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Sample records for accidents problemes sanitaires

  1. Design basis accident calculation problems

    Sudden failures of the primary circuit is the design basis accident of pressurized water reactors, being liable to affect the other two barriers separating the fission products from the environment. The calculation of the thermohydraulic behavior of the core and primary circuit is at present based, for the CEA, on the RELAP 4 code. However a second-generation code, POSEIDON, is being developed by the CEA, EDF and FRAMATOME to obtain a better description of the physical phenomena and a better estimate of safety margins. Other difficult problems arise in connection with the calculation of structural stresses and the behavior of the vessel during decompression

  2. Health Problems in Radiation Accidents

    The authors define a radiation accident as a situation which has led or could have led to the unexpected irradiation of persons or contamination of the environment over and above the levels accepted as safe. Several categories of accidents are distinguished as a function of the consequences to be expected. The suggested system of classifying accidents makes it possible to plan post-accident measures within a single system of 'concentric circles', taking into account at the same time whether it will be possible to carry out the post-accident measures unaided or whether it will be necessary to bring in additional manpower and resources from outside. The authors consider the possibility of countering the effects of accidents as a function of their nature, with reference to the biological, economic and psychological aspects. They evaluate the part played by the health service in planning and carrying out accident prevention measures, and consider the function of radiological units attached to epidemiological health stations ; these units are essentially centres providing for precautionary measures to avert accidents and action to counter their effects. (author)

  3. Consequences and problems of the Chernobyl accident

    The data on epidemic situation in connection with the Chernobyl accident, based on the personal medical and dosimetric information on all the persons, subjected to radiation effect, and included in the Russian state medicodosimetric register, are presented. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident become the cause for origination of serious radiation injures by 134 persons (with lethal outcome by 37 patients) and also remote radiation stochastic effects by children (thyroid gland cancer) and by liquidators (thyroid gland leucosis and cancer). The permanent stress and other unfavorable factors conditioned aggravation of chronical and increase in somatic diseases and psychoneurotic disorders

  4. Liability problems arising from nuclear reactor accidents

    In case of damage to health or property, it has always been approved legal tradition in all highly developed legal systems to perform compensation for damage in money. This principle also applies to damage caused by nuclear accidents. In the F.R.G., care has been taken at a very early stage to provide for appropriate liability provisions to afford financial security to the extent required by the special hazards involved in the peaceful use of atomic energy. Recent events have shown that the legal provisions available are appropriate and practicable. Citizens affected will receive fair compensation for damage. The Federal Administrative Office so far counted 30.392 applications for compensation in compliance with section 38, sub-sec. (2) Atomic Energy Act. Up to June 16, 1986, payments for compensation of losses amounted to DM 38.7 millions. By accepting the claims for compensation the State provides protection for German nationals and persons of equal rank. A limitation to DM one billion for compensation for damage caused by nuclear energy seems to be appropriate also in the light of the Chernobyl reactor accident. (orig./HP)

  5. Hydrogen problems related to reactor accidents

    At reactor accidents, the combustion of hydrogen causes pressure and temperature transients which pose supplementary loads in containment. In certain conditions, they could reach hazardous levels and impair the integrity of the containment and the operability of the safety systems. The mechanisms of chemical reactions specific for the hydrogen-oxygen system are presented. Conditions in which combustion can occur and the various combustion modes, including the transition to detonation are also described. The related safety aspects and mitigation methods are discussed. Examples for particular applications and safety approaches for various types of reactors, included those promoted for the advanced reactors are also given. Presentation of the experimental research completed at AECL-Research, Whiteshell Laboratory is given, where the multi-point ignition effects for constant volume and for vented combustion of dry hydrogen-air mixtures in various geometries have been investigated. Various aspects of modelling and simulation of hydrogen combustion are discussed. The adaptations and the new models implemented in the codes VENT and CONTAIN, aimed to widen the simulation capabilities of hydrogen combustion models are described. The capabilities and limitations of the modelling assumptions of these two codes are also evaluated. (EG) (11 tabs., 39 ills., 82 refs.)

  6. The radiological accident in Goiania A safety culture problem

    In September 1987, the unauthorized removal of the rotating assembly of the shielding head of a teletherapy unit and the dismantling of the capsule containing 50.9 TBq (1375 Ci) of Cs-137 resulted in a widespread contamination of central Goiania, a Brazilian City, of one million inhabitants, Capita of the State of Goias, 180 km. far from Brasilia, Capital of Brazil. This accident presents lessons which cover the pre-accident period, the emergency phase, and the post-accident phase up to the present. Each of those phases taking into consideration errors, omissions and correct actions by people and organizations must be analyzed in terms of Safety Culture Problems identification because, notwithstanding the recommendations presented in publications concerning emergency planning and preparedness, this radiological accident showed that several adverse vectors, not mentioned in the literature, were a reality. Not only social, political, economic and technical problems had to be faced but also psychological aspects had to be dealt with. Of these the treatment of the victims and handling of the main products of the city were the most important. This deals also with some lessons learned, specially the influence of legislation and rules applied; the interfaces between the State, the Province and the National Nuclear Energy Commission and the different aspects involved in providing information and reports to the government, to the organizations and to the community. (author). 5 refs

  7. An open discussion of problems in nuclear accident preparedness

    An account is presented of 12 major themes that emerged from discussions at the workshop. In a concluding section on nuclear accident preparedness, the following aspects are emphasized: the need for resilience to confusion; the need for institutional mechanisms for learning from rare events; the need for candor; the need to consider the human element; the special problems posed by rare events; can we maintain preparedness. (U.K.)

  8. Scientific decision of the Chernobyl accident problems (results of 1997)

    In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1997 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and ground of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; optimisation of the system of measures for preservation of health of the victim population and development of ways for increase of it effectiveness; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, treatment and burial of radioactive wastes; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological monitoring in the republic and scientific methodical ways of it fulfilling; study of effects of low doze irradiation and combined influences, search

  9. Solved and unsolved problems in boiler systems. Learning from accidents

    This paper begins with a brief review on the similarity law of conventional fossil-fuel-fired boilers. The concept is based on the fact that the heat release due to combustion in the furnace is restricted by the furnace volume but the heat absorption is restricted by the heat transfer surface area. This means that a small-capacity boiler has relatively high specific furnace heat release rate, about 10 MW/m3, and on the contrary a large-capacity boiler has lower value. The surface-heat-flux limit is mainly dominated by the CHF inside the water-wall tubes of the boiler furnace, about 350 kW/m2. This heat-flux limit is almost the same order independently on the capacity of boilers. For the safety of water-walls, it is essential to retain suitable water circulation, i.e. circulation ratio and velocity of water. This principle is a common knowledge of boiler designer, but actual situation is not the case. Newly designed boilers often suffer from similar accidents, especially burnout due to circulation problems. This paper demonstrates recent accidents encountered in practical boilers, and raises problems of rather classical but important two-phase flow and heat transfer. (author)

  10. Chernobyl and the problem of international obligations regarding nuclear accidents

    This paper analyses the way nuclear law was put to the test by the Chernobyl accident - in particular international nuclear law - so as to propose a train of thought which might contribute to adopting and revising the legal system presently in force or even new orientations. It deals only with that part of nuclear law which concerns accidents and their consequences (NEA)

  11. The Hanford Criticality Accident: Dosimetry Techniques, Interpretations and Problems

    The number and integrity of dosimetry techniques used for dose interpretations for the twenty-two personnel involved in the 1962 criticality accident occurring at the Hanford Project were unusually complete. Personnel who received excessive exposures were immediately detected and segregated by monitoring personnel using portable instrumentation for ''quick-sort'' procedures which rely on in vivo measurements of Na24 activation. The close correlation between this rapid method of dose interpretation and subsequent sophisticated laboratory procedures was noted. Primary reliance, however, was placed upon film-badge interpretations, as all persons involved were wearing film badges. An area threshold detector, located within twenty-six feet of the critical vessel, furnished data upon which the neutron spectrum and the gamma to neutron ratios were established. Even with sophisticated and complete dosimetry techniques which were available and which are discussed, including blood and whole-body Na24 activity, excreta and P32 analyses and gold activation, many practical problems became evident. Described are methods or alternatives used to cope with or minimize actual problems including those which could have but did not arise. The ''quick-sort'' in vivo procedures successfully used could have become worthless if interfering external contamination were encountered. Alternatively, blood samples taken at first aid may substitute; however, in the haste of the emergency, anticoagulants may be omitted and subsequent coagulation can produce concern as to the accuracy of the dose interpretations. The film badge can include material of high neutron cross-sections introducing sufficient activity to interfere with film interpretations. The activation of the silver in the film presents a correction factor which can delay and confuse personnel who, under stress, are attempting rapid evaluations. The support provided by fixed detectors still presents the problems that scattering

  12. Research on problems in nuclear accident emergency rescue for nuclear power submarine

    This paper presents a description of nuclearpowered submarine accident types and an analysis of accident emergency rescue characteristics, including a special number of problems associated with emergencyrescue, such as emergency situation and emergency planning zone, technical rescue resources and task, protection against compound radiation inside and outside port plume zone, on-sea nuclear rescue equipment and technical assurance capacity, and other problesms related to in-accident nuclear submarine disposal. (authors)

  13. Problems of dosimetric evaluation of radiation accident situations with external irradiation in neutron and gamma field

    The problems are discussed of the dosimetric evaluation of radiation accident situations in a mixed gamma and neutron field. The methods and means of accident dosimetry should allow evaluation basically in three stages: (1) within 6 hours following an accident to classify persons according to radiation exposure; (2) to obtain data on the maximum absorbed dose with accuracy better than +-50% within 48 hours; (3) to establish depth dose values with accuracy better than +-20 to 25% within 3 to 6 days. Recommendations are shown related to safeguarding dosimetric systems for radiation accident situations in nuclear facilities. (B.S.)

  14. Radiobiological problems concerning grazing animals following the Chernobyl accident

    Chernobyl accident took place on April 26 1986, which was the beginning of the grazing season, when there was not enough fodder on the farms and the cattle was grazed on the open territory. Therefore grazing animal-breeding was the most radioactively affected branch. The consumption of contaminated fodder and surface contamination with radioactive precipitation caused the accumulation of considerable ingested doses in the organisms of animals (up to 1 GY). Radioactive damage caused to the thyroid by the selective accumulation of radioiodine (mainly 131I) is of particular attention. Cumulative doses of thyroid irradiation in mammals were much higher than for the other organs. Thus, in cows during their grazing on the contaminated pastures outside 30-km zone the ratio of ingested doses of the thyroid and whole body was 130:1 and more, therefore, radiation effects could have a certain negative effect, concerning the agricultural animals in the zone of accidental release influence. Accumulated ingested doses in the thyroid of cows on the contaminated territory in a number of cases caused the complete destruction of the thyroid (doses above 600 Gy), which provided the loss of milk productivity and reproductive qualities of the animals. Lower doses caused the functional disturbances, which in most cases have been levelled during the years after the accident

  15. [Accidents with caterpillar Lonomia obliqua (Walker, 1855). An emerging problem].

    Sánchez, Matías N; Mignone Chagas, Mariana A; Casertano, Sergio A; Cavagnaro, Luis E; Peichoto, María E

    2015-01-01

    Lonomia obliqua (Walker, 1855) is a moth from the family Saturniidae, widely distributed in tropical rainforests of South America. In its larval stage (caterpillar) it is characterized by bristles that cover the animal's body. These structures are hard and branched spiny evaginations of the cuticle, underneath which a complex mixture of toxic molecules is stored. When spicules are brought into contact with the skin of people, toxins enter passively through the injury, causing not only local but also systemic poisoning (primarily hemorrhagic manifestations). When the whole animal is accidentally crushed, the insect's chitinous bristles are broken and the venomous secretions penetrate the human skin, reaching the blood circulation. Due to the numerous registered cases of erucism in Southern Brazil, the Butantan Institute has produced an antivenom able to neutralize the deleterious effects produced by contact with L. obliqua caterpillar bristles. In Argentina, these kinds of accidents are rare and restricted to the province of Misiones. Taking into account that to date there is no report in this country about clinical cases submitted to a specific treatment (antivenom), our aim is to communicate here six cases of Lonomia caterpillar-induced bleeding syndrome that were treated in the Hospital SAMIC of Puerto Iguazú (Misiones, Argentina) during 2014 with the antilonomic serum produced in Brazil. It is worthy to note that all patients evolved favorably within the first few hours, and for this reason, the use of this antivenom is recommended to treat the cases of Lonomia erucism in Argentina. PMID:26502471

  16. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobylsk accident in France. Epidemiological surveillance plan, state of knowledge, risks evaluation and perspectives; Evaluation des consequences sanitaires de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France. Dispositif de surveillance epidemiologique, etat des connaissances, evaluation des risques et perspectives

    Verger, P.; Cherie-Challine, L

    2000-12-15

    This report jointly written by IPSN and InVS, reviews the sanitary consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, which occurred in 1986. The first point is dedicated to a short presentation of the knowledge relative to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the high contaminated countries and to the risk factors of the thyroid cancer. Secondly, this report describes the main systems of epidemiological surveillance of health implemented in France in 1986 and in 1999, as well as the data of the incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer observed in France since 1975. In addition, this report presents an analysis of the risk of thyroid cancer related to radioactive contamination in France, for young people of less than 15 years of age who where living in 1986 in the highest contaminated areas of France (Eastern territories). For this purpose, the theoretical number of thyroid cancers in excess is evaluated for this population, on the basis of different available risk model. Finally starting from the results of risk assessment, there is a discussion about the relevance and the feasibility of different epidemiological methods in view of answering the questions related to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, this report recommends to reinforce the surveillance of thyroid cancer in France. (author)

  17. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine and problems with the sarcophagus

    The reactor accident in the Ukraine contaminated part of the territory with iodine 131, caesium 137, strontium 90, and plutonium 239 and 240. The zone surrounding the site of the accident was declared restricted area; more than 90 000 persons were evacuated. The paper reports on current conditions in the restricted area and prospects for this area as well as on the current state of, and problems with, the sarcophagus. The conversion of the sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system and the economic situation of the Ukraine pose great problems. (DG)

  18. Monetary valorization of the sanitary and environmental impacts of a nuclear accident: synthesis of ''ExternE'' studies, interests and limits of complementary developments; Valorisation monetaire des impacts sanitaires et environnementaux d'un accident nucleaire: synthese des etudes externe, interets et limites de developpements complementaires

    Schieber, C.; Schneider, Th

    2002-09-01

    This document constitutes a synthesis of the various available methods for the monetary evaluation of the nuclear accidents impacts in order to reveal the already evaluated impacts, those which need complementary developments and those for which the monetary approach currently seems to come up against limits. It is based primarily on the approach realized by the ''ExternE'' project of the European Commission, consisting in the evaluation of the external costs of the nuclear energy industry. (A.L.B.)

  19. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France: epidemiological monitoring device, state of knowledge, evaluation of risks and perspectives; Evaluation des consequences sanitaires de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France: dispositif de surveillance epidemiologique, etat des connaissances, evaluation des risques et perspectives

    Verger, P.; Champion, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Hubert, Ph.; Joly, J.; Renaud, Ph.; Tirmarche, M.; Vidal, M. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, 92 (France); Cherie-Challine, L.; Boutou, O.; Isnard, H.; Jouan, M.; Pirard, Ph. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France)

    2000-12-01

    The objectives of this document are firstly, to present the situation of knowledge both on the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident and on the risk factors of thyroid cancers, these ones constituting one of the most principal consequences observed in Belarus, in Ukraine and Russia; secondly, the give the principal system contributing to the epidemiological surveillance of effects coming from a exposure to ionizing radiations, in France and to give the knowledge on incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in France; thirdly, to discuss the pertinence and the feasibility of epidemiological approaches that could be considered to answer questions that the public and authorities ask relatively to the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; fourthly to male a calculation of thyroid cancer risk in relation with Chernobyl fallout in France from works and studies made from 1986 on the consequences of this disaster in terms of radioecology and dosimetry at the national level. Besides, the improvement of thyroid cancer surveillance is also tackled. (N.C.)

  20. Sanitary surveillance in France in relation with the Chernobylsk accident. Updated situation on thyroid cancers and epidemiological studies during 2006; Surveillance sanitaire en France en lien avec l'accident de Tchernobyl. Bilan actualise sur les cancers thyroidiens et etudes epidemiologiques en cours en 2006

    Belot, A. [Institut de veille sanitaire (InVS), Dept. de Biostatistiques des Hospices civils de Lyon, Dept. Maladies Chroniques et Traumatismes (DMCT), Unite cancer, 69 - Lyon (France); Caserio-Schonemann, C. [Institut de veille sanitaire (InVS), DMCT, unite cancer, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France); Cherie-Challine, M. [Institut de veille sanitaire (InVS), DMCT, unitr cancer, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France); Colonna, M. [Registre du cancer de l' Isere - reseau Francim, 38 - Grenoble (France); Lacour, B. [Registre National des Tumeurs Solides de l' enfant (RNTSE) - reseau Francim, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Lasalle, J.L. [Cellule interregionale d' epidemiologie Sud, Drass Paca, 13 - Marseille (France); Leenhardt, L. [Groupe hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Service central de medecine nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Orgiazzi, J. [Centre hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Service d' endocrinologie, 69 - Lyon (France); Pirard, Ph. [Institut de veille sanitaire (InVS), Dept. sante environnement (DSE), 94 - Saint-Maurice (France); Schvartz, C. [Registre des cancers thyroidiens de Marne Ardennes - reseau Francim, Centre de lutte contre le cancer, 51 - Reims (France)

    2006-07-01

    An increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in children has been reported since 1990 in areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine which have been highly contaminated during the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A similar increase is now observed in young adults in the same areas. In France, thyroid cancer is characterized by low occurrence and good prognosis. However, the incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing for more than 20 years, and in 1986, the Chernobyl cloud of radioactive dust crossed the French territory. Thus, the National institute for public health surveillance (I.n.V.S.) carried out several studies to evaluate whether the incidence increase in thyroid cancer is related to radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident. Since 2000, the I.n.V.S. is in charge of a national multidisciplinary approach involving a wide range of public health actors, including the French network of cancer registries (Francim). Since 2003, the I.n.V.S. has been working on improving the surveillance system according to the actions described in the national cancer plan 2003-2007. The I.n.V.S. has increased its financial contribution to cancer registries including the national registry of solid tumors in children, which was created in 2000. The Institute is also working on the implementation of a multi source system for the national cancer surveillance in link with cancer registries. For the twentieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident, the I.n.V.S. is publishing updated results from the latest research conducted in close collaboration with the partners. These results do not support the initial hypothesis of a potential 'Chernobyl effect' in France. The increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer is also reported in most of developed countries. Practices in cancer diagnosis and the increased rate of total thyroidectomy for benign lesion may lead pathologists to unexpectedly discover small thyroid tumors. This fact is likely to explain most of the incidence increase

  1. Predictors of children's sleep onset and maintenance problems after road traffic accidents

    Lutz Wittmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep onset and maintenance problems are a frequent complaint after traumatic events in children. However, the association of traumatic experiences and disturbed sleep remains to be explained. Objective: To examine the incidence of sleep onset and maintenance problems in children after road traffic accidents and identify potential predictors of sleep onset and maintenance problems, including putative psychopathological mechanisms as well as stressors affecting the family system. Method: In 33 children treated for injuries after road traffic accidents, sleep and measures of psychopathology were assessed 10 days, 2 months, and 6 months after hospital admission. The predictive value of four clusters of predictor variables for children's sleep onset and maintenance problems was prospectively tested by multiple regression analyses. These clusters included socio-demographic, injury- and accident-related, and psychopathological variable clusters as well as factors reflecting stressors concerning mothers and family. Results: Children suffering from posttraumatic stress reported a prolonged subjective sleep latency. The severity of sleep onset and maintenance problems was predicted by female sex and the child's as well as mothers’ posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD severity. Conclusions: Sleep onset and maintenance problems in children after trauma appear to result from a complex interaction of multiple factors. Our findings support the transactional model of sleep-wake regulation that bears implications for the development of adequate intervention strategies.

  2. 17 years after the Chernobyl' accident: problems and decisions. Proceedings of the International scientific and practical conference

    The book contains proceedings of the scientific conference on difference medical and biological problems of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident, as well as on the problems of rehabilitation of the contaminated territories and ecosystems

  3. The Chernobyl accident and the radiation protection of population (problems of safety)

    Tabachny, L.

    1994-12-31

    This paper is a comprehensive survey of the environmental consequences and of the impact on human populations, nine years after Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident. First, the paper recalls the immediate effects of the accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, and the extend of the atmospheric, surface and ground water contamination. A detailed survey of gamma dosimetry has been carried out around the Ukrytie encasement which contains all main radioactive sources and materials of Unit 4. The Ukraine State Committee on Chernobyl Affairs was organized in 1990 for the planning and coordinating of all works for accident consequences liquidation and for the management of the population social defense program and compensation of victims and workmen. Up to day, about 200000 people was resettled from contaminated territories. This has raised several problems of housing, infrastructures, food supplying and so on. The accident health effects on population, such as organ diseases, psychic disturbances and general loss of health, are summarized. The paper focusses on the general lack of high qualified specialists of different science and manufacture branches and on the lack of pharmaceuticals, equipments etc during emergency situation. During the post accidental stage, a series of regulations and intervention levels for protecting the public to radiations exposure was introduced by the Health Ministry of USSR, and in 1991 the Conception of population safety inhabitancy in the contaminated territories as a result of Chernobyl accident was confirmed by the Supreme Soviet of Ukrainian SSR. (J.S.). 7 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs., 2 appends.

  4. The Chernobyl accident and the radiation protection of population (problems of safety)

    This paper is a comprehensive survey of the environmental consequences and of the impact on human populations, nine years after Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident. First, the paper recalls the immediate effects of the accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, and the extend of the atmospheric, surface and ground water contamination. A detailed survey of gamma dosimetry has been carried out around the Ukrytie encasement which contains all main radioactive sources and materials of Unit 4. The Ukraine State Committee on Chernobyl Affairs was organized in 1990 for the planning and coordinating of all works for accident consequences liquidation and for the management of the population social defense program and compensation of victims and workmen. Up to day, about 200000 people was resettled from contaminated territories. This has raised several problems of housing, infrastructures, food supplying and so on. The accident health effects on population, such as organ diseases, psychic disturbances and general loss of health, are summarized. The paper focusses on the general lack of high qualified specialists of different science and manufacture branches and on the lack of pharmaceuticals, equipments etc during emergency situation. During the post accidental stage, a series of regulations and intervention levels for protecting the public to radiations exposure was introduced by the Health Ministry of USSR, and in 1991 the Conception of population safety inhabitancy in the contaminated territories as a result of Chernobyl accident was confirmed by the Supreme Soviet of Ukrainian SSR. (J.S.). 7 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs., 2 appends

  5. Radon. Opinion of the Institut de Veille Sanitaire

    This note first proposes an overview of radon-related health risks by briefly describing admitted or almost admitted knowledge on this issue, what is suspected or put forward. It indicates and briefly presents the actions undertaken by the InVS (Institut de Veille Sanitaire, the Health Survey Institute), outlines actions to be continued, and indicates what must be done in case solicitation related to the interpretation of radon measurements or to the presence of radon (such a solicitation may come from public bodies or from ordinary people)

  6. Ergonomic (human factors) problems in design of NPPs. A review of TMI and Chernobyl accidents

    The general principle of ergonomic in design of NPPs is given and some causes of TMI and Chernobyl accidents from the view point of human factor engineering are reviewed. The paper also introduces some Ergonomic problems in design, operation and management of earlier NPPs. Some ergonomic principles of man-machine systems design have been described. Some proposals have been suggested for improving human reliability in NPPs

  7. Mental health problems after the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    The name of Fukushima has now become well-known worldwide after Hiroshima and Nagasaki as the third place exposed to radiation in Japan. This radiation pollution has severely damaged the chief industries of Fukushima Prefecture, namely agriculture, fishery, and tourist industry. It has also stimulated strong anxious feelings among parents with young children. The accident has caused a critical situation in the psychiatric and mental health services in Fukushima as well. Five hospitals with psychiatric beds within 30 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant were ordered to transfer their inpatients to other hospitals outside the designated 30 km-areas and to close down the hospitals immediately after the nuclear plant accident. In total, more than 800 psychiatric beds disappeared in an instant, and 1,228 persons including psychiatric inpatients and residents of elderly people nursing homes were transferred to other facilities far away. Rational explanation that low-level radiation in Fukushima will not do harm to people did not necessarily relieve existing anxiety among people. The terms 'safety' and 'relief' are usually used in combination; however, 'relief' was separated from 'safety' this time in Fukushima. People gradually began to feel 'relieved', when they themselves got involved in the cleaning work of radiation although its effect remained ambiguous. Now we have the following mental health problems after the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident; recovery and maintenance of treatment systems for psychiatric patients in the affected areas, efforts for early detection and intervention of depression, severe stress disorder, adaptation disorder, and alcohol abuse which are expected to occur due to the earthquake and radiation pollution, prevention of suicides, relief from anxiety resulting from radiation pollution, adequate treatment of mental problems among children with long-term evacuation, prevention of fall in physical and mental

  8. Assessing the economic burden of injuries due to accidents: methodological problems illustrated with some examples from the literature

    E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy); L.M. Bouter (Lex)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides a survey of methodological problems encountered In an assessment of the economic consequences of accidents In The Netherlands. A sound epidemiological basis for such calculations appears to be lacking due to inadequate data-registration systems. We also discuss some s

  9. Quantification du Varroa et réflexion autour d’un indicateur sanitaire au sein du dispositif de surveillance sanitaire Ecobee

    Panziera, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    La santé des colonies d’abeilles s’est beaucoup dégradée durant les dernières décennies. Parmi les principaux facteurs responsables, Varroa destructor, un acarien parasite, semble jouer un rôle important. Afin de voir si le taux d’infestation du varroa serait un bon indicateur de l’état sanitaire général de la colonie, on a ajouté une méthode de mesure de ce taux au protocole de terrain du dispositif de surveillance sanitaire apicole Ecobee. La méthode choisie utilise du sucre glace pour décr...

  10. International Standard Problems and Small Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA

    N. Aksan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Best-estimate thermal-hydraulic system codes are widely used to perform safety and licensing analyses of nuclear power plants and also used in the design of advance reactors. Evaluation of the capabilities and the performance of these codes can be accomplished by comparing the code predictions with measured experimental data obtained on different test facilities. OECD/NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI has promoted, over the last twenty-nine years, some forty-eight international standard problems (ISPs. These ISPs were performed in different fields as in-vessel thermal-hydraulic behaviour, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, fission product release and transport, core/concrete interactions, hydrogen distribution and mixing, containment thermal-hydraulic behaviour. 80% of these ISPs were related to the working domain of principal working group no.2 on coolant system behaviour (PWG2 and were one of the major PWG2 activities for many years. A global review and synthesis on the contribution that ISPs have made to address nuclear reactor safety issues was initiated by CSNI-PWG2 and an overview on the subject of small break LOCA ISPs is given in this paper based on a report prepared by a writing group. In addition, the relevance of small break LOCA in a PWR with relation to nuclear reactor safety and the reorientation of the reactor safety program after TMI-2 accident are shortly summarized. The experiments in four integral test facilities, LOBI, SPES, BETHSY, ROSA IV/LSTF and the recorded data during a steam generator tube rupture transient in the DOEL-2 PWR (Belgium were the basis of the five small break LOCA related ISP exercises, which deal with the phenomenon typical of small break LOCAs in Western design PWRs. Some lessons learned from these small break LOCA ISPs are identified in relation to code deficiencies and capabilities, progress in the code capabilities, possibility of scaling, and various additional aspects

  11. International Standard Problems and Small Break Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA)

    Best-estimate thermalhydraulic system codes are widely used to perform safety and licensing analyses of nuclear power plants and also used in the design of advance reactors. Evaluation of the capabilities and the performance of these codes can be accomplished by comparing the code predictions with measured experimental data obtained on different test facilities. In this respect, parallel to other national and international programs, OECD/Nea (OECD Nuclear Energy Agency) Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has promoted, over the last twenty-nine years some forty-eight International Standard Problems (ISPs). These ISPs were performed in different fields as in-vessel thermalhydraulic behaviour, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, fission product release and transport, core/concrete interactions, hydrogen distribution and mixing, containment thermalhydraulic behaviour. 80% of these ISPs were related to the working domain of Principal Working Group no. 2 on Coolant System Behaviour (PWG2). The ISPs have been one of the major PWG2 activities for many years. The individual ISP comparison reports include the analysis and conclusions of the specific ISP exercises. A global review and synthesis on the contribution that ISPs have made to address nuclear reactor safety issues was initiated by CSNI-PWG2 and an overview on the subject of small break LOCA ISP's is given in this paper based on a report prepared by a CSNI-PWG2 writing group. In addition, the relevance of small break LOCA in a PWR with relation to nuclear reactor safety and the reorientation of the reactor safety program after TMI-2 accident, specifically small break LOCA, are shortly summarized. Five small break LOCA related ISP's are considered, since these were used for the assessment of the advanced best-estimate codes. The considered ISP's deal with the phenomenon typical of small break LOCAs in Western design PWRs. The experiments in four integral test facilities, LOBI, SPES, BETHSY

  12. Proceedings of the III international workshop 'Actual problems of dosimetry (15 years after the Chernobyl accident)'

    Materials grouped to three main issues: normative, metrological and technical support of dosimetric and radiometric control; biological dosimetry and markers of radiation effects; monitoring and reconstruction of radiation doses at radiation accidents

  13. Analysis of nuclear accidents and associated problems relevant to public perception of risk

    The analytical study of nuclear accidents, even if they are limited in number, forms a significant part of the vast discipline of industrial plant risk analysis. The retrospective analysis of the causes and various elements which contributed to the evolution of real accidents, as well as, the evaluation of the consequences and lessons learned, constitute a bank of information which, when suitably elaborated through a process of rational synthesis, can strongly influence the preparation of safety normatives, plant design specifications, environmental impacts assessments, and the perception of risk. This latter aspect is gaining importance today as growing public awareness and sensitivity towards the development and use of new technologies now bear heavily on new plant decision making. This paper examines how the public perception of risk regarding nuclear energy has been influenced by the events surrounding the Chernobyl and Three Mile Island accidents and the way in which information dissemination concerning these accidents was handled by mass media

  14. Health effects of radiation and other health problems in the aftermath of nuclear accidents, with an emphasis on Fukushima.

    Hasegawa, Arifumi; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Yabe, Hirooki; Maeda, Masaharu; Shigemura, Jun; Ohira, Tetsuya; Tominaga, Takako; Akashi, Makoto; Hirohashi, Nobuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Kamiya, Kenji; Shibuya, Kenji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Chhem, Rethy K

    2015-08-01

    437 nuclear power plants are in operation at present around the world to meet increasing energy demands. Unfortunately, five major nuclear accidents have occurred in the past--ie, at Kyshtym (Russia [then USSR], 1957), Windscale Piles (UK, 1957), Three Mile Island (USA, 1979), Chernobyl (Ukraine [then USSR], 1986), and Fukushima (Japan, 2011). The effects of these accidents on individuals and societies are diverse and enduring. Accumulated evidence about radiation health effects on atomic bomb survivors and other radiation-exposed people has formed the basis for national and international regulations about radiation protection. However, past experiences suggest that common issues were not necessarily physical health problems directly attributable to radiation exposure, but rather psychological and social effects. Additionally, evacuation and long-term displacement created severe health-care problems for the most vulnerable people, such as hospital inpatients and elderly people. PMID:26251393

  15. Occupational hazards in hospitals: accidents, radiation, exposure to noxious chemicals, drug addiction and psychic problems, and assault

    Except for infectious diseases all the main occupational hazards affecting health workers are reviewed: accidents (explosions, fires, electrical accidents, and other sources of injury); radiation (stochastic and non-stochastic effects, protective measures, and personnel most at risk); exposure to noxious chemicals, whose effects may be either local (allergic eczema) or generalised (cancer, mutations), particular attention being paid to the hazards presented by formol, ethylene oxide, cytostatics, and anaesthetic gases; drug addiction (which is more common among health workers than the general population) and psychic problems associated with promotion, shift work, and emotional stress; and assault (various types of assault suffered by health workers, its causes, and the characterisation of the most aggressive patients). (author)

  16. Status of food and raw milk supply and problem just after the reactor accident

    Iodine 131 was detected in the environment and the food such as vegetables, raw milk and tap water just after the reactor accident following the East Japan Great Earthquake occurred in March 11, 2011. This article investigated status of refuge of Fukushima residents, their dietary life and food distribution from March 11 to 31 just after the accident so as to reevaluate internal exposure dose with Iodine 131. Investigation results showed most of food taken by refugees was confirmed food stock or relief supplies outside from the disaster area and suggested food contaminated with Iodine 131 was not widely consumed and distributed due to limit to send designated vegetables, restriction of tap water intake, damaged distribution facilities and closing down of retail stores. Restriction of tap water intake was only applied partly, so this might cause internal exposure dose due to tap water. (T. Tanaka)

  17. Risk assessment of the thyroid cancer within the problem of radiation protection for the reactor accidents

    Buglova, E. [Research Clinical Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Misk (Belarus)

    2000-05-01

    Low doses of radiation and the protection of the thyroid gland is one of the most important issues at the early stage of the accident. In addition to the existing experience, the Chernobyl data obtained in Belarus could provide a new information to protect the human thyroid in the case of the reactor accident. The majority of Belarusian territory was contaminated with I-131 with density of contamination ranged from 0.4 to 37 MBq/sq.m. In response to the Chernobyl accident, several types of protective actions to decrease exposure of the thyroid were taken in Belarus. However, Implementation of most of the protective actions was delayed by days. Low efficiency of thyroid gland protection lead to the formation of avoidable thyroid doses and, as a consequence, to the development of radiation-induced thyroid cancer. These cancers are being seen among the population living near the plant and also among people who were living at a considerable distance. The effectiveness of protective actions for thyroid was assessed by the analysis of registered thyroid cancer cases under the framework of risk assessment. The cohort of Belarusian population under 18 years old at the time of the accident was studied. Those who were living within 100 km from the NPP received the highest thyroid doses. The recent IAEA generic intervention level for thyroid blocking was exceeded in this group and also for the people who were living up to 400 km from the reactor. Among the population of the mentioned age group for contaminated Gomel and Brest regions within 100 km from the NPP, the average annual incidence rate of thyroid cancer during 1991-1997 is 31,0 per 10{sup 5}; from 100 to 200 km -10,9; from 200 to 300 km - 13.5; from 300 to 400 km - 3.3; more than 400 km - 1,6 per 10{sup 5}. These incidence rates are higher than background level and show the necessity of thyroid protection from uptake of radioiodine at great distance from the accident. This approach was not used before the Chernobyl

  18. Experience of past radiation accidents and problems of response to possible dispersion of radioactive materials in urban conditions

    The report studies into key problems associated with direct and indirect consequences of possible radiological terrorist acts committed in urban conditions. Much attention is paid to the analysis of lessons learned from elimination of consequences of past radiation accidents in the territory of the former USSR, especially as regards radioactive contamination of cities. The report contains recommendations on necessary improvements of instrumentation, methodological, legal and organizational bases of managerial decision-making to reduce a probability of radiological terrorism acts and minimize their direct and indirect consequences. (author)

  19. Present problems in community law regarding radioactive contamination and such contamination following accidents

    The accident at Chernobyl and its transboundary effects highlighted regulatory gaps at national and international levels. After noting the remedial actions taken, this article analyses the role of Euratom, the CEC regulatory powers and the relevant provisions of the Euratom Treaty. The Community Directives setting intervention levels for imports of trade and their binding effect on Member countries are also discussed. The last section of the article relates the decision of the European Communities Court of Justice that data on the planned effluent releases of the Cattenom nuclear power plant be communicated to the CEC

  20. L’expertise des risques sanitaires : entre indépendance et mise sous tutelle ?

    Goldberg, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    À la suite de diverses crises sanitaires majeures, la loi du 1er juillet 1998 sur la sécurité et la veille sanitaire a conduit notamment à la création de l’Institut de veille sanitaire (InVS), organisme d’État, chargé d’une mission de service public pour l’évaluation des risques pour la santé. Si observation, surveillance, veille, alerte en étaient les maîtres mots, restait à mettre en œuvre la séparation de l’évaluation et de la gestion des risques pour la santé.

  1. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels; Effets sanitaires des combustibles fossiles

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  2. ETUDE DE L’ETAT NUTRITIONNEL ET SANITAIRE DE QUELQUES VARIETES DU GENRE PRUNUS DANS LA WILAYA DE TLEMCEN

    HADJ ABDELKADER, Fatima Zohra

    2014-01-01

    ETUDE DE L’ETAT NUTRITIONNEL ET SANITAIRE DE QUELQUES VARIETES DU GENRE PRUNUS DANS LA WILAYA DE TLEMCEN La présente expérimentation s'inscrit dans le cadre d'une recherche sur la nutrition minérale et l’état sanitaire de quelques espèces du genre Prunus en l’occurrence le merisier (Prunus avium) et Sainte Lucie (Prunus mahaleb) avec quelques cultivars tels que Gaouar et Bigarreau Noir. Ce travail est basé essentiellement sur l'analyse physicochimique de l’eau et du sol ainsi que l'anal...

  3. Problems of evaluating public health after an accident at a nuclear power plant

    The Chernobyl accident caused, in addition to external exposure to radiation, inhalation and oral intake of the main dose-forming radionuclides: caesium-134 and 137 and iodine-131. Taken together, the adverse factors emerging from the accident at Chernobyl manifested themselves first and foremost in vegetative dysfunction, disturbances of neurovascular regulation and changes in the reactivity of the immune system. The significantly increasing migration of the population and its inhomogeneous nature, especially in the groups of reproductive age, are bringing about changes in the structure of the population and in family planning strategies. In the regions studied, dynamic statistical indicators of the spread of infectious diseases have reflected the general trend in our country, namely towards a reduction of such diseases. In 1986, the frequency of acute intestinal infection dropped in a number of regions by factors of 1.5-8. In the Ukraine a special clinical register of pregnant women and babies from the regions under study is being kept. The initial document includes 1,630 pregnant women. No significant departures from the norm have been found in the course of these pregnancies and births, or in the condition of the new-born babies. Detailed clinical examination of 416 babies showed that the condition of the vast majority of them at birth corresponded to a score of 7-8 on the Apgar scale. Examination of the reproductive system in 417 women of child-bearing age did not reveal any abnormalities. We are now at the beginning of a second observation period, associated with the development of somatic stochastic effects. It will be necessary to carry out further retrospective and prospective analyses of the incidence of disease in various population groups, taking into account age, sex and profession, as well as medical, social, geographical, ecological and other factors affecting the organism. (author)

  4. Report of adverse events related to treatments to Institute de Veille sanitaire; Declaration des evenements indesirables graves lies aux soins a l'Institut de Veille sanitaire

    Maingon, P. [Centre Georges-Francois-Leclerc, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 21 - Dijon (France); Simmon-Tellier, S. [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France)

    2007-11-15

    The 'code de sante publique' imposes to all health professionals an obligation to declare serious and undesirable events following cares applied during treatment investigations or prevention actions. An experimentation has been installed under the responsibility of the Institut de Veille sanitaire further to the 9 August 2004 bill. It aims to define how to declare undesirable adverse events to test its feasibility, its efficiency and to identify the necessary conditions to widespread its modalities. The field of these experimentations concerns all health professionals, working in public hospital or in private practice. The definition of undesirable adverse events should be clarified. Different ways to declare these events will be discussed with S.F.R.O. (Societe francaise de radiotherapie oncologique) to improve the current management of incidents and adverse events. (authors)

  5. Are mental health problems associated with use of Accident and Emergency and health-related harm?

    Keene, Jan; Rodriguez, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous findings indicate that mental health problems are common in Emergency departments; however, there are few studies of the extent of health-related problems and emergency service use in mental health populations as a whole. Methods: Record linkage methods were used to map the association between mental health, age, gender, and health-related harm across total health and mental health care populations in one geographical area, over three years. By examining patterns of healt...

  6. To the problem of concepts of measures for water protection against secondary radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl' NPP accident

    Basing on the analysis of experience in water protection measures in the zone of the Chernobyl' accident influence some conceptual approaches to solving the problems of secondary radioactive contamination of the Dnieper river water system are discussed. The scheme of the necessary information support for decision making in the field of water protection measures in zones subjected to accidental contamination by radioactive materials is suggested. It is shown that isolation of flooded source forming radionuclide washing-out from ground and surface waters is the most efficient method for decreasing water contamination level in the zone affected by contaminated spillways and river flood-plain basins. The objects for localization are the contaminated soils or leakages from radioactive waste storage places. 12 refs.; 1 tab

  7. Radiation safety in areas contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident: a vicious circle of problems

    Radiation situation after the Chernobyl accident from 1986 to 1991 was analysed. Evaluations of sanitary importance of population irradiation levels and accidental irradiation effect on population health were presented. It was pointed out that misinformation and distrust induced psychoxocial reactions and stresses in population. Assessment of a new conception of safe living was given which was developed instead of 35-rem. This was the conception of optimal decision choice by population. Annual dose for impending 5 years (0.5 rem a year) was a description point, but not a dose for 70 years. A notion level of nonintervention or 0.1 rem m a year and low was introduced, in tyhis dose conduction of protective measures were not required. Actual problems on population protection were considered

  8. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  9. Chernobyl: what sanitary consequences?; Tchernobyl: quelles consequences sanitaires?

    Aurengo, A. [Assistance Publique, Hopitaux de Parix (AP-HP), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-11-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  10. Safety problems, symptomatic oriented accident regulations, influence of nuclear energetic on ecology of the Slovak Republic

    IAEA initiated in 1990 the program on help of the countries of Eastern Europe and of the former Soviet Union at evaluating of the safety of their first generation nuclear power reactors of the type WWER 440/223. The main aim of this program was to identify the main design and operational safety problems, to determine international consensus on priorities of safety improvements, to provide the help in the assessment of completeness and adequacy of programs of safety improvements: What are the safety problems; What is the safety importance of problems; What is done for prevention from damage of nuclear power plant; and of three barriers: the tasks MOD V-2 NPP; What is done for reducing of damage consequences; PHP, PASS (post-accidental directives and post-accidental monitoring). (author)

  11. Seawater contamination problem due to the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company and comparison with Bikini accident

    Apart from the cases of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, systematic study on environmental radioactivity in Japan started in the wake of the exposure of the Daigo Fukuryu Maru to the radioactive substances released from the nuclear test in the atmosphere, which was conducted at the Bikini atoll of the Pacific Ocean in 1954. This study was related with the survey on the medical effect as well as the oceanic/atmospheric contamination effect of this accident. This paper introduces artificial radioactive contamination in the ocean, with focuses on marine contamination due to large-scale nuclear test such as the Bikini test, contamination due to Chernobyl nuclear plant accident, and radioactive contamination in the Pacific Ocean caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident of Tokyo Electric Power Company. This paper firstly demonstrates the summary of marine surveys by Japan and the United States after the Bikini hydrogen bomb test and the chart of extension of marine contamination obtained from the observation data, as well as the chart of internal transport route obtained from observation of the whole territory of the Pacific Ocean in the 2000s. Furthermore, it introduces the transport route survey on radioactive cesium in the oceanic contamination due to the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, and points out that the past information was very useful for the survey. (A.O.)

  12. Organization of the population health follow-up; Organisation du suivi sanitaire des populations

    Pirard, Ph. [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint Maurice (France)

    2010-07-01

    This document presents propositions for the organization of health supervision after a radiological accident of medium severity. It distinguishes short term medical care (psychological impacts, side effects of ingestion of iodine tablets, anthropo-radiometry when required, and prevention or taking into care of health problems due to massive grouping of people), and long term measures. The author indicates and discusses what health supervision will have to do: to identify health problems to be treated in priority, to assess the impact of the accident, to give elements on the application and efficiency of management actions. He also discusses and comments the various tools which health supervision will use: a health control and alert system, existing health supervision data, an adapted epidemiological investigation

  13. Activities of Interdepartmental Coordination Committee on Scientific Problems concerning the Chernobyl Accident Response at the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences

    Activity of the Interdepartmental Coordination Council for research problems linked with the elimination of the CNPP accident under the USSR Academy of Sciences Presidium is studied in the chronological succession. Problems linked with the implementation of the USSR Supreme Soviet Resolution dated April, 25, 1990 - On the Unified Program to Eliminate the Consequences of the CNPP Accident, and on the Situation Resulted from the Accident - and of the respective resolutions of the USSR Council of Ministers occupied the central place in the activity of the Council. The Council coordinated the efforts of the leading Departments to implement tasks of the State Union and Republican Program for the urgent measures to be taken in 1990-1992 to eliminate the CNPP accident consequences. Special attention is focused on the elaboration of programs devoted to the study of social-and-psychological and legal aspects of the elimination of the accident consequences and to the information-and-analytical support of the research program. Cooperation with the International organization is mentioned, as well

  14. To problem of 'Hot reactor shutdown' conception applicability during accident with primary small leaks the frameworks of probabilistic safety analysis of NPPs with WWER

    In article problem a 'hot reactor shutdown' conception validity subject during first level probabilistic safety analysis of initial emergency events with small compensated and uncompensated leaks. Use of 'hot reactor shutdown' conception improves noticeably general safety estimations of WWER 1000, however this operation mode during accidents with small leaks is not regulation

  15. The survey analysis of problems of calculated modelling of accidents with loss the heat-carrier on a VVER

    The analysis of known outcomes of accounts of accidents by de pressurizing of outlines of a VVER is carried out. The outcomes of these researches confirm realization of normative conditions of safety. At the same time, the development of direction connected with the calculated analysis additional to the plan of accidents is necessary

  16. Optimisation of information influences on problems of consequences of Chernobyl accident and quantitative criteria for estimation of information actions

    Consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident still very important for Belarus. About 2 million Byelorussians live in the districts polluted by Chernobyl radionuclides. Modern approaches to the decision of after Chernobyl problems in Belarus assume more active use of information and educational actions to grow up a new radiological culture. It will allow to reduce internal doze of radiation without spending a lot of money and other resources. Experience of information work with the population affected by Chernobyl since 1986 till 2004 has shown, that information and educational influences not always reach the final aim - application of received knowledge on radiating safety in practice and changing the style of life. If we take into account limited funds and facilities, we should optimize information work. The optimization can be achieved on the basis of quantitative estimations of information actions effectiveness. It is possible to use two parameters for this quantitative estimations: 1) increase in knowledge of the population and experts on the radiating safety, calculated by new method based on applied theory of the information (Mathematical Theory of Communication) by Claude E. Shannon and 2) reduction of internal doze of radiation, calculated on the basis of measurements on human irradiation counter (HIC) before and after an information or educational influence. (author)

  17. Distribution of hydrogen within the HDR-containment under severe accident conditions. OECD standard problem. Final comparison report

    The present report summarizes the results of the International Standard Problem Exercise ISP-29, based on the HDR Hydrogen Distribution Experiment E11.2. Post-test analyses are compared to experimentally measured parameters, well-known to the analysis. This report has been prepared by the Institute for Reactor Dynamics and Reactor Safety of the Technical University Munich under contract with the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) which received funding for this activity from the German Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT) under the research contract RS 792. The HDR experiment E11.2 has been performed by the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in the frame of the project 'Projekt HDR-Sicherheitsprogramm' sponsored by the BMFT. Ten institutions from eight countries participated in the post-test analysis exercise which was focussing on the long-lasting gas distribution processes expected inside a PWR containment under severe accident conditions. The gas release experiment was coupled to a long-lasting steam release into the containment typical for an unmitigated small break loss-of-coolant accident. In lieu of pure hydrogen a gas mixture consisting of 15% hydrogen and 85% helium has been applied in order to avoid reaching flammability during the experiment. Of central importance are common overlay plots comparing calculated transients with measurements of the global pressure, the local temperature-, steam- and gas concentration distributions throughout the entire HDR containment. The comparisons indicate relatively large margins between most calculations and the experiment. Having in mind that this exercise was specified as an 'open post-test' analysis of well-known measured data the reasons for discrepancies between measurements and simulations were extensively discussed during a final workshop. It was concluded that analytical shortcomings as well as some uncertainties of experimental boundary conditions may be responsible for deviations

  18. Report of adverse events related to treatments to Institute de Veille sanitaire

    The 'code de sante publique' imposes to all health professionals an obligation to declare serious and undesirable events following cares applied during treatment investigations or prevention actions. An experimentation has been installed under the responsibility of the Institut de Veille sanitaire further to the 9 August 2004 bill. It aims to define how to declare undesirable adverse events to test its feasibility, its efficiency and to identify the necessary conditions to widespread its modalities. The field of these experimentations concerns all health professionals, working in public hospital or in private practice. The definition of undesirable adverse events should be clarified. Different ways to declare these events will be discussed with S.F.R.O. (Societe francaise de radiotherapie oncologique) to improve the current management of incidents and adverse events. (authors)

  19. Environmental exposures to electromagnetic fields and health. Opinion note of the Institut de Veille Sanitaire

    This note states the opinion the French Institute for Health Survey (Institut de Veille Sanitaire, InVS) on the effect of electromagnetic fields (used in mobile phones, television and radio broadcasting, radar and satellite communication, or microwave ovens) on health. While distinguishing extremely low frequency and radio-frequency electromagnetic fields, it proposes an overview of acquired knowledge and commonly acknowledged elements on risks for health. It discusses what is supposed or claimed for these both types of fields in terms of carcinogenic and non carcinogenic effects, and also in the particular case of idiopathic environmental intolerance to electromagnetic fields. A third part presents actions undertaken by the InVS (epidemiological survey and field studies), actions to be pursued or supported

  20. An international standard problem: analysis of 1:4-scale prestressed concrete containment vessel model under severe accident conditions

    In June 2002, The OECD-NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), with the encouragement of the US NRC, initiated an International Standard Problem on containment integrity (ISP 48) based on the NRC/NUPEC/Sandia test. The objectives of the ISP are to extend the understanding of capacities of actual containment structures based on results of the recent PCCV Model test and other previous research. From 1997 through 2001 Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a Cooperative Containment Integrity Program under the joint sponsorship of the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan, and the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The purpose of the program was to investigate the response of representative models of nuclear containment structures to pressure loading beyond the design basis accident and to compare analytical predictions to measured behavior. A uniform 1:4-scale model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) was constructed and tested at SNL. This model was representative of the containment structure of an actual pressurized-water reactor plant in Japan. The ISP consists of four phases over a period of 2 years: Phase 1: Data Collection and Identification Phase 2: Calculation of the Limit State Test (LST), i.e. static pressure loading Phase 3: Calculation of response to both Thermal and Mechanical Loadings Phase 4: Reporting Workshop Eleven organizations (or teams) from nine OECD member countries accepted the invitation to participate in the ISP and perform calculations to predict the structural response of the PCCV model to static and transient pressure and thermal loading. Each participating organization was provided with the model and loading data and was asked to perform independent analyses to simulate the response of the PCCV model. The results of each team's calculations were compiled and the results presented at a final workshop in April 2005. These results and the conclusions and insights gained from

  1. Dosimetric support of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) pilot project: main results and problems.

    Likhtarev, I A; Kovgan, L N; Repin, V S; Los', I P; Chumak, V V; Novak, D N; Sobolev, B G; Kairo, I A; Chepurnoy, N I; Perevosnikov, O N; Litvinets, L A

    1996-01-01

    The problem of post-Chernobyl dosimetry is unique in its complexity in the history of radiation medicine and radiation protection. This is because the early experience of mass exposure of people (bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Windscale and South-Ural accidents, exposure of inhabitants of Nevada in the United States of America, the Semipalatinsk area in the former USSR, the Marshall Islands, and the Goiånia accident in Brazil, and others) differed both in the much simpler structure of the irradiation source and in the number and characteristics of exposed persons. It is obvious that post-Chernobyl dosimetry, both as an independent problem, and as a tool for epidemiological studies, requires significant expertise and economic and technical expenditures. Extensive and deep research has been carried out in Ukraine for the past 10 years. This article reviews the main results of these studies. PMID:8896257

  2. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  3. Radioecological problems of the Republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident and the ways of their solution

    The data on the scale of contamination of Belarus with radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident are given. The overall contaminated areas with radiation density of caesium-137 exceeding 3.7 * 10-circumflex 4 Bq/sq.km amount to 46,5 thousands of square kilometers. It is shown, that in 1993 the radioactivity at the territory of Belarus accounts for more than 3.7 * 10-circumflex 16 Bq. The paper presents the characteristics of the main contributors to the radiological situation. The characterization of the patterns of contamination of soil, water systems, forests is considered. The paper gives the organizing structure of control over the processes of elimination of the post-effects of the Chernobyl accident. The need for urgent development of the project for changing the contaminated territories into ecologically safe system is indicated. The suggestions on organizing the International Safety System against accidents at potentially hazardous industrial enterprises are given. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  4. Dose limit for emergency workers. Application of Fukushima-Daiichi NPP accident and problems for the future

    Described are details of management for workers' personal exposure dose, of problems raised and of their solutions taken under various complicated conditions of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Accident (Mar. 2011). As the entrance/exit (en/ex) for the NPP site with regular control were impossible due to the hydrogen explosion which expanded the control area to 20 km distance from the site, Japan Football Village (J-Village) localizing at the border and Important Anti-seismic Building in the site were defined to be the bases of en/ex and of their control, respectively. Flooded 5,000 alarm pocket dosimeters (APD) by tsunami were not usable and only 320 APD remained available. At the quite early stage of working at the site, one representative worker in a group had only one APD. Management of internal exposure was also difficult essentially because the power source of the whole body counter was unavailable. At an early emergent stage alone, workers with higher dose than the limit (100 mSv for emergency) were observed, but >90% of workers were exposed to <50 mSv (the limit for the radiation worker). Six male Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) personnel were exposed to 250 mSv (specially defined dose limit) or more with the maximum 678.80 mSv, in whom the internal exposure due to radioiodine largely attributed. They were examined for their health by the expert doctors in National Institute of Radiological Sciences, were found free of abnormality and were to be followed up thereafter. Out of 19 female TEPCO personnel, two had exceeded the dose limit 5 mSv/3 mo and other 2, the annual limit 1 mSv. They received the examination by the industrial doctor, were found free of abnormality, but were decided not to work at the site. Recently, about 5,000 APD have been purchased for personal usage and dose management is conducted by bar-coding of individual workers, and internal exposure is managed with 11 whole body counters by once a month measurement in J

  5. Tchernobyl accident

    First, R.M.B.K type reactors are described. Then, safety problems are dealt with reactor control, behavior during transients, normal loss of power and behavior of the reactor in case of leak. A possible scenario of the accident of Tchernobyl is proposed: events before the explosion, possible initiators, possible scenario and events subsequent to the core meltdown (corium-concrete interaction, interaction with the groundwater table). An estimation of the source term is proposed first from the installation characteristics and the supposed scenario of the accident, and from the measurements in Europe; radiological consequences are also estimated. Radioactivity measurements (Europe, Scandinavia, Western Europe, France) are given in tables (meteorological maps and fallouts in Europe). Finally, a description of the site is given

  6. Les études sanitaires et la pêche à pied professionnelle : l'exemple de Bonne Anse en Charente-Maritime

    Piquet, Jean-come

    2011-01-01

    Tout coquillage mis en vente est issu d’une zone de production (gisement naturel ou concession) classée et surveillée au niveau sanitaire. Quatre classements sont définis de A à D par ordre décroissant de salubrité, du classement A (bonne qualité) autorisant la commercialisation directe des coquillages, au classement D (très mauvaise qualité). Pour définir ce classement, une étude sanitaire est préalablement conduite par l’Ifremer sur demande de l’Administration. L’étude sanitaire réalisée à ...

  7. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Transportation accidents

    Predicting the possible consequences of transportation accidents provides a severe challenge to an analyst who must make a judgment of the likely consequences of a release event at an unpredictable time and place. Since it is impractical to try to obtain detailed knowledge of the meteorology and terrain for every potential accident location on a route or to obtain accurate descriptions of population distributions or sensitive property to be protected (data which are more likely to be more readily available when one deals with fixed-site problems), he is constrained to make conservative assumptions in response to a demanding public audience. These conservative assumptions are frequently offset by very small source terms (relative to a fixed site) created when a transport vehicle is involved in an accident. For radioactive materials, which are the principal interest of the authors, only the most elementary models have been used for assessing the consequences of release of these materials in the transportation setting. Risk analysis and environmental impact statements frequently have used the Pasquill-Gifford/gaussian techniques for releases of short duration, which are both simple and easy to apply and require a minimum amount of detailed information. However, after deciding to use such a model, the problem of selecting what specific parameters to use in specific transportation situations still presents itself. Additional complications arise because source terms are not well characterized, release rates can be variable over short and long time periods, and mechanisms by which source aerosols become entrained in air are not always obvious. Some approaches that have been used to address these problems will be reviewed with emphasis on guidelines to avoid the Worst-Case Scenario Syndrome

  9. Scientometric analysis of the means of scientific communication of the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl Nuclear accident

    In this paper evaluation of the structure and trends in the development of the Ukrainian scientific communication tools on the medical consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident using bibliometric methods has been given. The main developers of methodical documents are allocated, the dynamics of the distribution of methodical references, information letters and innovations is estimated. The importance of scientific communications tools in dissemination and use of new medical knowledge is demonstrated

  10. Analysis of verification and validation problems of calculation means (codes) of accident thermohydrodynamic processes for domestic NPPs

    Analysis of known approaches in area of verification and validation of calculation means (codes) modelling the accident / transition processes in nuclear power plant (NPP) equipment is represented in this review article. Needs to develop and realise the generalised calculation means verification / validation methodology taking into account, together with traditional procedures, the codes applicability assessment criteria for decision of specific tasks and for specific equipment, mathematical models and experimental stands adequacy to full-scale conditions are shown

  11. Strategy for the restoration of rural settlements in Belarus contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. Problems and experience

    The experience of the protective actions taken in Belarus in the wake of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident can provide useful insights for specialists who are considering strategies for restoring areas contaminated with radionuclides. Data on the protective actions performed in Belarus after this accident are presented briefly, and the efficiency assessment used for the resettlement of certain categories of population is discussed, The levels allowed by the state for radioactive contamination in food and the averted doses are reviewed. The current number of contaminated settlements and their population are given. Particulars concerning the nature of the doses and the differences in their formation for the urban and rural populations are examined. Existing criteria for decision making, radiological and non-radiological factors which affect the decision making processes are explained. The experience in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident shows that the decision making process for remediation actions must consider both radiological and non-radiological factors. Moreover, as the annual dose tends to approach established limits over time, non-radiological factors start to play a more important role in the decision making process. (author)

  12. Socio-geographical approach in solution of the problem of the forest resources management in Chernobyl accident zone

    The Ukraine needs wood badly, and so it is very unfortunate that large forest areas are contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident. For wood industry management purposes, forest areas have been categorized as follows: (1) protective-recreational, (2) protective-operational, (3) protective-operational with radiometric control, (4) protective with medium-intensity exploitation and radiometric control, (5) protective with lower than medium-intensity exploitation and radiometric control, (6) protective with limited wood exploitation, (7) protective with radiometric control, and (8) protective, forbidden for management. Percent fractions of forests in the various categories are given for the affected regions of the Ukraine. (P.A.)

  13. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH

  14. Fifteen years after accident

    This book is devoted to 15th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. Four problems have been reflected in the book: contamination of territories of Western Europe, Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation by cesium-137; plutonium, americium and other actinides on territory of Belarus; problems of radioactive wastes management of Chernobyl origin; influence of various factors on oncology morbidity in the Republic of Belarus

  15. Factors influencing accuracy of estimation of comprehension problems in patients following cerebrovascular accident, by doctors, nurses and relatives.

    McClenahan, R; Johnston, M; Densham, Y

    1992-01-01

    Previous work has shown that doctors, nurses and relatives are inaccurate at estimating the comprehension problem of stroke patients. Possible factors that influence the accuracy of these judgements were studied, including confidence of the respondents, the severity of the comprehension problems of the patients and factors specific to relatives (educational background and the length of the relative's relationship with the patient). Doctors, nurses and relatives involved with 30 recently aphasic stroke patients were asked to estimate how patients would perform on the comprehension sections of two tests (Western Aphasia Battery and Functional Communication Profile). Results show that although all respondents over-estimated patients' comprehension abilities, they were more accurate for patients who had mild problems. Doctors and nurses who were more confident about their predictions tended to be more accurate on some parts of the tests than those with less confidence, whereas relatives were equally inaccurate when giving high and low confidence judgements. Length of relationship and educational level did not predict relative's accuracy. PMID:1306387

  16. Instrumenter les crises sanitaires : une solution politique ?:Le cas des contre-indications au don de sang

    Crespin, Renaud

    2011-01-01

    Cette communication porte sur l’administration des crises de santé publique. Classiquement, celles-ci sont pensées comme des moments où sont redéfinies les règles, les référentiels et la légitimité des acteurs en charge des problèmes de santé publique. Ainsi, depuis 20 ans, en France une série de « crises » a conduit à une profonde réforme de la transfusion sanguine. Cette dynamique réformatrice marquée par une logique de sanitarisation et de sécurité sanitaire a redéfini les principes de pré...

  17. Colloid-chemical approach to the solution of urgent ecological problems connected with mitigation of Chernobyl accident consequences

    The results of the comprehensive investigations carried out by the Dumansky Institute of Colloid and Water Chemistry focused on resolving the urgent ecological problems caused by Chernobyl,disaster summarized. The effective methods to control the solidification terms of hardening lead containing compounds as well as the technique of fastening soil upper layers considered. The penetration proofing materials (compositions) were developed for using in constructing the proofing shields protecting rivers, lakes and fields from pernicious influence of radionuclides and other poisoning pollutions. The decontaminating compositions of solutions reducing the radioactive pollution of porous building materials to sanitary levels of clean zone were proposed

  18. Nuclear accidents

    On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

  19. Evaluation des risques sanitaires liés à l'injection de biogaz épure dans un réseau de gaz naturel

    Leroux, Carole; Modelon, Hugues; Rousselle, Christophe; Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Evanno, Sébastien

    2009-01-01

    Ce document reprend l'avis de l'Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire de l'Environnement et du Travail (Afsset) émis à la suite de l'expertise collective menée pour l'évaluation de risques sanitaires liés à l'injection de biogaz dans le réseau de gaz naturel. L'intégralité de cette expertise est publiée et disponible sur le site internet de l'Agence, seuls les grands axes sont présentés dans ce document. Suite aux recommandations émises par l'Afsset, des travaux ont été initiés afin de recue...

  20. Radiation accidents

    Radiation accidents may be viewed as unusual exposure event which provide possible high exposure to a few people and, in the case of nuclear plants events, low exposure to large population. A number of radiation accidents have occurred over the past 50 years, involving radiation machines, radioactive materials and uncontrolled nuclear reactors. These accidents have resulted in number of people have been exposed to a range of internal and external radiation doses and those involving radioactive materials have involved multiple routs of exposure. Some of the more important accidents involving significant radiation doses or releases of radioactive materials, including any known health effects involves in it. An analysis of the common characteristics of accidents is useful resolving overarching issues, as has been done following nuclear power, industrial radiography and medical accidents. Success in avoiding accidents and responding when they do occur requires planning in order to have adequately trained and prepared health physics organization; well defined and developed instrument program; close cooperation among radiation protection experts, local and state authorities. Focus is given to the successful avoidance of accidents and response in the events they do occur. Palomares, spain in late 1960, Goiania, Brazil in 1987, Thule, Greenland in 1968, Rocky flats, Colorado in 1957 and 1969, Three mile island, Pennsylvania in 1979, Chernobyl Ukraine in april 1986, Kyshtym, former Soviet Union in 1957, Windscale, UK in Oct. 1957 Tomsk, Russian Federation in 1993, and many others are the important examples of major radiation accidents. (author)

  1. On the Problems of Road Traffic Accident Appraisal in China and Countermeasure%论我国道路交通事故鉴定存在的问题与对策

    蔡立红

    2011-01-01

    At present there exist a lot of problems in the process of road traffic accident appraisal in China, such as lack of a clear definition to appraisal subject and content, absence of appraisal institutions and imperfection of appraisal system. In practice, the scope of road traffic accident appraisal tends to be too broad and some accident dealers shift the trouble to appraisal in the process of dealing with road traffic accident. The way - out is to define the scope of road traffic accident appraisal, clarify the methods for both appraisers and accident dealers in dealing with the accident, establish a top - down appraisal system and strengthen the management system of appraisers and related supervision mechanism.%当前道路交通事故鉴定存在着鉴定项目及其内容缺乏清晰界定,鉴定机构缺失,鉴定制度建设不完善等问题,事故处理实践中存在鉴定范围扩大化倾向,部分事故处理人员在事故处理过程中遇到难题往鉴定上推,推卸对事故证据的具体分析和案情的综合评判责任。解决的方法是界定交通事故鉴定项目的范围,明确鉴定与事故处理人员分析认定的处理方法,建立自上而下的鉴定系统体系,加强鉴定人的管理制度并完善相应的监督机制。

  2. The IDA cognitive model for the analysis of nuclear power plant operator response under accident conditions. Part I: problem solving and decision making model

    This paper is the first of a series of papers describing IDA which is a cognitive model for analysing the behaviour of nuclear power plant operators under accident conditions. The domain of applicability of the model is a relatively constrained environment where behaviour is significantly influenced by high levels of training and explicit requirement to follow written procedures. IDA consists of a model for individual operator behaviour and a model for control room operating crew expanded from the individual model. The model and its derivatives such as an error taxonomy and data collection approach has been designed with ultimate objective of becoming a quantitative method for human reliability analysis (HRA) in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The present paper gives a description of the main components of IDA such as memory structure, goals, and problem solving and decision making strategies. It also identifies factors that are at the origin of transitions between goals or between strategies. These factors cover the effects of external conditions and psychological state of the operator. The description is generic at first and then made specific to the nuclear power plant environment and more precisely to abnormal conditions

  3. Accident Statistics

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  4. Proceedings of the CSNI workshop on International Standard Problem 48 - Analysis of 1:4-scale prestressed concrete containment vessel model under severe accident conditions

    At the CSNI meeting in June 2002, the proposal for an International Standard Problem on containment integrity (ISP 48) based on the NRC/NUPEC/Sandia test was approved. Objectives were to extend the understanding of capacities of actual containment structures based on results of the recent PCCV Model test and other previous research. The ISP was sponsored by the USNRC, and results had been made available thanks to NUPEC and to the USNRC. Sandia National Laboratory was contracted to manage the technical aspects of the ISP. At the end of the ISP48, a workshop was organized in Lyon, France on April 6-7, 2005 hosted by Electricite de France. Its overall objective was to present results obtained by participants in the ISP 48 and to assess the current practices and the state of the art with respect to the calculation of concrete structures under severe accident conditions. Experience from other areas in civil engineering related to the modelling of complex structures was greatly beneficial to all. Information obtained as a result of this assessment were utilized to develop a consensus on these calculations and identify issues or 'gaps' in the present knowledge for the primary purpose of formulating and prioritizing research needs on this topic. The ISP48 exercise was published in the report referenced NEA/CSNI/R(2005)5 in 3 volumes. Volume 1 contains the synthesis of the exercise; Volumes 2 and 3 contain individual contributions of participating organizations. The CSNI Working Group on the Integrity and Ageing and in particular its sub-group on the behaviour of concrete structures has produced extensive material over the last few years. The complete list of references is given in this document. These proceedings gather the papers and presentations given by the participants at the Lyon workshop

  5. Radiation accidents and dosimetry

    On September 2nd 1982 one of the employees of the gamma-irradiation facility at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway entered the irradiation cell with a 65.7 kCi *sp60*Co- source in unshielded position. The victim received an unknown radiation dose and died after 13 days. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy, the radiation dose in this accident was subsequently determined based on the production of longlived free radicals in nitroglycerol tablets borne by the operator during the accident. He used nitroglycerol for heart problems and free radical are easily formed and trapped in sugar which is the main component of the tablets. Calibration experiments were carried out and the dose given to the tablets during the accident was determined to 37.2 +- 0.5 Gy. The general use of free radicals for dose determinations is discussed. (Auth.)

  6. The TMI-2 accident evaluation program

    The accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor, now 10 years old, remains as the United States' worst commercial nuclear reactor accident. Although the consequences of the accident were restricted primarily to the plant itself, the potential consequences of the accident, should it have progressed further, are large enough to warrant close scrutiny of all aspects of the event. TMI-2 accident research is being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to provide the basis for more accurate calculations of source terms for postulated severe accidents. Research objectives supporting this goal include developing a comprehensive and consistent understanding of the mechanisms that controlled the progression of core damage and subsequent fission product behavior during the TMI-2 accident, and applying that understanding to the resolution of important severe accident safety issues. Developing a best-estimate scenario of the core melt progression during the accident is the focal point of the research and involves analytical work to interpret and integrate: (1) data recorded during the accident from plant instrumentation, (2) the post-accident state of the core, (3) results of the examination of material from the damaged core, and (4) related severe-accident research results. This paper summarizes the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Program that is being conducted for the USDOE and briefly describes the important results that have been achieved. The Program is divided into four parts: Sample Acquisition and Plant Examination, Accident Scenario, Standard Problem Exercise, and Information and Industry Coordination

  7. Pourquoi ne pas parler d'exception sanitaire ? Why not to recognize the health exception ? Interview with Rony Brauman

    Rony Brauman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ce tour d’horizon avec l’ancien président de Médecins sans frontières évoque la dérive des brevets, mis en place pour protéger l’innovation, mais devenus une rente; les limites des grands slogans tels que «la santé pour tous»; la nécessité de dépasser le seul accès aux médicaments pour offrir une plateforme sanitaire efficace; le rôle limité de l’OMS et la flexibilité inattendue de l’OMC; l’élargissement du concept de «crise sanitaire» et l’usage du principe de précaution. Dénoncer la marchandisation de la santé amène à proposer le concept d’exception sanitaire, pour donner à la santé une indispensable priorité.The former Head of Médecins sans frontières addresses many issues : the drift of patents, supposed to protect innovation but used to protect profits ; the limitations of high-flying slogans such as « Health for all » ; the need to provide full-fledged medical platforms and not just access to drugs ; the limited scope of WHO and the unexpected flexibility of WTO ; the broadening concept of « public health crisis » and the precautionary principle. Rejecting the mercantilization of health brings to the forefront the concept of « health exception », in order to give health the priority it deserves.

  8. State institution 'Republican research centre of radiation medicine and human ecology': concept of development and its role in solution of medical problems of consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    At present, the Centre is the head institution, which provides specific medical assistance to population affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe. It also carries out research work defined by the State Program of the Republic of Belarus on liquidating consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe within the period of 2001-2005 and up to 2010, sub-items 'Medical Assistance and Recuperation, Mother and Child Care, Hereditary Illnesses' and 'Radiation Protection and Dosage Monitoring of Population'. The aim of the Concept of the development of the Centre is to maintain and promote the health of the people exposed to multicomponent and prolonged impact of irradiation after Chernobyl accident and other negative factors of the environment of anthropogenic and man-caused nature, by means of realization of scientifically-grounded measures on minimizing of direct and indirect losses of society due to morbidity and mortality decrease. The ecological situation in the Republic and necessity of liquidation of medical consequences of the Chernobyl disaster demand to conduct long-term dynamic monitoring of state of health of big cohorts of people. At present, this problem is solved by clinical examination of population affected by irradiation. This is the base of preventive activity directed to decrease medical consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. In the Republic of Belarus, clinical examination of suffering population is carried out at all levels - republican, regional, local, - in clinics. To monitor the state of health of the population and to obtain correct data of medico-biological consequences of the catastrophe, Belarus State Register of people exposed to irradiation due to Chernobyl accident, was established and is functioning. At present, State Register provides information supply of the conducted clinical examination. The concentration in one institution of functions of managing staff, quality control of clinical examination and scientific inspection of the State

  9. Le soutien sanitaire opérationnel: des compétences infirmières au service des sapeurs-pompiers

    Kiefer, Eve Alicia; Reymond, Fanny; Zulauf, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Ce travail est une revue partielle de la littérature scientifique, qui a pour but d’explorer des pistes d’interventions dans le cadre d’un soutien sanitaire opérationnel apporté aux sapeurs-pompiers volontaires et professionnels lors de la lutte contre l’incendie, afin de limiter les astreintes physiologiques auxquelles ils doivent faire face continuellement. Etant donné que ce type de mission s’est récemment développé en Suisse, nous avons voulu offrir aux infirmiers des réponses concrètes e...

  10. Organization of accident medical service in emergency situations in the system of Federal administration board for medical-biological and emergency problems at the Ministry of public health and medical industry of Russia

    Federal Administration Board for medical-biological problems at the Ministry of Public Health and Medical Industry of Russia, in accordance with the entrusted functions, provides medical-sanitary service for the workers of the branches of industry with especially dangerous labour conditions. For these purpose, there is functioning in its system a network of therapeutic-prophylactic, sanitary, scientific-research, educational and other establishments. A high degree of accident danger of the attended industrial plants determines the state policy of organizations and administrations as well as scientific-practical establishments of the Federal Administration Board in respect of elaboration and introduction of a complex of measures which would enable to guarantee the safe functioning of the plants. All sub-administration establishments have the necessary structures, settle the questions of liquidation of medical-sanitary after-effects of accidents at the attended plants, and are regarded to be the organizations of specialized emergency medical aid of the Federal Administration Board

  11. Development of TRAIN for accident management

    Severe accident management can be defined as the use of existing and alternative resources, systems, and actions to prevent or mitigate a core-melt accident in nuclear power plants. TRAIN (Training pRogram for AMP In NPP), developed for training control room staff and the technical group, is introduced in this paper. The TRAIN composes of phenomenological knowledge base (KB), accident sequence KB and accident management procedures with AM strategy control diagrams and information needs. This TRAIN might contribute to training them by obtaining phenomenological knowledge of severe accidents, understanding plant vulnerabilities, and solving problems under high stress. (author)

  12. Twenty years of the Chernobyl accident: Results and problems in eliminating its consequences in Russia 1986-2006. Russian national report

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident, above 1.5 million people in 14 subjects of the Russian Federation continue to live in the area of radioactive contamination. More than 180,000 of the Russians were affected by radiation, when participating in elimination of the accident and its consequences. Since the first days of the accident, the public health service faced a task to develop and implement the measures on minimization of medical effects of the accident and public provision with medical assistance, including the employees of the nuclear power plant and the participants in mitigation of the accident. The health of the liquidators and the public living in the contaminated areas is the most socially significant issue being solved in the process of elimination of the Chernobyl consequences. Radiological effects have been the focus of attention for the overall 20-year period. The radiation protection system was based on performance of the two conditions, namely: absolute prevention of acute (deterministic) effects and reduction in the risk of remote (stochastic) effects to acceptable (justified) levels. As early as in 1986, a decision was made to create the unified system of medical observation for the individuals affected by radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The Russian State Medical and Dosimetry Register (RSMDR) was established on the basis of the Medical Radiological Research Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The two most suffered public groups were defined as a result of research activity of the Register. These are the children (at the moment of the accident) living in the highly contaminated areas and the liquidators who have obtained the exposure dose above 150 mGy. According to the Register's data, 122 cases (54%) out of 226 thyroid cancers revealed during the years 1991-2003 among the children (at the moment of the Chernobyl catastrophe) from the Bryansk region can be considered as radiation-stipulated. Hygienic

  13. Accident: Reminder

    2003-01-01

    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  14. Vessel-related problems in severe accidents, International Research Projects; La problematica de la vasija en los accidentes severos. Proyectos internacionales de investigacion

    Figueras, J. M. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The paper describes those most relevant aspects of research programmes and projects, on the behavior of vessel during severe accidents with partial or total reactor core fusion, performed during the last twenty years or still on-going projects, by countries or international organizations in the nuclear community, presenting the most important technical aspects, in particular the results achieved, as well as the financial and organisational aspects. The paper concludes that, throughout a joint effort of the international nuclear community, in which Spain has been present via private and public organizations, actually exist a reasonable technical and experimental knowledge of the vessel in case of severe accidents, but still there are aspects not fully solved which are the basis for continuing some programmes and for proposal of new ones. (Author)

  15. Performance d'un hôpital de zone sanitaire au Benin: un exemple de modèle d’évaluation

    Ahanhanzo, Yolaine Glèlè; Ouédraogo, Landaogo Soutongonoma Lionel; Saizonou, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Premier niveau de référence de la pyramide sanitaire du Bénin, les hôpitaux de zone sanitaire s'acquittent de leurs missions dans un contexte difficile. L'objectif de la présente étude a été d’évaluer la performance de l'hôpital de la zone sanitaire de Comè en 2013. Méthodes L’étude était transversale, descriptive et évaluative. Les services retenus ont été sélectionnés par choix raisonné du fait de leur contribution au paquet d'activités de l'hôpital. Les clients externes et internes ont été sélectionnés par commodité. Les membres du conseil de gestion de l'hôpital de zone, les responsables d'organisation à base communautaire, les partenaires techniques et financiers ainsi que des chefs d'arrondissement ont été sélectionné par choix raisonné. La performance de l'hôpital a été mesurée à travers trois critères que sont la qualité des prestations, leur équité d'accès et leur pérennité. L'analyse des données a été faite sur la base de critères en utilisant une cotation analytique puis temporelle. Résultats La performance de l'hôpital de la zone sanitaire de Comè était très faible au premier semestre 2013 avec une qualité des prestations cotée à 35%, une équité d'accès cotée à 50% et une pérennité des actions cotée à 11%. Seul le niveau d'application de la fonction gouvernance était moyen. La méconnaissance des attributions des représentants de la communauté dans les instances de l'hôpital a constitué une limite à leur implication dans l'exercice des fonctions de l'hôpital. Les partenaires techniques et financiers ont participé au renforcement institutionnel de l'hôpital en termes d'amélioration du plateau technique. Conclusion L'application des fonctions de l'hôpital et une meilleure implication de la communauté ainsi que des partenaires contribueront à l'amélioration de la performance de l'hôpital de la zone sanitaire de Comè. PMID:25400830

  16. Reactor accidents in perspective

    In each of the three major reactor accidents which have led to significant releases to the environment, and discussed in outline in this note, the reactor has been essentially destroyed - certainly Windscale and Chernobyl reactors will never operate and the cleanup operation for Three Mile Island is currently estimated to have cost in excess of US Pound 500 000 000. In each of the accidents there has not been any fatality off site in the short term and any long-term health detriment is unlikely to be seen in comparison with the natural cancer incidence rate. At Chernobyl, early fatalities did occur amongst those concerned with fighting the incident on site and late effects are to be expected. The assumption of a linear non-threshold risk, and hence no level of zero risk is the main problem in communication with the public, and the author calls for simplification of the presentation of the concepts of radiological protection. (U.K.)

  17. ACCOUNT OF ROAD CONDITIONS WHILE INVESTIGATING TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS

    D. D. Selioukov; I. I. Leonovich

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers problems on better traffic safety at government, authority, engineering and driver activity levels, account of road conditions while investigating traffic accidents. The paper also provides road defects mentioned in forensic transport examinations of traffic accidents.

  18. Metabolic syndrome X as a clinical outcome of hormonal changes on the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences (the problem analysis)

    An analysis of hormonal changes in the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences, which promote the metabolic syndrome X development, was carried out on the base of clinical and experimental data. The system insulin-glucose, the mechanisms of insulinresistance and gyperinslinemia forming, the pathogenetical role of hyperinsulinemia interaction with others hormomes, some aspects of hormone - receptor interaction, an interconnection of hyperinsulinemia and vascular pathology, peculiarities of radiobiological stress as a non-classic adaptive reaction, which frequently resulting with a pathology, were discussed in the article

  19. International aspects of nuclear accidents

    The accident at Chernobyl revealed that there were shortcomings and gaps in the existing international mechanisms and brought home to governments the need for stronger measures to provide better protection against the risks of severe accidents. The main thrust of international co-operation with regard to nuclear safety issues is aimed at achieving a uniformly high level of safety in nuclear power plants through continuous exchanges of research findings and feedback from reactor operating experience. The second type of problem posed in the event of an accident resulting in radioactive contamination of several countries relates to the obligation to notify details of the circumstances and nature of the accident speedily so that the countries affected can take appropriate protective measures and, if necessary, organize mutual assistance. Giving the public accurate information is also an important aspect of managing an emergency situation arising from a severe accident. Finally, the confusion resulting from the unwarranted variety of protective measures implemented after the Chernobyl accident has highlighted the need for international harmonization of the principles and scientific criteria applicable to the protection of the public in the event of an accident and for a more consistent approach to emergency plans. The international conventions on third party liability in the nuclear energy sector (Paris/Brussels Conventions and the Vienna Convention) provide for compensation for damage caused by nuclear accidents in accordance with the rules and jurisdiction that they lay down. These provisions impose obligations on the operator responsible for an accident, and the State where the nuclear facility is located, towards the victims of damage caused in another country

  20. Social disparities and correlates of domestic accidents.

    Baumann, Michèle; Spitz, E.; Ravaud, J.; Guillemin, F.; Chau, N

    2009-01-01

    Domestic accidents are a public health problem. This study assessed the disparities between socioeconomic positions and the confounding role of gender, age, education, living alone, income, poor health, obesity, current tobacco use, alcohol abuse, fatigue/sleep disorders, and physical, sensorial and cognitive disabilities. Methods: 6,198 people aged ≥15, randomly selected in north-eastern France completed a post-mailed questionnaire including domestic accident(s) during the last two years. Th...

  1. Neural network of Gaussian radial basis functions applied to the problem of identification of nuclear accidents in a PWR nuclear power plant

    Highlights: • It is presented a new method based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) developed to deal with accident identification in PWR nuclear power plants. • Obtained results have shown the efficiency of the referred technique. • Results obtained with this method are as good as or even better to similar optimization tools available in the literature. - Abstract: The task of monitoring a nuclear power plant consists on determining, continuously and in real time, the state of the plant’s systems in such a way to give indications of abnormalities to the operators and enable them to recognize anomalies in system behavior. The monitoring is based on readings of a large number of meters and alarm indicators which are located in the main control room of the facility. On the occurrence of a transient or of an accident on the nuclear power plant, even the most experienced operators can be confronted with conflicting indications due to the interactions between the various components of the plant systems; since a disturbance of a system can cause disturbances on another plant system, thus the operator may not be able to distinguish what is cause and what is the effect. This cognitive overload, to which operators are submitted, causes a difficulty in understanding clearly the indication of an abnormality in its initial phase of development and in taking the appropriate and immediate corrective actions to face the system failure. With this in mind, computerized monitoring systems based on artificial intelligence that could help the operators to detect and diagnose these failures have been devised and have been the subject of research. Among the techniques that can be used in such development, radial basis functions (RBFs) neural networks play an important role due to the fact that they are able to provide good approximations to functions of a finite number of real variables. This paper aims to present an application of a neural network of Gaussian radial basis

  2. Multiple Myeloma in Post Nuclear Accident Crisis

    Wiwanitkit, Somsri; Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2012-01-01

    The problem of 2011 nuclear accident crisis draws attention of physicians and medical scientists around the world. The cancer induction is an important adverse effect of exposure to radionuclide. In this specific article, the multiple myeloma, an important hematological cancer, in the post nuclear accident crisis will be discussed.

  3. Experience and lessons learned from emergency disposal of Fukushima nuclear power station accident

    After Fukushima nuclear accident, we visited the related medical aid agencies for nuclear accidents and conducted investigations in disaster-affected areas in Japan. This article summarizes the problems with emergency disposal of Fukushima nuclear accident while disclosing problems should be solved during the emergency force construction for nuclear accidents. (authors)

  4. Criticality Accident

    At a meeting of electric utility presidents in October, 1999, the Federation Power Companies (FEPCO) officially decided to establish a Japanese version of WANO, following the JCO criticality accident. The Japanese WANO is expected to be launched by the end of the year: initially, with some 30 private sector companies concerned with nuclear fuel. It is said that the private sector had to make efforts to ensure that safety was the most important value in management policy throughout the industry, and that comprehensive inspections would be implemented. In anything related to nuclear energy, sufficient safety checks are required even for the most seemingly trivial matters. Therefore, the All-Japan Council of Local Governments with Atomic Power Stations has already proposed to the Japanese government that it should enact the special law for nuclear emergency, providing that the unified responsibility for nuclear disaster prevention should be shifted to the national government, since the nuclear disaster was quite special from the viewpoint of its safety regulation and technical aspects. (G.K.)

  5. Chernobyl reactor accident

    Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

  6. Persistence on airline accidents.

    L. A. GIL-ALANA; Barros, C.P. (Carlos P.); J.R. Faria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses airline accidents data from 1927-2006. The fractional integration methodology is adopted. It is shown that airline accidents are persistent and (fractionally) cointegrated with airline traffic. Thus, there exists an equilibrium relation between air accidents and airline traffic, with the effect of the shocks to that relationship disappearing in the long run. Policy implications are derived for countering accidents events.

  7. Persistence in Airline Accidents

    Carlos Pestana Barros; João Ricardo Faria; Luis A. Gil-Alana

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses airline accident data from 1927-2006, through fractional integration. It is shown that airline accidents are persistent and (fractionally) cointegrated with airline traffic. There exists a negative relation between air accidents and airline traffic, with the effect of the shocks to that relationship disappearing in the long run. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events.

  8. The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the problem of estimating the consequences of radioactive contamination of natural and agricultural ecological systems

    Heavy radiation accidents cause long-term low-dose biota irradiation on large territories. In this situation of great importance is a correct estimation of danger of low-dose irradiation. Approaches now in use to assess the genetic consequences of irradiation are based on linear extrapolation of biological effects induced by high and medium doses to the region of low doses. However, models based on the linear non threshold hypothesis lack strong biological justification and come into conflict with the experimental data available. Our experiments with agricultural crops aimed at studying regularities in the induction cytogenetic damages using test-systems have demonstrated that the form of the dose-effect curve in the domain of low exposure values shows a pronounced linearity and the presence of a dose-independent region. A comparison of the experimentally revealed form of the empirical curve with results obtained for other objects (human lymphocytes, fibroblasts of Chinese hamster, seedlings of horse beans, etc.) allows a conclusion to be made that the relationship between the yield of radiation induced cytogenetic disturbances and dose is non-linear and universal in character, varying for different objects only in dose values at which changes in the relationship nature occur. So, the observed genetic effects in the region of low doses result from peculiarities in the cellular response to weak external action rather than damaging impact of ionising radiation or other factors of physical or chemical nature

  9. Severe accident phenomena

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  10. Accident proneness, does it exist? A review and meta-analysis

    Visser, Ellen; Pijl, Ysbrand J.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Neeleman, Jan; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2007-01-01

    Accident related health problems have been suggested to cluster within persons. This phenomenon became known as accident proneness and has been a subject of many discussions. This study provides an overview of accident proneness. Therefore, 79 articles with empirical data on accident rates were identified from databases Embase, Medline, and Psychinfo. First, definitions of accidents varied highly, but most studies focused on accidents resulting in injuries requiring medical attention. Second,...

  11. Hygienic measures during accidents at nuclear power plants

    Problems of radiation protection in case of large-scale accidents at nuclear power plants are discussed. Aims and purposes of protective measures are shown. Ways of radiation factor effects at various accident stages are described as well as corresponding protective measures. Attention is paid to the criteria of decision adoption at various accident development phases. Examples from the Chernobyl accident experience are presented. 10 refs.; 3 tabs

  12. Radioactive materials transport accident analysis

    Over the last 25 years, one of the major issues raised regarding radioactive material transportation has been the risk of severe accidents. While numerous studies have shown that traffic fatalities dominate the risk, modeling the risk of severe accidents has remained one of the most difficult analysis problems. This paper will show how models that were developed for nuclear spent fuel transport accident analysis can be adopted to obtain estimates of release fractions for other types of radioactive material such as vitrified highlevel radioactive waste. The paper will also show how some experimental results from fire experiments involving low level waste packaging can be used in modeling transport accident analysis with this waste form. The results of the analysis enable an analyst to clearly show the differences in the release fractions as a function of accident severity. The paper will also show that by placing the data in a database such as ACCESS trademark, it is possible to obtain risk measures for transporting the waste forms along proposed routes from the generator site to potential final disposal sites

  13. A review of severe accident assessment

    One of the most difficult problems on evaluation of external costs on nuclear power generation is value on a severe accident risk. Once forming a severe accident, its effect is very important and extends to a wide range, to give a lot of damages. It is a main area of study on externality of energy to compare various risks by means of price conversion at unit kWh. Here was outlined on research examples on main severe accident risks before then. A common fact on estimation cost such research examples is to limit it to direct cost (mainly to health damage) at accident phenomenon. As an actual problem, it is very difficult to substantially quantify such parameters because of basically belonging to social psychology. It is due to no finding out decisive evaluation method on this problem to be adopted conventional EED (Expert Expected Damages) approach in the ExternE Phase III, either. (G.K.)

  14. Accident evolution and barrier function and accident evolution management modeling of nuclear power plant incidents

    Every analysis of an accident or an incident is founded on a more or less explicit model of what an accident is. On a general level, the current approach models an incident or accident in a nuclear power plant as a failure to maintain a stable state with all variables within their ranges of stability. There are two main sets of subsystems in continuous interaction making up the analyzed system, namely the human-organizational and the technical subsystems. Several different but related approaches can be chosen to model an accident. However, two important difficulties accompany such modeling: the high level of system complexity and the very infrequent occurrence of accidents. The current approach acknowledges these problems and focuses on modeling reported incidents/accidents or scenarios selected in probabilistic risk assessment analyses to be of critical importance for the safety of a plant

  15. SEVERE ACCIDENT MANAGEMENT TRAINING

    The purpose of this paper is (a) to define the International Atomic Energy Agency's role in the area of severe accident management training, (b) to briefly describe the status of representative severe accident analysis tools designed to support development and validation of accident management guidelines, and more recently, simulate the accident with sufficient accuracy to support the training of technical support and reactor operator staff, and (c) provide an overview of representative design-specific accident management guidelines and training. Since accident management and the development of accident management validation and training software is a rapidly evolving area, this paper is also intended to evolve as accident management guidelines and training programs are developed to meet different reactor design requirements and individual national requirements

  16. Accident proneness, does it exist? A review and meta-analysis

    Visser, Ellen; Pijl, Ysbrand J.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Neeleman, Jan; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Accident related health problems have been suggested to cluster within persons. This phenomenon became known as accident proneness and has been a subject of many discussions. This study provides an overview of accident proneness. Therefore, 79 articles with empirical data on accident rates were iden

  17. Reactor accident-big impacts but small possibilities

    Accidents are an unfortunate incident that happened in our lives. The government provides facilities and programs to reduce accidents; people also take a variety of initiatives that accidents can be avoided, and every family and its members are constantly vigilant to protect against accidents. Some industries are relatively simple operations are recorded accidents is higher than other industries is more complex and sophisticated. Authors relate this fact with the accident that occurred in the area where the power generation plant according to author accidents in this area is very small and grouped as isolated cases. This article also commented on two major accidents in nuclear power generation are Chernobyl and Three Miles Island. Authors also hope that the progress of current and future technology can overcome this problem and then convince the public that nuclear energy is safe and low risk.

  18. Traffic Congestion and Accidents

    Schrage, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Obstructions caused by accidents can trigger or exacerbate traffic congestion. This paper derives the efficient traffic pattern for a rush hour with congestion and accidents and the corresponding road toll. Compared to the model without accidents, where the toll equals external costs imposed on drivers using the road at the same time, a new insight arises: An optimal toll also internalizes the expected increase in future congestion costs. Since accidents affect more drivers if traffic volumes...

  19. Psychology of nuclear accidents

    Tysoe, M.

    1983-03-31

    Incidents involving nuclear weapons are described, as well as the accident to the Three Mile Island-2 reactor. Methods of assessment of risks are discussed, with particular reference to subjective judgements and the possible role of human error in civil nuclear accidents. Accidents or misunderstandings in communication or human actions which might lead to nuclear war are also discussed.

  20. Research investigation report on Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident

    This report was issued in February 2012 by Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation's Independent Investigation Commission on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, which consisted of six members from the private sector in independent positions and with no direct interest in the business of promoting nuclear power. Commission aimed to determine the truth behind the accident by clarifying the various problems and reveal systematic problems behind these issues so as to create a new starting point by identifying clear lessons learned. Report composed of four chapters; (1) progression of Fukushima accident and resulting damage (accident management after Fukushima accident, and effects and countermeasure of radioactive materials discharged into the environment), (2) response against Fukushima accident (emergency response of cabinet office against nuclear disaster, risk communication and on-site response against nuclear disaster), (3) analysis of historical and structural factors (technical philosophy of nuclear safety, problems of nuclear safety regulation of Fukushima accident, safety regulatory governance and social background of 'Safety Myth'), (4) Global Context (implication in nuclear security, Japan in nuclear safety regime, U.S.-Japan relations for response against Fukushima accident, lessons learned from Fukushima accident - aiming at creation of resilience). Report could identify causes of Fukushima accident and factors related to resulting damages, show the realities behind failure to prevent the spread of damage, and analyze the overall structural and historical background behind the accidents. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Supervisor's accident investigation handbook

    This pamphlet was prepared by the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EH and S) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to provide LBL supervisors with a handy reference to LBL's accident investigation program. The publication supplements the Accident and Emergencies section of LBL's Regulations and Procedures Manual, Pub. 201. The present guide discusses only accidents that are to be investigated by the supervisor. These accidents are classified as Type C by the Department of Energy (DOE) and include most occupational injuries and illnesses, government motor-vehicle accidents, and property damages of less than $50,000

  2. Framework for accident management

    Accident management is an essential element of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Integration Plan for the closure of severe accident issues. This element will consolidate the results from other key elements; such as the Individual Plant Examination (IPE), the Containment Performance Improvement, and the Severe Accident Research Programs, in a form that can be used to enhance the safety programs for nuclear power plants. The NRC is currently conducting an Accident Management Program that is intended to aid in defining the scope and attributes of an accident management program for nuclear power plants. The accident management plan will ensure that a plant specific program is developed and implemented to promote the most effective use of available utility resources (people and hardware) to prevent and mitigate severe accidents. Hardware changes or other plant modifications to reduce the frequency of severe accidents are not a central aim of this program. To accomplish the outlined objectives, the NRC has developed an accident management framework that is comprised of five elements: (1) accident management strategies, (2) training, (3) guidance and computational aids, (4) instrumentation, and (5) delineation of decision making responsibilities. A process for the development of an accident management program has been identified using these NRC framework elements

  3. Nuclear Accidents And Associated Environmental Risk

    The paper presents a critical review on the recent view of some safety related issues concerning nuclear accident analysis and its environmental impacts. The philosophy of defence in depth, nuclear accident classification, and quantitative evaluation of environmental risk are among the issues being discussed. The problems of nuclear data harmonization and/or models, building trust and transparence between regulatory guides and public, and alternatives for relocation pathways are also addressed and evaluated

  4. PRATIQUE DES CULTURES MARAÎCHÈRES SUR LES BERGES DU LAC DANG À NGAOUNDÉRÉ (NORD- CAMEROUN: QUELS ENJEUX SOCIOENVIRONNEMENTAUX ET SANITAIRES?

    Daniel Valérie BASKA TOUSSIA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Les cultures maraîchères sont en expansion considérable sur les berges du Lac Dangsitué à proximité de l’Université de Ngaoundéré dans la région de l’Adamaoua auCameroun. Ces cultures représentent des enjeux socio-économiques importants au regardde la forte communauté estudiantine à nourrir et à laquelle il faudrait ajouter lespopulations autochtones. Toutefois, il est à noter que la pratique de ces cultures estinfluencée par le climat et le système cultural mis en œuvre par les producteurs. Lesobservations directes et les enquêtes menées auprès des producteurs, montrent quel’influence du couplage climat-système culturale entraîne des transformations sur les rivesdu lac Dang dont les conséquences socio environnementales et sanitaires (érosion desberges, assèchement du Lac, rareté des ressources halieutiques, modification du calendriercultural, mobilités des hommes et les maladies sont significatives. Des esquisses desolutions s’avèrent indispensables pour sauver ce Lac sans interférer sur la nécessité deproduction maraîchère indispensable pour les besoins vitaux des populations.

  5. Standby after the Chernobyl accident

    The report is an investigation concerning strandby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The final report is divided into two parts: 'I: Facts' and 'II: Analyzes'. 'Facts': The Swedish model for information: radio, press. Basic knowledge about ionizing radiation in the society. Resources for information. Need for information. Message forms for information. Announcements from the authorities in TV, radio, press, meeting, advertisements. Statements concerning the reactor accident and its consequences in Swedish mass media. How did the public recieve the information? 'Analyzis': Information responsibilities and policies. SSI information activities concerning radiologic accidents, conditions, methods and resources. Ditto for SKI, Swedish National Food Administration and the National Board of Agriculture. Appendix I: Information from authorities in the press three weeks after the Chernobyl accident: The material and the methods. The acute phase, the adoptation phase, the extension of the persective. What is said about the authorities in connection with Chernobyl? Appendix II: The fallout from Chernobyl, the authorities and the media coverage: The nationwide, regional and local coverage from radio and television. Ditto from the press. Topic and problem areas in reporting. Instructions from the authorities in media. Contribution in the media from people representing the authorities. Fallout in a chronologic perspective. (L.F.)

  6. Framework for accident management

    A program is being conducted to establish those attributes of a severe accident management plan which are necessary to assure effective response to all credible severe accidents and to develop guidance for their incorporation in a plant's Accident Management Plan. This program is one part of the Accident Management Research Program being conducted by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The approach used in establishing attributes and developing guidance includes three steps. In the first step the general attributes of an accident management plan were identified based on: (1) the objectives established for the NRC accident management program, (2) the elements of an accident management framework identified by the NRC, and (3) a review of the processes used in developing the currently used approach for classifying and analyzing accidents. For the second step, a process was defined that uses the general attributes identified from the first step to develop an accident management plan. The third step applied the process defined in the second step at a nuclear power plant to refine and develop it into a benchmark accident management plan. Step one is completed, step two is underway and step three has not yet begun

  7. Accidents in nuclear power engineering. Emergency-engineering service and its purposes

    The review of severe accidents in the world practice of NPP operation is given. The problems met when eliminating the Chernobyl' NPP accident effects are discussed. The main purposes of the emergency-engineering service in nuclear power engineering are considered. These are: possible accident forecasting and preparation of the equipment for its effect elimination; prevention of accidents and abnormal situations at nuclear power objects; accident effect liquidation, NPP unit decommissioning. Some directions which development takes the priority, are formulated. 21 refs

  8. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  9. The Chernobyl accident consequences

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  10. Communication and industrial accidents

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the concept of role distance, which emphasizes the organizational characteristics. The general hypothesis is that communication failures are a main cause of role distance and accident-proneness within orga...

  11. Emergency department radiation accident protocol.

    Leonard, R B; Ricks, R C

    1980-09-01

    Every emergency department faces the potential problem of handling one or more victims of a radiation accident. While emergency departments near nuclear power plants or isotope production laboratories probably have a detailed protocol for such emergencies, a similar protocol is needed for the emergency department that may have to handle an isolated event, such as a vehicular accident that spills radioactive material and contaminates passengers or bystanders. This communication attempts to answer that need, presenting a step-by-step protocol for decontamination of a radiation victim, the rationale on which each step is based, a list of needed supplies, and a short summary of decorporation procedures that should be started in the emergency department. PMID:7425419

  12. Nuclear accidents and epidemiology

    A consultation on epidemiology related to the Chernobyl accident was held in Copenhagen in May 1987 as a basis for concerted action. This was followed by a joint IAEA/WHO workshop in Vienna, which reviewed appropriate methodologies for possible long-term effects of radiation following nuclear accidents. The reports of these two meetings are included in this volume, and cover the subjects: 1) Epidemiology related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident. 2) Appropriate methodologies for studying possible long-term effects of radiation on individuals exposed in a nuclear accident. Figs and tabs

  13. Medical emergency provisions in case of large-scale radiation accidents (literature review)

    Problems of planning population protection in case of severe radiation accidents are considered. Attention is paid to the state of these problems in the USSR and other contries as well as to IAEA directives. The Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents are used for illustration purposes. Organization of medical help during radiation accidents, provided for in national regulations and experience gained during Chernobyl NPP accident are considered. Conclusion is made on the necessity of forcasting accident consequences with regard to local, social, economical, geographic and other conditions. Availability of medical provision plans, related to elimination of accident aftereffects and skill training, is obligatory

  14. Emergency Response to Radioactive Material Transport Accidents

    Although transport regulations issued by IAEA is providing a high degree of safety during transport opertions,transport accidents involving packages containing radioactive material have occurred and will occur at any time. Whenever a transport accident involving radioactive material accurs, and many will pose no radiation safety problems, emergency respnose actioms are meeded to ensure that radiation safety is maintained. In case of transport accident that result in a significant relesae of radioactive material , loss of shielding or loss of criticality control , that consequences should be controlled or mitigated by proper emergency response actions safety guide, Emergency Response Plamming and Prepardness for transport accidents involving radioactive material, was published by IAEA. This guide reflected all requirememts of IAEA, regulations for safe transport of radioactive material this guide provide guidance to the publicauthorites and other interested organziation who are responsible for establishing such emergency arrangements

  15. Medical Planning and Care in Radiation Accidents

    As part of a broad effort intended to mitigate the consequences of radiation accidents, the United States Atomic Energy Commission has developed a program to train physicians and to orient hospital staffs in the treatment of accident victims. Seminars have been conducted to date for approximately 120 physicians on medical planning and care in radiation accidents. This paper presents the scope and specific topics covered in the seminars, together with an analysis of. experience gained during development and presentation of the seminars. More recently the program has been expanded to encompass orientation of hospital administrators and other para-medical personnel on the handling and admittance of victims of radiation accidents. The latter problem is the subject of a new color film premiered at the Symposium. (author)

  16. Review of models applicable to accident aerosols

    Estimations of potential airborne-particle releases are essential in safety assessments of nuclear-fuel facilities. This report is a review of aerosol behavior models that have potential applications for predicting aerosol characteristics in compartments containing accident-generated aerosol sources. Such characterization of the accident-generated aerosols is a necessary step toward estimating their eventual release in any accident scenario. Existing aerosol models can predict the size distribution, concentration, and composition of aerosols as they are acted on by ventilation, diffusion, gravity, coagulation, and other phenomena. Models developed in the fields of fluid mechanics, indoor air pollution, and nuclear-reactor accidents are reviewed with this nuclear fuel facility application in mind. The various capabilities of modeling aerosol behavior are tabulated and discussed, and recommendations are made for applying the models to problems of differing complexity

  17. Criticality accident in Argentina

    A recent criticality type accident, ocurred in Argetina, is commented. Considerations about the nature of the facility where this accident took place, its genesis, type of operation carried out on the day of the event, and the medical aspects involved are done. (Author)

  18. Chernobyl accident and Danmark

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  19. Radiation accidents in hospitals

    Some of the radiation accidents that have occurred in Indian hospitals and causes that led to them are reviewed. Proper organization of radiation safety minimizes such accidents. It has been pointed out that there must be technical competence and mental preparedness to tackle emergencies when they do infrequently occur. (M.G.B.)

  20. Communication and industrial accidents

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the conc

  1. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  2. Accidents with orphan sources

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has specifically defined statutory functions relating to the development of standards of safety and the provision for their application. It also has responsibilities placed on it by virtue of a number of Conventions, two of which are relevant to nuclear accidents or radiological emergencies - the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. An overview of the way in which these functions are being applied to prevent and respond to radiological accidents, particularly those involving orphan sources, is described in this paper. Summaries of a number of such accidents and of the Agency's Action Plan relating to the safety and security of radiation sources are given. (orig.)

  3. JCO criticality accident as POST-LOCA: Poor structure induced loss of organizational control accident

    Some problems in operation and business management of JCO (Japan Nuclear Fuel Conversion Co.) have been studied as background factors of the criticality accident. Open information about business conditions of JCO suggests that the cause of the accident is not so simple as to be attributed only to economic pressure, but includes immanent problems in JCO. We investigate the problems from five viewpoints, organization of safety management, system of operation management, activities for business improvement, risk awareness, and restructuring of business, and discuss the effects and causality of background factors as well as remedies for them. (author)

  4. Accident analysis and DOE criteria

    In analyzing the radiological consequences of major accidents at DOE facilities one finds that many facilities fall so far below the limits of DOE Order 6430 that compliance is easily demonstrated by simple analysis. For those cases where the amount of radioactive material and the dispersive energy available are enough for accident consequences to approach the limits, the models and assumptions used become critical. In some cases the models themselves are the difference between meeting the criteria or not meeting them. Further, in one case, we found that not only did the selection of models determine compliance but the selection of applicable criteria from different chapters of Order 6430 also made the difference. DOE has recognized the problem of different criteria in different chapters applying to one facility, and has proceeded to make changes for the sake of consistency. We have proposed to outline the specific steps needed in an accident analysis and suggest appropriate models, parameters, and assumptions. As a result we feed DOE siting and design criteria will be more fairly and consistently applied

  5. Accident report 1975/76

    The statistics previously published on the development of accidents were completed. It is the purpose of this accident report: 1) to present a survey of the development of the number of accidents (no radiation accidents) for the years 1960 - 1976, 2) to break down the accidents by different characteristics in order to be able to recognize the preventive measures to be taken so as to avoid further accidents, 3) to report about accidents experienced and to indicate activities performed with respect to accident prevention and health protection. (orig.)

  6. Reporter at large: Three Mile Island. I. Class nine accident

    A thorough discussion is presented of the background to the March 28, 1979 accident at Three Mile Island-2 Reactor. Among the factors involved in the accident include improper maintenance, sloppy operating and testing procedures, valve problems, written procedures instead of built-in design features to prevent human errors, reliance on the utilities to write these procedures, etc

  7. NASA's Accident Precursor Analysis Process and the International Space Station

    Groen, Frank; Lutomski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the implementation of Accident Precursor Analysis (APA), as well as the evaluation of In-Flight Investigations (IFI) and Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) data for the identification of unrecognized accident potentials on the International Space Station.

  8. Plutonium in the environment - bibliographic study and quantification; Impacts environnemental et sanitaire des isotopes du plutonium, etude bibliographique et quantification

    Guetat, Ph.; Monfort, M.; Ansoborlo, E. [CEA Marcoule, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, 30 (France); Bion, L.; Moulin, V.; Reiller, P.; Vercouter, Th. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Boucher, L.; Jourdain, F.; Van Dorpe, F. [CEA Cadarache, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Comte, A.; Flury Heard, A.; Fritsch, P.; Menetrier, F. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dir. des Sciences du Vivant, 92 (France)

    2008-07-01

    This document deals with the different isotopes of plutonium. It intends to summarize the main features of plutonium behaviour from sources inside installation to the environment and man, and is expected to report the current knowledge about the different parameters used in the models for environmental and radiological impact assessment. The objective is to gather scientific information useful for deciders in case of accident or for regulation purposes. It gives main information on radiological and chemical characteristics which are necessary to understand transfers between compartments. Then it reports information on normal and accidental historical sources and present releases. The next part deals with transfer parameters in the installations and in environment. Parameters that influence its behaviour are examined, inside installations (physico-chemical forms and events that lead to releases), and outside in the environment for deposition to soils and transfer to plants, and animal products. A full chapter is dedicated to presentation of typical assessments, for each isotope and for mixture, and correspondence between activity, mass and dose reference levels are presented and discussed. Transfer and behaviour in man and effects on health are finally presented. (author)

  9. Database on aircraft accidents

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating

  10. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. PMID:20618386

  11. Management of severe accidents

    The definition and the multidimensionality aspects of accident management have been reviewed. The suggested elements in the development of a programme for severe accident management have been identified and discussed. The strategies concentrate on the two tiered approaches. Operative management utilizes the plant's equipment and operators capabilities. The recovery managment concevtrates on preserving the containment, or delaying its failure, inhibiting the release, and on strategies once there has been a release. The inspiration for this paper was an excellent overview report on perspectives on managing severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants and extending plant operating procedures into the severe accident regime; and by the most recent publication of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) considering the question of risk reduction and source term reduction through accident prevention, management and mitigation. The latter document concludes that 'active development of accident management measures by plant personnel can lead to very large reductions in source terms and risk', and goes further in considering and formulating the key issue: 'The most fruitful path to follow in reducing risk even further is through the planning of accident management.' (author)

  12. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  13. Accidents, risks and consequences

    Although the accident at Chernobyl can be considered as the worst accident in the world, it could have been worse. Other far worse situations are considered, such as a nuclear weapon hitting a nuclear reactor. Indeed the accident at Chernobyl is compared to a nuclear weapon. The consequences of Chernobyl in terms of radiation levels are discussed. Although it is believed that a similar accident could not occur in the United Kingdom, that possibility is considered. It is suggested that emergency plans should be made for just such an eventuality. Even if Chernobyl could not happen in the UK, the effects of accidents are international. The way in which nuclear reactor accidents happen is explored, taking the 1957 Windscale fire, Three Mile Island and Chernobyl as examples. Reactor designs and accident scenarios are considered. The different reactor designs are listed. As well as the Chernobyl RBMK design it is suggested that the light water reactors also have undesirable features from the point of view of safety. (U.K.)

  14. Proposal optimization in nuclear accident emergency decision based on IAHP

    On the basis of establishing the multi-layer structure of nuclear accident emergency decision, several decision objectives are synthetically analyzed, and an optimization model of decision proposals for nuclear accident emergency based on interval analytic hierarchy process is proposed in the paper. The model makes comparisons among several emergency decision proposals quantified, and the optimum proposal is selected out, which solved the uncertain and fuzzy decision problem of judgments by experts' experiences in nuclear accidents emergency decision. Case study shows that the optimization result is much more reasonable, objective and reliable than subjective judgments, and it could be decision references for nuclear accident emergency. (authors)

  15. Road accidents as causes of injuries of adults

    Goniewicz, Mariusz; Marciniak-Niemcewicz, Anna; Rzońca, Patryk; Goniewicz, Krzysztof; Pawłowski, Witold

    2010-01-01

    Road accidents are a serious problem of the modern world. They are one of the main causes of injuries and are the third most numerous cause of death. Every year, about one million people, adults and children, die on the roads and several millions are injured. Mor-tality rate due to injuries from road accidents amounts to 2,2% of all deaths in the world. The research presents a mechanism of traffic accidents, pathophysiology of injury, partition of car accidents and characterized the insults o...

  16. Assessment of light water reactor accident management programs and experience

    The objective of this report is to provide an assessment of the current light water reactor experience regarding accident management programs and associated technology developments. This assessment for light water reactor (LWR) designs is provided as a resource and reference for the development of accident management capabilities for the production reactors at the Savannah River Site. The specific objectives of this assessment are as follows: 1. Perform a review of the NRC, utility, and industry (NUMARC, EPRI) accident management programs and implementation experience. 2. Provide an assessment of the problems and opportunities in developing an accident management program in conjunction or following the Individual Plant Examination process. 3. Review current NRC, utility, and industry technological developments in the areas of computational tools, severe accident predictive tools, diagnostic aids, and severe accident training and simulation

  17. Assessment of light water reactor accident management programs and experience

    Hammersley, R.J. [Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (United States)

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this report is to provide an assessment of the current light water reactor experience regarding accident management programs and associated technology developments. This assessment for light water reactor (LWR) designs is provided as a resource and reference for the development of accident management capabilities for the production reactors at the Savannah River Site. The specific objectives of this assessment are as follows: 1. Perform a review of the NRC, utility, and industry (NUMARC, EPRI) accident management programs and implementation experience. 2. Provide an assessment of the problems and opportunities in developing an accident management program in conjunction or following the Individual Plant Examination process. 3. Review current NRC, utility, and industry technological developments in the areas of computational tools, severe accident predictive tools, diagnostic aids, and severe accident training and simulation.

  18. On the weighting of accident probabilities for evident emotive factors

    Problems in risk management of the additive property of; accident risk costs, the special case of the infrequent disaster, and the correct amount to spend on accident prevention, are considered. The need for weighting by additional emotive factors is discussed. Such factors here considered are; the scale factor relating to the number of people who as a result of the accident are killed, the age factor which takes into account the novelty of the situation against the background of common human experience, and the comprehension factor which is a weighting associated with the extent to which the 'man in the street' may be expected to understand the mechanism of the accident. A table shows how these factors combine for a set of accident scenarios including radioactive spills and a loss of coolant reactor accident. (U.K.)

  19. Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident

    It summarizes the consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident, describes the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, the measurement strategies, the activity levels and doses and countermeasures and action levels used. Past and remaining problems are discussed and the major investigations and improvements are given. (author)

  20. Soviet submarine accidents

    Although the Soviet Union has more submarines than the NATO navies combined, and the technological superiority of western submarines is diminishing, there is evidence that there are more accidents with Soviet submarines than with western submarine fleets. Whether this is due to inadequate crews or lower standards of maintenance and overhaul procedures is discussed. In particular, it is suggested that since the introduction of nuclear powered submarines, the Soviet submarine safety record has deteriorated. Information on Soviet submarine accidents is difficult to come by, but a list of some 23 accidents, mostly in nuclear submarines, between 1966 and 1986, has been compiled. The approximate date, class or type of submarine, the nature and location of the accident, the casualties and damage and the source of information are tabulated. (U.K.)

  1. Accident resistant transport container

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  2. Boating Accident Statistics

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  3. Talking about accidents

    It is argued that the public's emotional fear of the hypothetical, very unlikely, gigantic nuclear accident is partly caused by the nuclear industry's incorrect use of language within its own professional discussions. Improved terminology is suggested. (U.K.)

  4. FATAL ACCIDENT REPORTING SYSTEM (FARS)

    The Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) database consist of three relational tables, containing data on automobile accidents on public U.S. roads that resulted in the death of one or more people within 30 days of the accident. Truck and trailer accidents are also included.

  5. The Chernobyl accident

    In connection with the Chernobyl accident the report gives a description of the technical features of importance to the accident, the course of events, and the estimated health hazards in the local environment. Dissimilarities in western and Sovjet reactor safety philosophy are dealt with, as well as conceivable concequences in relation to technology and research in western nuclear power programmes. Results of activity level measurements of air and foodstuff, made in Norway by Institute for Energy Technology, are given

  6. Accident and emergency management

    There is an increasing potential for severe accidents as the industrial development tends towards large, centralised production units. In several industries this has led to the formation of large organisations which are prepared for accidents fighting and for emergency management. The functioning of these organisations critically depends upon efficient decision making and exchange of information. This project is aimed at securing and possibly improving the functionality and efficiency of the accident and emergency management by verifying, demonstrating, and validating the possible use of advanced information technology in the organisations mentioned above. With the nuclear industry in focus the project consists of five main activities: 1) The study and detailed analysis of accident and emergency scenarios based on records from incidents and rills in nuclear installations. 2) Development of a conceptual understanding of accident and emergency management with emphasis on distributed decision making, information flow, and control structure sthat are involved. 3) Development of a general experimental methodology for evaluating the effects of different kinds of decision aids and forms of organisation for emergency management systems with distributed decision making. 4) Development and test of a prototype system for a limited part of an accident and emergency organisation to demonstrate the potential use of computer and communication systems, data-base and knowledge base technology, and applications of expert systems and methods used in artificial intelligence. 5) Production of guidelines for the introduction of advanced information technology in the organisations based on evaluation and validation of the prototype system. (author)

  7. Accident management information needs

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Accident Tolerant Fuel Analysis

    Curtis Smith; Heather Chichester; Jesse Johns; Melissa Teague; Michael Tonks; Robert Youngblood

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional “accident-tolerant” (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  9. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather [Idaho National Laboratory; Johns, Jesse [Texas A& M University; Teague, Melissa [Idaho National Laboratory; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant

  10. Exploring Environmental Effects of Accidents During Marine Transport of Dangerous Goods by Use of Accident Descriptions

    Rømer, Hans Gottberg; Haastrup, P.; Petersen, H J Styhr

    1996-01-01

    On the basis of 1776 descriptions of water transport accidents involving dangerous goods, environmental problems in connection with releases of this kind are described and discussed. It was found that most detailed descriptions of environmental consequences concerned oil accidents, although most of...... the consequences were described as reversible changes. It was shown that crude oil releases, on average, are approximately five times larger than releases of oil products and that oil product releases are approximately five times larger than other chemicals. Only 2% of the 1776 accidents described...... contained information on consequences to living organisms, and only 10% contained any information on consequences to ecosystems. A relationship was found between the minimum kilometers of shore polluted and the tonnes released in the case of shore pollution from oil accidents. Oil slicks were shown to be...

  11. Historical aspects of radiation accidents

    Radiation accidents are extremely rare events; however, the last two years have witnessed the largest radiation accidents in both the eastern and western hemispheres. It is the purpose of this chapter to review how radiation accidents are categorized, examine the temporal changes in frequency and severity, give illustrative examples of several types of radiation accidents, and finally, to describe the various registries for radiation accidents

  12. Cyclical Fluctuations in Workplace Accidents

    Boone, J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    This Paper presents a theory and an empirical investigation on cyclical fluctuations in workplace accidents. The theory is based on the idea that reporting an accident dents the reputation of a worker and raises the probability that he is fired. Therefore a country with a high or an increasing unemployment rate has a low (reported) workplace accident rate. The empirical investigation concerns workplace accidents in OECD countries. The analysis confirms that workplace accident rates are invers...

  13. Accident Safety Design for High Speed Elevator

    Tawiwat Veeraklaew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been many elevators exist in buildings for such a long time; however, an accident might happen as a free fall due to lacks of maintenance or some other accident such as firing. Although this situation is rarely occurred, many people are still concerned about it. The question here is how to make passengers to feel safe and confident when they are using an elevator, especially, high speed elevator. This problem is studied here in this paper as a free fall spring-mass-damper system with the stiffness and damping coefficient can be computed as minimum jerk of the system with given constraints on trajectories.

  14. Medical aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    From 11 to 13 May 1988, the All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine convened a Conference on Medical Aspects of the Chernobyl Accident in Kiev. This was the first conference on this subject with international participation held in the Soviet Union. There were 310 specialists representing Soviet scientific establishments and over 60 experts from 23 other countries and international organizations participated in the Conference. Participants at the Conference discussed medical aspects of accident mitigation, including therapeutic, psychological, demographic, epidemiological and dosimetric problems. These proceedings include 29 reports presented by Soviet scientists during the four sessions as well as summaries of discussions and opening addresses. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. The bismuth burden - a challenge for the accident insurance (Berufsgenossenschaften)

    The Soviet-German Bismuth AG was a state within a state in the former GDR. Uranium mining not only caused great ecological burdens but also gave rise to many problems for the accident insurance. Occupational diseases are of course, very important in the context of malignous growth caused by ionised radiation. The accident insurances (Berufsgenossenschaften) recognised the size of this unique problem and have initiated measures towards its solution. (orig.)

  16. [Psychogenesis of accidents].

    Giannattasio, E; Nencini, R; Nicolosi, N

    1988-01-01

    After having carried out a historical review of industrial psychology with specific attention to the evolution of the concept of causality in accidents, the Authors formulate their work hypothesis from that research which take into highest consideration the executives' attitudes in the genesis of the accidents. As dogmatism appears to be one of the most negative of executives' attitudes, the Authors administered Rockeach's Scale to 130 intermediate executives from 6 industries in Latium and observed the frequency index for accidents and the morbidity index (absenteeism) of the 2149 workhand. The Authors assumed that to high degree of dogmatism on the executives' side should correspond o a higher level of accidents and absenteeism among the staff. The data processing revealed that, due to the type of machinery employed, three of the industries examined should be considered as High Risk Industrie (HRI), while the remaining three could be considered as Low Risk Industries (LRI): in fact, due to the different working conditions, a significant lower number of accidents occurred in last the three. A statistically significant correlation between the executives' dogmatism and the number of accidents among their workhand in the HRI has been noticed, while this has not been observed in the LRI. This confirms, as had already been pointed out by Gemelli in 1944, that some "objective conditions" are requested so that the accident may actually take place. On the other hand the morbidity index has not shown any difference related to the different kind of industries (HRI, LRI): in both cases statistically significant correlations were obtained between the executives' dogmatism and the staff's absenteeism. absenteeism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3154344

  17. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  18. Accidents in nuclear ships

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10-3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  19. Scoping accident(s) for emergency planning

    At the request of the Conference of State Radiation Control Program Director's (CRCPD), in November 1976 the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission formed a joint Task Force with representatives of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to answer a number of questions posed by the States regarding emergency planning. This Task Force held monthly meetings through November 1977. In December 1977 a draft report was prepared for limited distribution for review and comment by selected State and local organizations. The NRC/EPA Task Force deliberations centered on the CRCPD request for '... a determination of the most severe accident basis for which radiological emergency response plans should be developed by offsite agencies...' in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. Federal Interagency guidance to the States in this regard has been that the scoping accident should be the most serious conservatively analyzed accident considered for siting purposes, as exemplified in the Commission's Regulations at 10 CFR Part 100 and the NRC staffs Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4, and as presented in license applicant's Safety Analysis Reports and the USNRC Staffs Safety Evaluation Reports. The draft report of the Task Force amplifies on this recommendation: to present a clearer picture of its import and introduces the concept of protective action zones (PAZs) within which detailed emergency plans should be developed; one zone for the plume exposure pathway and a second, larger zone for contamination pathways. The time dependence of potential releases and atmospheric transport, and important radionuclide groups of possible import are also discussed in the draft Task Force report. A status report regarding this effort, as of June 1978, will be presented. (author)

  20. Health consequences [of the Chernobyl accident

    The World Health Organisation Conference on the Health Consequences of the Chernobyl and Other Radiological Accidents, held in Geneva last November, is reported. The lack of representation from the civil nuclear industry led often to one-sided debates instigated by the anti-nuclear lobbies present. Thyroid cancer in children as a result of the Chernobyl accident received particular attention. In Belarus, 400 cases have been noted, 220 in Ukraine and 60 in the Russian Federation. All have been treated with a high degree of success. The incidence of this cancer would be expected to follow the fallout path as the main exposure route was ingestion of contaminated foods and milk products. It was noted that the only way to confirm causality was if those children born since the accident failed to show the same increased incidence. Explanations were offered for the particular susceptibility of children to thyroid cancer following exposure to radiation. Another significant cause of concern was the health consequences to clean-up workers in radiological accidents. The main factor is psychological problems from the stress of knowing that they have received high radiation doses. A dramatic increase in psychological disorders has occurred in the Ukraine over the past ten years and this is attributed to stress generated by the Chernobyl accident, compounded by the inadequacy of the public advice offered at the time and the socio-economic uncertainties accompanying the breakup of the former USSR. (UK)

  1. Application of FFTBM to severe accidents

    In Europe an initiative for the reduction of uncertainties in severe accident safety issues was initiated. Generally, the error made in predicting plant behaviour is called uncertainty, while the discrepancies between measured and calculated trends related to experimental facilities are called the accuracy of the prediction. The purpose of the work is to assess the accuracy of the calculations of the severe accident International Standard Problem ISP-46 (Phebus FPT1), performed with two versions of MELCOR 1.8.5 for validation purposes. For the quantitative assessment of calculations the improved fast Fourier transform based method (FFTBM) was used with the capability to calculate time dependent code accuracy. In addition, a new measure for the indication of the time shift between the experimental and the calculated signal was proposed. The quantitative results obtained with FFTBM confirm the qualitative conclusions made during the Jozef Stefan Institute participation in ISP-46. In general good agreement of thermal-hydraulic variables and satisfactory agreement of total releases for most radionuclide classes was obtained. The quantitative FFTBM results showed that for the Phebus FPT1 severe accident experiment the accuracy of thermal-hydraulic variables calculated with the MELCOR severe accident code is close to the accuracy of thermal-hydraulic variables for design basis accident experiments calculated with best-estimate system codes. (author)

  2. INCIDENCE DE L'ETAT SANITAIRE DES ARBRES DU CHENE-LIEGE SUR LES ACCROISSEMENTS ANNUELS ET LA QUALITE DU LIEGE DE DEUX SUBERAIES ORANAISES : M'SILA (W.ORAN) ET ZARIEFFET (W.TLEMCEN)

    DEHANE, Belkhir

    2012-01-01

    L'impact de l'état sanitaire des arbres de chêne liège sur les accroissements annuels et la qualité du liège a été estimé dans deux forêts domaniales de l'ouest algérien (M'sila et Zarieffet), durant 4 ans (2006-2009). L'évaluation annuelle du déficit foliaire (synthèse de 10 ans) à l'échelle des peuplements des 9 parcelles d'étude et les 240 arbres échantillons, converge les deux forêts vers un début dépérissement (1,60

  3. Relation entre le capital humain des maraîchers urbains et leurs comportements de prévention des risques sanitaires sur les sites de culture à Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)

    Adiko, Francis A.; Matthys, Barbara; Cissé, Guéladio; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

    2010-01-01

    Le capital humain des maraîchers urbains d’Abidjan influence leur prévention des risques sanitaires liés à l’utilisation abusive des pesticides et des eaux usées, et à l’intensité du travail de maraîchage en milieu urbain. Mais, les effets positifs de la scolarisation et de l’expérience professionnelle sur la santé sont assujettis par les exigences et les contraintes de l’activité agricole, et particulièrement du maraîchage urbain, de sorte qu’ils ne sont perçus chez les maraîchers à conditio...

  4. Problems and peculiarities of medical service of the liquidators of the Bryansk Region, who were engaged in the clean-up after the Chernobyl accident in 1986-1987

    Investigation of the radiological effects of the Chernobyl accident's consequences among the liquidators engaged in the clean-up in 1986-1987, represents, from our point of view, special interest. It is associated with the fact of multiply received high radiation doses as well as by the following radiological consequences, related to particular radiocontamination over the Bryansk region. This paper contains data analyses of medical, dosimetric, demographic and other health status characteristics of this group of liquidators during recent years

  5. Important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident

    After the Fukushima accident several investigation committees issued reports with lessons learned from the accident in Japan. Among those lessons, several recommendations have been made on severe accident research. Similar to the EURSAFE efforts under EU Program, review of specific severe accident research items was started before Fukushima accident in working group of Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) in terms of significance of consequences, uncertainties of phenomena and maturity of assessment methodology. Re-investigation has been started since the Fukushima accident. Additional effects of Fukushima accident, such as core degradation behaviors, sea water injection, containment failure/leakage and re-criticality have been covered. The review results are categorized in ten major fields; core degradation behavior, core melt coolability/retention in containment vessel, function of containment vessel, source term, hydrogen behavior, fuel-coolant interaction, molten core concrete interaction, direct containment heating, recriticality and instrumentation in severe accident conditions. Based on these activities and also author's personal view, the present paper describes the perspective of important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident. Those are specifically investigation of damaged core and components, advanced severe accident analysis capabilities and associated experimental investigations, development of reliable passive cooling system for core/containment, analysis of hydrogen behavior and investigation of hydrogen measures, enhancement of removal function of radioactive materials of containment venting, advanced instrumentation for the diagnosis of severe accident and assessment of advanced containment design which excludes long-term evacuation in any severe accident situations. (author)

  6. Helicopter accident survivability.

    Vyrnwy-Jones, P; Thornton, R

    1984-10-01

    Army Air Corps accident and fatality rates have now reached levels which compare favourably with data from other civilian and military sources. This improvement is the result of enhanced helicopter design and parallel progress in aircrew training. The introduction of new generations of turbine powered rotor craft has largely eliminated mechanical failure as the cause of accident. As a result 75% of Army Air Corps accidents are due to pilot error. This contribution is likely to increase in the future as the pilot's task is made more difficult by the incumberance of personal equipment. Methods whereby occupant protection and aircraft crashworthiness can be improved are reviewed and it is concluded that it would make sound economic sense to implement some of these well proven design features. PMID:6527344

  7. Information at radiation accidents

    This study was undertaken in order to plan an information strategy for possible future accidents involving radioactivity. Six health visitors and six farmers working in the districts of Norway which received the largest amounts of fallout from the Chernobyl accident, were interviewed. The questions were intended to give an indication of their knowledge about radioactivity and radiation, as well as their needs for information in case of a future accident. The results indicate a relatively low educational background in radiation physics and risk estimation. On the other hand the two groups showed a remarkable skill and interest in doing their own evaluation on the background of information that was linked to their daily life. It is suggested that planning of information in this field is done in close cooperation with the potential users of the information

  8. Big nuclear accidents

    Much of the debate on the safety of nuclear power focuses on the large number of fatalities that could, in theory, be caused by extremely unlikely but imaginable reactor accidents. This, along with the nuclear industry's inappropriate use of vocabulary during public debate, has given the general public a distorted impression of the safety of nuclear power. The way in which the probability and consequences of big nuclear accidents have been presented in the past is reviewed and recommendations for the future are made including the presentation of the long-term consequences of such accidents in terms of 'reduction in life expectancy', 'increased chance of fatal cancer' and the equivalent pattern of compulsory cigarette smoking. (author)

  9. The management of accidents

    R. B. Ward

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This author’s experiences in investigating well over a hundred accident occurrences has led to questioning how such events can be managed - - - while immediately recognising that the idea of managing accidents is an oxymoron, we don’t want to manage them, we don’t want not to manage them, what we desire is not to have to manage not-them, that is, manage matters so they don’t happen and then we don’t have to manage the consequences.Design/methodology/approach: The research will begin by defining some common classes of accidents in manufacturing industry, with examples taken from cases investigated, and by working backwards (too late, of course show how those involved could have managed these sample events so they didn’t happen, finishing with the question whether any of that can be applied to other situations.Findings: As shown that the management actions needed to prevent accidents are control of design and application of technology, and control and integration of people.Research limitations/implications: This paper has shown in some of the examples provided, management actions have been know to lead to accidents being committed by others, lower in the organization.Originality/value: Today’s management activities involve, generally, the use of technology in many forms, varying from simple tools (such as knives to the use of heavy equipment, electric power, and explosives. Against these we commit, in control of those items, the comparatively frail human mind and body, which, again generally, does succeed in controlling these resources, with (another generality by appropriate management. However, sometimes the control slips and an accident occurs.

  10. Mortal radiological accident

    After defining the concept of 'Radiological accident', statistical data from Radiation Emergency Assistance Center of ORNL (United States of America) are given about the deaths caused by acute irradiation between 1944 and April 24, 1986 -ie, the day before Chernobyl nuclear accident- as well as on the number of deaths caused by the latter. Next the different clinical stages of the Acute Irradiation Syndrome (AIS) as well as its possible treatment are described, and finally the different physical, clinical and biological characteristics linked to the AIS and to its diagnosis and prognosis are discussed. (M.E.L.)

  11. The TMI-2 accident

    A critical study about the technical and man-related facts in order to establish what is considered the worst commercial nuclear power accident until 1986. Radiological consequences and stress to the public are considered in contrast to antinuclear groups. This descriptive and technical study has the purpose to document written and oral opinions obtained abroad and then explain to the public in an easy language terminology. Preliminary study describing safety related systems fails and the accident itself with minute to minute description, conduct to the consequences and then, to learned lessons

  12. The Tokay-Mura accident

    On the 30. september 1999 occurred a criticality accident in the fuel fabrication plant of Tokai-Mura in Japan. 49 persons were irradiated but we present the case of the most seriously injured three workers. The radiation doses that would have been received by the three operators near the incriminated container have been evaluated to 17, 10 and 3 Grays. For the operators situated at five meters from the container and that has received three Grays, the first peak of criticality has been estimated at 2.1017 fissions. The number of fissions posterior to the first peak has been estimated between 4.1017 and 5.1018. In the three cases, the dose received by the organism has been attributed for about 40% to the neutrons and 60% to gamma radiations. The first operator presented an initial intense phase of acute irradiation syndrome. He received a graft of hematopoietic cells given by a sister of him on the sixth day, he was still alive 29 days later during the visit of the Commission, but he was in a coma and died shortly afterwards. The second victim has been equally reached by an acute irradiation syndrome, accompanied by a severe myeloid depression. At the ninth day, he received a blood graft coming from umbilical cord. He recovered a part of his own marrow, platelets excepted. He suffers from intense pains. A survival chance exists. The third victim was in an adjoining room, at about five meters far from the accident. He has been reached, but in a lower extent, by the acute irradiation syndrome and a low myeloid depression, that has decreased after a growth factors treatment. The prognosis is optimist in his case. The fact that patients have survived for the first time such a long time has revealed a very particular pathology of neutrons-gamma mixed irradiation, with an appearance of new medical problems due to the multiple failure of organs. To notice, the week before the accident, stood at Paris the 6. International conference devoted to the control of criticality

  13. Statistical modelling of the frequency and severity of road accidents

    Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær

    reporting traffic accidents. The second questionnaire was administered to stakeholders in the transportation field and was made to detect strengths, threats and opportunities for reporting traffic accidents within the police. This Ph.D. study contributes significantly to the literature about under......Under-reporting of traffic accidents is a well-discussed subject in traffic safety and it is well-known that the degree of under-reporting of traffic accidents is quite high in many countries. Nevertheless, very little literature has been made to investigate what causes the high degree of under......-reporting. The problem of under-reporting is not unique for traffic accidents as severe under-reporting is a challenge in many other fields of incident reporting. In other incidents fields with intended or unintended harm, research has investigated the behavioural reasons for why people choose to report an...

  14. Electricity-caused deathly accidents in households and their misinterpretation

    Erkrath, K.D.; Weiler, G.

    1982-12-17

    In this report results are presented which indicate the problems which are connected with the primary diagnosis and to which the emergency physician finds himself confronted. Comparable with a wrong diagnosis in the case of a fatal CO intoxication, the source of danger remains also in case of an undetected fatal accidents due to electricity which occured in the household, and consequently the physician might one day be accused of manslaughter caused by criminal negligence, if another fatal accident occurs. This article gives five selected examples which shall help the emergency physician and the coroner to consider the death due to electric shock as a possible cause of death when a fatal accident occurs in a household. Between 1974 and 1981 autopsy was made in 40 persons, who had died in accidents due to electric shock, in the Institut fuer Rechtsmedizin des Universitaetsklinikums Essen. Of these cases 26 were identified as accidents which had occurred in the household.

  15. The Chernobyl accident - impact on Western Europe

    The implications of the Chernobyl accident are outlined. For the USSR, 135,000 people had to be moved. Farming in these regions will cause difficult problems in the future. The contamination of 131I caused great problems in Western Europe the first month after the accident. The excess dose the first year after the accident was generally below 2 mSv. Over a 50-year period an increase over background of less than 1% is predicted. It is not possible to state if this irradiation has any health impact. Great problems were caused for the population in northern Scandinavia because of the reliance on reindeer breeding, hunting and fishing. Very few Lapps will, however, reach an effective dose equivalent of 5 mSv during 1986/1987. This is less than the natural background effective dose equivalent during a year for the average Swede. Therefore, the greatest problem seems to be the difficulty for the Lapps to sell their reindeer meat and lake fish. 40 refs.; 2 figs.; 11 tabs

  16. Description of the accident

    The TMI-2 accident occurred in March 1979. The accident started with a simple and fairly common steam power plant failure--loss of feedwater to the steam generators. Because of a combination of design, training, regulatory policies, mechanical failures and human error, the accident progressed to the point where it eventually produced the worst known core damage in large nuclear power reactors. Core temperatures locally reached UO2 fuel liquefaction (metallic solution with Zr) and even fuel melt (3800-51000F). Extensive fission product release and Zircaloy cladding oxidation and embrittlement occurred. At least the upper 1/2 of the core fractured and crumbled upon quenching. The lower central portion of the core apparently had a delayed heatup and then portions of it collapsed into the reactor vessel lower head. The lower outer portion of the core may be relatively undamaged. Outside of the core boundary, only those steel components directly above and adjacent to the core (≤1 foot) are known to have suffered significant damage (localized oxidation and melting). Other portions of the primary system outside of the reactor vessel apparently had little chance of damage or even notable overheating. The demonstrated coolability of the severely damaged TMI-2 core, once adequate water injection began, was one of the most substantial and important results of the TMI-2 accident

  17. Measures against nuclear accidents

    A select committee appointed by the Norwegian Ministry of Social Affairs put forward proposals concerning measures for the improvement of radiation protection preparedness in Norway. On the basis on an assessment of the potential radiation accident threat, the report examines the process of response, and identifies the organizational and management factors that influence that process

  18. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP)

  19. Pattern Recognition and Classification of Fatal Traffic Accidents in Israel A Neural Network Approach

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    : (1) single-vehicle accidents of young drivers, (2) multiple-vehicle accidents between young drivers, (3) accidents involving motorcyclists or cyclists, (4) accidents where elderly pedestrians crossed in urban areas, and (5) accidents where children and teenagers cross major roads in small urban areas......This article provides a broad picture of fatal traffic accidents in Israel to answer an increasing need of addressing compelling problems, designing preventive measures, and targeting specific population groups with the objective of reducing the number of traffic fatalities. The analysis focuses on...... 1,793 fatal traffic accidents occurred during the period between 2003 and 2006 and applies Kohonen and feed-forward back-propagation neural networks with the objective of extracting from the data typical patterns and relevant factors. Kohonen neural networks reveal five compelling accident patterns...

  20. Lessons learned from accident investigations

    Accidents in three main practices - medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators - are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned from them. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the accidents described are approached bearing in mind: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  1. Lessons learned from accidents investigations

    Accidents from three main practices: medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the described accidents are approached by subjects covering: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  2. Road Traffic Accidents in Kazakhstan

    Alma Aubakirova; Alibek Kossumov; Nurbek Igissinov

    2013-01-01

    Background: The article provides the analysis of death rates in road traffic accidents in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2010 and explores the use of sanitary aviation. Methods: Data of fatalities caused by road traffic accidents were collected and analysed. Descriptive and analytical methods of epidemiology and biomedical statistics were applied. Results: Totaly 27,003 people died as a result of road traffic accidents in this period. The death rate for the total population due to road traffic accid...

  3. The Chernobyl accident

    The accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the most severe in the nuclear industry. The accident caused the rapid death of 31 power plant employees and firemen, mainly from acute radiation exposures and burns, and brought about the evacuation of 116,000 people within a few weeks. In addition, about half a million workers and four million members of the public have been exposed, to some extent, to radiation doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident. A large number of radiation measurements have been made since the accident in order to reconstruct the doses received by the most exposed populations. On the basis of currently available information, it appears that: (1) average doses received by clean-up workers from external irradiation decreased with time, being about 300 mGy for the persons who worked in the first three months after the accident, about 170 mGy for the remainder of 1986, 130 mGy in 1987, 30 mGy in 1988, and 15 mGy in 1989; (2) the evacuees received, before evacuation, effective doses averaging 11 mSv for the population of Pripyat, and 18 mSv for the remainder of the population of the 30 km zone, with maximum effective doses ranging up to 380 mSv; and (3) among the populations living in contaminated areas, the highest doses were those delivered to the thyroids of children. Thyroid doses derived from thyroid measurements among Belarussian and Ukrainian children indicate median thyroid doses of about 300 mGy, and more than 1% of the children with thyroid doses in excess of 5000 mGy. A description is provided of the epidemiological studies that the National Cancer Institute has, since 1990, at the request of the Department of Energy, endeavoured to undertake, in cooperation with Belarus and Ukraine, on two possible health effects resulting from the Chernobyl accident: (1, thyroid cancer in children living in contaminated areas during the first few weeks following the accident, and (2) leukaemia among workers involved in clean

  4. 高校学生顶岗实习工伤事故的法律责任问题探析%Analysis on Law Responsibility Problems of Internship Industrial Accident of University Students

    胡湘荣

    2012-01-01

    That college students' personal injury accidents which occurs in internship work should be taken charge by whom is not determined, the main reason is that the special identity of the student is difficult to locate accurately. In judicial practice, most of them adopt "what students say", therefore, such industrial accidents do not suit to the labor law of Labor Law, Labor Con- tract Law and Regulations on Work Injury Insurance. In present General Principles of Civil Law and other laws and regulations, there are no specific requirements. Reasonable solution to the responsibility of such accidents at work, "what employees say" fit to current actual situation. The national legislative branch should complement and improve the relevant provisions of labor laws and regulations, clearly stipulate the internship work in personal injury accident liability assumed by the practice unit when the court accepts such cases, it should compare with the related judicial interpretatrion processing which employees suffer from a personal injury while they are engaged in employment activities.%高校学生顶岗实习工作中发生人身伤害事故由谁担责无从确定,主要是因为实习学生的特殊身份难以准确定位。目前司法实践中大都采纳“学生说”,所以,此类工伤事故不适用《劳动法》、《劳动合同法》和《工伤保险条例》等劳动类法律法规,而现行的《民法通则》等法律法规也没有相应的具体规定。合理解决这类工伤事故的责任承担,“雇工说”比较切合目前的实际情形。国家立法部门应该补充和完善劳动法律法规的相关规定,明确规定顶岗实习工作中人身伤害事故的责任由实习单位承担,目前法院受理此类案件应当比照雇工从事雇佣活动中遭受人身损害的相关司法解释处理。

  5. The psychology of nuclear accidents

    Incidents involving nuclear weapons are described, as well as the accident to the Three Mile Island-2 reactor. Methods of assessment of risks are discussed, with particular reference to subjective judgements and the possible role of human error in civil nuclear accidents. Accidents or misunderstandings in communication or human actions which might lead to nuclear war are also discussed. (U.K.)

  6. Radiological accidents balance in medicine

    This work deals with the radiological accidents in medicine. In medicine, the radiation accidents on medical personnel and patients can be the result of over dosage and bad focusing of radiotherapy sealed sources. Sometimes, the accidents, if they are unknown during a time enough for the source to be spread and to expose a lot of persons (in the case of source dismantling for instance) can take considerable dimensions. Others accidents can come from bad handling of linear accelerators and from radionuclide kinetics in some therapies. Some examples of accidents are given. (O.L.). 11 refs

  7. Traffic Accident, System Model and Cluster Analysis in GIS

    Veronika Vlčková

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the many often frequented topics as normal journalism, so the professional public, is the problem of traffic accidents. This article illustrates the orientation of considerations to a less known context of accidents, with the help of constructive systems theory and its methods, cluster analysis and geoinformation engineering. Traffic accident is reframing the space-time, and therefore it can be to study with tools of technology of geographic information systems. The application of system approach enabling the formulation of the system model, grabbed by tools of geoinformation engineering and multicriterial and cluster analysis.

  8. Mapping patterns of pedestrian fatal accidents in Israel

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    This study intends to provide insight into pedestrian accidents by uncovering their patterns in order to design preventive measures and to allocate resources for identified problems. Kohonen neural networks are applied to a database of pedestrian fatal accidents occurred during the four-year period...... between 2003 and 2006. Results show the existence of five pedestrian accident patterns: (i) elderly pedestrians crossing on crosswalks mostly far from intersections in metropolitan areas; (ii) pedestrians crossing suddenly or from hidden places and colliding with two-wheel vehicles on urban road sections...

  9. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be...... initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... identified during a total of 31 140 years at sea. Among these, 209 accidents resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. The mean risk of having an occupational accident was 6.4/100 years at sea and the risk of an accident causing a permanent disability of 5% or more was 0.67/100 years...

  10. Fighting Accident Using Eye Detection forSmartphones

    Mohamed A. Mohamed; A. I. Abdel-Fatah

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to investigate an important problem and approaches of human eye detection, blinking, and tracking. A new system was proposed and implemented using android technology for smartphones. System creatively reduces accidents due to drivers’ fatigue by focusing on treating the driver after fatigue has been detected to achieve decrease in accident likelihood. Smartphone's have been the important tools in our society for the abundant functions including communi...

  11. About the causes and circumstances of the Chernobyl NPP accident

    The Chernobyl accident is the product of unsatisfactory solutions to scientific-technical, socio-economic and human problems. The documentarily recorded power excursion of the reactor and its rise velocity as well as the quick pressure rise in the separator drum admit the conclusion that the cause of the accident was the rapid power excursion of the reactor and not some external influence. (DG)

  12. Chernobyl reactor accident

    On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described

  13. The ultimate nuclear accident

    The estimated energy equivalent of Chernobyl explosion was the 1/150 th of the explosive energy equivalent of atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima; while the devastation that could be caused by the world's stock pile of nuclear weapons, could be equivalent to 160 millions of Chernobyl-like incidents. As known, the number of nuclear weapons is over 50,000 and 2000 nuclear weapons are sufficient to destroy the world. The Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been blamed on human factors but also the human element, particularly in the form of psychological stresses on those operating the nuclear weapons, could accidentally bring the world to a nuclear catastrophe. This opinion is encouraged by the London's Sunday Times magazine which gave a graphic description of life inside a nuclear submarine. So, to speak of nuclear reactor accidents and not of nuclear weapons is false security. (author)

  14. Nuclear ship accidents

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  15. Progress in methodology for probabilistic assessment of accidents: timing of accident sequences

    There is an important problem for probabilistic studies of accident sequences using the current event tree techniques. Indeed this method does not take into account the dependence in time of the real accident scenarios, involving the random behaviour of the systems (lack or delay in intervention, partial failures, repair, operator actions ...) and the correlated evolution of the physical parameters. A powerful method to perform the probabilistic treatment of these complex sequences (dynamic evolution of systems and associated physics) is Monte-Carlo simulation, very rare events being treated with the help of suitable weighting and biasing techniques. As a practical example the accident sequences related to the loss of the residual heat removal system in a fast breeder reactor has been treated with that method

  16. The Chernobylsk reactor accident

    The construction, the safety philosophy, the major reactor physical parameters of RBMK-1000 type reactor units and the detailed description of the Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident, its causes and conclusions, the efforts to reduce the consequences on the reactor site and in the surroundings are discussed based on different types of Soviet documents including the report presented to the IAEA by the Soviet Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986. (V.N.)

  17. Ship accident studies

    This paper summarizes ship accident studies performed by George G. Sharp, Inc. for the U.S. Maritime Administration in connection with the Nuclear Ship Project. Casualties studied include fires/explosions, groundings and collisions for which a method for calculating probability on a specific route was developed jointly with the Babcock and Wilcox Co. Casualty data source was the Liverpool's Underwriters Association Casualty Returns

  18. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

  19. Accident Monitoring Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    In the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the instrumentation provided for accident monitoring proved to be ineffective for a combination of reasons. The accident has highlighted the need to re-examine criteria for accident monitoring instrumentation. This publication covers all relevant aspects of accident monitoring in NPPs. The critical issues discussed reflect the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident, involve accident management and accident monitoring strategies for nuclear power plants, selection of plant parameters for monitoring plant status, establishment of performance, design, qualification, display, and quality assurance criteria for designated accident monitoring instrumentation, and design and implementation considerations. Technology needs and techniques for accident monitoring instrumentation are also addressed

  20. Accidents and human factors

    When the TMI accident occurred it was 4 a.m., an hour when the error potential of the operators would have been very high. The frequency of car and train accidents in Japan is also highest between 4 a.m. and 6 a.m. The error potential may be classified into five phases corresponding to the electroencephalogramic pattern (EEG). At phase 0, when the delta wave appears, a person is unconscious and in deep sleep; at phase I, when the theta wave appears, he is very tired, sleepy and subnormal; at phase II, when the alpha wave appears, he is normal, relaxed and passive; at phase III, when the beta wave appears, he is normal, clear-minded and active; at phase IV, when the strong beta or epileptic wave appears, he is hypernormal, excited and incapable of normal judgement. Should an accident occur at phase II, the brain condition may jump to phase IV. At this phase the error or accident potential is maximum. The response of the human brain to different types of noises and signals may vary somewhat for different individuals and for different groups of people. Therefore, the possibility that such differences in brain functions may influence the mental structure would be worthy of consideration in human factors and in the design of man-machine systems. Human reliability and performance would be affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it would be important to develop a theory by which both non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measure is considered a special case of fuzzy measure. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. To minimize human error and the possibility of accidents, new safety systems should not only back up man and make up for his

  1. Radiation accident/disaster

    Described are the course of medical measures following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) Accident after the quake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) and the future task for radiation accident/disaster. By the first hydrogen explosion in FNPP (Mar. 12), evacuation of residents within 20 km zone was instructed, and the primary base for measures of nuclear disaster (Off-site Center) 5 km afar from FNPP had to work as a front base because of damage of communicating ways, of saving of injured persons and of elevation of dose. On Mar. 13, the medical arrangement council consisting from stuff of Fukushima Medical University (FMU), National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Safety Research Association and Prefectural officers was setup in residents' hall of Fukushima City, and worked for correspondence to persons injured or exposed, where communication about radiation and between related organizations was still poor. The Off-site Center's head section moved to Prefectural Office on Mar. 15 as headquarters. Early in the period, all residents evacuated from the 20 km zone, and in-hospital patients and nursed elderly were transported with vehicles, >50 persons of whom reportedly died mainly by their base diseases. The nation system of medicare for emergent exposure had consisted from the network of the primary to third facilities; there were 5 facilities in the Prefecture, 3 of which were localized at 4-9 km distance from FNPP and closed early after the Accident; and the secondary facility of FMU became responsible to all exposed persons. There was no death of workers of FNPP. Medical stuff also measured the ambient dose at various places near FNPP, having had risk of exposure. At the Accident, the important system of command, control and communication was found fragile and measures hereafter should be planned on assumption of the worst scenario of complete damage of the infrastructure and communication. It is desirable for Disaster Medical Assistance Team which

  2. Systematic register of nuclear accidents

    The Systematic Register of Nuclear Accidents is a consolidation of important accidents occurred in the world during the period 1945-1984. Important accidents can be defined as those involving high radiation doses, which require the exposed individuals to undergo medical treatment. The organization and structuring of this register rests on the necessity for the availability of a database specifically oriented to researchers interested in studying the different nuclear accidents reported. Approximately 150 accidents in that period are presented in a summary form; these accidents had been described or reported in the scientific literature or made known through informal communications of Brazilian and foreign institutions and researchers. This register can be of interest particularly to all professionals who either directly of indirectly work in the area of nuclear or radioactive installations safety. In order to facilitate analysis by the researcher, that casuistic system was divided into 3 groups: criticality accidents (table I), fall-out on Marshall Islands (table II) and external irradiation accidents (table III). It is also included an overview of accidents in that period, indicating the total number of victims, fatal cases, and number of survivors. The author offers to the reader an extensive bibliography on the accidents described. (Author)

  3. Severe accident analysis methodology in support of accident management

    The author addresses the implementation at BELGATOM of a generic severe accident analysis methodology, which is intended to support strategic decisions and to provide quantitative information in support of severe accident management. The analysis methodology is based on a combination of severe accident code calculations, generic phenomenological information (experimental evidence from various test facilities regarding issues beyond present code capabilities) and detailed plant-specific technical information

  4. Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl

    The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author)

  5. Accident management insights from IPE's

    In response to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Generic Letter 88-20, each utility in the U.S.A. has undertaken a probabilistic severe accident study of each plant. This paper provides a high level summary of the generic PWR accident management insights that have been obtained from the IPE reports. More importantly, the paper details some of the limitations of the IPE studies with respect to accident management. The IPE studies and the methodology used was designed to provide a best estimate of the potential for a severe accident and/or for severe consequences from a core damage accident. The accepted methodology employs a number of assumptions to make the objective attainable with a reasonable expenditure of resources. However, some of the assumptions represent limitations with respect to developing an accident management program based solely on the IPE and its results. (author)

  6. Insomnia and accidents: cross-sectional study (EQUINOX) on sleep-related home, work and car accidents in 5293 subjects with insomnia from 10 countries.

    Léger, Damien; Bayon, Virginie; Ohayon, Maurice M; Philip, Pierre; Ement, Philippe; Metlaine, Arnaud; Chennaoui, Mounir; Faraut, Brice

    2014-04-01

    The link between sleepiness and the risk of motor vehicle accidents is well known, but little is understood regarding the risk of home, work and car accidents of subjects with insomnia. An international cross-sectional survey was conducted across 10 countries in a population of subjects with sleep disturbances. Primary care physicians administered a questionnaire that included assessment of sociodemographic characteristics, sleep disturbance and accidents (motor vehicle, work and home) related to sleep problems to each subject. Insomnia was defined using the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-10) criteria. A total of 5293 subjects were included in the study, of whom 20.9% reported having had at least one home accident within the past 12 months, 10.1% at least one work accident, 9% reported having fallen asleep while driving at least once and 4.1% reported having had at least one car accident related to their sleepiness. All types of accident were reported more commonly by subjects living in urban compared to other residential areas. Car accidents were reported more commonly by employed subjects, whereas home injuries were reported more frequently by the unemployed. Car accidents were reported more frequently by males than by females, whereas home accidents were reported more commonly by females. Patients with insomnia have high rates of home accidents, car accidents and work accidents related to sleep disturbances independently of any adverse effects of hypnotic treatments. Reduced total sleep time may be one factor explaining the high risk of accidents in individuals who complain of insomnia. PMID:24237855

  7. Summary report on the post-accident review meeting on the Chernobyl accident

    After an Executive Summary which gives an overview of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor, the first section of the main INSAG report presents the understanding of INSAG members of the causes of the accident, concluding that it was the result of a remarkable range of human errors and violation of operating rules, in combination with specific reactor features which compounded and amplified the effects of the errors and led to the reactivity excursion. The second section presents the problem of radionuclide release from the damaged reactor, showing that there was an initial intense release associated with the destructive events in the accident, then the release rates fell over the next few days up to 7x1016 Bq/d five days after the accident initiation, and at that point the release rates began to increase and reached about 3x1017 Bq/d nine days after the accident initiation. There was then a drop in the radionuclide release to 4x1013 Bq/d and the release rates have continued to decline since that time. The next section describes the accident management at the site, fire-fighting, cleanup of the site and the entombment of the damaged unit. In the fourth section the radiation protection aspects of the accident, the radionuclide transfer through the environment, the exposure of members of the public pointing to the radionuclides iodine-131 and cesium-137 which entered the food-chains, the on-site and off-site emergency response, the decontamination and the health effects including both the early non-stochastic effects and the late stochastic ones are presented. Safety issues to be pursued in order to derive whatever safety lessons can be learned from the Chernobyl accident are considered in Section V. The next two sections present INSAG's observations, conclusions and recommendations based on the lessons learned so far from the accident and ranging from reactor operation to radiation protection and international co-operation in nuclear safety. Finally the

  8. Systematic Review of Accident Management Programs - Principles, Experiences

    Although all plants have some form of accident management, there is not always a proper review of the accident management program neither of its products, i.e. the various procedures and guidelines. Moreover, such reviews are often limited to Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) and Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMG). More complex events, which include large damage on the site, require additional tools and procedures / guidelines. The present paper describes a new review method that covers this larger area and is capable to identify problems and shortcomings, and offers solutions for those. It basically exists of a three-tier approach: 1. interviews with the national regulator and/or the plant to evaluate the scope of the accident management as required by the national regulation and in comparison with international regulation; 2. interviews with the plant staff to discuss the technical basis of the accident management program and its implementation; and 3. observation of an exercise to test the capability of the plant staff to execute the accident management procedures and guidelines, as well as the value of the exercise for such test. The method is an extension of the IAEA 'Review of Accident Management Program which is limited to review of EOPs and SAMG. It is based on extensive experience with plant reviews. (authors)

  9. A stochastic approach to accident identification in nuclear power plants

    Identification of the types of accidents and proper actions is required at an early stage of an accident in nuclear power plants. The accident of the plant can be identified by their symptom patterns related to the principal variables and operating status of major equipment. The patterns are identified by the Self-Organizing Feature Map (SOFM), unsupervised artificial neural network, for feature mapping algorithm and the Hidden Markov Model (HMM), a stochastic technique for solving the time series problem. The off-line data from a compact nuclear simulator are vector quantized by SOFM clustering algorithm. The HMM is created for each accident from a set of training data which are the result of vector quantization. The accident identification is decided by calculating which model has the highest probability for given test data. The system uses a left-to-right model including 6 states and 16 input variables to identify 7 types of accidents and the normal state. The HMM is trained by the maximum-likelihood estimation method which uses forward-backward algorithm and Baum-Welch re-estimation algorithm. The optimal path for each model at the given observation is found by Viterbi algorithm, and then the probability of optimal path is calculated. The simulation results show that the proposed system identifies the accident types correctly. It is also shown that the diagnosis is performed well for incomplete input observation caused by sensor fault or malfunction of certain equipment. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Accident management insights after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, that took place on 11 March 2011, initiated a significant number of activities at the national and international levels to reassess the safety of existing NPPs, evaluate the sufficiency of technical means and administrative measures available for emergency response, and develop recommendations for increasing the robustness of NPPs to withstand extreme external events and beyond design basis accidents. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is working closely with its member and partner countries to examine the causes of the accident and to identify lessons learnt with a view to the appropriate follow-up actions to be taken by the nuclear safety community. Accident management is a priority area of work for the NEA to address lessons being learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP following the recommendations of Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), and Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). Considering the importance of these issues, the CNRA authorised the formation of a task group on accident management (TGAM) in June 2012 to review the regulatory framework for accident management following the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The task group was requested to assess the NEA member countries needs and challenges in light of the accident from a regulatory point of view. The general objectives of the TGAM review were to consider: - enhancements of on-site accident management procedures and guidelines based on lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident; - decision-making and guiding principles in emergency situations; - guidance for instrumentation, equipment and supplies for addressing long-term aspects of accident management; - guidance and implementation when taking extreme measures for accident management. The report is built on the existing bases for capabilities to respond to design basis

  11. Accident management approach in Armenia

    In this lecture the accident management approach in Armenian NPP (ANPP) Unit 2 is described. List of BDBAs had been developed by OKB Gydropress in 1994. 13 accident sequences were included in this list. The relevant analyses had been performed in VNIIAES and the 'Guidelines on operator actions for beyond design basis accident (BDBA) management at ANPP Unit 2' had been prepared. These instructions are discussed

  12. Serious accident in Peru

    A peruvian man, victim of an important accidental irradiation arrived on the Saturday twenty ninth of may 1999 to the centre of treatment of serious burns at the Percy military hospital (Clamart -France). The accident spent on the twentieth of February 1999, on the site of a hydroelectric power plant, in construction at 300 km at the East of Lima. The victim has picked up an industrial source of iridium devoted to gamma-graphy operations and put it in his back pocket; of trousers. The workman has serious radiation burns. (N.C.)

  13. The accident of Chernobyl

    RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

  14. Accident prevention programme

    This study by the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission was made within the context of the application by undertakings of the principles of accident and disease prevention previously adopted by the said Commission. It puts forward recommendations for the effective and gradual implementation of a programme of action on occupational health and safety in the various departments of an undertaking and in the undertaking as a whole. The methods proposed in this study are likely to be of interest to all undertakings in the metallurgical industry and other industrial sectors

  15. Psychological response of accident

    The psychological status of rescuers of consequences of Chernobyl[s accidents, having planned stationary examination and treatment of common somatic diseases, has been examined. THe age of men represented the study group was 35-54 years old. The results of medical-psychological examination showed the development in rescuers of common dysadaptation and stress state, characterized by depressive-hypochondriac state with high anxiety. The course of psychotherapeutic activities made possible to improve essentionally the psychological status of the patients. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. Reactor accident in Chernobyl

    The bibliography contains 1568 descriptions of papers devoted to Chernobylsk accident and recorded in ''INIS Atomindex'' to 30 June 1990. The descriptions were taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and are presented in accordance with volumes of this journal (chronology of recording). Therefore all descriptions have numbers showing first the number of volume and then the number of record. The bibliography has at the end the detailed subject index consisting of 465 main headings and a lot of qualifiers. Some of them are descriptors taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and some are key words taken from natural language. The index is in English as descriptions in the bibliography. (author)

  17. CAMS: Computerized Accident Management Support

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project has initiated a new research programme on computerised accident management support, the so-called CAMS project (CAMS = Computerized Accident Management Support). This work will investigate the possibilities for developing systems which provide more extensive support to the control room staff and technical support centre than the existing SPDS (Safety Parameter Display System) type of systems. The CAMS project will utilize available simulator codes and the capabilities of computerized tools to assist the plant staff during the various accident stages including: identification of the accident state, assessment of the future development of the accident, and planning accident mitigation strategies. This research programme aims at establishing a prototype system which can be used for experimental testing of the concept and serve as a tool for training and education in accident management. The CAMS prototype should provide support to the staff when the plant is in a normal state, in a disturbance sate, and in an accident state. Even though better support in an accident state is the main goal of the project, it is felt to be important that the staff is familiar with the use of the system during normal operation, when they utilize the system during transients

  18. Iodine releases from reactor accidents

    The airborne releases of iodine from water reactor accidents are small fractions of the available iodine and occur only slowly. However, in reactor accidents in which water is absent, the release of iodine to the environment can be large and rapid. These differences in release fraction and rate are related to the chemical states attained by iodine under the accident conditions. It is clear that neither rapid issue of blocking KI nor rapid evacuation of the surrounding population is required to protect the public from the radioiodine released in the event of a major water reactor accident

  19. Guidance on accidents involving radioactivity

    This annex contains advice to Health Authorities on their response to accidents involving radioactivity. The guidance is in six parts:-(1) planning the response required to nuclear accidents overseas, (2) planning the response required to UK nuclear accidents a) emergency plans for nuclear installations b) nuclear powered satellites, (3) the handling of casualties contaminated with radioactive substances, (4) background information for dealing with queries from the public in the event of an accident, (5) the national arrangements for incident involving radioactivity (NAIR), (6) administrative arrangements. (author)

  20. Problems with Smell

    ... types of accidents in order of frequency involve cooking eating or drinking spoiled foods or toxic substances failing to detect gas leaks or fires If you think you have a problem with your sense of smell, see your doctor. home | health topics A-Z | videos A-Z | training | ...

  1. Security problems at Vivitron

    The risks of accidents and the safety actions concerning the components and the staff protection at Vivitron are analyzed. The risks induced by the utilization of SF6 is mainly asphyxia. The sealing defects on the gas storage devices and gas leaking inside Vivitron are considered. The safety actions and devices are summarized. Radiation protection problems are also discussed

  2. The Tchernobyl enigma or: the human factors in severe accidents

    Using the analysis of many documents published after the Tchernobyl accident, we attempt to distinguish the main human factors aspects in severe accidents that come out, and the causes the most frequently quoted to ''explain'' it. But the Tchernobyl accident keeps its ''enigmatic'' feature, like any other accident. The need to make a deeper investigation concerning safety leads to look for various research paths that go beyond the usual normative positions, based on a too much mechanistic model of man. It is to the functioning of groups in work situations that we suggest to devote part of the research and thinking effort. We attempt to show briefly how two theories, the theory of ''groupthink'' and the theory of ''trade defensive ideologies'', can throw a light on the problem of human factors in nuclear power plants

  3. Radiation accident grips Goiania

    On 13 September two young scavengers in Goiania, Brazil, removed a stainless steel cylinder from a cancer therapy machine in an abandoned clinic, touching off a radiation accident second only to Chernobyl in its severity. On 18 September they sold the cylinder, the size of a 1-gallon paint can, to a scrap dealer for $25. At the junk yard an employee dismantled the cylinder and pried open the platinum capsule inside to reveal a glowing blue salt-like substance - 1400 curies of cesium-137. Fascinated by the luminescent powder, several people took it home with them. Some children reportedly rubbed in on their bodies like carnival glitter - an eerie image of how wrong things can go when vigilance over radioactive materials lapses. In all, 244 people in Goiania, a city of 1 million in central Brazil, were contaminated. The eventual toll, in terms of cancer or genetic defects, cannot yet be estimated. Parts of the city are cordoned off as radiation teams continue washing down buildings and scooping up radioactive soil. The government is also grappling with the political fallout from the accident

  4. Serious reactor accidents reconsidered

    The chance is determined for damage of the reactor core and that sequel events will cause excursion of radioactive materials into the environment. The gravity of such an accident is expressed by the source term. It appears that the chance for such an accident varies with the source term. In general it is valid that how larger the source term how smaller the chance is for it and vice versa. The chance for excursion is related to two complexes of events: serious damage (meltdown) of the reactor core, and the escape of the liberated radionuclides into the environment. The results are an order of magnitude consideration of the relation between the extent of the source term and the chance for it. From the spectrum of possible source terms three representative ones have been chosen: a large, a medium and a relative small source term. This choice is in accordance with international considerations. The hearth of this study is the estimation of the chance for occurrence of the three chosen source terms for new light-water reactors. refs.; figs.; tabs

  5. Guidelines for Exposure Assessment in Health Risk Studies Following a Nuclear Reactor Accident

    Bouville, André; Linet, Martha S.; Hatch, Maureen; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Simon, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Worldwide concerns regarding health effects after the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear power plant accidents indicate a clear need to identify short- and long-term health impacts that might result from accidents in the future. Fundamental to addressing this problem are reliable and accurate radiation dose estimates for the affected populations. The available guidance for activities following nuclear accidents is limited with regard to strategies for dose assessment in health risk s...

  6. Patterns of presentation of abused children to the accident and emergency department.

    Olney, D B

    1988-01-01

    A search of accident and emergency department records showed that 61% of 85 children registered as being physically or sexually abused by the Department of Community Paediatrics at St James's University Hospital, Leeds, England, were found to have visited the accident and emergency department an average of 2.9 times before the diagnosis was made. Fifty-two per cent of the attendances were because of problems other than injuries. Staff of accident and emergency departments should be aware that...

  7. Incinerators and health. Recommendations relative to the epidemiological studies in order to improve the knowledge on sanitary impacts of incinerators; Incinerateurs et sante. Recommandations concernant les etudes epidemiologiques visant a ameliorer la connaissance sur les impacts sanitaires des incinerateurs

    NONE

    2003-10-15

    The Institut de Veille Sanitaire gathered a group of experts to put forward the main epidemiologic research issues of health impacts on populations living near municipal waste incineration plants (MWIPs). The study concentrated on the health effects for which a response to the social demand and the public powers is the most difficult due to the fact of continued scientific uncertainty. The health effects are identified as such: - cancers: in adults and children, solid tumours (specifically liver, soft tissues, skin) and hematologic malignancies (specifically leukemia, Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma); - their effects on reproduction (specifically congenital anomalies). Specific recommendations are made to put in place a multi-faceted study on cancers and follow up on work regarding congenital anomalies from MWIPs. Prospects for other projects are also identified (studies on the sexual maturation process, studies on the work environment). Specific recommendations are made regarding the direction that ought to be taken for putting into place a surveillance system of populations living alongside MWIPs. (author)

  8. Expert software for accident identification

    Each type of an accident in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) causes immediately after the start of the accident variations of physical parameters that are typical for that type of the accident thus enabling its identification. Examples of these parameter are: decrease of reactor coolant system pressure, increase of radiation level in the containment, increase of pressure in the containment. An expert software enabling a fast preliminary identification of the type of the accident in Krsko NPP has been developed. As input data selected typical parameters from Emergency Response Data System (ERDS) of the Krsko NPP are used. Based on these parameters the expert software identifies the type of the accident and also provides the user with appropriate references (past analyses and other documentation of such an accident). The expert software is to be used as a support tool by an expert team that forms in case of an emergency at Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) with the task to determine the cause of the accident, its most probable scenario and the source term. The expert software should provide initial identification of the event, while the final one is still to be made after appropriate assessment of the event by the expert group considering possibility of non-typical events, multiple causes, initial conditions, influences of operators' actions etc. The expert software can be also used as an educational/training tool and even as a simple database of available accident analyses. (author)

  9. Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena

    This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

  10. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  11. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    Frid, W.; Højerup, C.F.; Lindholm, I.;

    2001-01-01

    Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies, the ...

  12. The Chernobyl accident. Appendix B

    In appendix B, the models introduced in chapter 6 are applied to the study of the Chernobyl accident. This event is very important in the teaching of nuclear engineering, and I have included in this Appendix a relatively detailed description of the accident. However, the analysis is limited to the physics of the relevant phenomena. (author)

  13. Preventing accidents at intake towers

    Villegas, F. (INTEGRAL S.A., Medellin, CO (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Strong air blow-outs occurring in the intake tower of Guatape Hydroelectric Power Plant in Colombia have caused two serious accidents recently. The causes of the accidents were investigated and recommendations are made here to prevent future repetitions of these dangerous events. (UK)

  14. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    Hansen, H; Nielsen, D; Frydenberg, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be initiated.

  15. Probability of spent fuel transportation accidents

    McClure, J. D.

    1981-07-01

    The transported volume of spent fuel, incident/accident experience and accident environment probabilities were reviewed in order to provide an estimate of spent fuel accident probabilities. In particular, the accident review assessed the accident experience for large casks of the type that could transport spent (irradiated) nuclear fuel. This review determined that since 1971, the beginning of official US Department of Transportation record keeping for accidents/incidents, there has been one spent fuel transportation accident. This information, coupled with estimated annual shipping volumes for spent fuel, indicated an estimated annual probability of a spent fuel transport accident of 5 x 10/sup -7/ spent fuel accidents per mile. This is consistent with ordinary truck accident rates. A comparison of accident environments and regulatory test environments suggests that the probability of truck accidents exceeding regulatory test for impact is approximately 10/sup -9//mile.

  16. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...... occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA...... method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents...

  17. Severe accidents, a US approach

    The attitude of the American nuclear industry and the regulatory authorities in the United States toward severe accidents has often seemed ambivalent. It was common a few years ago to assume the position that severe accidents should not be included in the design basis of the plant. This view was associated with the concept of the maximum credible accident. A severe accident that would lead to a large release of fission products from the reactor core was simply regarded as having so low a likelihood as not to be credible. That does not mean that it had a zero probability of occurring. Because of the way the plant was designed, built, and operated, severe accidents were regarded as having a low enough probability that no further special measures were necessary regarding them. (author)

  18. Severe accident management. Prevention and Mitigation

    Effective planning for the management of severe accidents at nuclear power plants can produce both a reduction in the frequency of such accidents as well as the ability to mitigate their consequences if and when they should occur. This report provides an overview of accident management activities in OECD countries. It also presents the conclusions of a group of international experts regarding the development of accident management methods, the integration of accident management planning into reactor operations, and the benefits of accident management

  19. Accidents, probabilities and consequences

    Following brief discussion of the safety of wind-driven power plants and solar power plants, some aspects of the safety of fast breeder and thermonuclear power plants are presented. It is pointed out that no safety evaluation of breeders comparable to the Rasmussen investigation has been carried out and that discussion of the safety aspects of thermonuclear power is only just begun. Finally, as an illustration of the varying interpretations of risk and safety analyses, four examples are given of predicted probabilities and consequences in Copenhagen of the maximum credible accident at the Barsebaeck plant, under the most unfavourable meterological conditions. These are made by the Environment Commission, Risoe Research Establishment, REO (a pro-nuclear group) and OOA (an anti-nuclear group), and vary by a factor of over 1000. (JIW)

  20. The Fukushima accident

    The accident happened on March 11, 2011 in the nuclear reactors at the Fukushima plant, Japan, is described. The reactors of the Fukushima plant have been power reactors. The electrical energy is produced by use of the heat released in the fission. Nuclear reactors were affected after of the power outage as a result of the earthquake and the tsunami, and this has kept in operation the refrigeration systems. The japanese reactors have been fission reactors and have used uranium 235 or plutonium 239 as fissionable material. The nuclear reactions of fission are explained. The control of the nuclear reactions at Fukushima was complicated by the decreased of the neutrons absorption and has produced more reactions, generating great amounts of heat. The steam contaminated with the products of fission is produced by to cool the reactor with water. The fissionable material released is dragged until the atmosphere. Radioactive contamination at sites near the reactor was covered in a zone of exclusion with a radius of 30 km. The effects of radioactive contamination in the zone of exclusion are mentioned. The radioactive material from Japan has traveled with the wind in direction toward the north pole. The radioactive cloud has continued until to reach the north Africa and south of Europe. The cloud has approximated to Costa Rica, but the activity of the material found has been less of 0,01 Bq/m3. The Centro de Investigacion en Ciencias Atomicas, Nucleares y Moleculares (Cicanum) has initiated the collection of soil samples, water and earth products to detect part of the radioactive material from the cloud. The Cicanum has had modern equipments to quantify the specific concentrations of radioactive isotope, alpha emitters, beta and gamma, in food, water and milk. The Cicanum has maintained the radiological surveillance of foods after the Chernobyl accident

  1. Agricultural problems

    Although there were not reasons to deplore against major activity release from any of the 110 industrial reactors authorized to operate in US, the nuclear incident that occurred at the Three Mile Island Plant in 1979 urged the public conscience toward the necessity of readiness to cope with events of this type. The personnel of the Emergency Planning Office functioning in the frame of US Department of Agriculture has already participated in around 600 intervention drillings on a federal, local or state scale to plan, test or asses radiological emergency plans or to intervene locally. These exercises allowed acquiring a significant experience in elaborating emergency plans, planning the drillings, working out scenarios and evaluation of the potential impact of accidents from the agricultural point of view. We have also taken part in different international drillings among which the most recent are INEX 1 and RADEX 94. We have found on these occasions that the agricultural problems are essential preoccupations in most of the cases no matter if the context is international, national, local or of state level. The paper poses problems specifically related to milk, fruits and vegetables, soils, meat and meat products. Finally the paper discusses issues like drilling planning, alarm and notification, sampling strategy, access authorizations for farmers, removing of contamination wastes. A number of social, political and economical relating problems are also mentioned

  2. Radioactive iodine and environmental and sanitary effects - bibliographic study and quantification; Iodes radioactifs et impacts environnemental et sanitaire - etude bibliographique et quantification

    Guetat, Ph.; Armand, P.; Monfort, M.; Fritsch, P. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France); Flury Herard, A. [CEA, Dir. des Sciences du Vivant, 75 - Paris (France); Menetrier, F. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dir. des Sciences du Vivant, 92 (France); Bion, L. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Schoech, C.; Masset, S. [Societe EX-IN - Expertise et Ingenierie, 92 - Le Plessis-Robinson (France)

    2004-07-01

    This document is intended to a large public. It reviews the different parameters needed to evaluate the potential act o radioactive releases from the emission to public. Its objectives are to evaluate the importance of different exposure pathways and to assess efficiency of the possible interventions for large public. The main conclusions are summarised hereafter: The radioactive decay chains have to be taken into account to evaluate the iodine source term in the nuclear plants in the case of fission accidents. The physico-chemical forms of iodine are important in order to determine the released activity and deposited activity on the soil. The isotopes to be taken into account are mainly iodine 131 for radiological assessments and also iodine 133 for the nuclear reactor accidents, and the chain Tellurium-Iodine 132 when no particulate filtration exists. Iodine 129 in French reprocessing plant cannot lead to significant accidents. The dominant exposure pathways are related to the consumption of contaminated food products (vegetable, milk) for the inorganic iodine. The iodine transfer to goat and sheep milk is greater than the one to cow milk. The meat production of herbivores at field is the most sensitive. The interest to remove rapidly herbivore from pasture appears relatively clearly. The banning of consumption of local contaminated food products (vegetables and meats) may reduce by about a factor of thirteen the impact due to iodine 131. The youngest the population is, the greatest are the thyroid radiosensitivity and variability within the population. Oral administration of stable iodine limits transfers to maternal milk and foetal thyroid. Ingestion of stable iodine is complementary to consumption banning of local contaminated food products. The earliest the ingestion is, the greatest is the efficiency. 0,1 TBq of 131 iodine released at a low height involves only limited and local actions whereas the release of 10 TBq involves direct and immediate protection

  3. Congestion by accident? Traffic and accidents in England

    Pasidis, Ilias-Nikiforos

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is the estimation of the effect of accidents on traffic congestion and vice versa. In order to do this, I use ?big data? of highway traffic and accidents in England for the period 2007-2013. The data exhibit some remarkably stable cyclical pattern of highway traffic which is used as a research setting that enables the identification of the causal effect of accidents on traffic congestion and vice versa. The estimation draws on panel data methods that have previously bee...

  4. The expert assistant in accident management

    In the event of a nuclear accident in proximity to an urban area, the consequences resulting from the complex processes of environmental transport of radioactivity would require complex countermeasures. Emphasis has been placed on either modelling the potential effects of such an event on the population, or on attempting to predict the geographical evolution of the release. Less emphasis has been placed on the development of accident management aids with a in-built data acquisition capability. Given the problems of predicting the evolution of an accidental release of activity, more emphasis should be placed on the development of small regional systems specifically engineered to acquire and display environmental data in the most efficaceous form possible. A wealth of information can be obtained from appropriately-sited outstations which can aid those responsible for countermeasures in their decision making processes. The substantial volume of data which would arrive within the duration and during the aftermath of an accident requires skilled interpretation under conditions of considerable stress. It is necessary that a management aid notonly presents these data in a rapidly assimilable form, but is capable of making intelligent decisions of its own, on such matters as information display priority and the polling frequency of outstations. The requirement is for an expert assistant. The XERSES accident management aid has been designed with the foregoing features in mind. Intended for covering regions up to approximately 100 kms square, it links with between 1 and 64 outstations supplying a variety of environmental data. Under quiescent conditions the system will operate unattended, raising alarms remotely only when detecting abnormal conditions. Under emergency conditions, the system automatically adjusts such operating parameters as data acquisition rate

  5. Coupled simulation of steam line break accident

    The steam line break is a PWR type reactor design accident, which concerns coupled physical phenomena. To control these problems simulation are needed to define and validate the operating procedures. The benchmark OECD PWR MSLB (Main Steam Line Break) has been proposed by the OECD to validate the feasibility and the contribution of the multi-dimensional tools in the simulation of the core transients. First the benchmark OECD PWR MSLB is presented. Then the analysis of the three exercises (system with pinpoint kinetic, three-dimensional core and whole system with three-dimensional core) are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  6. Three Mile Island accident technical support

    A large number of technical support personnel were required to respond to the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident of March 28, 1979. Under the leadership of General Public Utilities personnel, onsite (round-the-clock shift) technical support began the evening of March 29 and within a week the TMI Recovery Organization incorporated all of the essential technical capability to implement the Base Plan for Cooldown, manage the radioactive waste problem, and begin the steps toward long-range plant recovery. These steps toward recovery are described in some detail. 1 refs

  7. Occupational accidents with piercing and cutting instruments in hospital nurses

    Maria Helena Palucci Marziale

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Goals: To identify factors associated with occupational accidents caused by piercing and cutting instruments and to identify the consequences of these accidents.Methods: Descriptive field research. Data were obtained through semi-structured interviews with nurses who suffered accidents during one year in four hospitals at São Paulo State - Brazil. Results: factors associated with accidents were: work overload, poor quality material, inadequate disposal materials, professional negligence, clients’ aggressiveness, lack of attention and use of unsheathed needles. The accidents caused financial damages to the institutions as well as emotional and physical impairments to workers. Conclusions: There are several factors associated with accidents with piercing and cutting instruments. Therefore, preventive measures must be implemented according to the peculiarities of each work environment. Better care should be taken with the preparation of the professionals as well as with the information on risks from exposure to body/blood fluids they are given. A specific legislation is needed in our country in order to minimize this problem.

  8. Severe accidents and operator training - discussion of potential issues

    R and D programs developed throughout the world allowed significant progress in the understanding of physical phenomena and Severe Accident Management (SAM) programs started in many OECD countries. Basically, the common denominator to all these SAM programs was to provide utility operators with procedures or guidelines allowing to deal with complex situations not formally considered in the Design Basis, including accidents where a significant portion of the core had molten. These SAM procedures or guidelines complement the traditional accident management procedures (event, symptom or physical-state oriented) and should allow operators to deal with a reasonably bounding set of situations. Dealing with operator or crisis team training, it was recognized that training would be beneficial but that training programs were lagging, i.e. though training sessions were either organized or contemplated after implementation of SAM programs, they seemed to be somewhat different from more traditional training sessions on Accident Management. After some explanations on the differences between Design Basis Accidents (DBAs) and Beyond Design Basis Accidents (BDBAs), this paper underlines some potential difficulties for training operators and discuss problems to be addressed by organisms contemplating SAM training sessions consistent with similar activities for less complex events

  9. Simulation of a loss of coolant accident without high pressure injection but with secondary side bleed and feed. Results of the fourth standard problem exercise on the simulation of loss of coolant accidents. Report of the IAEA technical co-operation project RER/9/004 on evaluation of safety aspects of WWER-440 Model 213 nuclear power plants

    This publication presents a complete overview of the fourth standard problem exercise, including the description of the facility, the experiment, the codes and models used by the participants and detailed intercomparison of experimental and calculated results. The computer code validation is a long process which involved several interrelated steps. Therefore, no final conclusion on the optimum code or the best model was reached. The exercise, however, was recognized as a very important activity in the code validation process. 21 refs, figs and tabs

  10. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning

    Research highlights: → Lightning impact caused relevant industrial accidents. → Atmospheric storage tanks are the equipment item more susceptible to lightning damage. → Specific damage and release modes may be identified for lightning damage. Specific event trees should be adopted for the identification of post-release final scenarios characterizing lightning-induced major accidents. - Abstract: Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents.

  11. Impact of the Three Mile Island accident on research and development programs

    The influence of the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident, on the evolution of the nuclear safety engineering concepts, are analyzed. An overview of the nuclear safety studies performed before and after the accident is presented. Before the TMI accident, the research programs were mainly centered on dimensional problems involving factors, such as explosions and earthquakes. The TMI accident demonstrated that the fusion of the reactor's core could actually hoppen. It was also realized that the safety of nuclear power plants depended on accurate research programs, also extended to factors beyond dimensional analysis

  12. Lessons learned and evaluation of the impact from the Chernobyl accident

    The impact on society of the Chernobyl accident is assessed. The situation prior to Chernobyl with respect to regulations of radiation protection against the consequences of a major accident is considered. The development of the recommendations and regulations issued by the CEC for the Maximum Permitted Levels of different reactions to the accident are examined and some data on the average individual effective dose equivalents estimated in a number of countries are reported. Finally some main problems concerning the information of the public and the preparedness for possible future accidents are also summarized. (author)

  13. Analysis of causes of criticality accidents at nuclear fuel processing facilities in foreign countries. Similarities to the criticality accident at JCO's uranium processing plant

    On September 30, 1999, a criticality accident occurred at the JCO's uranium processing plant, which resulted in the first nuclear accident involving a fatality, in Japan, and forced the residents in the vicinity of the site to be evacuated and be sheltered indoors. Before the JCO accident, 21 criticality accidents have been reported at nuclear fuel processing facilities in foreign countries. The present paper describes the overall trends observed in the 21 accidents and discusses the sequences and causes of the accidents analyzed in terms of similarities to the JCO accident. Almost all of them occurred with the uranium or plutonium solution and in vessels/tanks with unfavorable geometry. In some cases, the problems similar to those observed in the JCO accident were identified: violations of procedures and/or technical specifications for improving work efficiencies, procedural changes without any application to and permission from the regulatory body, lack of understanding of criticality hazards, and complacency that a criticality accident would not occur. (author)

  14. Reconstruction of the Chernobyl emergency and accident management

    Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1986 the most serious civil technological accident in the history of mankind occurred of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the former Soviet Union. As a direct result of the accident, the reactor was severely destroyed and large quantities of radionuclides were released. Some 800000 persons, also called 'liquidators' - including plant operators, fire-fighters, scientists, technicians, construction workers, emergency managers, volunteers, as well as medical and military personnel - were part of emergency measurements and accident management efforts. Activities included measures to prevent the escalation of the accident, mitigation actions, help for victims as well as activities in order to provide a basic infrastructure for this unprecedented and overwhelming task. The overall goal of the 'Project Chernobyl' of the Institute of Risk Research of the University of Vienna was to preserve for mankind the experience and knowledge of the experts among the 'liquidators' before it is lost forever. One method used to reconstruct the emergency measures of Chernobyl was the direct cooperation with liquidators. Simple questionnaires were distributed among liquidators and a database of leading accident managers, engineers, medical experts etc. was established. During an initial struggle with a number of difficulties, the response was sparse. However, after an official permit had been issued, the questionnaires delivered a wealth of data. Furthermore a documentary archive was established, which provided additional information. The multidimensional problem in connection with the severe accident of Chernobyl, the clarification of the causes of the accident, as well as failures and successes and lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl emergency measures and accident management are discussed. (authors)

  15. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  16. Development of a reactor vessel failure diagnosis system for accident management

    Diagnosis of vessel failure provides for operators and TSC personnel very important information to manage the severe accident in nuclear power plant. However, operators can not diagnose the reactor vessel failure by watching the temporal trends of some parameters because they never have experienced the severe accident. Therefore, this study proposes a method on the diagnosis of the PWR vessel failure using a Spatiotemporal Neural Network (STN). STNs can deal directly with both the spatial and the temporal aspects of input signals and can well identify a time-varying problem. The target patterns are generated from MAAP code. Vessel failure diagnosis has been performed for 8 accidents and the developed STNs have been verified for untrained three severe accidents. STNs identifies the vessel failure time and the initiating events. For example, when large break LOCA (break size = 0.16 m2) is used for input accident scenario, only the output value for the target pattern of LBLOCA is activated greater than the threshold value near the real vessel failure. To validate vessel failure diagnosis system and to train severe accident to operators, extensive severe accident simulator is to be an absolute necessity. Therefore, a simplified severe accident simulator, SIMAAP (severe accident Simulator based on MAAP), has been developed. SIMAAP simulates the various severe accident progress through on-line communication with MAAP

  17. Exploring the potential of data mining techniques for the analysis of accident patterns

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Galtzur, Ayelet;

    2010-01-01

    Research in road safety faces major challenges: individuation of the most significant determinants of traffic accidents, recognition of the most recurrent accident patterns, and allocation of resources necessary to address the most relevant issues. This paper intends to comprehend which data mining...... association rules) data mining techniques are implemented for the analysis of traffic accidents occurred in Israel between 2001 and 2004. Results show that descriptive techniques are useful to classify the large amount of analyzed accidents, even though introduce problems with respect to the clear...... importance of input and intermediate neurons, and the relative importance of hundreds of association rules. Further research should investigate whether limiting the analysis to fatal accidents would simplify the task of data mining techniques in recognizing accident patterns without the “noise” probably...

  18. An overview of LWR containment loadings during degraded core accidents

    An overview is given of the problem of determining pressure and temperature conditions in the containment following a degraded core accident, so that structural analysis can determine the requirements for an adequate evaluation of a containment under such conditions. Also examples are given of typical expected loadings for various reactor types and containment designs. (orig.)

  19. Handling of Radiation Accidents. Proceedings of a Symposium on the Handling of Radiation Accidents

    Many types of radiation accidents can theoretically be foreseen, ranging from minor spills of radioactive materials within a laboratory to serious accidents characterized by the presence of intense radiation fields and the uncontrolled release of large quantities of radioactive contaminants. They could lead to the irradiation and contamination of persons and the contamination of premises and the natural environment. As a result of the great emphasis that has been placed on safety in the development of nuclear energy programmes and in the use of radiation sources, accidents involving the serious overexposure of persons are in fact very rare. Nevertheless such accidents can occur and it is necessary to plan in advance for those that can be,reasonably foreseen. The handling of serious radiation accidents requires the co-operation of experts with diverse qualifications and experience: radiation monitoring and dosimetry specialists; medical doctors experienced in diagnosing and treating radiation injury; nuclear safety, decontamination and waste management specialists; public relations officers; and many others. This symposium, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization as part of a co-ordinated programme, was designed to enable these specialists to discuss their problems on a very broad basis. The meeting was attended by 212 participants from 34 countries and 9 international organizations. In his opening address Professor Zheludev reminded the participants that the good safety record of the nuclear industry must not give rise to complacency and that we must all learn as much as possible from reported accidents in order to be ready to deal promptly and effectively with those that may be encountered in the future. It is noteworthy that some of the most severe injuries reported were suffered by persons who found lost-sources and carried them for long periods without any knowledge of the dangers involved. Organizational

  20. Accident response in France

    French PWR power plant design relies basically on a deterministic approach. A probabilistic approach was introduced in France in the early seventies to define safety provisions against external impacts. In 1977 an overall safety objective was issued by the safety authority in terms of an upper probability limit for having unacceptable consequences. Additional measures were taken (the ''H'' operating procedures) to complement the automatic systems normally provided by the initial design, so as to safisfy the safety objective. The TMI-2 accident enhanced the interest in confused situations in which possible multiple equipment failure and/or unappropriate previous actions of the operators impede the implementation of any of the existing event-oriented procedures. In such situations, the objective becomes to avoid core-melt by any means available: this is the goal of the Ul symptom-oriented procedure. Whenever a core-melt occurs, the radioactive releases into the environment must be compatible with the feasibility of the off-site emergency plans; that means that for some hypothetical, but still conceivable scenarios, provisions have to be made to delay and limit the consequences of the loss of the containment: the U2, U4 and U5 ultimate procedures have been elaborated for that purpose. For the case of an emergency, a nationwide organization has been set up to provide the plant operator with a redundant technical expertise, to help him save his plant or mitigate the radiological consequences of a core-melt

  1. Preparedness against nuclear power accidents

    This booklet contains information about the organization against nuclear power accidents, which exist in the four Swedish counties with nuclear power plants. It is aimed at classes 7-9 of the Swedish schools. (L.E.)

  2. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  3. The management of radioactive waste from accidents

    Two accident case histories are reviewed - the Three Mile Island (TMI-2) reactor accident in 1979 and the Seveso accident in 1976. The status of the decontamination and radioactive waste management operations at TMI-2 as at 1986 is presented. 1986 estimates of reactor accident and recovery costs are given. 12 refs., 8 tabs

  4. 29 CFR 1960.29 - Accident investigation.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accident investigation. 1960.29 Section 1960.29 Labor... MATTERS Inspection and Abatement § 1960.29 Accident investigation. (a) While all accidents should be investigated, including accidents involving property damage only, the extent of such investigation shall...

  5. 49 CFR 195.54 - Accident reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 195.54 Section 195.54... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.54 Accident reports. (a) Each operator that experiences an accident that is required to be reported under § 195.50 shall as soon...

  6. 49 CFR 801.32 - Accident reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 801.32 Section 801.32... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Accident Investigation Records § 801.32 Accident reports. (a) The NTSB....S. civil transportation accidents, in accordance with 49 U.S.C. 1131(e). (b) These reports may...

  7. The measurement of accident-proneness

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the measurement of accident-proneness. Accidents seem easy to observe, however accident-proneness is difficult to measure. In this paper I first define the concept of accident-proneness, and I develop an instrument to measure it. The research is mainly executed within chemical

  8. 49 CFR 230.22 - Accident reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 230.22 Section 230.22... Requirements § 230.22 Accident reports. In the case of an accident due to failure, from any cause, of a steam... persons, the railroad on whose line the accident occurred shall immediately make a telephone report of...

  9. 49 CFR 845.40 - Accident report.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident report. 845.40 Section 845.40... RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRANSPORTATION; ACCIDENT/INCIDENT HEARINGS AND REPORTS Board Reports § 845.40 Accident report. (a) The Board will issue a detailed narrative accident report in connection with...

  10. Nuclear laws and radiologic accidents

    Some aspects of the nuclear activities in Brazil, specially concerning the Goiania s accident are demonstrated using concepts from environmental and nuclear law. Nuclear and environmental competence, the impossibility of the states of making regional laws, as the lack of regulation about the nuclear waste, are discussed. The situation of Goiania when the accident happened, the present situation of the victims and the nuclear waste provisionally stored in Abadia de Goias is reported

  11. Iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents

    These proceedings of the Joint WHO/CEC workshop on iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents are presented under the following headings: normal thyroid function and the response to iodine, theoretical basis for stable iodine prophylaxis, risks and benefits of stable iodine prophylaxis, indications for the use of stable iodine, recommendations and rationale for the use of stable iodine prophylaxis in event of future accidents. (UK)

  12. Nuclear accident countermeasures: iodine prophylaxis

    In January 1989 the Department of Health convened a working group to consider and advise on the indications for the use of stable iodine, in the United Kingdom, in the event of nuclear accident. In formulating its advice the working group was to consider the International Guidelines for Iodine Prophylaxis following Nuclear Accidents, drawn by the World Health Organisation, and their applicability to the UK. This report summarises the findings of the working group and gives its conclusions and recommendations. (author)

  13. CARNSORE: Hypothetical reactor accident study

    Two types of design-basis accident and a series of hypothetical core-melt accidents to a 600 MWe reactor are described and their consequences assessed. The PLUCON 2 model was used to calculate the consequences which are presented in terms of individual and collective doses, as well as early and late health consequences. The site proposed for the nucelar power station is Carnsore Point, County Wexford, south-east Ireland. The release fractions for the accidents described are those given in WASH-1400. The analyses are based on the resident population as given in the 1979 census and on 20 years of data from the meteorological stations at Rosslare Harbour, 8.5 km north of the site. The consequences of one of the hypothetical core-melt accidents are described in detail in a meteorological parametric study. Likewise the consequences of the worst conceivable combination of situations are described. Finally, the release fraction in one accident is varied and the consequences of a proposed, more probable ''Class 9 accident'' are presented. (author)

  14. The vver severe accident management

    The basic approach to the VVER safety management is based on the defence-in-depth principle the main idea of which is the multiplicity of physical barriers on the way of dangerous propagation on the one hand and the diversity of measures to protect each of them on the other hand. The main events of severe accident with loss of core cooling at NPP with WWER can be represented as a sequence of NPP states, in which each subsequent state is more severe than the previous one. The following sequence of states of the accident progression is supposed to be realistic and the most probable: -) loss of efficient core cooling; -) core melting, relocation of the molten core to the lower head and molten pool formation, -) reactor vessel damage, and -) containment damage and fission products release. The objectives of accident management at the design basis stage, the determining factors and appropriate determining parameters of processes are formulated in this paper. The same approach is used for the estimation of processes parameters at beyond design basis accident progression. The accident management goals and the determining factors and parameters are also listed in that case which is characterized by the loss of integrity of the fuel cladding. The accident management goal at the stage of core melt relocation implies the need for an efficient core-catcher

  15. JAERI's activities in JCO accident

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was actively involved in a variety of technical supports and cooperative activities, such as advice on terminating the criticality condition, contamination checks of the residents and consultation services for the residents, as emergency response actions to the criticality accident at the uranium processing facility operated by the JCO Co. Ltd., which occurred on September 30, 1999. These activities were carried out in collaborative ways by the JAERI staff from the Tokai Research Establishment, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Oarai Research Establishment, and Headquarter Office in Tokyo. As well, the JAERI was engaged in the post-accident activities such as identification of accident causes, analyses of the criticality accident, and dose assessment of exposed residents, to support the Headquarter for Accident Countermeasures of the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Accident Investigation Committee and the Health Control Committee of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC). This report compiles the activities, that the JAERI has conducted to date, including the discussions on measures for terminating the criticality condition, evaluation of the fission number, radiation monitoring in the environment, dose assessment, analyses of criticality dynamics. (author)

  16. RETRAC, Reactor Core Accident Simulation

    1 - Description of program or function: The RETRAC code uses a set of coupled neutron point-kinetics equations and thermal-hydraulic conservation laws to simulate nuclear reactor core behaviour under transient or accident conditions. The reactor core is represented by single equivalent unit cells composed of three regions: fuel, clad, and moderator (coolant). 2 - Method of solution: At each time step, core thermal power is calculated by solving a set of six delayed neutron group kinetics equations with adjusted reactivity feedbacks. The numerical resolution is performed by using the Runge-Kutta-Gill method. The externally inserted reactivity is specified in the input data file, whereas Doppler, fuel, clad, and water temperature reactivity feedbacks are calculated by the code itself. Core cooling is treated as a homogeneous one-dimensional fluid flow through a representative unit cell composed of three successive regions: fuel, clad, and coolant. Several flow regime models are considered for both single- and two-phase states of the coolant. The conservation laws are solved by the method of characteristics coupled with an implicit finite difference scheme to ensure stability and convergence of the numerical algorithm. Validation tests of the RETRAC code were performed by using the International Atomic Energy Agency 10-MW benchmark cores, for protected transients. Further assessment studies are in progress using experimental data. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The RETRAC code uses steady-state thermal-hydraulic correlations. Their use is not always justified, but it seems to be quite useful in quasi-steady cases such as as loss-of-flow transients

  17. Radiological accidents: education for prevention and confrontation

    The purpose of this work is to train and inform on radiological accidents as a preventive measure to improve the people life quality. Radiological accidents are part of the events of technological origin which are composed of nuclear and radiological accidents. As a notable figure is determined that there have been 423 radiological accidents from 1944 to 2005 and among the causes prevail industrial accidents, by irradiations, medical accidents and of laboratories, among others. Latin American countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Peru are some where most accidents have occurred by radioactivity. The radiological accidents can have sociological, environmental, economic, social and political consequences. In addition, there are scenarios of potential nuclear accidents and in them the potential human consequences. Also, the importance of the organization and planning in a nuclear emergency is highlighted. Finally, the experience that Cuba has lived on the subject of radiological accidents is described

  18. A thermo mechanical benchmark calculation of a hexagonal can in the BTI accident with INCA code

    The thermomechanical behaviour of an hexagonal can in a benchmark problem (simulating the conditions of a BTI accident in a fuel assembly) is examined by means of the INCA code and the results systematically compared with those of ADINA

  19. Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees

    Hakobyan, Aram P.

    In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a

  20. The evolution of computerized displays in accident management

    Key regulations implemented by the NRC in 1982, which included requirements such as upgraded emergency operating procedures, detailed control room design reviews, the addition of a safety parameter display system, and the inclusion of a degreed shift technical advisor as part of the operating staff, have enabled the use of computerized displays to evolve as an integral part of accident management within each of the four main vendor groups. Problems, however, remain to be resolved in the area of technical content, information reliability, and rules for use in order to achieve the goal of more reliable accident management in nuclear power plants

  1. Estimation of the collective sanitary impact of the land contamination by the radioactivity found at Gif sur Yvette; Estimation de l'impact sanitaire collectif de la contamination des terrains par la radioactivite presente a Gif sur Yvette

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    The company 'Societe Nouvelle du Radium' extracted radium and produced radium needles in Gif-sur-Yvette (Essonne) from 1904 to 1957. In 1959, this site was converted into a habitable zone. Since then, this district called the 'Petite Coudraie' has been going through several radioactivity measurements and decontamination works. In 2000, the detection of very high levels of radon above sanitary recommendations in one house encouraged the local authorities to launch a systematic investigation and risk analysis in order to take the necessary measures against radiological risks for the whole concerned district. The 'Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales' (D.D.A.S.S.), the French Institute of Public Health (InVS) and the Institute of Nuclear Protection and Security (I.P.S.N.) conducted a health impact assessment of the pollution in this area. The Office for the Protection against Ionizing Radiations (O.P.R.I.) and the I.P.S.N. first measured the radioactivity found on the surface area. The I.P.S.N. then conducted a dosimetric study based on the measurement results and realistic exposure scenarios of adults and children present in the area. Finally, on the base of these results, the InVs did a quantitative risk assessment of cancer due to exposure to the radioactive residuals from the past industrial activities which is the subject of this report. This assessment allows to estimate the extent of this potential health impact due to the contamination of the area with the current scientific knowledge. It assesses the contribution of the various sources ways of exposure to risk and therefore directs the measures of management priority. Finally, it also allows to appreciate the relevance of an epidemiological study on the population who was present in this area. (author)

  2. Problems of environment pollution in energy production

    This publication relates to nuclear fuel cycle and environment, nuclear accidents, risk analysis, test of nuclear weapon, security problems of nuclear power plants, advantages and disadvantages of energy sources, climate variation due to environment pollution

  3. [Psychological support for road accident participants: the program implementation outcome].

    Mikuczewska-Wośko, Aleksandra; Biłyj, Dorota; Tomczyk, Jarosław

    2009-01-01

    Road accident belongs to one of the categories of traumatic events, and can cause posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The most common psychological consequences of road traffic accidents are the emotional disorders, cognitive deficits (disorders concentration of attention and memory function), impaired social relationships, troubles with performing work duties and physical symp-toms of stress. The article discusses the program of psychological support given to the participants of road accidents, conducted in Wroclaw, its theoretical assumptions and the mode of its implementation. Basic theoretical assumptions of the program are inter alia based on the theories of H. Selye and R. Lazarus. The authors of this article also refer to the so-called therapeutic process of education designed by Everly and Rosenfeld, who recommend that the process of developing self-responsibility be used for therapeutic purposes. This requires clarifying the exact nature of the problem, and then looking for possible remedies. The program is open to all road accident participants (victims, perpetrators, witnesses) and their families. Classes are designed to combine theory (lectures) and practice (exercises). Anxiety and cognitive processes, as well as relaxation training, interpersonal training (eg, assertiveness) and kinesiology are the major areas of activities. Psychological support provided for road accident participants is of intervention--and preventive nature; intervention, as it relates to the consequences ofa specific stressogenic event, namely a road accident; preventive, as it serves the overriding purpose--the improvement of road safety. This article presents the main findings of the program, the results of the survey evaluation, and proposals to develop psychological operations aimed at the road accidents participants. PMID:19999045

  4. Mapping patterns of pedestrian fatal accidents in Israel

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    -year period between 2003 and 2006. Results show the existence of five pedestrian accident patterns: (i) elderly pedestrians crossing on crosswalks far from intersection in metropolitan areas; (ii) pedestrians crossing suddenly or from hidden places and colliding with two-wheel vehicles on urban road sections......This study intends to provide insight into pedestrian accidents by uncovering their patterns in order to design preventive measures and to allocate resources for identifiable problems. Kohonen neural networks are applied to a database of pedestrian fatal accidents occurred during the four......; (iii) male pedestrians crossing at night and being hit by four-wheel vehicles on rural road sections; (iv) young male pedestrians crossing at night wide road sections in both urban and rural areas; (v) children and teenagers crossing road sections in small rural communities. From the policy perspective...

  5. Lessons learned from the radiological accident in Goiania

    The Goiania accident, in September 1987, presents lessons which cover the pre-accident period, the emergency phase, and the post-accident phase up to the present. Each of those phases, taking into consideration errors, omissions and correct actions taken by people and organizations involved, is thoroughly analysed from technical, social, political and economic points of view. Subsequently the paper deals with the influence of legislation and rules applied; the interfaces between the State, the Province and the National Nuclear Energy Commission CNEN; the main problems and the solutions found during the search for, the identification, tracking and interdiction of contaminated places; the decontamination of people, places and belongings; the different aspects involved in providing information and reports to the government, to the organizations and to the community. Special attention is paid to the general support organization, responsible for co-ordination, managing the logistic activities and the participation of several public and private entities. (author). 1 tab

  6. Multiscale Multiphysics Developments for Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts

    Gamble, K. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hales, J. D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Yu, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Y. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bai, X. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Andersson, D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Patra, A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wen, W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tome, C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baskes, M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stanek, C. R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miao, Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ye, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hofman, G. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yacout, A. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Liu, W. [ANATECH Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    U3Si2 and iron-chromium-aluminum (Fe-Cr-Al) alloys are two of many proposed accident-tolerant fuel concepts for the fuel and cladding, respectively. The behavior of these materials under normal operating and accident reactor conditions is not well known. As part of the Department of Energy’s Accident Tolerant Fuel High Impact Problem program significant work has been conducted to investigate the U3Si2 and FeCrAl behavior under reactor conditions. This report presents the multiscale and multiphysics effort completed in fiscal year 2015. The report is split into four major categories including Density Functional Theory Developments, Molecular Dynamics Developments, Mesoscale Developments, and Engineering Scale Developments. The work shown here is a compilation of a collaborative effort between Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory and Anatech Corp.

  7. On the graphic simulation of severe accidents using IBM PC

    In this paper some methods of developing a graphical simulation system using IBM PC and MELCOR code were discussed. Most TH codes, which can calculate the severe accident phenomena parameters, are now running on workstations or supercomputers, to meet the complicated calculations. But the recent progress in computer engineering including personal computers make it possible to run TH codes in small microprocessor environments. Therefore we have surveyed some technical aspects in developing a severe accident graphical simulation system using IBM PC and MELCOR code. Especially noticing the complicated calculation results and the difficulties in obtaining continuous data due to the large data size, which are main defects of TH codes, we also surveyed the graphical methods to overcome these problems. The proposed methods are expected to play important roles in developing our graphic simulation system of severe accidents

  8. Multiscale Multiphysics Developments for Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts

    U3Si2 and iron-chromium-aluminum (Fe-Cr-Al) alloys are two of many proposed accident-tolerant fuel concepts for the fuel and cladding, respectively. The behavior of these materials under normal operating and accident reactor conditions is not well known. As part of the Department of Energy's Accident Tolerant Fuel High Impact Problem program significant work has been conducted to investigate the U3Si2 and FeCrAl behavior under reactor conditions. This report presents the multiscale and multiphysics effort completed in fiscal year 2015. The report is split into four major categories including Density Functional Theory Developments, Molecular Dynamics Developments, Mesoscale Developments, and Engineering Scale Developments. The work shown here is a compilation of a collaborative effort between Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory and Anatech Corp.

  9. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    Sims, C S

    1989-09-01

    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry. PMID:2777549

  10. The radiological accident in Gilan

    The use of radioactive materials continues to offer a wide range of benefits throughout the world in medicine, research and industry. Precautions are, however, necessary in order to protect people from the detrimental effects of the radiation. Where the amount of radioactive material is substantial, e.g. with sources used in radiotherapy or industrial radiography, extreme care is necessary to prevent accidents that may have severe consequences for the individuals affected. Nevertheless, in spite of all precautions, accidents with radiation sources continue to occur. As part of its activities dealing with the safety of radiation sources, the IAEA follows up severe accidents in order to provide an account of their circumstances and medical aspects from which those organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources may learn. On 24 July 1996 a serious accident occurred at the Gilan combined cycle fossil fuel power plant in the Islamic Republic of Iran, when a worker who was moving thermal insulation materials around the plant noticed a shiny, pencil sized metal object lying in a trench and put it in his pocket. He was unaware that the metal object was an unshielded 185 GBq 192Ir source used for industrial radiography. This report compiles information about the medical and other aspects of the accident. As a result of exposure to the iridium source, the worker suffered from severe haematopoietic syndrome (bone marrow depression) and an unusually extended localized radiation injury requiring plastic surgery

  11. The radiological accident in Cochabamba

    In April 2002 an accident involving an industrial radiography source containing 192Ir occurred in Cochabamba, Bolivia, some 400 km from the capital, La Paz. A faulty radiography source container had been sent back to the headquarters of the company concerned in La Paz together with other equipment as cargo on a passenger bus. This gave rise to a potential for serious exposure for the bus passengers as well as for the company employees who were using and transporting the source. The Government of Bolivia requested the assistance of the IAEA under the terms of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. The IAEA in response assembled and sent to Bolivia a team composed of senior radiation safety experts and radiation pathology experts from Brazil, the United Kingdom and the IAEA to investigate the accident. The IAEA is grateful to the Government of Bolivia for the opportunity to report on this accident in order to disseminate the valuable lessons learned and help prevent similar accidents in the future

  12. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

  13. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs

  14. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...... of accidents in normally Danish winter seasons are remarkable alike the amount of salt used in praxis in the winter 2011/2012. • 2.7 ton NaCl/km when using brine spread with nozzles • 5 ton NaCl/km when using pre wetted salt. • 5.7 ton NaCl/km when using kombi spreaders The explanation is that spreading...... of brine with nozzles is precision spreading, while spreading of salt with rotation plate are very imprecise; you can measure 80% residual salt when using brine and only 40% when using pre wetted salt. Of course the result would be worse if dry (solid) salt were used on dry roads. A winter route in Denmark...

  15. [Venomous animal accidents in childhood

    Oliveira, J S; Campos, J A; Costa, D M

    1999-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: To highlight the importance of venomous animal accidents in childhood. The conducts are based on the proposals of the Ministério da Saúde do Brasil [Ministry of Health of Brazil] to standardize medical care in this kind of accident. This article shows the importance of early clinical diagnosis and assistance.METHODS: Review of international and national literature that includes original articles, official standards and books.RESULTS: Pediatricians may always feel insecure when they have to attend children who had venomous animal accidents because this kind of pathology is not very common. This article tries to offer easy guidelines and describes the main steps to be followed. Besides, peculiar or unusual aspects of these accidents are to be found in the literature referred to in the end of this article. Venomous animal accidents are always more severe in children, therefore resulting in higher mortality and sequelae. We assert that the early antivenom sera is extremely helpful.CONCLUSIONS: The systematization of the assistance may guarantee that the essential steps are followed thus making the assistance itself more effective. This is the purpose of the guidelines presented in this article. PMID:14685472

  16. Substance use among Iranian drivers involved in fatal road accidents

    Shervin eAssari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the problem of substance use among drivers is not limited to a special part of the world, most published epidemiological reports on this topic is from industrial world.Aim: To determine drug use among Iranian adults who were imprisoned for vehicle accidents with fatality. Methods: This study enrolled 51 Iranian adults who were imprisoned for vehicle accidents with fatality. This sample came from a national survey of prisoners. Data was collected at entry to prisons during the last 4 months of 2008 in 7 prisons in different parts of the country. Self reported drug use was registered. Commercial substance use screening tests were also done. Results: Drug test was positive for opioids, cannabis and both in 37.3%, 2.0% and 13.7%, respectively. 29.4% tested positive for benzodiazepines. Using test introduced 23.5% of our sample as drug users, who had declined to report any drug use. Conclusion: Opioids are the most used illicit drug in the case of vehicle accidents with fatality, however, 20% of users do not declare their use. This high rate of drug use in vehicle accidents with fatality reflects the importance of drug use control as a part of injury prevention in Iran. There might be a need for drug screening after severe car accidents.

  17. The Chernobyl accident: bibliography of the science literature

    Information about the scientific publications in 1986-1995 on the problems of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident is presented in the book. A significant, unique actual material about results of radiation influence on men, animals, vegetative world and other components of an environment is collected to the present of time. Radiation dozes are determined and combined influence of the both radiation and chemical factors is investigated, clinical epidemiological and genetic estimation of a condition of health of the population is given. Agriculture technologies for conditions of radioactive contamination are developed and used. Normative base for both decontamination works and radioactive wastes storage is created. These and other problems are reflected in the publications described in the collection. The following sections are available: Radiobiology and radioecology (1445 refs.); Radiation medicine (703 refs.); Agriculture radiology (194 refs.); Decontamination and radioactive wastes storage (86 refs.); Economic consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident (36 refs.); Social and psychological problems (39 refs.)

  18. Reflections on liability and radiological or nuclear accidents: the accidents at Goiania, Forbach, three mile Island and Chernobyl

    On the basis of the lessons learned today from, amongst others, the radiological accidents of Goiania in 1987 and Forbach in 1991, as well as the nuclear accident at Three Miles Island (T.M.I.) in 1979, this article tries to make a distinction between problems of liability linked, on the one hand, to the sanctioning of the absence of prevention implied by the occurrence of non-stochastic effects and, on the other hand, to the judicial sanctioning of the failure of precautionary measures taken, as regard stochastic effects. Lastly, over and above the type of damage compensated, liability also gives rise to some thoughts, in light of the experience of Chernobyl, about the impact of modes of compensation on the management of post-accident situations in areas affected over the long term by persisting contamination and the radiological risk associated with it. (N.C.)

  19. The Importance of Safety in Construction Sector: Costs of Occupational Accidents in Construction Sites

    Fatih Yılmaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Occupational accidents cause important social and economic problems by loss of life and physical injuries. Construction sector involves high risk due to its production processes and labor intensive characteristic and because of occupational accidents the sector brings up against financial loss in large scale. In developing countries, construction sector is one of the most important sectors that have a great contribution to economic development with its employment capacity and added-value to the economy. On the other hand, due to the lack of preventive measures, occupational accidents occur, frequently in construction in Turkey. Major occupational accidents are defined as the cause of serious injuries and a long-term disability; minor occupational accidents are defined as the cause of insignificant injuries and short-term disability. Minor occupational accidents are not considered sufficiently, they are even not kept as a record. It is known that minor occupational accidents, which are not considered sufficiently and even not registered, cause great financial loss in workplaces. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cost of workforce loss caused by the accidents in construction sites by using the statistics of three construction sites in Turkey and to compare the financial losses of minor and major occupational accidents. In this study, three construction project are investigated in Turkey in 2009 and it is obtained that the cost of workday loss caused by major occupational accidents is 19431.75 $ and minor occupational accidents cause a loss of 6924.25 $. The cost of workday loss caused by minor occupational accidents are almost 35 % of major workday losses’. These costs presents the importance of preventive measures for workers’ health and safety in construction.

  20. Prevention of criticality accidents

    These notes used in the postgraduate course on Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety discuss macro-and microscopic nuclear constants for fissile materials systems. Critical systems: their definition; criteria to analyze the critical state; determination of the critical size; analysis of practical problems about prevention of criticality. Safety of isolated units and of sets of units. Application of standards. Conception of facilities from the criticality control view point. (author)

  1. Nuclear law and radiological accidents

    Nuclear activities in Brazil, and particularly the radiological accident of Goiania, are examined in the light of the environmental and nuclear laws of Brazil and the issue of responsibility. The absence of legislation covering radioactive wastes as well as the restrictions on Brazilian States to issue regulations covering nuclear activities are reviewed. The radiological accident and its consequences, including the protection and compensation of the victims, the responsibility of the shareholders of the Instituto Goiano de Radioterapia, operator of the radioactive source, the provisional storage and the final disposal at Abadia de Goias of the radioactive waste generated by the accident are reviewed. Finally, nuclear responsibility, the inapplicability of the Law 6453/77 which deals with nuclear damages, and the state liability regime are analysed in accordance with the principles of the Brazilian Federal Constitution. (author)

  2. Fukushima accident study using MELCOR

    Randall O Gauntt

    2013-01-01

    The accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station stunned the world as the sequences played out over severals days and videos of hydrogen explosions were televised as they took place.The accidents all resulted in severe damage to the reactor cores and releases of radioactivity to the environment despite heroic measures had taken by the operating personnel.The following paper provides some background into the development of these accidents and their root causes,chief among them,the prolonged station blackout conditions that isolated the reactors from their ultimate heat sink — the ocean.The interpretations given in this paper are summarized from a recently completed report funded by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE).

  3. Air cleaning in accident situations

    The Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) through its subsidiaries the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) established in 1979 a Group of Experts or Air Cleaning in Accident Situations. This group met seven times to establish a draft report based on its Terms of Reference which were to: 1) review the performance of off-gas cleaning systems in accident conditions; 2) collect information about operating experience with these systems; 3) seek to establish common principles for the design of off-gas systems; 4) review methods used in the different countries for testing filters from the standpoint of accident conditions; and 5) suggest specific mechanisms for improving cooperation, with regard, for example, to filter testing. The conclusions and recommendations of the Group are summarized

  4. Nuclear accidents - Liabilities and guarantees

    The 1992 Symposium on Nuclear Accidents - Liabilities and guarantees, organized by the OECD NUCLEAR Energy Agency in collaboration with the international Atomic Energy Agency, discussed the nuclear third party liability regime established by the Paris and Vienna Conventions, its advantages and shortcomings, and assessed the teachings of the Chernobyl accident in the context of that regime. The topics included the geographical scope of the Conventions, the definition of nuclear damage, in particular environmental damage, insurance cover and capacity, supplementary compensation by means of a collective contribution from the nuclear industry or governments, and finally, the international liability of States in case of a nuclear accident. This proceeding contains 26 papers which have been selected

  5. Severe accident simulation at Olkiuoto

    Tirkkonen, H.; Saarenpaeae, T. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), Olkiluoto (Finland); Cliff Po, L.C. [Micro-Simulation Technology, Montville, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A personal computer-based simulator was developed for the Olkiluoto nuclear plant in Finland for training in severe accident management. The generic software PCTRAN was expanded to model the plant-specific features of the ABB Atom designed BWR including its containment over-pressure protection and filtered vent systems. Scenarios including core heat-up, hydrogen generation, core melt and vessel penetration were developed in this work. Radiation leakage paths and dose rate distribution are presented graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an 486 DX2-66, PCTRAN-TVO achieves a speed about 15 times faster than real-time. A convenient and user-friendly graphic interface allows full interactive control. In this paper a review of the component models and verification runs are presented.

  6. Severe accident management guidelines tool

    Severe Accident is addressed by means of a great number of documents such as guidelines, calculation aids and diagnostic trees. The response methodology often requires the use of several documents at the same time while Technical Support Centre members need to assess the appropriate set of equipment within the adequate mitigation strategies. In order to facilitate the response, TECNATOM has developed SAMG TOOL, initially named GGAS TOOL, which is an easy to use computer program that clearly improves and accelerates the severe accident management. The software is designed with powerful features that allow the users to focus on the decision-making process. Consequently, SAMG TOOL significantly improves the severe accident training, ensuring a better response under a real situation. The software is already installed in several Spanish Nuclear Power Plants and trainees claim that the methodology can be followed easier with it, especially because guidelines, calculation aids, equipment information and strategies availability can be accessed immediately (authors)

  7. Internal Accident Report on EDH

    SC Department

    2006-01-01

    The A2 Safety Code requires that, the Internal Accident Report form must be filled in by the person concerned or any witness to ensure that all the relevant services are informed. Please note that an electronic version of this form has been elaborated in collaboration with SC-IE, HR-OPS-OP and IT-AIS. Whenever possible, the electronic form shall be used. The relative icon is available on the EDH Desktop, Other tasks page, under the Safety heading, or directly here: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Accident/. If you have any questions, please contact the SC Secretariat, tel. 75097 Please notice that the Internal Accident Report is an integral part of the Safety Code A2 and does not replace the HS50.

  8. Hindsight Bias in Cause Analysis of Accident

    Atsuo Murata; Yasunari Matsushita

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that hindsight becomes an obstacle to the objective investigation of an accident, and that the proper countermeasures for the prevention of such an accident is impossible if we view the accident with hindsight. Therefore, it is important for organizational managers to prevent hindsight from occurring so that hindsight does not hinder objective and proper measures to be taken and this does not lead to a serious accident. In this study, a basic phenomenon potentially related to accidents, that is, hindsight was taken up, and an attempt was made to explore the phenomenon in order to get basically insights into the prevention of accidents caused by such a cognitive bias.

  9. Road Traffic Accidents in Kazakhstan

    Alma Aubakirova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The article provides the analysis of death rates in road traffic accidents in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2010 and explores the use of sanitary aviation.Methods: Data of fatalities caused by road traffic accidents were collected and analysed. Descriptive and analytical methods of epidemiology and biomedical statistics were applied.Results: Totaly 27,003 people died as a result of road traffic accidents in this period. The death rate for the total population due to road traffic accidents was 25.0±2.10/0000. The death rate for men was (38.3±3.20/0000, which was higher (P<0.05 than that for women (12.6±1.10/0000. High death rates in the entire male population were identified among men of 30-39 years old, whereas the highest rates for women were attributed to the groups of 50-59 years old and 70-79 years old. In time dynamics, death rates tended to decrease: the total population (Тdec=−2.4%, men (Тdec=−2.3% and women (Тdec=−1.4%. When researching territorial relevance, the rates were established as low (to 18.30/0000, average (between18.3 and24.00/0000 and high (from 24.00/0000 and above. Thus, the regions with high rates included Akmola region (24.30/0000, Mangistau region (25.90/0000, Zhambyl region (27.30/0000, Almaty region (29.30/0000 and South Kazakhstan region (32.40/0000.Conclusion: The identified epidemiological characteristics of the population deaths rates from road traffic accidents should be used in integrated and targeted interventions to enhance prevention of injuries in accidents.

  10. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    In 2001, we summarized the circumstances surrounding termination of the JCO criticality accident based on testimony in the Mito District Court on December 17, 2001. JCO was the company for uranium fuels production in Japan. That document was assembled based on actual testimony in the belief that a description of the work involved in termination of the accident would be useful in some way for preventing nuclear disasters in the future. The description focuses on the witness' own behavior, and what he saw and heard, and thus is written from the perspective of action by one individual. This was done simply because it was easier for the witness to write down his memories as he remembers them. Description of the activities of other organizations and people is provided only as necessary, to ensure that consistency in the descriptive approach is not lost. The essentials of this report were rewritten as a third-person objective description in the summary of the report by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). Since then, comments have been received from sources such as former members of the Nuclear Safety Commission (Dr. Kenji Sumita and Dr. Akira Kanagawa), concerned parties from the former Science and Technology Agency, and reports from the JCO Criticality Accident Investigation Committee of the AESJ, and thus this report was rewritten to correct incorrect information, and add material where that was felt to be necessary. This year is the tenth year of the JCO criticality accident. To mark this occasion we have decided to translate the record of what occurred at the accident site into English so that more people can draw lessons from this accident. This report is an English version of JAEA-Technology 2009-073. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the Relationship between Job Stress and Unsafe Acts with Occupational Accidents in a Vehicle Manufacturing Plant

    I. Mohammadfam; Bahrami, A.; F. Fatemi; R Golmohammadi; H. Mahjub

    2008-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Nowadays the vehicle manufacturing industries in Iran are critical sites as far as occupational accidents are concerned. At the same time, occupational stress and unsafe acts have also been recognized as effective factors in increasing the risk of mental and physical health problems and occupational accidents. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the relationship between job stress and unsafe acts with occupational accidents.Materials & Methods: Data were co...

  12. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    The techniques currently used in off-site consequence modelling are applied to the Chernobyl accident. Firstly, the time dependent spread of radioactive material across the European continent is considered, followed by a preliminary assessment of the dosimetric impact (in terms of collective and mean individual doses) on the various countries of Eastern and Western Europe. The consequences of the accident in the USSR are also discussed. Finally, the likely implications of the Chernobyl event on research in the field of environmental consequence assessment are outlined. (author)

  13. Severe accident source term reassessment

    This paper summarizes the status of the reassessment of severe reactor accident source terms, which are defined as the quantity, type, and timing of fission product releases from such accidents. Concentration is on the major results and conclusions of analyses with modern methods for both pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs), and the special case of containment bypass. Some distinctions are drawn between analyses for PWRs and BWRs. In general, the more the matter is examined, the consequences, or probability of serious consequences, seem to be less. (author)

  14. The nature of reactor accidents

    Reactor accidents are events which result in the release of radioactive material from a nuclear power plant due to the failure of one or more critical components of that plant. The failures, depending on their number and type, can result in releases whose consequences range from negligible to catastrophic. By way of examples, this paper describes four specific accidents which cover this range of consequence: failure of a reactor control system, loss of coolant, loss of coolant with impaired containment, and reactor core meltdown. For each a possible sequence of events and an estimate of the expected frequency are presented

  15. Civil liability concerning nuclear accidents

    France and the USA wish to cooperate in order to promote an international regime of civil liability in order to give a fair compensation to victims of nuclear accidents as it is recommended by IAEA. On the other hand the European Commission has launched a consultation to see the necessity or not to harmonize all the civil liability regimes valid throughout Europe. According to the Commission the potential victims of nuclear accidents would not receive equal treatment at the European scale in terms of insurance cover and compensation which might distort competition in the nuclear sector. (A.C.)

  16. Ignalina accident localisation system response to maximum design basis accident

    In this paper the study of the accident localisation system (ALS) of the Ignalina nuclear power plant (NPP) with RBMK-1500 reactors (large-power channel-type water-cooled graphite-moderated reactor) with regard to a maximum design basis accident (MDBA) is presented. The MDBA for Ignalina NPP constitutes a guillotine rupture of the maximum diameter pipe. The thermal-hydraulic and structural analyses were performed using the RELAP5, CONTAIN and ALGOR codes. The coolant mass and energy discharge source terms to the accident compartment were established using the RELAP5 code. This was then used as a source term for the long-term accident thermal-hydraulic analysis of ALS compartments employing the CONTAIN code. Results obtained by the CONTAIN calculations establish a basis for the structural analysis. A finite-element method has been used for ALS structural analysis using the ALGOR code, the results of which show that the structures of the ALS would not be breached by the pressure attained in the event of an MDBA. (author)

  17. The sanitary officer: first aid coordinator on EDF nuclear power plant; Le delegue sanitaire: coordonnateur des secouristes en centrale nucleaire a E.D.F

    Masson, A

    2000-07-01

    The internal organisation for first aid to the injured in case of an accident on E.D.F. nuclear power plant calls for the immediate assistance of a first aid team, consisting of five workers, under the direction of a principal first aid officer; one of the first aid workers, the sanitary officer who instructs the first aid workers intervention awaiting the arrival of an external medical. When the 'Sanitary on-site Emergency Plan' was up' dated, twenty medical doctors and seventy members of staff from five different sites were questioned as to the function of the sanitary officer. The conclusions revealed a notable difference of training amongst the different sites, and concerning first aid organisation, difference of priority of actions, extent of their participation once the medical team arrives and their participation in case of decontamination treatment. The medical doctors and staff lay a particular stress on importance of defining on a national scale the limits of role and responsibilities of the sanitary officer and establish a more specific training in this field, consequently motivating commitment and professionalism involvement. There is a great difference between the training and coaching of the first aid assistance and fire protection teams. To conclude, we propose that the first aid officer be known as first aid coordinator and the qualification of 'Certificat de Formation aux Premiers Secours en Equipe' in compliance with the current legislation together with a specific nuclear module and they should undergo regular on-site drills. (author)

  18. The Navy help in nuclear accidents

    In this paper, the author tell us historical aspects of the radiological accident in Goiania, its effects and the solicitation made to the Navy Hospital Marcilio Dias to take care of the victims. He mentions the arrival of the patients and the human resources that there was when was established the seriousness of the fact, what made a need the mobilization of medical officers specialists in related subjects to the problem and also nursing personnel of high and technical level. He also describes the effort made to gather all the necessary personnel that came from many different organizations including ships. Emphasis is made on the previous qualifications of the personnel in the area of radio protection through courses and training given by the Brazilian Navy and the role played by the nursing personnel. Very important was the integration accomplished among all the clinical departments inside Navy Hospital Marcilio Dias and civilian organizations like Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Furnas, The Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), and the precious participation of foreign specialists. The author finishes telling the reasons why a Navy Hospital was chosen to do this job, accentuating the fact that a radiological accident is event that involves high risk and demands appropriate care and an organized hierarchical structure that only can be found in military hospitals

  19. Ten years after the Chernobyl Accident

    About 5 percent of the total amount of cesium released from the Chernobyl reactor accident deposited in Sweden. The middle part of Sweden received the highest fallout. During the first period after the accident, cows in these areas were not allowed to graze. Due to the time of the year there were very few problems with cultivated crops, even during the first summer. Game, reindeer, fresh water fish, wild berries and mushrooms, however, were contaminated to a great extent and still after 10 years high concentrations of 137Cs can be found in these animals and in mushrooms, but to a lesser extent in wild berries. Intensive controls of the Cs content are still being carried out in reindeer at the time of slaughtering. During the last few years, hand instruments for estimation of the Cs content of live animals (reindeer mostly) has been available. This makes it possible to slaughter only animals estimated to have levels of Cs below the limit value. When offered for sale, the limit value for 137Cs is 300 Bq/kg for the 'basic foodstuffs' and for meat from game, reindeer, fresh water fish, nuts, wild berries and mushrooms 1500 Bq/kg. High levels of 137Cs will be found in reindeer and fresh water fish from some areas for many years in the future. 8 refs, 11 figs

  20. Medical basis for radiation accident preparedness

    The International Conference on The Medical Basis for Radiation Accident Preparedness was organized by the staff of the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) of the Medical and Health Sciences Division of Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU). The philosophical importance of relating, through investigation and education, the intellectual resources of higher education to the important social problems associated with energy, health, and the environment was the foundation of the meeting. The symposium, held under the auspices of the US Department of Energy, was the ninth since 1960 of a series of international conferences addressing the various aspects of radiation accidents. The approach of this most recent conference differed somewhat from that of those preceding it, in that it sought an international review of the gamut of the medical aspects of radiation injury, not only for the experts in the field, but also for other physicians and scientists who, in view of current events, have had the need to know thrust upon them. Individual entries were made for the separate papers

  1. Opportunities for international cooperation in nuclear accident preparedness and management: Procedural and organizational measures

    In this paper we address a difficult problem: How can we create and maintain preparedness for nuclear accidents? Our research has shown that this can be broken down into two questions: (1) How can we maintain the resources and expertise necessary to manage an accident once it occurs? and (2) How can we develop plans that will help in actually managing an accident once it occurs? It is apparently beyond the means of ordinary human organizations to maintain the capability to respond to a rare event. (A rare event is defined as something like an accident that only happens once every five years or so, somewhere in the world.) Other more immediate pressures tend to capture the resources that should, in a cost/benefit sense, be devoted to maintaining the capability. This paper demonstrates that some of the important factors behind that phenomenon can be mitigated by an international body that promotes and enforces preparedness. Therefore this problem provides a unique opportunity for international cooperation: an international organization promoting and enforcing preparedness could help save us from our own organizational failings. Developing useful accident management plans can be viewed as a human performance problem. It can be restated: how can we support and off-load the accident managers so that their tasks are more feasible? This question reveals the decision analytic perspective of this paper. That is, we look at the problem managing a nuclear accident by focusing on the decision makers, the accident managers: how do we create a decision frame for the accident managers to best help them manage? The decision frame is outlined and discussed. 9 refs

  2. URBAN TRAFFIC ACCIDENT ANALYSIS BY USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Meltem SAPLIOĞLU

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, traffic accidents that cause more social and economic losses than that of natural disasters,have become a national problem in Turkey. To solve this problem and to reduce the casualties, road safety programs are tried to be developed. It is necessary to develop the most effective measures with low investment cost due to limited budgets allocated to such road safety programs. The most important program is to determine dangerous locations of traffic accidents and to improve these sections from the road safety view point. New Technologies are driving a cycle of continuous improvement that causes rapid changes in the traffic engineering and any engineering services within it. It is obvious that this developed services will be the potential for forward-thinking engineering studies to take a more influence role. In this study, Geographic Information System (GIS was used to identify the hazardous locations of traffic accidents in Isparta. Isparta city map was digitized by using Arcinfo 7.21. Traffic accident reports occurred between 1998-2002 were obtained from Directory of Isparta Traffic Region and had been used to form the database. Topology was set up by using Crash Diagrams and Geographic Position Reference Systems. Tables are formed according to the obtained results and interpreted.

  3. Report from the Special Committee on Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    The Special Committee on Fukushima Nuclear Accident was established in April 2011 under the Heat Transfer Society of Japan (HTSJ) and discussed (1) how had evolved heat transfer research in progress of nuclear technology, (2) role of expert group in the area of heat transfer academy and technology and (3) energy prospect in Japan after the Fukushima nuclear accident. This report was described by the chairman of the special committee summarizing one year discussions as (1) background of heat transfer research progress, (2) progression of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, (3) energy problem in Japan after the Fukushima accident and (4) social role of the HTSJ. This HTSJ was a unique, nonprofit association in Japan of the people engaged in heat transfers research or in various engineering aspects related to heat transfer, which meant interdisciplinary or common platform of heat transfer as elementary technologies. Such actual complex problems could be discussed in the HTSJ from an overlooking viewpoint in order for the HTSJ to play a social role. (T. Tanaka)

  4. Cs137 and Sr90 dietary intake and urinary excretion for children, after the Chernobyl accident

    Since the accident from Chernobyl, an important number of studies were focused on the effects of the accident but, nine years after the accident, we still don't know enough about its impact on public health and environment. A major problem after the Chernobyl accident was to asses the effects of the irradiation for different age groups, especially for children. Our group measured Cs137 and Sr90 dietary intake and urinary excretion for children of different ages (between 4 and 12 years), at different time intervals after the accident. From the intake data, a trend of the annually committed effective doses was deduced. The paper presents the dose values for different age groups, as well as the balance of the intake and excretion, given as the 'observed ratio'. (author)

  5. The effect of Chernobyl accident on the development of non malignant diseases

    The early medical complications of Chernobyl accident include post radiation disease, which were diagnosed in 134 subjects affected by ionizing radiation. 28 persons died during the first 100 days after the event. The increase occurrence of coronary heart disease, endocrine, haematological, dermatological and other diseases were observed after disaster in the contaminated territories. We also discussed the impact of ionizing radiation from Chernobyl accident on pregnancy and congenital defects occurrence. Changes following the Chernobyl accident, as the inhabitants migration from contaminated regions, political and economic conversions, led to depression, anxiety, and even to '' epidemic '' of mental diseases. Increased suicide rate, car accidents, alcohol and drug abuse have been observed in this population. Nowadays vegetative neurosis is more often diagnosed in Ukrainian children. Epidemiological studies were conducted on the ionising radiation effect on the health and on the dose of received radiation after Chernobyl accident face numerous problems as the absence of reliable data regarding diseases in the contaminated territories.(authors)

  6. Investigation report on criticality accident at the Uranium Processing Plant of the JCO, Ltd

    This report is a summarized one of investigation results on a criticality accident at the Uranium Processing Plant of the JCO, Ltd., carried out by the Nuclear Safety Investigation Special Group (SISG) of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). AESJ published a statement of the president on this accident on October 8, 1999, and decided to perform its investigation under SISG. SISG carried out some questionnaires for new trials together with conventional lectures of the well-informed. This report contains six chapters on critical safety and accident, process of the accident and elucidation of its facts, cause analysis and picking-out on problems, questionnaires on improvement proposal', questionnaires on 'duty of AESJ7, and future efforts on nuclear safety culture. At the last chapter, SISG discussed about some items on re-occurrence protection of the nuclear accident. (G.K.)

  7. Industrial accidents in nuclear power plants

    In 12 nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany with a total of 3678 employees, 25 notifiable company personnel accidents and 46 notifiable outside personnel accidents were reported for an 18-month period. (orig./HP)

  8. Road Accident Trends in Africa and Europe

    Jørgensen, N O

    1997-01-01

    The paper decribes trends and suggests prediction models for accident risks in African and European countries......The paper decribes trends and suggests prediction models for accident risks in African and European countries...

  9. 49 CFR 229.17 - Accident reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 225. ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 229.17 Section 229.17..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS General § 229.17 Accident reports. (a)...

  10. How to reduce the number of accidents

    2012-01-01

    Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. HSE Unit

  11. Lessons of the radiological accident in Goiania

    On the basis of the lessons teamed from the radiological accident of Goiania, actions are described which a nuclear regulatory body should undertake while responding to an accident of this nature. (author)

  12. New technology for accident prevention

    Byne, P. [Shiftwork Solutions, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This power point presentation examined the effects of fatigue in the workplace and presented 3 technologies designed to prevent or monitor fatigue. The relationship between mental fatigue, circadian rhythms and cognitive performance was explored. Details of vigilance related degradations in the workplace were presented, as well as data on fatigue-related accidents and a time-line of meter-reading errors. It was noted that the direct cause of the Exxon Valdez disaster was sleep deprivation. Fatigue related accidents during the Gulf War were reviewed. The effects of fatigue on workplace performance include impaired logical reasoning and decision-making; impaired vigilance and attention; slowed mental operations; loss of situational awareness; slowed reaction time; and short cuts and lapses in optional or self-paced behaviours. New technologies to prevent fatigue-related accidents include (1) the driver fatigue monitor, an infra-red camera and computer that tracks a driver's slow eye-lid closures to prevent fatigue related accidents; (2) a fatigue avoidance scheduling tool (FAST) which collects actigraphs of sleep activity; and (3) SAFTE, a sleep, activity, fatigue and effectiveness model. refs., tabs., figs.

  13. Traffic accident with radioactive material

    A traffic accident with a package with radioactive contents of the category 'III-YELLOW' remaining undamaged, caused complete confusion among the responsible rescue services. All forces active until professional fire-brigades arrived showed a deficit of tactical radiation protection behaviour. Even a medical unit with an equipped emergency task force in situ and radiation protection equipment did not feel responsible. (DG)

  14. Accident consequence assessment code development

    This paper describes the new computer code system, OSCAAR developed for off-site consequence assessment of a potential nuclear accident. OSCAAR consists of several modules which have modeling capabilities in atmospheric transport, foodchain transport, dosimetry, emergency response and radiological health effects. The major modules of the consequence assessment code are described, highlighting the validation and verification of the models. (author)

  15. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

  16. Calculating nuclear accident probabilities from empirical frequencies

    Ha-Duong, Minh; Journé, V.

    2014-01-01

    International audience Since there is no authoritative, comprehensive and public historical record of nuclear power plant accidents, we reconstructed a nuclear accident data set from peer-reviewed and other literature. We found that, in a sample of five random years, the worldwide historical frequency of a nuclear major accident, defined as an INES level 7 event, is 14 %. The probability of at least one nuclear accident rated at level ≥4 on the INES scale is 67 %. These numbers are subject...

  17. Trismus: An unusual presentation following road accident

    Thakur Jagdeep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trismus due to trauma usually follows road accidents leading to massive faciomaxillary injury. In the literature there is no report of a foreign body causing trismus following a road accident, this rare case is an exception. We present a case of isolated presentation of trismus following a road accident. This case report stresses on the thorough evaluation of patients presenting with trismus following a road accident.

  18. The Monju accident. Causes and effects

    On December 8, 1995, the Japanese prototype fast breeder reactor, Monju, suffered an accident which aroused considerable national and international attention. A thermocouple in a pipe carrying sodium in the secondary plant system had broken, causing some 700 kg of non-radioactive sodium to be spilled. The safety of the reactor, of the plant crew, and of the environment was not jeopardized. However, as a consequence of some badly handled public relations, rather negative reactions of the public authorities and of the public at large were encountered. One member of the investigating committee, facing a conflict of loyalities not uncommon in Japan, even committed suicide. According to current estimates, Monju will be down for at least two years, thus causing major financial problems to the operator, PNC. On the political level, more difficulties are expected to arise in the introduction of plutonium recycling. (orig.)

  19. Emergency room management of radiation accidents

    Emergency room management of radioactively contaminated patients who have an associated medical injury requiring immediate attention must be handled with care. Radioactive contamination of the skin of a worker is not a medical emergency and is usually dealt with at the plant. Effective preplanning and on-the-scene triage will allow the seriously injured and contaminated patients to get the medical care they need with a minimum of confusion and interference. Immediate medical and surgical priorities always take precedence over radiation injuries and radioactive contamination. Probably the most difficult aspect of emergency management is the rarity of such accidents and hence the unfamiliarity of the medical staff with the appropriate procedures. The authors discuss how the answer to these problems is preplanning, having a simple and workable procedure and finally having 24-h access to experts

  20. Fatal accident caused by isoflurane abuse.

    Pavlic, M; Haidekker, A; Grubwieser, P; Rabl, W

    2002-12-01

    A fatal accident after isoflurane abuse is presented in this report. A hospital employee was found dead in the operating area with a plastic bag over his head. In his locker an almost empty bottle of isoflurane was found. Autopsy revealed signs of asphyxiation and toxicological examination revealed nordazepam and isoflurane in non-toxic concentrations in the blood. Quantification of the anaesthetic was also carried out in urine, gastric contents, liver, kidney and brain samples, and in addition, oxazepam, prothipendyl and metabolites of midazolam and prothipendyl were found in the urine. Although the drug problems of the deceased were known before, no efforts had been made to restrict access to these drugs. PMID:12596784

  1. Feedback from practical experience with large sodium fire accidents

    contact with the concrete floor and walls. Sodium concrete reactions and concrete destruction were the consequence. The Almeria accident had previously drawn attention to the potential problem of Na aerosol release into the environment. As consequence the local environment protection group took samples of the air around the Bensberg facility during the accident. No noxious fall out has been found although post accident analyses have shown that the amount of released aerosols was about 1000 kg. The accident confirmed also that severe damage was limited to the immediate fire zone. Neither the Almeria spray fire accident nor the ILONA sodium concrete reactions would have endangered the nuclear safety if they would have occurred at a reactor plant (not speaking of investment losses). The ILONA building was cleaned. After repair the building was ready for another use. (author)

  2. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures

  3. Arthropods of Medical Importance in Brazil: Retrospective Epidemiological Information about Accidents Involving these Animals

    Danon Clemes Cardoso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The epidemiological information about arthropods bites/sting in Criciúma region no was reported. The aim of this Research was to draw the epidemiologic profile of accidents with arthropods in Criciúma region. Approach: The information regarding accidents with arthropods from 1994-2006 was prospectively collected from SINAN (System of Injury Notification Information files of the 21a Municipal Health Secretary of Criciúma region. Was calculated the frequency for each variable studied and incidence coefficient for period of study. Results: Results were recorded 1821 notifications of accidents with arthropods in region studied. The numbers of occurrence increased along of the years studied. The arthropod that most result in accidents was the spider with 1,126 (75.9% cases followed by Honeybees and others Arthropods with 149 (10.0% cases, Caterpillars including Lonomia genus and others genera (54/3.7% and scorpions with the least number of accidents with 6 (0.4% cases. The incidence of accidents every thousand inhabitants had a significant increase starting in the year of 2000. The majority of accidents occurred in the warmest months, increasing in the spring and summer seasons. Was recorded more than twice of accidents with arthropods in Urban area than in rural areas. The Chi-square test revealed that the frequency of accidents between locations and type of arthropods is different. Likewise, the number the victims and activity type in moment of the bite/sting had been a differ behavior between arthropods type. However, the number of accidents involving victims of male and female gender is equal. Conclusion: Epidemiological studies of this type in the extreme south of Santa Catarina are scarce. Only few studies have reported the patterns of occurrence and incidence of accidents with poisonous animals. These and other studies are of great importance for implementation of measures mitigation programs and education for

  4. A review of accidents, prevention and mitigation options related to hazardous gases

    Statistics on industrial accidents are incomplete due to lack of specific criteria on what constitutes a release or accident. In this country, most major industrial accidents were related to explosions and fires of flammable materials, not to releases of chemicals into the environment. The EPA in a study of 6,928 accidental releases of toxic chemicals revealed that accidents at stationary facilities accounted for 75% of the total number of releases, and transportation accidents for the other 25%. About 7% of all reported accidents (468 cases) resulted in 138 deaths and 4,717 injuries ranging from temporary respiratory problems to critical injuries. In-plant accidents accounted for 65% of the casualties. The most efficient strategy to reduce hazards is to choose technologies which do not require the use of large quantities of hazardous gases. For new technologies this approach can be implemented early in development, before large financial resources and efforts are committed to specific options. Once specific materials and options have been selected, strategies to prevent accident initiating events need to be evaluated and implemented. The next step is to implement safety options which suppress a hazard when an accident initiating event occurs. Releases can be prevented or reduced with fail-safe equipment and valves, adequate warning systems and controls to reduce and interrupt gas leakage. If an accident occurs and safety systems fail to contain a hazardous gas release, then engineering control systems will be relied on to reduce/minimize environmental releases. As a final defensive barrier, the prevention of human exposure is needed if a hazardous gas is released, in spite of previous strategies. Prevention of consequences forms the final defensive barrier. Medical facilities close by that can accommodate victims of the worst accident can reduce the consequences of personnel exposure to hazardous gases

  5. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause...

  6. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention....

  7. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  8. Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    Korol, N. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine); Shibata, Yoshisada; Nakane, Yoshibumi

    1998-12-01

    Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

  9. Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

  10. Overview of SAMPSON code development for LWR severe accident analysis

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has developed a severe accident analysis code 'SAMPSON'. SAMPSON's distinguishing features include inter-connected hierarchical modules and mechanistic models covering a wide spectrum of scenarios ranging from normal operation to hypothetical severe accident events. Each module included in the SAMPSON also runs independently for analysis of specific phenomena assigned. The OECD International Standard Problems (ISP-45 and 46) were solved by the SAMPSON for code verifications. The analysis results showed fairly good agreement with the test results. Then, severe accident phenomena in typical PWR and BWR plants were analyzed. The PWR analysis result showed 56 hours as the containment vessel failure timing, which was 9 hours later than one calculated by MELCOR code. The BWR analysis result showed no containment vessel failure during whole accident events, whereas the MELCOR result showed 10.8 hours. These differences were mainly due to consideration of heat release from the containment vessel wall to atmosphere in the SAMPSON code. Another PWR analysis with water injection as an accident management was performed. The analysis result showed that earlier water injection before the time when the fuel surface temperature reached 1,750 K was effective to prevent further core melt. Since fuel surface and fluid temperatures had spatial distribution, a careful consideration shall be required to determine the suitable location for temperature measurement as an index for the pump restart for water injection. The SAMPSON code was applied to the accident analysis of the Hamaoka-1 BWR plant, where the pipe ruptured due to hydrogen detonation. The SAMPSON had initially been developed to run on a parallel computer. Considering remarkable progress of computer hardware performance, as another version of the SAMPSON code, it has recently been modified so as to run on a single processor. The improvements of physical models, numerical

  11. Computerised severe accident management aids

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project in Norway is running two development projects in the area of computerised accident management in cooperation with the Swedish nuclear plant Forsmark unit 2. Also other nuclear organisations in the Nordic countries take part in the projects. The SAS II system is installed at Forsmark and is now being validated against the plant compact simulator and is later to be installed in the plant control room. It is designed to follow all defined critical safety functions in the same manner as is done in the functionally oriented Emergency Operating Procedures. The shift supervisor thus uses SAS II as a complementary information system after a plant disturbance . The plant operators still use the ordinary instrumentation and the event oriented procedures. This gives to a high extent both redundancy and diversity in information channels and in procedures. Further, a new system is under discussion which goes a step further in accident management than SAS II. It is called the Computerised Accident Management Support (CAMS) system. The objective is to make a computerised tool that can assist both the control room crew and the technical support centre in accident mitigation, especially in the early stages of an accident where the integrity of the core still can be maintained if proper counteractions to the accident sequence are taken. In CAMS another approach is taken than in SAS II by putting the process parameters in focus. A more elaborate signal validation is proposed. The validated signals are input to models that calculates mass and energy balances of the primary system. Among parameters calculated are residual heat. Experiences from these two approaches to computerised accident management support are presented and discussed. In summary: The original project proposal aimed particularly for operator and TSC support during severe accidents. In the CAMS design proposal we have, however, promoted the SMABRE code which is not designed for such

  12. Simulation of a loss of coolant accident

    An essential component of nuclear safety activities is the analysis of postulated accidents which are taken as a design basis for a facility. This analysis is usually carried out by using complex computer codes to simulate the behaviour of the plant and to calculate vital plant parameters, which are then compared with the design limits. Since these simulations cannot be verified at the plant itself, computer codes must be validated by comparing the results of calculations with experimental data obtained in test facilities. With this objective in mind, the Central Research Institute for Physics (CRIP) of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences designed and constructed the PMK-NVH (Paks Model Circuit) test facility, a scaled down model of the WWER-440 Paks nuclear power plant. Hungary with the aim of strengthening the international co-operation on nuclear safety, made the PMK-NVH facility available to the IAEA to conduct a standard problem exercise. In this exercise, experimental data from the simulation of a 7.4% break loss of coolant accident were compared with analytical predictions of the behaviour of the facility calculated with computer codes. This document presents a complete overview of the Standard Problem Exercise, including description of the facility, the experiment, the codes and models used by the participants and a detailed intercomparison of calculated and experimental results. It is recognized that code assessment is a long process which involves many inter-related steps, therefore, no general conclusion on optimum code or best model was reached. However, the exercise was recognized as an important contributor to code validation

  13. Accident risk and safety measures in the transport sector in Norway; Ulykkesrisiko og sikkerhetstiltak i transportsektoren

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The scope of the work described in this report was (1) to evaluate methods for risk mapping considering all of the different means of transport, (2) to evaluate the extent to which measures should be taken against various types of accidents, (3) to evaluate cost-benefit assessments of accident-reducing measures irrespective of the different means of transport, (4) to evaluate the preferences of measures/cost effectiveness of different measures within different sectors, and (4) to evaluate the possibility of improving the efficiency of possible measures. It also considers the risk situation for ferry service. In addition to the purely human aspect, traffic accidents constitute an expensive social problem. Yet it would be too costly to meet a potential requirement that traffic accidents should disappear. The resources used by society to combat accidents have to be seen in the light of (1) the profit that can be achieved compared to alternative use of the resources, and (2) the possible negative consequences of different safety measures on, for instance, travel time and the extent of the transport. It is pointed out that when accident risk is compared from one transport means to another, different relative positions are found depending on how risk is quantified. Thus, for instance, on average, per year 5 times as many people die in accidents involving private cars as in motor cycle accidents, while for the number of deaths per billion person kilometers the ratio is almost the opposite,1:6.5. 34 refs., 12 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Integrating four-dimensional geographical information and mobile techniques into radiological accident emergency response training

    When radiological accidents occur, radioactive material may spread into the atmosphere, causing large-scale and long-term contamination. To diminish the effects of such accidents, researchers from many countries have investigated training programs in emergency response to radiological accidents, especially in the wake of several serious radiological accidents. Although many training programs have been proposed, this study identifies two problems: the lack of effective data representation and the lack of complete training records. Therefore, by considering various requirements for relief and evacuation work at radiological accident sites, it integrates four-dimensional geographical information and mobile techniques to construct a training platform for radiological accident emergency response. During training, groups of participants learn to respond to simulated radiological accident scenarios. Moreover, participants can use the training platform to review and discuss training details. Judging by the results, the training platform has not only increased the effectiveness of training programs, but also complied with standard operating procedures for radiological accident emergency response in Taiwan. In conclusion, this study could serve as a useful reference for similar studies and applications. (author)

  15. Adjoint-based sensitivity analysis for reactor accident codes

    This paper summarizes a recently completed study that identified and investigated the difficulties and limitations of applying first-order adjoint sensitivity methods to reactor accident codes. The work extends earlier adjoint sensitivity formulations and applications to consider problem/model discontinuities in a general fashion, provide for response (R) formulations required by reactor safety applications, and provide a scheme for accurately handling extremely time-sensitive reactor accident responses. The scheme involves partitioning (dividing) the model into submodels (with spearate defining equations and initial conditions) at the location of discontinuity. Successful partitioning moves the problem dependence on the discontinuity location from the whole model system equations to the initial conditions of the second submodel

  16. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures known to us, the various road locations are treated as isolated spots. With small accident figures it is difficult to detect such places in the known procedures. An alternative procedure starts from...

  17. Occupational accidents in Turkey and providing and development of safety culture in preventing occupational accidents

    Dursun, Salih

    2011-01-01

    Occupational accidents cause socially and economically significant loss both in developed and developing countries. According to ILO each year, 2.2 million people lost their lives in the occupational accident. In Turkey, over 1600 people die in these accidents every year. In this case, an important part of occupational accidents like 95% based on “human”, requires more people-oriented approaches towards the prevention of accidents. In this context, to provide and develop the safety culture, w...

  18. Use of PSA and severe accident assessment results for the accident management

    The objectives for this study are to investigate the basic principle or methodology which is applicable to accident management, by using the results of PSA and severe accident research, and also facilitate the preparation of accidents management program in the future. This study was performed as follows: derivation of measures for core damage prevention, derivation of measures for accident mitigation, application of computerized tool to assess severe accident management

  19. Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    On the evening of April 20, 2010, a well control event allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in explosions and fire on the rig. Eleven people lost their lives, and 17 others were injured. The fire, which was fed by hydrocarbons from the well, continued for 36 hours until the rig sank. Hydrocarbons continued to flow from the reservoir through the wellbore and the blowout preventer (BOP) for 87 days, causing a spill of national significance. BP Exploration and Production Inc. was the lease operator of Mississippi Canyon Block 252, which contains the Macondo well. BP formed an investigation team that was charged with gathering the facts surrounding the accident, analyzing available information to identify possible causes and making recommendations to enable prevention of similar accidents in the future. The BP investigation team began its work immediately in the aftermath of the accident, working independently from other BP spill response activities and organizations. The ability to gather information was limited by a scarcity of physical evidence and restricted access to potentially relevant witnesses. The team had access to partial real-time data from the rig, documents from various aspects of the Macondo well's development and construction, witness interviews and testimony from public hearings. The team used the information that was made available by other companies, including Transocean, Halliburton and Cameron. Over the course of the investigation, the team involved over 50 internal and external specialists from a variety of fields: safety, operations, subsea, drilling, well control, cementing, well flow dynamic modeling, BOP systems and process hazard analysis. This report presents an analysis of the events leading up to the accident, eight key findings related to the causal chain of events and recommendations to enable the prevention of a similar accident. The investigation team worked

  20. Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report

    On the evening of April 20, 2010, a well control event allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in explosions and fire on the rig. Eleven people lost their lives, and 17 others were injured. The fire, which was fed by hydrocarbons from the well, continued for 36 hours until the rig sank. Hydrocarbons continued to flow from the reservoir through the wellbore and the blowout preventer (BOP) for 87 days, causing a spill of national significance. BP Exploration and Production Inc. was the lease operator of Mississippi Canyon Block 252, which contains the Macondo well. BP formed an investigation team that was charged with gathering the facts surrounding the accident, analyzing available information to identify possible causes and making recommendations to enable prevention of similar accidents in the future. The BP investigation team began its work immediately in the aftermath of the accident, working independently from other BP spill response activities and organizations. The ability to gather information was limited by a scarcity of physical evidence and restricted access to potentially relevant witnesses. The team had access to partial real-time data from the rig, documents from various aspects of the Macondo well's development and construction, witness interviews and testimony from public hearings. The team used the information that was made available by other companies, including Transocean, Halliburton and Cameron. Over the course of the investigation, the team involved over 50 internal and external specialists from a variety of fields: safety, operations, subsea, drilling, well control, cementing, well flow dynamic modeling, BOP systems and process hazard analysis. This report presents an analysis of the events leading up to the accident, eight key findings related to the causal chain of events and recommendations to enable the prevention of a similar accident. The investigation team worked separately

  1. Young Drivers Perceptual Learning Styles Preferences and Traffic Accidents

    Čičević, Svetlana; Tubić, Vladan; Nešić, Milkica; Čubranić-Dobrodolac, Marjana

    2011-01-01

    Young drivers are over-represented in crash and fatality statistics. One way of dealing with this problem is to achieve primary prevention through driver education and training. Factors of traffic accidents related to gender, age, driving experience, and self-assessments of safety and their relationship to perceptual learning styles (LS) preferences have been analyzed in this study. The results show that auditory is the most prominent LS. Drivers in general, as well as drivers without traffic...

  2. Emergency response planning for transport accidents involving radioactive materials

    The document presents a basic discussion of the various aspects and philosophies of emergency planning and preparedness along with a consideration of the problems which might be encountered in a transportation accident involving a release of radioactive materials. Readers who are responsible for preparing emergency plans and procedures will have to decide on how best to apply this guidance to their own organizational structures and will also have to decide on an emergency planning and preparedness philosophy suitable to their own situations

  3. Cost per severe accident as an index for severe accident consequence assessment and its applications

    The Fukushima Accident emphasizes the need to integrate the assessments of health effects, economic impacts, social impacts and environmental impacts, in order to perform a comprehensive consequence assessment of severe accidents in nuclear power plants. “Cost per severe accident” is introduced as an index for that purpose. The calculation methodology, including the consequence analysis using level 3 probabilistic risk assessment code OSCAAR and the calculation method of the cost per severe accident, is proposed. This methodology was applied to a virtual 1,100 MWe boiling water reactor. The breakdown of the cost per severe accident was provided. The radiation effect cost, the relocation cost and the decontamination cost were the three largest components. Sensitivity analyses were carried out, and parameters sensitive to cost per severe accident were specified. The cost per severe accident was compared with the amount of source terms, to demonstrate the performance of the cost per severe accident as an index to evaluate severe accident consequences. The ways to use the cost per severe accident for optimization of radiation protection countermeasures and for estimation of the effects of accident management strategies are discussed as its applications. - Highlights: • Cost per severe accident is used for severe accident consequence assessment. • Assessments of health, economic, social and environmental impacts are included. • Radiation effect, relocation and decontamination costs are important cost components. • Cost per severe accident can be used to optimize radiation protection measures. • Effects of accident management can be estimated using the cost per severe accident

  4. The effect of gamma-ray transport on afterheat calculations for accident analysis

    Radioactive afterheat is an important source term for the release of radionuclides in fusion systems under accident conditions. Heat transfer calculations are used to determine time-temperature histories in regions of interest, but the true source term needs to be the effective afterheat, which considers the transport of penetrating gamma rays. Without consideration of photon transport, accident temperatures may be overestimated in others. The importance of this effect is demonstrated for a simple, one-dimensional problem. The significance of this effect depends strongly on the accident scenario being analyzed

  5. Pathology of respiratory organs in persons participated in the Chernobyl NPP accident response

    Results of investigations, performed by the personnel of Pulmonology Institute of the Ministry of Health of Russian Federation, on the respiratory organs pathology resulted from the Chernobyl accident in persons participated in the accident response are presented. The studies were carried out in cooperation with French colleagues. Attention was paid to the problems of environmental contamination due to the accident pathology resulted from the acute exposure and delayed effects, specific features of the respiratory organs diseases, and programs of treatment and rehabilitation as well

  6. The effect of gamma-ray transport on afterheat calculations for accident analysis

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J.F.; Sanz, J.

    2000-05-01

    Radioactive afterheat is an important source term for the release of radionuclides in fusion systems under accident conditions. Heat transfer calculations are used to determine time-temperature histories in regions of interest, but the true source term needs to be the effective afterheat, which considers the transport of penetrating gamma rays. Without consideration of photon transport, accident temperatures may be overestimated in others. The importance of this effect is demonstrated for a simple, one-dimensional problem. The significance of this effect depends strongly on the accident scenario being analyzed.

  7. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health labour conditions and incidence of the people involved

  8. Problems of Chornobyl Exclusion Zone

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the people involved.

  9. An Analysis of the Cumulative Uncertainty Associated with a Quantitative Consequence Assessment of a Major Accident

    JIRSA PAVEL

    2005-01-01

    The task of the article is to quantify the uncertainty of the possible results of the accident consequence assessment of the chemical production plant and to provide some description of potentional problems with literature references and examples to help to avoid the erroneous use of available formulas. Based on numbers presented in the article we may conclude, that the main source of uncertainty in the consequence analysis of chemical accident assessment is surprisingly not only the dispers...

  10. Nursing Role on Prevention of Injury/Accident to People with Mental Disability

    Çelik, Sevim

    2014-01-01

    Injury and accident risks are higher in people with mental disability than healthy people. The mechanism of injury on these people is similar with pre-school children. Emotional, physical, behavioural problems, not suitable for individuals in life environments and unsupervised in the living environment are major risk factors for injury to people with mental disability. The priority task for nurses working in primary care is to determine strategies for the prevention of accidents and injuries. 

  11. Road Traffic Accident Victims’ Experiences of Return to Normal Life: A Qualitative Study

    Pashaei Sabet, Fatemeh; Norouzi Tabrizi, Kian; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Saadat, Soheil; Abedi, Heidar Ali; Bastami, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background Road traffic accident (RTA) victims also suffer from different types of injuries and disabilities, which can affect their quality of life. They usually face with various physical, mental, and social problems. Most traffic accident victims had difficulty to return to normal life. Objectives This study aimed to understand the experiences of return to normal life in RTA victims. Patients and Methods This qualitative study with content analysis approach was conducted on 18 Iranian pati...

  12. Traffic Accident Propagation Properties and Control Measures for Urban Links Based on Cellular Automata

    Xian-sheng Li; Xue-lian Zheng; Wei-wei Guo; Yuan-yuan Ren; Yu-ning Wang; Meng Yang

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of urban transport and the sharp increase in vehicle population, traffic accidents form one of the most important causes of urban traffic congestion other than the imbalance between traffic supply and demand. Traffic congestion causes severe problems, such as environment contamination and energy dissipation. Therefore, it would be useful to analyze the congestion propagation characteristics after traffic accidents. Numerical analysis and computer simulation were two...

  13. Proceedings of the 2. International symposium on the radioactive accident in Goiania. Program

    This 2. International symposium on the radioactive accident with cesium-137 brings together in Goiania renowned international and Brazilian specialists. These are recognized professionals of Medicine, Physics, Biology and Psychology who, gathered around a strictly scientific event, will discuss the complex problems originated by a serious accident, exchanging experiences and searching for definite solutions for the issues. The main topics are: the environmental and social impacts; technical and medical procedures; victims contamination and biological radiation effects in the body of the victims

  14. Traffic accident injuries in a referral Orthopedic Hospital in North West of Iran during summer 2009

    Amir Mohammad Navali; Firoozeh Pouyandeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Road traffic injuries are a major public health problem, requiring huge efforts for effective and sustainable prevention. Because of the high occurrence of traffic accidents in Iran, basic data acquisition is highly needed to implement prevention plans. The present research is conducted as an epidemiological study of the traffic accident victims referred to a referral orthopedic center in North West of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during a 3 months period...

  15. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1987-01-01

    A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC......); 59% above 0.08%. In all cases where a pillion passenger was killed, the operator of the motorcycle had a BAC greater than 0.08%. Of the killed counterparts 2 were non-intoxicated, 2 had a BAC greater than 0.08%, and 4 were not tested. The results advocate that the law should restrict alcohol...... consumption by pillion passengers as well as by the motorcycle operator. Suggestions made to extend the data base needed for developing appropriate alcohol countermeasures by collecting sociodemographic data on drivers killed or seriously injured should be supported....

  16. Psychological factors of radiation accidents

    With reference to world, internal and personal experience, an attempt is made to reveal psychological mechanisms determining the attitude of a person to ionizing radiation using for this purpose the conceptions of mental stress and psychological adaptation. On the example of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, in the light of the above conceptions, the paper describes psychic reactions of the personnel of the nuclear power plant and other groups of people to the heavy radiation accident. For improvement of the activity for liquidation of the accident after-effects it is suggested to use the system of psychophysiological support of the rescue units, including psychophysiological training and support, as well as functional rehabilitation of specialists. 11 refs

  17. Robot dispatching Scenario for Accident Condition Monitoring of NPP

    In March of 2011, unanticipated big size of tsunami attacks Fukushima NPP, this accident results in explosion of containment building. Tokyo electric power of Japan couldn't dispatch a robot for monitoring of containment inside. USA Packbot robot used for desert war in Iraq was supplied to Fukushima NPP for monitoring of high radiation area. Packbot also couldn't reach deep inside of Fukushima NPP due to short length of power cable. Japanese robot 'Queens' also failed to complete a mission due to communication problem between robot and operator. I think major reason of these robot failures is absence of robot dispatching scenario. If there was a scenario and a rehearsal for monitoring during or after accident, these unanticipated obstacles could be overcome. Robot dispatching scenario studied for accident of nuclear power plant was described herein. Study on scenario of robot dispatching is performed. Flying robot is regarded as good choice for accident monitoring. Walking robot with arm equipped is good for emergency valve close. Short time work and shift work by several robots can be a solution for high radiation area. Thin and soft cable with rolling reel can be a good solution for long time work and good communication

  18. Accident Emergency Response And Routing Software (AERARS using Genetic Algorithm

    Naveen Ramachandran,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available AERARS is a response and routing software for accident emergency requirement. A method has been proposed in this project for using a genetic algorithm to find the shortest route between a source and adestination. It make use of genetic algorithms ability to search the opt solution from the population helping to solve spatially addressed problem. The numbers of accident spots are plotted in ArcGISenvironment and ten major accident spots are identified. The software package is designed with closest facility estimation and shortest route generation along with other basic software facilities in Visual Basic environment. Genetic algorithm provided a great optimality to the solutions. The closest facility tool helps to estimate the nearest hospital, ambulance, police station and fire station. The shortest route estimation tool generates shortest path between a locations to the hospital or ambulance spot. The various risk zonesare assessed and more safety measures can be taken to reduce the frequency of accident. The software efficiency can be further increased by incorporating GPS and satellite technology.

  19. Possibilities for Improved Treatment of Persons Exposed in Radiation Accidents

    The number of persons exposed to acute radiation accidents continues to be small and the clinical experience in handling them is thus obviously limited. The great increase in use of radioactive materials and the growing number of power reactors constitute greatly augmented potential sites for accidents, but fortunately the number of accidents is not increasing. There appears to be some shift in the type of accidents, with a relative increase in those in which excessive dose to a small part of the body is the predominant feature. There has been little progress in treating local radiation injury but methods for handling the hematopoietic syndrome are definitely improved. With platelet transfusions we have a powerful aid in managing hemorrhage; the more difficult problem in persons with severe marrow depression is infection. The development of sterile environment facilities and the availability of better antibiotic therapy are important advances. Where these measures are not adequate, more experimental procedures give some promise: the injection of concentrated leukemic or normal leukocytes, the use of cross circulation, or the injection of allogeneic bone marrow. Classification of the injury and estimation of its severity are more effectively done now than a few years ago, and contribute to better treatment. (author)

  20. Railway-controller-perceived competence in incidents and accidents.

    Cheng, Yung-Hsiang; Tsai, Yu-Chun

    2011-12-01

    Railway controllers play a pivotal role in service recovery of normal rail system operations when incidents and accidents occur. Those in this position must have sufficient competence to overcome task difficulties caused by accident uncertainties. This study adopts Taiwan's railway system as a case study to diagnose railway-controller-perceived competence when facing diverse tasks during incidents and accidents that are derived from a proposed conceptual model. Railway-controller-perceived competence is measured using the Rasch model. Analytical results indicate that working with an external rescue agency handling a rescue operation, explanations to the public, and communication with an external rescue agency are considered the most troublesome tasks. Additionally, railway-controller-perceived competence differs based on the work experience. This information will prove useful for rail system operators and government regulators when designing and regulating railway controller competence management systems. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study presents a systematic approach for examining the gap between railway-controller-perceived competence and task difficulties associated with incidents and accidents. The relevance of findings encompasses the effects of transportation ergonomics and railway issues on the problem-solving competence and decision-making skills of railway controllers, and the competence management system. PMID:22103722

  1. Caractérisation sanitaire et sylvicole d'un jeune peuplement artificiel du chêne liège en vue d’une utilisation durable de son liège: Cas de la forêt de M’SILA

    ZIANI CHERIF,Sidi Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    La présente étude à pour objectif de réalisé une caractérisation du reboisement de chêne liège dans la subéraie de M’Sila (Wilaya d’Oran). L’étude à portée sur l’analyse des données collectées et des mesures effectuées par des méthodes statistiques et analytiques, les principaux paramètres étudiés sont d’ordres sylvicoles (dendrométriques, modes d’intervention sylvicoles et exploitation du liège) et sanitaire (indice de santé, déficit foliaires, phénomène d’enrésinement). Il découle des...

  2. Enjeux sanitaires, socio-économiques et environnementaux liés à la réutilisation des eaux usées dans le maraîchage urbain à Yaoundé au Cameroun : cas du bassin versant de l’Abiergué

    Kouam Kenmogne, Guy Romain; Rosillon, Françis; Mpakam, Hernanie Grelle; Nono, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Le bassin versant de l’Abiergué, localisé dans le périmètre urbain de Yaoundé entre 11°05’ et 11°25’ de longitude Est et entre 3°51’ et 3°54’ de latitude Nord connaît une importante activité maraîchère dans les bas fonds de Nkolbikok à Nkolbisson. Une étude démarrée en 2005 dans cette zone, a pour objectif principal de contribuer à la valorisation de cette activité tout en œuvrant à la réduction des risques induits (sanitaires et environnementaux). De nombreuses activités ont été développées ...

  3. Enjeux sanitaires, socio-économiques et environnementaux liés à la réutilisation des eaux usées dans le maraîchage urbain : cas du bassin versant de l’Abiergué (Yaoundé-Cameroun)

    Kenmogne, Guy Romain Kouam; Rosillon, Francis; Mpakam, Hernanie Grelle; Nono, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Le bassin versant de l’Abiergué, localisé dans le périmètre urbain de Yaoundé entre 11°05’ et 11°25’ de longitude Est et entre 3°51’ et 3°54’ de latitude Nord connaît une importante activité maraîchère dans les bas fonds de Nkolbikok à Nkolbisson. Une étude démarrée en 2005 dans cette zone, a pour objectif principal de contribuer à la valorisation de cette activité tout en œuvrant à la réduction des risques induits (sanitaires et environnementaux). De nombreuses activités ont été développées ...

  4. La Fièvre Hémorragique à Virus Lassa au Bénin en 2014 en contexte d’Ebola : une épidémie révélatrice de la faiblesse du système sanitaire

    N’koué Sambiéni, Emmanuel; Danko, Nouratou; Ridde, Valéry

    2015-01-01

    L’histoire de la gestion de l’épidémie de fièvre hémorragique à virus Lassa (FHVL), survenue au Bénin en 2014, se situe dans un contexte d’épidémie à virus Ebola en Afrique de l’Ouest. La présente recherche vise à comprendre les conditions sociales du déclenchement et de l’évolution de l’épidémie de FHVL, d’une part, et les processus techniques, politiques et institutionnels de sa gestion par l’État et le réseau international d’alerte et de riposte sanitaire, d’autre part. L’enquête de terrai...

  5. Accident Simulation: Design and Results

    Idasiak, Vincent; David, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    International audience The French legislation regulates the functioning of factories that may be dangerous towards their environment. This legislation imposes the creation of an Internal Operation Plan (P.O.I.) on the plant managers. Those plans describe the proceedings that have to be implemented in case of an accident. Within a framework involving our laboratory and a gas company we have designed a software to create, maintain and execute P.O.I.s . In this paper, in addition to the softw...

  6. Transport accident emergency response plan

    To comply with the IAEA recommendations for the implementation of an Emergency Response Plan as described in Safety Series 87, Transnucleaire, a company deeply involved in the road and rail transports of the fuel cycle, masters means of Emergency Response in the event of a transport accident. This paper aims at analyzing the solutions adopted for the implementation of an Emergency Response Plan and the development of a technical support and adapted means for the recovery of heavy packagings. (authors)

  7. Standards for reactor accident cases

    The Committee on Standards for reactor accident cases in the Netherlands published its recommendations to the Minister of Health. Maximum permissible quantities of radiation and radionuclide intake are presented for adults and children as well as pregnant women. Exposure limit standards for the whole body as well as specific organs and other parts are given. Also considered is the contamination of cattle and cows' milk. The standards are compared with those of the ICRP and the English Medical Research Council

  8. Radiation accident in Viet Nam

    In November 1992 a Vietnamese research physicist was working with a microtron accelerator when he received a radiation overexposure that required the subsequent amputation of his right hand. A team from the International Atomic Energy Agency visited Hanoi in March 1993 to carry out an investigation. It was concluded that the accident occurred primarily due to a lack of safety systems although the lack of both written procedures and training in basic radiation safety were also major contributors. (author)

  9. Accident/Mishap Investigation System

    Keller, Richard; Wolfe, Shawn; Gawdiak, Yuri; Carvalho, Robert; Panontin, Tina; Williams, James; Sturken, Ian

    2007-01-01

    InvestigationOrganizer (IO) is a Web-based collaborative information system that integrates the generic functionality of a database, a document repository, a semantic hypermedia browser, and a rule-based inference system with specialized modeling and visualization functionality to support accident/mishap investigation teams. This accessible, online structure is designed to support investigators by allowing them to make explicit, shared, and meaningful links among evidence, causal models, findings, and recommendations.

  10. The reactor accident of Chernobyl

    The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.)

  11. Thyroid blocking after nuclear accidents

    Following the Chernobyl accident a marked increase in thyroid cancer incidence among the children in Belarus, the Ukraine and Russia has been detected, strongly suggesting a causal relationship to the large amounts of radioactive iodine isotopes in the resulting fallout. Taking into account the Chernobyl experience the German Committee on Radiation Protection decided to reduce the intervention levels on the basis of the 1989 WHO recommendations and adopted a new concept concerning thyroid blocking in response to nuclear power plant accidents. Experimental animal studies and theoretical considerations show that thyroid blocking with potassium iodide (KI) in a dose of about 1.4 mg per kg body weight is most effective in reducing irradiation to the thyroid from the intake of radioiodine nuclides, provided KI is given within 2 hours after exposure. According to the new concept, persons over 45 years of age should not take iodine tablets because the drug could cause a greater health risk due to prevalent functional thyroid autonomy in this age group than the radioactive iodine averted by KI. On the basis of accident analysis and the new philosophy suitable distribution strategies and logistics are proposed and discussed. (orig.)

  12. Chernobyl accident. Exposures and effects

    The Chernobyl accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986 happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance. The operators, in violation of safety regulations, had switched off important control systems and allowed the reactor to reach unstable, low-power conditions. A sudden power surge caused a steam explosion that ruptured the reactor vessel and allowed further violent fuel-steam interactions that destroyed the reactor and the reactor building. The Chernobyl accident was the most serious to have ever occurred in the nuclear power industry. The accident caused the early death of 30 power plant employees and fire fighters and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by several million people. Radionuclides released from the reactor that caused exposure of individuals were mainly iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Iodine-131 has a short radioactive half-life (8 days), but it can be transferred relatively rapidly through milk and leafy vegetables to humans. Iodine becomes localized in the thyroid gland. For reasons of intake of these foods, size of thyroid gland and metabolism, the thyroid doses are usually greater to infants and children than to adults. The isotopes of caesium have relatively long half-lives (caesium-134: 2 years; caesium-137: 30 years). These radionuclides cause long-term exposures through the ingestion pathway and from external exposure to these radionuclides deposited on the ground. In addition to radiation exposure, the accident caused long-term changes in the lives of people living in the contaminated regions, since measures intended to limit radiation doses included resettlements, changes in food supplies, and restrictions in activities of individuals and families. These changes were accompanied by major economic, social and political changes in the affected countries resulting

  13. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Galstyan I.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS, developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

  14. Leukaemia incidents after Chernobyl accident

    Romania and especially its Eastern territory were among the most heavily affected area after Chernobyl accident. The objective of our study was to investigate whether or not the nuclear accident determined an increased number of leukaemia cases. The specific rates of leukaemia incidents by age group were calculated in 588167 children aged 0-6 years in April 1986 and 99917 children which have been exposed 'in utero'. The rates of 1989-1994 period were compared with the rates of 1980-1985 period. The incidence rates were lower in the exposed group than that in controls for children under 1 year (20.52/105 inh vs 23.11/105 inh), 1-3 years (13.26/105 inh vs 16.11/105 inh) and 4-6 years (9.58/105 inh vs 10.58/105 inh). The cohort of 'in utero' exposed children presented a leukaemia incidences insignificantly higher than that before the accident (23.10/105 inh vs 15.93/105 inh)

  15. Severe accidents at nuclear power plants. Their risk assessment and accident management

    This document is to explain the severe accident issues. Severe Accidents are defined as accidents which are far beyond the design basis and result in severe damage of the core. Accidents at Three Mild Island in USA and at Chernobyl in former Soviet Union are examples of severe accidents. The causes and progressions of the accidents as well as the actions taken are described. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is a method to estimate the risk of severe accidents at nuclear reactors. The methodology for PSA is briefly described and current status on its application to safety related issues is introduced. The acceptability of the risks which inherently accompany every technology is then discussed. Finally, provision of accident management in Japan is introduced, including the description of accident management measures proposed for BWRs and PWRs. (author)

  16. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B4C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding rate

  17. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Hoejerup, F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Puska, E.K. [VTT Energy, Helsinki (Finland); Nilsson, Lars [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Sjoevall, H. [Teoliisuuden Voima Oy (Finland)

    1999-11-01

    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B{sub 4}C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding

  18. Radioactive waste transportation accident: are you prepared

    Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) now has in operation, under construction, or in the design stage a total of 8 nuclear plants comprised of 17 units in the 1100 to 1300 MWe range. These plants are expected to generate a total of 234,000 cubic feet of low-level radioactive waste per year by 1986. The management, transportation, and ultimate disposal of this waste in an economical and environmentally safe manner is of primary importance to TVA. Since October 1973, approximately 300,000 miles have been logged by truck drivers hauling low-level radioactive wastes from TVA's Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant; and by 1986, transportation of low-level wastes from TVA nuclear power facilities will exceed 600,000 miles annually. With the knowledge that a transportation accident can occur and in the effort to be prepared when it occurs, TVA formulated and in conjunction with Alabama state and local officials implemented a plan in July 1977 to test the Radiological Emergency Plans of both TVA and the state of Alabama. It was decided that a transportation drill would be conducted and that this drill would involve those most likely to come into contact with this type of situation. For the interest of realism, no participant in the drill would know the exact place, date, or time; and furthermore, simulated radiological hazard problems would be involved. Simulation of the radiological accident occurred August 29, 1977, and initiated an action by local law officials, a local civil defense team, Alabama state radiological health personnel, a TVA radiological team, and the news media. The drill was termed a complete success. The TVA-REP had been tested and proven to be adequate in the event of a real emergency. Local and state civil defense organizations and state and local law enforcement authorities are revamping their radiological emergency training programs

  19. Safety criteria and guidelines for MSR accident analysis

    Accident analysis for Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) has been investigated at ORNL for MSRE in 1960s. Since then, safety criteria or guidelines have not been defined for MSR accident analysis. Regarding the safety criteria, the authors showed one proposal in this paper. In order to establish guidelines for MSR accident analysis, we have to investigate all possible accidents. In this paper, the authors describe the philosophy for accident analysis, and show 40 possible accidents. They are at first classified as external cause accidents and internal cause accidents. Since the former ones are generic accidents, we investigate only the latter ones, and categorize them to 4 types, such as power excursion accident, flow decrease accident, fuel-salt leak accident, and other accidents mostly specific to MSR. Each accident is described briefly, with some numerical results by the authors. (author)

  20. Radiation Accident Experience: Causes and Lessons Learned

    Since inception of the nuclear energy program in the United States of America, the Atomic. Energy Commission (USAEC) has maintained an extensive system for the reporting and review of radiation accidents in USAEC federal and licensing activities. Accidents required to be reported fall-into two main categories: (1) Accidents causing or threatening to cause radiation exposure to industrial workers or to the general public; (2) Accidents causing damage to or shutdown of facilities, or damage to public property. While many of the reported accidents carry with them the potential for exposure of persons to radioactivity, the cases reported, in this analysis are limited to those where certain prescribed levels of exposure have been exceeded or where significant uptake by the critical organ has occurred. This paper presents detailed analyses of the accident experience encountered in USAEC programs over the past nine years, including: (1) A breakdown of the types of work activities in the nuclear industry under which radiation accidents have occurred; (2) Characterization of the causes of such accidents as related to the types of work activities; (3) Lessons to be learned both in avoiding such accidents and in emergency planning, should such accidents occur. (author)

  1. Strategy generation in accident management support

    An increased interest for research in the field of Accident Management can be noted. Several international programmes have been started in order to be able to understand the basic physical and chemical phenomena in accident conditions. A feasibility study has shown that it would be possible to design and develop a computerized support system for plant staff in accident situations. To achieve this goal the Halden Project has initiated a research programme on Computerized Accident Management Support (CAMS project). The aim is to utilize the capabilities of computerized tools to support the plant staff during the various accident stages. The system will include identification of the accident state, assessment of the future development of the accident and planning of accident mitigation strategies. A prototype is developed to support operators and the Technical Support Centre in decision making during serious accident in nuclear power plants. A rule based system has been built to take care of the strategy generation. This system assists plant personnel in planning control proposals and mitigation strategies from normal operation to severe accident conditions. The ideal of a safety objective tree and knowledge from the emergency procedures have been used. Future prediction requires good state identification of the plant status and some knowledge about the history of some critical variables. The information needs to be validated as well. Accurate calculations in simulators and a large database including all important information form the plant will help the strategy planning. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs

  2. The severe accident research program at KIT

    The understanding of the plant behaviour under beyond design basis accidents as well as the interaction of the operators with the plant is the most important prerequisite to develop proper strategies to both control the accident progression and to minimize the radiological risk that may derive from operating nuclear power plants. In view of the Fukushima accident, a review of many issues important to safety e.g. severe accident analysis methodologies and assumptions, emergency operational procedures, severe accident management procedures (SAM), decision lines of the emergency team, etc. is needed to draw conclusions in order to avoid a repetition of Fukushima-like accidents.In addition, situations like the ‘black control room’ need to be reconsidered and a re-evaluation of the necessary instrumentation for hypothetical severe accident situations is urgently needed. If the real plant state during core meltdown accidents is unknown, no effective measures can be initiated by the emergency team in order to assure the integrity of the safety barriers and hence the release of radioactive material to the environment. The work performed in this area is integrated in the European Networks such as SARNET (Severe Accident Research Network) for the severe accidents, and for emergency management in the NERIS-TP. In future all the activities will be included in the NUGENIA platform. A brief overview of the KIT activities together with the experimental test facilities is given

  3. Temporal Statistic of Traffic Accidents in Turkey

    Erdogan, S.; Yalcin, M.; Yilmaz, M.; Korkmaz Takim, A.

    2015-10-01

    Traffic accidents form clusters in terms of geographic space and over time which themselves exhibit distinct spatial and temporal patterns. There is an imperative need to understand how, where and when traffic accidents occur in order to develop appropriate accident reduction strategies. An improved understanding of the location, time and reasons for traffic accidents makes a significant contribution to preventing them. Traffic accident occurrences have been extensively studied from different spatial and temporal points of view using a variety of methodological approaches. In literature, less research has been dedicated to the temporal patterns of traffic accidents. In this paper, the numbers of traffic accidents are normalized according to the traffic volume and the distribution and fluctuation of these accidents is examined in terms of Islamic time intervals. The daily activities and worship of Muslims are arranged according to these time intervals that are spaced fairly throughout the day according to the position of the sun. The Islamic time intervals are never been used before to identify the critical hour for traffic accidents in the world. The results show that the sunrise is the critical time that acts as a threshold in the rate of traffic accidents throughout Turkey in Islamic time intervals.

  4. Risk and protection factors in fatal accidents.

    Dupont, Emmanuelle; Martensen, Heike; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2010-03-01

    This paper aims at addressing the interest and appropriateness of performing accident severity analyses that are limited to fatal accident data. Two methodological issues are specifically discussed, namely the accident-size factors (the number of vehicles in the accident and their level of occupancy) and the comparability of the baseline risk. It is argued that - although these two issues are generally at play in accident severity analyses - their effects on, e.g., the estimation of survival probability, are exacerbated if the analysis is limited to fatal accident data. As a solution, it is recommended to control for these effects by (1) including accident-size indicators in the model, (2) focusing on different sub-groups of road-users while specifying the type of opponent in the model, so as to ensure that comparable baseline risks are worked with. These recommendations are applied in order to investigate risk and protection factors of car occupants involved in fatal accidents using data from a recently set up European Fatal Accident Investigation database (Reed and Morris, 2009). The results confirm that the estimated survival probability is affected by accident-size factors and by type of opponent. The car occupants' survival chances are negatively associated with their own age and that of their vehicle. The survival chances are also lower when seatbelt is not used. Front damage, as compared to other damaged car areas, appears to be associated with increased survival probability, but mostly in the case in which the accident opponent was another car. The interest of further investigating accident-size factors and opponent effects in fatal accidents is discussed. PMID:20159090

  5. Specific features of RBMK severe accidents progression and approach to the accident management

    Fundamental construction features of the LWGR facilities (absence of common external containment shell, disintegrated circulation circuit and multichannel reactor core, positive vapor reactivity coefficient, high mass of thermally capacious graphite moderator) predetermining development of assumed heavy non-projected accidents and handling them are treated. Rating the categories of the reactor core damages for non-projected accidents and accident types producing specific grope of damages is given. Passing standard non-projected accidents, possible methods of attack accident consequences, as well as methods of calculated analysis of non-projected accidents are demonstrated

  6. Problems of nuclear reactor safety. Vol. 1

    Proceedings of the 9. Topical Meeting 'Problems of nuclear reactor safety' are presented. Papers include results of studies and developments associated with methods of calculation and complex computerized simulation for stationary and transient processes in nuclear power plants. Main problems of reactor safety are discussed as well as rector accidents on operating NPP's are analyzed

  7. [Driving simulators in risk assessment of traffic accident among drivers with obstructive sleep apnea].

    Siedlecka, Jadwiga; Bortkiewicz, Alicja

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disorders in the form of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are still underdiagnosed and insufficiently treated in drivers. This is a very important problem, because chronic sleepiness during the day and episodes of sleep during driving a road vehicle are now regarded as one of the main causes of traffic accidents, including fatal ones, caused by professional drivers. For many years driver fatigue has been considered a major risk factor of traffic accidents, while obstructive sleep apnea has remained almost completely disregarded. In the late 1980s and early 1990s epidemiological data began to indicate sleepiness and sleep deficit as the cause of up to 20% of road accidents. Later studies conducted in many countries in different groups of drivers have confirmed that people with breathing problems during sleep are much more likely to cause accidents than healthy ones. These accidents often result from sleep disorders experienced by drivers while driving, during both long monotonous journeys and in heavy urban traffic. The application of treatment involving continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) reduces the rate of accidents among drivers. In the recent years, the studies of this problem has been expanded by the use of drive simulators that quite accurately simulate real driving conditions. This approach allows to assess the driver's reactions and behaviors in different situations on the road, including the most dangerous ones. By comparing the results from the simulator with those in real conditions it will be possible to see to what extent the risk of accident in simulated conditions correlates with the risk of accident in real life settings. PMID:22779329

  8. Decision conferencing on countermeasures after a large nuclear accident

    The conference addressed the following objectives. 1. To achieve a common understanding between decision makers and local government officials on the one hand and the radiation protection community on the other of the issues that arise in decisions in the aftermath of a major nuclear accident. 2. To identify issues which need to be considered in preparing guidance on intervention levels. 3. To explore the use of decision conferencing as a format for major decision making. To achieve these objectives the participants were invited to consider a scenario of a hypothetical radiation accident. The scenario assumed that appropriate early protective actions (sheltering, issuing of iodine tablets, etc.) had been taken and that the conference was meet ng some eight days into the accident to consider medium and longer term protective actions, particularly the need for relocation of certain areas. By the end of the conference, considerable consensus on the general form of the strategy had emerged. Moreover, there was a better understanding of the evaluation criteria against which such a strategy needed to be developed. Many felt that it was important to retain flexibility in the strategy of protective actions, even if this increased the uncertainty for the affected population, who would not know exactly what would be done for several months. This emphasised even more the need for good communication and understandable presentations of the adopted strategy. All felt that more research and advice is needed on the psychological effects of such accidents and the effects of protective actions. It was felt that the exercise had illustrated the problems inherent in radiation emergencies. However, a different situation with larger populations could have led to different results. It was agreed that the exercise had been useful in meeting the need to think about the issues before an accident happens. (au) (12 tabs., 5 ills., 8 refs.)

  9. Extracting decision rules from police accident reports through decision trees.

    de Oña, Juan; López, Griselda; Abellán, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Given the current number of road accidents, the aim of many road safety analysts is to identify the main factors that contribute to crash severity. To pinpoint those factors, this paper shows an application that applies some of the methods most commonly used to build decision trees (DTs), which have not been applied to the road safety field before. An analysis of accidents on rural highways in the province of Granada (Spain) between 2003 and 2009 (both inclusive) showed that the methods used to build DTs serve our purpose and may even be complementary. Applying these methods has enabled potentially useful decision rules to be extracted that could be used by road safety analysts. For instance, some of the rules may indicate that women, contrary to men, increase their risk of severity under bad lighting conditions. The rules could be used in road safety campaigns to mitigate specific problems. This would enable managers to implement priority actions based on a classification of accidents by types (depending on their severity). However, the primary importance of this proposal is that other databases not used here (i.e. other infrastructure, roads and countries) could be used to identify unconventional problems in a manner easy for road safety managers to understand, as decision rules. PMID:23021419

  10. Modeling and measuring the effects of imprecision in accident management

    This paper presents two approaches for evaluating the uncertainties inherent in accident management strategies. Current PRA methodology uses expert opinion in the assessment of rare event probabilities. The problem is that these probabilities may be difficult to estimate even though reasonable engineering judgement is applied. This occurs because expert opinion under incomplete knowledge and limited data is inherently imprecise. In this case, the concept of uncertainty about a probability value is both intuitively appealing and potentially useful. This analysis considers accident management as a decision problem (i.e. 'applying a strategy' vs. 'do nothing') and uses an influence diagram. Then, the analysis applies two approaches to evaluating imprecise node probabilities in the influence diagram: 'a fuzzy probability' and 'an interval-valued subjective probability'. For the propagation of subjective probabilities, the analysis uses a Monte-Carlo simulation approach. In case of fuzzy probabilities, fuzzy logic is applied to propagate them. We believe that these approaches can allow us to better understand uncertainties associated with severe accident management strategies, because they provide additional information regarding the implications of using imprecise input data

  11. Worst case reactor accidents: a paradox

    The preliminary results from the application of improved source term methodology indicate a diversity of results for plants of different design, and for different accident sequences postulated for the same plant. While significant reductions from previous estimates are calculated with the new methodology for some accident scenarios, the same methodology predicts release magnitudes of minor difference from those produced with earlier methods for other accident sequences and plants. This divergence of calculated results precludes the adoption of a worst case as a meaningful characterization of severe accident consequences. This situation reinforces the need to consider the consequences of severe accidents only in light of their probability, even in those applications outside the traditional risk assessment process, and may necessitate re-consideration of a probability threshold for extremely low probability events. A practical approach to such a threshold value is discussed, based on NRC's experience with severe accident considerations in environmental impact statements

  12. Public health response to the nuclear accident

    The Act on Special Measures Concerning Nuclear Emergency Preparedness was established in 2000 as a specific act within the broader Disaster Control Measures and Reactor Regulation Act which was written in response to the JCO Criticality Accident of 1999. However, this regulatory system did not address all aspects of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. This was especially evident with public health issues. For example, radioactive screening, prophylactic use of potassium iodide, support for vulnerable people, and management of contaminated dead bodies were all requested immediately after the occurrence of the nuclear power plant accident but were not included in these regulatory acts. Recently, the regulatory system for nuclear accidents has been revised in response to this reactor accident. Herein we review the revised plan for nuclear reactor accidents in the context of public health. (author)

  13. Accident scenario diagnostics with neural networks

    Nuclear power plants are very complex systems. The diagnoses of transients or accident conditions is very difficult because a large amount of information, which is often noisy, or intermittent, or even incomplete, need to be processed in real time. To demonstrate their potential application to nuclear power plants, neural networks axe used to monitor the accident scenarios simulated by the training simulator of TVA's Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant. A self-organization network is used to compress original data to reduce the total number of training patterns. Different accident scenarios are closely related to different key parameters which distinguish one accident scenario from another. Therefore, the accident scenarios can be monitored by a set of small size neural networks, called modular networks, each one of which monitors only one assigned accident scenario, to obtain fast training and recall. Sensitivity analysis is applied to select proper input variables for modular networks

  14. Traffic crash accidents in Tehran, Iran: Its relation with circadian rhythm of sleepiness

    Khosro Sadeghniiat-Haghighi; Zohreh Yazdi; Mohsen Moradinia; Omid Aminian; Alireza Esmaili

    2015-01-01

    Purpose:Road traffic accidents are one of main problems in Iran.Multiple factors cause traffic accidents and the most important one is sleepiness.This factor,however,is given less attention in our country.Road traffic accidents relevant to sleepiness are studied.Methods:In this cross-sectional study,all road traffic accidents relevant to sleepiness,which were reported by police,were studied in Tehran province in 2009.Results:The risk of road traffic accidents due to sleepiness was increased by more than sevenfold (odds ratio =7.33) in low alertness hours (0:00-6:00) compared to other time of day.The risk of road traffic accidents due to sleepiness was decreased by 0.15-fold (odds ratio-0.15) in hours with maximum of alertness (18:00-22:00) of circadian rhythm compared to other time of day.Conclusion:The occurrence of road traffic accidents due to sleepiness has significant statistical relations with driving during lowest point of alertness of circadian rhythm.

  15. Protection of the Population in the event of a Nuclear accident. A Basis for Intervention

    During the years following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the NEA actively participated in the international effort towards the improvement and better harmonization of the international and national criteria for the protection of the public in the event of a nuclear accident. A first report on this matter, titled Nuclear Accidents: Intervention Levels for Protection of the Public was published by the NEA in 1989. Subsequently, the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health set up a small Task Group to provide additional guidance, and to take into account recent developments in other international organizations. The report outlines the status of relevant international activities in the period following the preparation of the 1989 report, discusses the intervention principles and describes both the proposed accident management system and a general scheme for its application. It is to be noted that the principles and criteria for intervention discussed in this report, although developed with specific reference to reactor accidents, apply equally well to activities and possible accidents at other nuclear facilities. The report briefly describes the transition from an accident management situation back to a normal situation and the related problem of changing criteria for the protection of the public. In addition to the traditional exposure pathways -inhalation from the cloud, external irradiation from the cloud and the ground and ingestion of food - the report acknowledges the existence of special pathways, proposing criteria for protecting workers and the public and some examples of their application

  16. Radiological Accident in Goiania: Mental and Psychological Effects

    more than 6,000 containers, still evokes social and economical concern and mental and psychological emotion, among the victims. The Goiania accident involved all classes of the regional society. Not only were we faced with political and technical problems to deal with, but also social and economic and, simultaneously, the parallel parameter involving psychological and mental health, aspects, affected from apprehension, by society commotion, lack of credibility, perception of risk, misunderstanding of nuclear jargons, economic losses, neighborhood atmosphere, discrimination (by others due to fear, including relatives)

  17. 基于事故发展与控制的隐患分级方法%Risk Classification Method for Accident Potential Based on Development and Control Measures of Accident

    赵东风; 申玉琪; 赵志强; 张佑明; 孟亦飞

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of making the management of accident potential more scientific, the relationship between accident potential and accident was discussed and studied. The fundamental property of accident potential was brought forward that it can make the accident happen or develop. The mechanism whereby accident potential functions in the accident was revealed clearly, by predicting the impelling and inhibiting factors in the accident process. The accident potential was classified into two types (the first type of accident potential and the second type of accident potential) according to the different time they work. In the risk assessment, the problem of specific accident potential grading was resolved. By introducing the assessment indexes of accident potential exposure frequency, possibility of other factors, corrective actions, the initial value of the consequences of the accident, the correction factor of personnel protection, the correction factor of personnel exposure, the correction factor of emergency measures, the correction factor of property loss, an assessment index system was established. By calculating the risk of accident potential-causing accident, the real risk of accident potential was assessed.%为使隐患管理工作更加科学,对隐患与事故的关系进行研讨,提出隐患的根本属性是能够促使事故发生或发展.通过预估促使和控制(阻碍)事故发展的因素,来揭示隐患在事故过程中的作用机制.根据发生作用的时间将隐患分为第1类隐患和第2类隐患.在风险评估过程中,解决了具体隐患风险分级的问题,提出隐患暴露频率、其他条件的可能性、隐患纠正系数、事故后果初始分值、人员防护修正系数、人员暴露修正系数、应急处理与事故控制修正系数和财产损失修正系数等评价指标.通过隐患致因事故风险的计算,评估隐患的最终风险.

  18. Barriers to learning from incidents and accidents

    Dechy, N.; Dien, Y.; Drupsteen, L.; Felicio, A.; Cunha, C; Roed-Larsen, S.; Marsden, E.; Tulonen, T.; Stoop, J.; Strucic, M.; Vetere Arellano, A.L.; Vorm, J.K.J. van der; Benner, L.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides an overview of knowledge concerning barriers to learning from incidents and accidents. It focuses on learning from accident investigations, public inquiries and operational experience feedback, in industrial sectors that are exposed to major accident hazards. The document discusses learning at organizational, cross-organizational and societal levels (impact on regulations and standards). From an operational standpoint, the document aims to help practitioners to identify...

  19. Psychiatric consequences of road traffic accidents.

    Mayou, R; Bryant, B.; Duthie, R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the psychiatric consequences of being a road traffic accident victim. DESIGN--Follow up study of road accident victims for up to one year. SETTING--Emergency department of the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford. SUBJECTS--188 consecutive road accident victims aged 18-70 with multiple injuries (motorcycle or car) or whiplash neck injury, who had not been unconscious for more than 15 minutes, and who lived in the catchment area. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Present state examinat...

  20. Transportation accident scenarios for commercial spent fuel

    A spectrum of high severity, low probability, transportation accident scenarios involving commercial spent fuel is presented together with mechanisms, pathways and quantities of material that might be released from spent fuel to the environment. These scenarios are based on conclusions from a workshop, conducted in May 1980 to discuss transportation accident scenarios, in which a group of experts reviewed and critiqued available literature relating to spent fuel behavior and cask response in accidents

  1. Accidents with biological material in workers

    Cleonice Andréa Alves Cavalcante; Elisângela Franco de Oliveira Cavalcante; Maria Lúcia Azevedo Ferreira de Macêdo; Eliane Cavalcante dos Santos; Soraya Maria de Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to describe the accidents with biological material occurred among workers of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, between 2007 and 2009. Secondary data were collected in the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System by exporting data to Excel using Tabwin. Among the types of occupational accidents reported in the state, the biological accidents (no. = 1,170) accounted for 58.3% with a predominance of cases among nurses (48.6%). The percutaneous exposure was the most frequent ...

  2. Transportation accident scenarios for commercial spent fuel

    Wilmot, E L

    1981-02-01

    A spectrum of high severity, low probability, transportation accident scenarios involving commercial spent fuel is presented together with mechanisms, pathways and quantities of material that might be released from spent fuel to the environment. These scenarios are based on conclusions from a workshop, conducted in May 1980 to discuss transportation accident scenarios, in which a group of experts reviewed and critiqued available literature relating to spent fuel behavior and cask response in accidents.

  3. Synergy effect in accident simulation

    Accidental breaking of PWR coolant canalization would entail water vaporization into confinement enclosure. Equipments would be simultaneously subjected to temperature and pressure increase, chemical spray, and radiation action of reactor core products. Some equipments have to work after accident in order to stop reactor running and blow out water calories. Usually, in France, accident simulation tests are carried out sequentialy: irradiation followed by thermodynamical and chemical tests. Equipments working is essentially due to those polymer materials behaviour. Is the polymers behaviour the same when they are either subjected to sequential test, or an accident (simultaneous action of irradiation and thermodynamical and chemical sequence). In order to answer to this question, nine polymer materials were subjected to simultaneous and sequential test in CESAR cell. Experiments were carried out in CESAR device with thermodynamical chocks and a temperature and pressure decrease profil in presence or without irradiation. So, the test is either simultaneous or sequential. Mechanical properties change are determined for the following polymeric materials. Two polyamide-imide varnishes used in motors and coils; one epoxydic resin, glass fiber charged (electrical insulating); polyphenylene sulfide, glass fiber charged, the Ryton R4 (electrical insulating); three elastomeric materials: Hypalon, fire proof by bromine or by alumina EPDM (cables jacket); VAMAC which is a polyethylene methyl polymethacrylate copolymer; then a silicon thermoset material glass fiber charged (electrical insulating). After test, usually, mechanical and electrical properties change of polymer materials show sequential experiment is more severe than simultaneous test however, Hypalon does not follow this law. For this polymer simultaneous test appears more severe than sequential experiment

  4. Nuclear-powered submarine accidents

    Most of nuclear-powered ships are military ships and submarines represent 95% of the total. Most of the propulsion reactors used are of PWR type. This paper gives the principal technical characteristics of PWR ship propulsion reactors and the differences with their civil homologues. The principal accidents that occurred on US and Russian nuclear-powered submarines are also listed and the possible effects of a shipwreck on the reactor behaviour are evaluated with their environmental impact. (J.S.). 1 tab., 1 photo

  5. Elements to diminish radioactive accidents

    In this work it is presented an application of the cause-effect diagram method or Ichikawa method identifying the elements that allow to diminish accidents when the radioactive materials are transported. It is considered the transport of hazardous materials which include radioactive materials in the period: December 1996 until March 1997. Among the identified elements by this method it is possible to mention: the road type, the radioactive source protection, the grade driver responsibility and the preparation that the OEP has in the radioactive material management. It is showed the differences found between the country inner roads and the Mexico City area. (Author)

  6. Guidance on accidents involving radioactivity

    This booklet sets out United Kingdom government policy on the management of the effects of radioactivity accidents by the Health Service. Monitoring of persons affected will be undertaken by hospital staff in order to assess damage levels for the whole population as well as treat individuals, while general practitioners will disseminate information from the Department of Health. The National Response Plan is set out, covering incidents connected with the use or transport of radioactive substances, and emergency plans for incidents in civil nuclear installations. (UK)

  7. The radiological accident in Goiania

    The report is based on a meeting held in Brazil, 19-27 July 1988. It describes how the accident occurred, examines how it was managed and how its consequences were contained, and sets out observations and recommendations based upon lessons learned. Many people received large doses of radiation, due to both external and internal exposure. Four of the casualties ultimately died and 28 people suffered radiation burns. Residences and public places were contaminated. The decontamination necessitated the demolition of seven residences and various other buildings, and the removal of the topsoil from large areas. In total 3,500 m3 of radioactive waste was generated. Refs, figs, tabs and photographs

  8. Interventions after serious reactor accidents

    Manifold and promising approaches to active measures to be taken during accidents were studied hypothetically at the HTR which already has outstanding inherent safety properties in respect of afterheat removal. Based on incident scenarios prepared for hypothetical air inleakage incidents, in particular into the core of the HTR module reactor, many and various peripheral conditions for intervention possibilities could be studied. In addition, intervention possibilities appropriate for the respective incidents were examined as to their feasibility and consequences to be expected after their application. From these studies suggestions were derived for verifying experiments. (orig./HP) With 66 refs., 24 tabs., 79 figs

  9. Probabilistic accident sequence recovery analysis

    Recovery analysis is a method that considers alternative strategies for preventing accidents in nuclear power plants during probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Consideration of possible recovery actions in PRAs has been controversial, and there seems to be a widely held belief among PRA practitioners, utility staff, plant operators, and regulators that the results of recovery analysis should be skeptically viewed. This paper provides a framework for discussing recovery strategies, thus lending credibility to the process and enhancing regulatory acceptance of PRA results and conclusions. (author)

  10. Industrial Safety and Accidents Prevention

    Accident Hazards, dangers, losses and risk are what we would to like to eliminate, minimize or avoid in industry. Modern industries have created many opportunities for these against which man's primitive instincts offer no protection. In today's complex industrial environment safety has become major preoccupation, especially after the realization that there is a clear economic incentive to do so. Industrial hazards may cause by human error or by physical or mechanical malfunction, it is very often possible to eliminate the worst consequences of human error by engineering modification. But the modification also needs checking very thoroughly to ensue that it has not introduced some new and unsuspected hazard. (author)

  11. Analysis of reactivity insertion accidents in PWR reactors

    A calculation model to analyze reactivity insertion accidents in a PWR reactor was developed. To analyze the nuclear power transient, the AIREK-III code was used, which simulates the conventional point-kinetic equations with six groups of delayed neutron precursors. Some modifications were made to generalize and to adapt the program to solve the proposed problems. A transient thermal analysis model was developed which simulates the heat transfer process in a cross section of a UO2 fuel rod with Zircalloy clad, a gap fullfilled with Helium gas and the correspondent coolant channel, using as input the nulcear power transient calculated by AIREK-III. The behavior of ANGRA-i reactor was analized during two types of accidents: - uncontrolled rod withdrawal from subcritical condition; - uncontrolled rod withdrawal at power. The results and conclusions obtained will be used in the license process of the Unit 1 of the Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto. (Author)

  12. Analysis of Fukushima nuclear accident and illustration of radioprotection

    This report based on the tracing of radiation dose variation during the Fukushima Nuclear Accident, systematically analyses the procedures which leaded the radioactive particles releasing into the environment. The essential discussion will be the approaches of production of nuclear radiation and the natural properties of radioactive particles. How to deal with the influence of Fukushima Nuclear Accident for public society is a problem not only for Japan but also for the whole nuclear industry. By comparing different technical methods to handle the radiation domination between China and France, two examples are introduced in detail: the detection of α-particle by CNRS (France) and detection of high energy electron by ESRF. Conclusions will emphasis on the protection for different radioactive particles, therefore the prospective of radioprotection, conjectures of using different protecting materials like shield material, absorbing material, and filtering material. (authors)

  13. The cost of nuclear accidents in France

    IRSN has produced estimates for costs of possible nuclear accidents on French PWRs. This paper outlines the strong differences between severe accidents, which feature a core melt but more or less controlled radioactive releases, and major accidents implying massive releases. In the first case, crisis managers would be faced with a mainly 'economic' accident, the larger part of costs being borne in a diffused fashion by the economy at large (image costs and impacts on electricity production). In the second case, authorities would be faced with the challenges of a full-scale radiological crisis involving sizeable areas of contaminated territories and large numbers of radiological refugees. (author)

  14. Monitoring severe accidents using AI techniques

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011, there has been increasing concern regarding severe accidents in nuclear facilities. Severe accident scenarios are difficult for operators to monitor and identify. Therefore, accurate prediction of a severe accident is important in order to manage it appropriately in the unfavorable conditions. In this study, artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as support vector classification (SVC), probabilistic neural network (PNN), group method of data handling (GMDH), and fuzzy neural network (FNN), were used to monitor the major transient scenarios of a severe accident caused by three different initiating events, the hot-leg loss of coolant accident (LOCA), the cold-leg LOCA, and the steam generator tube rupture in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The SVC and PNN models were used for the event classification. The GMDH and FNN models were employed to accurately predict the important timing representing severe accident scenarios. In addition, in order to verify the proposed algorithm, data from a number of numerical simulations were required in order to train the AI techniques due to the shortage of real LOCA data. The data was acquired by performing simulations using the MAAP4 code. The prediction accuracy of the three types of initiating events was sufficiently high to predict severe accident scenarios. Therefore, the AI techniques can be applied successfully in the identification and monitoring of severe accident scenarios in real PWRs.

  15. SAMSON: Severe Accident Management System Online Network

    SAMSON, Severe Accident Management System Online Network, is a computational tool used in the event of a nuclear power plant accident by accident managers in the Technical Support Centers (TSC) and Emergency Offsite Facilities (EOF). SAMSON examines over 150 status points monitored by nuclear power plant process computers during a severe accident and makes predictions about when core damage, support plate failure, and reactor vessel failure will occur. These predictions are based on the current state of the plant assuming that all safety equipment not already operating will fail. The status points analyzed include radiation levels, flow rates, pressure levels, temperatures and water levels. SAMSON uses an expert system as well as neural networks trained with the back propagation learning algorithm to make predictions. Previous training on data from accident analysis code allows SAMSON to associate different states in the plant with different times to critical failures. The accidents currently recognized by SAMSON include steam generator tube ruptures (SGTR), with breaks ranging from one tube to eights tubes, and loss of coolant accidents (LOCA), with breaks ranging from 0.001 square feet in size to breaks 3.0 square feet. SAMSON contains several neural networks for each accident type and break size, and chooses the correct network after accident classification by in expert system. SAMSON also provides information concerning the status of plant sensors and recovery strategies

  16. Medical experience: Chernobyl and other accidents

    A radiation accident can be defined as an involuntary relevant exposure of man to ionising radiation or radioactive material. Provided one of the ensuing criteria is met with at least one person involved in an excursion of ionising radiation and or radioactive material, the respective incident can be considered a radiation accident in accordance with ICRP, NCRP (US), and WHO: ≥0.25 Sv total body irradiation with lesions of the rapidly dividing tissues; ≥6 Sv cutaneous and local irradiation; ≥0.4 Sv local irradiation of other organ systems through external sources; incorporation equal to or in excess of more than half of the maximum permissible organ burden; and medical accidents meeting one of the above criteria. Several actions have been taken to categorise radiation accidents in order to learn from previous accidents in terms of both managerial and medical experience. For this presentation three approaches will be discussed concerning their relevance to the individual treatment and risk management. This will be obtained by applying three classification schemes to all known radiation accidents: 1. classification with respect to the accident mechanism, 2. classification concerning the radiation injury, and 3. classification concerning the extent of the accident. In a fourth chapter the efficacy of bone marrow transplantation will briefly be commented on based on the accumulated experience of about 400 radiation accidents world-wide. (author)

  17. Systematics of Reconstructed Process Facility Criticality Accidents

    Pruvost, N.L.; McLaughlin, T.P.; Monahan, S.P.

    1999-09-19

    The systematics of the characteristics of twenty-one criticality accidents occurring in nuclear processing facilities of the Russian Federation, the United States, and the United Kingdom are examined. By systematics the authors mean the degree of consistency or agreement between the factual parameters reported for the accidents and the experimentally known conditions for criticality. The twenty-one reported process criticality accidents are not sufficiently well described to justify attempting detailed neutronic modeling. However, results of classic hand calculations confirm the credibility of the reported accident conditions.

  18. Fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Koch-Henriksen, Nils;

    2006-01-01

    -1996. The end of follow-up was 1 January 1999. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for various types of fatal accidents. A total of 76 persons (48 men and 28 women) died from accidents, whereas the expected number of fatalities from such causes was 55.7 (31.4 men and 24.3 women). Thus, the...... particularly high for deaths from burns (SMR = 8.90) and suffocation (SMR = 5.57). We conclude that persons with MS are more prone to fatal accidents than the general population. The excess risk is due not to traffic accidents but to burns and suffocation....

  19. Review of specific radiological accident considerations

    Specific points of guidance provided in the forthcoming document A Guide to Radiological Accident Considerations for Siting and Design of Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities are discussed. Of these, the following are considered of particular interest to analysts of hypothetical accidents: onsite dose limits; population dose, public health effects, and environmental contamination as accident consequences which should be addressed; risk analysis; natural phenomena as accident initiators; recommended dose models; multiple organ equivalent dose; and recommended methods and parameters for source terms and release amount calculations. Comments are being invited on this document, which is undergoing rewrite after the first stage of peer review

  20. Accident selection methodology for TA-55 FSAR

    In the past, the selection of representative accidents for refined analysis from the numerous scenarios identified in hazards analyses (HAs) has involved significant judgment and has been difficult to defend. As part of upgrading the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the TA-55 plutonium facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, an accident selection process was developed that is mostly mechanical and reproducible in nature and fulfills the requirements of the Department of Energy (DOE) Standard 3009 and DOE Order 5480.23. Among the objectives specified by this guidance are the requirements that accident screening (1) consider accidents during normal and abnormal operating conditions, (2) consider both design basis and beyond design basis accidents, (3) characterize accidents by category (operational, natural phenomena, etc.) and by type (spill, explosion, fire, etc.), and (4) identify accidents that bound all foreseeable accident types. The accident selection process described here in the context of the TA-55 FSAR is applicable to all types of DOE facilities

  1. Genetic effects of the Chernobyl accident

    Genetic radiation effects resulted from the Chernobyl accident were considered for the population of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Techniques of the assessment of genetic risk of exposure of a man was discussed. Results of cytogenetic examination of the population were presented as well as health state of pregnants and newborns following the Chernobyl accident. Elevated level of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of peripheric blood in participants of the Chernobyl accident response and in population of contaminated zones. This fact testifies on the real genetic injury in cells due to accident. Growth of intrauterine losses in pregnancy, congenital anomalies, hereditary diseases in descendants of exposed parents. 17 figs

  2. Development of severe accident training support system

    In order for appropriate decision-making during plant operation and management, the professional knowledge, expert's opinion, and previous experiences as well as information for current status are utilized. The operation support systems such as training simulators have been developed to assist these decision-making process, and most of them cover from normal operation to emergency operation because of the very low frequency of severe accident and of uncertaintics included in severe accident phenomena and scenarios. However, the architectures for severe accident management are being established based on severe accident management guidelines in some developed countries. Recentrly, in Korea, as teh severe accident management guideline was developed, the basis for establishing severe accident management architecture is prepared and this leads to the development of tool for systematic education and training for personnel related to severe accident management. The severe accident taining support system thus is developed to assist decision-making during execution of severe accident management guidelines by providing plant status information, prefessional knowledge for phenomena and scenarios, expected behavior for strategy execution, and so on

  3. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

  4. Chernobylsk NPP accident and its medical effects

    Medical effects of the Chernobyl accident for various groups of people engaged in liquidation of the accident aftereffects and residents of the regions affected are assessed. Specific medical and social recommendations for each of the five groups of patients are made. Special attention is paid to the health of children who were exposed to external radiation in combination with intake of iodine isotopes. Extremely unfavourable influence of the mass media on the health of people involved in the Chernobyl accident is painted out. The necessity of adequate rehabilitation measures for various categories of patients involved in a large-scale accident is emphasized

  5. A study on the use of neural network for severe accident management

    Based on the consensus that the course and consequence of a severe core damage accident can be greatly influenced by the operators' action, there have been extensive efforts to establish severe accident management program. A severe accident management process is essentially a sequence of decision making with a wide variety of available information under the highly uncertain condition, aimed at successful termination of accident progression or consequence minimization. For operators to take correct and timely accident management actions, they should be informed of the accident progression. Some key events, such as onset of core uncovery, core-melt initiation, reactor vessel lower head failure, containment failure, etc., act as landmarks for operators to make decisions in severe accident management process. Thus it is of critical importance to identify the timing at which such events occur in accident management. Unfortunately, it is difficult task partly due to phenomenological complexity and partly due to the lack of instrumentation reliability in severe accident environment, making the traditional procedural or rule-based approach inappropriate to be adopted to this end. Instead a technique, called artificial neural network, has been successfully applied to the similar problem domain out of various disciplines including nuclear industry. This paper presents a study on the application of a special kind of artificial neural network having the capability of recognizing time-varying patterns, called spatiotemporal network (STN), to the event timing prediction which is an important sub function of integrated computer supporting system for severe accident management. As the first trial, concentration was put on the identification of reactor vessel lower head failure which is considered the most critical events discriminating between so called in-vessel and ex-vessel accident management phases. Several sets of seven parameter signals from MAAP-based severe accident

  6. Estimating cost ratio distribution between fatal and non-fatal road accidents in Malaysia

    Hamdan, Nurhidayah; Daud, Noorizam

    2014-07-01

    Road traffic crashes are a global major problem, and should be treated as a shared responsibility. In Malaysia, road accident tragedies kill 6,917 people and injure or disable 17,522 people in year 2012, and government spent about RM9.3 billion in 2009 which cost the nation approximately 1 to 2 percent loss of gross domestic product (GDP) reported annually. The current cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident used by Ministry of Works Malaysia simply based on arbitrary value of 6:4 or equivalent 1.5:1 depends on the fact that there are six factors involved in the calculation accident cost for fatal accident while four factors for non-fatal accident. The simple indication used by the authority to calculate the cost ratio is doubted since there is lack of mathematical and conceptual evidence to explain how this ratio is determined. The main aim of this study is to determine the new accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident in Malaysia based on quantitative statistical approach. The cost ratio distributions will be estimated based on Weibull distribution. Due to the unavailability of official accident cost data, insurance claim data both for fatal and non-fatal accident have been used as proxy information for the actual accident cost. There are two types of parameter estimates used in this study, which are maximum likelihood (MLE) and robust estimation. The findings of this study reveal that accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal claim when using MLE is 1.33, while, for robust estimates, the cost ratio is slightly higher which is 1.51. This study will help the authority to determine a more accurate cost ratio between fatal and non-fatal accident as compared to the official ratio set by the government, since cost ratio is an important element to be used as a weightage in modeling road accident related data. Therefore, this study provides some guidance tips to revise the insurance claim set by the Malaysia road authority, hence the appropriate method

  7. CBR in the service of accident cases evaluating

    Lassaâd Mejri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a research aiming at the development of a decision support system concerning the approval of automated railway transportation systems. The objective is to implement a valuation method for the degree of compliance of the automated transportation system in-group of safety standards by the analysis of the scenarios of accident. To reach this target, we envisaged an approach Rex (Return of experience who draws the lessons of accidents / incidents lived and/or imagined by the experts of the analysis of security in the IFSTAAR. Our approach consists in offering a decision support in the side of the experts of the certification based on a reuse of the scenarios of accidents already validated historically on other approved transportation systems. This approach Rex is very useful since it provides to the experts a class of scenarios of accidents similar to the new case treated and getting closer to the context of new case. The Case-based reasoning is then exploited as a mode of reasoning by analogy allowing to choose and to recollect one under group of historical cases that can help in the resolution of the new case introduced by the experts. Process-Oriented Case-Based Reasoning (PO-CBR is a growing application area in which CBR is used to address problems involving process data in a variety of specialized domains. PO-CBR systems often use structured cases. Our approach is characterized by a two-phased retrieval strategy. A first phase consists in retrieving a set of cases to be considered (a class of cases most similar to a problem to resolve. In a second phase, a more fine grained strategy is then applied to the pool of candidate cases already selected by the mean of similarity measures. This approach can enhance the process of retrieving cases compared to an exhaustive case-by-case comparison.

  8. Mapping patterns and characteristics of fatal road accidents in Israel

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    without a priori assumptions about the expected outcome of the study. Kohonen neural networks reveal five accident patterns: (i) single-vehicle accidents of young drivers; (ii) multiple-vehicle accidents between young drivers; (iii) accidents involving either motorcycles or bicycles; (iv) accidents where...

  9. 41 CFR 101-39.407 - Accident records.

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Accident records. 101-39...-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.4-Accidents and Claims § 101-39.407 Accident records. If GSA's records of vehicle accidents indicate that a particular activity has had an unusually high accident...

  10. 22 CFR 102.17 - Reports on accident.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports on accident. 102.17 Section 102.17... Accidents Abroad Foreign Aircraft Accidents Involving United States Persons Or Property § 102.17 Reports on accident. When an accident occurs to a foreign aircraft in the district of a Foreign Service post...

  11. [Methodological aspects of measuring injuries from traffic accidents at the site of occurrence].

    Híjar-Medina, M C; López-López, M V; Flores-Aldana, M; Anaya, R

    1997-02-01

    Traffic accidents are a well-known public health problem worldwide. In Mexico research into risk factors for motor involving vehicles accidents and their consequences has recently been taken into account. The relevant literature does not normally describe the methodological aspects involved in the collection of primary data, since most studies have used secondary data the good quality and validity of which are assumed. The paper presented seeks to discuss and share with researchers in this field, some of the methodological aspects to be considered in the attempt to recreate the scene of the accident and obtain information approximating to reality. The measurements in situ of, such traffic accident variables as injury, use of seat belt, speed and alcohol intake are discussed. PMID:9430931

  12. A Novel Real-Time Video And Data Capture Of Vehicular Accident In Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Fekri M. Abduljalil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel real-time video and data cap ture of vehicle accident is proposed in Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. The proposed scheme so lves the problem of huge storage needed for recording vehicle accident in the smart vehicle and in the remote ITS server. It works efficiently wit h small amount of storage size and guarantee saving acciden t video in secondary storage. It enables user to capture real-time video and data of running vehicle . It enables user to get vehicle accident video and data anytime anywhere. The scheme is implemented using t estbed and its performance is evaluated. The result s show that the proposed scheme guarantees record the vehicle accident in the ITS server. The proposed scheme has better results in comparison with full t ime video recording scheme.

  13. A NEW HAZARD EVALUATION PROCEDURE FOR PREDICTING RISK FACTORS OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS

    Hüseyin CEYLAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With annual average of 73,937 occupational accidents and 1,152 deaths, Turkey still faces an important problem. The country exercises one of the lowest performances in job safety among the European Union countries. Developments in technology increased the importance of safety management in industry. These improvements also resulted in a requirement of more investment and assignment on human in work systems. This situation increases the importance of forecasting the possible accidents that workers can face and preventing the accidents by taking necessary precautions. In this study a prognostic model has been developed to forecast the occupational accidents in coming periods at the departments of the facilities in hazardous work systems. The validity of the proposed model has been proved by implementing it into practice in hazardous work systems in the manufacturing industry.

  14. Simulation of severe accident in reactor core for training and accident management

    An Advanced Real-time Severe Accident Simulation (ARTSAS) train reactor operators and accident management teams for scenarios simulating severe accidents in nuclear reactors. The code has been integrated with the real-time tools and the RAINBO graphic package to provide training and analysis tools on workstations as well as on full-scope simulators. (orig.) (4 refs., 1 fig.)

  15. CANDU safety under severe accidents

    The characteristics of the CANDU reactor relevant to severe accidents are set first by the inherent properties of the design, and second by the Canadian safety/licensing approach. The pressure-tube concept allows the separate, low-pressure, heavy-water moderator to act as a backup heat sink even if there is no water in the fuel channels. Should this also fail, the calandria shell itself can contain the debris, with heat being transferred to the water-filled shield tank around the core. Should the severe core damage sequence progress further, the shield tank and the concrete reactor vault significantly delay the challenge to containment. Furthermore, should core melt lead to containment overpressure, the containment behaviour is such that leaks through the concrete containment wall reduce the possibility of catastrophic structural failure. The Canadian licensing philosophy requires that each accident, together with failure of each safety system in turn, be assessed (and specified dose limits met) as part of the design and licensing basis. In response, designers have provided CANDUs with two independent dedicated shutdown systems, and the likelihood of Anticipated Transients Without Scram is negligible. Probabilistic safety assessment studies have been performed on operating CANDU plants, and on the 4 x 880 MW(e) Darlington station now under construction; furthermore a scoping risk assessment has been done for a CANDU 600 plant. They indicate that the summed severe core damage frequency is of the order of 5 x 10-6/year. 95 refs, 3 tabs

  16. CANDU safety under severe accidents

    The characteristics of the CANDU reactor relevant to severe accidents are set first by the inherent properties of the design, and second by the Canadian safety/licensing approach. Probabilistic safety assessment studies have been performed on operating CANDU plants, and on the 4 x 880 MW(e) Darlington station now under construction; furthermore a scoping risk assessment has been done for a CANDU 600 plant. They indicate that the summed severe core damage frequency is of the order of 5 x 10-6/year. CANDU nuclear plant designers and owner/operators share information and operational experience nationally and internationally through the CANDU Owners' Group (COG). The research program generally emphasizes the unique aspects of the CANDU concept, such as heat removal through the moderator, but it has also contributed significantly to areas generic to most power reactors such as hydrogen combustion, containment failure modes, fission product chemistry, and high temperature fuel behaviour. Abnormal plant operating procedures are aimed at first using event-specific emergency operating procedures, in cases where the event can be diagnosed. If this is not possible, generic procedures are followed to control Critical Safety Parameters and manage the accident. Similarly, the on-site contingency plans include a generic plan covering overall plant response strategy, and a specific plan covering each category of contingency

  17. Correspondence model of occupational accidents

    Juan C. Conte

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a new generalized model for the diagnosis and prediction of accidents among the Spanish workforce. Based on observational data of the accident rate in all Spanish companies over eleven years (7,519,732 accidents, we classified them in a new risk-injury contingency table (19×19. Through correspondence analysis, we obtained a structure composed of three axes whose combination identifies three separate risk and injury groups, which we used as a general Spanish pattern. The most likely or frequent relationships between the risk and injuries identified in the pattern facilitated the decision-making process in companies at an early stage of risk assessment. Each risk-injury group has its own characteristics, which are understandable within the phenomenological framework of the accident. The main advantages of this model are its potential application to any other country and the feasibility of contrasting different country results. One limiting factor, however, is the need to set a common classification framework for risks and injuries to enhance comparison, a framework that does not exist today. The model aims to manage work-related accidents automatically at any level.Apresentamos aqui um modelo generalizado para o diagnóstico e predição de acidentes na classe de trabalhadores da Espanha. Baseados em dados sobre a frequência de acidentes em todas as companhias da Espanha em 11 anos (7.519.732 acidentes, nós os classificamos em uma nova tabela de contingência risco-injúria (19×19. Através de uma análise por correspondência obtivemos uma estrutura composta por 3 eixos cuja combinação identifica 3 grupos separados de risco e injúria, que nós usamos como um perfil geral na Espanha. As mais prováveis ou frequentes relações entre risco e injúrias identificadas nesse perfil facilitaram o processo de decisão nas companhias em um estágio inicial de apreciação do risco. Cada grupo de risco-injúria tem suas próprias caracter

  18. Chairperson's Summary, International Expert Meeting on Decommissioning and Remediation after a Nuclear Accident

    History has clearly demonstrated, and it has repeated itself in the events and aftermath of March 2011, that a major nuclear accident, just as any other major accident, not only affects public and environmental health, but in addition causes a wide range of direct and indirect effects. These include evacuation and relocation; social unrest; indirect health effects related to anxiety, radiological stigma and symptoms of a post-traumatic nature; as well as effects on property, the economy, public policy and politics. All of these factors influence the setting of targets for decommissioning and remediation; this is often an iterative process involving consideration of the legal framework, finances, processes and methodology and technology. Importantly, decommissioning and remediation is carried out in close interaction with stakeholders, of which the public (affected by both the accident and the recovery from its consequences) form an important part. Today, we have substantial knowledge about the impact of major nuclear accidents as well as a wealth of experience - good and sometimes less so - from a range of decommissioning and remediation projects following nuclear accidents. There are also a number of lessons to be learned from decommissioning and remediation of other legacy sites that have not originated from nuclear accidents but where the problems encountered are of similar nature. Experiences have over the years been discussed in many fora, including a number of IAEA initiatives and UNSCEAR reviews of scientific information on health and environmental effects of accidents and legacies of comparable nature. It is timely to discuss this knowledge in relation to the Fukushima Daiichi accident, to provide guidance to future actions aimed at strengthening our understanding of the exposure situation, and our ability to successfully carry out decommissioning of facilities and environmental remediation after a nuclear accident. (author)

  19. Links between operating experience feedback of industrial accidents and nuclear safety

    Since 1992, the bureau for analysis of industrial risks and pollutions (BARPI) collects, analyzes and publishes information on industrial accidents. The ARIA database lists over 40.000 accidents or incidents, most of which occurred in French classified facilities (ICPE). Events occurring in nuclear facilities are rarely reported in ARIA because they are reported in other databases. This paper describes the process of selection, characterization and review of these accidents, as well as the following consultation with industry trade groups. It is essential to publicize widely the lessons learned from analyzing industrial accidents. To this end, a web site (www.aria.developpement-durable.gouv.fr) gives free access to the accidents summaries, detailed sheets, studies, etc. to professionals and the general public. In addition, the accidents descriptions and characteristics serve as inputs to new regulation projects or risk analyses. Finally, the question of the links between operating experience feedback of industrial accidents and nuclear safety is explored: if the rigorous and well-documented methods of experience feedback in the nuclear field certainly set an example for other activities, nuclear safety can also benefit from inputs coming from the vast diversity of accidents arisen into industrial facilities because of common grounds. Among these common grounds we can find: -) the fuel cycle facilities use many chemicals and chemical processes that are also used by chemical industries; -) the problems resulting from the ageing of equipment affect both heavy and nuclear industries; -) the risk of hydrogen explosion; -) the risk of ammonia, ammonia is a gas used by nuclear power plants as an ingredient in the onsite production of mono-chloramine and ammonia is involved in numerous accidents in the industry: at least 900 entries can be found in the ARIA database. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  20. Severe Accident Research Program plan update

    In August 1989, the staff published NUREG-1365, ''Revised Severe Accident Research Program Plan.'' Since 1989, significant progress has been made in severe accident research to warrant an update to NUREG-1365. The staff has prepared this SARP Plan Update to: (1) Identify those issues that have been closed or are near completion, (2) Describe the progress in our understanding of important severe accident phenomena, (3) Define the long-term research that is directed at improving our understanding of severe accident phenomena and developing improved methods for assessing core melt progression, direct containment heating, and fuel-coolant interactions, and (4) Reflect the growing emphasis in two additional areas--advanced light water reactors, and support for the assessment of criteria for containment performance during severe accidents. The report describes recent major accomplishments in understanding the underlying phenomena that can occur during a severe accident. These include Mark I liner failure, severe accident scaling methodology, source term issues, core-concrete interactions, hydrogen transport and combustion, TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project, and direct containment heating. The report also describes the major planned activities under the SARP over the next several years. These activities will focus on two phenomenological issues (core melt progression, and fuel-coolant interactions and debris coolability) that have significant uncertainties that impact our understanding and ability to predict severe accident phenomena and their effect on containment performance SARP will also focus on severe accident code development, assessment and validation. As the staff completes the research on severe accident issues that relate to current generation reactors, continued research will focus on efforts to independently evaluate the capability of new advanced light water reactor designs to withstand severe accidents

  1. Application of COREMELT-3D code at analysis of severe fast reactor accidents

    The code COREMELT for calculations of initial and transition stages of severe accident is considered. It is used to conduct connected calculations of nonstationary neutronic and thermohydraulic processes in sodium fast reactor core. The code has some versions depending on dimensions of solving problem and consists of thermohydraulic module COREMELT and neutronic module RADAR. Using the code COREMELT-3D connected calculations of core disassembly accidents of ULOF and UTOP type have been conducted for sodium fast reactors safety analysis. The main problem of code COREMELT-3D use is duration of calculation, speeding of the code is possible when calculating algorithms are parallelized

  2. A Study of The Relationship Between The Components of The Five-Factor Model of Personality and The Occurrence of Occupational Accidents in Industry Workers

    Ehsanollah Habibi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Accidents are among the most important problems of both the developed and the developing countries. Individual factors and personality traits are the primary causes of human errors and contribute to accidents. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between the components of the five-factor model of personality and the occurrence of occupational accidents in industrial workers. The independent T-test indicated that there is a meaningful relationship between the personality traits and accident proneness. In the two groups of industry workers injured in occupational accidents and industry workers without any occupational accidents, there is a significant relationship between personality traits, neuroticism (p=0.001, openness to experience (p=0.001, extraversion (p=0.024 and conscientiousness (p=0.021. Nonetheless, concerning the personality trait of agreeableness (p = 0.09, the group of workers with accidents did not differ significantly from the workers without any accidents. The results showed that there is a direct and significant relationship between accident proneness and the personality traits of neuroticism and openness to experience. Furthermore, there is a meaningful but inverse correlation between accident proneness and the personality traits of extraversion and conscientiousness, while there was no relationship between accident proneness and the personality trait of agreeableness.

  3. Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-05-15

    The conventional PSA techniques cannot adequately evaluate all events. The conventional PSA models usually focus on single internal events such as DBAs, the external hazards such as fire, seismic. However, the Fukushima accident of Japan in 2011 reveals that very rare event is necessary to be considered in the PSA model to prevent the radioactive release to environment caused by poor treatment based on lack of the information, and to improve the emergency operation procedure. Especially, the results from PSA can be used to decision making for regulators. Moreover, designers can consider the weakness of plant safety based on the quantified results and understand accident sequence based on human actions and system availability. This study is for PSA modeling of combined accidents including total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident. The TLOFW accident is a representative accident involving the failure of cooling through secondary side. If the amount of heat transfer is not enough due to the failure of secondary side, the heat will be accumulated to the primary side by continuous core decay heat. Transients with loss of feedwater include total loss of feedwater accident, loss of condenser vacuum accident, and closure of all MSIVs. When residual heat removal by the secondary side is terminated, the safety injection into the RCS with direct primary depressurization would provide alternative heat removal. This operation is called feed and bleed (F and B) operation. Combined accidents including TLOFW accident are very rare event and partially considered in conventional PSA model. Since the necessity of F and B operation is related to plant conditions, the PSA modeling for combined accidents including TLOFW accident is necessary to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities.The PSA is significant to assess the risk of NPPs, and to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities. Even though the combined accident is very rare event, the consequence of combined

  4. Radiological accidents balance in medicine; Bilan des accidents radiologiques en medecine

    Nenot, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    This work deals with the radiological accidents in medicine. In medicine, the radiation accidents on medical personnel and patients can be the result of over dosage and bad focusing of radiotherapy sealed sources. Sometimes, the accidents, if they are unknown during a time enough for the source to be spread and to expose a lot of persons (in the case of source dismantling for instance) can take considerable dimensions. Others accidents can come from bad handling of linear accelerators and from radionuclide kinetics in some therapies. Some examples of accidents are given. (O.L.). 11 refs.

  5. Medical consequences of a nuclear plant accident

    The report gives background information concerning radiation and the biological medical effects and damages caused by radiation. The report also discusses nuclear power plant accidents and efforts from the medical service in the case of a nuclear power plant accident. (L.F.)

  6. Occupational blood exposure accidents in the Netherlands.

    Wijk, P.T.L. van; Schneeberger, P.M.; Heimeriks, K.; Boland, G.J.; Karagiannis, I.; Geraedts, J.; Ruijs, W.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To make proper evaluation of prevention policies possible, data on the incidence and associated medical costs of occupational blood exposure accidents in the Netherlands are needed. METHODS: Descriptive analysis of blood exposure accidents and risk estimates for occupational groups. Cost

  7. Light-water reactor accident classification

    The evolution of existing classifications and definitions of light-water reactor accidents is considered. Licensing practice and licensing trends are examined with respect to terms of art such as Class 8 and Class 9 accidents. Interim definitions, consistent with current licensing practice and the regulations, are proposed for these terms of art

  8. Chernobyl NPP accident. Overcoming experience. Acquired lessons

    This book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of accident on the Chernobyl NPP unit 4. History of construction, causes of the accident and its consequences, actions for its mitigation are described. Modern situation with Chernobyl NPP decommissioning and transferring of 'Ukryttya' shelter into ecologically safe system are mentioned. The future of Chernobyl site and exclusion zone was discussed

  9. Radiological accident 'The Citadel' medical aspects

    The work exposes the medical actions carried out in the mitigation of the consequences of the accident and its main results. In a facility of storage of radioactive waste in Caracas, Venezuela, it was happened a radiological accident. This event caused radioactive contamination of the environment, as well as the irradiation and radioactive contamination of at least 10 people involved in the fact, in its majority children. Cuban institutions participated in response to the accident. Among the decisions adopted by the team of combined work Cuban-Venezuelan, we find the one of transferring affected people to Cuba, for their dosimetric and medical evaluation. Being designed a work strategy to develop the investigations to people affected by the radiological accident, in correspondence with the circumstances, magnitude and consequences of the accident. The obtained main results are: 100% presented affectations in its health, not associate directly to the accident, although the accident influenced in its psychological state. In 3 of studied people they were detected radioactive contamination with Cesium -137 with dose among 2.01 X 10-4 Sv up to 2.78 X 10-4 Sv. This accident demonstrated the necessity to have technical capacities to face these events and the importance of the international solidarity. (author)

  10. Light-water reactor accident classification

    Washburn, B.W.

    1980-02-01

    The evolution of existing classifications and definitions of light-water reactor accidents is considered. Licensing practice and licensing trends are examined with respect to terms of art such as Class 8 and Class 9 accidents. Interim definitions, consistent with current licensing practice and the regulations, are proposed for these terms of art.

  11. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36.513 Section 36.513 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  12. 76 FR 55079 - Recreational Vessel Accident Reporting

    2011-09-06

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... SECURITY Coast Guard Recreational Vessel Accident Reporting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... to improve the recreational boating accident reporting process. NBSAC recommended that the...

  13. 49 CFR 659.33 - Accident notification.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident notification. 659.33 Section 659.33 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION... Agency § 659.33 Accident notification. (a) The oversight agency must require the rail transit agency...

  14. Structural and containment response to LMFBR accidents

    The adequacy of the containment of fast reactors has been traditionally evaluated by analyzing the response of the containment to a spectrum of core disruptive accidents. The current approach in the U.S. is to consider fast reactor response to accidents in terms of four lines of assurance (LOAs). Thus, LOA-1 is to prevent accidents, LOA-2 is to limit core damage, LOA-3 is to control accident progression and LOA-4 is to attenuate radiological consequences. Thus, the programs on the adequacy of containment response fall into LOA-3. Significant programs to evaluate the response of the containment to core disruptive accidents and, thereby, to assure control of accident progression are in progress. These include evaluating the mechanical response of the primary system to core disruptive accidents and evaluating the thermal response of the reactor structures to core melting, including the effects this causes on the secondary containment. The analysis of structural response employs calculated pressure-volume-time loading functions. The results of the analyses establish the response of the containment to the prescribed loadings. The analysis of thermal response requires an assessment of the distribution and state of the fuel, fission products and activated materials from accident initiation to final disposition in a stable configuration

  15. The screening approach for review of accident management programmes

    In this lecture the screening approach for review of accident management programmes are presented. It contains objective trees for accident management: logic structure of the approach; objectives and safety functions for accident management; safety principles

  16. Post-Traumatic Stress After a Traffic Accident

    ... Stress Disorder | Post-traumatic Stress After a Traffic Accident Each year more than 6 million traffic accidents occur in the United States. If you've been in an accident, you might have experienced many different feelings at ...

  17. Medical consequences of radiation accidents

    Since 1945, more than 1.8 x 1021 Bq of artificial radionuclides have been released into the atmosphere. Approximately 2.04 x 1018B, i.e. approx. 0.11%, are the result of accidents at nuclear industrial facilities. This percentage is causing increased interest among researchers. This is due to the fact that in the wake of accidental release radionuclides become distributed unevenly across the Earth's surface, and the associated exposures, fluctuating from background level to several grays, an induce both stochastic and deterministic effects in the irradiated population. A comparative analysis of the medical consequences of the twentieth century's most serious nuclear events, namely the authorized dumping of high level radioactive waste into the river Techa in 1950, the explosion of a storage tank containing long lived radioactive waste in the Southern Urals in 1957, the fire at Sellafield in 1957 and the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986, has shown that when timely countermeasures are taken, the worst immediate and delayed medical consequences of an accident can be avoided. The consequences that have since been ascertained are a brief rise in the mortality rate during the first five years, with a dose in excess of 500 mSv; an increase in the incidence of leukaemia, with an absolute risk of up to 1.1. x 10-4 man·years/Gy; and increased mortality among children with external radiation doses of up to 1000 mSv, and internal doses of 99-190 mSv on the bone surfaces of neonates or 170-600 mSv on the bone surfaces of the mother. There is reliable evidence that, with external gamma radiation doses in excess of 520 mSv, the mortality rate for all malignant tumorous increases by 45-58% compared with the control level. There is also a significant increase in thyroid cancer frequency four to ten years after the incorporation of iodine isotopes by children aged up to 7 years, including an accumulation period in the womb. (author). 12 refs, 7 tabs

  18. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  19. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M andO 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  20. [Population problem, comprehension problem].

    Tallon, F

    1993-08-01

    Overpopulation of developing countries in general, and Rwanda in particular, is not just their problem but a problem for developed countries as well. Rapid population growth is a key factor in the increase of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. Population growth outstrips food production. Africa receives more and more foreign food, economic, and family planning aid each year. The Government of Rwanda encourages reduced population growth. Some people criticize it, but this criticism results in mortality and suffering. One must combat this ignorance, but attitudes change slowly. Some of these same people find the government's acceptance of family planning an invasion of their privacy. Others complain that rich countries do not have campaigns to reduce births, so why should Rwanda do so? The rate of schooling does not increase in Africa, even though the number of children in school increases, because of rapid population growth. Education is key to improvements in Africa's socioeconomic growth. Thus, Africa, is underpopulated in terms of potentiality but overpopulated in terms of reality, current conditions, and possibilities of overexploitation. Africa needs to invest in human resources. Families need to save, and to so, they must refrain from having many children. Africa should resist the temptation to waste, as rich countries do, and denounce it. Africa needs to become more independent of these countries, but structural adjustment plans, growing debt, and rapid population growth limit national independence. Food aid is a means for developed countries to dominate developing countries. Modernization through foreign aid has had some positive effects on developing countries (e.g., improved hygiene, mortality reduction), but these also sparked rapid population growth. Rwandan society is no longer traditional, but it is also not yet modern. A change in mentality to fewer births, better quality of life for living infants, better education, and less burden for women must occur