what we are morally allowed to do to ourselves or not. Some libertarians, however, like Vallentyne, maintain that, if we have duties or obligations to ourselves, then we cannot be full self-owner. In this perspective, full self-ownership would imply that what we do to ourselves is morally indifferent. I want to show in this article that full self-ownership is compatible with the

  7. Modeling accidents for prioritizing prevention

    The Workgroup Occupational Risk Model (WORM) project in the Netherlands is developing a comprehensive set of scenarios to cover the full range of occupational accidents. The objective is to support companies in their risk analysis and prioritization of prevention. This paper describes how the modeling has developed through projects in the chemical industry, to this one in general industry and how this is planned to develop further in the future to model risk prevention in air transport. The core modeling technique is based on the bowtie, with addition of more explicit modeling of the barriers needed for risk control, the tasks needed to ensure provision, use, monitoring and maintenance of the barriers, and the management resources and tasks required to ensure that these barrier life cycle tasks are carried out effectively. The modeling is moving from a static notion of barriers which can fail, to seeing risk control dynamically as (fallible) means for staying within a safe envelope. The paper shows how concepts develop slowly over a series of projects as a core team works continuously together. It concludes with some results of the WORM project and some indications of how the modeling is raising fundamental questions about the conceptualization of system safety, which need future resolution

  8. Investigation of Qom Rural Area Water Network Accident in 2010 and Minimization Approaches of Accident Frequencies

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian; Ahmad Reza Yari; Mohsen Ansari; Shahram Nazari; Mohamad Saberi Bidgoli; Gharib Majidi

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims of the Study : Accidents in water networks can lead to increase the uncounted water, costs of repair, maintenance, restoration and enter water contaminants to water network. The aim of this study is to survey the accidents of Qom rural water network and choose the right approaches to reduce the number of accidents. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, four sector of Qom province (Markazi, Dastjerd, Kahak and Qahan), were assessed over a period of 8 mon...

  9. The Chernobyl accident consequences; Consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  10. The influence of accident measures on accident scenarios for VVER-1000-Type reactors

    For VVER-1000-type reactors severe accident scenarios and possible mitigation strategies are investigated. The Station blackout sequence is chosen as reference case. At first a comparison between the cases with and without working spray systems is discussed. Afterwards the results of a parametric study investigating the influence of different water volumes on the course of the accident are presented. It can be shown that most of these accident mitigation measures will maintain the containment integrity and reduce the source term. (author)

  11. Organizational aspects of three accidents : how common organizational factors contributed to the occurrence of the accidents

    Hansen, Kathe-Mari Solberg

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, two serious accidents and one major incident in the offshore drilling industry have been studied and compared. The main objective of this study was to seek out common organizational factors that contributed to these accidents. The findings clearly demonstrated that commonalities exist. Essentially, five factors represent recurring elements in these accidents: management, communication, competence, procedures, and compliance. How the regulatory regimes were organized also contr...

  12. Accident on the gas transfer system

    An accident has happened on the Vivitron gas transfer system on the 7 th August 1991. This report presents the context, facts and inquiries, analyses the reasons and explains also how the repairing has been effected

  13. A review of severe accident assessment

    One of the most difficult problems on evaluation of external costs on nuclear power generation is value on a severe accident risk. Once forming a severe accident, its effect is very important and extends to a wide range, to give a lot of damages. It is a main area of study on externality of energy to compare various risks by means of price conversion at unit kWh. Here was outlined on research examples on main severe accident risks before then. A common fact on estimation cost such research examples is to limit it to direct cost (mainly to health damage) at accident phenomenon. As an actual problem, it is very difficult to substantially quantify such parameters because of basically belonging to social psychology. It is due to no finding out decisive evaluation method on this problem to be adopted conventional EED (Expert Expected Damages) approach in the ExternE Phase III, either. (G.K.)

  14. National emergency plan for nuclear accidents

    The national emergency plan for nuclear accidents is a plan of action designed to provide a response to accidents involving the release or potential release of radioactive substances into the environment, which could give rise to radiation exposure to the public. The plan outlines the measures which are in place to assess and mitigate the effects of nuclear accidents which might pose a radiological hazard in ireland. It shows how accident management will operate, how technical information and monitoring data will be collected, how public information will be provided and what measures may be taken for the protection of the public in the short and long term. The plan can be integrated with the Department of Defence arrangements for wartime emergencies

  15. Deterministic analyses of severe accident issues

    Severe accidents in light water reactors involve complex physical phenomena. In the past there has been a heavy reliance on simple assumptions regarding physical phenomena alongside of probability methods to evaluate risks associated with severe accidents. Recently GE has developed realistic methodologies that permit deterministic evaluations of severe accident progression and of some of the associated phenomena in the case of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). These deterministic analyses indicate that with appropriate system modifications, and operator actions, core damage can be prevented in most cases. Furthermore, in cases where core-melt is postulated, containment failure can either be prevented or significantly delayed to allow sufficient time for recovery actions to mitigate severe accidents

  16. Emergency Response to Radioactive Material Transport Accidents

    Although transport regulations issued by IAEA is providing a high degree of safety during transport opertions,transport accidents involving packages containing radioactive material have occurred and will occur at any time. Whenever a transport accident involving radioactive material accurs, and many will pose no radiation safety problems, emergency respnose actioms are meeded to ensure that radiation safety is maintained. In case of transport accident that result in a significant relesae of radioactive material , loss of shielding or loss of criticality control , that consequences should be controlled or mitigated by proper emergency response actions safety guide, Emergency Response Plamming and Prepardness for transport accidents involving radioactive material, was published by IAEA. This guide reflected all requirememts of IAEA, regulations for safe transport of radioactive material this guide provide guidance to the publicauthorites and other interested organziation who are responsible for establishing such emergency arrangements

  17. Medical Planning and Care in Radiation Accidents

    As part of a broad effort intended to mitigate the consequences of radiation accidents, the United States Atomic Energy Commission has developed a program to train physicians and to orient hospital staffs in the treatment of accident victims. Seminars have been conducted to date for approximately 120 physicians on medical planning and care in radiation accidents. This paper presents the scope and specific topics covered in the seminars, together with an analysis of. experience gained during development and presentation of the seminars. More recently the program has been expanded to encompass orientation of hospital administrators and other para-medical personnel on the handling and admittance of victims of radiation accidents. The latter problem is the subject of a new color film premiered at the Symposium. (author)

  18. Legal intervention against medical accidents in Japan

    Hideo Yasunaga

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hideo YasunagaDepartment of Health Management and Policy, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The number of civil lawsuits in Japan concerning medical accidents has been increasing gradually. Emotional reports in the media about medical accidents have amplified people’s distrust of physicians. Since 2002, the police have been more actively involved, and the number of criminal prosecutions against physicians as a result of medical accidents has increased. Fear of litigation and arrest has demoralized physicians. Communication of the risks associated with various medical practices is considered vital if physician–patient relationships are to be improved. Moreover, there needs to be a reconsideration of legal interventions into medical affairs.Keywords: physician–patient relationship, medical accidents, civil lawsuits, criminal lawsuits

  19. Containment leakage during severe accident conditions

    An alternate to the THRESHOLD model used in most severe accident risk assessments has been investigated. One reference plant for each of six containment types has been studied to determine the magnitude of containment leakage that would result from the pressures and temperatures associated with severe accident conditions. Containment penetrations having the greatest potential for early containment leakage are identified. The studies indicate that containment leakage through penetrations prior to reaching containment threshold pressures (currently reported containment shell failure pressures) should be considered in severe accident risk assessments. Failure of non-metallic seals for containment penetrations can be a significant source of containment leakage under severe accident pressure and temperature conditions. Although studies of containment types are useful in identifying sources of containment leakage, final conclusions may need to be plant specific. Recommendations concerning future studies to better develop the use of continuous leakage models are provided. 9 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  20. Safety analysis of surface haulage accidents

    Randolph, R.F.; Boldt, C.M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Research on improving haulage truck safety, started by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, is being continued by its successors. This paper reports the orientation of the renewed research efforts, beginning with an update on accident data analysis, the role of multiple causes in these accidents, and the search for practical methods for addressing the most important causes. Fatal haulage accidents most often involve loss of control or collisions caused by a variety of factors. Lost-time injuries most often involve sprains or strains to the back or multiple body areas, which can often be attributed to rough roads and the shocks of loading and unloading. Research to reduce these accidents includes improved warning systems, shock isolation for drivers, encouraging seatbelt usage, and general improvements to system and task design.

  1. 30 years learning from radiological accidents

    The summary of the radiological accidents from 1957 to 1997 occurred in Mexico is showed, including the analysis in terms of practice, and consequences. The study tries to establish the radiological knowledge of the people involved in the accident, their attitude to the safety, and retrospective review to the light of 30 years after. Nevertheless, due to the technological developments made to the equipment allow the use in a safe manner, so that the accident number has diminished in a important in a important quantity respect to the reported period, combined to the increased the radiological culture learned by the operation personnel in addition of qualification and awareness in this matter, at present is little probable that the mentioned accidents repeat now days with the same radiological affectations as those happened in the past. (author)

  2. Iodine release characteristic in reactor accidents

    The author describes the chemical behavior for the iodine release from the fuel element in nuclear reactor accidents, partition coefficient in the water and air and the release characteristic in time. The research of the iodine release was suggested

  3. More Children Accidently Poisoned by 'Essential Oils'

    ... fullstory_158837.html More Children Accidently Poisoned by 'Essential Oils' Tennessee poison center reports doubling of dangerous exposures ... HealthDay News) -- Children are increasingly at risk from essential oils that are often used in natural remedies, a ...

  4. Internal dose assessment in radiation accidents

    Although numerous models have been developed for occupational and medical internal dosimetry, they may not be applicable to an accident situation. Published dose coefficients relate effective dose to intake, but if acute deterministic effects are possible, effective dose is not a useful parameter. Consequently, dose rates to the organs of interest need to be computed from first principles. Standard bioassay methods may be used to assess body contents, but, again, the standard models for bioassay interpretation may not be applicable because of the circumstances of the accident and the prompt initiation of decorporation therapy. Examples of modifications to the standard methodologies include adjustment of biological half-times under therapy, such as in the Goiania accident, and the same effect, complicated by continued input from contaminated wounds, in the Hanford 241Am accident. (author)

  5. Accident risks in the energy sector

    This article discusses the accident rate of natural gas installations, which are quoted by the author to be lowest of all fossil fuels. The statistics on accidents and their consequences are looked at for the whole natural gas supply chain. The results of a study commissioned by the Swiss Gas and Water Professionals Association (SVGW) are presented and discussed. Statistics for the European Union and Eastern Europe are looked at and analysed. The study's methodological basis is described and the criteria used for the definition of an accident considered to be 'serious' are listed. The results of comparisons made of various energy chains are presented and discussed. Graphics are presented of frequency of occurrence and seriousness of damage for various forms of energy as well as for maximum possible consequences of accidents. Specific analyses for the natural gas chain are presented

  6. Fast detections of the accident. Radiological consequences

    This paper shows how the contamination due to the accident of Chernobylsk has been discovered in Sweden. The Swedish national Institute of radio-protection describes in detail the measurements done, and the decisions of radioprotection which have been taken

  7. Review of models applicable to accident aerosols

    Estimations of potential airborne-particle releases are essential in safety assessments of nuclear-fuel facilities. This report is a review of aerosol behavior models that have potential applications for predicting aerosol characteristics in compartments containing accident-generated aerosol sources. Such characterization of the accident-generated aerosols is a necessary step toward estimating their eventual release in any accident scenario. Existing aerosol models can predict the size distribution, concentration, and composition of aerosols as they are acted on by ventilation, diffusion, gravity, coagulation, and other phenomena. Models developed in the fields of fluid mechanics, indoor air pollution, and nuclear-reactor accidents are reviewed with this nuclear fuel facility application in mind. The various capabilities of modeling aerosol behavior are tabulated and discussed, and recommendations are made for applying the models to problems of differing complexity

  8. Rapport Adaptation of Language in Human Communication%论交际过程中语言的和谐顺应

    周树江

    2014-01-01

    在交际中,人们的语言应用是一个不断选择的顺应过程,而语言顺应要受制于元语用意识。追求交际的和谐是一种无标记元语用意识,是多数场合下交际者追求的交际目标。成功的交际者会根据交际语境不断变换语言形式、交际策略及话语内容来达到交际和谐,从而实现交际过程中的语言的和谐顺应。%In human communication, the use of language is a dynamic adaptive process. The adaptive process is monitored and guided by the metapragmatic awareness. Managing rapport in communication, which is the communicative aim for most occasions, is a kind of unmarked metapragmatic awareness. Successful communicators usually adapt the language form, communicative strategy and discourse contents to the communicative context so as to achieve rapport in communication. The process is called rapport adap-tation of language in human communication.

  9. 46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5 Shipping... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  10. 46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5 Shipping... Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use of the...

  11. 46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  12. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304... Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material to... nuclear accident is possible, shall provide nuclear accident dosimetry for those individuals. (b)...

  13. Modeling secondary accidents identified by traffic shock waves.

    Junhua, Wang; Boya, Liu; Lanfang, Zhang; Ragland, David R

    2016-02-01

    The high potential for occurrence and the negative consequences of secondary accidents make them an issue of great concern affecting freeway safety. Using accident records from a three-year period together with California interstate freeway loop data, a dynamic method for more accurate classification based on the traffic shock wave detecting method was used to identify secondary accidents. Spatio-temporal gaps between the primary and secondary accident were proven be fit via a mixture of Weibull and normal distribution. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate major factors contributing to secondary accident occurrence. Traffic shock wave speed and volume at the occurrence of a primary accident were explicitly considered in the model, as a secondary accident is defined as an accident that occurs within the spatio-temporal impact scope of the primary accident. Results show that the shock waves originating in the wake of a primary accident have a more significant impact on the likelihood of a secondary accident occurrence than the effects of traffic volume. Primary accidents with long durations can significantly increase the possibility of secondary accidents. Unsafe speed and weather are other factors contributing to secondary crash occurrence. It is strongly suggested that when police or rescue personnel arrive at the scene of an accident, they should not suddenly block, decrease, or unblock the traffic flow, but instead endeavor to control traffic in a smooth and controlled manner. Also it is important to reduce accident processing time to reduce the risk of secondary accident. PMID:26687540

  14. Light water reactor severe accident seminar. Seminar presentation manual

    The topics covered in this manual on LWR severe accidents were: Evolution of Source Term Definition and Analysis, Current Position on Severe Accident Phenomena, Current Position on Fission Product Behavior, Overview of Software Models Used in Severe Accident Analysis, Overview of Plant Specific Source Terms and Their Impact on Risk, Current Applications of Severe Accident Analysis, and Future plans

  15. Assessment of accident risks in the CRBRP. Volume 2. Appendices

    None

    1977-03-01

    Appendices to Volume I include core-related accident-sequence definition, CRBRP risk-assessment sequence-probability determinations, failure-probability data, accident scenario evaluation, radioactive material release analysis, ex-core accident analysis, safety philosophy and design features, calculation of reactor accident consequences, sensitivity study, and risk from fires.

  16. Bus accident severity and passenger injury: evidence from Denmark

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    principle of sustainable transit and advance the vision “every accident is one too many”. Methods Bus accident data were retrieved from the national accident database for the period 2002–2011. A generalized ordered logit model allows analyzing bus accident severity and a logistic regression enables...

  17. 48 CFR 852.236-87 - Accident prevention.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 852... Accident prevention. As prescribed in 836.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (SEP 1993....236-13, Accident Prevention. However, only the Contracting Officer may issue an order to stop all...

  18. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident means— (a) Any casualty or accident involving any vessel other than a public vessel that— (1) Occurs...

  19. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

  20. 14 CFR 415.41 - Accident investigation plan.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accident investigation plan. 415.41 Section... Launch Range § 415.41 Accident investigation plan. An applicant must file an accident investigation plan... reporting and responding to launch accidents, launch incidents, or other mishaps, as defined by § 401.5...

  1. 33 CFR 173.55 - Report of casualty or accident.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Report of casualty or accident... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY VESSEL NUMBERING AND CASUALTY AND ACCIDENT REPORTING Casualty and Accident Reporting § 173.55 Report of casualty or accident. (a) The operator of a vessel shall submit the casualty...

  2. 33 CFR 401.81 - Reporting an accident.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting an accident. 401.81... an accident. (a) Where a vessel on the Seaway is involved in an accident or a dangerous occurrence, the master of the vessel shall report the accident or occurrence, pursuant to the requirements of...

  3. 49 CFR 382.209 - Use following an accident.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use following an accident. 382.209 Section 382.209... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.209 Use following an accident. No driver required to take a post-accident alcohol test under § 382.303 shall use alcohol for eight hours following the accident,...

  4. 36 CFR 1004.4 - Report of motor vehicle accident.

    2010-07-01

    ... accident. 1004.4 Section 1004.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.4 Report of motor vehicle accident. (a) The operator of a motor vehicle involved in an accident resulting in property damage, personal injury or death shall report the accident to the...

  5. 49 CFR 655.44 - Post-accident testing.

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Administration rule 49 CFR 389.303(a)(1) or (b)(1). (ii) The employer shall also drug and alcohol... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Post-accident testing. 655.44 Section 655.44... of Testing § 655.44 Post-accident testing. (a) Accidents. (1) Fatal accidents. (i) As soon...

  6. Oranges and Peaches: Understanding Communication Accidents in the Reference Interview.

    Dewdney, Patricia; Michell, Gillian

    1996-01-01

    Librarians often have communication "accidents" with reference questions as initially presented. This article presents linguistic analysis of query categories, including: simple failures of hearing, accidents involving pronunciation or homophones, accidents where users repeat earlier misinterpretations to librarians, and accidents where users…

  7. Learning lessons from Natech accidents - the eNATECH accident database

    Krausmann, Elisabeth; Girgin, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    When natural hazards impact industrial facilities that house or process hazardous materials, fires, explosions and toxic releases can occur. This type of accident is commonly referred to as Natech accident. In order to prevent the recurrence of accidents or to better mitigate their consequences, lessons-learned type studies using available accident data are usually carried out. Through post-accident analysis, conclusions can be drawn on the most common damage and failure modes and hazmat release paths, particularly vulnerable storage and process equipment, and the hazardous materials most commonly involved in these types of accidents. These analyses also lend themselves to identifying technical and organisational risk-reduction measures that require improvement or are missing. Industrial accident databases are commonly used for retrieving sets of Natech accident case histories for further analysis. These databases contain accident data from the open literature, government authorities or in-company sources. The quality of reported information is not uniform and exhibits different levels of detail and accuracy. This is due to the difficulty of finding qualified information sources, especially in situations where accident reporting by the industry or by authorities is not compulsory, e.g. when spill quantities are below the reporting threshold. Data collection has then to rely on voluntary record keeping often by non-experts. The level of detail is particularly non-uniform for Natech accident data depending on whether the consequences of the Natech event were major or minor, and whether comprehensive information was available for reporting. In addition to the reporting bias towards high-consequence events, industrial accident databases frequently lack information on the severity of the triggering natural hazard, as well as on failure modes that led to the hazmat release. This makes it difficult to reconstruct the dynamics of the accident and renders the development of

  8. Assessing economic consequences of radiation accidents

    This project reviewed the literature on the economic consequences of accidents to determine the availability of assessment methods and data and their applicability to the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system before closure; determined needs for expansion, revision, or adaptation of methods and data for modeling economic consequences of accidents of the scale projected for the disposal system; and gathered data that might be useful for the needed revisions. 8 refs., 1 tab

  9. Conclusions on severe accident research priorities

    Highlights: • Estimation of research priorities related to severe accident phenomena. • Consideration of new topics, partly linked to the severe accidents at Fukushima. • Consideration of results of recent projects, e.g. SARNET, ASAMPSA2, OECD projects. - Abstract: The objectives of the SARNET network of excellence are to define and work on common research programs in the field of severe accidents in Gen. II–III nuclear power plants and to further develop common tools and methodologies for safety assessment in this area. In order to ensure that the research conducted on severe accidents is efficient and well-focused, it is necessary to periodically evaluate and rank the priorities of research. This was done at the end of 2008 by the Severe Accident Research Priority (SARP) group at the end of the SARNET project of the 6th Framework Programme of European Commission (FP6). This group has updated this work in the FP7 SARNET2 project by accounting for the recent experimental results, the remaining safety issues as e.g. highlighted by Level 2 PSA national studies and the results of the recent ASAMPSA2 FP7 project. These evaluation activities were conducted in close relation with the work performed under the auspices of international organizations like OECD or IAEA. The Fukushima-Daiichi severe accidents, which occurred while SARNET2 was running, had some effects on the prioritization and definition of new research topics. Although significant progress has been gained and simulation models (e.g. the ASTEC integral code, jointly developed by IRSN and GRS) were improved, leading to an increased confidence in the predictive capabilities for assessing the success potential of countermeasures and/or mitigation measures, most of the selected research topics in 2008 are still of high priority. But the Fukushima-Daiichi accidents underlined that research efforts had to focus still more to improve severe accident management efficiency

  10. Estimating the frequency of nuclear accidents

    Raju, Suvrat

    2014-01-01

    We used Bayesian methods to compare the predictions of probabilistic risk assessment -- the theoretical tool used by the nuclear industry to predict the frequency of nuclear accidents -- with empirical data. The existing record of accidents with some simplifying assumptions regarding their probability distribution is sufficient to rule out the validity of the industry's analyses at a very high confidence level. We show that this conclusion is robust against any reasonable assumed variation of...

  11. APRI-6. Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance

    Since the early 1980s, nuclear power utilities in Sweden and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) collaborate on the research in severe reactor accidents. In the beginning focus was mostly on strengthening protection against environmental impacts after a severe reactor accident, for example by develop systems for the filtered relief of the reactor containment. Since the early 90s, this focus has shifted to the phenomenological issues of risk-dominant significance. During the years 2006-2008, the partnership continued in the research project APRI-6. The aim was to show whether the solutions adopted in the Swedish strategy for incident management provides adequate protection for the environment. This is done by studying important phenomena in the core melt estimating the amount of radioactivity that can be released to the atmosphere in a severe accident. To achieve these objectives the research has included monitoring of international research on severe accidents and evaluation of results and continued support for research of severe accidents at the Royal Inst. of Technology (KTH) and Chalmers University. The follow-up of international research has promoted the exchange of knowledge and experience and has given access to a wealth of information on various phenomena relevant to events in severe accidents. The continued support to KTH has provided increased knowledge about the possibility of cooling the molten core in the reactor tank and the processes associated with coolability in the confinement and about steam explosions. Support for Chalmers has increased knowledge of the accident chemistry, mainly the behavior of iodine and ruthenium in the containment after an accident

  12. Nuclear Accidents And Associated Environmental Risk

    The paper presents a critical review on the recent view of some safety related issues concerning nuclear accident analysis and its environmental impacts. The philosophy of defence in depth, nuclear accident classification, and quantitative evaluation of environmental risk are among the issues being discussed. The problems of nuclear data harmonization and/or models, building trust and transparence between regulatory guides and public, and alternatives for relocation pathways are also addressed and evaluated

  13. Nuclear accident impact on the ecological environment

    This article reviewed the eco-environmental behavior of radionuclides released into the environment by nuclear explosion and nuclear accidents, especially of several key radionuclides with biological significance, including 137Cs, 95Zr, 90Sr, 131I, 3H and 14C, in order to correctly understand the case of nuclear accidents and its pollution, maintain the social stable, and provide suitable measures for environmental protection and safety. (author)

  14. Chernobylsk accident (Causes and Consequences)- Part 2

    The causes and consequences of the nuclear accident at Chernobylsk-4 reactor are shortly described. The informations were provided by Russian during the specialist meeting, carried out at seat of IAEA. The Russian nuclear panorama; the site, nuclear power plant characteristics and sequence of events; the immediate measurements after accident; monitoring/radioactive releases; environmental contamination and ecological consequences; measurements of emergency; recommendations to increase the nuclear safety; and recommendations of work groups, are presented. (M.C.K.)

  15. Dosimetric evaluation of radiation accident situation

    The publication contains the classification of neutron spectra from different neutron sources, a chapter on neutron absorption by the human body, a diagram for neutron and photon dose estimation and for classifying persons involved in a radiation accident, the description of detectors and methods used for radiation accident analysis, a chapter on the interpretation of data from an accidental dosimetric system, and annexes. (H.S.)

  16. Serious accidents on boiling water reactors (BWR)

    This short document describes, first, the specificities of boiling water reactors (BWRs) with respect to PWRs in front of the progress of a serious accident, and then, the strategies of accident management: restoration of core cooling, water injection, core flooding, management of hydrogen release, depressurization of the primary coolant circuit, containment spraying, controlled venting, external vessel cooling, erosion of the lower foundation raft by the corium). (J.S.)

  17. Accident analysis in nuclear power plants

    The way the philosophy of Safety in Depth can be verified through the analysis of simulated accidents is shown. This can be achieved by verifying that the integrity of the protection barriers against the release of radioactivity to the environment is preserved even during accident conditions. The simulation of LOCA is focalized as an example, including a study about the associated environmental radiological consequences. (Author)

  18. Vehicle accidents related to sleep: a review

    Horne, J.; Reyner, L.

    1999-01-01

    Falling asleep while driving accounts for a considerable proportion of vehicle accidents under monotonous driving conditions. Many of these accidents are related to work--for example, drivers of lorries, goods vehicles, and company cars. Time of day (circadian) effects are profound, with sleepiness being particularly evident during night shift work, and driving home afterwards. Circadian factors are as important in determining driver sleepiness as is the duration of the drive, but only ...

  19. APRI-6. Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance

    Garis, Ninos; Ljung, J (eds.) (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)); Agrenius, Lennart (ed.) (Agrenius Ingenjoersbyraa AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    Since the early 1980s, nuclear power utilities in Sweden and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) collaborate on the research in severe reactor accidents. In the beginning focus was mostly on strengthening protection against environmental impacts after a severe reactor accident, for example by develop systems for the filtered relief of the reactor containment. Since the early 90s, this focus has shifted to the phenomenological issues of risk-dominant significance. During the years 2006-2008, the partnership continued in the research project APRI-6. The aim was to show whether the solutions adopted in the Swedish strategy for incident management provides adequate protection for the environment. This is done by studying important phenomena in the core melt estimating the amount of radioactivity that can be released to the atmosphere in a severe accident. To achieve these objectives the research has included monitoring of international research on severe accidents and evaluation of results and continued support for research of severe accidents at the Royal Inst. of Technology (KTH) and Chalmers University. The follow-up of international research has promoted the exchange of knowledge and experience and has given access to a wealth of information on various phenomena relevant to events in severe accidents. The continued support to KTH has provided increased knowledge about the possibility of cooling the molten core in the reactor tank and the processes associated with coolability in the confinement and about steam explosions. Support for Chalmers has increased knowledge of the accident chemistry, mainly the behavior of iodine and ruthenium in the containment after an accident.

  20. Severe accident testing of electrical penetration assemblies

    This report describes the results of tests conducted on three different designs of full-size electrical penetration assemblies (EPAs) that are used in the containment buildings of nuclear power plants. The objective of the tests was to evaluate the behavior of the EPAs under simulated severe accident conditions using steam at elevated temperature and pressure. Leakage, temperature, and cable insulation resistance were monitored throughout the tests. Nuclear-qualified EPAs were produced from D. G. O'Brien, Westinghouse, and Conax. Severe-accident-sequence analysis was used to generate the severe accident conditions (SAC) for a large dry pressurized-water reactor (PWR), a boiling-water reactor (BWR) Mark I drywell, and a BWR Mark III wetwell. Based on a survey conducted by Sandia, each EPA was matched with the severe accident conditions for a specific reactor type. This included the type of containment that a particular EPA design was used in most frequently. Thus, the D. G. O'Brien EPA was chosen for the PWR SAC test, the Westinghouse was chosen for the Mark III test, and the Conax was chosen for the Mark I test. The EPAs were radiation and thermal aged to simulate the effects of a 40-year service life and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) before the SAC tests were conducted. The design, test preparations, conduct of the severe accident test, experimental results, posttest observations, and conclusions about the integrity and electrical performance of each EPA tested in this program are described in this report. In general, the leak integrity of the EPAs tested in this program was not compromised by severe accident loads. However, there was significant degradation in the insulation resistance of the cables, which could affect the electrical performance of equipment and devices inside containment at some point during the progression of a severe accident. 10 refs., 165 figs., 16 tabs

  1. Severe accident testing of electrical penetration assemblies

    Clauss, D.B. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-11-01

    This report describes the results of tests conducted on three different designs of full-size electrical penetration assemblies (EPAs) that are used in the containment buildings of nuclear power plants. The objective of the tests was to evaluate the behavior of the EPAs under simulated severe accident conditions using steam at elevated temperature and pressure. Leakage, temperature, and cable insulation resistance were monitored throughout the tests. Nuclear-qualified EPAs were produced from D. G. O'Brien, Westinghouse, and Conax. Severe-accident-sequence analysis was used to generate the severe accident conditions (SAC) for a large dry pressurized-water reactor (PWR), a boiling-water reactor (BWR) Mark I drywell, and a BWR Mark III wetwell. Based on a survey conducted by Sandia, each EPA was matched with the severe accident conditions for a specific reactor type. This included the type of containment that a particular EPA design was used in most frequently. Thus, the D. G. O'Brien EPA was chosen for the PWR SAC test, the Westinghouse was chosen for the Mark III test, and the Conax was chosen for the Mark I test. The EPAs were radiation and thermal aged to simulate the effects of a 40-year service life and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) before the SAC tests were conducted. The design, test preparations, conduct of the severe accident test, experimental results, posttest observations, and conclusions about the integrity and electrical performance of each EPA tested in this program are described in this report. In general, the leak integrity of the EPAs tested in this program was not compromised by severe accident loads. However, there was significant degradation in the insulation resistance of the cables, which could affect the electrical performance of equipment and devices inside containment at some point during the progression of a severe accident. 10 refs., 165 figs., 16 tabs.

  2. Group unified accident reporting database (GUARD)

    Significant advances have been made in recent years in enhancing the standard of safety within Shell Companies, such that safety has now been raised to a status equal to other primary business objectives. It is widely accepted that accident prevention is part of good business practice, and that a safe operation is normally an efficient operation. Safety programmes are being widely implemented which involve all employees from top management right down to the workforce including the contract staff, and the benefits are being realized. The effectiveness of any safety programme, however, must be continuously monitored, and in this respect injury and accident statistics play an important role as a prime indicator of safety performance. Statistics form part of the safety management process indicating the success of the safety programmes being implemented, and highlighting areas of weakness. Statistical information relating to the number and frequency of accidents, significant as it is, tells us little about how the accidents occur, or about how to improve the intrinsic safety of the operations. More detailed information on accident causes and lessons derived from the investigation of non-injurious accidents and near-misses is required for this, and for the setting of appropriate remedial actions. This paper concentrates on the feedback from accidents which have already occurred. This feedback plays a vital role as an indicator of safety performance upon which to judge the effectiveness of safety programmes, and also to provide important information relating to the immediate and underlying causes of accidents. To meet these requirements, however, a system for recording analyzing and communicating safety data is essential

  3. A reactivity accidents simulation of the Fort Saint Vrain HTGR

    A reactivity accidents analysis of the Fort Saint Vrain HTGR was made. The following accidents were analysed 1) A rod pair withdrawal accident during normal operation, 2) A rod pair ejection accident, 3) A rod pair withdrawal accident during startup operations at source levels and 4) Multiple rod pair withdrawal accident. All the simulations were performed by using the BLOOST-6 nuclear code The steady state reactor operation results obtained with the code were consistent with the design reactor data. The numerical analysis showed that all accidents - except the first one - cause particle failure. (author)

  4. PWR pressure vessel integrity during overcooling accidents

    Pressurized water reactors are susceptible to certain types of hypothetical accidents that under some circumstances, including operation of the reactor beyond a critical time in its life, could result in failure of the pressure vessel as a result of propagation of crack-like defects in the vessel wall. The accidents of concern are those that result in thermal shock to the vessel while the vessel is subjected to internal pressure. Such accidents, referred to as pressurized thermal shock or overcooling accidents (OCA), include a steamline break, small-break LOCA, turbine trip followed by stuck-open bypass valves, the 1978 Rancho Seco and the TMI accidents and many other postulated and actual accidents. The source of cold water for the thermal shock is either emergency core coolant or the normal primary-system coolant. ORNL performed fracture-mechanics calculations for a steamline break in 1978 and for a turbine-trip case in 1980 and concluded on the basis of the results that many more such calculations would be required. To meet the expected demand in a realistic way a computer code, OCA-I, was developed that accepts primary-system temperature and pressure transients as input and then performs one-dimensional thermal and stress analyses for the wall and a corresponding fracture-mechanics analysis for a long axial flaw. The code is briefly described, and its use in both generic and specific plant analyses is discussed

  5. The development of severe accident analysis technology

    Kim, Heuy Dong; Cho, Sung Won; Kim, Sang Baek; Park, Jong Hwa; Lee, Kyu Jung; Park, Lae Joon; Hu, Hoh; Hong, Sung Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the development of severe accident analysis technology is to understand the severe accident phenomena such as core melt progression and to provide a reliable analytical tool to assess severe accidents in a nuclear power plant. Furthermore, establishment of the accident management strategies for the prevention/mitigation of severe accidents is also the purpose of this research. The study may be categorized into three areas. For the first area, two specific issues were reviewed to identify the further research direction, that is the natural circulation in the reactor coolant system and the fuel-coolant interaction as an in-vessel and an ex-vessel phenomenological study. For the second area, the MELCOR and the CONTAIN codes have been upgraded, and a validation calculation of the MELCOR has been performed for the PHEBUS-B9+ experiment. Finally, the experimental program has been established for the in-vessel and the ex-vessel severe accident phenomena with the in-pile test loop in KMRR and the integral containment test facilities, respectively. (Author).

  6. Radiological accidents, scenarios, planning and answers

    Radiological accidents, scenarios and the importance of a good planning to prevent and control these types of accidents are presented. The radiation can be only one of the risks in an accident, most of dominant radiological risks are not radiological (fire, toxic gases, etc.). The common causes of radiological accidents, potential risks such as external irradiation, internal contamination and the environment pollution are highlighted. In addition, why accidents happen and how they evolve is explained. It describes some incidents with the radiation occurred in Costa Rica from 1993 to 2007. The coordination of emergency management in Costa Rica in relation to a radiological accident, and some mechanisms of action that have practiced in other places are focuses. Among the final considerations are the need to finalize the national plan for radiological emergencies as a tool of empowerment for the teams of emergency care and the availability of information. Likewise the processes of communication, coordination and cooperation to avoid chaos, confusion and crisis are also highlighted

  7. Severe accident risks from external events

    Randall O Gauntt

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the early development of design requirements for seismic events in USA early developing nuclear electric generating fleet.Notable safety studies,including WASH-1400,Sandia Siting Study and the NUREG-1150 probabilistic risk study,are briefly reviewed in terms of their relevance to extreme accidents arising from seismic and other severe accident initiators.Specific characteristic about the nature of severe accidents in nuclear power plant (NPP) are reviewed along with present day state-of-art analysis methodologies (methods for estimation of leakages and consequences of releases (MELCOR) and MELCOR accident consequence code system (MACCS)) that are used to evaluate severe accidents and to optimize mitigative and protective actions against such accidents.It is the aim of this paper to make nuclear operating nations aware of the risks that accompany a much needed energy resource and to identify some of the tools,techniques and landmark safety studies that serve to make the technology safer and to maintain vigilance and adequate safety culture for the responsible management of this valuable but unforgiving technology.

  8. Low level waste shipment accident lessons learned

    On October 1, 1994 a shipment of low-level waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio, was involved in an accident near Rolla, Missouri. The accident did not result in the release of any radioactive material. The accident did generate important lessons learned primarily in the areas of driver and emergency response communications. The shipment was comprised of an International Standards Organization (ISO) container on a standard flatbed trailer. The accident caused the low-level waste package to separate from the trailer and come to rest on its top in the median. The impact of the container with the pavement and median inflicted relatively minor damage to the container. The damage was not substantial enough to cause failure of container integrity. The success of the package is attributable to the container design and the packaging procedures used at the Fernald Environmental Management Project for low-level waste shipments. Although the container survived the initial wreck, is was nearly breached when the first responders attempted to open the ISO container. Even though the container was clearly marked and the shipment documentation was technically correct, this information did not identify that the ISO container was the primary containment for the waste. The lessons learned from this accident have DOE complex wide applicability. This paper is intended to describe the accident, subsequent emergency response operations, and the lessons learned from this incident

  9. Accident analysis for the NCSC foil experiment

    An accident analysis has been performed for the nuclear criticality safety class (NCSC) foil experiment. The Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF) performs this experiment regularly during its 2-, 3-, and 5-day nuclear criticality safety classes. This accident analysis is part of an effort to modify the NCSC foil experiment plan so that the experiment may be operated at delayed critical. Currently, the NCSC foil experiment may only be operated up to a neutron multiplication of 100. The purpose of the accident analysis is to ensure that any accidental nuclear excursion does not exceed the boundary of the safety envelope described in the LACEF safety analysis report (SAR). The experiment consists of very thin, highly enriched (93% 235U) uranium metal foils (23 X 23 X 0.008 cm) interleaved between Lucite plates (36 X 36 X 1.27 cm). The fuel foils and Lucite plates are stacked vertically to form a critical assembly. Extra Lucite plates placed at the top and bottom of the assembly act as vertical reflectors. The assembly is operated remotely with the use of a general-purpose vertical-lift platform machine. The accident scenario consists of one additional fuel foil being added to an existing critical or nearly critical stack. The reactivity insertion rate is 0.05 $/s, based on the speed of the vertical-lift platform. It is assumed that none of the safety systems will function properly during the accident and that the operating crew is unable to mitigate the accident

  10. The radiological accident in San Salvador

    On 5 February 1989, a radiological accident occurred at an industrial irradiation facility near San Salvador, the capital of the Republic of El Salvador. Prepackaged medical products are sterilized at the facility by irradiation by means of an intensely radioactive cobalt-60 source in a movable source rack. The accident happened when this source rack became stuck in the irradiation position. The operator bypassed the irradiator's already degraded safety systems and entered the radiation room with two other workers to free the source rack manually. The three workers were exposed to high radiation doses and developed the acute radiation syndrome. Their initial hospital treatment in San Salvador and subsequent more specialized treatment in Mexico City were effective in countering the acute effects. However, the legs and feet of two of the three men were so seriously injured that amputation was required. The worker who had been most exposed died six and a half months after the accident, his death being attributed to residual lung damage due to irradiation, exacerbated by injury sustained during treatment. The report details the events leading up to the accident, the circumstances of the accident itself and the response to it. From the facts established, lessons are derived for operators and suppliers of irradiators, national authorities, medical staff and international organizations. Detailed information on dosimetric and medical aspects of the accident for the specialist reader is presented in the appendices and annexes. 20 figs, 9 tabs, 24 photographs

  11. Analysis of reactivity accidents in PWR'S

    This note describes the French strategy which has consisted, firstly, in examining all the accidents presented in the PWR unit safety reports in order to determine for each parameter the impact on accident consequences of varying the parameter considered, secondly in analyzing the provisions taken into account to restrict variation of this parameter to within an acceptable range and thirdly, in checking that the reliability of these provisions is compatible with the potential consequences of transgression of the authorized limits. Taking into consideration violations of technical operating specifications and/or non-observance of operating procedures, equipment failures, and partial or total unavailability of safety systems, these studies have shown that fuel mechanical strength limits can be reached but that the probability of occurrence of the corresponding events places them in the residual risk field and that it must, in fact, be remembered that there is a wide margin between the design basis accidents and accidents resulting in fuel destruction. However, during the coming year, we still have to analyze scenarios dealing with cumulated events or incidents leading to a reactivity accident. This program will be mainly concerned with the impact of the cases examined relating to dilution incidents under normal operating conditions or accident operating conditions

  12. President's Commission and the normal accident

    This chapter incorporates the major points of an analysis of the accident at Three Mile Island that I prepared in September 1979. In contrast to the findings of the President's Commission (1979), I did not view the accident as the result of operator error, an inept utility, or a negligent Nuclear Regulatory Commission but as a consequence of the complexity and interdependence that characterize the system itself. I argued that the accident was inevitable-that is, that it could not have been prevented, foreseen, or quickly terminated, because it was incomprehensible. It resembled other accidents in nuclear plants and in other high risk, complex and highly interdependent operator-machine systems; none of the accidents were caused by management or operator ineptness or by poor government regulation, though these characteristics existed and should have been expected. I maintained that the accident was normal, because in complex systems there are bound to be multiple faults that cannot be avoided by planning and that operators cannot immediately comprehend

  13. Truck accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel

    In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 unirradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate I-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. This paper documents the mechanical circumstances of the accident and assesses the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The accident involved four impacts where the truck was struck by the car, impacted on the center guardrail, impacted on the outer concrete barrier and came to rest against the center guardrail. The impacts were followed by a fire that began in the engine compartment, spread to the tractor and cab, and eventually spread to the trailer and payload. The fire lasted for about three hours and the packages were involved in the fire for about two hours. As a result of the fire, the tractor-trailer was completely destroyed and the packages were exposed to flames with temperatures between 1,300 F and 1,800 F. The fuel assemblies remained intact during the accident and there was no release of any radioactive material during the accident. This was a very severe accident; however, the injuries were minor and at no time was the public health and safety at risk

  14. Severe accident management concept for LWRS

    Although the advanced built-in engineered safety features and the highly trained personnel have led to extremely low probabilities of core melt accidents, there is a common understanding that even for such very unlikely accidents the plant operators must have the ability and means to mitigate the consequences of such events. This paper outlines a concept for the management of severe accidents based on 1) Computer simulations. 2) Various strategies based on core and containment damage states. 3) Calculational Aids. 4) Procedures. 5) Technical basis report. 6) Training. 7) Drills. The major benefit of this concept is the fact that there is no dedicated operating manual for severe accidents; rather the required mitigative strategies and measures are incorporated into existing accident management manuals leading to truly integrated accident management at the plant. At present this concept is going to be implemented in the NPP Geogen. Although this approach is primarily developed for existing PWRs it is also applicable to other LWRs including new NPP designs. Specific features of the plant can be taken into account by an adaptation of the concept. (authors)

  15. The development of severe accident analysis technology

    The objective of the development of severe accident analysis technology is to understand the severe accident phenomena such as core melt progression and to provide a reliable analytical tool to assess severe accidents in a nuclear power plant. Furthermore, establishment of the accident management strategies for the prevention/mitigation of severe accidents is also the purpose of this research. The study may be categorized into three areas. For the first area, two specific issues were reviewed to identify the further research direction, that is the natural circulation in the reactor coolant system and the fuel-coolant interaction as an in-vessel and an ex-vessel phenomenological study. For the second area, the MELCOR and the CONTAIN codes have been upgraded, and a validation calculation of the MELCOR has been performed for the PHEBUS-B9+ experiment. Finally, the experimental program has been established for the in-vessel and the ex-vessel severe accident phenomena with the in-pile test loop in KMRR and the integral containment test facilities, respectively. (Author)

  16. Truck accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel

    In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate 1-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. This paper documents the mechanical circumstances of the accident and the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The accident involved four impacts where the truck was struck by the car, impacted on the center guardrail, impacted on the outer concrete barrier and came to rest against the center guardrail. The impacts were followed by a fire that began in the engine compartment, spread to the.tractor and cab, and eventually spread to the trailer and payload. The fire lasted for about three hours and the packages were involved in the fire for about two hours. As a result of the fire, the tractor-trailer was completely destroyed and the packages were exposed to flames with temperatures between 1300 degrees F and 1800 degrees F. The fuel assemblies remained intact during the accident and there was no release of any radioactive material during the accident. This was a very severe accident; however, the injuries were minor and at no time was the public health and safety at risk

  17. A invenção da violência MUCCHIELLI, Laurent. L'invention de la violence: des peurs, des chiffres, des faits. Paris: Fayard, 2011, pp.340.

    Francisco Thiago Rocha Vasconcelos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos a obra do sociólogo francês Laurent Mucchielli1, L'invention de la violence: des peurs, des chiffres, des faits (2011, que analisa o debate público e acadêmico sobre insegurança e violência na França. O livro se divide entre a reconstituição histórica das representações sobre o aumento da violência e a crítica do uso político de estatísticas sobre criminalidade, com foco principal no questionamento da interseção entre o "problema da delinquência juvenil" e o "problema da imigração". São analisadas as mudanças nas normas de comportamento, os processos de segregação urbana e a construção de novos mecanismos de atuação estatal na área da segurança pública. Em lugar de um pacote de soluções, o autor convida à indagação crítica sobre as transformações das últimas décadas e, com clareza de estilo, realiza uma síntese dos conhecimentos científicos na área.

  18. Trend of Elevator-Related Accidents in Tehran

    Ali Khaji; Syyed Mohammad Ghodsi

    2014-01-01

    Background:   Elevator-related accidents are uncommon, but can cause significant injury. However, little data exist on these types of accidents. To compile and analyze accident data involving elevators in an effort to eliminate or at least significantly reduce such accidents. Methods: In this retrospective study we investigated 1,819 cases of elevator-related accidents during a four-year period (1999-2003) in Tehran. The data were obtained from the Tehran Safety Services & Fire Fighting Organ...

  19. Designing of an emergency call system for traffic accidents

    Ziya Ekşi; Murat Çakıroğlu

    2013-01-01

    In our country, many people have been seriously injured or died in traffic accidents. Fatal accidents often occur because of not complying with traffic rules or carelessness. Except these driver mistakes, heavy injuries can result in deaths because of emergency aid teams failing to arrive to accident scene in time. In this study, an accident emergency call system is designed to help injured people's treatment as soon as possible by notifying emercengy team automatically in accidents. The desi...

  20. Report on the radiological accident in Goiania, Goias, Brazil

    The report describes the radiological accident occured in Goiania, Brazil, in september 1987. The following aspects concerning the accident are presented in specific chapters: 1- evaluation of the accident and the first aids, 2- attendance to the victims of Goiania radiological accident, 3- decontamination, 4- radioactive wastes arising from the accident, 5- working personnel and technical cooperation, 6- equipments and 7- radiation protection: limits and recommendations