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Sample records for accidentally exposed individuals

  1. Medical handling of accidentally exposed individuals: recommendations

    The manual Medical Handling of Accidentally Exposed Individual, IAEA Safety Series no. 88 has been translated to portuguese language. Additional considerations about the Goiania radiological accident were incorporated to the original text, which provides knowledge involving health problems to both workers and public members. Also information concerning blood, recent radiological accidents, recommended maximum limited doses and a glossary were introduced. 5 refs

  2. Medical management of accidentally exposed individuals

    Bone marrow aplasia is one of the main syndromes following a high dose accidental radiation exposure. Although both transfusion and bone marrow transplantation have been used with some success since the first treatments of patients, other therapeutic strategies are needed. New promising approaches of the treatment of aplasia have appeared with the development of experimental and clinical hematology. Some new trends for the treatment of the hematopoietic injury based on bone marrow transplantation rely on new sources of compatible donor cells, such as cord blood, on the selection of immature haemopoietic cells and on new transplant regimens. The hematopoietic growth factors stimulate proliferation and/or differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors and possibly stem cells. Furthermore, they act on the functions of mature cells. They have now specific uses in hematology, related to their role in the regulation of growth and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Some growth factors have already been used for the treatment of accidental radiation-induced aplasia and lessons have been learned from their medical management and follow-up. (author)

  3. Medical management of accidentally exposed individuals

    Bone marrow aplasia is one of the main syndromes following a high dose accidental radiation exposure. Whilst transfusion and bone marrow transplantation have been used with some success starting with the first treatments of accident victims, other therapeutic strategies are needed. With the development of experimental and clinical haematology, promising new approaches to the treatment of aplasia have appeared. New trends for the treatment of haemopoietic injury based on bone marrow transplantation rely on new sources of compatible donor cells, such as cord blood, on the selection of immature haemopoietic cells and on new transplant regimens. Haemopoietic growth factors stimulate the proliferation and/or differentiation of haemopoietic progenitors and, possibly, stem cells. Furthermore, they act on the functions of mature cells. Currently, they have specific uses in haematology related to their role in the regulation of growth and in the differentiation of haemopoietic progenitor cells. Growth factors have already been used for the treatment of accidental radiation induced aplasia and lessons have been learned from their medical management and followup. (author)

  4. Medical handling of accidentally exposed individuals

    In 1978 the International Atomic Energy Agency issued a publication in the IAEA Safety Series entitled Manual on Early Medical Treatment of Possible Radiation Injury (Safety Series No. 47). The contents were directed to first aid and early medical treatment of workers who might be concerned in an accident involving exposure to radiation, whether external or internal. The present manual is the first of a set of three safety series publications dealing with assessment and treatment of overexposures which will constitute an articulated system of documents covering all aspects of diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of overexposures. This document establishes a set of general criteria and recommendations to aid specialists involved in the medical handling of overexposed persons. It deals with the medical management of individual patients or small groups of patients under close medical supervision. 14 refs, 7 figs, 7 tabs

  5. Management of individuals accidentally exposed to radiation or radioactive materials

    Sources of ionizing radiation are being used with increasing frequency in a wide spectrum of applications in society. These uses are accompanied by the possible occurrence of accidents resulting in persons exposed to radiation and contaminated with radioactivity. These persons pose a risk to facilities and attending personnel upon their arrival at the hospital. This risk can be minimized without compromising the quality of patient care only if careful planning for such patients has been conducted by the hospital. Planning should include identification of a radiation emergency area within the hospital, delineation of a radiation emergency response team of individuals knowledgeable about radiation and radioactivity, and development of protocols for the medical care and decontamination of patients involved in radiation accidents. Various agencies, including the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals, have stressed the need for preparation and periodic testing of radiation emergency response plans for hospitals

  6. Lifespan of human lymphocytes estimated during a six year cytogenetic follow-up of individuals accidentally exposed in the 1987 radiological accident in Brazil

    Following the radiological accident which occurred in the city of Goiania (Brazil), in September 1987, a cytogenetic follow-up of 15 exposed patients was started, aiming to observe the mean lifetime of lymphocytes containing dicentric and ring aberrations. The results suggest that the disappearance rate of unstable aberrations follows a two-term exponential function. Up to 470 days after exposure, there is a rapid fall in the aberration frequency. After 470 days, the disappearance rate is very slow. These results may reflect different subpopulations of human lymphocytes, with different lifespans. The estimated average half-time of elimination of dicentrics and rings among the highly exposed group (doses above 1 Gy) was 110 days for the initial period after the exposure (up to 470 days). This value is significantly shorter than the usually accepted value of 3 years reported in the literature. Statistical analysis of possible correlations between the individual half-times and biological parameters, such as sex, age, leukopenia level shown during the critical period, absorbed dose (initial frequency of chromosomal aberrations) and the administration of the bone marrow stimulating factor (rHuGM-CSF) was performed. None of these parameters showed a correlation with the half-time of disappearance of chromosomal aberrations. For the individuals who had received less than 1 Gy the disappearance of aberrations was slower, with a half-time of 160 days during the period up to 470 days after exposure. Mean disappearance functions of unstable chromosome aberrations were inferred, to be applied in accident situations in which there is a blood sampling delay

  7. Learning From Biomarkers in Victims Accidentally Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    Yan Wang; Liqing Du; Chang Xu; Qin Wang; Zhiyi Song; Jianxiang Liu; Xu Su

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers,such as chromosome aberration and micronuclei assays,prove to be reliable for facilitating clinical diagnosis in radiation accidents.In a radiation accident in India,chromosomal aberration,γ-H2AX,as well as other blood markers,were detected in accidentally exposed victims.This multi-parametric approach aided in confirming that individuals had been exposed by ionizing radiation.However,doses were impossible to estimate because of a 30-day delay in accident awareness.Exposure dose for victims was estimated using a dose-response curve previously established.Dose estimation,blood cell depletion kinetics,and no appearance of prodromal symptoms suggested that doses of exposure were low.Hematologic investigation,sampling time,and chromosome aberration scoring were all proposed according to data from the victims exposed to 60Co.Finally,knowledge regarding chromosome aberration analysis and the importance of international co-operation and assistance should be shared from this accident.

  8. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982

    Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

  9. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982

    This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

  10. Genomic damage in children accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation

    Fucic, A; Brunborg, G; Lasan, R;

    2007-01-01

    after the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident in 1986. The present review presents and discusses data collected from papers analyzing genome damage in children environmentally exposed to ionizing radiation. Overall, the evidence from the studies conducted following the Chernobyl accident, nuclear tests...

  11. Individual dosimetry in planned, existing and accidental exposure situations

    There are three types of radiation exposure which include Planned exposure situations, Existing exposure situations and Emergency exposure situations which are defined as Situations that may occur during the operation of a planned situation, or from a malicious act, or from any other unexpected situation, and require urgent action in order to avoid or reduce undesirable consequences. A given individual may be exposed as a worker, and/or as a member of the public, and/or as a patient. Workers in medical professions involving radiation are occupationally exposed. For individual monitoring of exposed workers, Film badges or thermo luminescence dosimeters are in use. In cases where individual may be suspected to be contaminated internally, contamination monitors are used to monitor the site and whole body counters to monitor individuals. Members of the public are exposure to cosmic rays during air flights. Film badges were used to exposure of workers to NORM during maintenance work in old oil field. TLD is used for exposure workers in nuclear medicine department. Any radiation accident will add knowledge and experience. Accidents from lost, stolen or neglected sources are particularly special because the radiation exposure patterns of the individuals involved and the scenario of the accident are always different

  12. Medical Inspection and Regrading of Workers Accidentally Exposed to Radiation

    Medical inspection and regrading of workers exposed to radiation at the time of an accident are basically variable according to the seriousness of the exposure. Minor cases only need a check-up at relatively lengthy intervals and regrading does not usually present any great problem. This paper deals with the particular case of whole-body irradiation involving very high exposure of a lower limb. Problems of medical supervision and regrading are still arising three years after the accident, without it being possible to determine or even foresee a consolidation period. The issues involved are legal, medical, social and psychological, and also relate to efficiency. The legal aspect of an accident of this kind involves a series of obligations, such as the prolonged inspection laid down in legal instruments, which varies, moreover, with the country. It also includes the jurisprudential aspect, in particular the much-debated distinction between an industrial accident and an occupational disease. The medical aspect of long-term supervision entails a fairly frequent check on the proper functioning of the different systems, with particular stress on blood sampling and genetic tests, including a chromosome examination. The social aspect is particularly important in the event of nuclear accidents. In the case under consideration the accident resulted in total incapacity to work for almost three years, followed by resumption of work on a part-time basis. The long period of isolation of the patient and the anxiety of his family and those around him regarding the possible outcome of the accident are aspects peculiar to serious exposure to radiation. The psychological aspect is furthermore a part of the social aspect. During his period of confinement the patient only comes into contact with a few persons, whereas once he has been discharged from hospital he is an object of curiosity and publicity that are at times excessive. Finally, regrading that does not involve downgrading

  13. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984

    Adams, W.H.; Engle, J.R.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984

    March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Dose coefficients for individual occupationally exposed

    This Regulation refers to the requirements of the Regulation CNEN-NN.3.01, 'Basic Act of Radiological Protection', aiming its application to the dose calculation, with purposes of conformity verification with limits and restrictions of doses and level of reference for individual occupationally exposed, according to the express in its section 5

  16. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1988 through December 1991

    The purpose of this report is to disseminate information concerning the medical status of 253 Marshallese exposed to fallout radiation in 1954. This report discusses the medical care provided and the medical findings for the years 1988-1991. Details of the BRAVO thermonuclear accident that caused the exposure have been published, and a 1955 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association describing the acute medical effects in the exposed population remains a definitive and relevant description of events. Participation in the Marshall Islands Medical Program by the exposed Marshallese is voluntary. In the spring and fall of each year, medical surveillance is provided to exposed and unexposed cohorts. Examinations performed include: a cancer-related examination as defined by the American Society, an annual thyroid examination and thyroid function testing, serum prolactin testing looking for pituitary tumors, annual blood counts to include platelets, and evaluation for paraneoplastic evidence of neoplasms. This report details the medical program, medical findings, and thyroid surgery findings. Deaths (4 exposed and 10 nonexposed) that occurred during the reporting period are discussed. There is a mild but relatively consistent depression of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet concentrations in the blood of the exposed population. This depression appears to be of no clinical significance. Thyroid hypofunction, either clinical or biochemical, has been documented as a consequence of radiation exposure in 14 exposed individuals. Previously, one other exposed person was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma. During this reporting period, a thyroid nodule was identified in an individual who was in utero during the exposure. Upon pathologic review, the nodule was diagnosed as occult papillary carcinoma

  17. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1988 through December 1991

    Howard, J.E.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.; Adams, W.H.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to disseminate information concerning the medical status of 253 Marshallese exposed to fallout radiation in 1954. This report discusses the medical care provided and the medical findings for the years 1988-1991. Details of the BRAVO thermonuclear accident that caused the exposure have been published, and a 1955 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association describing the acute medical effects in the exposed population remains a definitive and relevant description of events. Participation in the Marshall Islands Medical Program by the exposed Marshallese is voluntary. In the spring and fall of each year, medical surveillance is provided to exposed and unexposed cohorts. Examinations performed include: a cancer-related examination as defined by the American Society, an annual thyroid examination and thyroid function testing, serum prolactin testing looking for pituitary tumors, annual blood counts to include platelets, and evaluation for paraneoplastic evidence of neoplasms. This report details the medical program, medical findings, and thyroid surgery findings. Deaths (4 exposed and 10 nonexposed) that occurred during the reporting period are discussed. There is a mild but relatively consistent depression of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet concentrations in the blood of the exposed population. This depression appears to be of no clinical significance. Thyroid hypofunction, either clinical or biochemical, has been documented as a consequence of radiation exposure in 14 exposed individuals. Previously, one other exposed person was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma. During this reporting period, a thyroid nodule was identified in an individual who was in utero during the exposure. Upon pathologic review, the nodule was diagnosed as occult papillary carcinoma.

  18. In vivo measurements of exposed individuals

    This section describes several studies of exposed individuals and the actual in vivo measurements made at this laboratory during the past three years. In all cases, the nuclides being measured are bone seekers and were measured with NaI(Tl)-CsI(Tl) detectors above the thorax or surrounding the head. The studies include the measurement of occupational contamination for 241Am, metabolic studies of 241Am in a child and his father, estimation of employee exposures to compounds of depleted uranium, measurements of residents of the Marshall Islands and measurement of occupational contamination for lead (Pb-210)

  19. Chromosome breakage at sites of oncogenes in a population accidentally exposed to radioactive chemical pollution

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the level of aberrations at fragile sites of chromosomes in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the population of an area polluted with radionuclides, following an accident at the Siberian Chemical Plant (SCP). We carried out the micro-nucleus test to screen people with radiation-related cytogenetic effects. Of the 1246 examined inhabitants of the settlement of Samus, 148 showed a significantly increased frequency of micro-nucleated erythrocytes and were selected for the chromosome analysis as a radiation-exposed group. Additional analysis was carried out on 40 patients with gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis with stage II-III epithelial dysplasia. Eighty six individuals from a non-polluted area were used as a control group. Chromosomal breaks and exchanges occurred preferentially in chromosomes 3 and 6 among radiation-exposed persons and patients. The regions 3p14-3p25 and 6p23 were damaged most often. There was a tendency towards preferential involvement at q21-q25 of chromosome 6 in patients with gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis. Specific damage at certain chromosome sites was observed in the radiation-exposed population as well as in patients with gastric cancer. Most often this damage were located near oncogene loci which could imply that chromosome damage induced by radiation is likely to be a predisposing factor to the expression of oncogenes and malignant transformation of cells in exposed individuals. (author)

  20. Twenty-year review of medical findings in a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout

    A summary is presented of results of medical examinations of inhabitants of the Marshall Islands during the 20-year period following the exposure of Rongelap people to radioactive fallout in 1954. The initial effect observed was β burns of the skin of some individuals. Few significant findings were observed during the subsequent 9-year period, although an increase in miscarriages and stillbirths among the exposed women was noted. In 1963 some thyroid abnormalities and growth retardation of some children were noted. (177 references)

  1. Monitoring the genetic health of persons in Goiania accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation from caesium-137

    This work describes the long term genetic monitoring of the Goiania population exposed to ionizing radiation from 137Cs, using cytogenetic and molecular endpoints. Cytogenetically, micronucleus frequencies differentiated groups exposed to different levels of radiation. Two molecular methods were employed: 1) the hprt clonal assay, involving in vitro selection of 6-thioguanine-resistant hprt mutant clones which were characterized at the molecular level using RT-PCR and genomic analysis. Ionizing radiation exposure initially elevated hprt mutation frequency which gradually diminished, so that no significant increase was observed four and a half years after original exposure. The spectrum of hprt mutations recovered from ten individuals exposed to relatively high doses of radiation revealed a fourfold increase in the frequency of A:T → G:C transitions. The increase is consistent with the effects of ionizing radiation in prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes. Additionally, a twofold increase in the frequency of deletions was observed which may reflect radiation induced DNA strand breakage; 2) determination of microsatellite instability using fluorescent PCR and genomic DNA from mononuclear cells. The frequency distributions of somatic microsatellite alterations in exposed and non-exposed populations were not different. Our assay lacked sensitivity to discriminate between spontaneous and induced microsatellite instability and therefore, is not suitable for population monitoring. Finally, we estimated the risk associated with radiation exposure for the exposed Goiania population. The estimated genetic risk of dominant disorders in the first post-exposure generation was increased nearly twenty-fourfold. The risk of carcinogenesis was increased by a factor of 1.5. (author)

  2. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  3. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-12-31

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  4. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities

  5. Psychosocial consequences of the Chernobyl disaster (A survey of Chernobyl accidental exposed and a non-exposed population sample)

    The importance of psychological factors in the aftermath of industrial disasters is being recognized increasingly. Two field studies (total N=3084) were conducted in two regions of the former Soviet Union, to investigate the long-term psychosocial consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster in 1986. A sub sample of the respondents (N=449) was studied using a standardized physical and psychiatric examination. The first study took place in the Gomel region (Belarus) in the direct vicinity of the damaged nuclear plant. A control study was conducted in the Tver region (the Russian Federation), about 250 km north-west of Moscow. The results of the study indicate significantly higher levels of psychological distress, poorer subjective health and higher medical consumption in the exposed population. These findings were most prominent in risk groups such as evacuated people and mothers with children. No significant differences in overall levels of psychiatric or physical morbidity were found. Radiation related diseases could not account for the poor health perception in the investigated sample. These results indicate that psychological factors following the Chernobyl disaster had a marked effect upon psychological well being, on perceived health and on subsequent illness behavior. Fears about future health play a key role in determining this response. The provision of adequate information to the public as well as to the public health services may be important to counteract these fears

  6. Ten years medical follow-up of four persons accidentally exposed to 60Co γ-rays

    Four cases of acute radiation injury resulting from accidental exposure to a 60Co source in February, 1972, were subject to early medical examination, and followed-up for 10 years. Their whole body exposure doses were estimated to be 55-147 rads. The results showed that in the individuals who had received a single dose below 147 rads, the temporary clinical picture, and the injuries in hemopoietic function and male reproductive system were all recoverable, but the chromosome aberrations yield returned to normal slowly. Ten years after the accident, all these 4 cases were in good health, and no cataract or malignant diseases were observed. No obvious abnormalities were found in their children. (author)

  7. Monitoring mutations in people: an in vivo study of people accidentally or occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    Recent developments in molecular biology and medicine now permit the monitoring of mutation in humans 'in vivo'. The most commonly used approach, and the main one reported in this paper, is the study of mutations at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus in peripheral T-lymphocytes. This paper deals with evidence from the radiological accident in Goiania, Brazil (where several hundred people were accidentally exposed to cesium-137), from a study of Soviet cosmonauts, and from monozygotic twins. The conclusions from Brazil are: mutation at hprt increases with age and is higher in smokers; in adults a linear dose response was found; no radiation-induced mutational fingerprint was found; children are particularly sensitive; the level of mutation dropped over several years (probably reflecting natural T-cell turnover). The conclusions from cosmonauts are: each cosmonaut had a significantly above-average level of mutation, but this may not be due to radiation at all; no 'fingerprint' was found, and there was no apparent dependence on dose. The study of twins showed a very strong correlation of mutant frequencies between one twin and the other, but this correlation decreased with age, presumably due to environmental effects. 1 tab., 2 figs

  8. Monitoring hprt mutant frequency over time in T-lymphocytes of people accidentally exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation

    Modern technologies have provided the opportunity to monitor mutations in people in vivo. The subjects of this study were accidentally exposed to 137Cesium in a radiological accident that occurred in September 1987 in Goiania, Brazil, during which more than 150 people received doses greater than 0.1 Gy and as high as 7 Gy. The objective of this study was to determine how long the hprt mutant T-cells in the peripheral blood contribute to mutant T-cells in the peripheral blood contribute to mutant frequency by examining the timecourse of the T-lymphocyte response to ionizing radiation. This report describes the results obtained over a period of 2.3 to 4.5 years subsequent to the accident, from 11 subjects with doses ranging from 1 to 7 Gy, and from nine control subjects selected from the same population. The mean In MF (±SE) of the control group was 2.5 (±0.2) + In10-6. The exposed group had a significantly increased mutant frequency; the mean ln MF (±SE) were 3.3 (±0.3) + In10-6, 2.8 (±0.2) + In10-6, and 2.3 (±0.2) + In10-6, in the years 1990-1992 respectively and using Buckton's models, we demonstrated that mutant T-cells have a short-term memory with a half-life of 2.1 years. This relatively short half-half limits the effective use of the hprt assay as the method of choice to monitor past exposure. The data also demonstrate a positive correlation with age, and an inverse correlation with plating efficiency. 77 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Retrospective genetic study of germinative mutations in Str loci of individuals potentially exposed to ionizing radiation

    The Brazilian radiological accident that occurred in 1987, in Goiania, it was a terrible radiation episode. As a consequence, hundreds of people were contaminated due to the Cesium-137 radiation. Recently, many studies had shown that genome instabilities, such as, mutations, chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei formation and micro satellite instability and a delay on cellular death are usually reported on mammal cells exposed to ionizing radiation, being considered as a manly risk to humans. Mutations can be spontaneous, and the occurrence is dependent on the organism, or, induced, being associated to mutagenic exposition. Ionizing radiations are an example of physical and mutagenic agents that could harm the cell repair and could cause the development of many types of cancer. The evaluation of the biological effects of the ionizing radiation, in somatic and germ line cells, with a consequent determination of the radio-induced mutations, it is extremely important to estimate the genetic risks, manly in population exposed to radiation. The analyses of repetitive DNA sequences have been demonstrated that such sequences are prone to high rates of spontaneous mutations. The minisatellites and microsatellites have been used to demonstrate the induction of germ line mutation rates on mouse, humans, among others organisms. The aim of the present study was to analyze the frequency of microsatellite alterations to determine the mutation rates occurred in germ cells of the parents exposed to the ionizing radiation of the Cesium-137. The studied group was constitute of 10 families of individuals accidentally exposed to Cesium-137 and by the control group constituted by 645 healthy individuals who carried out paternity tests on 2009. We found only one mutation of paternal origin in the D8S1179 locus on the exposed group, being the mutation rate of 0.002. In the control group, we found 01 mutation on D16S539 loei and on D3S1358; 02 mutations on Penta E loeus; 04 mutations on D

  10. Personality and psychopathological profiles in individuals exposed to mobbing.

    Girardi, Paolo; Monaco, Edoardo; Prestigiacomo, Claudio; Talamo, Alessandra; Ruberto, Amedeo; Tatarelli, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, mental health and medical professionals have been asked to assess claims of psychological harm arising from harassment at the workplace, or "mobbing." This study assessed the personality and psychopathological profiles of 146 individuals exposed to mobbing using validity, clinical, and content scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2. Profiles and factor analyses were obtained. Two major dimensions emerged among those exposed to mobbing: (a) depressed mood, difficulty in making decisions, change-related anguish, and passive-aggressive traits (b) somatic symptoms, and need for attention and affection. This cross-sectional pilot study provides evidence that personality profiles of mobbing victims and psychological damage resulting from mobbing may be evaluated using standardized assessments, though a longitudinal study is needed to delineate cause-and-effect relationships. PMID:17479554

  11. In vivo monitoring of occupationally exposed individuals to 18FDG in CRCN/NE

    The increasing demand for PET radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil results in increasing of the number of occupationally exposed individuals (OEI) to the radiopharmaceutical 18F in the form of 18FDG, increasing thereby the risk of accidental incorporation. This work aims to implement an in vivo internal monitoring technique applied to 18FDG radiopharmaceutical at the Divisao de Producao de Radiofarmacos (DIPRA) of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN/NE). The detection system used was a NaI(Tl) 3'' x 3'' detector connected to a compact electronic module operated by the Genie 2000 software. It was calibrated using a brain phantom containing a standard source of 22Na which simulates a contaminated individual. Based on the calibration factor it was possible to determine the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of the detection system and then, through use of biokinetic models provided by the ICRP in its publication 53 and edited by the AIDE version 6.0 software, it was possible to calculate the minimum detectable effective dose (MDED) which is an indication of the technique sensitivity. The MDED was estimated for the in vivo measurements performed up to 0.1 day after the occurrence of an intake by ingestion. The value obtained was compared to the Recording level of 1 mSv recommended by the IAEA. After validation of the in vivo monitoring technique, a series of measurements were performed on a group of occupationally exposed workers from DIPRA shortly after completion of production and quality control of 18FDG radiopharmaceutical procedures. It is concluded that the proposed technique is sufficiently sensitive for its application in internal occupational monitoring. (author)

  12. Bio-dosimetry for radiation-exposed individuals

    Exposure of civil populations to genotoxic chemicals or radioactive hazard is an increased concern. It is not only an industrial risk (chemistry plant accident for example) but also a national security problem due to the threat of radiological and nuclear terrorism. It is important to anticipate the need of a bio-dosimetry tool aimed at identifying exposed population in the absence of acute syndrome, in order to assure the medical care that would prevent carcinogenic consequences. DNA repair is a bio-marker of exposure to geno-toxics in individuals. A DNA repair signature can be assessed from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) that reflects the exposure history of the individuals, using a functional enzymatic assay on bio-chip. A proof of concept was obtained using PBMCs from patients undergoing radiotherapy regimen. We identified two classes of responses among patients, if we except a very atypical signature in one patient that could reflect defects in DNA repair. Interestingly, repair of the major oxidative lesions increased during the course of the radiotherapy. We propose to implement this fast, quantitative, possibly automatized assay to identify bio-markers of exposure to geno-toxics and to validate the exposure bio-markers through ex vivo exposure of blood from volunteers. (authors)

  13. Bio dosimetric tools for a fast triage of people accidentally exposed to ionising radiation. Statistical and computational aspects

    Consideration of statistical methodology is essential for the application of cytogenetic and other bio dosimetry techniques to triage for mass casualty situations. This is because the requirement for speed and accuracy in bio dosimetric triage necessarily introduces greater uncertainties than would be acceptable in day-to-day bio dosimetry. Additionally, in a large scale accident type situation, it is expected that a large number of laboratories from around the world will assist and it is likely that each laboratory will use one or more different dosimetry techniques. Thus issues arise regarding combination of results and the associated errors. In this article we discuss the statistical and computational aspects of radiation bio dosimetry for triage in a large scale accident-type situation. The current status of statistical analysis techniques is reviewed and suggestions are made for improvements to these methods which will allow first responders to estimate doses quickly and reliably for suspected exposed persons.

  14. Cytogenetic study of in utero exposed individuals, 2

    In 20 persons exposed in uterus to atomic radiation, chromosomes in the peripheral lymphocytes were examined using G-band differential staining and conventional Giemsa staining techniques. The subjects were divided into Group A of the mothers receiving 17 - 535 rad and Group B of the mothers receiving 0 rad. Chromosome aberrations were observed in 72 (5 %) of 1,463 cells in Group A and in 19 (1 %) of 1503 cells in Group B. Most of the chromosome aberrations were stable type involving translocation, inversion, and deletion. In one person whose mother was exposed to 453 rad, structural chromosome aberrations were observed in 53 (38 %) of 141 cells. Furthermore, 11 cells had two kinds of clones. This finding may provide clues for elucidating the promotion of cloning of cells with stable type structural chromosome aberrations due to in uterus exposure to high doses of atomic radiation. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Dioxins in adipose tissue of non-occupationally exposed persons in France: correlation with individual food exposure.

    Arfi, C; Seta, N; Fraisse, D; Revel, A; Escande, J P; Momas, I

    2001-09-01

    We evaluated individual adipose tissue (subcutaneous lipomas) dioxin contamination in non-occupationally exposed persons living in France (adult patients undergoing a surgical ablation of benign lipomas), in relation to the corresponding individually evaluated mean daily dietary dioxin intake (DDDI). The diet survey (questionnaire) included information on consumption of meat, fish, milk and dairy products, from which the individual DDDI was calculated. Sixteen subjects participated in this study. DDDI ranged between 1.06 and 3.31 pg I-TEQ/kg body weight, bw (mean value: 2.05+/-0.72). Adipose tissue polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) levels ranged between 18.5 and 76.9 pg I-TEQ/g lipids (mean value: 35.6+/-14.8). No relation was found between the DDDI and adipose tissue PCDD/PCDF concentrations. The mean DDDI in France does not fundamentally differ from those found in other industrialised countries, is within the range of 1-4 pg I-TEQ/kg/day recently suggested by WHO-ECEH/ICPS for the tolerable daily intake of dioxins. Adipose tissue PCDD/PCDFs levels are similar to levels in other European countries and USA without relation to sex or age, and can be considered representative European background concentrations. Globalisation of alimentary production leads to a similar food exposure in Western European countries, in spite of dioxins accidental selective contaminations that are epiphenomenon and thus do not have any impact in human dioxin background levels. PMID:11513111

  16. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Carriage, Antibiotic Resistance and Molecular Pathogenicity among Healthy Individuals Exposed and Not Exposed to Hospital Environment

    Krishnamurthy, Veena; Renushri, Bhadravati Virupaksha; Nagaraj, Elkal Rajappa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Healthcare workers as well as healthy community-dwelling individuals may be colonised by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Healthcare workers who carry MRSA may transmit it to patients, causing various nosocomial infections. Literature shows that the differences between MRSA isolated from healthcare settings and from community settings, with regard to multi-drug resistance (traditionally exhibited by the former) and possession of pvl genes (traditionally exhibited by the latter), is diminishing due to a large community reservoir and increasing influx of community harboured strains into the hospital. However, there is no literature on the current scenario in India. Aims and Objectives: This study examines the influence of exposure to hospital environment on MRSA carriage, antimicrobial resistance patterns of MRSA, and the presence of genes encoding five extracellular pathogenicity determinants (pvl, sea, seb, tsst-1 and hly a). Materials and Methods: Nasal, throat and palmar swabs were collected from 119 nursing students of the age group 18-23 years (exposed group) and 100 age matched pharmacy students (non-exposed group). S. aureus was identified and antibiogram obtained as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. MRSA was detected by cefoxitin disc diffusion test and by growth on oxacillin screen agar as per CLSI guidelines. Conventional PCR was performed for mecA, pvl, sea, seb, tsst-1 and hly a. Results: The differences in carrier rates, antibiotic resistance patterns and expression of extracellular pathogenicity determinants between MRSA isolates from the two study groups were not significant, and pvl was found in all the MRSA isolates. Conclusion: The nursing students carried MRSA strains similar to those carried by the non-exposed group. Our results suggest that healthcare workers could act as a link and transmit MRSA acquired from the community to patients. PMID:25177563

  17. DETERMINATION OF URINARY TRIVALENT ARSENICALS (MMASIII AND DMASIII) IN INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC

    DETERMINATION OF URINARY TRIVALENT ARSENICALS (MMAsIII and DMAsIII) IN INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC. L. M. Del Razo1, M. Styblo2, W. R. Cullen3, and D.J. Thomas4. 1Toxicology Section, Cinvestav-IPN, Mexico, D.F., 2Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 3Uni...

  18. Accidental Innovation

    Austin, Robert D.; Devin, Lee; Sullivan, Erin E.

    2012-01-01

    Historical accounts of human achievement suggest that accidents can play an important role in innovation. In this paper, we seek to contribute to an understanding of how digital systems might support valuable unpredictability in innovation processes by examining how innovators who obtain value from...... they incorporate accidents into their deliberate processes and arranged surroundings. By comparing makers working in varied conditions, we identify specific factors (e.g., technologies, characteristics of technologies) that appear to support accidental innovation. We show that makers in certain specified...... conditions not only remain open to accident but also intentionally design their processes and surroundings to invite and exploit valuable accidents. Based on these findings, we offer advice for the design of digital systems to support innovation processes that can access valuable unpredictability....

  19. Telomere measurement in individuals occupationally exposed to pesticide mixtures in tobacco fields.

    Kahl, Vívian Francília Silva; Simon, Daniel; Salvador, Mirian; Branco, Cátia dos Santos; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Fernanda Rabaioli; de Souza, Claudia Telles; da Silva, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to pesticides in tobacco fields causes genetic damage in farmers. The aim of this study was to analyze tobacco farmers chronically exposed to low doses of pesticides and nicotine (present in the tobacco leaves) in relation to absolute telomere length (aTL), and explore the influence of lifestyle characteristics, oxidative stress, and inorganic element levels. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples from agricultural workers and non-exposed individuals, and aTL was measured by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. Oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS], which measures oxidative damage to lipids; and toxic equivalent antioxidant capacity [TEAC], which measures total equivalent antioxidant capacity) was evaluated in serum, and inorganic element content was analyzed in whole blood through particle-induced X-ray emission technique. It was found that exposure to pesticides and tobacco smoking had significant effects on aTL. Individuals occupationally exposed to complex mixtures of pesticides in tobacco fields and individuals who smoked had decreased aTL compared with the non-exposed group. TBARS and TEAC were significantly elevated in the exposed group. There were no significant differences in inorganic elements. There was no evidence of an influence of age, gender, consumption of alcoholic beverages, or intake of fruits and vegetables on aTL within the groups. In addition, years of work in the tobacco field in the exposed group did not influence any of the variables analyzed. Although further studies were needed, these results suggested differences in telomere maintenance in tobacco farmers compared with the control group, indicating that telomere length may be a good biomarker of occupational exposure. PMID:26426910

  20. Individual radiological monitoring for exposed personnel of Nuclear Fuel Plant at Pitesti

    In the activity of nuclear fuel fabrication of CANDU type, based on natural and depleted uranium, individual radiological monitoring of the personnel exposed to ionizing radiation is very carefully approached. For Nuclear Fuel Plant (NFP) facility, where uranium appears in bulk and itemized form, measures for individual radiological monitoring are established by Radiological Safety Manual (MSR) in accordance with national and international legislation. All NFP employees are classified in either category A or category B of exposure to ionizing radiation. The classification is a function of type of activity and magnitude of exposure. All the exposed personnel are monitored for external doses (from gamma radiation) by measuring the equivalent dose Hp(10) with monthly frequency. The system used for external individual dosimetric monitoring is based on the thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) of PANASONIC type UD813AS14. The NFP incorporates an in-house dosimetric laboratory notified by Romanian regulatory body CNCAN (National Commission for Control of Nuclear Activities). The workers handling nuclear materials are exposed to internal intake of uranium, mainly by inhalation. For internal doses monitoring is included part of exposed employees working directly with radioactive open sources (pulverulent or liquid nuclear materials), UO2 sinterable powder, green pellets, sintered pellets, scrap and radioactive effluents. The estimation of internal exposure is made quarterly using the results from radioactive airborne monitors operating in the working places. The internal dose of each person exposed to open sources is calculated taking into account the rate of breathing, the time spent at the work place and the dose-activity coefficient (variable function of uranium absorption rate). The total effective individual dose is obtained by summing the external dose and internal dose (E=Eext+Eint). For conformity, the total effective individual dose (E) is compared with dose effective

  1. Mental Processing of Human Subjects with Different Individual Characters Exposed to Low Frequency Noise

    Mohammad Javad Jafari; Marzieh Kazempour

    2015-01-01

     Low Frequency Noise (LFN) is ubiquitous in both occupational and general environments. Mental performance of subjects exposed to LFN is expected to be impaired. Individual characters seem to play a significant role in this process. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of moderate levels of LFN (20–200 Hz) on mental performance. Fifty-three subjects (in two groups) were exposed to low and flat frequency character noise each at the same sound pressure levels of 45 dBA. Personality traits o...

  2. How does social support enhance resilience in the trauma-exposed individual?

    Lauren M. Sippel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although most resilience science has focused on individual-level psychosocial factors that promote individual resilience, theorists and researchers have begun to examine neurobiological and systems-level factors implicated in resilience. In this commentary we argue that the development of effective interventions to enhance resilience necessitates understanding that resilience in the individual is dependent on multiple layers of society. Further, we suggest that there is a bidirectional relationship between systems-level resilience (i.e., resilience of romantic partners, family members, neighborhoods, and larger social contexts and individual resilience. We suggest directions for future research and interventions, with the goal of stimulating research efforts that address these questions among trauma-exposed individuals.

  3. Dose constraints to the individual annual doses of exposed workers in nuclear medicine laboratories

    The study deals with the analysis of dose distribution records of the occupationally exposed workers in the field of nuclear medicine in Greece and the establishment of constraints to their individual annual doses (IAD) within the process of optimization in radiation protection. The exposed workers were grouped according to their specialties (medical doctors, technicians, others), the kind of services provided (diagnosis or diagnosis plus I-131 therapy) and the sector they belonged (public or private). Dose constraints (DC) were set at the level below which the IAD of the 75% of the exposed workers per specialty were included. Our results showed that DC levels were exceeded by the 13% of the exposed workers in the public and the 30% in the private sector respectively. Further investigation indicated that the reasons leading to the exceeding of DCs, may be attributed to the workload of the exposed workers which is greater in the private than in the public sector as well as, to possible difference in the specific tasks of workers between the two sectors. (author)

  4. Mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Stevens, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    A mathematical model was constructed for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included. 25 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. A Review of the New European Technical Recommendations for Monitoring Individuals Occupationally Exposed to External Radiation

    This paper reviews the revised Technical Recommendations for Monitoring Individuals Occupationally Exposed to External Radiation as issued by the European Commission as Radiation Protection 160. These recommendations are aimed at all stakeholders in radiation protection dosimetry with an emphasis in the responsible technical staff of approved dosimetry services. This paper briefly touches each Chapter and ends with a more in depth section on the uncertainty evaluation of dose measurements. -- Highlights: ► Recommendations on all aspects of running an approved dosimetry service. ► Radiation protection framework. ► Metrology of personal dosimeters. ► QC and QA of individual monitoring

  6. Temporal and speech processing skills in normal hearing individuals exposed to occupational noise

    U Ajith Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exposure to high levels of occupational noise can cause damage to hair cells in the cochlea and result in permanent noise-induced cochlear hearing loss. Consequences of cochlear hearing loss on speech perception and psychophysical abilities have been well documented. Primary goal of this research was to explore temporal processing and speech perception Skills in individuals who are exposed to occupational noise of more than 80 dBA and not yet incurred clinically significant threshold shifts. Contribution of temporal processing skills to speech perception in adverse listening situation was also evaluated. A total of 118 participants took part in this research. Participants comprised three groups of train drivers in the age range of 30-40 (n= 13, 41 50 ( = 13, 41-50 (n = 9, and 51-60 (n = 6 years and their non-noise-exposed counterparts (n = 30 in each age group. Participants of all the groups including the train drivers had hearing sensitivity within 25 dB HL in the octave frequencies between 250 and 8 kHz. Temporal processing was evaluated using gap detection, modulation detection, and duration pattern tests. Speech recognition was tested in presence multi-talker babble at -5dB SNR. Differences between experimental and control groups were analyzed using ANOVA and independent sample t-tests. Results showed a trend of reduced temporal processing skills in individuals with noise exposure. These deficits were observed despite normal peripheral hearing sensitivity. Speech recognition scores in the presence of noise were also significantly poor in noise-exposed group. Furthermore, poor temporal processing skills partially accounted for the speech recognition difficulties exhibited by the noise-exposed individuals. These results suggest that noise can cause significant distortions in the processing of suprathreshold temporal cues which may add to difficulties in hearing in adverse listening conditions.

  7. Mental Processing of Human Subjects with Different Individual Characters Exposed to Low Frequency Noise

    MOHAMMADJAVAD JAFARI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Low Frequency Noise (LFN is ubiquitous in both occupational and general environments. Mental performance of subjects exposed to LFN is expected to be impaired. Individual characters seem to play a significant role in this process. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of moderate levels of LFN (20–200 Hz on mental performance. Fifty-three subjects (in two groups were exposed to low and flat frequency character noise each at the same sound pressure levels of 45 dBA. Personality traits of extro-intraversion and neuroticism were determined using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. The subjects were asked to carry out two different mental tasks while being exposed to the noise. Subjective reports were collected using questionnaires. Concentration problems, fatigue and noise annoyance during the experiments were measured using a numeric ten-point self-rating scales. The results revealed that LFN impaired mental performance. There was no significant effect of LFN on the accuracy of mental processing, compared to the reference noise condition. Extrovert subjects performed significantly faster, compared to the introverts and subjects that exposed to LFN performed slower than reference noise. More stable personality, with extroversive tendencies is likely for better adaptation to LFN during mental performance, compared to people with the opposite personality traits. Correlation analysis showed a highly significant negative relation of extroversion and noise annoyance during mental processing.

  8. Antibody levels against rabies among occupationally exposed individuals in a Nigerian University

    Babasola O. Olugasa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigated the levels of anti-glycoprotein antibodies against rabies virus in the sera of occupationally exposed humans at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. A quantitative indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect rabies virus anti-glycoprotein antibodies in sera from 20 zoological garden workers, 20 veterinarians and 30 clinical veterinary students at the University of Ibadan. The sera were obtained between September 2008 and February 2009. Of these 70 healthy individuals, 29 (41.4% consisting of 15 zoological garden workers (75.0%, 13 veterinarians (65.0% and 1 veterinary student (3.3% were immune to rabies virus (antibody titre >0.5 equivalent units per ml, while 41 (58.6% were not immune. The prevalence of rabies anti-glycoprotein antibody was higher within the older segment of the study population than among the younger veterinary students. Almost all those who had spent at least 10 years on the job had higher levels of rabies vaccination compliance and were immune. Our results indicated that there is low anti-rabies immunity among occupationally exposed individuals at the University of Ibadan. There is a need for a complete course of primary and booster vaccinations of professionals exposed to the rabies virus. The impact of these results on rabies control in Nigeria is discussed.

  9. Dose constraints to the individual annual doses of exposed workers in the medical sector

    Kamenopoulou, V. E-mail: titika@eeae.nrcps.ariadne-t.gr; Drikos, G.; Dimitriou, P

    2001-03-01

    The study is an attempt, within the process of the optimization of radiation protection, to propose constraints to the individual annual doses of classified workers employed in the medical sector of ionizing radiation applications in Greece. These exposed workers were grouped according to their specialties, i.e. medical doctors, technicians and nurses and their occupational category with common or similar tasks, such as diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. The last 5 years' annual dose distributions of these occupational groups, coming from the National Dose Registry Information System (NDRIS) of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) were analyzed. The proposed dose constraints (DCs) were set at levels, below which the annual doses of the 70 or 75% of the exposed workers per category are expected to be included. At the present stage the derived values may be considered achievable ceiling values referring to acceptably applied practices rather than to optimized ones, taking into account social and economic criteria.

  10. Dose constraints to the individual annual doses of exposed workers in the medical sector.

    Kamenopoulou, V; Drikos, G; Dimitriou, P

    2001-03-01

    The study is an attempt, within the process of the optimization of radiation protection, to propose constraints to the individual annual doses of classified workers employed in the medical sector of ionizing radiation applications in Greece. These exposed workers were grouped according to their specialties, i.e. medical doctors, technicians and nurses and their occupational category with common or similar tasks, such as diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. The last 5 years' annual dose distributions of these occupational groups, coming from the National Dose Registry Information System (NDRIS) of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) were analyzed. The proposed dose constraints (DCs) were set at levels, below which the annual doses of the 70 or 75% of the exposed workers per category are expected to be included. At the present stage the derived values may be considered achievable ceiling values referring to acceptably applied practices rather than to optimized ones, taking into account social and economic criteria. PMID:11274851

  11. Accidental overexposures

    The accident frequency seems to increase rapidly, probably because of the industrial source use development. In opposition to that was noted twenty years ago, the accidents don't involve only the industrial firm or hospital wage earners but also public people. Serious accident analysis puts to the fore the defects which made them possible. The accidents due to energy production reactors are very seldom even if Chernobyl or nuclear submarine accidents have exposed about several hundreds workers to doses going beyond one gray. 78 refs. 17 figs. 14 tabs. 3 annexes

  12. Possibility of retrospective dosimetry for persons accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation using electron spin resonance of sugar and mother-of-pearl

    An electron spin resonance (ESR) dosemeter was used to measure ESR absorption spectra of sugar and shell buttons made of mother-of-pearl, for the purpose of evaluating the external dose to exposed inhabitants in the vicinity of a radiation accident. The ESR absorption intensity of sugar was proportional to dose in the range from about 30 mGy to 6 x 104 Gy. The lifetime of the free radical created in both sugar and shell buttons by radiation was stable for at least 6 months after irradiation. If sugar and shell goods left in or around houses since the occurrence of the Chernobyl reactor and the Brazilian accidents were obtained, it would be possible to estimate from them the integrated external dose to exposed people. (author)

  13. Possibility of retrospective dosimetry for persons accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation using electron spin resonance of sugar and mother-of-pearl

    Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    1989-02-01

    An electron spin resonance (ESR) dosemeter was used to measure ESR absorption spectra of sugar and shell buttons made of mother-of-pearl, for the purpose of evaluating the external dose to exposed inhabitants in the vicinity of a radiation accident. The ESR absorption intensity of sugar was proportional to dose in the range from about 30 mGy to 6 x 10/sup 4/ Gy. The lifetime of the free radical created in both sugar and shell buttons by radiation was stable for at least 6 months after irradiation. If sugar and shell goods left in or around houses since the occurrence of the Chernobyl reactor and the Brazilian accidents were obtained, it would be possible to estimate from them the integrated external dose to exposed people.

  14. Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors for Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual and Average Member of Critical Group

    The purpose of this calculation is to develop additional Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for a reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) for the periods 10,000 years and 1,000,000 years after the repository closure. In addition, Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors for the average member of a critical group are calculated for those additional radionuclides postulated to reach the environment during the period after 10,000 years and up to 1,000,000 years. After the permanent closure of the repository, the engineered systems within the repository will eventually lose their abilities to contain radionuclide inventory, and the radionuclides will migrate through the geosphere and eventually enter the local water table moving toward inhabited areas. The primary release scenario is a groundwater well used for drinking water supply and irrigation, and this calculation takes these postulated releases and follows them through various pathways until they result in a dose to either a member of critical group or a reasonably maximally exposed individual. The pathways considered in this calculation include inhalation, ingestion, and direct exposure

  15. Human brucellosis among pyrexia of unknown origin cases and occupationally exposed individuals in Goa Region, India

    Ajay D. Pathak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic infection. This disease is endemic in many parts of Asia, including India. Brucellosis is a major cause of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO. Persons exposed to infected animals or contaminated animal products are at high risk. Seropositivity among animal handlers, veterinarians and dairy workers has been documented in India. Thus, the present study was aimed to determine prevalence of brucellosis among PUO cases and occupationally exposed individuals. Methods: In this study, serum samples (n=282 from cases of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO (n=243, and occupationally exposed individuals (n=39 were collected and tested for brucellosis by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT, indirect ELISA, IgG and IgM ELISA. Blood culture for isolation of Brucella was performed for 10 serologically positive patients using BACTEC 9050 automated blood culture system. Biochemical tests and PCR techniques were used for confirmation of the isolates. Results: Of the samples tested, 4.25%, 3.54%, 6.02% and 4.96% samples were positive by RBPT, SAT, indirect ELISA and IgG ELISA, respectively. None of the sample was positive for IgM ELISA. Of the 10 blood samples cultured bacteriologically, one Brucella isolate was recovered. The isolate was confirmed as Brucella abortus. Amplification of the bcsp31 and IS711 genes was also observed. Conclusions: Seropositivity for brucellosis was observed among PUO cases, animal handlers and dairy workers in Goa, India. The serological tests showed variable results. One Brucella isolate was obtained by performing blood culture. Confirmation of the case was done rapidly using molecular tools. General awareness about clinical symptoms should be increased which will improve proper diagnosis within short time frame.

  16. Audiologic and otoacoustic emission evaluation in individuals exposed to noise and plaguecides

    Morini, Renata Graziele

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The noise induced hearing loss (NIHL has been studied for many years and today the specialized literature also studies the synergic action of chemicals. Objective: To research the audiologic findings and DPOAE in workers exposed to occupational noise and plaguecides and to compare them with data obtained in individuals without exposure to these harmful elements. Method: 51 individuals were evaluated (102 ears, divided into three groups. Group I was composed by 17 workers with exposure to noise and plaguecides, all with neurosensorial auditory loss; group II was composed by 17 workers with exposure to noise and plaguecides with audiometric thresholds within normality standards (up to 25 dBNA and group III by 17 healthy individuals without auditory alterations and without exposure to noise and plaguecides, control group. Results: In the audiologic anamnesis, as for groups I and II, we observed that the main auditory complaints presented by the workers were those of recruitment (29.5%, tinnitus (26.5%, allergy (23.5% and arterial hypertension (12%. The findings of the audiometry appointed that the research's individuals did not present with auditory losses in the frequencies of 500 Hz, 1 and 2 kHz, the losses occurred in the frequencies of 3 and 8 kHz. As for the distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs, we observed that the individuals in group III had a major incidence of responses when compared to those of groups I and II. Conclusion: The results analysis allowed us to conclude that the DPOAE test represents an important tool for follow up and prevention of NIHL.

  17. DNA DAMAGE IN BUCCAL EPITHELIAL CELLS FROM INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess DNA damage in buccal cells from individuals chronically exposed to arsenic via drinking water in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Buccal cells were collected from 19 Ba Men residents exposed to arsenic at 527.5 ? 23.7 g/L (mean ? SEM) and ...

  18. Clinically observed effects in individuals exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    The Chernobyl accident resulted in an unprecedented total number of 237 individuals who were suspected of suffering from acute radiation sickness (ARS). All patients had been exposed either as personnel at the reactor or as liquidators (rescue workers) in the first days after the accident. The diagnosis was confirmed in 134 cases. Of these, 41 had mild (Grade I) ARS; one additional patient is still disputed; all survived. Fifty patients had Grade II ARS, of whom one died. Seven patients out of 22 with Grade III ARS died. Of the most severely affected 21 patients, who suffered from Grade IV ARS, all but one died despite intensive treatment. Among the Grade IV ARS patients, gastrointestinal damage and radiation skin burns were the most common complicating factors. In the last ten years, nine of the ARS patients and five of the non-confirmed cases have died. Their deaths do not relate to the original severity of ARS and are, in the majority of cases, probably not directly attributable to the radiation exposure. To improve care for the victims of such exposures, a number of issues need to be addressed, such as: The reasons for the failure of the treatment of bone marrow transplantation made available to the most severely affected patients; immediate diagnosis and alternative modes of treatment; the best strategy for the medical management of the acutely exposed radiation accident victim in the future in view of new developments; and the quality of life of the surviving patients. It was realized almost immediately that from the medical point of view the persons acutely exposed as a result of an accident on this scale are difficult to manage, since specialized centres have a capacity for only a few patients. The experience gained from these patients has provided additional information about the mechanisms of acute radiation injury. 37 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  19. Studies of the Pu-239/240 content in tissues from non-occupationally exposed individuals. Progress report

    Environmental levels of alpha-emitting actinides, specifically plutonium 239, 240 have been determined in tissues from non-occupationally exposed individuals of different ages, sexes and geographical areas and the results compared with those from other laboratories

  20. Mental Processing of Human Subjects with Different Individual Characters Exposed to Low Frequency Noise

    Mohammad Javad Jafari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Low Frequency Noise (LFN is ubiquitous in bothoccupational and general environments. Mental performance of subjects exposedto LFN is expected to be impaired. Individual characters seem to play asignificant role in this process. This study aimed to evaluate the effects ofmoderate levels of LFN (20–200 Hz on mental performance. Fifty-three subjects(in two groups were exposed to low and flat frequency character noise each atthe same sound pressure levels of 45 dBA. Personality traits of extro-intraversion andneuroticism were determined using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Thesubjects were asked to carry out two different mental tasks while being exposedto the noise. Subjective reports were collected using questionnaires.Concentration problems, fatigue and noise annoyance during the experiments weremeasured using a numeric ten-point self-rating scales. The results revealedthat LFN impaired mental performance. There was no significant effect of LFN onthe accuracy of mental processing, compared to the reference noise condition.Extrovert subjects performed significantly faster, compared to the introvertsand subjects that exposed to LFN performed slower than reference noise. Morestable personality, with extroversive tendencies is likely for betteradaptation to LFN during mental performance, compared to people with theopposite personality traits. Correlation analysis showed a highly significantnegative relation of extroversion and noise annoyance during mental processing.

  1. Air pollution and vulnerability of exposed individuals: the case of downtown Medellín

    Gabriel J. González

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of respiratory problems in high level pollution areas is linked to factors such as exposure, susceptibility, and social coping. Objective: To present statistical evidence regarding the relationship between the probability of experiencing symptoms or contracting a respiratory disease and factors such as exposure to pollution, susceptibility, and social coping among people inhabiting areas with particulate matter pollution. Methodology: The study used unique information collected from a survey conducted on 1000 people in downtown Medellin who were exposed to this problem. This information was used to perform a descriptive statistic analysis and to build 27 probit models. The dependent variables were: the patient has a symptom or disease –emf-, the patient has a symptom –leve-, and the patient has a respiratory disease –grave-. Results: The results evidence that exposure is a key variable affecting the presence of respiratory symptoms or diseases (vulnerability; however, exposed individuals may also experience health problems not only due to air pollution per se, but also to implicit personal and social conditions.

  2. Translocation frequencies measured in individuals exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation using chromosome painting

    Chromosome painting, the selective staining of one or more chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using whole-chromosome probes, facilitates rapid and accurate detection of chromosome translocations in human lymphocytes. Using this method, entire lengths of targeted chromosomes may be stained. After chromosome painting, interchromosomal exchange aberrations become rapidly apparent as bicolor chromosomes when all non-painted chromosomes are counter stained a different color. Here, following a brief discussion of this methodology, the use is described of chromosome painting for measuring translocation frequencies in individuals exposed years to decades previously to whole-body doses of ionizing radiation. Also the use of 3-color FISH for increasing the translocation detection efficiency is discussed. (author). 10 refs., 1 fig

  3. First assessment of individual monitoring of medical workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation in Burkina Faso

    This paper reports the results of monitoring of medical workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation as a consequence of exposure to X-rays, from 2007 to 2010, in Burkina Faso. The radiation exposure monitoring was made with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) type 0110 and the reader used was Harshaw 4500. The medical establishments. subscribers were provided with personal dosimeters (measuring Hp (10) and Hp (0.07)) and dosimeters for background and workplace exposure (H*10) measurement. The dosimeters have been worn for periods of 2 months each. The number of establishments subscribed and workers monitored has gradually increased from 4 radiology establishments with 13 workers monitored at September 2007 to 23 subscribers with 121 workers monitored at the end of April 2010. 13 establishments were still working without monitoring. From September 2007 to April 2010, no individual annual dose limit has really been reached. 88.16% of the 2 months dose values of personal dosimeters were below 0.1mSv, the detection limit and 96.61% of Hp (10) bimonthly values were below 3.33mSv. The workplace exposure monitoring values were often low (varying from 0.00mSv to 40.45mSv). 87.08% of the values of H*(10) were below 3.33mSv, the upper limit of Hp (10) for a period of 2 months. Low values of individual dose have also been recorded despite of high values of workplace monitoring. This allowed to state that the workers monitored were not exposed to a major risk. Nevertheless, 13 TLD have been lost and 3 damaged by subscribers (out of 1504 TLD provided). 26 times (out of 240), background measurement and workplace exposure monitoring dosimeters have been placed at the improper location. Therefore, sensitization of the establishments using ionizing radiation should be reinforced and the national regulations should impose radiation monitoring (author)

  4. Primary nasal epithelium exposed to house dust mite extract shows activated expression in allergic individuals.

    Vroling, Aram B; Jonker, Martijs J; Luiten, Silvia; Breit, Timo M; Fokkens, Wytske J; van Drunen, Cornelis M

    2008-03-01

    Nasal epithelial cells form the outermost protective layer against environmental factors. However, this defense is not just physical; it has been shown that epithelial cells respond by the production of inflammatory mediators that may affect local immune responses. In this research we set out to characterize potential differences between the responses of nasal epithelium from healthy and allergic individuals to house dust mite (HDM) allergen. These differences will help us to define local mechanisms that could contribute to allergic disease expression. Epithelial cells were cultured from nasal biopsies taken from five healthy and five allergic individuals. These cultures were exposed for 24 hours to culture medium containing HDM allergen, or to culture medium alone. Isolated RNA was used for microarray analysis. Gene-ontology of the response in healthy epithelium revealed mainly up-regulation of chemokines, growth factors, and structural proteins. Moreover, we saw increased expression of two transcription factors (NF-kappaB and AP-1) and their regulatory members. The expression pattern of epithelium from allergic individuals in the absence of the HDM stimulus suggests that it is already in an activated state. Most striking is that, while the already activated NF-kappaB regulatory pathway remained unchanged in allergic epithelium, the AP-1 pathway is down-regulated upon exposure to HDM allergen; this is contrary to what we see in healthy epithelium. Clear differences in the expression pattern exist between epithelial cells isolated from healthy and allergic individuals at baseline and between their responses to allergen exposure; these differences may contribute to the inflammatory response. PMID:17901406

  5. The new EC technical recommendations for monitoring individuals occupationally exposed to external radiation.

    Alves, J G; Ambrosi, P; Bartlett, D T; Currivan, L; van Dijk, J W E; Fantuzzi, E; Kamenopoulou, V

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the European Commission technical recommendations (TR) for monitoring individuals occupationally exposed to external radiation is to provide guidance on those aspects of the implementation of the European Union Parliament and Council Directives directly related to individual monitoring of external radiation, and to encourage harmonisation thereof. They are mainly aimed at the management and staff of IM services but also at manufacturers, laboratories supplying type-testing services, national authorities trying to harmonise approval procedures, and government bodies to harmonise regulations and guidance. The TR main topics are: objectives and aims of IM for external radiation; dosimetry concepts; accuracy requirements; calibration, type testing and performance testing; approval procedures; quality assurance and quality control; and dose record keeping. Attention is paid to particular aspects, such as wide energy ranges for the use of personal dosemeters, pulsed fields and non-charged particle equilibrium; and use of active personal dosemeters. The TR give proposals towards achieving harmonisation in IM and the eventual mutual recognition of services and of dose results. PMID:20959338

  6. Estimation of dose distribution in occupationally exposed individuals to FDG-18F

    The use of unsealed radiation sources in nuclear medicine can lead to important incorporation of radionuclides, especially for occupationally exposed individuals (OEIs) during production and handling of radiopharmaceuticals. In this study, computer simulation was proposed as an alternative methodology for evaluation of the absorbed dose distribution and for the effective dose value in OEIs. For this purpose, the Exposure Computational Model (ECM) which is named as FSUP (Female Adult Mesh - supine) were used. This ECM is composed of: voxel phantom FASH (Female Adult MeSH) in the supine position, the MC code EGSnrc and an algorithm simulator of general internal source. This algorithm was modified to adapt to specific needs of the positron emission from FDG-18F. The obtained results are presented as absorbed dose/accumulated activity. To obtain the absorbed dose distribution it was necessary to use accumulative activity data from the in vivo bioassay. The absorbed dose distribution and the value of estimated effective dose in this study did not exceed the limits for occupational exposure. Therefore, the creation of a database with the distribution of accumulated activity is suggested in order to estimate the absorbed dose in radiosensitive organs and the effective dose for OEI in similar environment. (author)

  7. Retrospective genetic study of germinative mutations in Str loci of individuals potentially exposed to ionizing radiation;Estudo genetico retrospectivo de mutacoes germinativas em Loci Str de individuos potencialmente expostos a radiacao ionizante

    Costa, Emilia Oliveira Alves

    2010-07-01

    The Brazilian radiological accident that occurred in 1987, in Goiania, it was a terrible radiation episode. As a consequence, hundreds of people were contaminated due to the Cesium-137 radiation. Recently, many studies had shown that genome instabilities, such as, mutations, chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei formation and micro satellite instability and a delay on cellular death are usually reported on mammal cells exposed to ionizing radiation, being considered as a manly risk to humans. Mutations can be spontaneous, and the occurrence is dependent on the organism, or, induced, being associated to mutagenic exposition. Ionizing radiations are an example of physical and mutagenic agents that could harm the cell repair and could cause the development of many types of cancer. The evaluation of the biological effects of the ionizing radiation, in somatic and germ line cells, with a consequent determination of the radio-induced mutations, it is extremely important to estimate the genetic risks, manly in population exposed to radiation. The analyses of repetitive DNA sequences have been demonstrated that such sequences are prone to high rates of spontaneous mutations. The minisatellites and microsatellites have been used to demonstrate the induction of germ line mutation rates on mouse, humans, among others organisms. The aim of the present study was to analyze the frequency of microsatellite alterations to determine the mutation rates occurred in germ cells of the parents exposed to the ionizing radiation of the Cesium-137. The studied group was constitute of 10 families of individuals accidentally exposed to Cesium-137 and by the control group constituted by 645 healthy individuals who carried out paternity tests on 2009. We found only one mutation of paternal origin in the D8S1179 locus on the exposed group, being the mutation rate of 0.002. In the control group, we found 01 mutation on D16S539 loei and on D3S1358; 02 mutations on Penta E loeus; 04 mutations on D

  8. Normalization of Addiction Potential Scale for Spotting Individuals Exposed to Drug Abuse Among Students of Tehran Universities

    Ezzatollah Kordmirza; Hossein Azad; Hossein Eskandari

    2003-01-01

    Recent research on the basis of documented and comprehensive studies have indicated that besides individuals who are dependent on a certain type of drug, one can find considerable number of other individuals who are exposed to drug addiction from the viewpoint of their personality. The article with regard to these researches and in order to look into the diagnostic value of three sub-scales of addiction acknowledgement (AAS), Addiction Potential (APS) and Mac Andrew Alcoholism Scale-Revised (...

  9. Human brucellosis among pyrexia of unknown origin cases and occupationally exposed individuals in Goa Region, India

    Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo B.; Ajay D. Pathak; Dubal, Zunjar B.; Doijad, Swapnil P.; Raorane, Abhay; Rodrigues, Savio; Naik, Rajeshwar; Naik-Gaonkar, Shraddha; Dewanand R. Kalorey; Nitin V. Kurkure; Naik, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic infection. This disease is endemic in many parts of Asia, including India. Brucellosis is a major cause of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO). Persons exposed to infected animals or contaminated animal products are at high risk. Seropositivity among animal handlers, veterinarians and dairy workers has been documented in India. Thus, the present study was aimed to determine prevalence of brucellosis among PUO cases and occupationally exposed indivi...

  10. Panic symptoms and elevated suicidal ideation and behaviors among trauma exposed individuals: Moderating effects of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Albanese, Brian J; Norr, Aaron M; Capron, Daniel W; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-08-01

    Panic attacks (PAs) are highly prevalent among trauma exposed individuals and have been associated with a number of adverse outcomes. Despite high suicide rates among trauma exposed individuals, research to date has not examined the potential relation between panic symptoms and suicidal ideation and behaviors among this high risk population. The current study tested the association of panic with suicidal ideation and behaviors among a large sample of trauma exposed smokers. Community participants (N=421) who reported a lifetime history of trauma exposure were assessed concurrently for current panic, suicidal ideation and behaviors, and psychiatric diagnoses. Those who met criteria for a current panic disorder diagnosis were removed from analyses to allow for the assessment of non-PD related panic in line with the recent addition of the PA specifier applicable to all DSM-5 disorders. Findings indicated that panic symptoms were significantly associated with suicidal ideation and behaviors beyond the effects of depression and number of trauma types experienced. Further, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic status significantly moderated this relationship, indicating that the relationship between panic and suicidal ideation and behaviors is potentiated among individuals with a current PTSD diagnosis. This investigation suggests that panic symptoms may be a valuable clinical target for the assessment and treatment of suicidal ideation and behaviors among trauma exposed individuals. PMID:26050924

  11. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and their correlation to pulmonary function abnormalities in individuals exposed to environmental pollution

    To find out the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and their correlation to pulmonary function abnormalities in individuals exposed to polluted air, 438 workers, and their family members were studied at Thermal Power Station (TPS), Sheikhmanda (Quetta). Individuals with a stay of less than three years at TPS and patients with known chronic respiratory infections (tuberculosis and its squelae, bronchiectasis) were excluded from the study. Remaining 175 males (mean age 43.4 years) and 71 females (mean age 34.2 years) were divided into three groups A, B, C on the basis of their exposure time to polluted air per day during the three years. Each groups was further subdivided into smoker and non-smoker members. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms was significantly higher in the individuals exposed to polluted air as compared to non-exposed individuals (P<0.05). A strong positive correlation (r=0.91) exists between respiratory symptoms and respiratory function abnormalities in smoker groups; however, no definite correlation (r=0.06) was found between respiratory symptoms and respiratory function abnormalities in non-smoker groups. Function abnormalities was noted only in smoker groups and non-smokers of even maximally exposed group (group C) had almost no respiratory function abnormalities. (author)

  12. Performance on tests of central auditory processing by individuals exposed to high-intensity blasts

    Frederick J. Gallun, PhD

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-six blast-exposed patients and twenty-nine non-blast-exposed control subjects were tested on a battery of behavioral and electrophysiological tests that have been shown to be sensitive to central auditory processing deficits. Abnormal performance among the blast-exposed patients was assessed with reference to normative values established as the mean performance on each test by the control subjects plus or minus two standard deviations. Blast-exposed patients performed abnormally at rates significantly above that which would occur by chance on three of the behavioral tests of central auditory processing: the Gaps-In-Noise, Masking Level Difference, and Staggered Spondaic Words tests. The proportion of blast-exposed patients performing abnormally on a speech-in-noise test (Quick Speech-In-Noise was also significantly above that expected by chance. These results suggest that, for some patients, blast exposure may lead to difficulties with hearing in complex auditory environments, even when peripheral hearing sensitivity is near normal limits.

  13. Dosimetric methodology for extremities of individuals occupationally exposed to beta radiation using the optically stimulated luminescence technique

    A dosimetric methodology was established for the determination of extremity doses of individuals occupationally exposed to beta radiation, using Al2O3:C detectors and the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) reader system microStar, Landauer. The main parts of the work were: characterization of the dosimetric material Al2O3:C using the OSL technique; establishment of the dose evaluation methodology; dose rate determination of beta radiation sources; application of the established method in a practical test with individuals occupationally exposed to beta radiation during a calibration simulation of clinical applicators; validation of the methodology by the comparison between the dose results of the practical test using the OSL and the thermoluminescence (TL) techniques. The results show that both the OSL Al-2O3:C detectors and the technique may be utilized for individual monitoring of extremities and beta radiation. (author)

  14. How does social support enhance resilience in the trauma-exposed individual?

    Sippel, Lauren M.; Pietrzak, Robert H; Dennis S,. Charney; Mayes, Linda C.; Southwick, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Although most resilience science has focused on individual-level psychosocial factors that promote individual resilience, theorists and researchers have begun to examine neurobiological and systems-level factors implicated in resilience. In this commentary we argue that the development of effective interventions to enhance resilience necessitates understanding that resilience in the individual is dependent on multiple layers of society. Further, we suggest that there is a bidirectional relati...

  15. Cytogenetic analysis of Pakistani individuals occupationally exposed to pesticides in a pesticide production industry.

    Bhalli, Javed A.; Khan, Q. M.; Haq, M. A.; Khalid, A. M.; Nasim, A

    2006-01-01

    Biomarkers of exposure & early effects: field studiesBiomarker:Liver enzymes, serum cholinesterase (SChE), micronucleus assay and some haematological parametersExposure/effect represented:pesticides(organophosphates and pyrethroids)Study design:case- control studyStudy size:29 exposed and 35 unexposedAnalytical technique:haematological assay, spectrophotometric method, MN measurementTissue/biological material/sample size:10 ml blood samplesRelationship with exposure or effect of interest (inc...

  16. Emotion regulation, physiological arousal and PTSD symptoms in trauma-exposed individuals

    Shepherd, Laura; Wild, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Retrospective studies suggest a link between PTSD and difficulty regulating negative emotions. This study investigated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and the ability to regulate negative emotions in real-time using a computerised task to assess emotion regulation. Method Trauma-exposed ambulance workers (N = 45) completed self-report measures of trauma exposure, PTSD symptoms and depression. Participants then completed a computer task requiring them to enhance, decrease or ...

  17. The medical management of high risk individuals. Experiences with persons exposed to chronic internal irradiation

    The medical management and counseling of persons at high risk due to exposure to chemicals or radiation or due to personal disposition, present an additional challenge for physicians and especially radiologists involved. This article is based on own experiences with patients who had been exposed to Thorotrast. They had been injected with the contrast medium Thorotrast, which was in use world-wide until around 1950. Thorotrast caused a chronic alpha irradiation mainly of the liver (up to 0.4 Gy/a), spleen (1.2 Gy/a) and bone marrow (0.1 Gy/a). For the Thorotrast patients and their physicians the most worrying problem was the risk of primary malignant liver tumors which occurred in more than 20% of the exposed persons, i.e. 100 times more frequently than in a non-exposed control group. The medical and especially radiological experiences with the management of these patients summarize a general aspect of the problem and can be referred to when managing other high risk groups. (orig.)

  18. Genetically significant dose assessments of occupationally exposed individuals involved in industrial and medical radiographic procedures in certain establishments in Nigeria

    Jibiri Nnamdi N.; Oguntade Grace T.

    2007-01-01

    The main source of radiation doses received by humans from man-made sources of ionizing radiation in medicine and industry comes from X-rays. The genetic risks of ionizing radiation effects on an individual who is occupationally exposed largely depend on the magnitude of the radiation dose received period of practice, workload and radiological procedures involved. In this work, using the linear non-thresh old model, we have at tempted to assess the level of genetic risk of occupationally expo...

  19. Radiation risk factors in incidence anortality among exposed individuals of East Kazakhstand m

    Kazbek Apsalikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lengthy clinical and epidemiological studies at the Research Institute of Radiation Medicine and Ecology have discovered basic patterns of long-term effects from ionizing radiation in population groups exposed to radiation risk. Methodology for calculating injury from radiation risk factors has been developed and implemented to minimize the effects of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS. Material and methods: We analyzed materials from the database of the Scientific Medical Register that were exposed to radiation as a result of SNTS. We analyzed both male and female populations of the Abay, Beskaragai and Zhanasemei, Kokpekti (control areas of East-Kazakhstan region (EKR from 2008-2012. These populations were split into three groups allocated by the generation. The first group represented persons born from the period of 01/01/1930 -08/01/1949 and their children born from the period of 10/09/1949-12/31/1962. The second group were persons born after 01/01/1963. The third group served as the control and were persons who immigrated to these areas after 1990. Results: There was an increased incidence of cancer (21.5%, p < 0.000734, cardiovascular diseases (10.2%; respiratory problems (9.6%, gastrointestinal issues (9.1%, p < 0.00371-0.00679 in the first group. The effect of the radiation dose has not been fully stuided among the subjects in the second group.The major causes of excess mortality in the first group were neoplams (30.6%, hypertension (23.8%, and myocardial infarction (22.6%. The effects of radiation influenced mortality in the second group were 2-2.5 times lower than the first group.Conclusion: There is a correlation between the size of the radiation dose, the risk profile, and age at the moment of radiation exposure with trends of morbidity and mortality in the radiation exposed areas.

  20. Study of the thorium incorporation by inhalation in individuals occupationally exposed

    A mathematical model describing the metabolism of inhaled thorium in the human body was developed. Through this model theoretical limits of excretion were calculated for workers of a monazite plant (Usina Santo Amaro). This limits were based on International Commission on Radiological Protection publication 30, 1979. Excreta samples from twelve workers of Usina Santo Amaro were collected and analysed for thorium. All samples were bellow the theoretical limits of excretion indicating that Usina Santo Amaro workers are exposed to thorium levels bellow the Annual Limits of Intake recommended by ICRP, publication 30. (author)

  1. Determinants of active and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and upper reference value of urinary cotinine in not exposed individuals.

    Campo, Laura; Polledri, Elisa; Bechtold, Petra; Gatti, Giulia; Ranzi, Andrea; Lauriola, Paolo; Goldoni, Carlo Alberto; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to explore the behavioral and sociodemographic factors influencing urinary cotinine (COT-U) levels in active smokers and in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-exposed individuals, (2) to assess the specificity and sensitivity of the questionnaire for identifying active smokers and nonsmokers, and (3) to derive the upper reference value of COT-U in non-ETS exposed individuals. The COT-U levels of 495 adults (age range 18-69 years) who classified themselves as active smokers (29%) or as nonsmokers with (17%) or without (83%) ETS exposure were quantified by LC-MS-MS (quantification limit: 0.1µg/L, range of linearity: 0.1-4000µg/L). Median COT-U levels in these groups were 883, 1.38, and 0.39µg/L, respectively. Significant determinants of COT-U levels in active smokers were the number of cigarettes per day, type of smoking product, smoking environment, as well as time between the last cigarette and urine collection. Among ETS-exposed nonsmokers, significant determinants were living with smokers, being exposed to smoke at home, ETS exposure duration, as well as time between the last exposure and urine collection. When a 30-µg/L COT-U cut-off value was used to identify active daily smoking, the sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire were 94% and 98%, respectively. For ETS exposure, the COT-U value of 1.78 (0.90 confidence interval 1.75-1.78) µg/L, corresponding to the 95th percentiles of the COT-U distribution in non-ETS-exposed participants, is proposed as upper reference value to identify environmental exposure. PMID:27060750

  2. Radiative accidental matter

    Sierra, D Aristizabal; Wegman, D

    2016-01-01

    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that $\\mu\\to e \\gamma$ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below $10^6\\,$ GeV, a value (natur...

  3. Evaluation of traffic noise pollution and attitudes of exposed individuals in working place

    Pathak, Vinita; Tripathi, B. D.; Mishra, Virendra kumar

    2008-05-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the noise pollution problem in the Varanasi city and its effect on the exposed people. The study revealed the fact that noise levels have reached an alarming level. The result of the study indicated the fact that 85% of the people were disturbed by traffic noise, about 90% of the people reported that traffic noise is the main cause of headache, high BP problem, dizziness and fatigue. People having higher education and income level are much aware of the health impact due to traffic noise. Marital status was found to be significantly affecting the annoyance level caused by traffic noise. Traffic noise was found to be interfering daily activities such as at resting, reading, communication etc.

  4. Visualization of Electromagnetic Fields in Individuals Exposed to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Visualization of EMF effects in individual human bodies is described in the paper. To calculate EMF parameters in the region of interest, two-step computational method is applied. A partly automatic procedure has been developed to generate surface boundary model of tissues in the human body. All phases from obtaining models for visualization from MRI scans, field calculation and visualization using obtained models are presented. (Author)

  5. Monitoring and assessment of individual doses of occupationally exposed workers due to intake of radionuclides

    Monitoring and estimation of individual intakes of radionuclides can be complex. Doses of intakes cannot be measured directly, however must be assessed from the monitoring data of the individual. The individual monitoring data includes whole body counting, excretion analysis (urine or faecal). In the estimation of these data requires that the assessor makes assumptions about the exposure scenario, including the pattern and mode of radionuclide intake. Also physicochemical characteristics of the material involved and the period of time between exposure and measurement. This project report seeks to provide some underlying guidance on monitoring programmes and data interpretation using case study. In this present study the committed effective dose (CED) 1.20mSv exceeded the recording level (i.e. 1mSv) however it was below the investigation level (i.e. 2mSv). The present study recommends that as an essential part in internal dosimetry, specialists be capable of recognizing conditions warranting follow-up bioassay and dose evaluation. Personnel should be familiar with the relevant internal dosimetry literature and the recommendations of national and international scientific organizations with regard to internal dose. (au)

  6. Assessment of the relative success of sporozoite inoculations in individuals exposed to moderate seasonal transmission

    Spiegel André

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The time necessary for malaria parasite to re-appear in the blood following treatment (re-infection time is an indirect method for evaluating the immune defences operating against pre-erythrocytic and early erythrocytic malaria stages. Few longitudinal data are available in populations in whom malaria transmission level had also been measured. Methods One hundred and ten individuals from the village of Ndiop (Senegal, aged between one and 72 years, were cured of malaria by quinine (25 mg/day oral Quinimax™ in three equal daily doses, for seven days. Thereafter, thick blood films were examined to detect the reappearance of Plasmodium falciparum every week, for 11 weeks after treatment. Malaria transmission was simultaneously measured weekly by night collection of biting mosquitoes. Results Malaria transmission was on average 15.3 infective bites per person during the 77 days follow up. The median reappearance time for the whole study population was 46.8 days, whereas individuals would have received an average one infective bite every 5 days. At the end of the follow-up, after 77 days, 103 of the 110 individuals (93.6%; CI 95% [89.0–98.2] had been re-infected with P. falciparum. The median reappearance time ('re-positivation' was longer in subjects with patent parasitaemia at enrolment than in parasitologically-negative individuals (58 days vs. 45.9; p = 0.03 and in adults > 30 years than in younger subjects (58.6 days vs. 42.7; p = 0.0002. In a multivariate Cox PH model controlling for the sickle cell trait, G6PD deficiency and the type of habitat, the presence of parasitaemia at enrolment and age ≥ 30 years were independently predictive of a reduced risk of re-infection (PH = 0.5 [95% CI: 0.3–0.9] and 0.4; [95% CI: 0.2–0.6] respectively. Conclusion Results indicate the existence of a substantial resistance to sporozoites inoculations, but which was ultimately overcome in almost every individual after 2 1/2 months of

  7. Behavioral swimming effects and acetylcholinesterase activity changes in Jenynsia multidentata exposed to chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin individually and in mixtures.

    Bonansea, Rocío Inés; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Amé, María Valeria

    2016-07-01

    The pesticides cypermethrin (CYP) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) were found together in water bodies located in agricultural and urban areas. However, the impact to non-target biota from exposure to mixtures has received little attention. In the current study, we evaluated changes in swimming behavior and cholinesterase enzymes activity in Jenynsia multidentata, to investigate the possible effects of these insecticides individually and in mixtures. Moreover, differences between technical and commercial mixtures of the pesticides were evaluated. Females of J. multidentata were exposed over 96-h to CYP (0.04 and 0.4µgL(-1)), CPF (0.4 and 4µgL(-1)), individually and in a technical and commercial mixtures. Swimming behavior was recorded after 24h and 96h of exposure. Also, we measured cholinesterase enzymes activity in brain and muscle after 96h of exposure. Exposure to CYP increased the exploratory activity of J. multidentata in the upper area of the aquarium. Fish exposed to CPF (4µg L(-1)) showed a decrease in swimming activity and an increase in the time spent at the bottom of the aquarium. Interestingly, fish exposed to the technical and commercial mixture of CYP and CPF displayed a different behavior based on the concentration of exposure. Low concentration of pesticides elicited an increase in J. multidentata swimming activity with preference for the upper area of the aquarium, and high concentrations caused decrease in swimming activity with preference for the bottom area of the aquarium. Based on the response of cholinesterase enzymes, acetylcholinesterase in muscle was more sensitive to exposure to CYP, CPF and their mixtures than in brain. A decrease in swimming behavior correlates significantly with the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in muscle of J. multidentata exposed to high concentrations of pesticides. These results draw attention to the need of more studies on the potential ecotoxicological impact of pesticides and its mixtures at

  8. Learning disabilities in individuals exposed prenatally to ionizing radiation: The Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences

    Schull, William J.; Otake, Masanori

    The brain, undoubtedly the most complex organ in the mammalian body, is the culmination of a long and interrelated sequence of molecular, cellular and tissue events. Brain function hinges on the orderly progression of these, each of which must occur correctly, temporally and spatially. Impingement on any one will give rise to a less developed system of cellular connections, and hence impaired function. Moreover, the neurons of the central nervous system are not self-renewing and thus neuronal loss cannot be repaired through repopulation. Reanalysis of the data on the prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggests that severe mental retardation occurs primarily, if not exclusively in the period from the 8th through the 15th week following fertilization. Within this window of vulnerability, the increase in mental retardation appears linear with dose and without theshold. More subtle functional effects also occur as reflected in diminished performance on intelligence tests and in school. These findings and their implications for space travel and regulatory agencies charged with the specification of acceptable risks should not require further elaboration in this article given the focus of the radiobiological presentations at this meeting.

  9. Genetically significant dose assessments of occupationally exposed individuals involved in industrial and medical radiographic procedures in certain establishments in Nigeria

    The main source of radiation doses received by humans from man-made sources of ionizing radiation in medicine and industry comes from X-rays. The genetic risks of ionizing radiation effects on an individual who is occupationally exposed largely depend on the magnitude of the radiation dose received, period of practice, work load and radio logical procedures involved. In this work, using the linear non-thresh old model, we have attempted to assess the level of genetic risk of occupationally exposed individuals in two medical and industrial establishments in Nigeria by estimating their genetically significant dose values. The estimation was based on continuous personnel radiation dose monitoring data for the individuals in each of the establishments over a three year period (1998-2001). The estimated genetically significant dose values in the years considered were 12 mSv for the medical, and 29 mSv for the industrial personnel. Appropriate radiation protection precautions should be taken by the personnel to adhere to standard operational practices in order to minimize the genetically significant dose resulting from radio logical practices

  10. Genetically significant dose assessments of occupationally exposed individuals involved in industrial and medical radiographic procedures in certain establishments in Nigeria

    Jibiri Nnamdi N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main source of radiation doses received by humans from man-made sources of ionizing radiation in medicine and industry comes from X-rays. The genetic risks of ionizing radiation effects on an individual who is occupationally exposed largely depend on the magnitude of the radiation dose received period of practice, workload and radiological procedures involved. In this work, using the linear non-thresh old model, we have at tempted to assess the level of genetic risk of occupationally exposed individuals in two medical and industrial establishments in Nigeria by estimating their genetically significant dose values. The estimation was based on continuous personnel radiation dose monitoring data for the individuals in each of the establishments over a three year period (1998-2001. The estimated genetically significant dose values in the years considered were 12 mSv for the medical, and 29 mSv for the industrial personnel. Appropriate radiation protection precautions should be taken by the personnel to adhere to standard operational practices in order to minimize the genetically significant dose resulting from radio logical practices.

  11. Individual differences and repeatability in vocal production: stress-induced calling exposes a songbird's personality

    Guillette, Lauren M.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

    2011-11-01

    Recent research in songbirds has demonstrated that male singing behavior varies systematically with personality traits such as exploration and risk taking. Here we examine whether the production of bird calls, in addition to bird songs, is repeatable and related to exploratory behavior, using the black-capped chickadee ( Poecile atricapillus) as a model. We assessed the exploratory behavior of individual birds in a novel environment task. We then recorded the vocalizations and accompanying motor behavior of both male and female chickadees, over the course of several days, in two different contexts: a control condition with no playback and a stressful condition where chick-a-dee mobbing calls were played to individual birds. We found that several vocalizations and behaviors were repeatable within both a control and a stressful context, and across contexts. While there was no relationship between vocal output and exploratory behavior in the control context, production of alarm and chick-a-dee calls in the stressful condition was positively associated with exploratory behavior. These findings are important because they show that bird calls, in addition to bird song, are an aspect of personality, in that calls are consistent both within and across contexts, and covary with other personality measures (exploration).

  12. Short Communication: Immune Activation Is Present in HIV-1-Exposed Seronegative Individuals and Is Independent of Microbial Translocation.

    Saulle, Irma; Biasin, Mara; Gnudi, Federica; Rainone, Veronica; Ibba, Salomè Valentina; Caputo, Sergio Lo; Mazzotta, Francesco; Trabattoni, Daria; Clerici, Mario

    2016-02-01

    Analyses of immune activation in HIV-exposed seronegative individuals (HESN) yielded discrepant results. To clarify this issue we performed an extensive investigation of immune parameters in HESN and, in particular, we analyzed in these individuals the possible presence of microbial translocation, the most widely accepted reason driving immune activation in HIV-infected patients. Results showed that immune activation, a skewing of T lymphocyte maturation, and increased responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) characterize the HESN phenotype; this is not driven by alterations of the gastrointestinal barrier and microbial translocation. The activation state seen in HESN may influence the induction of stronger adaptive antiviral immune responses and may represent a virus exposure-induced innate immune protective phenotype against HIV. PMID:26414485

  13. Assessment of individual dose equivalents Hp(0.07 of medical staff occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation in 2012

    Sylwia Papierz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper presents the Nofer Institutes of Occupational Medicine in Łódź's results of the assessment of individual dose equivalents Hp(0.07 of medical staff exposed to X-rays in Poland in 2012. In addition, the collected data was analysed in terms of types of medical units performing medical procedures and the categorization of personnel. Material and Methods: Dosimetric service was provided for medical staff of interventional radiology departments occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation in terms of individual dose equivalents Hp(0.07. In 2012, personal dosimetry Hp(0.07 determinations were performed by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Łódź and covered 2044 employees from 174 health facilities. The determinations were performed using thermoluminescence dosimetry according to the procedure accredited by the Polish Centre for Accreditation (document number AB 327. The measurements were performed using ring-dosimeters in the periods of 1 or 2 months. Results: Mean annual individual dose equivalent Hp(0.07 in 2012 was equal to 3.3 mSv (annual limit for Hp(0.07 is 500 mSv. The average value of annual individual dose equivalent Hp(0.07 decreased comparing to the previous year. In 2012, no single case of exceeding the annual limit for Hp(0.07 was reported. Data stored in the file indicates that more than 96% of all of the annual doses did not exceed the level of 10 mSv. Conclusions: The analysis of data on occupational exposure to ionizing radiation confirms a stable level of exposure and satisfactory radiological protection in interventional radiology facilities monitored by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Łódź in Poland in 2012. Med Pr 2014;65(2:167–171

  14. Leukemia incidence among individuals exposed in utero, children of atomic bomb survivors, and their controls; Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1945-79

    The incidence of leukemia has been analyzed in relation to the fetal dose of individuals exposed in utero, and the parental gonadal dose of individuals born to atomic bomb survivors and controls in the two fixed RERF cohorts. Among 3,636 in utero exposed children and controls, 3 leukemia cases have been identified through 1979. No excess risk of leukemia for in utero exposed children is apparent. For children born to exposed parents and controls, 36 leukemia cases have been identified in the years 1946-79 among 50,689 study subjects where the parental gonadal dose is available. Again, no excess risk of leukemia exists. (author)

  15. Results of the individual monitoring at workplaces exposed to radon progeny

    As a result of the continued validity under Federal German law of the ordinance on the assuring of nuclear safety and radiation protection of the GDR for '.. mining and other activities to the extent to which radioactive substances, in particular radon progeny, are present', which is laid down in the German Unification Treaty, the radiation protection-orientated monitoring of this particular form of occupational exposure is, in the new German Laender, still carried out. From the results attained during the more than 20-year old history of the monitoring of radioactivity outside of and within the uranium industry, the following significant conclusions can be drawn. The individual as well as the collective exposure of these occupational groups due to radon progeny are, in many cases, significantly higher than those for exposures due to artificial radioactive substances, the decrease in the collective dose over the period covered by monitoring is not only to be put down to the reduction in the number of workers involved in this area, which reached particularly significant levels from 1989 onwards, but also to the taking of effect of the numerous radiation protection measures. (orig.)

  16. Adverse morphological development in embryonic zebrafish exposed to environmental concentrations of contaminants individually and in mixture.

    Kinch, Cassandra D; Kurrasch, Deborah M; Habibi, Hamid R

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants has been linked to developmental and reproductive abnormalities leading to infertility, spontaneous abortion, reduced number of offspring, and metabolic disorders. In addition, there is evidence linking environmental contaminants and endocrine disruption to abnormal developmental rate, defects in heart and eye morphology, and alterations in behavior. Notably, these effects could not be explained by interaction with a single hormone receptor. Here, using a whole-organism approach, we investigated morphological changes to developing zebrafish caused by exposure to a number of environmental contaminants, including bisphenol A (BPA), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), nonylphenol, and fucosterol at concentrations measured in a local water body (Oldman River, AB), individually and in mixture. Exposure to nanomolar contaminant concentrations resulted in abnormal morphological development, including changes to body length, pericardia (heart), and the head. We also characterize the spatiotemporal expression profiles of estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone receptors to demonstrate that localization of these receptors might be mediating contaminant effects on development. Finally, we examined the effects of contaminants singly and in mixture. Combined, our results support the hypothesis that adverse effects of contaminants are not mediated by single hormone receptor signaling, and adversity of contaminants in mixture could not be predicted by simple additive effect of contaminants. The findings provide a framework for better understanding of developmental toxicity of environmental contaminants in zebrafish and other vertebrate species. PMID:27107150

  17. Partial protective effect of CCR5-Delta 32 heterozygosity in a cohort of heterosexual Italian HIV-1 exposed uninfected individuals

    Cauda Roberto

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite multiple sexual exposure to HIV-1 virus, some individuals remain HIV-1 seronegative (exposed seronegative, ESN. The mechanisms underlying this resistance remain still unclear, although a multifactorial pathogenesis can be hypothesised. Although several genetic factors have been related to HIV-1 resistance, the homozigosity for a mutation in CCR5 gene (the 32 bp deletion, i.e. CCR5-Delta32 allele is presently considered the most relevant one. In the present study we analysed the genotype at CCR5 locus of 30 Italian ESN individuals (case group who referred multiple unprotected heterosexual intercourse with HIV-1 seropositive partner(s, for at least two years. One hundred and twenty HIV-1 infected patients and 120 individuals representative of the general population were included as control groups. Twenty percent of ESN individuals had heterozygous CCR5-Delta 32 genotype, compared to 7.5% of HIV-1 seropositive and 10% of individuals from the general population, respectively. None of the analysed individuals had CCR5-Delta 32 homozygous genotype. Sequence analysis of the entire open reading frame of CCR5 was performed in all ESN subjects and no polymorphisms or mutations were identified. Moreover, we determined the distribution of C77G variant in CD45 gene, which has been previously related to HIV-1 infection susceptibility. The frequency of the C77G variant showed no significant difference between ESN subjects and the two control groups. In conclusion, our data show a significantly higher frequency of CCR5-Delta 32 heterozygous genotype (p = 0.04 among the Italian heterosexual ESN individuals compared to HIV-1 seropositive patients, suggesting a partial protective role of CCR5-Delta 32 heterozygosity in this cohort.

  18. Evaluation of the serum catalase and myeloperoxidase activities in chronic arsenic-exposed individuals and concomitant cytogenetic damage

    Chronic arsenic exposure through contaminated drinking water is a major environmental health issue. Chronic arsenic exposure is known to exert its toxic effects by a variety of mechanisms, of which generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the most important. A high level of ROS, in turn, leads to DNA damage that might ultimately culminate in cancer. In order to keep the level of ROS in balance, an array of enzymes is present, of which catalase (CAT) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) are important members. Hence, in this study, we determined the activities of these two enzymes in the sera and chromosomal aberrations (CA) in peripheral blood lymphocytes in individuals exposed and unexposed to arsenic in drinking water. Arsenic in drinking water and in urine was used as a measure of exposure. Our results show that individuals chronically exposed to arsenic have significantly higher CAT and MPO activities and higher incidence of CA. We found moderate positive correlations between CAT and MPO activities, induction of CA and arsenic in urine and water. These results indicate that chronic arsenic exposure causes higher CAT and MPO activities in serum that correlates with induction of genetic damage. We conclude that the serum levels of these enzymes might be used as biomarkers of early arsenic exposure induced disease much before the classical dermatological symptoms of arsenicosis begin to appear.

  19. Genetic factors that might lead to different responses in individuals exposed to perchlorate.

    Scinicariello, Franco; Murray, H Edward; Smith, Lester; Wilbur, Sharon; Fowler, Bruce A

    2005-11-01

    Perchlorate has been detected in groundwater in many parts of the United States, and recent detection in vegetable and dairy food products indicates that contamination by perchlorate is more widespread than previously thought. Perchlorate is a competitive inhibitor of the sodium iodide symporter, the thyroid cell-surface protein responsible for transporting iodide from the plasma into the thyroid. An estimated 4.3% of the U.S. population is subclinically hypothyroid, and 6.9% of pregnant women may have low iodine intake. Congenital hypothyroidism affects 1 in 3,000 to 1 in 4,000 infants, and 15% of these cases have been attributed to genetic defects. Our objective in this review is to identify genetic biomarkers that would help define subpopulations sensitive to environmental perchlorate exposure. We review the literature to identify genetic defects involved in the iodination process of the thyroid hormone synthesis, particularly defects in iodide transport from circulation into the thyroid cell, defects in iodide transport from the thyroid cell to the follicular lumen (Pendred syndrome), and defects of iodide organification. Furthermore, we summarize relevant studies of perchlorate in humans. Because of perchlorate inhibition of iodide uptake, it is biologically plausible that chronic ingestion of perchlorate through contaminated sources may cause some degree of iodine discharge in populations that are genetically susceptible to defects in the iodination process of the thyroid hormone synthesis, thus deteriorating their conditions. We conclude that future studies linking human disease and environmental perchlorate exposure should consider the genetic makeup of the participants, actual perchlorate exposure levels, and individual iodine intake/excretion levels. PMID:16263499

  20. Radiative accidental matter

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal; Simoes, C.; Wegman, D.

    2016-07-01

    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that μ → eγ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below 5×105 GeV, a value (naturally) assured by the radiative suppression mechanism. Sizeable τ → μγ branching fractions within SuperKEKB sensitivity are possible for lower lepton-number breaking scales. We thus point out that these scenarios can be tested not only in direct searches but also in lepton flavor-violating experiments.

  1. Behavioural and Physiological Responses of Gammarus pulex Exposed to Cadmium and Arsenate at Three Temperatures: Individual and Combined Effects

    Vellinger, Céline; Felten, Vincent; Sornom, Pascal; Rousselle, Philippe; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating both the individual and combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and arsenate (AsV) on the physiology and behaviour of the Crustacean Gammarus pulex at three temperatures (5, 10 and15°C). G. pulex was exposed during 96 h to (i) two [Cd] alone, (ii) two [AsV] alone, and (iii) four combinations of [Cd] and [AsV] to obtain a complete factorial plane. After exposure, survival, [AsV] or [Cd] in body tissues, behavioural (ventilatory and locomotor activities) and physiological responses (iono-regulation of [Na+] and [Cl−] in haemolymph) were examined. The interactive effects (antagonistic, additive or synergistic) of binary mixtures were evaluated for each tested temperature using a predictive model for the theoretically expected interactive effect of chemicals. In single metal exposure, both the internal metal concentration in body tissues and the mortality rate increased along metallic gradient concentration. Cd alone significantly impaired both [Na+] and [Cl−] while AsV alone had a weak impact only on [Cl−]. The behavioural responses of G. pulex declined with increasing metal concentration suggesting a reallocation of energy from behavioural responses to maintenance functions. The interaction between AsV and Cd was considered as ‘additive’ for all the tested binary mixtures and temperatures (except for the lowest combination at 10°C considered as “antagonistic”). In binary mixtures, the decrease in both ventilatory and locomotor activities and the decline in haemolymphatic [Cl−] were amplified when respectively compared to those observed with the same concentrations of AsV or Cd alone. However, the presence of AsV decreased the haemolymphatic [Na+] loss when G. pulex was exposed to the lowest Cd concentration. Finally, the observed physiological and behavioural effects (except ventilation) in G. pulex exposed to AsV and/or Cd were exacerbated under the highest temperature. The discussion encompasses both the toxicity

  2. Potent neutralizing serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) in human immunodeficiency virus type 2-exposed IgG-seronegative individuals

    Lizeng, Q; Nilsson, C; Sourial, S;

    2004-01-01

    Links Potent neutralizing serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) in human immunodeficiency virus type 2-exposed IgG-seronegative individuals.Lizeng Q, Nilsson C, Sourial S, Andersson S, Larsen O, Aaby P, Ehnlund M, Bjorling E. Research Center, South Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. The mechanisms behind the...... and their known HIV-2-infected partners, as well as controls originating from Guinea-Bissau in Africa, were studied. Antibody reactivity to native and recombinant envelope glycoproteins was investigated, and the capacity of purified serum IgA to neutralize HIV-2(SBL6669) was tested. Our results showed...... reactive to whole HIV-2 antigen, and 14 of 15 reacted with rgp36. For rgp105 and gp125, 5 of 15 and 4 of 15 samples exhibited binding, respectively. The serum of the EGSN group had a higher mean IgA concentration than that of the negative controls (P < 0.05). Thus, we describe HIV-2-specific serum Ig...

  3. Hepatoprotective Effect Of Silyamarin In Individuals Chronically Exposed To Hydrogen Sulfide; Modulating Influence Of TNF-Α Cytokine Genetic Polymorphism

    Vahideh Montazeri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study:Silymarin, a standardized extract of the milk thistle (Silybum marianum, is believed to exert some of its hepatoprotective effects though inhibition of free radicals and inflammation. In this study the effect of some pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and also antioxidant genes polymorphisms on the hepatoprotective effects of silymarin in the occupationally exposed individuals to hydrogen sulfide (H2S in the sour natural gas refinery was investigated.Methods:We genotyped seven polymorphisms in six genes reported by others as modifiers of oxidative stress (NQO1, mEPXH1, GSTT1 and GSTM1 and inflammation (TNF-α and TGF-β1 for an association in effect of decreasing in liver function tests (LFTs. The LFTs of 77 sour gas refinery workers were measured before and after administration of silymarin (140 mg, three times per day for 1 month.Results:A significant reduction of blood AST, ALT and ALP was observed after 30 days of consumption (p < 0.001. The decreasing effect of silymarin on ALT in the subjects with high producer genotype (A allele carriers was less than low producers. There were no significant associations between TGF-β1 and the studied genes of oxidative stress pathway and the effectiveness of silymarin.Conclusion:This is the first report about the effectiveness of silymarin in the subjects exposed chronically to H2S. Meanwhile, the modulatory effect of TNF-α on the effectiveness of silymarin might be used for individualize therapy

  4. A mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I of the project: early effects of inhaled radionuclides

    The report presents a mathematical model for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included

  5. Cellular responses to modified Plasmodium falciparum MSP119 antigens in individuals previously exposed to natural malaria infection

    Awobode Henrietta O

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MSP1 processing-inhibitory antibodies bind to epitopes on the 19 kDa C-terminal region of the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP119, inhibiting erythrocyte invasion. Blocking antibodies also bind to this antigen but prevent inhibitory antibodies binding, allowing invasion to proceed. Recombinant MSP119 had been modified previously to allow inhibitory but not blocking antibodies to continue to bind. Immunization with these modified proteins, therefore, has the potential to induce more effective protective antibodies. However, it was unclear whether the modification of MSP119 would affect critical T-cell responses to epitopes in this antigen. Methods The cellular responses to wild-type MSP119 and a panel of modified MSP119 antigens were measured using an in-vitro assay for two groups of individuals: the first were malaria-naïve and the second had been naturally exposed to Plasmodium falciparum infection. The cellular responses to the modified proteins were examined using cells from malaria-exposed infants and adults. Results Interestingly, stimulation indices (SI for responses induced by some of the modified proteins were at least two-fold higher than those elicited by the wild-type MSP119. A protein with four amino acid substitutions (Glu27→Tyr, Leu31→Arg, Tyr34→Ser and Glu43→Leu had the highest stimulation index (SI up to 360 and induced large responses in 64% of the samples that had significant cellular responses to the modified proteins. Conclusion This study suggests that specific MSP119 variants that have been engineered to improve their antigenicity for inhibitory antibodies, retain T-cell epitopes and the ability to induce cellular responses. These proteins are candidates for the development of MSP1-based malaria vaccines.

  6. Lessons learned from accidental exposures in radiotherapy

    The medical use of radiation is unique in that patients are intentionally exposed to radiation. The aim in radiation therapy is twofold: to deliver a dose and dose distribution that is adequate for tumour control, but which also minimizes complications in normal tissues. In therapeutic applications, the doses are high and a deviation from the prescribed dose may have severe or even fatal consequences. There is therefore a great need to ensure adequate radiation protection and safety in radiotherapy by verifying that all personnel involved are appropriately trained for their duties, that the equipment used meets relevant international specifications for radiation safety and that safety culture is embedded in routine activities in radiotherapy departments. Many individuals must interact and work together on highly technical measurements and calculations, and therefore the potential for mistakes is great. A review of the mistakes shows that most are due to human error. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115) require that a prompt investigation be conducted whenever an accidental medical exposure of patients occurs. The report of the investigation is to be disseminated to the appropriate parties so that lessons can be learned to prevent similar accidents or mitigate their consequences in the future. This Safety Report is a collection of a large number of events that may serve as a checklist against which to test the vulnerability of a facility to potential accidents, and to provide a basis for improving safety in the use of radiation in medical applications. A further purpose of this report is to encourage readers to develop a questioning and learning attitude, adopt measures for the prevention of accidents, and prepare for mitigation of the consequences of accidents if they occur

  7. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  8. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Karim, Md. Rezaul [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Mostaque [Department of Medicine, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Haris, Parvez I. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770–8514 (Japan); Hossain, Khaled, E-mail: khossain69@yahoo.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  9. Adverse events in humans associated with accidental exposure to the livestock brucellosis vaccine RB51.

    Ashford, David A; di Pietra, Jennifer; Lingappa, Jairam; Woods, Christopher; Noll, Heather; Neville, Bridget; Weyant, Robbin; Bragg, Sandra L; Spiegel, Richard A; Tappero, Jordan; Perkins, Bradley A

    2004-09-01

    Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine, is an attenuated live bacterial vaccine that was licensed conditionally by the Center for Veterinary Biologics, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA, on 23 February 1996, for vaccination of cattle in the United States. Accidental human inoculations can occur during vaccination of cattle, and previous live Brucella vaccines designed for cattle have been known to cause brucellosis in humans. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established passive surveillance for accidental inoculation with the RB51 vaccine in the United States to determine if this veterinary vaccine is associated with human disease, to describe the circumstances of accidental inoculation, to evaluate the potential efficacy of post-exposure chemoprophylaxis, and to develop recommendations for post-exposure management following exposure to RB51. Reports were received from 26 individuals. Accidental exposure to RB51 occurred by needle stick injury in 21 people (81%), conjunctival spray exposure in four (15%), and spray exposure of an open wound in one (4%) individual. At least one systemic symptom was reported in 19 (73%) people, including three (12%) who reported persistent local reactions with systemic involvement. One case required surgery, and B. abortus strain RB51 was isolated from the wound of that individual. Seven cases reported no adverse event associated with accidental exposure. Nine cases reported previous exposure to Brucella vaccines, including one case who also reported a previous diagnosis of brucellosis following exposure to S19 vaccine. Accidental needle stick injuries and conjunctival or open wound exposures of humans with the RB51 vaccine are associated with both local and systemic adverse events in the United States that are consistent with brucellosis; however, it remains undetermined if strain RB51 vaccine can cause systemic brucellosis in humans. Early culture attempts on those exposed and

  10. Screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers among individuals exposed and not exposed to the hospital environment and their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern

    Bhadravathi Virupaksha Renushri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study evaluated the influence of exposure to the hospital environment on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA carriage. The antibiograms of the MRSA isolates were examined. Materials and Methods: Nasal, throat, and web-space swabs were collected from 119 nursing students of the age group 18-23 years (exposed group and 100 age-matched pharmacy students (nonexposed group. S. aureus was identified and antibiogram obtained as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. MRSA was detected by cefoxitin disc diffusion test and by growth on oxacillin screen agar as per CLSI guidelines. The presence of the mecA gene was confirmed by conventional polymerase chain reaction. Results: The MRSA carrier rates were 11.8% and 4% in the exposed and nonexposed groups, respectively. Association of exposure to the hospital environment with MRSA colonization was statistically significant. All MRSA isolates showed sensitivity to netilmicin, linezolid, tetracycline, vancomycin and teicoplanin. Among the exposed group, 71.4% MRSA isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 64.3% to cotrimoxazole, 64.3% to erythromycin, 28.6% to gentamicin and 21.4% to clindamycin. Among the nonexposed group, 75% MRSA isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 25% to cotrimoxazole, 25% to erythromycin, 25% to gentamicin and 25% to clindamycin. Conclusion: Exposure to the hospital environment was found to be a significant risk factor for MRSA carriage. Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA isolates showed greater resistance toward antimicrobials compared with community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA isolates. This highlights the need for the appropriate institution of pharmacotherapy in cases of HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA infections and control of transmission by carriers.

  11. Allegheny County Fatal Accidental Overdoses

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Fatal accidental overdose incidents in Allegheny County, denoting age, gender, race, drugs present, zip code of incident and zip code of residence. Zip code of...

  12. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.

    Cardis, E

    1996-01-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discu...

  13. Maximum permissible amounts of accidentally released tritium derived from an environmental experiment to meet dose limits for public exposure

    This paper reports that it is important in the design of future fusion reactors and associated facilities that incorporate passive safety to take account of the possible environmental impact of accidental tritium release. Reliable information on dose consequences can be obtained by evaluating urine samples from persons exposed to tritium. Translating the results of the environmental HT experiment performed in France in 1986 into worst-case exposure conditions, the effective dose equivalent to an individual with highest exposure at a distance of 800 m (typical for site boundaries) is ∼1 x 10-4 Sv per gram of tritium emitted as HT when inhalation and skin absorption are considered. From this value, maximum permissible amounts of accidentally released HT can be derived on the basis of regulatory or anticipated dose limits

  14. MFISH Measurements of Chromosomal Aberrations Individuals Exposed in Utero to Gamma-ray Doses from 5 to 20 cGy

    Brenner, David J.

    2009-11-17

    Our plan was to identify and obtain blood from 36 individuals from the Mayak-in-utero exposed cohort who were exposed in utero only to gamma ray does doses fro 5 to 20 cGy. Our goal is to do mFISH and in a new development, single-arm mFISH on these samples to measure stable chromosome aberrations in these now adult individuals. The results were compared with matched control individuals (same age, same gender) available from the large control population which we are studying in the context of our plutonium worker study. The long term goal was to assess the results both in terms of the sensitivity of the developing embryo/fetus to low doses of ionizing radiation, and in terms of different potential mechanisms (expanded clonal origin vs. induced instability) for an increased risk.

  15. Estimated radiological doses to the maximumly exposed individual and downstream populations from releases of tritium, strontium-90, ruthenium-106, and cesium-137 from White Oak Dam

    Concentrations of tritium, 90Sr, 106Ru, and 137Cs in the Clinch River for 1978 were estimated by using the known 1978 releases of these nuclides from the White Oak Dam and diluting them by the integrated annual flow rate of the Clinch River. Estimates of 50-year dose commitment to a maximumly exposed individual were calculated for both aquatic and terestrial pathways of exposure. The maximumly exposed individual was assumed to reside at the mouth of White Oak Creek where it enters the Clinch River and obtain all foodstuffs and drinking water at that location. The estimated total-body dose from all pathways to the maximumly exposed individual as a result of 1978 releases was less than 1% of the dose expected from natural background. Using appropriate concentrations of to subject radionuclides diluted downstream, the doses to populations residing at Harriman, Kingston, Rockwood, Spring City, Soddy-Daisy, and Chattanooga were calculated for aquatic exposure pathways. The total-body dose estimated for aquatic pathways for the six cities was about 0.0002 times the expected dose from natural background. For the pathways considered in this report, the nuclide which contributed the largest fraction of dose was 90Sr. The largest dose delivered by 90Sr was to the bone of the subject individual or community

  16. A method for assessing the annual dose to the most exposed individual from tritium and 14C reactor discharges to atmosphere

    A method is described for assessing the annual dose to the most exposed individual from routine releases of tritium and 14C to the atmosphere during normal reactor operations. A detailed assessment has been made of the resulting equilibrium contamination levels in a range of foodstuffs typical of an average UK diet and of the annual doses resulting from a chronic intake of tritium and 14C via inhalation, ingestion and, additionally, in the case of tritium, via skin absorption. Equilibrium annual doses from the global circulation of tritium and 14C have also been calculated. Upper limits to the effective annual dose-equivalents to the most exposed individual were found to be 0.6 rem.yr-1 and 100 rem.yr-1 per Ci.yr-1 release of tritium and 14C respectively, with the ingestion pathway contributing significantly to the overall exposure. The most exposed individual was found to be a Reference 10 year old child. The methods outlined for calculating the ingestion dose from tritium and 14C releases hav been incorporated into the more generally applicable code FOODDOSE. The code may be used to make more realistic dose calculations to the individuals based on site-specific surveys of variables such as local meteorology, local diet and local land use for agriculture, which may lead to doses smaller than the upper limit values quoted by factors of 20 and 200 for tritium and 14C respectively. (author)

  17. The accidental overexposures

    The radioisotope or ionizing radiation medical or industrial use may generate accidents where human beings are exposed to very high doses. The accident frequency is increasing quickly because of the industrial source use development. The accidents don't catch only the plant or hospital staffs but also public people. The serious accidents result from conception errors, bad installation maintenance, lack or not enough staff training, transgression of safety processes. The accidents happen in not very specialized firms. Those resulting from energy production reactors are very seldom except for Chernobyl or military submarines. In the medical or hospital installations, accidents may affect the staffs or the patients. Most of the accidents could have been avoided by the simple respect of the simple surety duties. The follow up and analysis of serious accidents can bring an effective collaboration to the prevention. 78 refs., 3 annexes., 14 tabs., 17 figs

  18. Accidental gamma dose measurement using commercial glasses.

    Narayan, Pradeep; Vaijapurkar, S G; Senwar, K R; Kumar, D; Bhatnagar, P K

    2008-01-01

    Commercial glasses have been investigated for their application in accidental gamma dose measurement using Thermoluminescent (TL) techniques. Some of the glasses have been found to be sensitive enough that they can be used as TL dating material in radiological accident situation for gamma dosimetry with lower detection limit 1 Gy (the dose significant for the onset of deterministic biological effects). The glasses behave linearly in the dose range 1-25 Gy with measurement uncertainty +/- 10%. The errors in accidental dose measurements using TL technique are estimated to be within +/- 25%. These glasses have shown TL fading in the range of 10-20% in 24 h after irradiation under room conditions; thereafter the fading becomes slower and reaches upto 50% in 15 d. TL fading of gamma-irradiated glasses follows exponential decay pattern, therefore dosimetry even after years is possible. These types of glasses can also be used as lethal dose indicator (3-4 Gy) using TL techniques, which can give valuable inputs to the medical professional for better management of radiation victims. The glasses are easy to use and do not require lengthy sample preparation before reading as in case of other building materials. TL measurement on glasses may give immediate estimation of the doses, which can help in medical triage of the radiation-exposed public. PMID:18285317

  19. Potential load reductions on megawatt turbines exposed to wakes using individual-pitch wake compensator and trailing-edge flaps

    Markou, Helen; Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2011-01-01

    methods that typically focus on either load or power prediction. As a consequence, the wake affected inflow field generated by the DWM formulation opens for control strategies for the individual turbine. Two different control approaches for load reduction on the individual turbines are implemented in the...... multi-body aero-servo-elastic tool HAWC2, developed at Risø-DTU in Denmark, and their potential load reduction capabilities compared: (1) full-blade ‘individual-pitch controllers’ acting as wake compensators and (2) controllers using trailing-edge flaps. Information on the wake inflow conditions...... for the loading conditions of the individual turbines in the farm. The dynamic wake meandering model (DWM) is believed to capture the essential physics of the wake problem, and thus, both load and production aspects can be predicted, which is contrary to the traditional engineering wake prediction...

  20. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense.

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  1. Accidental degeneracies in string compactification

    Bais, F.A.; Taormina, A.

    1986-11-27

    The equivalence of the torus and group manifold compactification of strings is established. Accidental degeneracies are shown to occur for a large class of compactifications. This way many examples are obtained in which modular invariance does not uniquely fix the representation content of the spectrum.

  2. Accidental degeneracies in string compactification

    Bais, F. A.; Taormina, A.

    1986-11-01

    The equivalence of the torus and group manifold compactification of strings is established. Accidental degeneracies are shown to occur for a large class of compactifications. This way many examples are obtained in which modular invariance does not uniquely fix the representation content of the spectrum.

  3. Accidente de Trabajo y Recargo

    Pérez Alonso, María Antonia

    2015-01-01

    En la actualidad existen diferentes formas de Accidente de Trabajo. En el presente trabajo se da a conocer las distintas formas y la doctrina de los tribunales. Se aborda el recargo de prestaciones de Seguridad Social y el deber del empresario en cumplir la normativa de Seguridad Social

  4. Booster: Development of a Toolbox for Triage of a Large Group of Individuals Exposed to Radioactive Material

    The effective management of an event involving the exposure of a large number of people to radioactive material requires a mechanism for fast triage of exposed people. BOOSTER is a project founded by the European Union under the Seventh Framework Programme, addressing this requirement. It is a capability project designed to provide an integrated system which could easily be deployed and used. For this purpose, the BOOSTER consortium, relying on the expertise of seven members, researches and develops new approaches to allow an effective and fast management of most kind of nuclear threats. BOOSTER System was designed to help first responders mitigating the crisis by providing the necessary information to quickly assess the radiological situation, to support triage staff in performing an efficient and fast categorization of the potentially affected victims, and to give medical staff crucial information for further treatment at medium or long term post-accident. (authors)

  5. Cardiac autonomic reactivity and salivary cortisol in men and women exposed to social stressors : relationship with individual ethological profile

    Sgoifo, A; Braglia, F; Costoli, T; Musso, E; Meerlo, P; Ceresini, G; Troisi, A

    2003-01-01

    The degree of cardiovascular stress responsivity and its possible implications for the onset and progression of cardiovascular pathologies seem to be linked to the individual strategy of behavioral coping with stressors. This study was designed to investigate the relationship among cardiac autonomic

  6. Linking Measures of Colony and Individual Honey Bee Health to Survival among Apiaries Exposed to Varying Agricultural Land Use.

    Matthew Smart

    Full Text Available We previously characterized and quantified the influence of land use on survival and productivity of colonies positioned in six apiaries and found that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more land in uncultivated forage experienced greater annual survival, and generally more honey production. Here, detailed metrics of honey bee health were assessed over three years in colonies positioned in the same six apiaries. The colonies were located in North Dakota during the summer months and were transported to California for almond pollination every winter. Our aim was to identify relationships among measures of colony and individual bee health that impacted and predicted overwintering survival of colonies. We tested the hypothesis that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more favorable land use conditions would experience improved health. We modeled colony and individual bee health indices at a critical time point (autumn, prior to overwintering and related them to eventual spring survival for California almond pollination. Colony measures that predicted overwintering apiary survival included the amount of pollen collected, brood production, and Varroa destructor mite levels. At the individual bee level, expression of vitellogenin, defensin1, and lysozyme2 were important markers of overwinter survival. This study is a novel first step toward identifying pertinent physiological responses in honey bees that result from their positioning near varying landscape features in intensive agricultural environments.

  7. Linking Measures of Colony and Individual Honey Bee Health to Survival among Apiaries Exposed to Varying Agricultural Land Use.

    Smart, Matthew; Pettis, Jeff; Rice, Nathan; Browning, Zac; Spivak, Marla

    2016-01-01

    We previously characterized and quantified the influence of land use on survival and productivity of colonies positioned in six apiaries and found that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more land in uncultivated forage experienced greater annual survival, and generally more honey production. Here, detailed metrics of honey bee health were assessed over three years in colonies positioned in the same six apiaries. The colonies were located in North Dakota during the summer months and were transported to California for almond pollination every winter. Our aim was to identify relationships among measures of colony and individual bee health that impacted and predicted overwintering survival of colonies. We tested the hypothesis that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more favorable land use conditions would experience improved health. We modeled colony and individual bee health indices at a critical time point (autumn, prior to overwintering) and related them to eventual spring survival for California almond pollination. Colony measures that predicted overwintering apiary survival included the amount of pollen collected, brood production, and Varroa destructor mite levels. At the individual bee level, expression of vitellogenin, defensin1, and lysozyme2 were important markers of overwinter survival. This study is a novel first step toward identifying pertinent physiological responses in honey bees that result from their positioning near varying landscape features in intensive agricultural environments. PMID:27027871

  8. Linking Measures of Colony and Individual Honey Bee Health to Survival among Apiaries Exposed to Varying Agricultural Land Use

    Smart, Matthew; Pettis, Jeff; Rice, Nathan; Browning, Zac; Spivak, Marla

    2016-01-01

    We previously characterized and quantified the influence of land use on survival and productivity of colonies positioned in six apiaries and found that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more land in uncultivated forage experienced greater annual survival, and generally more honey production. Here, detailed metrics of honey bee health were assessed over three years in colonies positioned in the same six apiaries. The colonies were located in North Dakota during the summer months and were transported to California for almond pollination every winter. Our aim was to identify relationships among measures of colony and individual bee health that impacted and predicted overwintering survival of colonies. We tested the hypothesis that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more favorable land use conditions would experience improved health. We modeled colony and individual bee health indices at a critical time point (autumn, prior to overwintering) and related them to eventual spring survival for California almond pollination. Colony measures that predicted overwintering apiary survival included the amount of pollen collected, brood production, and Varroa destructor mite levels. At the individual bee level, expression of vitellogenin, defensin1, and lysozyme2 were important markers of overwinter survival. This study is a novel first step toward identifying pertinent physiological responses in honey bees that result from their positioning near varying landscape features in intensive agricultural environments. PMID:27027871

  9. Translocation analysis by the FISH-painting method for retrospective dose reconstruction in individuals exposed to ionizing radiation 10 years after exposure

    Camparoto, Marjori L.; Ramalho, Adriana T.; Natarajan, Adayapalam T.; Curado, Maria P.; Sakamoto-Hojo, Elza T

    2003-09-29

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful method largely used for detecting chromosomal rearrangements, translocations in particular, which are important biomarkers for dose assessment in case of human exposure to ionizing radiation. To test the possibility of using the translocation analysis by FISH-painting method in retrospective dose assessment, we carried out in vitro experiments in irradiated human lymphocytes, in parallel with the analysis of translocations in lymphocytes from 10 individuals, who were exposed to {sup 137}cesium in the Goiania (Brazil) accident (samples collected 10 years after exposure). The in vitro dose-response curve for the genomic translocation frequencies (FGs) fits a linear quadratic model, according to the equation: Y=0.0243X{sup 2}+0.0556X. The FG values were also calculated for the individuals exposed to {sup 137}cesium, ranging from 0.58 to 5.91 per 100 cells, and the doses were estimated and compared with the results obtained by dicentric analysis soon after the accident, taking the opportunity to test the validity of translocation analysis in retrospective biodosimetry. A tentative of retrospective dosimetry was performed, indicating that the method is feasible only for low level exposure (below 0.5 Gy), while for higher doses there is a need to apply appropriate correction factors, which take into consideration mainly the persistence of chromosomal translocations along with time, and the influence of endogenous and exogenous factors determining the inter-individual variability in the cellular responses to radiation.

  10. Translocation analysis by the FISH-painting method for retrospective dose reconstruction in individuals exposed to ionizing radiation 10 years after exposure

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful method largely used for detecting chromosomal rearrangements, translocations in particular, which are important biomarkers for dose assessment in case of human exposure to ionizing radiation. To test the possibility of using the translocation analysis by FISH-painting method in retrospective dose assessment, we carried out in vitro experiments in irradiated human lymphocytes, in parallel with the analysis of translocations in lymphocytes from 10 individuals, who were exposed to 137cesium in the Goiania (Brazil) accident (samples collected 10 years after exposure). The in vitro dose-response curve for the genomic translocation frequencies (FGs) fits a linear quadratic model, according to the equation: Y=0.0243X2+0.0556X. The FG values were also calculated for the individuals exposed to 137cesium, ranging from 0.58 to 5.91 per 100 cells, and the doses were estimated and compared with the results obtained by dicentric analysis soon after the accident, taking the opportunity to test the validity of translocation analysis in retrospective biodosimetry. A tentative of retrospective dosimetry was performed, indicating that the method is feasible only for low level exposure (below 0.5 Gy), while for higher doses there is a need to apply appropriate correction factors, which take into consideration mainly the persistence of chromosomal translocations along with time, and the influence of endogenous and exogenous factors determining the inter-individual variability in the cellular responses to radiation

  11. Assessment of occupational exposure and individual radiosensitivity in people exposed to radiation using methods of physical and biological dosimetry

    This paper examined people professionally in contact with sources of ionizing radiation.The incidence of chromosomal aberrations, the radionuclide content in the urine of the radiochemical method and calculation of internal doses based on the results of direct measurement of the concentration of incorporated radionuclides 137Cs and 241Am using human radiation spectrometer (HRS). According to the results of physical and biological dosimetry identified individual cumulative doses and the ratio defined cohort surveyed by radiosensitivity Key words: chromosomal aberrations, physical methods of dosimetry, radiation sensitivity, ionizing radiation, biodosimetry

  12. The rates of photolysis of the four individual tryptophan residues in UV exposed calf γ-II crystallin

    Aqueous buffer solutions of lens protein bovine γ-II crystallin were irradiated at 295 nm in the presence of dithiothreitol to determine individual photolysis susceptibilities of four tryptophan residues. Reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography was utilized to compare tryptic peptide maps before and after irradiation. Sequence analysis of collected tryptic peptides showed that tryptophans in calf γ-II crystallin, TRP-42, TRP-68, TRP-131, and TRP-157 appeared in four distinct tryptic peptides. Fluorescence and absorption (diode array) monitoring of the eluting peptides allowed assessment of changes in peptide absorbance and fluorescence following irradiation. Tryptophan fluorescence losses of (40 ± 15)%, (17 ± 4)%, (35 ± 5)% and (15 ± 4)% were observed for peptides containing TRP-42, TRP-68, TRP-131 and TRP-157, respectively. Thus the tryptophans did not all photolyze at the same rate. Rate differences are presumably related to microenvironments of the individual tryptophan residues, and are discussed in terms of the known crystal structure of calf γ-II crystallin. (author)

  13. Concept of radiological, medical and social protection of the population of Russia affected by accidental exposure

    Main principles of population radiation protection from various accidental exposure, including the Chernobyl accident, have been implemented in officially approved Concept ''On radiological, medical, social protection and rehabilitation of the Russian Federation population affected by accidental radiation exposure''. The concept includes basic principles of radiation protection, designation of regional radionuclide contaminated territories, records and registers of exposed persons, health protection and rehabilitation, socio-economic and legal aspects

  14. T cell clones from Schistosoma haematobium infected and exposed individuals lacking distinct cytokine profiles for Th1/Th2 polarisation

    Mduluza T

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available T cell clones were derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Schistosoma haematobium infected and uninfected individuals living in an endemic area. The clones were stimulated with S. haematobium worm and egg antigens and purified protein derivative. Attempts were made to classify the T cell clones according to production of the cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-gamma. All the T cell clones derived were observed to produce cytokines used as markers for the classification of Th1/Th2 subsets. However, the 'signature' cytokines marking each subset were produced at different levels. The classification depended on the dominating cytokine type, which was having either Th0/1 or Th0/2 subsets. The results indicated that no distinct cytokine profiles for polarisation of Th1/Th2 subsets were detected in these S. haematobium infected humans. The balance in the profiles of cytokines marking each subset were related to infection and re-infection status after treatment with praziquantel. In the present study, as judged by the changes in infection status with time, the T cell responses appeared to be less stable and more dynamic, suggesting that small quantitative changes in the balance of the cytokines response could result in either susceptibility or resistant to S. haematobium infection.

  15. Concepts for individual dosimetry

    Following the ''German guidelines for the physical monitoring in radiation protection of occupationally exposed personnel'' this concept is shown. Because of the unmeasurability of the dose equivalent resp. the effective dose equivalent the estimation of these quantities is based on operational quantities. They are given by the properties of the radiation source, the field quantities, the ambient dose or the individual dose equivalent. Confining to the external radiation different types of dose equivalent determinations are described: If an operational quantity is below an investigation level the dose equivalent is equated with the operational dose quantity. If one assumes that dose equivalent limits might have been exceeded conversion factors are taken into account. If accidental exposures are found a determination of absorbed dose distribution with sophisticated exposure models is used (ICRP 28). The present discussion about the properties of the new operational quantities in ICRU 39 is described. (author)

  16. Instrumentation for the individual dosimetry of workers

    Thévenin, J C

    2003-01-01

    The control of the radiation dose exposure of workers and personnel exposed to ionizing radiations (nuclear industry, nuclear medicine, army, university laboratories etc..) is ensured by individual dosemeters. This dosimetry is mandatory for all workers susceptible to be exposed to more than 30% of the regulatory dose limit. dosemeters are worn on the chest and in some particular cases, on the finger (dosemeter rings) or on the wrist. Passive dosemeters allow to measure the dose a posteriori, while electronic dosemeters allow a direct reading and recording of the dose. This article presents successively: 1 - the general principles of individual dosimetry: situations of exposure, radiation detection, operational data, standardization, calibration and quality assurance, measurement uncertainties; 2 - goals and regulatory framework of individual dosimetry: regulation and recommendations, optimization, respect of dose limits, accidental situations; 3 - passive dosemeters: film, thermoluminescent, radio-photolumin...

  17. Study of dose and relative risk of occupationally exposed individuals in interventional procedures; Estudo de dose e risco relativo de individuos ocupacionalmente expostos em procedimentos intervencionistas

    Silveira Filho, Jose A.M.; Reis, Charlene O.; Taniguti, Lana T.; Pacifico, Leonardo C.; SaintYves, Thalis L.A.; Mecca, Fernando A., E-mail: ze_augustomsf@hotmail.com [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Fisica Medica

    2012-12-15

    This paper estimates the occupational effective dose and the relative risk of leukemia and cancers of the digestive tract mortality through dose study of the most radiosensitive anatomical regions (lens, thyroid, chest and gonads) of the professionals involved in interventional gonad procedures. It was considered a cumulative exposure time of 10,000 hours, which is the occupational exposure time of an IOE in throughout his professional life. It was also considered that they always use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Mathematical models derived from epidemiological data contained in the BEIR V and in the IAEA’s TECDOC 870 are used to estimate the relative risk. The results show a significant increase in mortality risk for these types of cancer for individuals occupationally exposed to three different distances from the x-ray beam, and reinforces that radiation protection measures are essential. (author)

  18. A prospective study of the potential moderating role of social support in preventing marginalization among individuals exposed to bullying and abuse in junior high school.

    Strøm, Ida Frugård; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Sagatun, Åse; Dyb, Grete

    2014-10-01

    Negative physical and psychological long-term consequences of abuse and bullying are well documented. It is reasonable to assume that abuse and bullying early in life also may have an impact on the ability to work and stay economically independent later in life, but such prospective studies are lacking. This study investigates the consequences of exposure to abuse and bullying in junior high school, as measured by receiving long-term social welfare benefits in young adulthood. In addition, it explores the potential protective role of social support. Self-reported data from 13,633 (50.3% female) junior high school students were linked to registry data on their use of social welfare benefits from the age of 18 and for eight consecutive years. Cox regression analyses were applied to test the relationship between exposure to life adversities and the use of social welfare benefits, and the potential moderating role of social support. The analyses showed that individuals exposed to abuse and bullying had an increased likelihood of receiving social-welfare benefits compared with individuals not exposed to these types of abuse. Exposure to multiple types of abuse led to a higher likelihood of using social welfare benefits compared with single types of abuse and no abuse. The findings on the potential moderating role of social support were mixed, depending on the source of social support. Family support and classmate relationships were protective in reducing the likelihood of the use of social welfare benefits, whereas peer and teachers' support showed inconsistent patterns. These results are promising in terms of preventing the long-term negative consequences of abuse and bullying. PMID:24985489

  19. The Comparison of Experimental Avoidance, Mindfulness and Rumination in Trauma-Exposed Individuals With and Without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in an Iranian Sample.

    Basharpoor, Sajjad; Shafiei, Masumeh; Daneshvar, Somayeh

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare experimental avoidance, mindfulness and rumination in trauma-exposed individuals with and without PTSD in an Iranian sample. The method of the study was retrospective. The statistical population of the study composed of all people under the auspices of Committee on Relief or Martyr Foundation because of exposure to at least one traumatic event in Gilan-Gharb city (Iran) (N=1708). One hundred people, selected randomly by stratified sampling method, responded to Mississippi PTSD scale and the questionnaires of experimental avoidance, mindfulness and rumination individually. Subjects were divided into two groups of with and without PTSD based on Mississippi PTSD scale and structured clinical interview. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) test was used for analyzing data. Results showed that although the mean scores of the group with PTSD were significantly higher than the group without PTSD in variables of experimental avoidance (P<0/001, F=63/8) and rumination (P<0/001, F=21/34), the mean scores of the group with PTSD were significantly lower than the group without PTSD in the overall score of mindfulness (P<0/05, F=6/64) and variables of observing (P<0/05, F=8/27) and action description (P<0/05, F=9/19). These results show that the experimental avoidance and rumination are as the risk factors and mindfulness as the protective factor PTSD in people faced with trauma. PMID:26397429

  20. Frequency of CCR5 Delta-32 Mutation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-seropositive and HIV-exposed Seronegative Individuals and in General Population of Medellin, Colombia

    Francisco J Díaz

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Repeated exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV does not always result in seroconversion. Modifications in coreceptors for HIV entrance to target cells are one of the factors that block the infection. We studied the frequency of Delta-32 mutation in ccr5 gene in Medellin, Colombia. Two hundred and eighteen individuals distributed in three different groups were analyzed for Delta-32 mutation in ccr5 gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR: 29 HIV seropositive (SP, 39 exposed seronegative (ESN and 150 individuals as a general population sample (GPS. The frequency of the Delta-32 mutant allele was 3.8% for ESN, 2.7% for GPS and 1.7% for SP. Only one homozygous mutant genotype (Delta-32/Delta-32 was found among the ESN (2.6%. The heterozygous genotype (ccr5/Delta-32 was found in eight GPS (5.3%, in one SP (3.4% and in one ESN (2.6%. The differences in the allelic and genotypic frequencies among the three groups were not statistically significant. A comparison between the expected and the observed genotypic frequencies showed that these frequencies were significantly different for the ESN group, which indirectly suggests a protective effect of the mutant genotype (Delta-32/Delta-32. Since this mutant genotype explained the resistance of infection in only one of our ESN persons, different mechanisms of protection must be playing a more important role in this population.

  1. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P4[1,1,1,6,9] by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes

  2. Preliminary study of internal monitoring of the occupational exposed individuals to the 18FDG at the C RCN-Ne, Recipe, Pernambuco, Brazil

    This work aims to develop and establish a methodology for in vivo internal monitoring at individuals occupationally exposed (IOE) to F-18 in form of F-18DG at the DIPRA/CRCN-NE. The detection system used was the NaI(Tl) 3' x 3', coupled with the software Genie 2000. The measurements performed with the brain phantom were used to obtain the Calibration Factor. The bioassay data interpretation was performed through software AIDE, using the F-18DG biokinetic model available in ICRP 53 publication. The MDED obtained was compared to the value of the recording level, 1 mSv, recommended by IAEA in order to validate the technique. During two days of F-18DG productions, there were performed in vivo measurements of the IOE at DIPRA/CRCN-NE. The methodology developed demonstrated sufficient sensitivity for detect MDED of 76 n Sv. The results of the in vivo measurements demonstrated that all IOE from CRCN/NE obtained doses below MDED. (author)

  3. Accidental Bolus of Parenteral Nutrition.

    Lodeserto, Frank; Al-Jaghbeer, Mohammed; Huang, David

    2016-08-01

    There is a paucity of data that exists regarding acute toxicity and management in the setting of parental nutrition (PN) overdose. We describe a case of a patient who received an accidental rapid bolus of PN and fat emulsion. She developed a seizure, metabolic acidosis, arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia, altered mental status, hypotension, and hypoxemia likely caused by elevated triglycerides, leading to a hyperviscosity syndrome. After failing standard therapy, she was successfully treated with a single-volume plasma exchange with resolution of symptoms. Fat emulsion or intravenous lipid emulsion and much of its safety have been recently described in its use as a rescue therapy in resuscitation from drug-related toxicity. Elevated serum triglyceride levels can result in a picture similar to a hyperviscosity syndrome. Plasma exchange is a known therapeutic modality for the management of hyperviscosity syndrome and a novel therapy in the treatment of hyperviscosity syndrome due to fat emulsion therapy. In a patient receiving PN with development of rapid deterioration of clinical status, without an obvious etiology, there should be consideration of PN overdose. A rapid assessment and treatment of severe electrolyte abnormalities should be undertaken immediately to prevent life-threatening cardiovascular and central nervous system collapse. If fat emulsion was rapidly coadministered and there are signs and symptoms of hyperviscosity syndrome, then consideration should be given to plasma exchange as an effective therapeutic treatment option. PMID:25666023

  4. Nodular goiter after occupational accidental exposure to radiation

    Pisarev, M.A. [Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Human Biochemistry, Uninversity of Buenos Aires, School of Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schnitman, M. [Center of Endocrinology and Metabolism, French Hospital C.Milstein, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-07-01

    In the present paper we present the consequences of an accidental occupational radiation exposure at a local hospital in Buenos Aires. Control at a local radiology service showed the lack of correct shielding in the X-ray equipment. The physicians and technicians (14 persons) exposed to radiation during 12 months were examined. The survey shows that: a) In 11 out of 14 radiation-exposed patients nodular goiter developed and an additional patient had diffuse goiter which means a goiter incidence of 85.7%; b) In 5 of the nodular goiter patients an increase in the size or the appearance of new nodules was observed along the follow-up period. No cancer was detected by FNA; c) Hypothyroidism was observed in 3/14 patients, and an additional patient had an abnormal TRH-TSH test, suggesting subclinical hypothyroidism; and d) Increased circulating antithyroid antibodies were found in one of the hypothyroid patients

  5. An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.

    Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2014-10-24

    An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the μ-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

  6. Mortalidad intrahospitalaria por accidente cerebrovascular

    Federico Rodríguez Lucci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La mortalidad global por accidente cerebrovascular (ACV ha disminuido en las últimas tres décadas, probablemente debido a un mejor control de los factores de riesgo vascular. La mortalidad hospitalaria por ACV ha sido tradicionalmente estimada entre 6 y 14% en la mayoría de las series comunicadas. Sin embargo, los datos de ensayos clínicos recientes sugieren que esta cifra sería sustancialmente menor. Se revisaron datos de pacientes internados con diagnóstico de ACV del Banco de Datos de Stroke de FLENI y los registros institucionales de mortalidad entre los años 2000 y 2010. Los subtipos de ACV isquémicos se clasificaron según criterios TOAST y los ACV hemorrágicos en hematomas intrapanquimatosos, hemorragias subaracnoideas aneurismáticas, malformaciones arteriovenosas y otros hematomas intraparenquimatosos. Se analizaron 1514 pacientes, 1079 (71% con ACV isquémico (grandes vasos 39%, cardioembólicos 27%, lacunares 9%, etiología indeterminada 14%, otras etiologías 11% y 435 (29% con ACV hemorrágico (intraparenquimatosos 27%, hemorragia subaracnoidea 30%, malformaciones arteriovenosas 25% y otros hematomas espontáneos 18%. Se registraron 38 muertes intrahospitalarias (17 ACV isquémicos y 21 ACV hemorrágicos, representando una mortalidad global del 2.5% (1.7% en ACV isquémicos y 4.8% en ACV hemorrágicos. No se registraron muertes asociadas al uso de fibrinolíticos endovenosos. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria en pacientes con ACV isquémico y hemorrágico en nuestro centro fue baja. El manejo en un centro dedicado a las enfermedades neurológicas y el enfoque multidisciplinario por personal médico y no médico entrenado en el cuidado de la enfermedad cerebrovascular podrían explicar, al menos en parte, estos resultados.

  7. Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death

    Thomas Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema.

  8. Dosimetric methodology for extremities of individuals occupationally exposed to beta radiation using the optically stimulated luminescence technique; Metodologia dosimetrica para extremidades em individuos ocupacionalmente expostos a radiacao beta por meio da tecnica de luminescencia opticamente estimulada

    Pinto, Teresa Cristina Nathan Outeiro

    2010-07-01

    A dosimetric methodology was established for the determination of extremity doses of individuals occupationally exposed to beta radiation, using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C detectors and the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) reader system microStar, Landauer. The main parts of the work were: characterization of the dosimetric material Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C using the OSL technique; establishment of the dose evaluation methodology; dose rate determination of beta radiation sources; application of the established method in a practical test with individuals occupationally exposed to beta radiation during a calibration simulation of clinical applicators; validation of the methodology by the comparison between the dose results of the practical test using the OSL and the thermoluminescence (TL) techniques. The results show that both the OSL Al-2O{sub 3}:C detectors and the technique may be utilized for individual monitoring of extremities and beta radiation. (author)

  9. Lung nodules accidentally detected on CT scans

    Improving of the spatial resolution of modern CT scanners has increased the amount of information obtained by lung CT, and thus the amount of accidentally determined nodules and quality of their structure specification. To unify the criteria of their follow-up CT studies Fleischner Society has issued recommendations for management of solid pulmonary nodules, and then added recommendations for subsolid nodules. In this article the review of categories of such accidental findings in lungs is presented with follow-up criteria and annotations applied

  10. The effects of exposure to different clastogens on the pattern of chromosomal aberrations detected by FISH whole chromosome painting in occupationally exposed individuals

    Beskid, O. [Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR and Health Institute of Central Bohemia, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Dusek, Z. [Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR and Health Institute of Central Bohemia, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Solansky, I. [Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR and Health Institute of Central Bohemia, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Sram, R.J. [Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR and Health Institute of Central Bohemia, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: sram@biomed.cas.cz

    2006-02-22

    The pattern of chromosomal aberrations (CA) was studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique (whole chromosomes 1 and 4 painting) in workers occupationally exposed to any of the four following conditions: acrylonitrile (ACN), ethyl benzene (EB), carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs), and irradiation in nuclear power plants (NPP), respectively. Decrease in the relative frequency of translocations was observed in EB group, and an increase in reciprocal translocations in ACN and NPP-exposed groups. An increase in a relative number of insertions was registered under all four conditions (significant at ACN, EB, c-PAHs, quasisignificant at NPP-exposed groups). Significant differences in the percentage of lymphocytes with aberrations on chromosome 1 (58.8 {+-} 32.7%, versus 73.8 {+-} 33.6% in the controls, P < 0.05), and chromosome 4 (47.0 {+-} 34.1%, versus 29.4 {+-} 32.2%, P < 0.01) were found in workers exposed to ACN. Similarly, a decrease in the proportion of cells with aberration on chromosome 1 (61.0 {+-} 24.0%, versus 73.8 {+-} 33.6%, P < 0.05) and an increase on chromosome 4 (45.6 {+-} 24.6%, versus 29.4 {+-} 32.2%, P < 0.05) were observed in workers exposed to EB. Frequency of aberrant cells (%AB.C.) as well as genomic frequency of translocations (F {sub G}/100) increased with age (P < 0.001). Aging also increased the percentage of translocations and reciprocal translocations (P < 0.05), but decreased the relative number of acentric fragments (P < 0.01). Smoking led to significantly increased F {sub G}/100 (P < 0.05), but did not affect the pattern of chromosomal aberrations. Our results seem to indicate that different carcinogens may induce a different pattern of chromosomal aberrations.

  11. Tuberculosis cutánea por inoculación accidental Cutaneous tuberculosis accidental inoculation

    María Ascensión Maestre Naranjo; Jenry Borda Olivas; Arantxa Ortega Hernández; Esmeralda Tovar Benito; María Luisa Rodríguez de la Pinta; Rosa María Daza Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Caso clínico de una microbióloga con amplia experiencia, que sufre una inoculación accidental al manipular una cepa pura de Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Se pincha en la cara lateral externa de la falange distal del dedo índice, atravesando el guante con la aguja contaminada. (Imagen 1). La trabajadora procede de forma inmediata a la limpieza de la herida. El Servicio de Prevención, registra la inoculación como accidente de trabajo. A las tres semanas del accidente, aparece en el lugar de la in...

  12. Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at the IPNS

    Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenetic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem

  13. Accidental fire in the West Hall

    1977-01-01

    On January 7 an accidental fire due to the failure of standard circuit-breakers, destroyed the coils of two spectrometer magnets and severely damaged the apparatus of two experiments. See also photos 7701582X, 7701581X, 7701580X. (Annual Report 1977, pg. 127-128)

  14. Order of the 30 December 2004 relative to the individual sheet of medical follow-up and to the individual information concerning the dosimetry of workers exposed to ionizing radiations

    This order concerns the content and the modalities of grant of the individual sheet of medical follow-up, the collect and the centralization of dosimetry individual information by the Institute of Radiation Protection and Safety (IRSN), and the access to individual results of external and internal dosimetry. (A.L.B.)

  15. The effects of exposure to different clastogens on the pattern of chromosomal aberrations detected by FISH whole chromosome painting in occupationally exposed individuals

    The pattern of chromosomal aberrations (CA) was studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique (whole chromosomes 1 and 4 painting) in workers occupationally exposed to any of the four following conditions: acrylonitrile (ACN), ethyl benzene (EB), carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs), and irradiation in nuclear power plants (NPP), respectively. Decrease in the relative frequency of translocations was observed in EB group, and an increase in reciprocal translocations in ACN and NPP-exposed groups. An increase in a relative number of insertions was registered under all four conditions (significant at ACN, EB, c-PAHs, quasisignificant at NPP-exposed groups). Significant differences in the percentage of lymphocytes with aberrations on chromosome 1 (58.8 ± 32.7%, versus 73.8 ± 33.6% in the controls, P G/100) increased with age (P G/100 (P < 0.05), but did not affect the pattern of chromosomal aberrations. Our results seem to indicate that different carcinogens may induce a different pattern of chromosomal aberrations

  16. International conference and workshop on modeling and mitigating the consequences of accidental releases of hazardous materials

    This conference was held September 26--29, 1995 in New Orleans, Louisiana. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the consequences of accidental releases of hazardous materials. Attention is focused on air dispersion of vapors. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  17. Ferrofluid-associated Cutaneous Dyschromia: Discoloration of Hand and Fingers Following Accidental Exposure to Ferromagnetic Fluid

    Cohen, Philip R; Arfa, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ferrofluid is a colloidal suspension that usually consists of surfactant-coated nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4) in a carrier liquid. Ferromagnetic fluid forms spikes when the liquid is exposed to a magnetic field. Purpose: The authors describe a man who developed temporary discoloration of his right palm and fingers after accidental cutaneous contact with ferrofluid and discuss some of the current and potential applications of this unique liquid. Methods: A 28-year-old man was ...

  18. Outcome of Accidental Exposure Prone to Blood Borne Viral Infections in an Educational Hospital

    Shahnaz Sali; Shabnam Tehrani; Sara Abulghasemi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk for transmission of blood-borne viruses (BBVs) such as Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) due to occupational exposure is a major concern in the health care setting.Materials and Methods: This study among 337 health care workers (HCWs) accidentally exposed to BBVs was carried out from January 2009 to March 2015. The data were reviewed in labbafinejhad hospital, Tehran, Iran.Results: 4 HCWs had exposure to HBS Ag positiv...

  19. Modelling 14C transfer in terrestrial environments in response to chronic and accidental 14C releases.

    Le Dizès, S.

    2011-01-01

    Concern about the quantity of carbon-14 (14C) released for several decades from nuclear facilities has prompted several modelling approaches of 14C behaviour in the environment. The TOCATTA model aims at estimating 14C (and 3H) transfers in terrestrial ecosystems exposed to atmospheric 14C (and 3H) releases from nuclear facilities under normal operating or accidental conditions. The model belongs to the larger framework of the SYMBIOSE modelling and simulation platform that aims at assessing ...

  20. Research progress in study of accidental hypothermia

    Yuan, Rui; Zhang, Zhi-cheng

    2016-01-01

    Accidental hypothermia refers to a state of lowering of core body temperature down to 35 ℃induced by drowning, burial in snow and prolonged exposure to cold environment, etc. Hypothermia may affect the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, digestive system, etc. The triad consisting "hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy" is an important factor accelerating the death of patients. Early, timely application of rewarming measures is regarded as the basic principle in treatment of hypotherm...

  1. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit

    Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea...

  2. Accidental swallowing of orthodontic expansion appliance key.

    Monini, André da Costa; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Jacob, Helder Baldi; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga

    2011-08-01

    Ingestion of a foreign object, including a dental object, can lead to a trip to the emergency room. This article describes the accidental swallowing of a key that was used to activate a rapid maxillary expander. An orthodontic patient swallowed the key while trying to activate the appliance at home. The object's trajectory was followed on radiographs until it was eliminated. Possible clinical complications, legal implications of this situation, and practices for prevention are described. PMID:21803265

  3. Evaluation of chromosome aberration frequency instable in individual groups residents at the municipality of Monte Alegre, Para, Brazil, exposed to radon

    The municipality of Monte Alegre is a region that presents natural radiation high due to the presence of the radionuclide uranium (238U) in its soil, which through its decay gives rise to element Rn, a gas. The radioactivity of the rocks has become a problem for the population of Monte Alegre, from the moment when the radioactive material began to be used in the construction of houses and paving of streets. Among all bio markers related to environmental exposures and its biological effects, the chromosomal aberrations are considered good bio markers as predictors of the risk of cancer. Studies suggest that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations may be related to the genetic instability individual and/or exposure to ionizing radiation. Our work aimed to evaluate the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in individuals in the region of high natural radioactivity in Monte Alegre-PA. As well as to correlate the cytogenetic analysis made in this study with the results of analysis of frequency of polymorphisms of genes of DNA repair carried out in another study that resulted in other dissertation. In accordance with the distribution of the data obtained in characterizing environmental radiological and in the calculation of dose, were chosen residents of homes with more and less exposure to radiation. The samples of peripheral blood of 85 individuals of the resident population of the region of Monte Alegre - PA were collected and examine provided two slides for individual was performed to verify the quality of the sample. Through this evaluation we decide that 33% of the material collected, or is, samples of 28 individuals were in suitable conditions for analysis of the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. After the collections lymphocytes present in the sample were cultivated in accordance with the methodology proposed for obtaining of cells in metaphase. were analyzed 6,177 metaphases of 28 individuals among which were found dicentric chromosomes 4 and 19 fragments

  4. Electron paramagnetic resonance technique for radiation dosimetry: emerging trends for laboratory and accidental dosimetry

    The applications of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) for radiation dosimetry are briefly reviewed. In particular, EPR-alanine dosimetry and accidental dosimetry using EPR signals from human tooth enamel have been discussed. The alanine dosimetry was found to be useful from low doses such as 1 Gy to high doses such as 100 kGy. The signals from tooth enamel are found to be invaluable in assessing the absorbed dose of people exposed to radiation accidents and also survivors of atomic bomb explosions. New emerging trends using EPR signals from bones exposed to radiation have also been briefly reviewed. (author)

  5. Genetic Damage Induced by Accidental Environmental Pollutants

    Beatriz Pérez-Cadahía

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum is one of the main energy sources worldwide. Its transport is performed by big tankers following some established marine routes. In the last 50 years a total amount of 37 oil tankers have given rise to great spills in different parts of the world, Prestige being the last one. After the accident, a big human mobilisation took place in order to clean beaches, rocks and fauna, trying to reduce the environmental consequences of this serious catastrophe. These people were exposed to the complex mixture of compounds contained in the oil. This study aimed at determine the level of environmental exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOC, and the possible damage induced on the population involved in the different cleaning tasks by applying the genotoxicity tests sister chromatid exchanges (SCE, micronucleus (MN test, and comet assay. Four groups of individuals were included: volunteers (V, hired manual workers (MW, hired high-pressure cleaner workers (HPW and controls. The higher VOC levels were associated with V environment, followed by MW and lastly by HPW, probably due to the use of high-pressure cleaners. Oil exposure during the cleaning tasks has caused an increase in the genotoxic damage in individuals, the comet assay being the most sensitive biomarker to detect it. Sex, age and tobacco consumption have shown to influence the level of genetic damage, while the effect of using protective devices was less noticeable than expected, perhaps because the kind used was not the most adequate.

  6. Accidental contamination with 90Sr: a case study

    A case of accidental inhalation and extensive contamination by 90Sr was observed in November 1995 in two workers who were handling a defective waste container with an old source of 90Sr used for lightning rods. An internal monitoring programme was established to obtain experimental excretion data from each worker. Urine bioassays were carried out and activities of 90Sr were determined from analyses of excreta by the liquid scintillation technique. The results were evaluated in accordance with ICRP recommendations using the dosimetric code GENMOD-PC. Since no information was available concerning aerosol size nor compound of the radionuclide, estimations of intakes were made following ICRP 30 recommendations, and an AMAD of 1 μm was assumed for the inhaled radioactive aerosol supposedly containing strontium titanate. The ICRP 30 theoretical excretion curve did not agree with the experimental data. Confirming that the source contained SrTiO3, the assumed 1 μm particle size of the aerosol accidentally inhaled had to be changed to 10 μm, in order to adjust the urinary excretion function to the measured values. The initial estimation for one of the exposed workers, assuming a 1 μm particle size, resulted in a 90Sr intake of 5 ALIs. The final intake estimations were made with the following assumptions: acute inhalation 24 November 1995, AMAD = 10 μm, Class Y solubility and ICRP 30 Respiratory Tract Model for Standard Man. The 90Sr estimated intake was 2.6 x 105 Bq (37% ALI) for one of the workers and 6.6 x 104 Bq (10% ALI) for the other. The committed whole-body effective dose equivalents were 19 mSv and 5 mSv respectively, and the dose equivalents to lung were 147 mSv and 37 mSv, respectively. (author)

  7. Order of the 30 December 2004 relative to the individual sheet of medical follow-up and to the individual information concerning the dosimetry of workers exposed to ionizing radiations; Arrete du 30 decembre 2004 relatif a la carte individuelle de suivi medical et aux informations individuelles de dosimetrie des travailleurs exposes aux rayonnements ionisants

    NONE

    2004-12-15

    This order concerns the content and the modalities of grant of the individual sheet of medical follow-up, the collect and the centralization of dosimetry individual information by the Institute of Radiation Protection and Safety (IRSN), and the access to individual results of external and internal dosimetry. (A.L.B.)

  8. Accidental Kähler moduli inflation

    We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small Kähler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil Kähler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model

  9. Modelling accidental releases of carbon 14 in the environment: application as an excel spreadsheet

    An application as an Excel spreadsheet of the simplified modelling approach of carbon 14 transfer in the environment developed by Tamponnet (2002) is presented. Based on the use of growth models of biological systems (plants, animals, etc.), the one-pool model (organic carbon) that was developed estimates the concentration of carbon 14 within the different compartments of the food chain and in fine the dose to man by ingestion in the case of a chronic or accidental release of carbon 14 in a river or the atmosphere. Data and knowledge have been implemented on Excel using the object-oriented programming language VisualBasic (Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0). The structure of the conceptual model and the Excel sheet are first briefly exposed. A numerical application of the model under a scenario of an accidental release of carbon 14 in the atmosphere is then presented. Simulation results and perspectives are discussed. (author)

  10. Modelling accidental releases of tritium in the environment: application as an excel spreadsheet

    An application as an Excel spreadsheet of the simplified modelling approach of tritium transfer in the environment developed by Tamponnet (2002) is presented. Based on the use of growth models of biological systems (plants, animals, etc.), the two-pool model (organic tritium and tritiated water) that was developed estimates the concentration of tritium within the different compartments of the food chain and in fine the dose to man by ingestion in the case of a chronic or accidental release of tritium in a river or the atmosphere. Data and knowledge have been implemented on Excel using the object-oriented programming language VisualBasic (Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0). The structure of the conceptual model and the Excel sheet are first briefly exposed. A numerical application of the model under a scenario of an accidental release of tritium in the atmosphere is then presented. Simulation results and perspectives are discussed. (author)

  11. Avaliação da aptidão cardiopulmonar em indivíduos com hemiparesia após acidente vascular encefálico Evaluación de la aptitud cardiopulmonar en individuos con hemiparesia tras accidente vascular encefálico Evaluation of cardiopulmonary fitness in individuals with hemiparesis after cerebrovascular accident

    Angélica Cristiane Ovando

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Devido à hemiparesia, a avaliação da aptidão cardiorrespiratória de indivíduos após acidente vascular encefálico (AVE, por meio de testes ergométricos com protocolos convencionais, tem se tornado um desafio. OBJETIVO: Realizar teste cardiopulmonar (TCP em hemiparéticos para uma avaliação pré-participação visando uma criteriosa prescrição de exercício aeróbico. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 8 indivíduos com hemiparesia crônica, que foram submetidos a TCP realizado com protocolo individualizado em rampa, desenvolvido a partir da informação da velocidade de marcha dos indivíduos previamente avaliados em teste de pista. Foi considerada a proposta de inclinação variando entre 0 e 10,0%, velocidade inicial correspondente a 70,0% do ritmo de caminhada confortável e velocidade máxima 40,0% superior à velocidade máxima no teste de pista, na expectativa de que o TCP, com este incremento gradativo e constante da intensidade, durasse entre 6 e 8 minutos. RESULTADOS: Em 100,0% dos avaliados, o motivo para a interrupção do teste foi fadiga periférica. O VO2 de pico alcançado foi de 20,6 ± 5,7 ml/kg.min. O Limiar I foi identificado em todos os exames, situando-se em 82,64 ± 4,78% da FC de pico e 73,31 ± 4,97% do VO2 de pico. O quociente respiratório (R do grupo foi de 0,96 ± 0,09, e três dos 8 indivíduos (37,5% atingiram R superior a 1,00, sendo o Limiar II identificado nestes sujeitos. Foram encontradas relações positivas entre variáveis do TCP e escores de equilíbrio, desempenho no teste de caminhada de 6 minutos e velocidade de marcha no solo. CONCLUSÃO: O teste mostrou ser útil para prescrição de atividade física nesses indivíduos.FUNDAMENTO: Debido a la hemiparesia, la evaluación de la aptitud cardiorrespiratoria de individuos después de accidente vascular encefálico (AVE, por medio de pruebas ergométricas con protocolos convencionales, se ha vuelto en un reto. OBJETIVO: Llevar a cabo

  12. Accidentes de tránsito terrestre

    José Enrique Ramírez Muñoz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Los accidentes de tránsito terrestres en Costa Rica se han convertido en un serio problema de salud pública, que derivan ya sea en lesiones graves o bien en muertes de personas de todas las edades. Estos eventos incluyen el atropellamiento, las colisiones y choques, y producen cuadros lesionológicos muy diversos de acuerdo a la participación de las personas, el tipo de vehículo y la forma en la que se produce el traumatismo. Así mismo, se debe tener en cuenta la participación de factores coadyuvantes como el uso del casco y el cinturón de seguridad, o bien el consumo de alcohol y el uso del teléfono móvil. La valoración médico legal de las víctimas, vivas o muertas de accidentes de tránsito, está a cargo del Departamento de Medicina Legal del Organismo de Investigación Judicial, y se hace por solicitud de una Autoridad Judicial competente.

  13. Accidental radioisotope burns - Management of late sequelae

    Varghese Bipin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidental radioisotope burns are rare. The major components of radiation injury are burns, interstitial pneumonitis, acute bone marrow suppression, acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Radiation burns, though localized in distribution, have systemic effects, and can be extremely difficult to heal, even after multiple surgeries. In a 25 year old male who sustained such trauma by accidental industrial exposure to Iridium192 the early presentation involved recurrent haematemesis, pancytopenia and bone marrow suppression. After three weeks he developed burns in contact areas in the left hand, left side of the chest, abdomen and right inguinal region. All except the inguinal wound healed spontaneously but the former became a non-healing ulcer. Pancytopenia and bone marrow depression followed. He was treated with morphine and NSAIDs, epidural buprinorphine and bupivicaine for pain relief, steroids, antibiotics followed by wound excision and reconstruction with tensor fascia lata(TFL flap. Patient had breakdown of abdominal scar later and it was excised with 0.5 cm margins up to the underlying muscle and the wound was covered by a latissimis dorsi flap. Further scar break down and recurrent ulcers occurred at different sites including left wrist, left thumb and right heel in the next two years which needed multiple surgical interventions.

  14. Dosimetric significance of cytogenetic examinations in human accidental over exposures

    The damage to 13 workers following accidental exposures was assessed from lymphocyte chromosomal aberrations, and the results compared with those supplied by physical dosimetry and the clinical syndromes

  15. Performance test of a portable TLD system for accidental doses

    Full text: A portable TLD measuring system was constructed at the J. Stefan Institute many years ago, motivated by the thread of a catastrophic nuclear event. It was designed for fast measurements in accidental dosimetry mainly for military and civil protection use. The system consists of a robust portable measuring unit built for measurements in field conditions, sized about 40 cm in diameter and weighting 5 kg. Dosimeters are based on CaF2:Mn ceramic tablets closed in water resistant plastic housings. In original design producer assured measuring range from cGy to kGy. Specially designed energy compensating filters are used to satisfy requirements for energy response from 0,1 to 3 MeV. Stability of readings is maintained with the temperature stabilized light source. Measuring time for manually driven heating-reading cycle of one dosimeter is about 30 sec. Many systems of the type with sets of dosimeters were stored unused for some years in depositories of different institutions. Modernization of equipment in last years raised questions of applicability of such measurement systems for contemporary needs. The system was thus tested in a secondary standards dosimetry laboratory for compliance with up to date requirements for accidental individual monitoring. Dosimeter characteristics as repeatability, linearity and directional response were of particular interest. As a result of the tests, technical improvements are suggested to extent systems measuring capabilities in order to meet new standards. Possibilities of its use in different fields of dosimetry are discussed, where quick in field measurements of high doses is required as for example in medicine or in civil protection motivated by the new threads of terrorist attacks. (author)

  16. Asbestos Surveillance Program Aachen (ASPA): initial results from baseline screening for lung cancer in asbestos-exposed high-risk individuals using low-dose multidetector-row CT

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of lung cancer in a high-risk asbestos-exposed cohort using low-dose MDCT. Of a population of 5,389 former power-plant workers, 316 were characterized as individuals at highest risk for lung cancer according to a lung-cancer risk model including age, asbestos exposure and smoking habits. Of these 316, 187 (mean age: 66.6 years) individuals were included in a prospective trial. Mean asbestos exposure time was 29.65 years and 89% were smokers. Screening was performed on a 16-slice MDCT (Siemens) with low-dose technique (10/20 mAseff.; 1 mm/0.5 mm increment). In addition to soft copy PACS reading analysis on a workstation with a dedicated lung analysis software (LungCARE; Siemens) was performed. One strongly suspicious mass and eight cases of histologically proven lung cancer were found plus 491 additional pulmonary nodules (average volume: 40.72 ml, average diameter 4.62 mm). Asbestos-related changes (pleural plaques, fibrosis) were visible in 80 individuals. Lung cancer screening in this high-risk cohort showed a prevalence of lung cancer of 4.28% (8/187) at baseline screening with an additional large number of indeterminate pulmonary nodules. Low-dose MDCT proved to be feasible in this highly selected population. (orig.)

  17. Cytogenetic monitoring of personnel occupationally exposed to microwave radiation of GEM radar

    In the present study we analyzed and followed-up on the DNA damaging effects of microwave radiation of GEM radar equipment within microwave field of 10 μW/cm2 to 10 mW/cm2 in personnel occupationally exposed to frequency range of 1.5 GHz to 10.9 GHz. The single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)/comet assay as a tool for the bio monitoring of individuals accidentally, environmentally or occupationally exposed to physical or chemical agents was used to evaluate possible genotoxic effect on peripheral human blood lymphocytes. The comet assay is a method that allows efficient determination of single strand breaks (SSB) and double-strand breaks (DSB), as well as alkali-labile sites in the DNA of single cells. The comet assay was carried out under alkaline conditions. We measured the baseline comet assay effect in whole blood samples. Parameter of the comet assay was studied in workers occupationally exposed to microwave radiation of GEM radar and in corresponding unexposed control subjects. It was found that in the subjects who were occupationally exposed to microwave radiation, the levels of DNA damage increased compare to control group and showed interindividual variations. As a measure of DNA damage tail length was used, calculated from the centre of the head and presented in micrometers (μm). Mean value of exposed group was 13.54±1.44 as opposed to control mean value that was 13.15±1.39. Differences between mean tail lengths were statistically significant (P<0.05, ANOVA). The results of this study indicate that individuals occupationally exposed to microwave frequency of GEM radar equipment may experience an increased genotoxic risk, emphasizing the importance of individual bio monitoring, limiting exposure and radiation safety programs. (author)

  18. La prevención de accidentes (2

    Chinchilla, M.

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Everyone prefers to work in those organizations where their dignity of human beings is respected. One of the most efficient means at the disposal of any firm, to improve the morale of the individual employees, and to establish a spirit of cooperation between the individual and the firm, is to set up a program of accident benefit. It will avoid direct and indirect losses due to working accidents, as analyzed in a previous article, and it will make it possible to improve total performance of each worker, since he will work in a more favorable environment, free from worry about potential danger to his person. It is almost impossible to describe in detail all those items that should be taken into account in a safety program. None the less, and as an indication of their diversity, some sources of danger are mentioned in this chapter, which are closely connected with human safety, such as public curiosity, travelling from one place to another, cleanliness and order.Todas las personas prefieren desempeñar sus tareas en aquellas organizaciones que tienen hacia ellos las consideraciones correspondientes a un ser humano. Uno de los medios más eficaces a disposición de cualquier empresa para elevar la moral del individuo y para crear un lazo de cooperación común entre el individuo y la empresa, es la de llevar a cabo un programa de prevención de accidentes, programa que redundará en el doble fruto: evitar las pérdidas directas e indirectas causadas por los accidentes de trabajo que se detallaron en un trabajo anterior, y conseguir aumentar el rendimiento del operario al hacerle un ambiente más grato por la preocupación que se demuestra hacia su persona. Es casi imposible detallar todos aquellos puntos que se deben tener en cuenta en un programa de seguridad; sin embargo, y como exponente de su diversidad, se señalan en este capítulo algunas causas, que, sin estar ligadas directamente con el trabajo individual, no obstante se encuentran

  19. Research progress in study of accidental hypothermia

    Rui YUAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Accidental hypothermia refers to a state of lowering of core body temperature down to 35 ℃induced by drowning, burial in snow and prolonged exposure to cold environment, etc. Hypothermia may affect the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, digestive system, etc. The triad consisting "hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy" is an important factor accelerating the death of patients. Early, timely application of rewarming measures is regarded as the basic principle in treatment of hypothermia. A series of rewarming measures, such as infusion of warm fluids, inspiration of warm air, abdominal infusion of warm fluid, instruction of warm fluid into pleural cavity, intravenous infusion of warm fluid, rewarming through ECMO, etc. have been used recently. Advance in research on the classification of hypothermia, its impact to the body and the treatment methods are reviewed in present paper. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.04.15

  20. Accidental etizolam ingestion in a child.

    Kato, Zenichiro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Funato, Michinori; Kuwabara, Hideaki; Kondo, Naomi

    2007-07-01

    Etizolam (ETZ) is an antidepressive thienodiazepine drug that is used worldwide. The most frequent adverse effects in adults are drowsiness and muscle weakness, and this can rarely cause paradoxical excitation; however, no information exists on intoxication in children. Furthermore, evidence bearing on its safety in children is not available. We present a case of a child who accidentally took a single dose of ETZ, approximately the same as a therapeutic dose for adults, and who showed paradoxical excitation and muscle weakness. The case presented here suggests that pediatricians and emergency physicians should be aware of the possible adverse effects in children and therapeutic approaches in intoxication of ETZ and the necessity of further investigations on a specific therapeutic guideline for overdose management especially in children. PMID:17666930

  1. Accidental Turbulent Discharge Rate Estimation from Videos

    Ibarra, Eric; Shaffer, Franklin; Savaş, Ömer

    2015-11-01

    A technique to estimate the volumetric discharge rate in accidental oil releases using high speed video streams is described. The essence of the method is similar to PIV processing, however the cross correlation is carried out on the visible features of the efflux, which are usually turbulent, opaque and immiscible. The key step in the process is to perform a pixelwise time filtering on the video stream, in which the parameters are commensurate with the scales of the large eddies. The velocity field extracted from the shell of visible features is then used to construct an approximate velocity profile within the discharge. The technique has been tested on laboratory experiments using both water and oil jets at Re ~105 . The technique is accurate to 20%, which is sufficient for initial responders to deploy adequate resources for containment. The software package requires minimal user input and is intended for deployment on an ROV in the field. Supported by DOI via NETL.

  2. Throat-cutting of accidental origin.

    Demirci, Serafettin; Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Gunaydin, Gursel

    2008-07-01

    Incised wounds of the neck can be accidental, homicidal, or suicidal. In this paper, a death case has been presented where a spinning circular saw of a cutting machine in a workshop came off its place and cut the throat of a 30-year-old male who was operating the machine. There was an incision (15 cm x 5 cm) that began in the middle of the neck down the thyroid cartilage, extended horizontally to the left of the neck and ended on the outer part of the neck in the outer left side of m. trapezius. Death occurred because of exsanguination caused by the cutting of carotis artery and jugular vein. In the case we presented, although the cut in the neck initially suggested homicide, it was found to have occurred as a result of an accident after the autopsy and death scene investigation. PMID:18489556

  3. Accidental foreign bodies in pediatric abdomens: A pictorial essay

    Foreign bodies in pediatric abdomens are caused by accidental ingestion or trauma. The purpose of this article is to review the various findings of accidental foreign bodies in pediatric abdomens. Abdominal radiography, fluoroscopic examination, gastrointestinal contrast studies and CT may be useful in evaluating the location and type of foreign body, and for evaluating complications such as bowel perforation and obstruction

  4. Accidental foreign bodies in pediatric abdomens: A pictorial essay

    Park, Chan Ho; Kim, Young Tong [Soonchunhyang Univ. Cheonan Hospital/Soonchunhyang Univ. College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Foreign bodies in pediatric abdomens are caused by accidental ingestion or trauma. The purpose of this article is to review the various findings of accidental foreign bodies in pediatric abdomens. Abdominal radiography, fluoroscopic examination, gastrointestinal contrast studies and CT may be useful in evaluating the location and type of foreign body, and for evaluating complications such as bowel perforation and obstruction.

  5. Risk and resilience factors of persons exposed to accidents

    HERTA, DANA – CRISTINA; BRÎNDAS, PAULA; TRIFU, RALUCA; COZMAN, DOINA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Resilience encompasses factors promoting effective functioning in the context of adversity. Data regarding resilience in the wake of accidental trauma is still scarce. The aim of the current study is to comparatively assess adaptive, life – promoting factors in persons exposed to motor vehicle accidents (MVA) vs. persons exposed to other types of accidents, and to identify psychological factors of resilience and vulnerability in this context of trauma exposure. Methods We ...

  6. Exposing diversity

    Nørtoft, Kamilla; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    the homes of older people and in pedagogical institutions targeting older people. In the paper we look at the potentials and challenges in working with ethnographic video narratives as a pedagogical tool. Our findings indicate that the use of video narratives has the potential to expose the diversity...... a narrow focus on their own professional discipline and its tasks 2) stimulates collaborative learning when they discuss their different interpretations of the ethnographic video narratives and achieve a deeper understanding of each other’s work and their clients’ lifeworlds, which might lead to a...

  7. Study of TSL and OSL properties of dental ceramics for accidental dosimetry applications

    Interest is increasing in the development of new methodologies for accidental dose assessment, exploiting the luminescence and dosimetric properties of objects and materials which can be usually found directly on exposed subjects and/or in the contaminated area. In this work, several types of ceramics employed for dental prosthetics restoration, including both innovative materials used as sub-frames for the construction of the inner part of dental crowns (core), and conventional porcelains used for the fabrication of the external layer (veneer), were investigated with regard to their thermally and optically stimulated luminescence (TSL and OSL respectively) properties, in view of their potential application in accidental dosimetry. The sensitivity to ionizing radiation proved to strongly depend on the type and brand of ceramic, with minimum detectable dose ranging from few mGy up to several tens of mGy. A linear dose-response was observed for most of the samples. However, the luminescence signals were characterised by a significant fading, which has to be taken into account for a reliable accidental dose assessment after a radiation exposure event.

  8. Clinical study of fetal liver transplantation in treatment of four cases of accidental or therapeutic acute radiation sickness

    This report summarized the clinical experience of fetal liver transplantation (FLT) in the medical handling of accidental (case 1) or therapeutic (cases 2-4) acute radiation sickness of severe haemopoietic form. In addition to receiving 80 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide, cases 2, 3 and 4 were exposed to total body single irradiation of 5.5, 5.0 and 5.0 Gy, respectively; while case 1 was exposed to whole body irradiation of 5.2 Gy only. The total number of nucleated fetal liver cells transplanted was 2.26-4.1 x 108/kg. Only 2-5% of peripheral blood cells of cases 2, 3 and 4 were found to have allogeneic marker. The author points out that FLT may be beneficial in those cases of accidental irradiation or patients with acute leukemia when there were no HLA-identical bone marrow donors available

  9. Management options in the food chain for accidental radionuclide deposition

    Finland with four other countries participated in the European Union's network project FARMING in 2000 - 2004. The aim of the project was to invite participants from each country representing the food supply chain in a stakeholder group and advance with the groups the networking in building preparedness for accidental contamination of the food production systems. The task of the groups was to evaluate the practicability of management options suggested for reduction of radiation exposure through foodstuffs, and for disposal of waste generated in implementation of these options. The criteria for practicability were effectiveness in reduction of radiation exposure through foodstuffs, technical feasibility, capacity, costs for implementation, secondary costs for waste disposal, socio-economic impact, and acceptability concerning ecology and protection of environment and landscape. Practicable management options aimed at sustainable restoration of food production systems after accidental contamination. The Finnish stakeholder group represented farm production, processing industry, food marketing, catering, advisor organisations for households and agriculture, consumers, nature conservation, the media, experts on environmental impact and authorities responsible for production, safety and security of foodstuffs, food supply and feedstuffs. The group was expected to examine the effect of the Finnish, and, also more generally, northern production conditions on the practicability of the suggested management options. The stakeholder group members first familiarized themselves with intervention after accidental contamination of a large milk production area and thereafter with practicability of individual management options. The evaluation was based on the group members' complementary expertise that very well covered the chain 'from field to fork' whether the issue was related to legislation, production methods, logistics, environmental impacts, or the issues of consumers and

  10. Estudo sobre os acidentes de trabalho com exposição aos líquidos corporais humanos em trabalhadores da saúde de um hospital universitário Estudio sobre los accidentes de trabajo con exposicíon a líquidos corporales humanos en trabajadores de la salud de un hospital universitario Study of work accidents related to human body fluids exposure among health workers at a university hospital

    Ana Cristina Balsamo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descritivo exploratório, de abordagem quantitativa, teve como objetivos caracterizar os trabalhadores do Hospital Universitário da Universidade de São Paulo que sofreram acidente de trabalho com exposição aos líquidos corporais humanos, e avaliar o protocolo de atendimento aos acidentados. A população consistiu de 48 trabalhadores que sofreram acidente, no período de julho de 2000 a junho de 2001. Para a coleta dos dados, foi elaborado um formulário e realizada entrevista. Os resultados mostraram que os trabalhadores do Departamento de Enfermagem foram os que apresentaram maior risco desses acidentes e 87,50% ocorreram com os materiais perfurocortantes. Quanto à situação/atividade, relacionada ao acidente, os trabalhadores informaram que 25% foram devido ao "ato inadequado durante a realização do procedimento" 19,64% dos trabalhadores referiram que o acidente simplesmente "aconteceu" e 29,17% responderam que não tinham sugestões. Este estudo forneceu ferramentas importantes para a revisão e elaboração de estratégias de prevenção dos acidentes com exposição aos líquidos corporais humanos.Este estudio tuvo como objetivos caracterizar a los trabajadores que sufrieron accidente de trabajo con exposición a líquidos corporales humanos y evaluar el procedimiento de atención a los accidentados. La población estudiada fue de 48 trabajadores que sufrieron accidentes, en el período de julio de 2000 hasta junio de 2001. Para la recogida de datos fue elaborado un formulario y realizada una entrevista. Los resultados mostraron que los trabajadores del Departamento de Enfermería fueron los que presentaron mayor riesgo con relación a estos accidentes y que el 87,50% ocurrió con materiales punzantes o cortantes. Respecto a la situación/actividad relacionada con el accidente, los trabajadores informaron que el 25% fue debido a "acción inadecuada durante la realización del procedimiento", el 19,64% de los

  11. Evaluation of post-accidental rehabilitation strategies

    Post-accidental management aims at restoring acceptable life conditions for population on sanitary, social and economic aspects. It is then a matter for an optimisation process in a multicriteria context, which has to combine quantitative parameters as well as qualitative parameters. In order to fit with this problematic a methodological work has been realised at IPSN. The methodology consists in making a systematic evaluation of indicators in order to provide intercomparing data for many rehabilitation strategies. It relies on four steps: characterisation and formalization of the geographic and demographic environment, radiological diagnosis, selection of countermeasures from a well characterised set of techniques, and last, evaluation of the intercomparing factors. The methodology has been applied to the Becquerel national exercise. Rejects were limited and the contaminated area was less than 2000ha. Conclusions proposed depend on this context. For the selected countermeasures, radiological benefit and some incidences have been calculated: duration of realisation of the counter-measure, materials and human means, worker doses, and amount of generated wastes. In this context, calculations highlighted the importance of external exposition in built areas from the first year after the accident, for most of the reference groups. Ingestion is important only the first year for the highly autarkical level reference groups. Consequently, countermeasures applied to built areas, such as washing of sidewalks, of streets and roofs, or such as trees pruning ,are the most effective for the dosimetric criteria. In agricultural zone, taking off vegetation and ploughing enable to strongly reduce specific activity on food products. Reduction by soil removal is more effective. But here, management problems due to the large amount of generated waste could discard this kind techniques. Countermeasures on milk applied the first year reduce by 3 the dose for highly autarkical level

  12. El accidente de trabajo. Concepto legal y jurisprudencia

    García Romero, José Daniel

    2015-01-01

    El trabajo final de grado versa sobre el concepto de accidente de trabajo que da la jurisprudencia a través de las diferentes sentencias del Tribunal Supremo en la Sala de lo Social, y de los diferentes Tribunales Superiores de Justicia. Analizaremos en profundidad que características tienen que concurrir para que sea considerado como tal, analizando los diferentes supuestos de accidente de trabajo como el accidente in itinere, en misión, etc. También hemos tratado las diferentes contingencia...

  13. Static and mobile networks design for atmospheric accidental releases monitoring

    The global context of my PhD thesis work is the optimization of air pollution monitoring networks, but more specifically it concerns the monitoring of accidental releases of radionuclides in air. The optimization problem of air quality measuring networks has been addresses in the literature. However, it has not been addresses in the context of surveillance of accidental atmospheric releases. The first part of my thesis addresses the optimization of a permanent network of monitoring of radioactive aerosols in the air, covering France. The second part concerns the problem of targeting of observations in case of an accidental release of radionuclides from a nuclear plant. (author)

  14. Miasis genital accidental por Eristalis tenax Accidental genital myiasis by Eristalis tenax

    Mauricio González M; Greissy Comte M; Javiera Monárdez P; Marcelo Díaz de Valdés L; Iván Matamala C

    2009-01-01

    Las miasis son infestaciones parasitarias de humanos o animales por larvas de mosca que infestan piel, tejidos necróticos y cavidades naturales. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 27 años, asintomática, que eliminó espontáneamente por vía vaginal larvas de Eristalis tenax, una especie de mosca ampliamente distribuida en el mundo, la que es clasificada como agente de miasis accidental. La paciente residía en un área urbana de nivel socioeconómico bajo y entregaba como antecedente el uso de ve...

  15. Factores de riesgo asociados a los accidentes en el hogar

    Lidia Arlaes Yero

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio analítico retrospectivo (caso-control sobre accidentes en el hogar ocurridos en la población de dos consultorios de médicos de familia del área centro en el municipio Sancti Spiritus, durante el año 1996. Se tuvo en cuenta la ocurrencia de estos eventos en la población general, la incidencia estuvo representada por 77 casos y se escogió como grupo control el resto de la población. Como resultado se observó que los accidentes del hogar (AH son más frecuentes en mujeres en edades avanzadas, con una distribución temporal mayor en el cuarto trimestre del año. Los AH fueron más frecuentes en los individuos que ingieren psicofármacos en las edades extremas de la vejez. El horario de ocurrencia más frecuente fue el de la tarde; y los lugares, la cocina y el patio. Como tipo de lesión predominó la contusión y la herida. Se concluyó además que la presencia de factores predisponentes constituyen riesgo de gran magnitud en la aparición de los AHAn analytical retrospective study (case-control about home accidents occurred among the population of 2 family physician’s offices in the central area of the municipality of Sancti Spiritus, during 1996, was conducted. The occurrence of such events in the general population was taken into account. Incidence was represented by 77 cases and the rest of the population was chosen as a control group. As a result, it was observed that home accidents were more frequent in aged women, with a greater temporary distribution in the fourth trimester of the year. Home accidents took place more frequently in those individuals taking psychotropic drugs a extreme advanced ages. Most of the accidents occurred in the afternoon, and the kitchen and the backyard were the commonest places. Contusions and wounds were the predominant injuries. It was concluded that the presence of predisposing factors is a high risk for the occurrence of home accidents

  16. Method for calibration of the NaI(Tl) 3''x 3'' detector for in vivo measurements in patients undergoing radioiodine therapy and occupationally exposed individuals to 131I

    According to studies by the Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCA), in recent years the incidence of thyroid cancer is the fastest growing in relation to other types. For the treatment is required the exact amount of 131I isotope for each patient resulting on manipulation of this isotope in nuclear medicine services by individuals who are considered occupationally exposed (OEI). This work aims to establish the methodology for calibration of the detection system used to determine the therapeutic activity of 131I, required to release the desired absorbed dose in the thyroid gland, as well as in monitoring OEI that manipulate this radionuclide in nuclear medicine services. This is one of the early stages of implementation of Laboratorio de Dosimetria Interna at the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE). The detector system consists of a NaI(Tl) 3'' x 3'' associated with electronic devices and Genie 2000 software. Sources of 60Co, 137Cs and 133Ba were utilized for calibration. Firstly, measurements were carried out in non-exposed individuals for obtaining the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) and then Minimum Detectable Incorporation (MDI) and the Minimum Effective Dose Detectable (MEDD) were determined through biokinetic models provided by the ICRP 67 and edited by the AIDE software version 6 to workers and patients. The values for the MEDD were 3.57 x 10-2 mSv, 5.56 x 10-2 mSv and 10.7 x 10-2 mSv to 1, 7 and 14 days, respectively, after 131I incorporation by workers. As for patients, MEDD were 3.44 x 10-2 mSv, 5.63 x 10-2 mSv and 10.9 x 10-2 mSv for the same periods of time. It is applicable to the assessment of dose OEI, since it presents less than the recommended minimum of 1 mSv. The technique also has adequate sensitivity for evaluation of activity present in the thyroid of patients with thyroid dysfunction. (author)

  17. Cytogenetic biological dosimetry. Dose estimative in accidental exposure

    The methodology of cytogenetic biological dosimetry is studied. The application in estimation of dose in five cases of accidental exposure is reported. An hematological study and culture of lymphocytes is presented. (M.A.C.)

  18. Mistakes in diagnosing non-accidental injury: 10 years' experience

    Wheeler, David M; Hobbs, Christopher J

    1988-01-01

    Fifty children who were referred to the child abuse team in Leeds over the 10 years 1976-86 with suspected non-accidental injury were found to have conditions which mimicked non-accidental injury. These included impetigo (nine children) and blue spots (five children). Five children who presented with multiple bruising had haemostatic disorders. Eight children had disorders of the bone. Five children had been previously abused physically. Four showed evidence of neglect. One had evidence of no...

  19. Accidental Implant Screwdriver Ingestion: A Rare Complication during Implant Placement.

    Anshul Jain; Baliga, Shridhar D

    2014-01-01

    One of the complications during a routine dental implant placement is accidental ingestion of the implant instruments, which can happen when proper precautions are not taken. Appropriate radiographs should be taken to locate the correct position of foreign body; usually the foreign body passes asymptomatically from gastrointestinal tract but sometimes it may lead to intestinal obstruction, perforations and impactions. The aim of this article is to report accidental ingestion of 19 mm long scr...

  20. Accidental oil spills - project management strategy

    Planning and organisation, as well as actions taken during accidental discharging of hazardous substances (hydrocarbons) into the soil and water, show that without integrating all the functions of safety, occupational safety, fire and explosion protection, technical safety, all the way to the environmental protection, procedure of cleaning, rehabilitation and remediation of polluted areas into their original state cannot be successfully carried out. Neglecting any of the mentioned links/components of the procedure represents a risk to people's health and life, while pollution to the environment remains a constant threat. Development of technologies is quickly transforming the environment in which the professionals of all disciplines work. Therefore, the response to changes by application of new technologies and procedures in all domains is indispensable, however, through a comprehensive and expert perception and consideration of each of the essential correlations comprising the safety management in all the fields. Through management of safety projects in environmental protection, it has become obvious that a united management of different fields is necessary, as well as management of safety in general. Engineering, health, legislation, public, environmental standards, occupational safety, hazards, biophysical and socio-economic aspects are parts of an integral management. Experts joined efforts through interaction and communications are inter-disciplinary characteristics, i.e. multi-disciplinary safety management, but also the management of each project separately. Exactly this knowledge exchange is highly productive and becomes an indispensable element in recognition of indirect and cumulative actions, thus applicable in any field. Implementation of European standards and accreditation of procedures pursuant to the corresponding standards, from risk assessment through rehabilitation to independent expert confirmation of efficiency in implementing the entire

  1. Using Microsoft Excel to compute the 5% overall site X/Q value and the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOI).

    Vickers, Linda D

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes the method using Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399) to compute the 5% overall site X/Q value and the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOI) in accordance with guidance from DOE-STD-3009-1994 and U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 1.145-1982. The accurate determination of the 5% overall site X/Q value is the most important factor in the computation of the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest MEOI. This method should be used to validate software codes that compute the X/Q. The 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest MEOI must be compared to the U.S. DOE Evaluation Guide of 25 rem to determine the relative severity of hazard to the public from a postulated, unmitigated design basis accident that involves an offsite release of radioactive material. PMID:20386192

  2. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

  3. H.R. 2738: A bill to amend title 38, United States Code, with respect to benefits for individuals who may have been exposed to ionizing radiation during military service, and for other purposes, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, June 24, 1991

    This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on June 24, 1991 to amend title 38, United States Code with respect to benefits for individuals who may have been exposed to ionizing radiation during military service. Key features addressed in separate sections include the following: expansion of a list of diseases presumed to be service-connected for certain radiation-exposed veteran and elimination of latency-period limitations; and adjudication of claims based on exposure to ionizing radiation

  4. Accidental Laser Injury to the Eye.

    Kandari, Jamal Al; Raizada, Seemant; Razzak, Ahmed Abdul

    2010-03-01

    The unprotected human eye is extremely sensitive to laser radiation and can be permanently damaged from direct or reflected beams. Two cases of retinal injury by laser exposure outside hospital setting are reported. Two patients presented in retina clinic in Al-Bahar eye center in Kuwait with complaints of decrease in vision following exposure to unknown light. Case 1 was exposed to a laser used in military warfare and Case 2 exposed to laser pointer. Routine slit lamp examination and fundus examination of the patient was done along with fundus fluorescien angiography (FFA) and Optical coherence tomography (OCT). Patients were followed up in out patient department for 6 months. Patient with military laser exposure had severe permanent vision loss and persisted even after 6 months. Patient exposed to laser pointer beam had transient visual loss, which improved to 20/25 at 7 months follow-up. Laser retinal damage should be suspected in any patient with visual complaints after obvious exposure to unknown strong light. The treatment for laser retinal injuries is extremely limited and hence prevention is essential. PMID:20337345

  5. [Severe accidental hypothermia in an elderly woman].

    Knobel, B; Mikhlin, A

    2001-11-01

    Profound hypothermia (core temperature of less than 28 degrees C) is a life threatening state and a medical emergency associated with a high mortality rate. The prognosis depends on underlying diseases, advanced or very early age, the duration prior to treatment, the degree of hemodynamic deterioration, and especially, the methods of treatment, including active external or internal rewarming. This is a case study of an 80-year-old female patient with severe accidental hypothermia (core temperature 27 degrees C). She was found in her home lying immobile on the cold floor after a fall. The patient was in a profound coma with cardiocirculatory collapse, and the medical staff treating her was inclined to pronounce her deceased. On her arrival at the hospital, she was resuscitated, put on a respirator and actively warmed. Very severe metabolic disorders were found, including a marked metabolic acidosis composed of diabetic ketoacidosis (she had suffered from insulin treated type 2 diabetes mellitus) and lactic acidosis with a very high anion gap (42) and a hyperosmotic state (blood glucose 1202 mg/dl). There were pathognomonic electrocardiographic abnormalities, J-wave of Osborn and prolonged repolarization. Slow atrial fibrillation with a ventricular response of 30 bpm followed by a nodal rhythm of 12 bpm and reversible cardiac arrest were recorded. The pulse and blood pressure were unobtainable. Despite the successful resuscitation and hemodynamic and cognitive improvement, rhabdomyolysis (CKP 6580 u/L), renal failure and hepatic damage developed. She was extubated and treated with intravenous fluids containing dopamine, bicarbonate, insulin and antibiotics. Her medical condition gradually improved, and she was discharged clear minded, functioning very well and independent. Renal and liver tests returned eventually to normal limits. Progressive bradycardia, hypotension and death due to ventricular fibrillation or asystole commonly occur during severe hypothermia

  6. Accidental exposition with xray diffraction equipment

    The plug fault Xray diffraction equipment promoted searcher irradiation.The film dosemeter who he carried was over exposed (D.O.>4.5). The reconstruction of the accident for value the operator dose received and future effects of him. The troubled received the following dose: 350-700 rad in 1 to 2 minutes in thorax and probably face level,this one measured with X ray chamber as low energy. The involved tissue were: skin, thyroids and crystalline of the eye. As conclusion a partial dose received for the worker had not threshold value for produce deterministic effects

  7. A case study of an accidental inhalation of Am-241 from a ruptured source

    Four workers who were involved in the accidental inhalation of americium-241 were monitored over a period of 660 days post-accident. DTPA treatment commenced on day 1 and was sustained up to 100 days. From measurements on the initial respiratory deposition, the chest and lower abdominal regions, faecal and urinal excretions, initial intakes from 7, 8 to 54,4 kBq were estimated. Lung clearance with half-lives of approximately 1,50 and 500 days were identified. No significant bone deposition was measured. Committed effective dose equivalents were estimated from 2 mSv for the four individuals concerned. (author)

  8. Causes of accidental childhood deaths in China in 2010

    Chan, Kit Yee; Yu, Xin-Wei; Lu, Jia-Peng;

    2015-01-01

    middle-income country (LMIC) settings. In this paper, we aim to establish cause structure for accidental deaths in children aged 0-4 years in China in the year 2010. METHODS: In this paper, we explored the database of 208 multi-cause child mortality studies in Chinese that formed a basis for the first...... deaths. We identified 71 further studies that provided specific causes for accidental deaths. We used epidemiological modeling to estimate the number of accidental child deaths in China in 2010 and to assign those deaths to specific causes. RESULTS: In 2010, we estimated 314 581 deaths in children 0......-4 years in China, of which 31 633 (10.1%) were accidental. Accidental deaths contributed 7240 (4.0%) of all deaths in neonatal period, 8838 (10.5%) among all post-neonatal infant deaths, and 15 554 (31.7%) among children with 1-4 years of age. Among four tested models, the most predictive was used to...

  9. Heat and mass transfers in a concrete wall with composite liner under accidental conditions

    Billard, Y.; Shekarchi, M.; Debicki, G. E-mail: Gerard.debicki@insa-lyon.fr; Granger, L.; Chauvel, D

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the behaviour of a concrete wall, covered with a composite liner and exposed to accidental conditions leading to high temperatures and pressures on a face of the material. In the laboratory, two practical levels of accidental situations (beyond design) have been considered. Firstly, the 'SC1' scenario (accidental conditions) consisted of a rise from ambient conditions to a saturation point of 160 deg. C, and a pressure of 0.75 MPa in 12 h, using the maximum increase possible with the apparatus. This rise was then followed by cooling, leading to 0.22 MPa and 120 deg. C in 24 h. These conditions were maintained for several days. Secondly, a 'SC2' scenario (severe accident conditions) consisted of a rise to a saturation point of 173 deg. C and a pressure of 1 MPa, these conditions were maintained for 24 h before cooling. A cylindrical specimen of 1.3 m of thickness was used. Thermocouples, pressure taps and moisture gauges were implemented before concreting. These devices provided local information, and were mostly distributed in the first 0.30 m of the concrete. The concrete composition (high performance concrete) was the same as that used for the construction of the CIVAUX 2 nuclear power station. Typical experimental results for the evolution of temperature, pressure and water content as functions of time are shown for the two test conditions. The concrete attached to the back of the composite dried, and a mass transfer was induced towards colder zones in the centre of the specimen. The liner acted as a heat insulator and the pressure acting on the back of the composite remained lower than that applied on the composite. The residual adhesion of the liner to the concrete was measured. Finally, the overall results allowed the comparison of situations where the wall was lined and unlined, during exposure to SC1 and SC2 conditions.

  10. Window contamination on Expose-R

    Demets, R.; Bertrand, M.; Bolkhovitinov, A.; Bryson, K.; Colas, C.; Cottin, H.; Dettmann, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Elsaesser, A.; Jaramillo, E.; Lebert, M.; van Papendrecht, G.; Pereira, C.; Rohr, T.; Saiagh, K.

    2015-01-01

    Expose is a multi-user instrument for astrobiological and astrochemical experiments in space. Installed at the outer surface of the International Space Station, it enables investigators to study the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical test samples. Two Expose missions have been completed so far, designated as Expose-E (Rabbow et al. 2012) and Expose-R (Rabbow et al. this issue). One of the space-unique environmental factors offered by Expose is full-spectrum, ultraviolet (UV)-rich electromagnetic radiation from the Sun. This paper describes and analyses how on Expose-R, access of the test samples to Solar radiation degraded during space exposure in an unpredicted way. Several windows in front of the Sun-exposed test samples acquired a brown shade, resulting in a reduced transparency in visible light, UV and vacuum UV (VUV). Post-flight investigations revealed the discolouration to be caused by a homogenous film of cross-linked organic polymers at the inside of the windows. The chemical signature varied per sample carrier. No such films were found on windows from sealed, pressurized compartments, or on windows that had been kept out of the Sun. This suggests that volatile compounds originating from the interior of the Expose facility were cross-linked and photo-fixed by Solar irradiation at the rear side of the windows. The origin of the volatiles was not fully identified; most probably there was a variety of sources involved including the biological test samples, adhesives, plastics and printed circuit boards. The outer surface of the windows (pointing into space) was chemically impacted as well, with a probable effect on the transparency in VUV. The reported analysis of the window contamination on Expose-R is expected to help the interpretation of the scientific results and offers possibilities to mitigate this problem on future missions - in particular Expose-R2, the direct successor of Expose-R.

  11. Inteligibilidade de fala com e sem ruído em indivíduos expostos à música eletrônica Speech intelligibility with and without noise in individuals exposed to electronic music

    Jéssica Kuchar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A audiometria é o principal meio pelo qual se avalia a audição, pois é um teste universal e padronizado. Os testes de fala são de difícil padronização devido às variáveis envolvidas, sendo de grande importância a aplicação destes na presença de ruído competitivo. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a inteligibilidade de fala no silêncio e na presença de ruído competitivo, em indivíduos expostos à música eletronicamente amplificada. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foi realizado com 20 estudantes universitários apresentando limiares auditivos normais. O índice de reconhecimento de fala (IPRF foi realizado com quatorze horas de repouso acústico, logo após a exposição à música eletronicamente amplificada e novamente após repouso acústico, sendo obtido em três etapas: sem ruído competitivo, com a presença de ruído competitivo tipo Babble, em escuta monótica, na relação sinal-ruído de + 5 dB e com a relação sinal-ruído - 5 dB. RESULTADOS: Houve maior prejuízo no IPRF logo após a exposição à música e com ruído competitivo, e conforme a relação sinal/ruído diminui, houve piora no desempenho dos indivíduos no teste. CONCLUSÃO: A inclusão do uso de ruído competitivo nos testes de fala na rotina audiológica é importante, pois representa a real desvantagem vivenciada pelos indivíduos na escuta cotidiana.Audiometry is the main way with which hearing is evaluated, because it is a universal and standardized test. Speech tests are difficult to standardize due to the variables involved, their performance in the presence of competitive noise is of great importance. AIM: To characterize speech intelligibility in silence and in competitive noise from individuals exposed to electronically amplified music. MATERIAL AND METHOD: It was performed with 20 university students who presented normal hearing thresholds. The speech recognition rate (SRR was performed after fourteen hours of sound rest after the exposure to electronically

  12. The accidental overexposures; Les surexpositions accidentelles

    Nenot, J.C.

    1993-03-01

    The radioisotope or ionizing radiation medical or industrial use may generate accidents where human beings are exposed to very high doses. The accident frequency is increasing quickly because of the industrial source use development. The accidents don`t catch only the plant or hospital staffs but also public people. The serious accidents result from conception errors, bad installation maintenance, lack or not enough staff training, transgression of safety processes. The accidents happen in not very specialized firms. Those resulting from energy production reactors are very seldom except for Chernobyl or military submarines. In the medical or hospital installations, accidents may affect the staffs or the patients. Most of the accidents could have been avoided by the simple respect of the simple surety duties. The follow up and analysis of serious accidents can bring an effective collaboration to the prevention. 78 refs., 3 annexes., 14 tabs., 17 figs.

  13. Chronic or accidental exposure of oysters to norovirus: is there any difference in contamination?

    Ventrone, Iole; Schaeffer, Julien; Ollivier, Joanna; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Pepe, Tiziana; Le Pendu, Jacques; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2013-03-01

    Bivalve molluscan shellfish such as oysters may be contaminated by human pathogens. Currently, the primary pathogens associated with shellfish-related outbreaks are noroviruses. This study was conducted to improve understanding of oyster bioaccumulation when oysters were exposed to daily contamination or one accidental contamination event, i.e., different modes of contamination. Oysters were contaminated with two representative strains of norovirus (GI.1 and GII.3) and then analyzed with real-time reverse transcription PCR. Exposure to a repeated virus dose for 9 days (mimicking a growing area subjected to frequent sewage contamination) led to an additive accumulation that was not significantly different from that obtained when the same total dose of virus was added all at once (as may happen after accidental sewage discharge). Similarly, bioaccumulation tests performed with mixed strains revealed additive accumulation of both viruses. Depuration may not be efficient for eliminating viruses; therefore, to prevent contaminated shellfish from being put onto the market, continuous sanitary monitoring must be considered. All climatic events or sewage failures occurring in production areas must be recorded, because repeated low-dose exposure or abrupt events may lead to similar levels of accumulation. This study contributes to an understanding of norovirus accumulation in oysters and provides suggestions for risk management strategies. PMID:23462089

  14. Correcting for accidental correlations in saturated avalanche photodiodes

    Grieve, James A; Tang, Zhongkan; Ling, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a high-level numerical model for estimating rates of accidental correlations between a pair of passively quenched Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes operating in the saturated regime. By considering the recovery time of both the diodes and the detection circuit we introduce the concept of an "effective duty cycle" and show that it may be estimated by numeric simulation. The impact of effective duty cycle on the observed accidental rate is examined and we demonstrate that the updated model leads to an improved correction factor in actual experiments. This will improve the signal-to-noise ratio in applications depending on correlation measurements.

  15. Accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance.

    Rohida, Neeraj S; Bhad, Wasundhara A

    2011-01-01

    Orthodontic appliances that become dislodged can cause problems in the airway or the gastrointestinal tract. Accidental ingestion of an appliance during a chair-side procedure or because of inadequate retention of the appliance can create a medical emergency with potentially serious complications, including death from aspiration of the foreign body. This article reports the accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance. The ease with which removable appliances can become dislodged if retention is inadequate is discussed, and some serious complications that can arise are described. Precautions the orthodontist can take to prevent such accidents are presented. PMID:21195285

  16. Biological monitoring of a worker acutely exposed to MBOCA.

    Osorio, A M; Clapp, D; Ward, E; Wilson, H K; Cocker, J

    1990-01-01

    A 30 year-old male polyurethane worker was exposed to an accidental spill of 4,4'-methylene-bis-2-chloroaniline (MBOCA) at a plant producing MBOCA-cured plastic products. Exposure to MBOCA is significant in that this compound is a known animal carcinogen and a suspected human carcinogen. The employee was sprayed over his upper body and extremities with molten MBOCA while cleaning out a clogged hose from a MBOCA and polymer mixing machine. The subsequent environmental and medical evaluation of this episode included serial urinary MBOCA samples from the worker over a 2 week period to allow the calculation of a biological half-life for this compound. This worker experienced a very high dose of MBOCA as judged by his urinary MBOCA levels (peak value of 1,700 ppb 4 hours after exposure). There were no acute symptoms or other laboratory abnormalities noted. The kinetic evaluation resulted in a biological half-life for MBOCA in urine of approximately 23 hours. Assuming a one-compartment model, approximately 94% of an initial MBOCA dose will be eliminated within four days. This is the first report of kinetic analysis on urinary MBOCA excretion in humans. This information suggests that biological monitoring of the urine MBOCA concentrations in exposed workers may miss peak levels following an acute exposure unless the analyses of the urinary MBOCA are performed in a timely fashion. Recommendations to the company included: 1) installation of a warning system or lock-out device on the mixing machine to prevent the opening of the MBOCA hose prior to the release of pressure; and 2) annual medical surveillance of this individual for bladder cancer with urinalysis and urine cytology. PMID:2244630

  17. Developmental dental defects in children exposed to PCBs

    Jan, J. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Fac. of Medicine; Sovcikova, E.; Kovrizhnykh, I.; Wimmerova, S.; Trnovec, T. [Slovak Medical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine; Kocan, A. [Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Toxic Organic Pollutants

    2004-09-15

    Developing enamel is sensitive to a wide range of local and systemic disturbances. Because of the absolute metabolic stability of its structure, changes in enamel during its development are permanent in nature. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have been shown to disturb tooth development in experimental animals, but only limited amounts of data exist on their adverse effects in humans. Dental changes such as mottled, chipped, carious, and neonatal teeth have been reported in accidentally exposed humans. Nevertheless, co-contamination with polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) was largely responsible for the overall toxicity4. Alaluusua et al. found that developmental dental defects were correlated with the total exposure to polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons via mother's milk. The correlation was strong with exposure to prevailing levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF) but weak with exposure to PCBs alone. In our previous study we have shown developmental dental defects in children exposed to PCBs alone6, suggesting that the developing human teeth are vulnerable to PCBs. In the Michalovce region of eastern Slovakia, PCBs from a chemical plant manufacturing Delors contaminated the surrounding district7. The total serum PCB levels in samples from the general population there exceeded by several times the background levels in subjects living in a comparable unexposed Svidnik district. PCB levels in breast milk samples in the Michalovce region were the highest in Slovakia. Levels of toxic polychlorinated aromatics (PCDFs, PCNs, and planar PCBs) in technical Delors were high. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term exposure to PCBs, measured at the individual level, on developmental dental defects in children in eastern Slovakia.

  18. Beta dosimetry in teeth from SR-90 exposed subjects

    Tooth enamel is a well recognized dosimeter for retrospective dose reconstruction of individuals accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation. The measurements of the absorbed dose in tooth enamel is conventionally carried out with the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance technique. Tooth enamel is sensitive to all kind of ionizing radiation. Its response to photons has been widely investigated. For application to contaminated teeth with 90Sr, one of the most common osteo tropic radionuclides, the effectiveness of tooth enamel response to the β spectrum needs be evaluated. The response function to 90Sr of the EPR/tooth enamel systems, its linearity and reproducibility have been investigated under a controlled geometry, and the results will be presented and compared to those obtained with photons. When the subject has been exposed to both external and internal radiation, a combined EPR/T.L. method can be used to distinguish the internal from the external contribution to the cumulative dose in tooth (Gosku et al., 2002;=Veronese et al. 2004, Shishkina et al. 2005). The T.L. measurement, performed putting thin ± Al2O3:C dosimeters at contact with the tooth surfaces, enables to estimate the beta dose rate due to the radionuclides present in tooth. The combination of this information with that coming from EPR allows, under specific assumptions, to evaluate separately the internal and external contribution to the tooth dose. In a previous work (Veronese et al., 2004) the dose in enamel measured by EPR in a tooth contaminated with 90Sr of a Techa River resident was compared to the dose rate measured by TLDs. The test has been extended to a larger number of 90Sr contaminated teeth. EPR measurements have been also performed in other portions of the teeth, i.e. tooth dentin and root. The correlation between the results, obtained from EPR and TLD measurements, and the evaluation of the relative proportion of internal and external dose are presented and discussed. (authors)

  19. Demonstration of the astral post accidental code

    . The results proposed by ASTRAL can in turn be saved in its database, on the user's request, in order to be processed by other tools such as Geographical Information Systems, which enable spatial analysis and map production. Such maps are very helpful in crisis situations to decision makers since by answering to questions of a 'where?' type, at a given time, they complete the information delivered by ASTRAL, which answers to questions of a 'when?' type, at a given site. This is why a link to ASTRAL has been constructed in CARTINFO, an IRSN tool dedicated to mapping results for its Crisis Technical Center. Thus the CONRAD, ASTRAL and CARTINFO softwares constitute a chain for IRSN's Crisis Technical Center, calculating transfers through the environment and consequences of an atmospheric accidental radionuclide release. The development of this version started in 1999 and has been subject to a quality assurance program. The identified customers and users have been associated in a control committee expressing needs, validating choices and checking the good progress of the project. The programming is currently being validated by test scenarios that check the equations, parameters, functionalities and navigation through the screens. The technology and architecture chosen for the second version of ASTRAL are different from the previous ones. It now uses an internet technology and is of a three-third type, the software requiring an Oracle database, a Microsoft web server and a consultation station. These choices offer important advantages: the spreading and maintenance of the tool are very easy. In fact, once the server and the database have been installed an a network, the users only need a web browser to run the code. The initial installation and the updating are thus no more to be made an every user station, but only on the server and/or the database; the code may be installed on a portable computer, which hosts the database, the internet server and the web browser. This

  20. The use of consequence modelling in assessing accidental releases of activity

    The radiological consequences of an accidental release can be expressed as the number of health effects in the exposed population and its descendents, and the economic and social implications that may result from restrictions placed on the consumption of foodstuffs, or on the occupation of domestic and commercial premises. For any given release of activity there will be a probability distribution of consequences which will depend on the meteorological characteristics and demographic data particular to the release location. The characteristics of this distribution should be important in reaching judgements on the acceptability of a given site or design. The relative importance of the different endpoints is analysed and the influence of the release location on the resulting distribution is considered. (author)

  1. Accidental releases of radionuclides: a preliminary study of the consequences of land contamination

    The long term consequences of land contamination from accidental releases of activity from thermal reactors are examined. The radiological consequences are assessed using an analysis of the exposure of individuals and the population to ground deposits of the radionuclides released. The contribution of the different nuclides in the release by their various exposure routes to the irradiation of man are calculated as a function of time after release and the most radiologically important are identified. A preliminary assessment is made of off-site economic and social consequences of accidental releases by estimating the areas of land which would be affected by the introduction of countermeasures to control individual radiation exposure due to external irradiation from ground deposits (relocation of populations), and the intake of radionuclides contained in locally produced foodstuffs (restrictions on food production). The areas where administrative controls would be necessary decline in size with time after the release; estimates are made of this time-dependent behaviour using dynamic environmental transfer models. Finally, the collective doses saved by the introduction of countermeasures are estimated using population and agricultural distribution data for a rural location in the United Kingdom. (author)

  2. Accidental Ingestion of Endodontic File: A Case Report

    Chandak, Manoj G.; Pradnya P. Nikhade; Saraf, Hrushikesh P.

    2012-01-01

    Ingestion of the endodontic instrument during root canal treatment is rare but can result in serious complications. The present paper reports a case in which endodontic file was accidentally swallowed by the patient undergoing root canal therapy, which entered digestive tract and passed uneventfully.

  3. Are diabetic foot lesions precipitated by accidental trauma?

    Doshi, H K; Moissinac, K; Harwant, S

    2001-12-01

    Diabetic foot lesions may arise from frictional trauma due to tight or inappropriate footwear, repetitive stresses on parts of the foot, overlying bony prominence generated by walking and accidental trauma to the neuropathic foot. Many diabetics have been found to be unaware of their foot lesion, or know what the precipitating cause was. Based on the assumption that accidental trauma would affect the foot in a random fashion and result in lesions distributed evenly throughout the foot, a study was performed to determine whether foot lesions were distributed evenly or concentrated to certain areas of predilection. It was found that foot lesions were not evenly distributed but concentrated to certain areas of predilection. Even though relatively high proportion of the study population walked about in open slippers and barefeet, the study showed that accidental trauma was not a predominant precipitant of diabetic foot lesions. Diabetic foot lesions tend to occur as a result of cumulative, repetitive trauma to areas of prediliection rather than accidental trauma. PMID:14569763

  4. Study of stowage of radioactive materials packagings in accidental conditions

    The study of transport conditions shows that few data are available on accidental conditions. Two types of accidents are selected and defined by calculations and tests. Sizing of stowage is determined for a frontal shock (35 g deceleration), maintaining the packaging on the vehicle, and side shock rupture of the stowage system for a determined stress. Mathematical formulations are developed

  5. Quality control for handling of accidental blood exposures.

    Wijk, P.T. van; Pelk-Jongen, M.; Wijkmans, C.; Voss, A.; Schneeberger, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    A regional counselling service was established to handle all accidental blood exposures using a standardized protocol. Levels of risk were assessed using an algorithm. Accidents that posed a risk for the transmission of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were

  6. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention...

  7. Brugada syndrome unmasked by accidental inhalation of gasoline vapors

    Kranjcec, Darko; Bergovec, Mijo; Rougier, Jean-Sébastien;

    2007-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the gene SCN5A can cause Brugada syndrome (BrS), which is an inherited form of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. We report the case of a 46-year-old patient, with no previous medical history, who had ventricular fibrillation after accidental inhalation of gasoline...

  8. Suggested Methods for Assessment of Accidental External Exposure and Internal Contamination of Workers and their Medical Management

    Certain assumptions are given for the amount of fission products released from a research reactor after the occurrence of an accident. The size and location of radioactive cloud are assumed, and the corresponding external and internal exposures of workers are computed. A method is suggested for assessment of accidental external radiation dose based on experimental studies performed on the changes of quenching effect of plasma or sera as a.result of whole- body gamma-radiation ranging from 25-200 rems. For assessment of accidentally internally incorporated gamma emitters we suggest the standard chair whole-body counter technique which was found to detect reliably 1/100 of the maximum permissible body burden within eight minutes. It was also suggested that a separation method based on the use of absorption phenomena observed for Sephadex (gel resin) can be applied for quick determination of gross alpha activity in urine. For management of accidentally exposed workers to radiation doses of a lethal or sublethal nature, bone-marrow transplantation therapy and blood component therapy in sterile rooms is discussed in the light of experience gained from treatment of leukaemia with intensive chemotherapy. (author)

  9. Responsabilidad del empleador por accidentes de trabajo y enfermedades profesionales

    Cristina Mangarelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. 1. Responsabilidad del “empleador” por accidentes de trabajo y enfermedades profesionales. Noción. 2. La indemnización “tarifada”. Fundamento de su procedencia 3. Responsabilidad del empleador por accidentes de trabajo o enfermedades profesionales en la ley uruguaya (ley Nº 16.074. 4. La “ampliación” de la responsabilidad del empleador por el derecho común en el derecho uruguayo (artículo 7 ley Nº 16.074. 5. Requisitos para la ampliación de la responsabilidad patronal: culpa grave en el incumplimientode normas de seguridad y prevención. 6. La culpa grave. Concepto. 7. El modelo del hombre a tener en cuenta en la “culpa grave” no es el del buen padre de familia. 8. El grado de la culpa no puede ser medido por el resultado del accidente. 9. Se aplican las eximentes de la responsabilidad civil. 10. Distintos ámbitos de la responsabilidad patronal por accidentes de trabajo o enfermedades profesionales: A ante la víctima o los derecho-habientes; B ante el Banco de Seguros del Estado; C ante el Ministerio de Trabajo ySeguridad Social. 11. Recupero del BSE en caso de culpa grave en el incumplimiento de normas de seguridad y prevención. Requisitos 12. Responsabilidad del empleador en caso de accidente de trabajo o enfermedad profesional sufrido por un adolescente. Conclusiones.

  10. Collective individualism

    Baarts, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Safety knowledge appears to be ‘a doing’. In construction work safety is practised in the complex interrelationship between the individual, pair and gang. Thus the aim is to explore the nature and scope of individualist and collectivist preferences pertaining to the practice of safety at a...... construction site. An ethnographic fieldwork, in which the researcher worked as an apprentice, will provide detailed and experiencenear insights into the complexity of these processes. Findings show that individualist and collectivist preferences influence the amount of risk the individual worker will assume...... and expose workmates to. Aspects such as self-regulation, self-confidence and independence are acceptable values only to the extent that they do not pose a threat to the solidarity of the community or safety of other workers. The informal practice of safety is a tight-rope act that involves balancing...

  11. EXPOSE-R on Mission on the ISS

    Panitz, Corinna; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Kloss, Maria; Reitz, Guenther

    Currently EXPOSE-R is on mission! This astrobiological exposure facility was accommodated at the universal workplace URM-D Zenith payload site, located outside the Russian Svezda Module of the International Space Station (ISS) by extravehicular activity (EVA) on March 10th 2009. It contains 3 trays accommodating 12 sample compartments with sample carriers in three levels either open to space vacuum or kept in a defined gas environment. In its 8 experiments of biological and chemical content, more than 1200 individual samples are exposed to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiations, vacuum, cosmic rays or extreme temperature variations. In their different experiments the involved scientists are studying the question of life's origin on Earth and the results of their experiments are contributing to different aspects of the evolution and distribution of life in the Universe. Additionally integrated into the EXPOSE-R facility are several dosimeters monitoring the ionising and the solar UV-radiation during the mission to deliver useful information to complement the sample analysis. In close cooperation with the DLR and the Technical University Munich (TUM), the Rheinisch -Westfülische Technischen Hochschule Aachen (RWTH Aachen) operates the experiment "Spores". a This is one of the 6 astrobiological experiments of the ROSE-Consortium" (Response of Or-ganisms to Space Environment) of the EXPOSE-R mission. In these experiments spores of bacteria, fungi and ferns are being over layered or mixed with meteorite material. The analysis of the effect of the space parameters on different biological endpoints of the spores of the mi-croorganism Bacillus subtilis will be performed after the retrieval of the experiment scheduled for the end of 2010. Parallel to the space mission an identical set of samples was accommodated into EXPOSE-R trays identical in construction to perform the Mission Ground Reference (MGR) Test. Currently this MGR Test is carried out in the Planetary and Space

  12. Health care workers and AIDS: a differential study of beliefs and affects associated with accidental exposure to blood Profissionais de saúde e AIDS: um estudo diferencial sobre crenças e afetos associados à experiência de exposição acidental a material biológico potencialmente contaminado

    Maria Rosa Rodrigues Rissi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze affective and cognitive determinants of the professional work of individuals caring for patients with HIV/AIDS, in view of the risk and/or experience of accidental exposure to blood. We drew on the theoretical-methodological references of Fishbein & Ajzen and Maslow's theory. Fifty health care workers were evaluated using an attitudes questionnaire and a needs and motivations instrument. The research verified differences between answers by health care workers who had never suffered accidents and those who had already experienced accidental exposure to blood. Health care workers did their work activities motivated by the need for self-fulfillment and valued their own performance when they were able to meet the patients' emotional needs. Among health professionals who had never experienced accidental exposure to blood, the predominant beliefs was that patients feel remorse over having expose themselves to HIV. Accidental exposure to blood raises difficulties in personal life. Technical aspects are also associated with the possibility of accidental exposure to blood.O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar determinantes afetivos e cognitivos que influenciam o trabalho de profissionais que cuidam de pessoas vivendo com o HIV/ AIDS, frente ao risco ou experiência de exposição acidental a material biológico potencialmente contaminado (MBPC. Utilizou-se o referencial teórico metodológico de Fishbein-Ajzen e a teoria de Maslow, que propõe a hierarquia das necessidades humanas. Cinqüenta profissionais de saúde foram avaliados por meio de escalas de atitudes, e de um instrumento de avaliação de necessidades e motivações. Verificou-se a diferença entre as respostas de profissionais que nunca sofreram acidente e aqueles que já passaram pela experiência de acidente ocupacional. Os resultados indicam que os profissionais exercem suas atividades motivados pela necessidade de auto-realização e valorizam sua performance

  13. Caesium-137 Chloride Retention following Accidental Ingestion

    Four men became contaminated with caesium-137 chloride due to leaks in a 100 c source. The source was believed to be completely leak proof, since the caesium chloride was contained in a welded stainless-steel capsule which was covered with an outer steel jacket of standard Oak Ridge design. Most of the contamination occurred while the men were cleaning the components of a pneumatic device used to move the source. The most heavily- contaminated individual placed his mouth over the end of a transport tube and attempted to blow some ''dust'' out of the tube. The other men handled various parts of the transport mechanism and wiped ''dust'' out of holes with their fingers. None of the men washed their hands before eating lunch. When radioactive contamination was discovered on the following day, immediate efforts were made to decontaminate the men. Arrangements for whole-body counts were also made and, on the fifth day following contamination, the men reported to the Radiation Exposure Evaluation laboratory. The body burdens on the fifth day ranged from 35 - 970 nc of caesium-137. During the next five to six days the burdens dropped rapidly and on the eleventh day ranged from 28- 780 nc. After the eleventh day the body burdens of caesium-137 changed much more slowly. Whole-body counts made between the 11th and 160th day yielded biological half-lives of 76, 95 and 126 d for the three most heavily-contaminated individuals. During the period of rapid excretion all urine and faeces were collected and counted. These counts indicated a considerable superficial contamination prior to the eleventh day since only a portion of the removed caesium-137 was found in the urine and stool specimens. The body burdens of the four men are compared with normals of the same size, build, age and diet habits. A short discussion of normal burdens is included. A brief description of the counting system, data handling techniques and calibration procedures is also included. (author)

  14. 40 CFR 63.95 - Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs.

    2010-07-01

    ... accidental release prevention programs. 63.95 Section 63.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs. (a) A State submission for approval... (“federally-listed chemicals”) that an approvable State Accidental Release Prevention program is...

  15. Accidental neutron dosimetry with human hair

    Human hair contains sulfur, which can be activated by fast neutrons. The 32S(n,p)32P reaction with a threshold of 2.5 MeV was used for fast neutron dose estimation. It is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the human body. Samples of human hair were irradiated in a radial channel of a training reactor VR-1. 32P activity in hair was measured both, directly by means of a proportional counter, and as ash dispersed in a liquid scintillator. Based on neutron spectrum estimation, a relationship between the neutron dose and induced activity was derived. The experiment verified the practical feasibility of this dosimetry method in cases of criticality accidents or malevolent acts with nuclear materials. - Highlights: • Human hair contains sulfur. • Reaction 32S(n,p)32P can be used for dosimetry of fast neutrons. • Relation between 32P activity and neutron dose can be derived for a specific neutron spectrum

  16. Study of the luminescence properties of dental materials for their use in accidental dosimetry

    Full text: The current social and political situation in many world areas and the increasing hostilities between countries and cultures have accentuated the risk of a malicious use of ionising radiations. Terrorist attacks with the intentional disseminations of radioactive materials in urban settlements may involve a large number of persons, and a rapid estimation of the severity of the exposure is required for undertaking suitable protective actions and supporting decision making. Promising methodologies for a prompt dose evaluation, are those exploiting the luminescence and dosimetric properties of objects and materials which can be easily found in the contaminated area. Among these objects, dental materials have the advantage to be on contact with human body and they could therefore represent individual dosimeters in case of accidental exposure to ionising radiation. The interest in the use of dental ceramics for dosimetric purposes dates back to late 1970, however, it is only through the use of high-sensitive experimental techniques and instrumentation today available, that the potentiality of such materials as accidental dosimeters can be exploited. Moreover, innovative materials are being continuously introduced into the market, containing new additives and pigments with peculiar optical properties. In this study, Thermally Stimulated Luminescence (TSL) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) techniques are applied to investigate the luminescence and dosimetric properties of several dental materials, including resins, glass and feldspatic ceramics, and also zirconia and alumina based ceramics, being their use widely increased in the recent years in substitution of metal cores. (author)

  17. Germline mutations in people descendants occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation from Cesium 137

    The radiological accident in Goiania in 1987, resulted in a serious episode of human contamination, animal, plant and environmental were exposed to Cesium 137 chloride (137CsCl) that caused contamination and accidental and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation is one of the environmental components that causes most cellular stress in complex organisms. Exposure to ionizing radiation induces breaks in nucleic acids, especially, DNA double and single strand breaks. Chromosomal microarray analysis is an important tool for the detection and microdeletion and microduplications in the genomes. In this study we proposed to analyze the effect of exposure to RI on the formation of CNVs in an exposed human population occupationally to ionizing radiation from Cesium 137 during the accident in Goiania. The exposed group consisted of 07 families, of which at least one parent was occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation from Cesium 137, including a total of 25 individuals, do not know the absorbed dose of the military who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. 11 families with a group of individuals not exposed to IR was used as control were used including a total of 33 individuals with no history of exposure to RI. The genotyping microarray was conducted in CytoScan HD system (Affymetrix®) without then analyzes was performed in ChAS® software. The statistical tests used were: Shapiro-Wilk, Mann- Whitney U, Spearman correlation, discriminant function analysis, binomial test, χ2 test. All analyzes were performed using the statistical package SPSS 21.0, with a significance level of 5% (p <0.05). The frequency of CNVs were estimated loss / generation, gain / generation and burden / generation, representing 3,9 x 10-5, 6,8 x 10-6 and 4,6 x 10-5 respectively for the exposed group. For the control group, the frequencies were 2,1 x 10-5, 5,9 x 10-6 and 3,1 x 10-5 respectively. Thus, the frequency of CNVs showed statistically significant

  18. Accidental intraoral injection of formalin during extraction: case report.

    Swami, Pushp Chander; Raval, Rushik; Kaur, Mandeep; Kaur, Jasleen

    2016-04-01

    Transparent, clear solutions such as hydrogen peroxide, alcohol, sodium hypochlorite, formaldehyde, and local anaesthetics are widely used in dentistry, so the tissues are liable to accidental injury. Formalin, a 37%-40% solution of formaldehyde, is extensively used in 10% solution as a tissue preservative, but it has toxic effects on systems such as the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, skin, and mucosa. However, we know of few reports of cases of inadvertent injection of alcohol and formalin directly into the human body. In this case report we describe the early and delayed clinical effects of accidental intraoral injection of formalin, the subsequent symptoms and management, and some prudent points that should be learnt to avoid such incidents in the future. PMID:26794082

  19. Leading global projects for professional and accidental project leaders

    Moran, Robert T

    2008-01-01

    This book is a must-read for anyone responsible for projects and initiatives that span functional and geographical divides. Authors Moran and Youngdahl bring extensive experience and learning from industry practice to present a clear and straightforward treatment of the leadership skills and knowledge required to lead projects that are global in nature. They have written the first book of its kind to address the three essential skills of global project leaders - strategic project management, project leadership, and cross-cultural leadership. The authors argue that global project leadership is an essential skill in our project-based world and that we are all either intentional or accidental project leaders. Intentional project leaders pursue formal project management education and even certification whereas accidental project leaders find themselves leading global projects and initiatives as a result of a special assignment or promotion. Moran and Youndahl have found that the vast majority of global projects ...

  20. Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal

    Chen, Ze-Guo

    2014-04-09

    Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect.

  1. Timing, ``Accidentals'' and Other Artifacts in EPR Experiments

    Thompson, Caroline H.

    1997-01-01

    Subtraction of ``accidentals'' in Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiments frequently changes results compatible with local realism into ones that appear to demonstrate non-locality. The validity of the procedure depends on the unproven assumption of the independence of emission events. Other possible sources of bias include enhancement, imperfect synchronisation, over-reliance on rotational invariance, and the well-known detection loophole. Investigation of existing results may be more fruitful t...

  2. Paediatric femur fractures at the emergency department: accidental or not?

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M M; Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Thekla F; Bakx, Roel; Van Rijn, Rick R

    2016-01-01

    Only a small proportion of all paediatric fractures is caused by child abuse or neglect, especially in highly prevalent long bone fractures. It can be difficult to differentiate abusive fractures from non-abusive fractures. This article focuses on femoral fractures in young children. Based on three cases, this article presents a forensic evidence-based approach to differentiate between accidental and non-accidental causes of femoral fractures. We describe three cases of young children who were presented to the emergency department because of a suspected femur fracture. Although in all cases, the fracture had a similar location and appearance, the clinical history and developmental stage of the child led to three different conclusions. In the first two cases, an accidental mechanism was a plausible conclusion, although in the second case, neglect of parental supervision was the cause for concern. In the third case, a non-accidental injury was diagnosed and appropriate legal prosecution followed. Any doctor treating children should always be aware of the possibility of child abuse and neglect in children with injuries, especially in young and non-mobile children presenting with an unknown trauma mechanism. If a suspicion of child abuse or neglect arises, a thorough diagnostic work-up should be performed, including a full skeletal survey according to the guidelines of the Royal College of Radiologists and the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. In order to make a good assessment, the radiologist reviewing the skeletal survey needs access to all relevant clinical and social information. PMID:26642309

  3. The Classification of Accidental Situations’ Scenarios on Hydropower Plants

    Skvortsova Olga; Dashkina Anastasiia; Petrovskaia Ekaterina; Terleev Vitaly; Nikonorov Aleksandr; Badenko Vladimir; Volkova Yulia; Pavlov Sergey

    2016-01-01

    The collapse of hydropower plant could lead to significant financial, social and environmental damages. Accordingly the issue of safety and reliability is one of major problems of designing, maintenance and operation. The proposed solution consists in evaluation of implementation frequency of emergencies scenario, which can be defined by suggested classification of accidental situations’ scenarios based on systems analysis to implement incidents on hydropower plants. Emergency scenarios on hy...

  4. Accidental Symmetries and N=1 Duality in Supersymmetric Gauge Theory

    Leigh, Robert G; Leigh, Robert G.; Strassler, Matthew J.

    1996-01-01

    We note that the accidental symmetries which are present in some examples of duality imply the existence of continuously infinite sets of theories with the same infrared behavior. These sets interpolate between theories of different flavors and colors; the change in color and flavor is compensated by interactions (often non-perturbative) induced by operators in the superpotential. As an example we study the behavior of SU(2) gauge theories with 2\

  5. Accidental inhalation of mercury vapour: respiratory and toxicologic consequences.

    Lien, D. C.; Todoruk, D. N.; Rajani, H. R.; Cook, D A; Herbert, F. A.

    1983-01-01

    Four adults, including a pregnant woman, and three children were admitted to hospital following accidental exposure to mercury vapour produced by heating mercury-gold amalgam. Initial symptoms and signs included a paroxysmal cough, dyspnea, chest pain, tachypnea, nausea, vomiting, fever and leukocytosis. Pulmonary function testing performed on the second day after exposure revealed air-flow obstruction and minor restrictive defects in three patients. The diffusing capacity of the lung for car...

  6. A case of accidental ingestion of ant bait containing fipronil.

    Fung, Hin Tat; Chan, Kar Ki; Ching, Wei Ming; Kam, Chak Wah

    2003-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman accidentally ingested a commercial ant bait containing fipronil without development of obvious toxicity, supporting the safety of this new insecticide as demonstrated in animal studies. However, concentrated agricultural products may be more toxic, and the potential for seizures should not be overlooked. The pharmacological action, mechanism of selective insect toxicity, and clinical effects of fipronil are discussed. PMID:12807306

  7. Kinematics and kinetics of an accidental lateral ankle sprain

    Kristianslund, Eirik; Bahr, Roald; Krosshaug, Tron

    2011-01-01

    Ankle sprains are common during sporting activities and can have serious consequences. Understanding of injury mechanisms is essential to prevent injuries, but only two previous studies have provided detailed descriptions of the kinematics of lateral ankle sprains and measures of kinetics are missing. In the present study a female handball player accidentally sprained her ankle during sidestep cutting in a motion analysis laboratory. Kinematics and kinetics were calculated from 240 Hz recordi...

  8. Conservative management of accidental gall bladder puncture during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Patil, Nikhil A.; Kundargi, Vinay S.; Patil, Siddangouda B.; Biradar, Ashok N.; Desai, Anup S.

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has been an excellent option for the management of kidney stones. There have been many complications in regards to solid organ injury during PCNL. Here we discuss an interesting case of 45-year-old woman, who underwent PCNL for right renal staghorn calculus, and had an accidental puncture of the gall bladder. Post operatively, the patient was conservatively managed and recovered well. A small number of cases has been reported until now in literature.

  9. Accidental Sulfur Poisoning in a Group of Holstein Heifers

    Gunn, Moira F.; Baird, John D.; Wilkie, Judith S. Nimmo

    1987-01-01

    Fourteen animals died or were euthanized after toxic levels of elemental sulfur were accidentally fed to a group of 120 Holstein heifers. Dehydration, rumen stasis, tachycardia, and diarrhea were seen along with metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, and hypochloremia. The majority of deaths occurred from 3 to 10 days after the sulfur was fed to the heifers. Postmortem examination showed rumenitis, acute alveolitis, and renal tubular necrosis. The toxicity of ingested sulfur was attributed to the c...

  10. Accidental catheterization of epidural venous plexus: tomographic analysis

    Mariano Paiva Souza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Inadvertent venous catheterizations occur in approximately 9% of lumbar epidural anesthetic procedures with catheter placement and, if not promptly recognized, can result in fatal consequences. The objective of this report is to describe a case of accidental catheterization of epidural venous plexus and its recording by computed tomography with contrast injection through the catheter. CASE REPORT: A female patient in her sixties, physical status II (ASA, underwent conventional cholecystectomy under balanced general anesthesia and an epidural with catheter for postoperative analgesia. During surgery, there was clinical suspicion of accidental catheterization of epidural venous plexus because of blood backflow through the catheter, confirmed by the administration of a test dose through the catheter. After the surgery, a CT scan was obtained after contrast injection through the catheter. Contrast was observed all the way from the skin to the azygos vein, passing through anterior and posterior epidural venous plexuses and intervertebral vein. CONCLUSION: It is possible to identify the actual placement of the epidural catheter, as well as to register an accidental catheterization of the epidural venous plexus, using computed tomography with contrast injection through the epidural catheter.