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Sample records for accidental release prevention

  1. 40 CFR 63.95 - Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs.

    2010-07-01

    ... accidental release prevention programs. 63.95 Section 63.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs. (a) A State submission for approval... (“federally-listed chemicals”) that an approvable State Accidental Release Prevention program is...

  2. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 14: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF PHOSGENE

    The report, discussing phosgene, is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Phosgene, a highly reactive and corrosive liquid that boils at room temperature has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (lDLH) conctntration of 2 ppm, ...

  3. Static and mobile networks design for atmospheric accidental releases monitoring

    The global context of my PhD thesis work is the optimization of air pollution monitoring networks, but more specifically it concerns the monitoring of accidental releases of radionuclides in air. The optimization problem of air quality measuring networks has been addresses in the literature. However, it has not been addresses in the context of surveillance of accidental atmospheric releases. The first part of my thesis addresses the optimization of a permanent network of monitoring of radioactive aerosols in the air, covering France. The second part concerns the problem of targeting of observations in case of an accidental release of radionuclides from a nuclear plant. (author)

  4. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention...

  5. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense.

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  6. Can accidental introductions of non-native species be prevented by fish stocking audits ?

    Davies, G. D.; Gozlan, Rodolphe; Britton, J R

    2013-01-01

    Accidental introductions of non-native species into aquatic environments often result in invasive populations that cause substantial conservation concerns. They account for 8% of all fish introductions and often occur when fish consignments are intentionally released into the wild (stocked') but are unknowingly contaminated with a hitch-hiking' species that is also released.This study tested the efficacy of a fish stocking audit procedure in preventing the introduction of a model hitch-hiking...

  7. Accidental Continuous Releases from Coal Processing in Semi-Confined Environment

    Bruno Fabiano; Emilio Palazzi; Fabio Currò

    2013-01-01

    Notwithstanding the enforcement of ATEX EU Directives (94/9/EC of 23 March 1994) and safety management system application, explosions in the coal sector still claim lives and cause huge economic losses. Even a consolidated activity like coke dry distillation allows the opportunity of preventing explosion risk connected to fugitive emissions of coke oven gas. Considering accidental releases under semi-confined conditions, a simplified mathematical approach to the maximum allowed gaseous build-...

  8. Numerical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport

    Piskunov, V.N.; Aloyan, A.A.; Gerasimov, V.M.; Pinaev, V.S.; Golubev, A.I.; Yanilkin, Yu.V.; Ivanov, N.V.; Nikonov, S.N.; Kharchenko, A.I. [and others

    1995-05-01

    Statement of work for contract 006 {open_quotes}Mathematical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport{close_quotes} implies that the final result of the activity within this task will be VNIIEF developed techniques which will provide for the prediction of the post-accidental environment. Report [1] presents the description of physical models and calculation techniques which were chosen by VNIIEF to accomplish this task. These techniques were analysed for their capabilities, the areas of their application were defined, modifications within contract 006 were described, the results of test and methodical calculations were presented. Moreover, the experimental data were analysed over the source parameters and contamination measurements which can be used in the comparison with the calculation results. Based an these data this report compares the calculation results obtained with VNIIEF calculation techniques with the LANL-presented experimental results. The calculations which statements and results are given in section 1, included the following processes: explosion cloud ascent dynamics and jet release origin; aerosols kinetics in the release source including composite particle origin in the explosion cloud caused by radioactive substance sorption an the soil particles; contaminant transport in atmosphere and their in-site fallout due to the accidental explosions and fires; atmospheric flow dynamics and industrial contamination transfer over the complicated terrain. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data. Section 2 presents the parameters for a typical source in the explosion accidents based an the experimental results and calculated data from Section 1, as well as contamination patterns were calculated with basic technique {open_quotes}Prognosis{close_quotes}.

  9. Evaluation and mitigation of accidental releases of radioactivity

    One result of the workshop was, that even in the case of severe accident sequences in modern nuclear power plants (other facilities were not discussed), there will be enough time to take active measures in order to lower the emissions and to diminish the consequences inside and outside of the plant. On the whole, new evidence from Harrisburg show that previously estimated accidental emissions, especially of radiologically relevant nuclides, have been rather conservative and that much lower emissions are possible, if the above measures are considered. Under accident conditions, models to predict radiation exposure must be applied under the event of a short-term release. (orig./DG)

  10. Rapid Deployment System for Complex Accidental Release Simulations

    Juruš, Pavel; Eben, Kryštof; Resler, Jaroslav; Belda, M.

    Brno : Masarykova univerzita, 2009 - (Hřebíček, J.; Hradec, J.; Pelikán, E.; Mírovský, O.; Pillmann, W.; Holoubek, I.; Bandholz, T.), s. 312-317 ISBN 978-80-210-4824-9. [Towards eEnvironment. European Conference of the Czech Presidency of the Council of the EU. Prague (CZ), 25.03.2009-27.03.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300414 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : environmental modelling * accidental release modelling * risk management planning Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  11. Accidental Continuous Releases from Coal Processing in Semi-Confined Environment

    Bruno Fabiano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the enforcement of ATEX EU Directives (94/9/EC of 23 March 1994 and safety management system application, explosions in the coal sector still claim lives and cause huge economic losses. Even a consolidated activity like coke dry distillation allows the opportunity of preventing explosion risk connected to fugitive emissions of coke oven gas. Considering accidental releases under semi-confined conditions, a simplified mathematical approach to the maximum allowed gaseous build-up is developed on the basis of the intrinsic hazards of the released compound. The results will help identifying and assessing low rate release consequences therefore to set-up appropriate prevention and control measures. The developed methodology was tested at the real-scale and validated by numerical computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations showing the effectiveness of the methodology to evaluate and mitigate the risk connected to confined hazardous releases.

  12. Environmental behaviour of accidentally released radionuclides in urban environments

    After a nuclear accident several radionuclides may be released and may contribute to the exposure of members of the public. After the passage of the radioactive cloud, doses to members of the public are mainly due to deposited radionuclides on the ground and other environmental surfaces. For the long-term it is already known that exposure is dominated by Cs-137, although Sr isotopes may also have a significant contribution is some specific environments, related to internal exposure pathways. However, in the first year, Ru and I isotopes may significantly contribute to the exposure of members of the public, from both external and internal exposure pathways. The objective of this work was to gather data on the environmental behaviour of Sr, I and Ru isotopes on urban environments and its contributions to the population exposure, aiming the support for decision making processes on countermeasures to protect people after an accidental release. Results on relative relevance of radionuclides and pathways for the exposure for members of the public, as a function of age and time after the release, are discussed. (author)

  13. Deposition on holm oak leaf surfaces of accidentally released radionuclides

    Rauret, G.; Tent, J.; Rigol, A.; Llaurado, R.M. (Analytical Chemistry Department, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)); Alegre, L.H.; Utrillas, M.J. (Vegetal Biology Department, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain))

    1994-10-14

    The retention of aerosols by canopies of holm oak trees in a typical Mediterranean forest is studied. Firstly, dry deposition is measured both under and outside the canopy during several months. No clear differences are observed either in the amount or in the chemical composition of the particles collected under and outside the canopy. Secondly, the leaf morphology and anatomy as well as the aerosol deposited onto the leaf surfaces are studied by scanning electron microscopy. Cuticle thickness is measured and differences are observed between young and old leaves. The distribution of aerosol particles over leaf surface is also established. Finally, the possible incorporation into leaves of a radioactive aerosol released in an accidental situation is studied, by means of a sequential extraction procedure using water and an organic solvent. From the results it can be deduced that neither the abiotic layer nor the cuticle play any important role in the retention of caesium. The studied radionuclides are mainly found in particulate form, soluble in water, or incorporated into leaves.

  14. Muertes por enfermedades cardiacas y accidentes cerebrovasculares prevenibles - (Preventable Deaths from Heart Disease and Stroke)

    2013-09-03

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de septiembre del 2013 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. Más de 800,000 personas en los Estados Unidos mueren cada año a causa de enfermedades cardiacas y accidentes cerebrovasculares. Aprenda cómo controlar todos los principales factores de riesgo.  Created: 9/3/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/3/2013.

  15. International conference and workshop on modeling and mitigating the consequences of accidental releases of hazardous materials

    This conference was held September 26--29, 1995 in New Orleans, Louisiana. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the consequences of accidental releases of hazardous materials. Attention is focused on air dispersion of vapors. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  16. SUMMARY OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF RADIOACTIVITY DETECTED OFF THE NEVADA TEST SITE, 1963-1986

    Of the more than 450 underground nuclear explosives tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site from August 1963 (signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty) through the end of 1986, only 23 accidentally released radioactivity that was detectable beyond the boundary of the NTS. Of these ...

  17. MARC - the NRPB methodology for assessing radiological consequences of accidental releases of activity

    The National Radiological Protection Board has developed a methodology for the assessment of the public health related consequences of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. The methodology consists of a suite of computer programs which predict the transfer of activity from the point of release to the atmosphere through to the population. The suite of programs is entitled MARC; Methodology for Assessing Radiological Consequences. This report describes the overall framework and philosophy utilised within MARC. (author)

  18. Modelling 14C transfer in terrestrial environments in response to chronic and accidental 14C releases.

    Le Dizès, S.

    2011-01-01

    Concern about the quantity of carbon-14 (14C) released for several decades from nuclear facilities has prompted several modelling approaches of 14C behaviour in the environment. The TOCATTA model aims at estimating 14C (and 3H) transfers in terrestrial ecosystems exposed to atmospheric 14C (and 3H) releases from nuclear facilities under normal operating or accidental conditions. The model belongs to the larger framework of the SYMBIOSE modelling and simulation platform that aims at assessing ...

  19. Environmental monitoring after an accidental release of activity

    Environmental monitoring should be an integral part of the emergency planning following a radiation accident, especially immediately following the accident. Three phases are identified, each with distinct technical and managerial characteristics. The main features of each phase are discussed. In the Early phase - up to about twelve hours after the release - the main problem is to link the available monitoring data with predicted radiological consequences to be able to advise on rapid counter measures. Problems in the Intermediate phase (12 hours to 7 days after release) arise from the limitations imposed by resources to analyse environmental samples at the required level of sensitivity. Monitoring in the Long term phase (from 7 days onwards) is difficult to specify in advance, but relevant features from the Chernobyl aftermath are noted. (U.K.)

  20. Analyses of postulated accidental releases of UF6 inside process buildings

    Uranium Hexafluoride is a material used in the various processes which comprise the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle (conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication). Confinement of UF6 is a very important safety requirement since this material is highly reactive and presents safety hazards to humans. The present paper discusses the safety relevant aspects of accidental releases of UF6 inside process confinement buildings. Postulated accidental scenarios are analyzed and their consequences evaluated. Implant releases rates are estimated using computer code predictions. A time dependent homogeneous compartment model is used to predict concentrations of UF6, hydrogen fluoride and uranyl fluoride inside a confinement building, as well as to evaluate source terms released to the atmosphere. These source terms can be used as input to atmospheric dispersion models to evaluate consequences to the environment. The results can also be used to define adequate protective measures for emergency situations. (author)

  1. Modelling of accidental released toxic gases for emergency responders in Austria, Kosovo and Bulgaria.

    Stenzel, Sirma; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Gashi, Salih; Thaci, Bashkim; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Spassova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. A number of models for the prediction and simulation of hazard areas affected by accidental releases of toxic gases are available worldwide. Modelling accidental releases may be required for a variety of reasons: for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), for preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management (e.g. in the frame of the SEVESO directive). Depending on the demand and the particular purposes, the choice of the appropriate model is up to the authorities. The one year project was funded by the Austrian Science and research liaison Office (ASO, www.aso.zsi.at) as a part of the program: Research Cooperation and Networking between Austria, the public higher education institutions in Kosovo and South Eastern Europe. The project was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG, http://www.zamg.ac.at) in cooperation with the University of Prishtina (Kosovo, www.uni-pr.edu and the National Institute of meteorology and Hydrology (NIHM Bulgaria, www.meteo.bg). One of the main purposes of the project was to provide the both partners with basic knowledge in modelling with accidental release of toxic gases, based on the practical experience of the meteorologists from the ZAMG in the area. This knowledge can be used as scientific response to society driven current or upcoming problems especially in Kosovo. The activities involved know-how transfer on European standards and practice among the project partners, as well as joint efforts to adapt and disseminate the scientific methods and results in Kosovo. Within the project, the partners from Kosovo and Bulgaria were introduced to the atmospheric dispersion model (ALOHA - Areal

  2. Modelling accidental releases of carbon 14 in the environment: application as an excel spreadsheet

    An application as an Excel spreadsheet of the simplified modelling approach of carbon 14 transfer in the environment developed by Tamponnet (2002) is presented. Based on the use of growth models of biological systems (plants, animals, etc.), the one-pool model (organic carbon) that was developed estimates the concentration of carbon 14 within the different compartments of the food chain and in fine the dose to man by ingestion in the case of a chronic or accidental release of carbon 14 in a river or the atmosphere. Data and knowledge have been implemented on Excel using the object-oriented programming language VisualBasic (Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0). The structure of the conceptual model and the Excel sheet are first briefly exposed. A numerical application of the model under a scenario of an accidental release of carbon 14 in the atmosphere is then presented. Simulation results and perspectives are discussed. (author)

  3. Modelling accidental releases of tritium in the environment: application as an excel spreadsheet

    An application as an Excel spreadsheet of the simplified modelling approach of tritium transfer in the environment developed by Tamponnet (2002) is presented. Based on the use of growth models of biological systems (plants, animals, etc.), the two-pool model (organic tritium and tritiated water) that was developed estimates the concentration of tritium within the different compartments of the food chain and in fine the dose to man by ingestion in the case of a chronic or accidental release of tritium in a river or the atmosphere. Data and knowledge have been implemented on Excel using the object-oriented programming language VisualBasic (Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0). The structure of the conceptual model and the Excel sheet are first briefly exposed. A numerical application of the model under a scenario of an accidental release of tritium in the atmosphere is then presented. Simulation results and perspectives are discussed. (author)

  4. Accidental releases of radionuclides: a preliminary study of the consequences of land contamination

    The long term consequences of land contamination from accidental releases of activity from thermal reactors are examined. The radiological consequences are assessed using an analysis of the exposure of individuals and the population to ground deposits of the radionuclides released. The contribution of the different nuclides in the release by their various exposure routes to the irradiation of man are calculated as a function of time after release and the most radiologically important are identified. A preliminary assessment is made of off-site economic and social consequences of accidental releases by estimating the areas of land which would be affected by the introduction of countermeasures to control individual radiation exposure due to external irradiation from ground deposits (relocation of populations), and the intake of radionuclides contained in locally produced foodstuffs (restrictions on food production). The areas where administrative controls would be necessary decline in size with time after the release; estimates are made of this time-dependent behaviour using dynamic environmental transfer models. Finally, the collective doses saved by the introduction of countermeasures are estimated using population and agricultural distribution data for a rural location in the United Kingdom. (author)

  5. Hazards of combustible gases accidentally released from the process plant of HTGR process applications

    This report summarizes the preliminary work on reformer explosions for the indirect cycle plant design effort of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor for Process Heat (HTGR-PH). Models were completed for the determination of the combustible behavior of the releases (either instantaneous like puffs or continuous like jets or plumes), the amount of combustible material, and the propagation of detonation and shock waves (i.e., blast) as a consequence of potential explosions. A preliminary analysis reveals that (1) incombustible or flammable but nonexplosive mixtures can be formed by accidental releases from the reformer inlet flow and (2) the addition of sufficient steam to the reformer flow renders nonexplosive any accidental release from the reformer area. The explosion of combustible releases is then analyzed with reference to the worst contributor: synthesis gas. The explosions of instantaneous releases, while enroute, are analyzed under different meteorological conditions. The explosions of continuous releases are analyzed in situ for determining the effects on structures and equipment in the vicinity of the jets by considering (1) detonations inside the combustible region of jets and (2) blasts outside the combustible region of jets

  6. Estimation of the environmental or radiological impact in the event of accidental release of radionuclides in a DCLL fusion reactor

    Tritium production and activation in the LiPb products can pose a radiological risk in the event of accidental release in a fusion reactor. Within the research programme Consolider TECNOFUS (CSD2008-079) fusion technology has developed a design for a reactor with regenerative wrap with dual refrigeration (DCLL). The purpose of this communication is to present estimates of the radiological impact derived from an accidental release of radionuclides from the circuit of LiPb provinients. (Author)

  7. Relative public health effects from accidental release of fusion structural radioactivity

    The FUSECRAC code, a modification of the CRAC code, was developed to estimate public health effects from released fusion radioactivity both for safety studies and for comparison of the hazards associated with candidate structural materials. This paper summarizes the key motivations, problems, and results of the FUSECRAC comparison. The evolving CRAC code is a product of the Reactor Safety Study and represents the state of the art in fission accident consequence assessments. It was found that potential public health effects from accidental releases of 316 SS are two orders of magnitude higher than from V-15Cr-5Ti or TZM per unit volume of activated first wall released. The probabilities for releases among these materials were not addressed here

  8. The use of consequence modelling in assessing accidental releases of activity

    The radiological consequences of an accidental release can be expressed as the number of health effects in the exposed population and its descendents, and the economic and social implications that may result from restrictions placed on the consumption of foodstuffs, or on the occupation of domestic and commercial premises. For any given release of activity there will be a probability distribution of consequences which will depend on the meteorological characteristics and demographic data particular to the release location. The characteristics of this distribution should be important in reaching judgements on the acceptability of a given site or design. The relative importance of the different endpoints is analysed and the influence of the release location on the resulting distribution is considered. (author)

  9. Summary of accidental releases of radioactivity detected off the Nevada Test Site, 1963--1986

    Of the more than 450 underground nuclear explosives tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site from August 1963 (signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty) through the end of 1986, only 23 accidentally released radioactivity that was detectable beyond the boundary of the NTS. Of these 23, 4 were detectable off the NTS only by aircraft while the remainder were detectable by ground monitoring instruments. Since the Baneberry venting of December 1970, only two tests released radioactivity that was detectable off the NTS, and this was a seepage of radioactive noble gases. None of these releases from underground tests designed for complete containment caused exposure of the population living in the area that exceeded standards recommended by national and international radiation protection agencies. This report summarizes the releases from each of the tests, describes the monitoring that was conducted, and lists the location of the maximum exposure

  10. Assessment of radiation dose due to the accidental release of radionuclides from a DCLL reactor

    Highlights: ► Accidental release of radionuclides from a Dual-Coolant He/Pb15.7Li breeding blanket is studied. ► Activation analysis with ACAB code determines the main contributors to the environmental consequences of the accident. ► Atmospheric dispersion (in conditions D and F) is assessed with Hotspot code for the relevant radionuclides. ► The actual quantity of each radionuclide produced in 1 kg of LiPb is used in the dispersion model. ► The amount of LiPb releasable fulfilling the dose limit requirements is calculated. -- Abstract: A conceptual design for a DEMO fusion reactor based on a dual coolant He/Pb15.7Li breeding blanket (DCLL) is being developed within the Spanish Breeding Blanket Technology Programme: TECNOFUS. The production of tritium and activation products of LiPb might be a concern from the radiological safety point of view. Thus, in this contribution, an accidental release in atmosphere of radionuclides from LiPb breeder has been studied. Activation calculations have been performed with ACAB code assuming an irradiation scenario of 5 FPY for the maximum neutron fluence rate in the equatorial breeding zone. The results in terms of specific activity, surface gamma dose rate and committed effective dose (CED) due to inhalation at different times have been used to chose the potentially more hazardous radionuclides. Dispersion of the selected radionuclides has been modeled with HOTSPOT code using the Gaussian plume model and two different atmospheric conditions. Offsite dose (for external irradiation and inhalation) due to an accidental release of 1 kg of activated LiPb has been calculated after 5 FPY of irradiation (shutdown) using HOTSPOT atmospheric dispersion in class D weather conditions. According to the results, fulfilling the dose requirement for no evacuation would permit to release up to 40 kg of activated LiPb, without taking into account the possible isotopic purification and detritiation systems. This value can be compared

  11. Assessment of radiation dose due to the accidental release of radionuclides from a DCLL reactor

    Palermo, Iole, E-mail: iole.palermo@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gómez-Ros, J.M. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanz, J. [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, UNED, C/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mota, F. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Accidental release of radionuclides from a Dual-Coolant He/Pb15.7Li breeding blanket is studied. ► Activation analysis with ACAB code determines the main contributors to the environmental consequences of the accident. ► Atmospheric dispersion (in conditions D and F) is assessed with Hotspot code for the relevant radionuclides. ► The actual quantity of each radionuclide produced in 1 kg of LiPb is used in the dispersion model. ► The amount of LiPb releasable fulfilling the dose limit requirements is calculated. -- Abstract: A conceptual design for a DEMO fusion reactor based on a dual coolant He/Pb15.7Li breeding blanket (DCLL) is being developed within the Spanish Breeding Blanket Technology Programme: TECNO{sub F}US. The production of tritium and activation products of LiPb might be a concern from the radiological safety point of view. Thus, in this contribution, an accidental release in atmosphere of radionuclides from LiPb breeder has been studied. Activation calculations have been performed with ACAB code assuming an irradiation scenario of 5 FPY for the maximum neutron fluence rate in the equatorial breeding zone. The results in terms of specific activity, surface gamma dose rate and committed effective dose (CED) due to inhalation at different times have been used to chose the potentially more hazardous radionuclides. Dispersion of the selected radionuclides has been modeled with HOTSPOT code using the Gaussian plume model and two different atmospheric conditions. Offsite dose (for external irradiation and inhalation) due to an accidental release of 1 kg of activated LiPb has been calculated after 5 FPY of irradiation (shutdown) using HOTSPOT atmospheric dispersion in class D weather conditions. According to the results, fulfilling the dose requirement for no evacuation would permit to release up to 40 kg of activated LiPb, without taking into account the possible isotopic purification and detritiation systems. This value can be

  12. STUDY OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES HEAVY GAS DISPERSION COMPARING SLAB MODELS AND SCREEN-3 MODEL

    Prof.V.A.Bhosale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the chemical industries such as petroleum industries, refinery industries, fertilizer industries etc. releases rarely accidental gases it may be heavy gases like liquefied petroleum gas, chlorine, natural gas, ammonia etc do occur. The impact of these heavy gases (high molecular weight than air in the surrounding atmosphere is very harmful/ hazardous to the human health because the formation of heavy clouds of the respective gases nears the earth surface. In present paper, considered the effect of atmospheric parameter such as, direction of air, wind speed etc. as well as stack parameter like height of stack and released gas parameter as density, venting speed of the gas on the dispersion of heavy gas in to the surrounding. Here present work done to identify the downwind concentration along with the horizontal distances through a case study of industrial accidental release (Ammonia Gas scenario. SLAB model for the heavy gas dispersion and SCREEN-3 a single source Gaussian plume model these two types of dispersion models readily available in the public domain for industrial releases of gases. Result of downwind concentration of ammonia vapour in both of model has presented.

  13. Dynamic evaluation of environmental impact due to tritium accidental release from the fusion reactor

    As one of the key safety issues of fusion reactors, tritium environmental impact of fusion accidents has attracted great attention. In this work, the dynamic tritium concentrations in the air and human body were evaluated on the time scale based on accidental release scenarios under the extreme environmental conditions. The radiation dose through various exposure pathways was assessed to find out the potential relationships among them. Based on this work, the limits of HT and HTO release amount for arbitrary accidents were proposed for the fusion reactor according to dose limit of ITER. The dynamic results aim to give practical guidance for establishment of fusion emergency standard and design of fusion tritium system. - Highlights: • Dynamic tritium concentration in the air and human body evaluated on the time scale. • Different intake forms and relevant radiation dose assessed to find out the potential relationships. • HT and HTO release amount limits for arbitrary accidents proposed for the fusion reactor according to dose limit

  14. The assessment of the radiological significance of accidental releases of radionuclides to coastal waters

    Methods are described which enable the radiological consequences of an accidental release of activity to an estuary or sea to be assessed, assuming the release is in the same physical and chemical form as routine discharges. Critical group and collective exposures are considered for the most important seafood ingestion and external radiation pathways. Detailed consideration is given to the interaction of activity with marine sediments, and this enables a more realistic description of any resulting radiation exposure to be given than is possible by using existing mathematical models more suited to extended releases of radionuclides. The methods employed constitute an interesting use of a powerful technique involving the numerical inversion of Laplace transformed quantities. (author)

  15. IPSN model for the simplified calculation of atmospheric dispersion of accidental releases

    To assess the atmospheric dispersion of accidental releases, the Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN) has developed a so called gaussian plume model. It derives from tri-gaussian puffs, characterized by standard deviations parametrized with respect to the transfer time (for only two classes of vertical atmospheric stability). The analytic form of this model makes it possible to take into account the most important phenomena which change the content of the plume during transfer: reflections, radioactive decay, daughter products, dry and wet deposition. Limitations to the use of this plume model are examined. Its field of application is reduced in the case of weak winds, the more so when the release height is great. A limited number of reference meteorological conditions and standard values for dry deposition velocity (iodine and particles) and the washing rate by rain are proposed, and examples of results are given. This model predicts the order of magnitude of the consequences of accidental atmospheric releases over distances from several hundred meters up to several tens of kilometers

  16. Illustration of probabilistic approach in consequence assessment of accidental radioactive releases

    Pecha, Petr; Hofman, Radek; Kuča, P.

    Praha: ČVUT, 2008, s. 207-211. [ XXX . Days of Radiation Protection. Liptovský Ján (SK), 10.11.2008-14.11.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : admixtures propagation * uncertainty * probabilistic assessment Subject RIV: AQ - Safety, Health Protection, Human - Machine http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/AS/pecha-illustration of probabilistic approach in consequence assessment of accidental radioactive releases.pdf

  17. Dynamic evaluation of environmental impact due to tritium accidental release from the fusion reactor.

    Nie, Baojie; Ni, Muyi; Jiang, Jieqiong; Wu, Yican

    2015-10-01

    As one of the key safety issues of fusion reactors, tritium environmental impact of fusion accidents has attracted great attention. In this work, the dynamic tritium concentrations in the air and human body were evaluated on the time scale based on accidental release scenarios under the extreme environmental conditions. The radiation dose through various exposure pathways was assessed to find out the potential relationships among them. Based on this work, the limits of HT and HTO release amount for arbitrary accidents were proposed for the fusion reactor according to dose limit of ITER. The dynamic results aim to give practical guidance for establishment of fusion emergency standard and design of fusion tritium system. PMID:26164282

  18. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input

    Baumann-Stanzer, K.; Stenzel, S.

    2009-04-01

    Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. Uncertainties in the meteorological input together with incorrect estimates of the source play a critical role for the model results. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation gives a short introduction to the project and presents the results of task 1 (meteorological input). The results of task 2 are presented by Stenzel and Baumann-Stanzer in this session. For the aim of this project, the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) was used. INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) data were calculated with 1 km horizontal resolution and

  19. Preliminary investigations of the significance of the ingestion pathway following accidental releases with actinides

    Preliminary accident consequence assessments have been performed with the computer code UFOMOD to study the significance of the ingestion pathway in accidental releases with actinides. The investigation was based on the release category K1 of the 'Risk Oriented Analysis of the SNR 300', in which a higher fraction of actinides is released than in the worst release category for an LWR. The analysis was carried out using the currently implemented food chain transport model WASH-1400/BSU and data from the dynamic model from the MARC methodology. To study the influence of the time of the accident on the food chain-related results, releases in January and July were considered by means of the MARC data. In this report the differences are presented between both food chain transport models for transuranium elements and those which are observed in the potential doses due to ingestion, the areas affected by food-bans and the late health effects when using both models and taking the influence of the season into account. (orig./HP)

  20. Accidental ingestion of a barbed wire broach and its endoscopic retrieval: Prevention better than cure

    Rajashekar Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of instruments is a potential complication that can occur during dental procedures. We report a case of accidental ingestion of an endodontic barbed wire broach during root canal treatment and its subsequent retrieval by endoscopic methods. Although prevention is the best approach, proper management of such an event is also crucial. The objective of this report is to draw attention to the potentially serious complications that can occur if preventive techniques are not practised, and to discuss the accepted guidelines for management of such an event.

  1. The influence of season of the year on the predicted agricultural consequences of accidental releases of radionuclides to atmosphere

    In Europe, because of the seasonal nature of agricultural practices, the consequences for agriculture of an accidental release of radioactive materials to atmosphere are likely to vary depending upon the time of year when the release occurs. The quantification of this variation is complicated by the need to take into account the introduction of countermeasures to restrict the radiation exposure from ingestion of contaminated foods, and by the presence in accidental releases of radionuclides which persist over several seasons. In this study, the effect on agricultural consequences of accidental releases occurring at different times of the year is examined. The consequences are expressed in terms of the amount of produce affected by restrictions on food supplies and the collective radiation dose from ingestion of food. The investigation has been carried out for three hypothetical releases representing a range of releases postulated for pressurised water reactors (PWRs). The effect of season of the year was determined for accidental releases occurring both in a single, defined set of meteorological conditions and for a range of possible meteorological conditions. For the main part of the study, consideration was limited to agricultural production in the UK only, but the effect of extending the analysis beyond the UK boundary was also considered. The results of the study show that considerable variation can occur in agricultural consequences following an accidental release at different times of the year. For the larger releases considered, this variation is reduced due to the effect of the introduction of countermeasures, particularly when consideration is limited to the UK only. Seasonal variation tends to be greater for the results of a deterministic analysis, which uses a single set of constant meteorological conditions, than for the results of a full probabilistic assessment. From the results presented here it is also seen that for many applications of

  2. Modelling for radiological and radioecological consequences of an accidental radionuclide release at Sea

    Full text: Scenarios concerning accidental releases of radionuclides into water bodies can be found in the open literature, mostly in connection with nuclear power plants located either onshore or inland. However, meager attention has been given to nuclear reactors used as energy sources for propulsion at sea, which are also subject to accidents. Such potential accidents may involve the loss of part of the reactor core to the surrounding water body. In addition of the initial instantaneous releases, one can estimate delayed source terms based on the rate at which radionuclides are dissolved or leached from the solidified material, like part of the core or structural materials in contact with water. Most of such solidified material might be a mixture of uranium, zirconium, iron, calcium, silica, fission and activation products, and transuranium elements as oxides, forming a glassy type solid. Transport models were used to calculate radionuclide concentrations in water resulting from short and delayed source terms. Oceanographic data used in the calculations were taken either from the open literature or from unclassified reports of the Brazilian Navy, being, however, as generic as possible. Time-dependent concentration functions for radionuclides in aquatic food following an accidental release reflect the net result of intake and elimination processes. However, to avoid the complexities of multiple parameters involved in such processes, the model accounts only for trophic transfer of radionuclides, and yet avoids the necessity of analyzing the details of each transfer step used to determine fish, crustacea, molluscs and seaweed accumulation. Swimming and other aquatic sports are not included in the model used for dose calculations because of theirs relatively low importance in comparison with the pathways concerning ingestion of aquatic food

  3. The accidental release of exotic species from breeding colonies and zoological collections.

    Barrat, J; Richomme, C; Moinet, M

    2010-04-01

    Exotic species have often been introduced into a new country in zoological or botanical gardens or on game and fur farms. When accidentally or deliberately released, these alien species can become invasive and have negative impacts on native plant and animal communities and human activities. This article focuses on a selection of such invasive species: principally the American mink (Neovison vison), but also the coypu (Myocastor coypus), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), raccoon (Procyon lotor) and African sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus). In each of these cases, the authors describe the biological characteristics and life history of the species, in relation to its invasive capacity, the origins and establishment of non-native populations, the environmental consequences and possible control measures. The main negative impacts observed are the destruction of habitat, the introduction and/or spread of pathogens and changes in the composition of native communities with consequent effects on biodiversity. PMID:20617652

  4. The European Community dimension to the problem of accidental radioactive releases to the environment

    The European Community has to comply with the provisions of the Euratom Treaty, 1957. As well as providing the conditions necessary for the growth of nuclear industries it lays down the task to establish uniform Safety Standards to protect the health of workers and of the general public. This includes emergency planning in case of nuclear accidents. As a result the Community followed the guide, published in 1982 by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, on the radiological protection criteria for controlling doses to the public in the event of accidental releases of radioactive materials. However when the Chernobyl accident occured the Community and International arrangements proved to be inadequate to respond to the consequent widespread contamination over Europe. Measures have been taken since then to improve the preparedness of the Community. They include better exchange of information, control of contaminated foodstuffs and better information to the public. (U.K.)

  5. Methodology for evaluation of possible consequences of accidental atmospheric releases of hazardous matter

    Sites exist with high levels of risk of accidental atmospheric releases. These releases can be hazardous nuclear, chemical, and biological matter. Such accidents may occur during transport of waste, or they may be due to natural hazards, human errors, terror acts or various operations at high risk. Considering the operation of lifting and transport of the sunken Kursk nuclear submarine as an example, a methodology for risk assessment is described. This methodology includes two approaches: (1) probabilistic analysis of possible atmospheric transport pathways using trajectory modelling, and (2) evaluation of possible contamination and consequences using real-time operational atmospheric dispersion modelling. The first approach can be applied in advance of an operation during the preparation stage, the second in real time during the operation stage. For the cases considered in this study, the results of trajectory modelling are supported by the operational dispersion modelling, i.e., the westerly flow is dominant during fall occurring 79% of the time. Hence, September-October 2001 was more appropriate for the lifting and transport of the Kursk nuclear submarine in comparison with summer months, when atmospheric transport toward the populated regions of the Kola and Scandinavian Peninsulas was dominant. The suggested methodology may be applied to any potentially dangerous object involving a risk of atmospheric release of hazardous material of nuclear, chemical or biological nature. (author)

  6. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - utility for the fire brigades.

    Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

    2009-09-01

    Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios”), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Viennese fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program of the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. For the purpose of our study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Trace (Safer System), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer). A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed, with the models above, in order to predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. Furthermore, the application of the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in case of toxic release was

  7. Modeling acute health risks associated with accidental releases of toxic gases

    Haskin, F.E.; Ding, C.; Summa, K.J. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Young, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Accident Analysis and Consequence Assessment Dept.

    1996-09-01

    CHEM{_}MACCS has been developed from the radiological accident consequence code, MACCS, to perform probabilistic calculations of potential off-site consequences of the accidental atmospheric release of hazardous chemicals. The principal phenomena considered in CHEM{_}MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways, and early and latent health effects. CHEM{_}MACCS provides the following capabilities: (1) statistical weather sampling data (8,760 hourly data points per year), (2) population dose and health effect risk calculations based on site-specific population data, (3) health effects calculations including the consideration of potential site specific mitigative actions (evacuation and shielding), and (4) modeling of multiple release segments. Three different sample problems are contained in this report to show how to use CHEM{_}MACCS. Three test problems are run to compare CHEM{_}MACCS and D2PC. The doses versus the downwind centerline distances from the source for the given doses are in very close agreement.

  8. Atmospheric dispersion modeling for an accidental release from the Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1)

    Atmospheric dispersion modeling and radiation dose calculations have been performed for a postulated accidental airborne radionuclide release from the Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) appropriate to a power upgrade to 10 MW. Estimates of releases for various radionuclide groups are based upon US-NRC regulatory guide 1.183. Committed Effective Doses (CEDs) to the public at various downwind distances were calculated using a health physics computer code 'HotSpot' developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, USA. The doses were calculated for various atmospheric stability classes, viz., Pasquill categories A-F with site-specific averaged meteorological conditions. The meteorological data on atmospheric stability conditions, mean wind speed and the frequency distribution of wind direction based on data collected near the reactor site have also been analyzed and are presented here. The results indicate that a person located within a downwind distance of about 500 m from the reactor would receive more than the permissible CED under the analyzed severe accident scenario. Analysis of one typical year of wind data indicates that the predominant wind direction is East-North East (ENE), which occurs at the site for more than 15% of the time

  9. Atmospheric dispersion modeling for an accidental release from the Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1)

    Raza, S. Shoaib [Nuclear Engineering Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)]. E-mail: ssraza@msn.com; Iqbal, M. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2005-07-15

    Atmospheric dispersion modeling and radiation dose calculations have been performed for a postulated accidental airborne radionuclide release from the Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) appropriate to a power upgrade to 10 MW. Estimates of releases for various radionuclide groups are based upon US-NRC regulatory guide 1.183. Committed Effective Doses (CEDs) to the public at various downwind distances were calculated using a health physics computer code 'HotSpot' developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, USA. The doses were calculated for various atmospheric stability classes, viz., Pasquill categories A-F with site-specific averaged meteorological conditions. The meteorological data on atmospheric stability conditions, mean wind speed and the frequency distribution of wind direction based on data collected near the reactor site have also been analyzed and are presented here. The results indicate that a person located within a downwind distance of about 500 m from the reactor would receive more than the permissible CED under the analyzed severe accident scenario. Analysis of one typical year of wind data indicates that the predominant wind direction is East-North East (ENE), which occurs at the site for more than 15% of the time.

  10. UFOING: A program for assessing the off-site consequences from ingestion of accidentally released radionuclides

    The program UFOING estimates foodchain-related consequences following accidental releases of radionuclides to the atmosphere. It was developed as a stand-alone supplement to the accident consequence assessment program system UFOMOD to allow faster and more detailed investigations of the consequences arising from the foodchain pathways than possible with the version of UFOING which is implemented in UFOMOD. For assumed releases at different times of the year, age dependent individual doses, collective doses, individual risks for fatal stochastic somatic health effects as a function of time, the total numbers of the effects, and the areas affected by foodbans together with the estimated duration of the bans are calculated. In addition, percentage contributions of radionuclides and foodstuffs to the doses and risks can be evaluated. In the first part of this report, an overview over the program is given. The other parts contain a user's guide, a program guide, and descriptions of the data employed and of the version of UFOING which is implemented in UFOMOD. (orig.)

  11. Modeling accidental releases to the atmosphere of a dense reactive chemical (Uranium hexafluoride)

    Hanna, Steven R.; Chang, Joseph C.; Zhang, Xiaoming J.

    In order to model the atmospheric transport and dispersion of dense reactive chemicals such as uranium hexafluoride (UF 6), it is necessary to include algorithms that account for heat exchanges due to chemical reactions and phase changes. UF 6 may be released accidentally at uranium-enrichment plants as a warm gas from a pipeline rupture, or as a flashing liquid from a pressurized tank or line break. The resulting plume is initially very dense due to the large molecular weight of UF 6, but may become lighter-than-air as the UF 6 reacts with water vapor to form HF, which has a molecular weight less than that of air, and which may cause an increase in plume temperature due to the exothermic reaction. The major chemical and thermodynamic processes related to UF 6 have been incorporated in a modified version of an existing dense gas model, HGSYSTEM. The same general approach could be used to include other reactive chemicals in the modeling system. New modules that are applicable to any type of chemical release have also been added to HGSYSTEM to account for building downwash, lift-off of warm plumes from the ground, and deposition. The revised HGSYSTEM/UF 6 model has been evaluated with field data from UF 6 tests. The sensitivities of the model predictions to variations in input parameters have been assessed.

  12. The effectiveness of a multidisciplinary QI activity for accidental fall prevention: Staff compliance is critical

    Ohde Sachiko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental falls among inpatients are a substantial cause of hospital injury. A number of successful experimental studies on fall prevention have shown the importance and efficacy of multifactorial intervention, though success rates vary. However, the importance of staff compliance with these effective, but often time-consuming, multifactorial interventions has not been fully investigated in a routine clinical setting. The purpose of this observational study was to describe the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary quality improvement (QI activity for accidental fall prevention, with particular focus on staff compliance in a non-experimental clinical setting. Methods This observational study was conducted from July 2004 through December 2010 at St. Luke’s International Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. The QI activity for in-patient falls prevention consisted of: 1 the fall risk assessment tool, 2 an intervention protocol to prevent in-patient falls, 3 specific environmental safety interventions, 4 staff education, and 5 multidisciplinary healthcare staff compliance monitoring and feedback mechanisms. Results The overall fall rate was 2.13 falls per 1000 patient days (350/164331 in 2004 versus 1.53 falls per 1000 patient days (263/172325 in 2010, representing a significant decrease (p = 0.039. In the first 6 months, compliance with use of the falling risk assessment tool at admission was 91.5% in 2007 (3998/4368, increasing to 97.6% in 2010 (10564/10828. The staff compliance rate of implementing an appropriate intervention plan was 85.9% in 2007, increasing to 95.3% in 2010. Conclusion In our study we observed a substantial decrease in patient fall rates and an increase of staff compliance with a newly implemented falls prevention program. A systematized QI approach that closely involves, encourages, and educates healthcare staff at multiple levels is effective.

  13. Report of the consultant's meeting on monitoring accidentally released radionuclides in the environment

    At an earlier Research Co-ordination Meeting (12-16 August 1991, VIC, Vienna) for the IAEA Programme on 'Rapid Instrumental and Separation Methods for Monitoring Radionuclides in Food and Environmental Samples', it was recognized that a network of analytical laboratories with specially qualified scientists is needed which will provide a timely coordinated response to any future requests for assistance from Member States. The experience gained from the International Chernobyl Project revealed that there is a need for such a closely linked group when the Member State lacks sufficient technical resource to independently perform an assessment of environmental contamination following an accidental release of radioactivity. The existence of such a network of laboratories would help to assure responsible government representatives and the general public that the Agency has additional available resources including specialized experts to perform assessments on which to base required actions for many accident scenarios and their radiological consequences. The purpose of the present Consultants' Meeting is to discuss the organization and scope of the proposed network of analytical laboratories. The Consultants should discuss the matrices and nuclides of interest at various time frames of an accidental release of radioactivity. It is also intended that the Consultants should discuss the laboratories from their experience which would have the specialized expertise needed, in both terrestrial and aquatic sample collection and analysis. Finally, it is intended that the Consultants should discuss whether it would be desirable for the Agency to produce a technical document based on the achievements of the Agency programme on 'Rapid Instrumental and Separation Methods for Monitoring Radionuclides in Food and Environmental Samples'. A Guide Book was considered essential by the participants of this Co-ordinated Research Programme because it would be a succinct form and on a common

  14. Game theory of pre-emptive vaccination before bioterrorism or accidental release of smallpox.

    Molina, Chai; Earn, David J D

    2015-06-01

    Smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s, but new outbreaks could be seeded by bioterrorism or accidental release. Substantial vaccine-induced morbidity and mortality make pre-emptive mass vaccination controversial, and if vaccination is voluntary, then there is a conflict between self- and group interests. This conflict can be framed as a tragedy of the commons, in which herd immunity plays the role of the commons, and free-riding (i.e. not vaccinating pre-emptively) is analogous to exploiting the commons. This game has been analysed previously for a particular post-outbreak vaccination scenario. We consider several post-outbreak vaccination scenarios and compare the expected increase in mortality that results from voluntary versus imposed vaccination. Below a threshold level of post-outbreak vaccination effort, expected mortality is independent of the level of response effort. A lag between an outbreak starting and a response being initiated increases the post-outbreak vaccination effort necessary to reduce mortality. For some post-outbreak vaccination scenarios, even modest response lags make it impractical to reduce mortality by increasing post-outbreak vaccination effort. In such situations, if decreasing the response lag is impossible, the only practical way to reduce mortality is to make the vaccine safer (greater post-outbreak vaccination effort leads only to fewer people vaccinating pre-emptively). PMID:25926701

  15. Methodology and practical basis for emergency planning in case of accidental releases

    Statistical methods are used to anticipate offsite consequences resulting from an accidental release of radioactivity into the atmosphere for the 1-100 km range. This approach is very useful for safety purposes, for example to select nuclear sites; but it cannot be used for emergency preparedness plans. The preparation of emergency plans must be dependent upon the type of nuclear facility and site characteristics, and should take into account the conditions pertaining to the time of application (e.g. weather). In other words, the preparation of an emergency situation depends upon all the specific characteristics of each site. The plan has to be established considering a wide range of accidents which could occur at the site, including those with a very low probability of occurrence. Furthermore, emergency countermeasures have to be provided for in view of the radiological risk to individual members of the public. This implies calculation of the ''projected'' dose due to external irradiation (plume and deposits) and inhalation (plume and resuspension of deposits). Calculations are based on the use of an atmospheric transfer model as simple and as realistic as possible so that it can cover a wide range of situations. A description of the model used by the French Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety is given, together with an appropriate example

  16. Modeling of the dispersion of tritium from postulated accidental releases from nuclear power plants

    This study has the aim to assess the impact of accidental release of tritium postulate from a nuclear power reactor through environmental modeling of aquatic resources. In order to do that it was used computational models of hydrodynamics and transport for the simulation of tritium dispersion caused by an accident in a CANDU reactor located in the ongoing Angra 3 site. It was postulated, then, the LOCA - Loss of Coolant Accident -, accident in the emergency cooling system of the nucleus ( without fusion), where was lost 66m3 of soda almost instantaneously. This inventory contained 35 PBq and was released a load of 9.7 TBq/s in liquid form near the Itaorna beach, Angra dos Reis - RJ. The models mentioned above were applied in two scenarios ( plant stopped or operating) and showed a tritium plume with specific activities larger than the reference level for seawater (1.1MBq/m3), during the first 14 days after the accident. The main difference between the scenario without and with seawater recirculation (pumping and discharge) is based on the enhancement of dilution of the highest concentrations in the last one. This dilution enhancement resulting in decreasing concentrations was observed only during the first two weeks, when they ranged from 1x109 to 5x105 Bq/m3 close to the Itaorna beach spreading just to Sandri Island. After 180 days, the plume could not be detected anymore in the bay, because their activities would be lower than the minimum detectable value (3). (author)

  17. Modelling of tritium dispersion from postulated accidental release of nuclear power plants

    This study has the aim to assess the impact of accidental release of tritium postulate from a nuclear power reactor through environmental modeling of aquatic resources. In order to do that it was used computational models of hydrodynamics and transport for the simulation of tritium dispersion caused by an accident in a CANDU reactor located in the ongoing Angra 3 site. This exercise was accomplished with the aid of a code system (SisBAHIA) developed in the Rio de Janeiro Federal University (COPPE/UFRJ). The CANDU reactor is one that uses heavy water (D2O) as moderator and coolant of the core. It was postulated, then, the LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) accident in the emergency cooling system of the nucleus (without fusion), where was lost 66 m3 of soda almost instantaneously. This inventory contained 35 PBq and was released a load of 9.7 TBq/s in liquid form near the Itaorna beach, Angra dos Reis - RJ. The models mentioned above were applied in two scenarios (plant stopped and operating) and showed a tritium plume with specific activities larger than the reference level for seawater (1.1 MBq/m3 ) during the first 14 days after the accident. The main difference between the scenario without and with seawater recirculation (pumping and discharge) is based on the enhancement of dilution of the highest concentrations in the last one. This dilution enhancement resulting in decreasing concentrations was observed only during the first two weeks, when they ranged from 1x109 to 5x105 Bq/m3 close to the Itaorna beach spreading just to Sandri Island. After 180 days, the plume could not be detected anymore in the bay, because their activities would be lower than the minimum detectable value (3). (author)

  18. Experimental optimization of iodine prophylaxis for prevention of radiation injury from accidental intake of radioiodine

    As is proved by nuclear disaster in Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), iodine prophylaxis may be respected as one of the most urgent and effective methods of prevention of radiation injury of the thyroid gland in the population affected. On the basis of experiments in rats, analytical ways of determination of the dietary iodine intake (iodine supply) of people living around NPP Paks (Hyngary) as well as compartment modelling, experiments it is shown, that for optimization of iodine prophylaxis in masses it is very important to increase the iodine supply upto the recommended values. Combined use of decreased doses of potassium iodide and perchlorate was found to be the optimal way for removal of radioiodine from pregnant organisms and their offsprings following accidental intake of radioiodine

  19. Radionuclide dispersion and hydrodynamics of Ilha Grande Bay (Angra dos Reis, RJ) simulated from hypothetical accidental releases of liquid wastes

    This study has the aim to assess the impact of accidental release of radionuclides postulate from a nuclear power reactor through environmental modeling of aquatic resources. In order to do that it was used computational models of hydrodynamic circulation and transport for the simulation of tritium dispersion caused by an accidental release in Ilha Grande Bay from the site of the future third plant in two circulation scenarios. The main difference between the scenarios is based on the enhancement of dilution of the highest concentrations in the last one. This dilution enhancement resulting in decreasing concentrations was observed only during the first two weeks, when they ranged from 1 x 109 to 5 x 105 Bq/m³ close to the Itaorna beach spreading just to Sandri Island. After 180 days, the plume could not be detected anymore in the bay, because their activities would be lower than the minimum detectable value (< 11 kBq/m³). (author)

  20. Maximum permissible amounts of accidentally released tritium derived from an environmental experiment to meet dose limits for public exposure

    This paper reports that it is important in the design of future fusion reactors and associated facilities that incorporate passive safety to take account of the possible environmental impact of accidental tritium release. Reliable information on dose consequences can be obtained by evaluating urine samples from persons exposed to tritium. Translating the results of the environmental HT experiment performed in France in 1986 into worst-case exposure conditions, the effective dose equivalent to an individual with highest exposure at a distance of 800 m (typical for site boundaries) is ∼1 x 10-4 Sv per gram of tritium emitted as HT when inhalation and skin absorption are considered. From this value, maximum permissible amounts of accidentally released HT can be derived on the basis of regulatory or anticipated dose limits

  1. Source, dispersion and combustion modelling of an accidental release of hydrogen in an urban environment

    Hydrogen is likely to be the most important future energy carrier, for many stationary and mobile applications, with the potential to make significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions especially if renewable primary energy sources are used to produce the hydrogen. A safe transition to the use of hydrogen by members of the general public requires that the safety issues associated with hydrogen applications have to be investigated and fully understood. In order to assess the risks associated with hydrogen applications, its behaviour in realistic accident scenarios has to be predicted, allowing mitigating measures to be developed where necessary. A key factor in this process is predicting the release, dispersion and combustion of hydrogen in appropriate scenarios. This paper illustrates an application of CFD methods to the simulation of an actual hydrogen explosion. The explosion occurred on 3 March 1983 in a built up area of central Stockholm, Sweden, after the accidental release of approximately 13.5 kg of hydrogen from a rack of 18 interconnected 50 l industrial pressure vessels (200 bar working pressure) being transported by a delivery truck. Modelling of the source term, dispersion and combustion were undertaken separately using three different numerical tools, due to the differences in physics and scales between the different phenomena. Results from the dispersion calculations together with the official accident report were used to identify a possible ignition source and estimate the time at which ignition could have occurred. Ignition was estimated to occur 10 s after the start of the release, coinciding with the time at which the maximum flammable hydrogen mass and cloud volume were found to occur (4.5 kg and 600 m3, respectively). The subsequent simulation of the combustion adopts initial conditions for mean flow and turbulence from the dispersion simulations, and calculates the development of a fireball. This provides physical values, e.g. maximum

  2. Plutonium in the environment: key factors related to impact assessment in case of an accidental atmospheric release

    Guétat, Philippe; Moulin, V. M.; Reiller, Pascal E.; Vercouter, T.; Bion, L.,; Fritsch, P; Monfort, M.; Flury-Herard, A.; Comte, A.; Ménétrier, F.; Ansoborlo, Eric; Jourdain, F.; Boucher, L; Vandorpe, F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with plutonium and key factors related to impact assessment. It is based on recent work performed by CEA which summarize the main features of plutonium behaviour from sources inside installations to the environment and man, and to report current knowledge on the different parameters used in models for environmental and radiological impact assessment. These key factors are illustrated through a case study based on an accidental atmospheric release of Pu in a nuclear facility.

  3. Illustration of probabilistic approach in consequence assessment of accidental radioactive releases

    We are describing a certain application of uncertainty analysis of environmental model HARP applied on atmospheric and deposition sub-model. Simulation of uncertainties propagation through the model is basic inevitable task bringing data for advanced techniques of probabilistic consequence assessment and further improvement of reliability of model predictions based on statistical procedures of assimilation with measured data. The activities are investigated in the institute IITA AV CR within the grant project supported by GACR (2007-2009). The problem is solved in close cooperation with section of information systems in institute NRPI. The subject of investigation concerns evaluation of consequences of radioactivity propagation after an accidental radioactivity release from nuclear facility.Transport of activity is studied from initial atmospheric propagation, deposition of radionuclides on terrain and spreading through food chains towards human body .Subsequent deposition processes of admixtures and food chain activity transport are modeled. In the final step a hazard estimation based on doses on population is integrated into the software system HARP. Extension to probabilistic approach has increased the complexity substantially, but offers much more informative background for modem methods of estimation accounting for inherent stochastic nature of the problem. Example of probabilistic assessment illustrated here is based on uncertainty analysis of input parameters of SGPM model. Predicted background field of Cs-137 deposition are labelled with index p. as PXSGPM. Final goal is estimation of a certain unknown true background vector χtrue, which accounts also for deficiencies of the SGPM formulation in itself insisting in insufficient description of reality. We must have on mind, that even if we know true values of all input parameters θmtrue (m= 1 ,..., M) of SGPM model, the χtrue still remain uncertain. One possibility how to approach reality insists in

  4. Severe Nuclear Accident Program (SNAP) - a real time model for accidental releases

    The model: Several Nuclear Accident Program (SNAP) has been developed at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (DNMI) in Oslo to provide decision makers and Government officials with real-time tool for simulating large accidental releases of radioactivity from nuclear power plants or other sources. SNAP is developed in the Lagrangian framework in which atmospheric transport of radioactive pollutants is simulated by emitting a large number of particles from the source. The main advantage of the Lagrangian approach is a possibility of precise parameterization of advection processes, especially close to the source. SNAP can be used to predict the transport and deposition of a radioactive cloud in e future (up to 48 hours, in the present version) or to analyze the behavior of the cloud in the past. It is also possible to run the model in the mixed mode (partly analysis and partly forecast). In the routine run we assume unit (1 g s-1) emission in each of three classes. This assumption is very convenient for the main user of the model output in case of emergency: Norwegian Radiation Protection Agency. Due to linearity of the model equations, user can test different emission scenarios as a post processing task by assigning different weights to concentration and deposition fields corresponding to each of three emission classes. SNAP is fully operational and can be run by the meteorologist on duty at any time. The output from SNAP has two forms: First on the maps of Europe, or selected parts of Europe, individual particles are shown during the simulation period. Second, immediately after the simulation, concentration/deposition fields can be shown every three hours of the simulation period as isoline maps for each emission class. In addition, concentration and deposition maps, as well as some meteorological data, are stored on a public accessible disk for further processing by the model users

  5. Historical Doses To The Public from Routine and Accidental Releases of Tritium - Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1953 - 2005

    Peterson, S; Raskob, W

    2007-08-15

    Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 29,300 TBq of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; about 75% of this was released accidentally as gaseous tritium in 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 3,700 TBq gaseous tritium and about 2,800 TBq tritiated water vapor to the total. Mean annual doses (with 95% confidence intervals) to the most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Because time-dependent tritium models require detailed meteorological data that were unavailable for the large releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from experience with UFOTRI. Even with assumptions to assure that doses would not be underestimated, all doses from routine and accidental releases were below the level (3.6 mSv) at which adverse health effects have been documented, and most were below the current regulatory limit of 100 {micro}Sv per year from releases to the atmosphere.

  6. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

  7. Estimation of the environmental or radiological impact in the event of accidental release of radionuclides in a DCLL fusion reactor; Estimacion del impacto radiologico ambiental en caso de liberacion accidental de radionucleidos en un reactor de fusion DCLL

    Palermo, I.; Gomez Ros, J. M.; Sanz, J.; Mota, F.

    2013-07-01

    Tritium production and activation in the LiPb products can pose a radiological risk in the event of accidental release in a fusion reactor. Within the research programme Consolider TECNO{sub F}US (CSD2008-079) fusion technology has developed a design for a reactor with regenerative wrap with dual refrigeration (DCLL). The purpose of this communication is to present estimates of the radiological impact derived from an accidental release of radionuclides from the circuit of LiPb provinients. (Author)

  8. Development of a dose assessment module in case of modeling of long range atmospheric transport of accidental releases from NPP

    The Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) is in operation in the Bulgarian National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology with Bulgarian Academy of sciences (NIMH-BAS) since 1995. BERS is based on numerical weather forecast and numerical long-range dispersion model accounting for the transport, dispersion, chemical and radioactive transformations of pollutants. The previous versions of this system were used and successfully tested during the ETEX experiments and a number of international and national exercises. In the present paper the further development of the system for calculation of a mixture of 31 radioactive gaseous and aerosol radioactive nuclides is described. The basic module of this system - the numerical dispersion model EMAP is upgraded with a 'dose calculation module' for estimation of the prognostic dose fields for the essential radionuclides from the calculated by EMAP concentration and deposition fields. Testing of the system is performed simulating hypothetical accidental atmospheric releases with real meteorology in real time from real NPPs situated in Europe based on emission scenarios created for the basic reactor types being into operation in Europe. The effective doses from external irradiation, from air submersion and ground shinning, effective dose from inhalation and absorbed thyroid dose formed by the different radionuclides, significant for the early stage of a nuclear accident, are calculated as dose fields in the different case studies. The presented study is an important step in the development of the BERS by producing decision-ready output directed to enhancing the Bulgarian emergency preparedness in case of accidental releases. (author)

  9. Final Report: Safety of Plasma Components and Aerosol Transport During Hard Disruptions and Accidental Energy Release in Fusion Reactor

    Bourham, Mohamed A.; Gilligan, John G.

    1999-08-14

    Safety considerations in large future fusion reactors like ITER are important before licensing the reactor. Several scenarios are considered hazardous, which include safety of plasma-facing components during hard disruptions, high heat fluxes and thermal stresses during normal operation, accidental energy release, and aerosol formation and transport. Disruption events, in large tokamaks like ITER, are expected to produce local heat fluxes on plasma-facing components, which may exceed 100 GW/m{sup 2} over a period of about 0.1 ms. As a result, the surface temperature dramatically increases, which results in surface melting and vaporization, and produces thermal stresses and surface erosion. Plasma-facing components safety issues extends to cover a wide range of possible scenarios, including disruption severity and the impact of plasma-facing components on disruption parameters, accidental energy release and short/long term LOCA's, and formation of airborne particles by convective current transport during a LOVA (water/air ingress disruption) accident scenario. Study, and evaluation of, disruption-induced aerosol generation and mobilization is essential to characterize database on particulate formation and distribution for large future fusion tokamak reactor like ITER. In order to provide database relevant to ITER, the SIRENS electrothermal plasma facility at NCSU has been modified to closely simulate heat fluxes expected in ITER.

  10. An estimate of the radiological consequence of notional accidental releases of radioactivity from a fast breeder reactor

    In this report an assessment is made of the radiological consequences of notional accidental releases of activity from a fast breeder reactor under certain circumstances. It was prepared under contract to the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (Health and Safety Executive) to assist them in making a preliminary safety assessment of fast reactors. The range of releases considered in the report was specified by the Inspectorate and comprises the vaporisation and release of varying fractions of the core of a 1300 MW(e) reactor. Two cases are evaluated depending on assumptions relating to the remainder of the core. No attempt is made to assign any probability to the occurrence of a given release; the report provides no more than a part of the information necessary for a safety assessment and is to be considered only within this limited context. The subject is dealt with under the following headings: introduction; parameters used in the assessment; atmospheric dispersion; pathways of exposure and dosimetric models; doses associated with the release of one tonne of fuel; biological effects; consequences of releases in which the nuclide composition differs from that in the fuel. (U.K.)

  11. Description of the SAFRAN Model for Evaluation of Public Exposure Resulting from Accidental Release of Airborne Radioactive Materials into the Atmosphere and User’s Guide. Annex II

    This document describes the method used in the SAFRAN tool for calculation of exposure arising from accidental release of airborne radioactive materials into the atmosphere. Model can be used for evaluation of public exposure to allow comparison with the relevant dose limiting criteria. The model is based on the public exposure evaluation concept as described in IAEA reports. While both these reports in primary addresses impacts arising from routine (e.g. long time permanent) releases, the concept employed can be adapted for assessment of impacts arising from accidental (e.g. short time) releases. Another source which has also been extensively used is the German Incident calculation bases

  12. User guide for UFOTRI: A program for assessing the off-site consequences from accidental tritium releases

    The computer program UFOTRI for assessing the consequences of accidental tritium releases from fusion facilities has been developed; its first version is now being released. Processes such as the conversion of tritium gas (HT) into tritiated water (HTO) in the soil, reemission after deposition and the conversion of HTO into organically bound tritium are considered. During a time period of some days, all the relevant transfer processes between the compartments of the biosphere (atmosphere, soil, plants, animals) are described dynamically. A first order compartment model calculates the longer term pathway of tritium in the foodchains. Additionally, UFOTRI allows probabilistic assessments of the tritium impact in the environment. This report contains a description of the main processes which are important for the understanding of the input parameter list, as well as a detailed listing of the input parameters which can be changed by the user. Additionally, an input and output description with examples completes the report. (orig.)

  13. Proposal of procedures to prevent errors in radiotherapy based in learned lessons of accidental expositions

    In order to consider some procedures to prevent errors in radiotherapy based in learned lessons of accidental expositions and in accordance with information contained in international reports elaborated by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and of the data base availability by the European group Radiation Oncology Safety Information System (ROSIS) on the events, a research of the occurred errors was performed. For the evaluation of the incidents a data base based in the ROSIS and added plus a parameter was created 'type of error'. All the stored data make possible the evaluation of the 839 incidents in terms of frequency of the type of error, the process of detention, the number of reached patients and the degree of severity. Of the 50 types of found errors, the type of error more frequently was 'incorrect treatment coordinate', confirmed with the data of literature and representing 28,96 por cent of the total of the incidents. The results showed 44,44 por cent are discovered at the moment of the treatment and that the process of verification of the fiche or clinical revision of the patient is a verification more occurred insurance and in 43,33 por cent of the searched events. The results indicated that more than 50 por cent of the incidents the severity degree are void and approximately 62 por cent a patient are affected during the accomplishment of the radiotherapy. This work showed that to analyze the data base according to methodology proposal for Klein et al.; for Reason, and Dunscombe et al. is interesting to insert more characteristic detailed in the data base such as: the number of fractions for affected patient, number of fields of treatment for fraction that was affected, shunting line of the prescribed dose and shunting line of the volume prescribed in all the registered in cadastral map events. Some causes exist that can lead the errors when patient they are submitted to the radiotherapy. Some measures can be taken so that these errors do not

  14. Towards the operational estimation of a radiological plume using data assimilation after a radiological accidental atmospheric release

    Winiarek, Victor; Vira, Julius; Bocquet, Marc; Sofiev, Mikhail; Saunier, Olivier

    2011-06-01

    In the event of an accidental atmospheric release of radionuclides from a nuclear power plant, accurate real-time forecasting of the activity concentrations of radionuclides is required by the decision makers for the preparation of adequate countermeasures. The accuracy of the forecast plume is highly dependent on the source term estimation. On several academic test cases, including real data, inverse modelling and data assimilation techniques were proven to help in the assessment of the source term. In this paper, a semi-automatic method is proposed for the sequential reconstruction of the plume, by implementing a sequential data assimilation algorithm based on inverse modelling, with a care to develop realistic methods for operational risk agencies. The performance of the assimilation scheme has been assessed through the intercomparison between French and Finnish frameworks. Two dispersion models have been used: Polair3D and Silam developed in two different research centres. Different release locations, as well as different meteorological situations are tested. The existing and newly planned surveillance networks are used and realistically large multiplicative observational errors are assumed. The inverse modelling scheme accounts for strong error bias encountered with such errors. The efficiency of the data assimilation system is tested via statistical indicators. For France and Finland, the average performance of the data assimilation system is strong. However there are outlying situations where the inversion fails because of a too poor observability. In addition, in the case where the power plant responsible for the accidental release is not known, robust statistical tools are developed and tested to discriminate candidate release sites.

  15. Partitioning of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorohexanesulfonate in the aquatic environment after an accidental release of aqueous film forming foam at Schiphol Amsterdam Airport

    Kwadijk, C.J.A.F.; Kotterman, M.J.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2008, an accidental release of Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) took place at Schiphol Amsterdam Airport (The Netherlands). After the release, water, fish and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSA). In situ perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)

  16. Accidental release of iodine 131 by the IRE of the Fleurus site: return on experience by the Belgian safety authority

    After a presentation of the activities of the IRE, the Belgian National Institute of Radio-elements, i.e. the production of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, this report describes the process and chemical reaction which caused an accidental release of iodine 131. It analyzes the causes of this incident, and how the incident has been managed by the Belgian safety authority. It discusses the first assessment of radiological consequences, describes how the incident has been managed at the federal level, and how population and media have been informed. It discusses the actual radiological consequences through measurements performed on grass and vegetables (graphs and maps indicate contamination levels and contaminated areas), and through the assessment of exposure of adults and children by different ways. Lessons learned are then discussed

  17. Comparison of the MARC and CRAC2 programs for assessing the radiological consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material

    Hemming, C R; Charles, D; Ostmeyer, R M

    1983-01-01

    This report describes a comparison of the MARC (Methodology for Assessing Radiological Consequences) and CRAC2 (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences, version 2) computer programs for assessing the radiological consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material. A qualitative comparison has been made of the features of the constituent sub-models of the two codes, and potentially the most important differences identified. The influence of these differences has been investigated quantitatively by comparison of the predictions of the two codes in a wide variety of circumstances. Both intermediate quantities and endpoints used as a measure of risk have been compared in order to separate the variables more clearly. The results indicate that, in general, the predictions of MARC and CRAC2 are in good agreement.

  18. Visits to Australia by nuclear powered or armed vessels: contingency planning for the accidental release of ionizing radiation

    The report refers to the adequacy of current contingency planning by the Australian Federal and Senate authorities to deal with the accidental release of ionizating radiation from visiting nuclear powered or armed vessels in Australian waters and ports. Much of the material was obtained in response to questions put in writing by the Senate Standing Committee to the Department of Defence, ANSTO and others. In addition, the report contains relevant information from Commonwealth documents as well as the Committee findings and recommendations. Issues considered include: types of visiting nuclear powered vessels, accident likelihood and consequences, differences between naval and land-based reactors, safety records. The persons or organizations who made submissions or appeared in all public hearings are listed in the appendixes, along with all visits to Australian ports by nuclear powered warships from 1976 to 1988

  19. ACCI38 XL 2: a useful tool for dose assessment in case of accidental atmospheric releases of radionuclides

    In the scope of its assignments in the field of nuclear risks, the French Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) develops tools to assess the impact of nuclear facilities on their environment and surrounding populations. The code ACCI38 XL 2 is a tool dedicated to the assessment of integrated concentrations in the environment and of dosimetric consequences on man, in case of accidental atmospheric releases of radionuclides (up to 170 radionuclides). This code is widely used by IRSN for studies on accidents, mainly for the analysis of regulatory documents from nuclear operators. The aim of this communication is to present the main features of the model used in the code ACCI38 XL 2, and to give details about the code. After a general presentation of the model, a detailed description of atmospheric dispersion, transfer in the environment and radiological impact is given. Then, some information on parameters and limitations of the model and the code are presented

  20. Visits to Australia by nuclear powered or armed vessels: contingency planning for the accidental release of ionizing radiation

    The adequacy of current contingency planning by Federal and State authorities to deal with the accidental release of ionizing radiation from visiting nuclear powered or armed vessels in Australian waters and ports is reported on and 39 recommendations are made. After introductory chapters, the remainder of the report consists of two parts. Chapters 3 to 10 deal with the main issues relating to nuclear powered warship (NPW) visits and the adequacy of current contingency plans. Chapters 11 to 13 deal with the question whether any specific planning is required for visits by nuclear weapons capable warships. In part one the present emergency arrangements and criticisms of the current plans are reviewed. The NPWs' reactors, safety records and visit arrangements in other countries are discussed. The validity of the reference accident on which current NPW emergency planning is based is assessed. In part two nuclear weapons and their accidents are reviewed. The dissenting report of one of the Senators is included

  1. The assessment of accidental releases of radionuclides into the marine environment

    Unplanned releases of radionuclides into the marine environment could occur from land-based sources, e.g. during an incident at a nuclear power station, or from sea-going vessels such as nuclear submarines and ships carrying spent nuclear fuel. An approach which can be used to assess the effects of unplanned releases into the sea is discussed. The approach described is an extension of a compartment modelling system developed for studies of routine effluents released into coastal seas of northern Europe. The main features of the model are presented and a demonstration source term is used to illustrate the application of the model. (author)

  2. A CASE STUDY OF CHLORINE TRANSPORT AND FATE FOLLOWING A LARGE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE

    Buckley, R.; Hunter, C.; Werth, D.; Whiteside, M.; Chen, K.; Mazzola, C.

    2012-08-01

    A train derailment that occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina during the early morning hours of 06 January, 2005 resulted in the prompt release of approximately 60 tons of chlorine to the environment. Comprehensive modeling of the transport and fate of this release was performed including the characterization of the initial three-phased chlorine release, a detailed determination of the local atmospheric conditions acting to generate, disperse, and deplete the chlorine vapor cloud, the establishment of physical exchange mechanisms between the airborne vapor and local surface waters, and local aquatic dilution and mixing.

  3. New tracers identify hydraulic fracturing fluids and accidental releases from oil and gas operations.

    Warner, N R; Darrah, T H; Jackson, R B; Millot, R; Kloppmann, W; Vengosh, A

    2014-11-01

    Identifying the geochemical fingerprints of fluids that return to the surface after high volume hydraulic fracturing of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs has important applications for assessing hydrocarbon resource recovery, environmental impacts, and wastewater treatment and disposal. Here, we report for the first time, novel diagnostic elemental and isotopic signatures (B/Cl, Li/Cl, δ11B, and δ7Li) useful for characterizing hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids (HFFF) and distinguishing sources of HFFF in the environment. Data from 39 HFFFs and produced water samples show that B/Cl (>0.001), Li/Cl (>0.002), δ11B (25-31‰) and δ7Li (6-10‰) compositions of HFFF from the Marcellus and Fayetteville black shale formations were distinct in most cases from produced waters sampled from conventional oil and gas wells. We posit that boron isotope geochemistry can be used to quantify small fractions (∼0.1%) of HFFF in contaminated fresh water and likely be applied universally to trace HFFF in other basins. The novel environmental application of this diagnostic isotopic tool is validated by examining the composition of effluent discharge from an oil and gas brine treatment facility in Pennsylvania and an accidental spill site in West Virginia. We hypothesize that the boron and lithium are mobilized from exchangeable sites on clay minerals in the shale formations during the hydraulic fracturing process, resulting in the relative enrichment of boron and lithium in HFFF. PMID:25327769

  4. Predicting the 137Cs ingestion dose from marine fish consumption in Hong Kong after an accidental release

    Caesium-137 is one of the more important radionuclides released during a nuclear power plant accident. Based on a mathematical model developed earlier by the present authors for estimating 137Cs ingestion dose from consumption of marine fish in Hong Kong, doses due to an accidental release into Daya Bay from the Guangdong Nuclear Power Station are predicted. Assuming a release of 30 000 TBq of 137Cs, results show that the cumulative dose rises rapidly during the first five years and then gradually levels off. In the first and 50th years after discharge, doses to an average Hong Kong citizen would cumulate to 17 and 38 μSv respectively, which are dominated by the contribution from fish cultured in Hong Kong waters. The first year dose to members of the critical group of local fish farmers is estimated to be 1600 μSv, accumulating to 3600 μSv in the 50th year. Apart from this small number of critical group members whose doses may need some monitoring, the doses to the population at large are considered small compared with an annual dose of 175 μSv from ingestion of natural radionuclides in food and drinks in Hong Kong. (note)

  5. Numerical analysis of accidental hydrogen releases from high pressure storage at low temperatures

    Markert, Frank; Melideo, Daniele; Baraldi, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    . The vessel dynamics are modeled using a simplified engineering and a CFD model to evaluate the performance of various EOS to predict vessel pressures, temperatures mass flow rates and jet flame lengths. It is shown that the chosen EOS and the chosen specific heat capacity correlation are important to......Evaluations of the performance of simplified engineering and CFD models are important to improve risk assessment tools e.g. to predict accurately releases from various types of hydrogen storages. These tools have to predict releases from a wide range of storage pressures (up to 80 MPa) and...... temperatures (down to 20 K), e.g. cryogenic compressed gas storage covers pressures up to 35 MPa and temperatures between 33 K and 338 K. Accurate calculations of high pressure releases require real gas EOS. This paper compares a number of EOS to predict hydrogen properties typical in different storage types...

  6. Estimation of radiological consequences from accidental iodine releases at nuclear power plants

    The radiological consequences of a beyond design-basis accident at an NPP for a VVER-1000 reactor are evaluated. Using the software code COSYMA and accounting for radioiodine activity release to the atmosphere at the early stage of the accident, the radionuclide concentration in air and ground deposition densities were estimated. Inhalation and ingestion thyroid doses to different population sub-groups have been calculated. Using modern knowledge about the risk of radiation-induced cancer, the radiological danger of radionuclides released is evaluated for different exposure pathways. Thyroid doses and risk was estimated for populations living at different distances from the NPP. The comparative analysis of exposure pathways and radiological danger of the radionuclides in release during early and intermediate stage of accident has conducted. (author)

  7. Study on plutonium distribution in Palomares ecosystem after an accidental aerosol release of transuranic radionuclides

    A discharge of plutonium and transuranic elements accidentally ocurred near Palomares (Almeria, Spain) in 1966. After decontamining operations, about 10 g of finely dispersed plutonium remained on the soil and was spreaded on the sorroundings and into Mediterranean sea. An analytical study including a 34 sampling sites of marine sediments, chemical clean-up, analytical methods for isolating plutonium from interfering radionuclides in the alfa-spectra was carried out. The detection limit level reached for the 239 u+240Pu was 10 mBq/Kg one of the lowest cited in the Spanish analytical literature until now. These results were attained following a careful electroplating Pu deposition method developed by our laboratory as result of the high signal/noise rates measured and a 20 KeV resolution. Several analytical assurance quality procedures specially developed for the Palomares ecological system were applied to the results, at the CIEMAT laboratories using reference standard certified samples. The values were unbiased and with no differences statistically significants between them. Interlaboratory comparisons were carried out. After 20 years of plutonium traces environmental transport their concentration were from two at three times the leves of radionuclides in the fallout of the zone studied. The plutonium concentration range in surface sediments was 0.3-5.0 Bq/Kg. The highest values corresponding in the coastal sediments and the lowest in the deep sea. Plutonium concentrations are highly correlated with the sediments structure, grain size composition and distance from the mouth of Almanzora river. The most important contribution at the transport from the land into sea could be the freshet occured at 1973. For this reason the plutonium ecologycal path has been from Palomares sorroundings into the sea. Sites in the Mediterranean sea not affected by plutonium apportation from Almanzora river showed Pu levels approximately the same as the mean value for the whole

  8. Numerical simulation of atmospheric dispersion and high radiological dose zone due to accidental releases from Fukushima Power Plant

    Atmospheric dispersion calculations are made for the accidental releases of radionuclides from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) using a weather model coupled Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART-WRF in a 30 km range to understand the formation of high radiation impact zone on the land region near to the FDNPP. The period during 11-17 March 2011 is considered for the study with the available source term estimates for 137Cs, 134Cs and 113I released during the accident. Simulated high resolution (1km) flow field with nested WRF model was largely westerly from 11 to 14 March. It has been found that the flow changed to northeasterly, easterly and southeasterly on 15 March under the influence of a low pressure and precipitation occurred on 15 March. Dispersion simulations showed the plume moved in a clockwise direction from Pacific Ocean to the land region to the northwest sector of Fukushima resulting in large activity depositions in that sector. The simulations show depositions of 106 to 108 Bq/m2 for 131I and 134Cs; and air dose rates of 10 μSv/h to 100 μSv/h in a distance range of 20 km in the northwest sector of Fukushima prefecture. The model could simulate the observed spike in the instantaneous air dose and its time variation at off-site monitoring stations around the reactor in reasonable agreement with highest doses at Fukushima, Litate located in the northwest sector followed by other sectors. (author)

  9. Assessment of Cesium, Iodine, Strontium and Ruthenium isotopes behaviour in urban areas, after contamination from accidental release

    The exposures of urban populations to the radiation derived from the deposition, after accidental atmospheric releases, of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 129 I, 131 I, 133 I, 89 Sr, 103 Ru and 106 Ru were assessed, using the integrated system for the evaluation of environmental radiological impact in emergency situations, developed by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD)/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN). These radionuclide are fission products likely to be emitted in the occurrence of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Their environmental behaviour in urban areas, due to their deposition in soil, in urban surfaces and in vegetable-garden food products, such as leafy and non-leafy vegetables, were analyzed, and dose assessments at the short, medium and long terms were performed, with an without the application of protective measures for reduction of doses. Simulations of unitary initial deposition for each radionuclide and of two different potential accidents involving water reactors (PWR), with different source terms and distinct deposition for each radionuclide, were performed. Results were analyzed on the basis of relative relevance of radionuclides and pathways for the exposure of members of the public, as a function of age and time after the release. It was also performed an assessment of the effectiveness of protective measures as a function of the moment of their implementation. (author)

  10. Performance evaluation of of caesium, iodine, strontium and ruthenium isotopes in urban areas after contamination by accidental release

    The exposures of urban populations to the radiation derived from the deposition, after accidental atmospheric releases, of I37Cs, 134Cs, 129I, 131I, 133I, 89Sr, l03Ru and 106Ru were assessed, using the integrated system for the evaluation of environmental radiological impact in emergency situations (SIEM), developed by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD) / Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN). These radionuclides are fission products likely to be emitted in the occurrence of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Their environmental behaviour in urban areas, due to their deposition in soil, in urban surfaces and in vegetable-garden food products, such as leafy and non-leafy vegetables, were analyzed, and dose assessments at the short, medium and long terms were performed, with and without the application of protective measures for reduction of doses. Simulations of unitary initial deposition for each radionuclide and of two different potential accidents involving pressurized water reactors (PWR), with different source terms and distinct deposition for each radionuclide, were performed. Results were analyzed on the basis of the relative relevance of radionuclides and pathways for the exposure of members of the public, as a function of age and time after the release. It was also performed an assessment of the effectiveness of protective measures as a function of the moment of their implementation. (author)

  11. Modelling accidental releases of dangerous gases into the lower troposphere from mobile sources

    Bernatík, A.; Zimmermann, W.; Pitt, M.; Střižík, M.; Nevrlý, J.; Zelinger, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 86, B3 (2008), s. 198-207. ISSN 0957-5820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 111 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk OC 186 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : major accidents * transportation of dangerous * substances modelling of release and dispersion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.400, year: 2008

  12. Assessment of radioactive material released from a fuel fabrication plant under accidental conditions

    This report evaluates the amounts of fissile material released both inside and outside a mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant (MOFFP) for light water reactors. The first section begins with a descriptive study of fissile material containment systems, and the methods available for quantifying accident occurrence probabilities. In addition to accidents common to all industrial facilities, other much rarer accidents were considered, such as aircraft crashes. The minimum occurrence probability limit for consideration in this study was set at 10-6 per annum. The second part of this report attempts to assess the consequences of the accidents considered (i.e. with occurrence probabilities exceeding 10-6 per annum) by determining maximum values for such accidents. Acts of sabotage and other accidents of this type are beyond the scope of this study and were not taken into consideration. The most serious potential accident would be a fire involving all of the glove boxes in the PuO2 powder calcination and preparation cell, which could release 76.5 mg of PuO2 powder into the atmosphere; the occurrence probability of such an accident, however, is slight (less than 10-5 per annum). The second possibility, is a specially nuclear hazard that would release fission products into the atmosphere. The occurrence probability of such an accident is currently evaluated at 10-3 per annum

  13. Modeling the wind-fields of accidental releases by mesoscale forecasting

    Albritton, J.R.; Lee, R.L.; Mobley, R.L.; Pace, J.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hodur, R.A.; Lion, C.S. [Navel Research Lab, Monterey, CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Modeling atmospheric releases even during fair weather can present a sever challenge to diagnostic, observed-data-driven, models. Such schemes are often handicapped by sparse input data from meteorological surface stations and soundings. Forecasting by persistence is only acceptable for a few hours and cannot predict important changes in the diurnal cycle or from synoptic evolution. Many accident scenarios are data-sparse in space and/or time. Here we describe the potential value of limited-area, mesoscale, forecast models for real-time emergency response. Simulated wind-fields will be passed to ARAC`s operational models to produce improved forecasts of dispersion following accidents.

  14. Study of applying the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability to nuclear power plants. [Use of ARAC to forecast hazards of accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere

    Orphan, R.C.

    1978-06-01

    Each utility licensee for a nuclear power reactor is required to minimize the adverse effects from an accidental radionuclide release into the atmosphere. In the past the ability to forecast quantitatively the extent of the hazard from such a release has been limited. Now powerful atmospheric modeling techniques are available to assist nuclear reactor site officials with greatly improved assessments. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) has developed a prototype system called the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) which is designed to integrate the modeling with advanced sensors, data handling techniques, and weather data in order to provide timely, usable advisories to the site officials. The purpose of this project is to examine the ways and means of adapting ARAC for application to many nuclear power reactors widely dispersed across the nation. The project will emphasize the management aspects, including government-industry relationships, technology transfer, organizational structure, staffing, implementing procedures, and costs. Benefits and costs for several alternative systems will be compared. The results will be reviewed and evaluated by the management and staff of the ARAC project at LLL and also by selected staff members of the sponsoring government agency.

  15. Calculation of Doses Due to Accidentally Released Plutonium From An LMFBR

    Fish, B.R.

    2001-08-07

    Experimental data and analytical models that should be considered in assessing the transport properties of plutonium aerosols following a hypothetical reactor accident have been examined. Behaviors of released airborne materials within the reactor containment systems, as well as in the atmosphere near the reactor site boundaries, have been semiquantitatively predicted from experimental data and analytical models. The fundamental chemistry of plutonium as it may be applied in biological systems has been used to prepare models related to the intake and metabolism of plutonium dioxide, the fuel material of interest. Attempts have been made to calculate the possible doses from plutonium aerosols for a typical analyzed release in order to evaluate the magnitude of the internal exposure hazards that might exist in the vicinity of the reactor after a hypothetical LMFBR (Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor) accident. Intake of plutonium (using data for {sup 239}Pu as an example) and its distribution in the body were treated parametrically without regard to the details of transport pathways in the environment. To the extent possible, dose-response data and models have been reviewed, and an assessment of their adequacy has been made so that recommended or preferred practices could be developed.

  16. Accidental release of iodine-131 by IRE at Fleurus: back experience of Belgium safety authority

    The IRE (National institute for radioelements) produces radionuclides for nuclear medicine from highly enriched uranium irradiated targets. On 22/08/2008, fresh production wastes were transferred into an almost empty decay tank. The mixing of these liquids led to the release of approximately 47 GBq of molecular iodine-131 into the atmosphere. The first conservative assessments of the radiological consequences did not require taking direct protective actions for the population, such as sheltering or stable iodine intake. However, the estimated iodine-131 deposits could locally reach or exceed the derived reference levels for the contamination of milk (4 kBq/m2) and leafy vegetables (10 kBq/m2). For this reason, and because there was a threat of a further release, the federal emergency plan was activated on 28/08 and the population potentially concerned was recommended to avoid consumption of locally produced fruits, vegetables and fresh milk. These protective actions were lifted on 7/09 and the emergency plan was lifted on 12/09. The main lesson learned from this event concerns the paramount importance of the rapid exchange of information that is as accurate and complete as possible between the different stakeholders: from the operator up to the population, through federal and local authorities. (authors)

  17. Forecasting the consequences of accidental releases of radionuclides in the atmosphere from ensemble dispersion modelling

    The RTMOD system is presented as a tool for the intercomparison of long-range dispersion models as well as a system for support of decision making. RTMOD is an internet-based procedure that collects the results of more than 20 models used around the world to predict the transport and deposition of radioactive releases in the atmosphere. It allows the real-time acquisition of model results and their intercomparison. Taking advantage of the availability of several model results, the system can also be used as a tool to support decision making in case of emergency. The new concept of ensemble dispersion modelling is introduced which is the basis for the decision-making application of RTMOD. New statistical parameters are presented that allow gathering the results of several models to produce a single dispersion forecast. The devised parameters are presented and tested on the results of RTMOD exercises

  18. Radioiodine: a boon and a bane emergency preparedness during accidental release of radioiodine

    Radioiodine, can be a double edged sword and can be dangerous and lethal. It will turn out to be a bane rather than a boon, exposing millions of individuals in and far away from the side of accident across geographical borders depending upon the weather conditions. Iodine is an indispensable element because of its being a constituent of the thyroid hormones, biosynthesized and released from the thyroid gland for the growth and over all metabolic functions. This gland weighing 20-30 g in a normal human adult, is comparatively very vascular organ with 5 lit. of blood flowing through it every hour. It contains 90% of the body iodine amounting to 5000-7000 μg, in the form of iodo aminoacids

  19. Time-integrated thyroid dose for accidental releases from Pakistan Research Reactor-1

    The two-hourly time-integrated thyroid dose due to radio-iodines released to the atmosphere through the exhaust stack of Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1), under accident conditions, has been calculated. A computer program, PAKRAD (which was developed under an IAEA research grant, PAK/RCA/8990), was used for the dose calculations. The sensitivity of the dose results to different exhaust flow rates and atmospheric stability classes was studied. The effect of assuming a constant activity concentration (as a function of time) within the containment air volume and an exponentially decreasing air concentration on the time-integrated dose was also studied for various flow rates (1000-50,000 m3 h-1). The comparison indicated that the results were insensitive to the containment air exhaust rates up to or below 2000 m3 h-1, when the prediction with the constant activity concentration assumption was compared to an exponentially decreasing activity concentration model. The results also indicated that the plume touchdown distance increases with increasing atmospheric stability. (note)

  20. Time-integrated thyroid dose for accidental releases from Pakistan Research Reactor-1.

    Raza, S Shoaib; Iqbal, M; Salahuddin, A; Avila, R; Pervez, S

    2004-09-01

    The two-hourly time-integrated thyroid dose due to radio-iodines released to the atmosphere through the exhaust stack of Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1), under accident conditions, has been calculated. A computer program, PAKRAD (which was developed under an IAEA research grant, PAK/RCA/8990), was used for the dose calculations. The sensitivity of the dose results to different exhaust flow rates and atmospheric stability classes was studied. The effect of assuming a constant activity concentration (as a function of time) within the containment air volume and an exponentially decreasing air concentration on the time-integrated dose was also studied for various flow rates (1000-50000 m3 h(-1)). The comparison indicated that the results were insensitive to the containment air exhaust rates up to or below 2000 m3 h(-1), when the prediction with the constant activity concentration assumption was compared to an exponentially decreasing activity concentration model. The results also indicated that the plume touchdown distance increases with increasing atmospheric stability. PMID:15511022

  1. Leakage and accidental releases from Sillamaee waste depository and environmental risk assessment

    An environmental risk assessment has been performed for the Sillamaee depository. The object of the study is to illustrate the consequences to man if the hazardous substances contained in the depository reach the sea. Two cases were studied: 1) the environmental impact at present conditions with a relatively low continuous leakage of the elements from the dam, and 2) the impact from a sudden dam collapse. The radiological dose impact on the population in the Baltic Sea area has been calculated for the observed leaking rate. The highest individual dose is less than 1μSv while for the dam collapse the dose will be in the order of 2 μSv and the dominant exposure pathway is via consumption of fish. The collective dose is about 1 manSv (emanating from fish caught in all parts of the Baltic Sea for both cases). Furthermore, the consequences of release of some metals (copper, zinc, niobium and molybdenum) were studied in the case of a dam break. In the Bay of Narva, outside the nearest coast, the additional contribution to the natural concentration in water will be neglectable for zinc and niobium. However, for copper and molybdenum the concentration will rise considerably during the first year. The additional load from the depository will still after 50 years be in the same order as published concentrations in the sea. The intake by man of those metals via fish caught in the Bay of Narva will be well below the limits of intake for zinc and molybdenum, (no recommendation of limits for niobium was found), while the calculated intake of copper from the depository will be in the same order as internationally recommended limits of intake. 34 refs

  2. Decision analysis of countermeasures for the milk pathway after an accidental release of radionuclides

    A facilitated workshop was arranged to plan countermeasures that could reduce the dose arising from the consumption of radionuclide-contaminated milk products. It was assumed that a hypothetical accident in a nuclear facility had led to the release of considerable amounts of radionuclides, which subsequently spread across one of Finland's most important agricultural regions and contaminated the milk produced there. The participants in the workshop, interest groups on food issues, considered all the factors influencing the countermeasure decision, not only radiological or monetary ones but less tangible psychosocial effects as well. The participants preferred the countermeasures provision of uncontaminated fodder and production control to banning and disposal. The analysis showed that these countermeasures could be implemented even if the radionuclide concentrations in foodstuffs were below internationally recommended intervention levels. Banning and withdrawal of milk products from sale was not a favourable option, because of the high costs and disadvantages to producers and the industry, and because the disposal of enormous amounts of milk causes a considerable environmental problem. The study revealed the need to further develop methods to realistically assess the radiological and cost implications of food countermeasures. The feasibility and constraints of actions also need further investigation. The experience gained strongly supports the format of a facilitated workshop to tackle a decision problem that concerns different stakeholders. The participants considered the workshop and the decision analysis very useful in exercises. They also expected a similar approach to be applicable in a real situation, although the suitability was not rated as high as for exercises. It is concluded that a facilitated workshop is a valuable instrument for emergency management and in exercises, when revising emergency plans or in order to identify issues that need to be resolved

  3. Consideration for modelling studies of migration of accidentally released radionuclides in a river watershed

    Concerning radionuclides that might be released in an event of an accident from a nuclear facility, much attention has been paid to the migration pathways including the atmospheric deposition and subsequent inflow to surface water bodies since the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986. In European countries, computer-coded systems for predicting the migration including those pathways and providing scientific supports for decision makers to manage the contamination have been developed. This report is a summary of presentations and discussion made at the occasion of the visit of Dr. Monte in order to have directions related to the current subject of research, development of a mathematical model of the behavior of radionuclides in a river watershed. Those presentations and discussions were made at JAERI and also at prominent universities and institutes of Japan involved in this study field. As a result of these discussions, distinct advantages and key issues in use of a mathematical model for prediction of the migration of radionuclides in a river watershed have been identified and analyzed. It was confirmed that the use of mathematical modeling has distinct advantages. Re-arrangement of the existing experimental knowledge on the environment in an ordered way according to a theory (a mathematical model) will lead to a new angle to consider a problem in that environment, despite several gaps in the data array. A model to assess the radionuclide behaviour in contaminated aquatic ecosystems is a basis of decision analysis tools for helping decision-makers to select the most appropriate intervention strategies for the ecosystems. Practical use of a mathematical model and continuous effort in its validation were recognized as crucial. (author)

  4. Use of taste repellants and emetics to prevent accidental poisoning of dogs.

    Houpt, K; Zgoda, J C; Stahlbaum, C C

    1984-08-01

    Twelve taste repellents and 3 oral emetics were tested. The taste repellents were capsaicin, capsicum, oleoresin, sucrose octaacetate, quinine tonic, quassia wood extract, vanillamide, horseradish extract, caffeine, pepperoni enhancer, acorn extract, and commercially available bitter and hot flavors. The emetics tested were: antimony potassium tartrate, apomorphine, and copper sulfate. Intake of a 20% sucrose solution by Beagles was significantly depressed by addition of vanillamide at concentrations greater than 0.001%, by capsicum and capsaicin at concentrations greater than 0.01%, and by horseradish extract, pepperoni enhancer, and a commercially available hot flavor at concentrations greater than 0.1%. Antimony potassium tartrate, when added to the 20% sucrose solution at a concentration of 0.1%, produced emesis as did apomorphine at a concentration of 0.005% and copper sulfate at 1%. When the emetic antimony potassium tartrate was combined with vanillamide in a 20% sucrose solution, intake was reduced to less than 20 ml, and vomiting occurred within 15 minutes. Capsaicin (0.02%) inhibited intake of ethylene glycol to less than the lethal dose in 5 dogs tested. Incorporation of such taste repellents and/or emetics into potentially poisonous substances would reduce accidental poisoning of animals and children. PMID:6476561

  5. Toxics Release Inventory Pollution Prevention Search Tool

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a publicly available EPA database that contains information on toxic chemical releases and waste management and pollution...

  6. An integrated, multi-scale modelling approach for the simulation of multiphase dispersion from accidental CO2 pipeline releases in realistic terrain

    Woolley, RM; Fairweather, M.; Wareing, CJ; Proust, C.; Hebrard, J; Jamois, D.; Narasimhamurthy, VD; Storvik, IE; Skjold, T; Falle, SAEG; S. Brown; Mahgerefteh, H.; Martynov, S.; Gant, SE; Tsangaris, DM

    2014-01-01

    The deployment of a complete carbon capture and storage chain requires a focus upon the hazards posed by the operation of pipelines transporting carbon dioxide (CO2) at high pressure in a dense-phase (supercritical or liquid state). The consequences of an intentional or accidental release from such pipelines must be considered as an integral part of the design process. There are a number of unique challenges to modelling these releases due to the unusual phase-transition behaviour of CO2. Add...

  7. Prevention and management of accidental foreign body ingestion and aspiration in orthodontic practice

    Umesan UK; Chua KL; Balakrishnan P

    2012-01-01

    Uday Kumar Umesan,1 Kui Lay Chua,1 Priya Balakrishnan21National Dental Centre, 2Kg Kiarong, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei DarussalamAbstract: Among the myriad emergencies that could arise in the dental clinical setting there are a few that occur occasionally despite being entirely preventable. Ingestion or aspiration of dental materials, appliances, or instruments comprises this category. Regardless of incidence, foreign body ingestion or aspiration episodes are recognized as potential complica...

  8. Prevention and management of accidental foreign body ingestion and aspiration in orthodontic practice

    Umesan UK

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Uday Kumar Umesan,1 Kui Lay Chua,1 Priya Balakrishnan21National Dental Centre, 2Kg Kiarong, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei DarussalamAbstract: Among the myriad emergencies that could arise in the dental clinical setting there are a few that occur occasionally despite being entirely preventable. Ingestion or aspiration of dental materials, appliances, or instruments comprises this category. Regardless of incidence, foreign body ingestion or aspiration episodes are recognized as potential complications in the specialty of orthodontics. Despite their infrequent occurrence, the morbidity from a single incident and the amount of specialty medical care that may be needed to manage such incidents is too high to ignore. There is also the associated risk of malpractice litigation given the fact that these incidents are preventable. At present, no clear guidelines exist regarding prevention of this emergency in practice. This article attempts to review relevant literature and aims to formulate certain recommendations based on best available evidence to minimize the incidence of such events, while also suggesting guidelines toward making their management more effective. A flow chart outlining management options and strategies to aid the clinician in the event of such an emergency is also presented.Keywords: foreign bodies, ingestion, orthodontics, respiratory aspiration, orthodontic appliances

  9. Prevention and management of accidental foreign body ingestion and aspiration in orthodontic practice.

    Umesan, Uday Kumar; Chua, Kui Lay; Balakrishnan, Priya

    2012-01-01

    Among the myriad emergencies that could arise in the dental clinical setting there are a few that occur occasionally despite being entirely preventable. Ingestion or aspiration of dental materials, appliances, or instruments comprises this category. Regardless of incidence, foreign body ingestion or aspiration episodes are recognized as potential complications in the specialty of orthodontics. Despite their infrequent occurrence, the morbidity from a single incident and the amount of specialty medical care that may be needed to manage such incidents is too high to ignore. There is also the associated risk of malpractice litigation given the fact that these incidents are preventable. At present, no clear guidelines exist regarding prevention of this emergency in practice. This article attempts to review relevant literature and aims to formulate certain recommendations based on best available evidence to minimize the incidence of such events, while also suggesting guidelines toward making their management more effective. A flow chart outlining management options and strategies to aid the clinician in the event of such an emergency is also presented. PMID:22701326

  10. Assessment of the Public Health impact from the accidental release of UF6 at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation Facility at Gore, Oklahoma (Docket No. 40-8027). Volume 2

    Following the accidental release of UF6 from the Sequoyah Fuels Facility on January 4, 1986, an Ad Hoc Interagency Public Health Assessment Task Force was established. The Task Force consists of technical staff members from various agencies who have prepared this assessment of the public health impact associated with the accidental release. Volume 2 of the report contains Appendices which provide more detailed information used in the assessment and support the discussion in Volume 1

  11. The GIS-based SafeAirView software for the concentration assessment of radioactive pollutants after an accidental release

    The European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy) has long been running nuclear installations for research purposes. The Nuclear Decommissioning and Facilities Management Unit (NDFM) is responsible for the surveillance of radioactivity levels in nuclear emergency conditions. The NDFM Unit has commissioned the implementation of a specifically developed decision support system, which can be used for quick emergency evaluation in the case of hypothetical accident and for emergency exercises. The requisites were to be a user-friendly software, able to quickly calculate and display values of air and ground radioactive contamination in the complex area around JRC, following an accidental release of radioactive substances from a JRC nuclear research installation. The developed software, named 'SafeAirView', is an advanced implementation of GIS technology applied to an existing MS-DOS mode dispersion model, SAFEAIR (Simulation of Air pollution From EmissionsAbove Inhomogeneous Regions). SAFEAIR is a numerical model which simulates transport, diffusion, and deposition of airborne pollutants emitted in the low atmosphere above complex orography at both local and regional scale, under non-stationary and inhomogeneous emission and meteorological conditions. SafeAirView makes use of user-friendly MS-Windows type interface which drives the dispersion model by a sequential and continuous input-output process, allowing a real time simulation. The GIS environment allows a direct interaction with the territory elements in which the simulation takes place, using data for the JRC Ispra region represented in geo-referenced cartography. Furthermore it offers the possibility to relate concentrations with population distribution and other geo-referenced maps, in a geographic view. Output concentration and deposition patterns can be plotted and/or exported. In spite of the selected specific databases, the SafeAirView software architecture is a general structure

  12. Review of decontamination and clean-up techniques for use in the UK following accidental releases of radioactivity to the environment

    This review examines decontamination and clean-up methodologies that may be applied following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere in the UK. An accidental release of radionuclides to the environment could cause contamination of land and property, and may necessitate movement of the resident population to reduce their exposure. Decontamination procedures may reduce the level of contamination and, in determining whether to implement such procedures in an affected area, it is necessary to weigh the effectiveness of the techniques against the associated economic costs and other disadvantages. The report gives a review of available methods of decontamination and clean-up in terms of the effectiveness of the various methods to remove activity from building or land surfaces and dose saved. It also considers associated disadvantages, costs, clean-up rates for land and buildings, waste disposal implications, and personnel and resource requirements. On the basis of these factors, the techniques are prioritised and overall strategies for decontamination following releases of both fission products and alpha emitters are presented. (author)

  13. The radiological consequences of notional accidental releases of radioactivity from fast breeder reactors: sensitivity of the incidence of early effects to the duration

    The radiological consequences of a wide range of notional accidental releases from a 1300 MW(e) LMFBR were assessed in a study published in 1977 (NRPB-R53). In that study representative values were in general adopted for each of the important parameters while recognising that in reality they could vary considerably. In this study the sensitivity of the predicted incidence of early effects to the release duration, in so far as it affects the crosswind spread of the activity, is investigated. Two situations are considered; a short release in which the crosswind distribution of the activity is assumed to be Gaussian and a more prolonged release (as modelled in the initial study) in which the crosswind distribution of activity is assumed uniform over a 300 sector. For the particular conditions and population distributions considered, the incidence of early effects is greater for the short compared with the more prolonged release. The size of the increase depends upon the radionuclide composition, the magnitude of the release, the distribution of the exposed population, and the prevailing meteorological conditions, but in general the increase is not large. This relatively limited sensitivity indicates that the results obtained in the initial study can be assumed, to a good approximation, to be applicable irrespective of the release duration. (author)

  14. Predictive contamination of animal products due to the inhalation of air and the ingestion of soil of cattle in an accidental release of radioactive materials. Focusing on contaminative influence of milk

    In an accidental release of radioactive materials to the environment, the contaminative influence of animal products due to the inhalation of air and the ingestion of soil of cattle, both of which are considered as minor contaminative pathways in most radioecological models but may be important ones, was investigated with the improvement of the Korean radioecological model DYNACON. Although mathematical models for both contaminative pathways have been established for considering all animal products and incorporated into the model, investigation was limited to milk. As a result, it was found that both pathways are influential in the contamination of milk during the non-grazing period of dairy cows. Precipitation was an influential factor in milk contamination due to the ingestion of soil, especially for 137Cs. In the case of an accidental release during the grazing period of dairy cows, the contaminative influence due to the inhalation of air was negligible irrespective of the existence of precipitation during an accidental release. (author)

  15. Liquid pathway generic study. Impacts of accidental radioactive releases to the hydrosphere from floating and land-based nuclear power plants

    The staff concludes that for representative sites, there are differences in the impacts of accidental radioactive releases to the hydrosphere between floating nuclear plants (FNPs) and land-based plants (LBPs) of the ice-condenser type. The consequences of releases from design basis accidents are found to be lower for an FNP than for an LBP. For core-melt events which we consider to be of very low probability, the staff results indicate that the expected liquid pathway consequences are higher at an FNP than at an LBP, and that interdiction at the site is not likely for an FNP. The staff considers this combination of differences in release magnitude and interdiction potential to be significant. An assessment of the overall significance of the total risk associated with potential releases to liquid and airborne pathways will be considered in a forthcoming environmental impact statement for the FNP. This environmental impact statement will include a consideration of the environmental, social, and economic impacts of the operation of the FNP, as well as a value-impact analysis of alternatives which may avoid or mitigate radiological impacts to the environment

  16. The radiological consequences of notional accidental releases of radioactivity from fast breeder reactors: sensitivity to the dose-effect relationships adopted for early biological effects

    This study considered the sensitivity to the dose-response relationships adopted for the estimation of early biological effects from notional accidental releases of radioactivity from fast breeder reactors. Two distinct aspects were considered: the sensitivity of the predicted consequences to variation in the dose-mortality relationships for irradiation of the bone marrow and the lung; and the influence of simple supportive medical treatment in reducing the incidence of early deaths in the exposed population. The numbers of early effects estimated in the initial study were relatively insensitive to variation in the dose-mortality relationships within the bounds proposed. The few exceptions concerned releases of particular nuclide composition, and the variation in the predicted consequences could be around an order of magnitude; the absolute numbers of effects however were in general small when the sensitivity was most pronounced. The reduction in the incidence of early deaths when using simple supportive treatment varied markedly with the nuclide composition of the release. Areas of uncertainty were identified where further research and investigation might most profitably be directed with a view to improving the reliability of the dose-effect relationships adopted and hence of the predicted consequences of the release considered. (author)

  17. The restraint of accidental blowout following the core meltdown of a bwr by release of pressure and filtering

    The report discusses core meltdown which may cause high pressure and blow the reactor containment. This might involve fission product release. A way to limit the release is to permit a controlled blowing of gases and vapour through a filter. The filter could be composed of a stonebed, a sandbed or a water basin. The specifications of a design applicable to a filtered release are discussed. (G.B.)

  18. Description of the SAFRAN Models for Evaluation of Worker Exposure Resulting from Accidental Release of Airborne Radioactive Materials snd User’s Guide. Annex I

    This document describes the method used in the SAFRAN tool for the calculation of exposure arising from accidental release of airborne radioactive materials. Models can be used for evaluation of occupational exposure to allow comparison with the relevant dose limiting criteria. Presently, four models are available to address different exposure conditions. The first three are ‘no dilution’ model, ‘gradual mixing’ model and ‘complete mixing’ model. The fourth combined ‘gradual mixing / complete mixing’ model is a combination of the two last models and allows the user to run subsequently the ‘gradual mixing and ‘complete mixing’ models. Each of the models are created using Ecolego. Each of the models is described and their practical use is explained

  19. R91-STAR (Short Term Accidental Release) and action plan and their use in aiding decision making for implementation of agriculture countermeasures

    This paper briefly describes the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food's arrangements to deal with a nuclear accident in England, and how technical information is translated into advice for decision makers. Two systems, R91-STAR (Short Term Accidental Release), a plume dispersion model, and Action-Plan, a geographic information system, are described, highlighting how these systems are used to produce predictions of the likely consequences to the food chain, the use of field measurements to improve model calculations and the subsequent production of advice for decision makers. Developments are discussed including linkage of the two systems to allow for direct flow data without multiple input, and to automate some calculations currently done manually. Practical examples of its use are also outlined. (author)

  20. Risk assessment, risk management and risk-based monitoring following a reported accidental release of poliovirus in Belgium, September to November 2014.

    Duizer, Erwin; Rutjes, Saskia; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Schijven, Jack

    2016-01-01

    On 6 September 2014, the accidental release of 10(13) infectious wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) particles by a vaccine production plant in Belgium was reported. WPV3 was released into the sewage system and discharged directly to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and subsequently into rivers that flowed to the Western Scheldt and the North Sea. No poliovirus was detected in samples from the WWTP, surface waters, mussels or sewage from the Netherlands. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) showed that the infection risks resulting from swimming in Belgium waters were above 50% for several days and that the infection risk by consuming shellfish harvested in the eastern part of the Western Scheldt warranted a shellfish cooking advice. We conclude that the reported release of WPV3 has neither resulted in detectable levels of poliovirus in any of the samples nor in poliovirus circulation in the Netherlands. This QMRA showed that relevant data on water flows were not readily available and that prior assumptions on dilution factors were overestimated. A QMRA should have been performed by all vaccine production facilities before starting up large-scale culture of WPV to be able to implement effective interventions when an accident happens. PMID:27020766

  1. The radiological consequences of notional accidental releases of radioactivity from fast breeder reactors: sensitivity to the choice of atmospheric dispersion model

    The radiological consequences of a wide range of notional accidental releases from a 1300 MW(e) LMFBR were assessed in a study published in 1977 (NRPB - R53). In that study representative values were in general adopted for each of the important parameters while recognising that in reality they could vary considerably. The present study is concerned with the sensitivity of the predicted consequences to the choice of atmospheric dispersion models. A comparison is made of the air concentrations predicted by a number of atmospheric models (which have found broad application) for releases of activity in selected meteorological conditions. The implications, in terms of the radiological consequences of particular releases, of differences in the air concentrations predicted by the respective models are assessed semi-quantitatively. In general the radiological consequences are shown to be relatively insensitive to the choice of atmospheric dispersion model. This is particularly so for the incidence of late biological effects; for early biological effects the sensitivity is more pronounced although of the models considered, that adopted in the initial study would yield results at the upper end of the predicted range. (author)

  2. Mobility of accidentally released radiocesium in a 'soil-water' system: looking at Fukushima from Chernobyl perspective - Mobility and bioavailability of radiocesium of accidental origin: looking at Fukushima from Chernobyl perspective

    Konoplev, Alexei; Nanba, Kenji; Takase, Tsugiko; Zheleznyak, Mark [Institute of Environmental Radioactivity, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan); Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi [Center for Research in Isotopes and Environmental Dynamics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8572 (Japan); Yoshimura, Kazuya [Sector of Fukushima Research and Development, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokyo 100-8577 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Mobility and bioavailability of radiocesium of accidental origin is governed by the ratio of radiocesium chemical forms in fallout and site-specific environmental characteristics determining the rates of leaching, fixation/remobilization, as well as sorption-desorption of the mobile fraction (its solid-liquid distribution). When the Chernobyl accident occurred, fuel particles were released which determined the two main features of the Chernobyl-origin radiocesium behavior: a) the initial mobility and availability of radiocesium in the near field was lower that for similar conditions in case of the global fallout, the Kyshtym accident and application of isotopes in the form of solutions; b) deposition of fuel particles on the underlying surface, primarily in the near field, led to strong dependence of the radiocesium initial mobility on the distance to the damaged reactor. In the case of the Fukushima accident there are no grounds to anticipate a dependence of the initial mobility of deposited radiocesium on the distance to the nuclear power plant, i.e. the initial chemical forms of radiocesium can probably be taken to be identical on all parts of the trail. A conceptual model was proposed for the key transformation processes of radiocesium speciation in soil and water bodies. The model includes the processes of radiocesium leaching from deposited particles, sorption-desorption by the ion-exchange mechanism, fixation and remobilization. The uncertainty associated with estimates and predictions of radionuclides behavior in the natural environmental media can be significantly reduced through the use of the exchangeable distribution coefficient K{sub dex} instead of the total K{sub dtot}. A method for parameterization of the wash-off coefficients using hydrological characteristics of the run-off has been proposed, which enables the experimental characteristics obtained in Chernobyl to be used for prediction purposes on Fukushima territories. A model has been proposed

  3. Mobility of accidentally released radiocesium in a 'soil-water' system: looking at Fukushima from Chernobyl perspective - Mobility and bioavailability of radiocesium of accidental origin: looking at Fukushima from Chernobyl perspective

    Mobility and bioavailability of radiocesium of accidental origin is governed by the ratio of radiocesium chemical forms in fallout and site-specific environmental characteristics determining the rates of leaching, fixation/remobilization, as well as sorption-desorption of the mobile fraction (its solid-liquid distribution). When the Chernobyl accident occurred, fuel particles were released which determined the two main features of the Chernobyl-origin radiocesium behavior: a) the initial mobility and availability of radiocesium in the near field was lower that for similar conditions in case of the global fallout, the Kyshtym accident and application of isotopes in the form of solutions; b) deposition of fuel particles on the underlying surface, primarily in the near field, led to strong dependence of the radiocesium initial mobility on the distance to the damaged reactor. In the case of the Fukushima accident there are no grounds to anticipate a dependence of the initial mobility of deposited radiocesium on the distance to the nuclear power plant, i.e. the initial chemical forms of radiocesium can probably be taken to be identical on all parts of the trail. A conceptual model was proposed for the key transformation processes of radiocesium speciation in soil and water bodies. The model includes the processes of radiocesium leaching from deposited particles, sorption-desorption by the ion-exchange mechanism, fixation and remobilization. The uncertainty associated with estimates and predictions of radionuclides behavior in the natural environmental media can be significantly reduced through the use of the exchangeable distribution coefficient Kdex instead of the total Kdtot. A method for parameterization of the wash-off coefficients using hydrological characteristics of the run-off has been proposed, which enables the experimental characteristics obtained in Chernobyl to be used for prediction purposes on Fukushima territories. A model has been proposed for

  4. 14 CFR 1213.106 - Preventing release of classified information to the media.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preventing release of classified... ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF INFORMATION TO NEWS AND INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.106 Preventing release of classified... employee from responsibility for preventing any unauthorized release. See NPR 1600.1, Chapter 5, Section...

  5. Modelling of the tritium dispersion from postulated accidental release of nuclear power plants; Modelagem da dispersao de tritio a partir de liberacoes acidentais postuladas de centrais nucleares

    Soares, Abner Duarte; Simoes Filho, Francisco Fernando Lamego; Cunha, Tatiana Santos da [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Aguiar, Andre Silva de; Lapa, Celso Marcelo Franklin, E-mail: asoares@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: flamego@ien.gov.b, E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This study has the aim to assess the impact of accidental release of tritium postulate from a nuclear power reactor through environmental modeling of aquatic resources. In order to do that it was used computational models to simulation of tritium dispersion caused by an accident in a Candu reactor located in the ongoing Angra 3 site. The Candu reactor is one that uses heavy water (D{sub 2}O) as moderator and coolant of the core. It was postulated, then, the LOCA accident (without fusion), where was lost 66 m3 of soda almost instantaneously. This inventory contained 35 P Bq and was released a load of 9.7 TBq/s in liquid form near the Itaorna beach, Angra dos Reis - RJ. The models mentioned above were applied in two scenarios (plant stopped or operating) and showed a tritium plume with specific activities larger than the reference level for seawater (1.1 MBq/m{sup 3}) during the first 14 days after the accident. (author)

  6. Prevention and mitigation of groundwater contamination from radioactive releases

    This document gives basic information on potential pathways and mechanisms, by which radioactive materials from releases can reach man, and on modelling considerations to predict the behaviour of radioactive materials in the ground. The main objective is to present an overview of existing techniques for preventing the offsite releases of contaminants into the groundwater systems and techniques for mitigation of effects of such releases should they occur. The recommended techniques are fully applicable to any hazardous materials, such as organic liquids, and toxic materials or otherwise dangerous materials, the presence of which in the accessible biosphere can represent health risks as well as economic losses to the general public. 11 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  7. SPEEDI: a computer code system for the real-time prediction of radiation dose to the public due to an accidental release

    SPEEDI, a computer code system for prediction of environmental doses from radioactive materials accidentally released from a nuclear plant has been developed to assist the organizations responsible for an emergency planning. For realistic simulation, have been developed a model which statistically predicts the basic wind data and then calculates the three-dimensional mass consistent wind field by interpolating these predicted data, and a model for calculation of the diffusion of released materials using a combined model of random-walk and PICK methods. These calculation in the system is carried out in conversational mode with a computer so that we may use the system with ease in an emergency. SPEEDI has also versatile files, which make it easy to control the complicated flows of calculation. In order to attain a short computation time, a large-scale computer with performance of 25 MIPS and a vector processor of maximum 250 MFLOPS are used for calculation of the models so that quick responses have been made. Simplified models are also prepared for calculation in a minicomputer widely used by local governments and research institutes, although the precision of calculation as same with the above models can not be expected to obtain. The present report outlines the structure and functions of SPEEDI, methods for prediction of the wind field and the models for calculation of the concentration of released materials in air and on the ground, and the doses to the public. Some of the diffusion models have been compared with the field experiments which had been carried out as a part of the SPEEDI development program. The report also discusses the reliability of the diffusion models on the basis of the compared results, and shows that they can reasonably simulate the diffusion in the internal boundary layer which commonly occurs near the coastal region. (J.P.N.)

  8. Accidental Innovation

    Austin, Robert D.; Devin, Lee; Sullivan, Erin E.

    2012-01-01

    Historical accounts of human achievement suggest that accidents can play an important role in innovation. In this paper, we seek to contribute to an understanding of how digital systems might support valuable unpredictability in innovation processes by examining how innovators who obtain value from...... they incorporate accidents into their deliberate processes and arranged surroundings. By comparing makers working in varied conditions, we identify specific factors (e.g., technologies, characteristics of technologies) that appear to support accidental innovation. We show that makers in certain specified...... conditions not only remain open to accident but also intentionally design their processes and surroundings to invite and exploit valuable accidents. Based on these findings, we offer advice for the design of digital systems to support innovation processes that can access valuable unpredictability....

  9. A computer code to estimate accidental fire and radioactive airborne releases in nuclear fuel cycle facilities: User's manual for FIRIN

    This manual describes the technical bases and use of the computer code FIRIN. This code was developed to estimate the source term release of smoke and radioactive particles from potential fires in nuclear fuel cycle facilities. FIRIN is a product of a broader study, Fuel Cycle Accident Analysis, which Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The technical bases of FIRIN consist of a nonradioactive fire source term model, compartment effects modeling, and radioactive source term models. These three elements interact with each other in the code affecting the course of the fire. This report also serves as a complete FIRIN user's manual. Included are the FIRIN code description with methods/algorithms of calculation and subroutines, code operating instructions with input requirements, and output descriptions. 40 refs., 5 figs., 31 tabs

  10. Dutch distribution zones of stable iodine tablets based on atmospheric dispersion modelling of accidental releases from nuclear power plants

    Rapid administration of stable iodine is essential for the saturation and subsequent protection of the thyroid gland against the potential harm caused by radio-iodines. This paper proposes the Dutch risk analysis that uses an atmospheric dispersion model to calculate the size of the zones around nuclear power plants where radiological thyroid doses for children might be sufficiently high to warrant iodine administration. Dose calculations for possible releases from the nuclear power plants of Borssele (The Netherlands), Doel (Belgium) and Emsland (Germany) are based on two scenarios in combination with a 1-y set of authentic, high-resolution meteorological data. The dimensions of the circular zones were defined for each nuclear power plant. In these zones, with a radius up to 50 km, distribution of stable iodine tablets is advised. (authors)

  11. Accidental release of UF6 at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation facility at Gore, Oklahoma, U.S.A

    On January 4, 1986, a 14-ton UF6 cylinder ruptured at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation (SFC) site at Gore, Oklahoma, U.S.A., resulting in a massive release of uranium hexafluoride. One SFC worker was killed and some workers were hospitalized. About 100 offsite individuals were admitted for medical screening in a local hospital. Shortly after the accident, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) gathered a group of experts (the Ad Hoc Interagency Task Force) to assess the potential health impact to the general public from this accident. In addition, the NRC formed a group to review and improve the protection of the general public from future accidents. A description of the accident, the public health impact, development of procedures for hospital screening, suggestions for future improvements, and the requirement for emergency planning for this type of facility is discussed in the following sections

  12. The contribution of the CSNI Principal Working Group on Confinement of Accidental Radioactive Releases to the technical consensus and spreading of knowledge on severe accidents

    The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) is an international committee made up of scientists and engineers. It was set up 1973 to develop and co-ordinate the activities of the NEA concerning the technical aspects of the design, construction and operation of nuclear installations insofar as they affect the safety of such installations. The Committee's purpose is to foster international cooperation in nuclear safety amongst the Member countries. Five Principal Working Groups (PWG) operate under the leadership of CSNI. PWG4 is named 'Confinement of Accidental Radioactive Releases' and its main activities are State of the Art Reports, International Standard Problem exercises, Specialist Meetings and Technical Opinion Papers. Together with other groups of experts involved in severe accident work, PWG4 has strongly contributed to the understanding of phenomena and the development of the knowledge base in that area, to the resolution of technical issues, and to the dissemination of the results. Taking examples from the products of the work of PWG4, the paper shows how this working group fosters international co-operation in the area of severe accidents and their management, and contributes to the development of a technical consensus. (author)

  13. User Guide ECOREA-RICE (version 1.0). Program for assessing the transfer of radionuclides released accidentally onto flooded rice-fields

    The computer code ECOREA-RICE is a dynamic compartment model that is specially designed for estimating the transfer of radionuclides deposited onto flooded rice-fields after an accidental release. The model consists of six independent compartments including rice-body, grain, surface water, root-zone soil, fixed soil and deep soil, and takes into account the transfer processes including radioactive decay, percolation, leaching, shoot-base absorption, root-uptake, weathering, translocation, fixation in soil by adsorption and desorption, and soil-mixing by plowing. The rate of the change of radioactivity in compartments is expressed by a set of the first order ordinary differential equations, which are solved by the fourth order Runge-Kutta algorithm. Input to the program includes the deposition date, transplanting date, ear emergence date, harvest date, soil data, the biomass data of rice-plant, and rate constants associated with transfer processes. Output includes the list of input data, the activity of radionuclides in compartment, the rate constant, and the transfer factor of rice-body and grain with time

  14. Evaluation of radiation doses to man due to consumption of milk and leafy vegetables after the accidental atmospheric releases of 131I and 137Cs

    This paper deals with the evaluation of doses to man due to the consumption of milk and leafy vegetables after accidental environmental releases of 131I, and 137Cs. In this study air to plant transfer factors have been experimentally determined using a specially designed exposure chamber. The experimentally obtained mass interception factors for spinach and fenugreek are 0.18 and 0.14 m2 kg-1 (wet weight basis) respectively. The average yearly consumption of leafy vegetable and milk by an adult Indian is 28 kg and 39 liter as per the UNSCEAR-2000. The large milching animals in India on an average, consume about 8.1 kg/day of dry grass. Washing of these plants, brings down the level of contamination and hence radiation doses to man by 20-30%. The dose received by a member of public by consuming milk and leafy vegetable works out to about 409 and 170 nSv per day with 1 kBq m-2 ground deposition, each of 131I and 137Cs. (author)

  15. Impact of 1986 Chernobyl accidental radioactive release on biomass supply for industrial use in central western Belarus

    The 1986 reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) in Ukraine had caused considerable radioactive fallouts throughout much of Belarus. It has been estimated that more than 20 % of Belarus would still remain contaminated with radionuclides 30 years after the NPP accident. Residual Cs-137 radionuclide is considered to be the most important. The physical half-life of Cs-137 is 30 years. Relatively high level of Cs-137 was identified to have been deposited in the top soil of several areas in the western region of Grodno oblast, during the first decade after the NPP accident. The mobility of Cs-137 in the soil is similar to that of K. In the 2004 survey data released by the United Nations, Cs-137 in the top soil of most of Belarus appeared to have dissipated largely into the natural cycle, including physical decay, high water solubility, and transference from the soil into the growing biomass (e.g., annual grain crops) which is exported from the affected region. The accumulation of Cs-137 in wood residues could be very problematic. Unlike annual cereal crops, trees are harvested typically in ~80-year cycles. Repeated exposure of workers to fugitive Cs-137 in wood wastes could pose a significant health hazard

  16. Derived emergency reference levels for the introduction of countermeasures in the early and intermediate phases of accidental releases to atmosphere

    When an unplanned release of radioactive material to atmosphere is identified or suspected, environmental survey teams under the direction of the operator of the nuclear installation are sent into the anticipated path of the plume of activity to make measurements and take samples. In the case of external dose, measurements can be easily related to projected doses to individual members of the public. However, the radiological interpretation of measurements of airborne activity concentrations, of activity levels on soil, pasture grass and crops, and of radionuclide levels in milk and drinking water requires the use of quantities which relate the appropriate environmental concentration to an implied dose. The derivation of these quantities is not a simple procedure, particularly when they are to be generally applicable. It involves interpretation of the primary dose criteria which have been established for planning the introduction of countermeasures, making assumptions about the habits of the group of people who could receive the highest doses, and using mathematical models to obtain a relationship between dose and activity concentrations in environmental materials. The paper describes recent work by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) to provide guidance on derived quantities for use in the United Kingdom (UK). While some of the numerical values obtained are specific to UK conditions, the methods and models are more generally applicable. (author)

  17. Modelling of tritium dispersion from postulated accidental release of nuclear power plants; Modelagem da dispersao de tritio a partir de liberacoes acidentais postuladas de centrais nucleares

    Soares, Abner Duarte

    2010-07-01

    This study has the aim to assess the impact of accidental release of tritium postulate from a nuclear power reactor through environmental modeling of aquatic resources. In order to do that it was used computational models of hydrodynamics and transport for the simulation of tritium dispersion caused by an accident in a CANDU reactor located in the ongoing Angra 3 site. This exercise was accomplished with the aid of a code system (SisBAHIA) developed in the Rio de Janeiro Federal University (COPPE/UFRJ). The CANDU reactor is one that uses heavy water (D{sub 2}O) as moderator and coolant of the core. It was postulated, then, the LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) accident in the emergency cooling system of the nucleus (without fusion), where was lost 66 m{sup 3} of soda almost instantaneously. This inventory contained 35 PBq and was released a load of 9.7 TBq/s in liquid form near the Itaorna beach, Angra dos Reis - RJ. The models mentioned above were applied in two scenarios (plant stopped and operating) and showed a tritium plume with specific activities larger than the reference level for seawater (1.1 MBq/m{sup 3} ) during the first 14 days after the accident. The main difference between the scenario without and with seawater recirculation (pumping and discharge) is based on the enhancement of dilution of the highest concentrations in the last one. This dilution enhancement resulting in decreasing concentrations was observed only during the first two weeks, when they ranged from 1x10{sup 9} to 5x10{sup 5} Bq/m{sup 3} close to the Itaorna beach spreading just to Sandri Island. After 180 days, the plume could not be detected anymore in the bay, because their activities would be lower than the minimum detectable value (< 11 kBq/m{sup 3}). (author)

  18. Assessment of the public health impact from the accidental release of UF6 at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation Facility at Gore, Oklahoma (Docket No. 40-8027, License No. SUB-1010). Main report. Volume 1

    Following the accidental release of UF6 from the Sequoyah Fuels Facility on January 4, 1986, an Ad Hoc Interagency Public Health Assessment Task Force was established. The Task Force consists of technical staff members from various agencies who have prepared this assessment of the public health impact associated with the accidental release. The assessment consists of two volumes and is based on data from the accident available as of February 14, 1986. Volume 1 of the report describes the effects from the intake of uranium and fluoride and summarizes the findings and recommendations of the Task Force. Volume 2 of the report contains Appendices which provide more detailed information used in the assessment and support the discussion in Volume 1. 57 refs., 26 figs., 12 tabs

  19. The conceptual definition of a crisis management system CMDSS for evaluating acceptable countermeasures to reduce ingestion dose after an accidental release of radioactivity

    A typical example for decision making in a crisis situation could be an environmental accident involving extensive radioactive or chemical contamination. Due to the large consequences and the great number of people which may be affected, the selection of the best countermeasures to ameliorate the imminent impact is very difficult and the political responsibility is enormous. Judging the advantages and disadvantages of a particular action with respect to one or more criteria will be very difficult, because the required data will often not be available and the decision makers have to cope with qualitative statements and uncertainty about many factors. Due to stress, uncertainty, information distortion or information overload, decision quality is often negatively affected in a crisis situation and decision makers operating under acute stress are scarcely capable of considering judgment. To help overcome such problems the Institute for Automation and Operations Research at the University of Fribourg has been charged by the Swiss government to design a concept for a Crisis Management Decision Support System CMDSS and to implement a prototype. It should help evaluate the most efficient and acceptable countermeasures after an accidental release of radioactivity allowing for such factors as variable consumption rates, technological processing or dilution with uncontaminated food stuff, for instance. To allow a quick reaction and a clear choice between certain alternatives, special decision-aid-instruments will be used such as filtering techniques, optimization features and outranking methods. The prototype of the designed Crisis Management Decision Support System CMDSS will be established corresponding to the possibilities of a modern computer support. This includes a monitoring and sensoring system, a threat assessment component and all the necessary models to generate and rank the different countermeasures. A multicriteria outranking approach and different group decision

  20. Emergency procedures for nuclear installations: on the simulation and interpretation of offsite air sampling measurements during the early phase of an accidental release of radioactivity to the atmosphere

    During the early stages of an accidental release of radioactive material to the atmosphere, the immediate aims of the offsite Emergency management scheme are twofold: firstly, to determine the extent of any contamination occurring close to the site (i.e. out to a few km) for purposes of protecting the local public; secondly, to provide early estimates of source term and hence permit consequences farther afield to be assessed. In practice, these objectives would be largely reliant upon the sampling measurements made by mobile offsite survey teams and the ability with which they may be interpreted in terms of an atmospheric dispersion model. This paper investigates the methodology and effectiveness of these tasks for the rapid provision of advice to decision makers. SF6 tracer experiments which simulate the offsite plume sampling procedure are described. These provide realistic demonstrations of data quality with respect to variability and sparsity, and provide practical insight into the cause of these effects as well as guidance to improve the effectiveness of the sampling strategy. A statistical scheme is described which may be used in conjunction with a plume dispersion model to analyse such data and to provide hourly averaged estimates of source strength and plume concentration/dose. Worked examples using SF6 simulation data sets for a single sampling vehicle and a 2-dimensional gaussian plume model are presented and used to assess the accuracy and limitations of the averall approach. Although the results are encouraging, performance is found to fairly sensitive to the quality and quantity of the data

  1. Evacuation of the population as a means of mitigating the radiological effects following an accidental atmospheric release of radioactivity from a nuclear power plant

    Evacuation of the population in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant following an accidental release of radioactivity into the atmosphere, is one of the protective means which might reduce the radiation doses and radiological effects caused to the population. An evacuation simulation model - RECLEAR - was developed in order to investigate the dependency of the evacuation efficiency on various parameters. It was found that the efficiency is dependent on many factors - meteorological, demographic and transportation parameters. RECLEAR was developed by coupling two computer codes: a) CLEAR (Mo82) a simulation model which calculates the time required to evacuate the population from a given area - Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) and b) REMAND (St85) - a radiological consequence model which evaluates the radiation doses and radiological effects caused to (a stationary) population, following an accident in a nuclear power plant. RECLEAR is a simulation code which calculates the evacuation duration as well as the radiation doses to the population, received while evacuating. The code describes the progress of individual vehicles along the site's specific road network (composed of road segments), using the relationships between traffic flow rates, travel velocity and road capacity in each road segment. The code also simulates traffic jams and intersections. Preliminary results reveal two main factors that might effect the efficiency of evacuation: 1) The traffic density during evacuation and 2) The delay of the population before onset of movement. It should be emphasized that the results presented in this study are of a preliminary nature, however, the model and the results received so far might constitute a basis for further work on the subject and it can also be used as a tool in non-radiological emergency planning and, with some adaptions, as a means of a real-time hazards evaluation

  2. Mediterranean fruit fly preventative release programme in southern California

    California employs several area-wide pest management programmes that use the release of sterile insects to protect its commercial and dooryard agriculture. The first was developed in response to the discovery of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, in Tijuana, Mexico and adjacent areas in San Diego County, California. Initially pesticide sprays of malathion and bait were applied to host plants around each fly find site. Additionally, soil sprays of diazion (0.05 kg per 93 m2) were applied under every host plant around each fly find site. It soon became apparent that this approach was expensive and environmentally damaging. This led the interested parties, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the government of Mexico to develop a programme that utilises the release of sterile Mexican fruit flies over the city of Tijuana in order to prevent the establishment of a breeding population of this fly in the city. The belief is that preventing the Mexican fruit fly from breeding in Tijuana will help protect both that city and California. To date, no Mexican fruit fly larvae have been found in Tijuana or the adjacent areas of California. The second programme was developed in response to the discovery of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, in cotton in the Imperial Valley area of southern California. As the pink bollworm spread throughout the cotton growing region of southern California, it became a significant pest that threatened the 405,000 hectares of cotton grown in the San Joaquin Valley to the north. To keep this pest out of the San Joaquin Valley, the CDFA/USDA and California cotton growers use the large-scale releases of sterile pink bollworms in areas in which wild pink bollworms are captured each year. Thus far, the pink bollworm has been prevented from establishing a permanent presence in the San Joaquin Valley and the cotton growers in southern California, Arizona and

  3. Post clubfoot release skin necrosis: a preventable disaster

    Sajad Ahmad Salati

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Complications of pedal wounds closed primarily after release of neglected cases of club foot are well known in literature. We treated a 12-year-old boy presenting with widespread necrosis involving medial aspect of foot after release of neglected talipes equinovarus. Such widespread necrosis is even known to end up in amputations and permanent disabilities. In our case, the foot was successfully salvaged by resorting to dedicated wound care, multiple debridements, use of topical negative pressure (vacuum-assisted closure – VAC, and skin grafting. Various means to prevent such adverse events are also presented. The aim of publishing this case is to stress the need to:Take proper measures preoperatively in neglected club feet to decrease the impact of deformity.To be aware of various different flaps and methods of closure as mentioned in literature and to reaffirm the fact that primary closures done under tension are bound to fail and end up in disasters.To be patient and use the modern concepts of wound management like topical negative pressure if such unfortunate complications do occur and thereby attempt to salvage the feet.

  4. Current status of development of the HARP software tool serving to estimate radiological impacts of accidental atmospheric radioactivity releases on the population

    Current state of development of the HARP (HAzardous Radioactivity Propagation) software tool serving to estimate radiological burden on the population arising from accidental radioactivity leaks into the air is described with focus on the deterministic HAVAR-DET approach. The deterministic root of the HARP system estimates atmospheric propagation of radioactivity and its subsequent infiltration into the human body. (orig.)

  5. Accidental tritium release from nuclear technologies and a radiobiological survey of the impact of low dose tritium on the developing mouse brain

    Full text: The Atomic Energy Act, 1962 provides for the development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy for the welfare of the people in India. The licensing policy adopted for nuclear power stations in India requires that the plants meet stringent requirements based on the system of dose limitation, recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). Currently, nuclear energy is contributing just 3% of the country's power generation. The share of nuclear power is proposed to be increased to 10% in the near future. With the introduction of nuclear energy, the need to assess the radioecological and radiobiological impact of radionuclides of long half- life existing in the environment for longer duration has appeared. Tritium, a radioactive by-product of power reactors is one of such major radionuclides of concern. In the world, routine releases and accidental spills of tritium from nuclear power plants pose a growing health and safety concern. Tritium has been observed in ground water in the vicinity of several nuclear stations. Exposure to tritium has been clinically proven to cause deleterious and detectable effects such as teratogenesis, cancer and life shortening in laboratory animals. There is, now, a growing emphasis on tritium in radiation protection as the challenge of nuclear fusion comes nearer. Present investigation is an attempt to elucidate the effects of low dose tritiated water exposure on developing mouse cerebellum. Pregnant Swiss albino mice (12-15 in number were given a priming injection 7.4 and 74 kBq/ml of body water) of tritiated water (HTO) on 16th day of gestation. From the same day onward, through parturition, till the last interval studied, the pregnant females were continuously maintained respectively on 11.1 and 111 kBq/ml of tritiated drinking water provided ad libidum. After cervical dislocation the litters were autopsied on 1, 3, 5 and 6 weeks post- partum. Brains were fixed and then cerebellum from each of

  6. Report of the first research co-ordination meeting on the co-ordinated research programme: Development and selection of analytical techniques for measuring accidentally released radionuclides in environment

    The participants at the second Research Co-ordination Meeting (Vienna, 12-16 August 1991) of the CRP on 'Rapid Instrumental and Separation Methods for Monitoring Radionuclides in Food and Environmental Samples', recommended that a new CRP be established. The current CRP on 'Development and Selection of Analytical Techniques and Procedures for Measuring Accidentally Released Radionuclides in Environment' was established based on this recommendation. The objectives of this CRP are to conduct research and development on applicable methodologies for response to accidental releases, and to improve and maintain the capabilities of the network of laboratories and provide training of individuals within member states. Thus, the CRP serves as a vehicle to maintain contact within the network of laboratories, while developing and transferring analytical techniques and procedures for measuring accidentally released radioactivity. The purpose of the Research Co-ordination Meeting is to discuss the proposed research programs, the status to date and the work planned for the duration of the CRP. The meeting also provides the opportunity for the CRP participants to exchange ideas and possibly develop collaborations in their research. The members of the CRP also need to discuss issues related to the previous CRP on Rapid methods. These include: the preparation of the final report of the previous CRP, the preparation of an addendum to TRS-295 and the ultimate revision or updating of TRS-295. Finally, it is intended that the members of the CRP should discuss the mandate and scope of work of the network of analytical laboratories and the steps needed to firmly establish this network

  7. 小儿意外伤害危险因素分析与预防%Analysis and Prevention the Risk Factor of Children Accidental Injury

    彭丽琨

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究探讨造成小儿意外伤害的危险因素以及原因,并对这些危险因素进行分析,提出预防措施。方法选择2014年1月~2015年1月期间,在我院各个科室接受治疗的330例小儿意外伤害患儿作为此次的研究对象,并对其遭受的意外伤害的种类及患儿的年龄段进行分析。结果意外伤害高发年龄段为1~3岁年龄段,为幼儿期,占在我院各个科室接受治疗的330例小儿意外伤害患儿的70.61%(233/330)。儿童遭受的意外伤害种类病例最多的为外伤,所占比例为66.67%(56/330),其次便是窒息,所占比例为16.97%(56/330)。结论造成儿童损伤的危险因素很多,最主要的是外伤,可以采取有针对性的措施预防儿童意外伤害。%Objective To study the risk factors and cause of children's accident harm,and analyzes these risk factors,prevention measures are put forward.Methods Choose 330 cases of pediatric injury patients as the research object in our hospital from January 2014 to January 2015 who were during the period of each department for treatment,analyses the sufers accident harm、types and the patient's age.ResultsThe age in high incidence of accident harm is 1~3 years of age,as an early childhood,each department in our hospital for treatment of 330 cases of children's accidental injury 70.61% (233/330). Children sufers accident harm to kinds of most cases of trauma,the proportion was 66.67% (56/330). the second is choking, the percentage was 16.97% (56/330).Conclusion Children damage risk factor for many,the mainest is trauma which can take targeted measures to prevent accidental injury in children.

  8. 40 CFR 267.1102 - What other requirements must I meet to prevent releases?

    2010-07-01

    ... prevent releases? 267.1102 Section 267.1102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... to prevent releases? You must use controls and practices to ensure containment of the hazardous waste... of the unit so that the height of any containment wall is not exceeded. (c) Take measures to...

  9. Post clubfoot release skin necrosis: a preventable disaster

    Salati, Sajad Ahmad; al Aithan, Bandar

    2011-01-01

    Complications of pedal wounds closed primarily after release of neglected cases of club foot are well known in literature. We treated a 12-year-old boy presenting with widespread necrosis involving medial aspect of foot after release of neglected talipes equinovarus. Such widespread necrosis is even known to end up in amputations and permanent disabilities. In our case, the foot was successfully salvaged by resorting to dedicated wound care, multiple debridements, use of topical negative pres...

  10. A multiple lines of evidence approach for the ecological risk assessment of an accidental bitumen release from a steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) well in the Athabasca oil sands region.

    Berger, Robert G; Aslund, Melissa Whitfield; Sanders, Greg; Charlebois, Michael; Knopper, Loren D; Bresee, Karl E

    2016-01-15

    To assess the ecological impacts of two independent accidental bitumen releases from two steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells in the Athabasca oil sands region, a multiple lines of evidence (LOE) approach was developed. Following the release in 2010, action was taken to minimize environmental impact, including the selective removal of the most highly impacted vegetation and the use of oil socks to minimize possible runoff. An ecological risk assessment (ERA) was then conducted based on reported concentrations of bitumen related contaminants in soil, vegetation, and water. Results of biological assessments conducted at the site were also included in the risk characterization. Overall, the conclusion of the ERA was that the likelihood of long-term adverse health effects to ecological receptors in the area was negligible. To provide evidence for this conclusion, a small mammal sampling plan targeting Southern red-back voles (Myodes gapperi) was carried out at two sites and two relevant reference areas. Voles were readily collected at all locations and no statistically significant differences in morphometric measurements (i.e., body mass, length, foot length, and adjusted liver weight) were found between animals collected from impact zones of varying levels of coverage. Additionally, no trends corresponding with bitumen coverage were observed with respect to metal body burden in voles for metals that were previously identified in the source bitumen. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was statistically significantly elevated in voles collected from the high impact zones of sites compared to those collected from the reference areas, a finding that is indicative of continued exposure to contaminants. However, this increase in EROD was not correlated with any observable adverse population-wide biological outcomes. Therefore the biological sampling program supported the conclusion of the initial ERA and supported the hypothesis of no significant

  11. Mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Stevens, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    A mathematical model was constructed for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included. 25 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  12. Safety barriers on oil and gas platforms. Means to prevent hydrocarbon releases

    Sklet, Snorre

    2005-12-15

    The main objective of the PhD project has been to develop concepts and methods that can be used to define, illustrate, analyse, and improve safety barriers in the operational phase of offshore oil and gas production platforms. The main contributions of this thesis are; Clarification of the term safety barrier with respect to definitions, classification, and relevant attributes for analysis of barrier performance Development and discussion of a representative set of hydrocarbon release scenarios Development and testing of a new method, BORA-Release, for qualitative and quantitative risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases Safety barriers are defined as physical and/or non-physical means planned to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. The means may range from a single technical unit or human actions, to a complex socio-technical system. It is useful to distinguish between barrier functions and barrier systems. Barrier functions describe the purpose of safety barriers or what the safety barriers shall do in order to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. Barrier systems describe how a barrier function is realized or executed. If the barrier system is functioning, the barrier function is performed. If a barrier function is performed successfully, it should have a direct and significant effect on the occurrence and/or consequences of an undesired event or accident. It is recommended to address the following attributes to characterize the performance of safety barriers; a) functionality/effectiveness, b) reliability/ availability, c) response time, d) robustness, and e) triggering event or condition. For some types of barriers, not all the attributes are relevant or necessary in order to describe the barrier performance. The presented hydrocarbon release scenarios include initiating events, barrier functions introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and barrier systems realizing the barrier functions. Both technical and human

  13. Models selected for calculation of doses, health effects and economic costs due to accidental radionuclide releases from nuclear power plants. Technical report

    Models are described for use in site-specific environmental consequence analysis of nuclear reactor accidents of Classes 3 through 9. The models presented relate radioactivity released to resulting doses, health effects, and costs of remedial actions. Specific models are presented for the major exposure pathways of airborne releases, waterborne releases and direct irradiation from activity within the facility buildings, such as the containment. Time-dependent atmospheric dispersion parameters, crop production parameters, and other variable parameters are used in the models. The environmental effects are analyzed for several accident start times during the year. Several remedial actions are considered

  14. The Adoption of Urgent Measures to Protect the Population in the Event of an Accidental Release of Radioactivity into the Environment

    The authors consider a situation in which there is a risk of the population being seriously exposed to radiation through the accidental entry of radioactive material into the environment. The specific features of the situation under consideration are such that the appropriate protective measures can only be effective if implemented in time, i.e. within the first few hours or days of the emergency. Hence a programme providing for protection of the population against radiation in an emergency should include (a) methods by which the dosimetric information required for a rapid evaluation of the potential radiation hazard can be promptly obtained, and (b) criteria for the . adoption of urgent measures, i.e., the levels of radioactive contamination or irradiation justifying or not justifying the need for the implementation of specific protective measures. The authors make recommendations (draft regulations) on which to base such decisions. The criterion for the decisions is based on two hazard levels (A and B) for each of the irradiation paths, potentially significant in the given situation: external and contact irradiation, inhalation, and contamination of foodstuffs. Decisions to adopt immediate protective measures should be based on a comparison between the evaluated (predicted) hazard levels and the critical levels, defined as those hazard levels at which implementation of the protective measures under consideration is (A) desirable or (B) obligatory, irrespective of the specific circumstances. Figures for the critical levels are chosen with regard to the specific nature of the situation and protective measures, maximum permissible levels for occupational exposure, and known information on the biological risk of certain exposure levels. (author)

  15. Radiative accidental matter

    Sierra, D Aristizabal; Wegman, D

    2016-01-01

    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that $\\mu\\to e \\gamma$ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below $10^6\\,$ GeV, a value (natur...

  16. The Impact of Pollution Prevention on Toxic Environmental Releases from U.S. Manufacturing Facilities.

    Ranson, Matthew; Cox, Brendan; Keenan, Cheryl; Teitelbaum, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Between 1991 and 2012, the facilities that reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) Program conducted 370,000 source reduction projects. We use this data set to conduct the first quasi-experimental retrospective evaluation of how implementing a source reduction (pollution prevention) project affects the quantity of toxic chemicals released to the environment by an average industrial facility. We use a differences-in-differences methodology, which measures how implementing a source reduction project affects a facility's releases of targeted chemicals, relative to releases of (a) other untargeted chemicals from the same facility, or (b) the same chemical from other facilities in the same industry. We find that the average source reduction project causes a 9-16% decrease in releases of targeted chemicals in the year of implementation. Source reduction techniques vary in effectiveness: for example, raw material modification causes a large decrease in releases, while inventory control has no detectable effect. Our analysis suggests that in aggregate, the source reduction projects carried out in the U.S. since 1991 have prevented between 5 and 14 billion pounds of toxic releases. PMID:26477531

  17. Transfer of Tritium in the Environment after Accidental Releases from Nuclear Facilities. Report of Working Group 7 Tritium Accidents of EMRAS II Topical Heading Approaches for Assessing Emergency Situations. Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (Emras II) Programme

    Environmental assessment models are used for evaluating the radiological impact of actual and potential releases of radionuclides to the environment. They are essential tools for use in the regulatory control of routine discharges to the environment and also in planning measures to be taken in the event of accidental releases. They are also used for predicting the impact of releases which may occur far into the future, for example, from underground radioactive waste repositories. It is important to verify, to the extent possible, the reliability of the predictions of such models by a comparison with measured values in the environment or with predictions of other models. The IAEA has been organizing programmes of international model testing since the 1980s. These programmes have contributed to a general improvement in models, in the transfer of data and in the capabilities of modellers in Member States. IAEA publications on this subject over the past three decades demonstrate the comprehensive nature of the programmes and record the associated advances which have been made. From 2009 to 2011, the IAEA organized a programme entitled Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II), which concentrated on the improvement of environmental transfer models and the development of reference approaches to estimate the radiological impacts on humans, as well as on flora and fauna, arising from radionuclides in the environment. Different aspects were addressed by nine working groups covering three themes: reference approaches for human dose assessment, reference approaches for biota dose assessment and approaches for assessing emergency situations. This publication describes the work of the Tritium Accidents Working Group

  18. Risk-based fault tree analysis method for identification, preliminary evaluation, and screening of potential accidental release sequences in nuclear fuel cycle operations

    A method is described for identification, preliminary evaluation, and screening of potential accident sequences leading to uncontrolled release of radioactive materials. Included is a procedure for estimating the risk sum of all identified sequences. In addition, portions of the procedures have been developed for detailed analysis of the dominant (highest risk) sequences so screened. This method was developed for the ERDA-sponsored risk analysis of systems for managing high-level waste, part of the Waste Fixation Program (WFP). The method begins with certain preliminary analyses. The facility and operation are described and analysis bounds are established. A type of fault tree construction, the ''to/through'' approach, was chosen for the WFP waste management system. The to/through fault tree approach offers advantages over others in several respects. The analysis is considered more complete because the system is treated as a whole. The screening process was successfully demonstrated on a conceptual waste management system for the Waste Fixation Program. Fault trees were constructed and evaluated for processing, handling, transporting, and storing high-level waste. Trees of up to 14,000,000 release sequences (BICS-Boolean-indicated cut sets) were screened and the top few hundred or thousand sequences preliminarily ranked. An estimate of the total risk represented in the fault tree was also obtained

  19. Risk-based fault tree analysis method for identification, preliminary evaluation, and screening of potential accidental release sequences in nuclear fuel cycle operations

    Smith, T.H.; Pelto, P.J.; Stevens, D.L.; Seybold, G.D.; Purcell, W.L.; Kimmel, L.V.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for identification, preliminary evaluation, and screening of potential accident sequences leading to uncontrolled release of radioactive materials. Included is a procedure for estimating the risk sum of all identified sequences. In addition, portions of the procedures have been developed for detailed analysis of the dominant (highest risk) sequences so screened. This method was developed for the ERDA-sponsored risk analysis of systems for managing high-level waste, part of the Waste Fixation Program (WFP). The method begins with certain preliminary analyses. The facility and operation are described and analysis bounds are established. A type of fault tree construction, the ''to/through'' approach, was chosen for the WFP waste management system. The to/through fault tree approach offers advantages over others in several respects. The analysis is considered more complete because the system is treated as a whole. The screening process was successfully demonstrated on a conceptual waste management system for the Waste Fixation Program. Fault trees were constructed and evaluated for processing, handling, transporting, and storing high-level waste. Trees of up to 14,000,000 release sequences (BICS-Boolean-indicated cut sets) were screened and the top few hundred or thousand sequences preliminarily ranked. An estimate of the total risk represented in the fault tree was also obtained. (auth)

  20. A computer code to estimate accidental fire and radioactive airborne releases in nuclear fuel cycle facilities: User's manual for FIRIN

    Chan, M.K.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Owczarski, P.C.

    1989-02-01

    This manual describes the technical bases and use of the computer code FIRIN. This code was developed to estimate the source term release of smoke and radioactive particles from potential fires in nuclear fuel cycle facilities. FIRIN is a product of a broader study, Fuel Cycle Accident Analysis, which Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The technical bases of FIRIN consist of a nonradioactive fire source term model, compartment effects modeling, and radioactive source term models. These three elements interact with each other in the code affecting the course of the fire. This report also serves as a complete FIRIN user's manual. Included are the FIRIN code description with methods/algorithms of calculation and subroutines, code operating instructions with input requirements, and output descriptions. 40 refs., 5 figs., 31 tabs.

  1. Identification and characterization of five non-traditional-source categories: Catastrophic/accidental releases, vehicle repair facilities, recycling, pesticide application, and agricultural operations. Final report, September 1991-September 1992

    The work is part of EPA's program to identify and characterize emissions sources not currently accounted for by either the existing Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) or State Implementation Plans (SIP) area source methodologies and to develop appropriate emissions estimation methodologies and emission factors for a group of these source categories. Based on the results of the identification and characterization portions of the research, five source categories were selected for methodology and emission factor development: catastrophic/accidental releases, vehicle repair facilities, recycling, pesticide application and agricultural operations. The report presents emissions estimation methodologies and emission factor data for the selected source categories. The discussions for each selected category include general background information, emissions generation activities, pollutants emitted, sources of activity and pollutant data, emissions estimation methodologies, issues to be considered and recommendations. The information used in these discussions was derived from various sources including available literature, industrial and trade association publications and contracts, experts on the category and activity, and knowledgeable federal and state personnel

  2. A fast method for monitoring I-129 in milk in the surveillance of radioactive waste repositories in the event of accidental releases

    The German Guidelines for Monitoring the Emission and Imission from Nuclear Facilities [1] stipulate the monitoring of I-129 in milk produced in the vicinity of nuclear waste repositories when the release of this nuclide is possible e. g. after a fault or an accident. The monitoring detection limit is 2 Bq I-129 per litre milk. This paper describes a simple radiochemical method for separating I-129 from liquid milk in a form suitable for direct γ-spectrometry of the characteristic 39.6 keV emission line of I-129. The iodine is extracted from the milk with an anion exchange resin, eluted from the resin with aqueous sodium hypochlorite, then bound directly from the eluate to a small amount of cuprous sulfide. This is collected on a small filter paper disc, dried and counted with a low level, low energy germanium γ-spectrometer. After 60 minutes counting of iodine separated from 0.5 litre milk samples the detection limit was about 0.35 Bq/l i. e. the required limit was readily attained. (orig.)

  3. ISDOSE 3.0: A simple code to calculate inhalation and submersion dose equivalents from routine and accidental releases of radioactive material

    The ISDOSE (Inhalation and Submersion DOSE equivalent) computer code was developed at Battelle Memorial Institute for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to calculate submersion and inhalation doses from atmospheric releases of radionuclides from routine and unanticipated events during the preclosure phase at a nuclear waste repository. This user's manual presents the third version of the ISDOSE code (ISDOSE 3.0). ISDOSE is a simple code; i.e., it performs functions that can be verified easily by hand calculations. ISDOSE uses two dose conversion factor libraries: one for submersion dose conversion factors and one for inhalation dose conversion factors. The libraries contain data for 30 radionuclides that are of interest during the preclosure phase of the repository. The conversion factors are based on recommendations and dosimetric data published by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. The libraries contain both effective dose equivalent factors and dose equivalent factors for 11 organs. The inhalation dose equivalent factor library contains data for the different solubility classes of each radionuclide. ISDOSE can be set up to calculate a collective dose equivalent to a given population, or a maximum individual dose equivalent. The population distribution input parameter is in the form of a circular grid, which is divided into 16 sectors and 5 concentric annuli (i.e., 80 sections). A wind frequency input value is required for each of the sixteen sectors of the grid, and a ξ/Q value, the dispersion factor for airborne contaminants, is required for each of the 80 sections of the grid. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Portable Filtered Air Suction System for Released Radioactive Gases Prevention under a Severe Accident of NPPs

    In this paper, the portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for released radioactive gases prevention under a severe accident of NPP is proposed. This technology can prevent the release of the radioactive gases to the atmosphere and it can be more economical than FVCS because PoFASS can cover many NPPs with its high mobility. The conceptual design of PoFASS, which has the highest cost effectiveness and robustness to the environment condition such as wind velocity and precipitation, is suggested and the related previous research is introduced in this paper. The portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for released radioactive gases prevention can play a key role to mitigate the severe accident of NPP with its high cost effectiveness and robustness to the environment conditions. As further works, the detail design of PoFASS to fabricate a prototype for a demonstration will be proceeded. When released radioactive gases from the broken containment building in the severe accident of nuclear power plants (NPPs) such as the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents occur, there are no ways to prevent the released radioactive gases spreading in the air. In order to solve this problem, several European NPPs have adopted the filtered vented containment system (FVCS), which can avoid the containment failure through a pressure relief capability to protect the containment building against overpressure. However, the installation cost of FVCS for a NPP is more than $10 million and this system has not been widely welcomed by NPP operating companies due to its high cost

  5. Portable Filtered Air Suction System for Released Radioactive Gases Prevention under a Severe Accident of NPPs

    Gu, Beom W.; Choi, Su Y.; Rim, Chun T. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, the portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for released radioactive gases prevention under a severe accident of NPP is proposed. This technology can prevent the release of the radioactive gases to the atmosphere and it can be more economical than FVCS because PoFASS can cover many NPPs with its high mobility. The conceptual design of PoFASS, which has the highest cost effectiveness and robustness to the environment condition such as wind velocity and precipitation, is suggested and the related previous research is introduced in this paper. The portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for released radioactive gases prevention can play a key role to mitigate the severe accident of NPP with its high cost effectiveness and robustness to the environment conditions. As further works, the detail design of PoFASS to fabricate a prototype for a demonstration will be proceeded. When released radioactive gases from the broken containment building in the severe accident of nuclear power plants (NPPs) such as the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents occur, there are no ways to prevent the released radioactive gases spreading in the air. In order to solve this problem, several European NPPs have adopted the filtered vented containment system (FVCS), which can avoid the containment failure through a pressure relief capability to protect the containment building against overpressure. However, the installation cost of FVCS for a NPP is more than $10 million and this system has not been widely welcomed by NPP operating companies due to its high cost.

  6. Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan (ERP and CP) annual review and update for 1993

    In the Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan (ERP and CP), WSRC made a commitment to conduct the following follow-up activities and actions: (1) Complete the action items developed in response to the findings and recommendation of the Environmental Release Prevention Taskteam (WSRC-RP-92-356). (2) Complete all batch and continuous release procedure revisions to incorporate the attributes that WSRC senior management required of each procedure. (3) DOE-SR Assistance Managers and WSRC counterparts to reach consensus and closure on the identified engineered solutions documented in the ERP and CP, develop and drive implementation of facility changes per the agreements. (4) Continue to analyze releases and monitor performance in accordance with the ERP and CP, and utilize the ALARA Release Guides Committee to drive improvements. (5) Conduct annual re-evaluations of the cost benefit analyses of the identified engineered solutions, and identify new options and alternatives for each outfall in response to site mission and facility changes. This report documents the efforts that have been completed over the past year in response to these commitments

  7. Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan (ERP and CP) annual review and update for 1993

    Jannik, G.T. [comp.; Mamatey, A.; Arnett, M.

    1993-10-05

    In the Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan (ERP and CP), WSRC made a commitment to conduct the following follow-up activities and actions: (1) Complete the action items developed in response to the findings and recommendation of the Environmental Release Prevention Taskteam (WSRC-RP-92-356). (2) Complete all batch and continuous release procedure revisions to incorporate the attributes that WSRC senior management required of each procedure. (3) DOE-SR Assistance Managers and WSRC counterparts to reach consensus and closure on the identified engineered solutions documented in the ERP and CP, develop and drive implementation of facility changes per the agreements. (4) Continue to analyze releases and monitor performance in accordance with the ERP and CP, and utilize the ALARA Release Guides Committee to drive improvements. (5) Conduct annual re-evaluations of the cost benefit analyses of the identified engineered solutions, and identify new options and alternatives for each outfall in response to site mission and facility changes. This report documents the efforts that have been completed over the past year in response to these commitments.

  8. Radionuclides in an arctic terrestrial ecosystem affected by atmospheric release from the Kraton-3 accidental underground nuclear explosion. 2001-2002

    Current distributions of artificial radionuclides (ARN) were studied in the main compartments of a larch-tree forest lethally affected by a radioactive release from the Kraton-3 peaceful underground nuclear explosion (65.9 deg N, 112.3 deg E; Yakutia, Russia; 1978). Samples of soil, fungi, lichens, mosses, grasses, shrubs and trees were obtained at points belonging to four zones categorised by the severity of the ecosystem damage. Sampling was supplemented by dose rate measurements in air and mapping. The area of forest characterised by 100% lethality to adult larches (Larix gmelinii) and with partial, visually-detectable damage of other more radio-resistance species (e.g. lichens, mosses) covers a territory of approximately 1.2 km2. Elevated levels of long-lived ARN were found at all sampling sites. Maximum registered levels of the ground contamination with radionuclides of Cs, Sr and Pu were three orders of magnitude higher than those expected from global fallout. The ratios of 137Cs to some other significant radionuclides in the ground contamination were as follows [mean (range)]: 90Sr - 0.57(0.02-0.93); 239,240Pu 44(25-72); 60Co 470(220-760). Twenty-three years after a discrete contamination event, 90-95% of the total deposited radiocesium and plutonium has still remained in the lichen-moss on-ground cover and in the top 5 cm organic soil layer. At the same time, vertical and horizontal migrations of 90Sr in soil were more pronounced. Strong surface contamination with 137Cs, 90Sr and plutonium was detected at the twigs and bark of the dead larches. The young larches that grew at the contaminated area following the initial destruction of the forest demonstrated a substantial ability to accumulate 137Cs, 90Sr and plutonium via roots, while the bushes selectively accumulated mainly radiostrontium. In contrast, some fungi concentrated mostly radiocesium. The levels of gamma dose rate in air and the environmental contamination with 137Cs were found to correspond

  9. 防范突发性海上石油污染的国际法律制度研究%International Legal Regime of Preventing Accidental Oil Pollution at Sea

    张相君

    2011-01-01

    Accidental oil pollution at sea and inter alia grave accidental pollution near seashore may cause immense damages.Since the end of World War I,the international community has begun to realize problems caused by oil pollution at sea and attempted to resolve them.It was when the Second World War ended,efforts by the international community finally turned out to be fruitful,which was due to grave oil pollution accidents in a short time.International legal regime was finally framed out and made noticeable success after several decades of practice.Efforts and successes by the international community on preventing accidental oil pollution will be of inspirations for China,which is now rapidly developing its marine economies.%海上突发性石油污染事故,尤其是发生在近岸海域的大型溢油事故对海洋环境造成了巨大损害。自一战之后,国际社会即开始意识到海上石油污染所造成的种种问题并试图在国际法上予以解决。至二战之后,遭受到巨大海上石油污染事故的冲击之后,国际社会的努力才真正开花结果,相应的国际法律规范逐渐丰富完善起来,并经过数十年的实践取得了明显成果。国际社会在防范突发性海上石油污染事故方面的努力,对于正快速发展海洋经济的中国如何防范此类突发事故具有很好的借鉴和启示作用。

  10. 14 CFR 1213.107 - Preventing unauthorized release of sensitive but unclassified (SBU) information/material to the...

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preventing unauthorized release of sensitive but unclassified (SBU) information/material to the news media. 1213.107 Section 1213.107... INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.107 Preventing unauthorized release of sensitive but unclassified (SBU)...

  11. Radiative accidental matter

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal; Simoes, C.; Wegman, D.

    2016-07-01

    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that μ → eγ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below 5×105 GeV, a value (naturally) assured by the radiative suppression mechanism. Sizeable τ → μγ branching fractions within SuperKEKB sensitivity are possible for lower lepton-number breaking scales. We thus point out that these scenarios can be tested not only in direct searches but also in lepton flavor-violating experiments.

  12. Studies report: methods for the evaluation and the prevention of accidental risks (DRA 35 - report Ω 11). Knowledge of solid fuels self-heating

    The aim of this document is to present a synthesis of the knowledge on risks bond to auto-heating phenomena which occur in solid fuels storage. It analyzes the role of some factors on the heating, and more specially the mass, temperature, oxygen content of the atmosphere and humidity. It presents a general methodology of risks evaluation and measures on the risks detection and prevention. (A.L.B.)

  13. SMALLHOLDER FIRE PREVENTION AND BURNING ACTIVITIES UNDER THE THREAT OF ACCIDENTAL FIRE: A HOUSEHOLD MODEL APPLICATION FROM THE TAPAJÃ S NATIONAL FOREST IN THE STATE OF PARÃ , BRAZIL

    Bowman, Maria Susannah

    2006-01-01

    Land-clearing fires set by settlers in the Brazilian Amazon give rise to large scale wildfires that threaten mature forests, agricultural plantations, and settlement areas. Our purpose is to examine labor devoted to fire prevention (firebreak establishment) and burning for crop production for subsistence smallholders in the Tapajós National Forest in Pará, Brazil. Both the decision to engage in each activity and the scale of the activity are examined. A household model addressing decisio...

  14. Microencapsulation of rifampicin for the prevention of endophthalmitis: In vitro release studies and antibacterial assessment.

    Lee, Mi Yeon; Bourgeois, Sandrine; Almouazen, Eyad; Pelletier, Jocelyne; Renaud, François; Fessi, Hatem; Kodjikian, Laurent

    2016-05-30

    Rifampicin encapsulated microparticles were designed for intraocular injection after cataract surgery to prevent postoperative endophthalmitis. Microparticles were formulated by emulsification diffusion method using poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) as polymer in order to propose a new form of rifampicin that overcome its limitations in intraocular delivery. Depending on processing formulation, different types of microparticles were prepared, characterized and evaluated by in vitro release studies. Two types of microparticles were selected to get a burst release of rifampicin, to reach minimal inhibitory concentrations to inhibit 90% of Staphylococcus epidermidis mainly involved in postoperative endophthalmitis, combined with a sustained release to maintain rifampicin concentration over 24h. The antibacterial activity and antiadhesive property on intraocular lenses were evaluated on S. epidermidis. Microparticles, with a rapid rifampicin release profile, showed an effect towards bacteria development similar to free rifampicin over 48h. However, slow-release profile microparticles exhibited a similar antibacterial effect during the first 24h, and were able to destroy all the S epidermidis in the medium after 30h. The association of the two formulations allowed obtaining interesting antibacterial profile. Moreover, rifampicin-loaded microparticles have shown a very efficient anti-adherent effect of S. epidermidis on intraocular lenses at 24h. These results propose rifampicin microparticles as suitable for antibioprophylaxis of the postoperative endophthalmitis. PMID:26997423

  15. Accidental swallowing of orthodontic expansion appliance key.

    Monini, André da Costa; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Jacob, Helder Baldi; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga

    2011-08-01

    Ingestion of a foreign object, including a dental object, can lead to a trip to the emergency room. This article describes the accidental swallowing of a key that was used to activate a rapid maxillary expander. An orthodontic patient swallowed the key while trying to activate the appliance at home. The object's trajectory was followed on radiographs until it was eliminated. Possible clinical complications, legal implications of this situation, and practices for prevention are described. PMID:21803265

  16. HIV-1 Vpu promotes release and prevents endocytosis of nascent retrovirus particles from the plasma membrane.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV type-1 viral protein U (Vpu protein enhances the release of diverse retroviruses from human, but not monkey, cells and is thought to do so by ablating a dominant restriction to particle release. Here, we determined how Vpu expression affects the subcellular distribution of HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus (MLV Gag proteins in human cells where Vpu is, or is not, required for efficient particle release. In HeLa cells, where Vpu enhances HIV-1 and MLV release approximately 10-fold, concentrations of HIV-1 Gag and MLV Gag fused to cyan fluorescent protein (CFP were initially detected at the plasma membrane, but then accumulated over time in early and late endosomes. Endosomal accumulation of Gag-CFP was prevented by Vpu expression and, importantly, inhibition of plasma membrane to early endosome transport by dominant negative mutants of Rab5a, dynamin, and EPS-15. Additionally, accumulation of both HIV and MLV Gag in endosomes required a functional late-budding domain. In human HOS cells, where HIV-1 and MLV release was efficient even in the absence of Vpu, Gag proteins were localized predominantly at the plasma membrane, irrespective of Vpu expression or manipulation of endocytic transport. While these data indicated that Vpu inhibits nascent virion endocytosis, Vpu did not affect transferrin endocytosis. Moreover, inhibition of endocytosis did not restore Vpu-defective HIV-1 release in HeLa cells, but instead resulted in accumulation of mature virions that could be released from the cell surface by protease treatment. Thus, these findings suggest that a specific activity that is present in HeLa cells, but not in HOS cells, and is counteracted by Vpu, traps assembled retrovirus particles at the cell surface. This entrapment leads to subsequent endocytosis by a Rab5a- and clathrin-dependent mechanism and intracellular sequestration of virions in endosomes.

  17. Plant air quality following accidental radioactive releases

    Radionuclides exhausted to the atmosphere through vent stacks may contaminate the immediate building structure and/or nearby adjacent buildings resulting in hazardous contaminants entering the intake air. The objective of the work reported here was to obtain an overview of the analytical and experimental tools available to evaluate the transport and diffusion of vented effluents, and the nature of flows about structures, in order to predict the concentrations adjacent to an subsequently inside the immediate and nearby structures. A scaling analysis established the requirements for physical modelling of flows about structures in wind and/or water tunnels. Subsequently, a series of test model studies were conducted in a water tunnel in the Mechanical Engineering Department of the University of Waterloo. The expected result that increased stack height and structure separation have on reducing recirculation and interference is clearly illustrated. Interference was still significant on the downstream structure when the vent stack height was increased to its maximum of one model cube height above the cube. A literature survey was conducted to establish the nature and mathematical modelling of flows about structures. Also, mathematical modelling of the concentration field from roof-top vent effluents and subsequently the models for predicting concentrations within structures was investigated. No specific data on concentrations within structures were found. There is a strong need for well documented test on the concentration fields about model structures, with which more generic models may be developed. Very little data is available on multiple structures. It is recommended that physical model studies be conducted, that simulate realistic exhaust and intake air vents with measurement of both the inside and the outside concentration fields. (59 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.)

  18. Acacetin inhibits glutamate release and prevents kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Tzu-Yu Lin

    Full Text Available An excessive release of glutamate is considered to be a molecular mechanism associated with several neurological diseases that causes neuronal damage. Therefore, searching for compounds that reduce glutamate neurotoxicity is necessary. In this study, the possibility that the natural flavone acacetin derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Clerodendrum inerme (L. Gaertn is a neuroprotective agent was investigated. The effect of acacetin on endogenous glutamate release in rat hippocampal nerve terminals (synaptosomes was also investigated. The results indicated that acacetin inhibited depolarization-evoked glutamate release and cytosolic free Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+]C in the hippocampal nerve terminals. However, acacetin did not alter synaptosomal membrane potential. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of acacetin on evoked glutamate release was prevented by the Cav2.2 (N-type and Cav2.1 (P/Q-type channel blocker known as ω-conotoxin MVIIC. In a kainic acid (KA rat model, an animal model used for excitotoxic neurodegeneration experiments, acacetin (10 or 50 mg/kg was administrated intraperitoneally to the rats 30 min before the KA (15 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection, and subsequently induced the attenuation of KA-induced neuronal cell death and microglia activation in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. The present study demonstrates that the natural compound, acacetin, inhibits glutamate release from hippocampal synaptosomes by attenuating voltage-dependent Ca(2+ entry and effectively prevents KA-induced in vivo excitotoxicity. Collectively, these data suggest that acacetin has the therapeutic potential for treating neurological diseases associated with excitotoxicity.

  19. The Use of Release-Active Antibody-Based Preparations for Vertigo Prevention in Adults.

    Barchukov, V V; Zhavbert, E S; Dugina, Yu L; Epstein, O I

    2015-11-01

    The effectiveness of antibody-based release-active preparations Impaza (antibodies to eNOS), Tenoten (antibodies to brain-specific protein S-100), Dietressa (antibodies to type 1 cannabinoid receptor), Brizantin (combined preparation, antibodies to brain-specific protein S-100 and type 1 cannabinoid receptor), and Divaza (combined preparation, antibodies to brain-specific protein S-100 and eNOS) in the prevention of vertigo was studied on the model of intermittent accumulation of Coriolis accelerations (ICCA). Modification of activity of vestibular receptors and signal systems by release-active preparations contributed to an increase in ICCA tolerance time. Combined preparation Impaza possessed the most significant antinaupathic properties. Brizantin was less potent in this respect. PMID:26608378

  20. Ultra Structural Characterisation of Tetherin - a Protein Capable of Preventing Viral Release from the Plasma Membrane

    Ravindra K. Gupta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Tetherin is an antiviral restriction factor made by mammalian cells to protect them from viral infection. It prevents newly formed virus particles from leaving infected cells. Its antiviral mechanism appears to be remarkably uncomplicated. In 2 studies published in PLoS Pathogens electron microscopy is used to support the hypothesis that the tethers that link HIV-1 virions to tetherin expressing cells contain tetherin and are likely to contain tetherin alone. They also show that the HIV-1 encoded tetherin antagonist that is known to cause tetherin degradation, Vpu, serves to reduce the amount of tetherin in the particles thereby allowing their release.

  1. Novel application method of talcum powder to prevent sticking tendency and modify release of esomeprazole magnesium enteric-coated pellets.

    Liu, Zan; Wang, Weiwei; Chen, Hao; Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Wenli

    2016-01-01

    Actually, reflecting drug release from polymer-coated pellets remains a challenge. In this study, sticking of pellets caused by Eudragit®L30D-55 was observed during the release process, leading to change in drug release. Talcum powder (talc) was used in esomeprazole magnesium pellets to prevent sticking and modify release of pellets. Three methods including talc incorporated in enteric layer, physically mixed and coating resulted pellets were employed to prevent the sticking. The release of pellets was modified by addition talc into subcoat. The dispersion coefficient (Fd) and release profiles were determined in phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.8 and 6.0) and distilled water. It was found that the first manner made Fd increase to about 0.75, but the latter two methods could completely prevent sticking. Also, the second manner was more simple and readily scaled up. In addition, talc in subcoat significantly slowed the drug release in water, but the slowing release effect is less pronounced at pH 6.0 and 6.8. These different effects of talc were attributed to a different release mechanism in three media. The release profiles in water were fitted to Nuttanan model, and the K designated as "diffusive resistance constant" was linearly increased with talc levels in subcoat (R(2)=0.9874). PMID:25708151

  2. Guia de cuidados de enfermagem na prevenção da extubação acidental Conductas de enfermería para la prevención de la extubación accidental Guideline for nursing care in the prevention of accidental extubation

    Théia Maria Forny Wanderley Castellões

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Artigo que relata a experiência do emprego de um guia preventivo da extubação acidental que ocorre associada ao cuidado de enfermagem para os quatro momentos de maior incidência e que são: banho no leito, transporte, troca de fixação e mudança de decúbito. O conteúdo do guia está pautado nas recomendações encontradas em levantamento bibliográfico no MedLine e na experiência profissional. O guia vem sendo aplicado desde setembro de 2005. Espera-se que o guia contribua para diminuir cada vez mais a incidência da extubação acidental e por tanto seja uma ferramenta para desenvolver um indicador de qualidade na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, assim como, seja capaz de oferecer uma assistência que objetive a segurança do paciente.És un artículo que trata del empleo de un guía para orientar los cuidados de enfermería e evitar la extubación que ocurre con más frecuencia en cuatro tiempos: en el baño, la transferencia del enfermo, el cambio de la fixación y los cambios de posición en la cama. Su contenido se apoyo en la experiencia y en levantamiento bibliográfico en el Medline.Se ha venido usando desde septiembre de 2005 y hemos tenido solo dos extubaciones. Creemos que sirva para atender al enfermo con más seguranza así también como un indicador de calidad de enfermería.Article reports the experience of the use of a preventive guideline for the prevention of accidental extubation that occurs associated nursing care for the four moments of bigger incidence that are: bath in the stream bed, transportation, exchange of setting and change of decubitus. The content of the guide is based in the recommendations found in bibliographical survey in the MedLine and in the professional experience. The guideline is being used since September, 2005. This contribution aims at decreasing extubation incidence and to be a tool to develop a quality indicator in Intensive Care Units as well as for offering an assistance that aims patient

  3. Two new tools and a working method for crisis management of accidental spills at sea. Doctoral thesis

    Koops, W.

    1992-12-14

    Tables of Contents: Accidental spills and crisis management at sea; Present global situation concerning prevention of accidental spills; Present regional situation concerning preparation for accidental spills in the North Sea; Present national (Dutch) situation concerning response to accidental spills; Improvements in present crisis management approach; Design of the gravity scale for accidental spills; Introduction and design of a diagnostic model for accidental spills at sea; Introduction and design of a working method to support decision making in response situations; The computer program; Calibration and evaluation of the newly developed tools and working method; and, Appendices with background information.

  4. Prevention of organ rejection in renal and liver transplantation with extended release tacrolimus

    Reschen ME

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael E Reschen, Christopher A O’Callaghan Henry Wellcome Building, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom Abstract: Tacrolimus is the key immunosuppressant used to prevent allograft rejection in kidney and liver transplant recipients. Despite the efficacy of tacrolimus and adjunctive immunosuppressants, a substantial number of patients experience episodes of acute rejection and late graft loss. Nonadherence is an etiological factor in both acute rejection and graft loss. In 2007, a prolonged release version of tacrolimus became available that allows once daily administration, thus halving the pill burden compared to the standard twice-daily tacrolimus. An increasing number of studies in de novo transplantation and in treatment conversion have evaluated the pharmacokinetic profile, efficacy, and safety of prolonged-release tacrolimus. We have reviewed the literature on the use of prolonged-release tacrolimus and hope that this will be of value in the design of protocols for transplant immunosuppression.Keywords: immunosuppression, kidney, hepatic, allograft, adherence

  5. Accidental Bolus of Parenteral Nutrition.

    Lodeserto, Frank; Al-Jaghbeer, Mohammed; Huang, David

    2016-08-01

    There is a paucity of data that exists regarding acute toxicity and management in the setting of parental nutrition (PN) overdose. We describe a case of a patient who received an accidental rapid bolus of PN and fat emulsion. She developed a seizure, metabolic acidosis, arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia, altered mental status, hypotension, and hypoxemia likely caused by elevated triglycerides, leading to a hyperviscosity syndrome. After failing standard therapy, she was successfully treated with a single-volume plasma exchange with resolution of symptoms. Fat emulsion or intravenous lipid emulsion and much of its safety have been recently described in its use as a rescue therapy in resuscitation from drug-related toxicity. Elevated serum triglyceride levels can result in a picture similar to a hyperviscosity syndrome. Plasma exchange is a known therapeutic modality for the management of hyperviscosity syndrome and a novel therapy in the treatment of hyperviscosity syndrome due to fat emulsion therapy. In a patient receiving PN with development of rapid deterioration of clinical status, without an obvious etiology, there should be consideration of PN overdose. A rapid assessment and treatment of severe electrolyte abnormalities should be undertaken immediately to prevent life-threatening cardiovascular and central nervous system collapse. If fat emulsion was rapidly coadministered and there are signs and symptoms of hyperviscosity syndrome, then consideration should be given to plasma exchange as an effective therapeutic treatment option. PMID:25666023

  6. Medidas y estrategias para la prevención y control de los accidentes de tránsito: experiencia peruana por niveles de prevención Actions and strategies for the prevention and control of road traffic injuries: peruvian experience by levels of prevention

    Hernán Málaga

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo busca describir las principales medidas de prevención primaria y secundaria sobre accidentes de tránsito que vienen desarrollándose en Perú, considerando aspectos epidemiológicos propios de la experiencia peruana, como lo reportado en otros países. Se aborda lo a nivel de prevención primaria lo relacionado a la restricción horaria de expendio de bebidas alcohólicas, detección de conductores con alcoholemia positiva y el conductor elegido. En cuanto a prevención secundaria, se presenta los estudios de puntos negros y los barriles de contención de impacto, asimismo, una breve visión de los sistemas de atención pre hospitalaria en el caso de los traumatismos por accidentes de tránsito. Existe la necesidad de una mejor caracterización del problema, para establecer las políticas públicas saludables en lo concerniente a accidentes de tránsito, existe la necesidad de valoraciones basadas en evidencia científica y en estudios de evaluaciones económicas.This article aims to describe the main actions that are being developed in Peru for primary and secondary prevention of road traffic injuries, considering the epidemiological aspects that characterize the Peruvian experience, as reported in other countries. At the primary prevention level, it addresses issues related to the timing restriction of the sales of alcoholic beverages, detection of drivers with positive testing for alcohol in blood and the chosen driver. Regarding secondary prevention, the studies on black spots and the impact containment barrels are presented, also a brief overview of the pre-hospital care systems in the case of road traffic injuries. There is a need for better characterization of the problem, in order to establish healthy public policies regarding traffic accidents, there is a need for evidence-based reviews and studies of economic evaluations.

  7. Role of tacrolimus prolonged release in the prevention of allograft rejection

    Peter Abrams

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Peter Abrams, Abhinav Humar, Henkie P TanDepartment of Surgery, Thomas E Starzl Transplantation Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pennsylvania, USAAbstract: Successful management of the solid-organ transplant recipient begins with prevention of rejection and achieving a balance between insufficient and excessive immunosuppression. Standard tacrolimus therapy for prevention of solid-organ transplant rejection consists of 2 divided doses per day. In an effort to simplify tacrolimus dosing to once daily, a new formulation (tacrolimus prolonged release [PR] was chosen for its combination of a similar extent of bioavailability and a substantially reduced rate of clearance. Several clinical conversion studies have now been completed using PR to clarify its pharmacokinetics, efficacy at prevention of allograft rejection, and safety profiles in solid-organ transplant patients. A cohort of 67 stable kidney transplant recipients was converted from standard tacrolimus to PR in an open-label, multicenter study in the United States and Canada. A second open-label, multicenter study was performed in liver transplant recipients with stable graft function on standard tacrolimus therapy converted to PR. A third conversion study was performed as an open-label study at 5 centers in the United States in stable pediatric liver transplant recipients. As medication noncompliance can significantly contribute to the incidence of graft rejection and graft loss in transplant recipients, a potentially significant advance in the transplant community’s ongoing mission to optimize prevention of rejection occurred with the development of a once-daily tacrolimus PR. The results of these preliminary studies suggest that select solid-organ transplant recipients converted to PR can be safely maintained using the same monitoring and patient care techniques historically used for standard tacrolimus therapy.Keywords: immunosuppression, tacrolimus allograft

  8. Ten Tips to Prevent an Accidental Overdose

    ... and Children Under 2 Years of Age Giving Medication to Children Avoiding Drug Interactions Know Active Ingredients in Children's Meds ... & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products ...

  9. Applications of human factors engineering to LNG release prevention and control

    Shikiar, R.; Rankin, W.L.; Rideout, T.B.

    1982-06-01

    The results of an investigation of human factors engineering and human reliability applications to LNG release prevention and control are reported. The report includes a discussion of possible human error contributions to previous LNG accidents and incidents, and a discussion of generic HF considerations for peakshaving plants. More specific recommendations for improving HF practices at peakshaving plants are offered based on visits to six facilities. The HF aspects of the recently promulgated DOT regulations are reviewed, and recommendations are made concerning how these regulations can be implemented utilizing standard HF practices. Finally, the integration of HF considerations into overall system safety is illustrated by a presentation of human error probabilities applicable to LNG operations and by an expanded fault tree analysis which explicitly recognizes man-machine interfaces.

  10. Amoco/Environmental Protection Agency Pollution Prevention Project, Yorktown refinery. Refinery release inventory. Final report

    The report volume summarizes physical data obtained during a 2-year pollution prevention study of Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown Virginia Refinery. The study was jointly sponsored as a cooperative effort of Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. A multi-media sampling program was used to identify potential pollution sources within the Refinery. Sampling and analysis included air, surface water, groundwater, and solid waste data. Public perceptions about environmental issues of concern in the vicinity of the Refinery were also surveyed. The inventory showed that nearly 99 percent of the releases were airborne at the facility. Most of the remainder involved land disposal of solid wastes. Specific sources of major pollutants are identified

  11. Proposal of procedures to prevent errors in radiotherapy based in learned lessons of accidental expositions; Proposta de procedimentos para evitar erros em radioterapia baseados em licoes aprendidas de exposicoes acidentais

    Bueno, Giselle Oliveira Vieira

    2007-07-01

    In order to consider some procedures to prevent errors in radiotherapy based in learned lessons of accidental expositions and in accordance with information contained in international reports elaborated by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and of the data base availability by the European group Radiation Oncology Safety Information System (ROSIS) on the events, a research of the occurred errors was performed. For the evaluation of the incidents a data base based in the ROSIS and added plus a parameter was created 'type of error'. All the stored data make possible the evaluation of the 839 incidents in terms of frequency of the type of error, the process of detention, the number of reached patients and the degree of severity. Of the 50 types of found errors, the type of error more frequently was 'incorrect treatment coordinate', confirmed with the data of literature and representing 28,96 por cent of the total of the incidents. The results showed 44,44 por cent are discovered at the moment of the treatment and that the process of verification of the fiche or clinical revision of the patient is a verification more occurred insurance and in 43,33 por cent of the searched events. The results indicated that more than 50 por cent of the incidents the severity degree are void and approximately 62 por cent a patient are affected during the accomplishment of the radiotherapy. This work showed that to analyze the data base according to methodology proposal for Klein et al.; for Reason, and Dunscombe et al. is interesting to insert more characteristic detailed in the data base such as: the number of fractions for affected patient, number of fields of treatment for fraction that was affected, shunting line of the prescribed dose and shunting line of the volume prescribed in all the registered in cadastral map events. Some causes exist that can lead the errors when patient they are submitted to the radiotherapy. Some measures can be taken so that

  12. Allegheny County Fatal Accidental Overdoses

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Fatal accidental overdose incidents in Allegheny County, denoting age, gender, race, drugs present, zip code of incident and zip code of residence. Zip code of...

  13. Prevention of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients: the role of delayed-release posaconazole

    Soysal A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ahmet SoysalDivision of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Marmara University, Istanbul, TurkeyAbstract: Posaconazole is a triazole antifungal agent that has broad-spectrum activity against many yeasts and filamentous fungi, including Candida species, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus species, and Zygomycetes. This drug has been approved for the prevention of invasive fungal infections in patients with neutropenia and for the treatment of invasive fungal infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with graft-versus-host disease. Studies on the clinical efficacy, safety, tolerability, and cost-effectiveness of posaconazole therapy were performed using the oral suspension form of the drug. Pharmacokinetic studies have found that the oral suspension form of posaconazole has problemeatic bioavailability: its absorption is affected by concomitant medication and food. This article discusses the pharmacokinetic properties of the newly developed posaconazole delayed-release tablet formulation and reviews the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of both the oral suspension and the new tablet formulation. In conclusion, the posaconazole tablet formulation has better systemic bioavailability, thereby enabling once-daily administration and better absorption in the presence of concomitant medication and food. However, well-designed clinical studies are needed to evaluate the use of the tablet formulation in real-life settings.Keywords: posaconazole delayed-release tablet, prophylaxis, invasive fungal infections

  14. Fluoride-Releasing Materials to Prevent White Spot Lesions around Orthodontic Brackets: A Systematic Review.

    Nascimento, Patrícia Layane de Menezes Macêdo; Fernandes, Micaelle Tenório Guedes; Figueiredo, Fabricio Eneas Diniz de; Faria-E-Silva, André Luis

    2016-02-01

    The relation between orthodontic fixed appliances use and enamel demineralization is well established. Different preventive approaches have been suggested to this problem, but controversy remains about which is the best. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of clinical trials that investigated the effectiveness of materials containing fluorides to lute brackets or cover the bonding interface in order to inhibit the development and progression of white spot lesions. The null hypothesis was that fluoride materials do not affect the incidence of white spot lesions around brackets. A MEDLINE search was conducted for randomized clinical trials evaluating the development of white spot lesions in patients using fixed orthodontic appliances, followed by meta-analysis comparing the results for patients for whom dental materials containing fluorides were used (experimental group) to those for whom these materials were not used (control group). The pooled relative risk of developing white spot lesions for the experimental group was 0.42 (95% confidence interval: 0.25 to 0.72); hence, when fluoride-releasing materials are used, the patient has 58% less risk of white spot lesion development. Regarding white spot lesion extent, the pooled mean difference between the experimental and control groups was not statistically significant (-0.12; 95% confidence interval: -0.29 to 0.04). In conclusion, the results of the present systematic review suggest that fluoride-releasing materials can reduce the risk of white spot lesions around brackets. However, when white spot lesions had already occurred, there is no evidence that fluoride-releasing materials reduce the extent of these lesions. PMID:27007355

  15. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.

    Cardis, E

    1996-01-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discu...

  16. DIDS prevents ischemic membrane degradation in cultured hippocampal neurons by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase release.

    Matthew E Pamenter

    prevented stimulus-evoked release of von Willebrand Factor from human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We conclude that DIDS inhibits MMP exocytosis and through this mechanism preserves neuronal membrane integrity during pathological stress.

  17. Accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance.

    Rohida, Neeraj S; Bhad, Wasundhara A

    2011-01-01

    Orthodontic appliances that become dislodged can cause problems in the airway or the gastrointestinal tract. Accidental ingestion of an appliance during a chair-side procedure or because of inadequate retention of the appliance can create a medical emergency with potentially serious complications, including death from aspiration of the foreign body. This article reports the accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance. The ease with which removable appliances can become dislodged if retention is inadequate is discussed, and some serious complications that can arise are described. Precautions the orthodontist can take to prevent such accidents are presented. PMID:21195285

  18. The accidental overexposures

    The radioisotope or ionizing radiation medical or industrial use may generate accidents where human beings are exposed to very high doses. The accident frequency is increasing quickly because of the industrial source use development. The accidents don't catch only the plant or hospital staffs but also public people. The serious accidents result from conception errors, bad installation maintenance, lack or not enough staff training, transgression of safety processes. The accidents happen in not very specialized firms. Those resulting from energy production reactors are very seldom except for Chernobyl or military submarines. In the medical or hospital installations, accidents may affect the staffs or the patients. Most of the accidents could have been avoided by the simple respect of the simple surety duties. The follow up and analysis of serious accidents can bring an effective collaboration to the prevention. 78 refs., 3 annexes., 14 tabs., 17 figs

  19. Accidental degeneracies in string compactification

    Bais, F.A.; Taormina, A.

    1986-11-27

    The equivalence of the torus and group manifold compactification of strings is established. Accidental degeneracies are shown to occur for a large class of compactifications. This way many examples are obtained in which modular invariance does not uniquely fix the representation content of the spectrum.

  20. Accidental degeneracies in string compactification

    Bais, F. A.; Taormina, A.

    1986-11-01

    The equivalence of the torus and group manifold compactification of strings is established. Accidental degeneracies are shown to occur for a large class of compactifications. This way many examples are obtained in which modular invariance does not uniquely fix the representation content of the spectrum.

  1. Accidente de Trabajo y Recargo

    Pérez Alonso, María Antonia

    2015-01-01

    En la actualidad existen diferentes formas de Accidente de Trabajo. En el presente trabajo se da a conocer las distintas formas y la doctrina de los tribunales. Se aborda el recargo de prestaciones de Seguridad Social y el deber del empresario en cumplir la normativa de Seguridad Social

  2. A mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I of the project: early effects of inhaled radionuclides

    The report presents a mathematical model for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included

  3. Conceptual Design of Portable Filtered Air Suction Systems For Prevention of Released Radioactive Gas under Severe Accidents of NPP

    Gu, Beom W.; Choi, Su Y.; Yim, Man S.; Rim, Chun T. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    It becomes evident that severe accidents may occur by unexpected disasters such as tsunami, heavy flood, or terror. Once radioactive material is released from NPP through severe accidents, there are no ways to prevent the released radioactive gas spreading in the air. As a remedy for this problem, the idea on the portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for the prevention of released radioactive gas under severe accidents was proposed. In this paper, the conceptual design of a PoFASS focusing on the number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are proposed. In order to design a flexible robot suction nozzle, mathematical models for the gaps which represent the lifted heights of extensible covers for given convex shapes of pipes and for the covered areas are developed. In addition, the system requirements for the design of the robot arms of PoFASS are proposed, which determine the accessible range of leakage points of released radioactive gas. In this paper, the conceptual designs of the flexible robot suction nozzle and robot arm have been conducted. As a result, the minimum number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are defined to be four and three, respectively. For further works, extensible cover designs on the flexible robot suction nozzle and the application of the PoFASS to the inside of NPP should be studied because the radioactive gas may be released from connection pipes between the containment building and auxiliary buildings.

  4. Conceptual Design of Portable Filtered Air Suction Systems For Prevention of Released Radioactive Gas under Severe Accidents of NPP

    It becomes evident that severe accidents may occur by unexpected disasters such as tsunami, heavy flood, or terror. Once radioactive material is released from NPP through severe accidents, there are no ways to prevent the released radioactive gas spreading in the air. As a remedy for this problem, the idea on the portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for the prevention of released radioactive gas under severe accidents was proposed. In this paper, the conceptual design of a PoFASS focusing on the number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are proposed. In order to design a flexible robot suction nozzle, mathematical models for the gaps which represent the lifted heights of extensible covers for given convex shapes of pipes and for the covered areas are developed. In addition, the system requirements for the design of the robot arms of PoFASS are proposed, which determine the accessible range of leakage points of released radioactive gas. In this paper, the conceptual designs of the flexible robot suction nozzle and robot arm have been conducted. As a result, the minimum number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are defined to be four and three, respectively. For further works, extensible cover designs on the flexible robot suction nozzle and the application of the PoFASS to the inside of NPP should be studied because the radioactive gas may be released from connection pipes between the containment building and auxiliary buildings

  5. Accidental Turbulent Discharge Rate Estimation from Videos

    Ibarra, Eric; Shaffer, Franklin; Savaş, Ömer

    2015-11-01

    A technique to estimate the volumetric discharge rate in accidental oil releases using high speed video streams is described. The essence of the method is similar to PIV processing, however the cross correlation is carried out on the visible features of the efflux, which are usually turbulent, opaque and immiscible. The key step in the process is to perform a pixelwise time filtering on the video stream, in which the parameters are commensurate with the scales of the large eddies. The velocity field extracted from the shell of visible features is then used to construct an approximate velocity profile within the discharge. The technique has been tested on laboratory experiments using both water and oil jets at Re ~105 . The technique is accurate to 20%, which is sufficient for initial responders to deploy adequate resources for containment. The software package requires minimal user input and is intended for deployment on an ROV in the field. Supported by DOI via NETL.

  6. Investigation of pregnancy outcome and ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome prevention in agonist and antagonist gonadotropin-releasing hormone protocol

    Behnaz Khani Rabati; Setare Nasiri Zeidi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the controversies regarding the effectiveness of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists in prevention of ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome stimulation, this study was designed to compare GnRH agonist protocol with GnRH antagonist protocol in patients who were candidate for assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs). Materials and Methods: This investigation was performed on 136 patients who were randomly allocated to two groups of GnRH agonist and GnRH antagonist. I...

  7. New technique for releasing tension to prevent widening of an abdominal scar.

    Kishi, Kazuo; Imanishi, Nobuaki; Kobayashi, Naoshi; Nakajima, Hideo; Nakajima, Tatsuo

    2012-10-01

    We developed an easy way to release tension from an abdominal cutaneous suture by plicating the anterior rectus sheath for several centimetres. We used this in two patients and the scars were satisfactory. Plication of the fascia is an easy and effective way of releasing the tension of a cutaneous sutured line. PMID:22747361

  8. Procedures, placement, and risks of further abuse after Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation

    Davis, P.; McClure, R; Rolfe, K; Chessman, N; Pearson, S.; Sibert, J; Meadow, R

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate outcome, management, and prevention in Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation.
DESIGN—Ascertainment through British Paediatric Surveillance Unit and questionnaires to responding paediatricians.
SETTING—The UK and Republic of Ireland, September 1992 to August 1994.
SUBJECTS—Children under 14 years diagnosed with the above.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Placement and child protection measures for victims and sib...

  9. Role of tacrolimus prolonged release in the prevention of allograft rejection

    Peter Abrams; Abhinav Humar; Tan, Henkie P.

    2010-01-01

    Peter Abrams, Abhinav Humar, Henkie P TanDepartment of Surgery, Thomas E Starzl Transplantation Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pennsylvania, USAAbstract: Successful management of the solid-organ transplant recipient begins with prevention of rejection and achieving a balance between insufficient and excessive immunosuppression. Standard tacrolimus therapy for prevention of solid-organ transplant rejection consists of 2 divided doses per day. In an effort to simplify t...

  10. Kinematics and kinetics of an accidental lateral ankle sprain

    Kristianslund, Eirik; Bahr, Roald; Krosshaug, Tron

    2011-01-01

    Ankle sprains are common during sporting activities and can have serious consequences. Understanding of injury mechanisms is essential to prevent injuries, but only two previous studies have provided detailed descriptions of the kinematics of lateral ankle sprains and measures of kinetics are missing. In the present study a female handball player accidentally sprained her ankle during sidestep cutting in a motion analysis laboratory. Kinematics and kinetics were calculated from 240 Hz recordi...

  11. Accidental hanging deaths in children in Konya, Turkey between 1998 and 2007.

    Dogan, Kamil H; Demirci, Serafettin; Erkol, Zerrin; Gulmen, Mete K

    2010-05-01

    In general, hanging cases are the result of suicide, and accidental and homicidal hanging cases are rarely seen. This study retrospectively investigated 4571 death examinations and autopsies that were performed at The Konya Branch of the Forensic Medicine Council (Turkey) between 1998 and 2007; hanging was involved in 201 (6.5%) of the cases. There were a total of 13 accidental hanging cases, where 12 of these involved children. In seven of the cases, the accidental hanging involved a scarf that wraps around swing-like cradles and is intended to prevent infants from falling down. It was concluded that accidental hanging deaths can be reduced by replacing swing-like cradles with cribs that are designed for children, removing ropes in and around the house, and preventing children from reaching and/or playing with rope-like objects. PMID:20202070

  12. Synaptic GABA release prevents GABA transporter type-1 reversal during excessive network activity

    Savtchenko, L.; Megalogeni, M.; Rusakov, D. A.; Walker, M. C.; Pavlov, I.

    2015-01-01

    GABA transporters control extracellular GABA, which regulates the key aspects of neuronal and network behaviour. A prevailing view is that modest neuronal depolarization results in GABA transporter type-1 (GAT-1) reversal causing non-vesicular GABA release into the extracellular space during intense network activity. This has important implications for GABA uptake-targeting therapies. Here we combined a realistic kinetic model of GAT-1 with experimental measurements of tonic GABAA receptor cu...

  13. Marine dispersion of radioactive elements susceptible to be released by the reactors of the Kursk damaged nuclear submarine; Dispersion marine des elements radioactifs susceptibles d'etre liberes par les reacteurs du sous-marin nucleaire accidente Koursk

    Calmet, D. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, 92 (France); Lepicard, S. [Centre d' Etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2000-07-01

    The Kursk nuclear submarine has been damaged on the 12. august 2000. It is on the bottom of the Barents sea. The loss of watertightness of the two nuclear reactors, that contain some hundred of kilograms of fuel (enriched uranium) would lead to the release of radioactive elements. This report specifies the general conditions of circulation of water mass susceptible to be concerned by an eventual radioactive contamination. evaluates the times of water transit that could be contaminated and then evaluates the activities contributions susceptible to be added with time to the sea waters and sea products from the French coasts of Atlantic and Channel. (N.C.)

  14. Prevention of organ rejection in renal and liver transplantation with extended release tacrolimus

    Reschen ME; O'Callaghan CA

    2014-01-01

    Michael E Reschen, Christopher A O’Callaghan Henry Wellcome Building, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom Abstract: Tacrolimus is the key immunosuppressant used to prevent allograft rejection in kidney and liver transplant recipients. Despite the efficacy of tacrolimus and adjunctive immunosuppressants, a substantial number of patients experience episodes of acute rejection and late graft loss. Nonadherence is an etiological factor in both acute...

  15. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P4[1,1,1,6,9] by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes

  16. CFD Modeling of the Releases and Dispersion of Accidental City Gas Pipeline in Urban Street Canyons%城燃管道街道峡谷泄漏扩散CFD数值模拟

    程浩力; 刘德俊; 刘倩倩; 高忠杰; 姜东方; 邓宗竹; 李明德

    2011-01-01

    城市燃气管道的安全时常受到市政建设的威胁而破坏,与天然气管线野外泄漏的情况不同的是,市区复杂的建筑环境会对气体的扩散情况造成干扰,严重危害人员财产安全.选择CFD数值模拟法,对城市街道峡谷内燃气管线的扩散泄漏进行了分析.基于二维街道峡谷断面模型,对截断阀关闭前后燃气泄漏扩散的基本规律进行了分析研究.数值模拟结果表明,风对燃气的扩散起主导作用,街道峡谷内形成的独立而稳定的涡旋气流场会使燃气聚集并且难以扩散.%City gas pipelines are always under the threat of municipal construction. Unlike in the wild, the building of the city will cause lots of trouble to the dispersion of the gas released, and the lives and property safety of people may be threatened. The dispersion of the city gas released in the street canyons was analyzed based on the two ~ dimensional CFD model. The situation before and after the shutting down of the block valves were studied respectively. The numerical simulation results show that the wind plays a leading role on the dispersion,and the aspect of the street canyon has significant effects on inner vortex airflow fields which will make the gas difficult to disperse.

  17. Detecting spatiotemporal clusters of accidental poisoning mortality among Texas counties, U.S., 1980 – 2001

    Harris Ann

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental poisoning is one of the leading causes of injury in the United States, second only to motor vehicle accidents. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the rates of accidental poisoning mortality have been increasing in the past fourteen years nationally. In Texas, mortality rates from accidental poisoning have mirrored national trends, increasing linearly from 1981 to 2001. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are spatiotemporal clusters of accidental poisoning mortality among Texas counties, and if so, whether there are variations in clustering and risk according to gender and race/ethnicity. The Spatial Scan Statistic in combination with GIS software was used to identify potential clusters between 1980 and 2001 among Texas counties, and Poisson regression was used to evaluate risk differences. Results Several significant (p Conclusion The findings of the present study provide evidence for the existence of accidental poisoning mortality clusters in Texas, demonstrate the persistence of these clusters into the present decade, and show the spatiotemporal variations in risk and clustering of accidental poisoning deaths by gender and race/ethnicity. By quantifying disparities in accidental poisoning mortality by place, time and person, this study demonstrates the utility of the spatial scan statistic combined with GIS and regression methods in identifying priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation.

  18. The Frequency of the Accidental Contamination with Laboratory Samples in Yazd Clinical Laboratories’ personnel in 2011

    Jafari, AA. (PhD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: laboratory personnel have always accidental exposure to clinical samples, which can cause the transmission of infection. This threat can be prevented and controlled by education for the use of safety instruments. The purpose was to determine the frequency of accidental exposure to laboratory samples among Yazd laboratory personnel in 2011. Material and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 of Yazd clinical laboratory personnel. The data was collected, using a valid and reliable questioner, via interview and analyzed by means of SPSS software. Results: Eighty-six percent of the subjects reported an experience of accidental exposure to clinical samples, such as blood, serum and urine. The causes were carelessness (41% and work overload (29%. Needle- stick was the most prevalent injury (52% particularly in sampler workers (51% and in their hands (69%. There wasn’t significant relationship between accidental exposure to laboratory samples and the variables such as private and governmental laboratories (p=0.517, kind of employment (p=0.411, record of services (p=0.439 and academic degree (p=0.454. The subjects aged 20-29 (p=0.034 and worked in sampling unit had the highest accidental exposure. Conclusion: based on the results, inexperience of the personnel especially in sampling room, overload at work and ignorance of applying safety instruments are known as the most important reasons for accidental exposure to clinical samples. Keywords: Contamination; accidental Exposure; Infectious agents; laboratory; personnel

  19. N-Palmitoylethanolamine Prevents the Run-down of Amplitudes in Cortical Spreading Depression Possibly Implicating Proinflammatory Cytokine Release.

    Richter, Frank; Koulen, Peter; Kaja, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD), a wave of neuronal depolarization in the cerebral cortex following traumatic brain injury or cerebral ischemia, significantly aggravates brain damage. Here, we tested whether N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA), a substance that effectively reduces lesion volumes and neurological deficits after ischemic stroke, influences CSD. CSD was elicited chemically in adult rats and occurrence, amplitude, duration and propagation velocity of CSD was determined prior to and for 6 hours after intraperitoneal injection of PEA. The chosen systemic administration of PEA stabilized the amplitude of CSD for at least four hours and prevented the run-down of amplitudes that is typically observed and was also seen in untreated controls. The propagation velocity of the CSD waves was unaltered indicating stable neuronal excitability. The stabilization of CSD amplitudes by PEA indicates that inhibition or prevention of CSD does not underlie PEA's profound neuroprotective effect. Rather, PEA likely inhibits proinflammatory cytokine release thereby preventing the run-down of CSD amplitudes. This contribution of PEA to the maintenance of neuronal excitability in healthy tissue during CSD potentially adds to neuroprotection outside a damaged area, while other mechanisms control PEA-mediated neuroprotection in damaged tissue resulting from traumatic brain injury or cerebral ischemia. PMID:27004851

  20. Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke

    ... free mailed brochure Cómo Prevenir un Accidente Cerebrovascular Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke Request free mailed brochure Table ... Americans are protecting their most important asset—their brain. Are you? Stroke ranks as the fourth leading ...

  1. Corps makes plant improvements to prevent release of oil into tailrace

    Like most hydroelectric plants designed in the 1960s, the US Army Corps of Engineers 160-MW Truman Power Plant, near Warsaw, MO, was built with a station drainage sump that collects all drainage from the plant. As designed, float switches activate sump pumps that discharge liquids directly into the tailrace. Because the system cannot distinguish between types of liquids, in the event of an oil leak in the hydroelectric plant, oil in the sump could be released into the tailrace. This situation was not environmentally sound and needed to be corrected. The sump system was identified as a problem area in a December 1991 assessment of the plant by a district team that conducted record searches, interviews, and site surveys to determine any areas of environmental non-compliance. To eliminate the potential problem posed by the Truman Power Plant's sump system, the Corps took the initiative to make several improvements. For containment in the event of a spill, the distict installed an oil skimmer for the sump (see the photographs), similar to one used at the Corps Clarence Cannon Dam, also in Missouri. The district also plugged a number of floor drains, and installed speed bumps, similar to those used in parking lots to slow traffic, for spill containment. Additionally, a cartmounted skimmer is available to serve as a mobile spill control unit for spills elsewhere in the plant. Long-term plans call for oil detectors that will automatically turn off the sump's pumps and turn on the skimmer

  2. Intervenção comunitária para prevenção de acidentes de trânsito entre trabalhadores ciclistas Intervención comunitaria para la prevención de accidentes de tránsito entre trabajadores ciclistas A community intervention to prevent traffic accidents among bicycle commuters

    Giancarlo Bacchieri

    2010-10-01

    intervención educacional de prevención de accidentes de tránsito con trabajadores que utilizan la bicicleta como modo de transporte. MÉTODOS: Estudio de intervención, longitudinal, con implementación escalonada, realizado en cinco urbanizaciones con características geográficas distintas en la ciudad de Pelotas, Sur de Brasil, de enero de 2006 a mayo de 2007. Fueron sorteados 42 sectores censados de dichas urbanizaciones. Todos los domicilios fueron visitados en búsqueda de trabajadores del sexo masculino que utilizasen la bicicleta como modo de transporte, resultando en una muestra de 1.133 individuos. Fueron analizados como resultados "accidentes de tránsito" y "casi-accidentes". Mensualmente, vía telefónica, los ciclistas eran interrogados con respecto a la ocurrencia de accidentes de tránsito y de "casi-accidentes". Quincenalmente, a partir del segundo mes de acompañamiento, un grupo de aproximadamente 60 ciclistas era convidado a participar de la intervención, que incluía un componente educativo (seminario y presentación de video educativo, distribución de un kit de seguridad (chaleco nocturno con reflexivo, cartilla educativa y cintas reflexivas y revisión de los frenos de la bicicleta (mantenimiento realizado al ser necesario. Regresión de Poisson, con ajuste para el efecto del tiempo, fue utilizada para medir el efecto de la intervención. RESULTADOS: Aproximadamente 45% de los ciclistas no comparecieron a la intervención. Durante el período de estudio, 9% de los individuos informaron un accidente de tránsito y 88% un casi-accidente. En total, ocurrieron 106 accidentes y 1.091 casi-accidentes. No fue observado efecto de la intervención en ambos resultados. CONCLUSIONES: La intervención propuesta no fue capaz de reducir accidentes entre trabajadores ciclistas. falta de interés en seguridad por parte de los ciclistas y factores externos, tales como infra-estructura de las vías y comportamiento de los choferes, pueden haber colaborado para ese

  3. Lessons learned from accidental exposures in radiotherapy

    The medical use of radiation is unique in that patients are intentionally exposed to radiation. The aim in radiation therapy is twofold: to deliver a dose and dose distribution that is adequate for tumour control, but which also minimizes complications in normal tissues. In therapeutic applications, the doses are high and a deviation from the prescribed dose may have severe or even fatal consequences. There is therefore a great need to ensure adequate radiation protection and safety in radiotherapy by verifying that all personnel involved are appropriately trained for their duties, that the equipment used meets relevant international specifications for radiation safety and that safety culture is embedded in routine activities in radiotherapy departments. Many individuals must interact and work together on highly technical measurements and calculations, and therefore the potential for mistakes is great. A review of the mistakes shows that most are due to human error. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115) require that a prompt investigation be conducted whenever an accidental medical exposure of patients occurs. The report of the investigation is to be disseminated to the appropriate parties so that lessons can be learned to prevent similar accidents or mitigate their consequences in the future. This Safety Report is a collection of a large number of events that may serve as a checklist against which to test the vulnerability of a facility to potential accidents, and to provide a basis for improving safety in the use of radiation in medical applications. A further purpose of this report is to encourage readers to develop a questioning and learning attitude, adopt measures for the prevention of accidents, and prepare for mitigation of the consequences of accidents if they occur

  4. Histone deacetylase inhibition prevents the impairing effects of hippocampal gastrin-releasing peptide receptor antagonism on memory consolidation and extinction.

    Petry, Fernanda S; Dornelles, Arethuza S; Lichtenfels, Martina; Valiati, Fernanda E; de Farias, Caroline Brunetto; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Parent, Marise B; Roesler, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    Hippocampal gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPR) regulate memory formation and extinction, and disturbances in GRPR signaling may contribute to cognitive impairment associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Histone acetylation is an important epigenetic mechanism that regulates gene expression involved in memory formation, and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) rescue memory deficits in several models. The present study determined whether inhibiting histone deacetylation would prevent memory impairments produced by GRPR blockade in the hippocampus. Male Wistar rats were given an intrahippocampal infusion of saline (SAL) or the HDACi sodium butyrate (NaB) shortly before inhibitory avoidance (IA) training, followed by an infusion of either SAL or the selective GRPR antagonist RC-3095 immediately after training. In a second experiment, the infusions were administered before and after a retention test trial that served as extinction training. As expected, RC-3095 significantly impaired consolidation and extinction of IA memory. More importantly, pretraining administration of NaB, at a dose that had no effect when given alone, prevented the effects of RC-3095. In addition, the combination of NaB and RC-3095 increased hippocampal levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These findings indicate that HDAC inhibition can protect against memory impairment caused by GRPR blockade. PMID:27025446

  5. Prevention

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  6. LNG containment release: Comparison of NFPA-59A and 49-CFR-193

    Due to the potential wide area impact of an unplanned LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) release, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and later the US Department of Transportation issued standards and regulations which included specific methodologies for analyzing the consequence of an accidental LNG release. The concept of a ''design spill'' was defined in order to evaluate the consequences of an accidental LNG release, with particular attention to the influence of safety protective measures. In addition to specifying the magnitude of the unplanned release, the design spill also specified some of the parameters for estimation of the downwind LNG vapor dispersion and the extent of the radiant heat from an LNG pool fire. Since the NFPA-59A and 49-CFR-193 standards were the first in-depth regulation to address consequence analysis estimation for petroleum components, it is particularly important to consider their details in light of the recently proposed EPA 40-CFR-68 regulations [Risk Management for Chemical Accidental Release Prevention] which specifically address consequence analysis as a part of process safety management

  7. An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.

    Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2014-10-24

    An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the μ-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

  8. Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death

    Thomas Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema.

  9. Control of radiation sources and general regulations for accidental situations

    In order to prevent accidents caused by application of radiation sources the Tunisian O.N.P.C. established straightforward strategy made up of 3 phases: prevention, planning and intervention. Civil Protection conducts prevention studies of all radiation sources by examining normal application conditions as well as possible accidental situations. It keeps up with scientific, technical and statistical aspects of radiation risks, elaborates specific plans and programs for intervention operations and cooperates with administrative and security services as well as international organisations. The O.N.P.C. established a model intervention plan based on observation (according to preliminary information), evaluation of the situation (according to the head of operation) intervention (specialized units) and post intervention (testing of personnel)

  10. Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan: 100 Areas

    The purpose of this Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is to identify the chemical spill control practices, procedures, and containment devices Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) employs to prevent a reportable quantity (RQ) of a hazardous substance (as defined in 40 CFR Part 302) from being released to the environment. The chemical systems and chemical storage facilities in the 100 Areas are described. This document traces the ultimate fate of accidental chemical spills at the 100 Areas. Also included in the document destinations, spill containment devices, and systems surveillance frequencies. 2 tabs

  11. Prevenção de queimaduras: percepção de pacientes e de seus familiares Prevención de accidentes por quemaduras: percepción del paciente y de sus familiares Burn prevention: perceptions of patients and their relatives

    Lídia Aparecida Rossi

    2003-02-01

    éstico. De las 57 entrevistas, 11 afirmaron que no podrían haber contribuido para evitar el accidente que provocó la quemadura. Veinte pacientes y 12 familiares identificaron situaciones de riesgo en el ambiente doméstico o en el trabajo; 13 pacientes y 12 familiares no identificaron ningún tipo de situación de riesgo. Los familiares y pacientes resaltaron como medidas preventivas de accidentes por quemaduras: estar atento a las actividades y tener cuidado en el manejo de productos inflamables.This study aimed at investigating the ways to prevent burns identified by burned patients and their relatives. Data were collected at the Burns Unit of the Ribeirão Preto Medical School Clinical Hospital, University of São Paulo - Brazil by means of interviews with burned patients and their relatives. Four referees categorized data. In order to verify the existence of agreement among the referees with regard to categorization, the non-parametric correlation measure was used - Contingency Coefficient. Fifty-seven people were interviewed: 24 relatives and 33 burned patients. Of the 33 interviewed patients, 18 had suffered accidents at home. Of the 57 interviewees, 11 stated that they could not have avoided the accident causing the burn. Twenty patients and 12 relatives identified risk situations at home or at work and 13 patients and 12 relatives did not identify any types of risk situations. The relatives and patients referred to the following preventive measures for burning accidents: to be attentive to the activities that they perform and to be more careful while handling flammable products.

  12. Mortalidad intrahospitalaria por accidente cerebrovascular

    Federico Rodríguez Lucci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La mortalidad global por accidente cerebrovascular (ACV ha disminuido en las últimas tres décadas, probablemente debido a un mejor control de los factores de riesgo vascular. La mortalidad hospitalaria por ACV ha sido tradicionalmente estimada entre 6 y 14% en la mayoría de las series comunicadas. Sin embargo, los datos de ensayos clínicos recientes sugieren que esta cifra sería sustancialmente menor. Se revisaron datos de pacientes internados con diagnóstico de ACV del Banco de Datos de Stroke de FLENI y los registros institucionales de mortalidad entre los años 2000 y 2010. Los subtipos de ACV isquémicos se clasificaron según criterios TOAST y los ACV hemorrágicos en hematomas intrapanquimatosos, hemorragias subaracnoideas aneurismáticas, malformaciones arteriovenosas y otros hematomas intraparenquimatosos. Se analizaron 1514 pacientes, 1079 (71% con ACV isquémico (grandes vasos 39%, cardioembólicos 27%, lacunares 9%, etiología indeterminada 14%, otras etiologías 11% y 435 (29% con ACV hemorrágico (intraparenquimatosos 27%, hemorragia subaracnoidea 30%, malformaciones arteriovenosas 25% y otros hematomas espontáneos 18%. Se registraron 38 muertes intrahospitalarias (17 ACV isquémicos y 21 ACV hemorrágicos, representando una mortalidad global del 2.5% (1.7% en ACV isquémicos y 4.8% en ACV hemorrágicos. No se registraron muertes asociadas al uso de fibrinolíticos endovenosos. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria en pacientes con ACV isquémico y hemorrágico en nuestro centro fue baja. El manejo en un centro dedicado a las enfermedades neurológicas y el enfoque multidisciplinario por personal médico y no médico entrenado en el cuidado de la enfermedad cerebrovascular podrían explicar, al menos en parte, estos resultados.

  13. Guidelines for agricultural countermeasures following an accidental release of radionuclides

    The Chernobyl accident in 1986 caused significant radioactive contamination of the environment over widely separated areas, some relatively remote from the site. Considerable scientific research was stimulated directly and indirectly and a good deal of practical experience was obtained in dealing with the aftermath. The collation of the relevant information and experience concerning the transfer of radionuclides through food chains and ways of reducing this transfer is a prudent insurance for the management of agriculture should a major nuclear accident occur again. Work to this end was begun in 1990 by a consultants group convened in a co-ordinated research programme of the IAEA and the CEC on the Validation of Models for the Transfer of Radionuclides in Terrestrial, Urban and Aquatic Environments (VAMP). The work was further developed by a joint programme of the IAEA Division of Nuclear Safety and the Agrochemicals and Residues Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture entitled ''Alleviating the Adverse Effects of Excessive Radionuclide Contamination of the Agricultural Environment''. The present Guidelines are an output of this programme and are intended to assist those charged with administrative, scientific and advisory responsibilities to prepare more detail plans specific to the local conditions. 80 refs, 1 fig., 20 tabs

  14. Radioecological studies on terrestrial food chain analysis for accidental release

    For investigating the contamination pathways of major radionuclides in staple food crops, greenhouse experiments in which rice, Chines cabbage and radish were exposed to mixed γ radionuclides of Mn-54, Co-60, Sr-85, Ru-103 and Cs-134 and H-3 at different growth stages, were conducted to generate data on parameters concerning the direct contamination of those crops. Experiments of the exposure to iodine gas were also performed for rice and radish at their various growth stages to obtain contamination parameters of elemental iodine. Based on data obtained from the experiments mentioned above, a database program was constructed to make it possible to search parameter values for different radionuclides, crops and deposition times in an easy way have an graphic output of the variation in the contamination parameter with deposition times. Paddy-field soils were collected from 5 or 6 places around Kori and Youngkwang NPPs and physicochemical properties and background radioactivity levels of the soils were investigated. Soil-to-rice transfer factors of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in the collected soils were determined for different RI application times. For Kori soils, transfer factors were also measured in the second year to investigate the yearly variation. In addition, the conceptual design of an automatized experimental greenhouse was performed to be used as a basic material for a detailed design for the construction in the future

  15. Environmental Behaviour of Plutonium Accidentally Released at Thule, Greenland

    Aarkrog, Asker

    1977-01-01

    The environmental contamination resulting from the B-52 accident in 1968 at Thule was studied by scientific expeditions in 1968, 1970 and 1974. The contamination was mainly confined to the marine environment, where plutonium was preferentially located in the sediments and the benthic fauna....... Plutonium concentrations down through the sediment layers decayed exponentially with a half-depth of 1-2 cm. The horizontal distribution of the plutonium may be described by an exponential expression: mCi 239,240Pn km-2 = 460e-0.28R or by a power function: mCl 239,240Pu km-2 = 370 R-1.2, where R....... From 1968 to 1970 the 239,240Pu concentrations in the biota decreased by an order of magnitude, since 1970 the decrease has been less evident. In 1970 and 1974 there were no indications of increased plutonium concentrations in surface seawater or in sea plants or zooplankton. Higher animals...

  16. Radioecological studies on terrestrial food chain analysis for accidental release

    Choi, Yong Ho; Lee, Jeong Ho; Lee, Hyun Duk [and others

    2000-03-01

    For investigating the contamination pathways of major radionuclides in staple food crops, greenhouse experiments in which rice, Chines cabbage and radish were exposed to mixed {gamma} radionuclides of Mn-54, Co-60, Sr-85, Ru-103 and Cs-134 and H-3 at different growth stages, were conducted to generate data on parameters concerning the direct contamination of those crops. Experiments of the exposure to iodine gas were also performed for rice and radish at their various growth stages to obtain contamination parameters of elemental iodine. Based on data obtained from the experiments mentioned above, a database program was constructed to make it possible to search parameter values for different radionuclides, crops and deposition times in an easy way have an graphic output of the variation in the contamination parameter with deposition times. Paddy-field soils were collected from 5 or 6 places around Kori and Youngkwang NPPs and physicochemical properties and background radioactivity levels of the soils were investigated. Soil-to-rice transfer factors of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in the collected soils were determined for different RI application times. For Kori soils, transfer factors were also measured in the second year to investigate the yearly variation. In addition, the conceptual design of an automatized experimental greenhouse was performed to be used as a basic material for a detailed design for the construction in the future.

  17. An operational model for the accidental release in Hungary

    Full text: A multi-layered (32) Eulerian passive tracer transport model has been developed for the statistical investigation of the spatial distribution and deposition of radionuclides or chemically toxic substances over Central Europe. Partial differential equations related to the transport and reaction of species have been solved by 'method of lines technique'. The two main components of a method of lines are application the spatial discretization and time integration routine. The model is discretized partial differential equations on an equidistant rectangular grid with a resolution of 0.0375 x 0.025 degrees. Vertical transport has been parameterized using K-theory via calculation of Monin-Obukhov length. This model has been coupled with the ALADIN meso-scale limited area numerical weather prediction model used by the Hungarian Meteorological Service. The efficiency of the transport model has been illustrated by the set of simulations of a hypothetical nuclear accident at the Paks NPP, in Central Hungary. The aim of our work was to develop a transport sub-model for the coupled TRansport- EXchange (the so-called TREX) model. (author)

  18. Investigation of Thermal Equilibrium around an Accidental Event and Impact on Possibly Enclosed Surrounding Environment

    Sarkar, Biswanath; Shah, Nitin; Choukekar, Ketan; Kapoor, Himanshu; Kumar, Uday; Das, Jotirmoy; Bhattacharaya, Ritendra; Vaghela, Hitensinh; Muralidhara, Srinivasa

    Complex and large cryogenic distribution systems are integral part of a fusion machine having superconducting magnets, cryopumps, etc. The various equipment of the cryogenic distribution system are interconnected via Cryogenic Transfer Lines (CTLs) to distribute cold helium to end users. During nominal operation of the fusion machine, helium inventory in CTLs could be in order of several tons. The cold helium present in CTLs could be released in surrounding volume due to accidental scenario. The present analysis, aims to estimate lowest temperature in the surrounding volume due to accidental scenario. The paper will describe simulation results and the test plan in a simulated condition.

  19. Lung nodules accidentally detected on CT scans

    Improving of the spatial resolution of modern CT scanners has increased the amount of information obtained by lung CT, and thus the amount of accidentally determined nodules and quality of their structure specification. To unify the criteria of their follow-up CT studies Fleischner Society has issued recommendations for management of solid pulmonary nodules, and then added recommendations for subsolid nodules. In this article the review of categories of such accidental findings in lungs is presented with follow-up criteria and annotations applied

  20. Inhaled Surfactant in the treatment of accidental Talc Powder inhalation: a new case report

    Lo Piparo Caterina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of talcum powder is incorrectly part of the traditional care of infants. Its acute aspiration is a very dangerous condition in childhood. Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported. We report on a patient in which accidental inhalation of baby powder induced severe respiratory difficulties. We also point out the benefits of surfactant administration. Surfactant contributed to the rapid improvement of the medical and radiological condition, preventing severe early and late complications and avoiding invasive approaches.

  1. Laryngeal impaction of an archwire segment after accidental ingestion during orthodontic adjustment.

    Umesan, Uday Kumar; Ahmad, Wizziyiane; Balakrishnan, Priya

    2012-08-01

    Orthodontic archwires or fractured appliances that are accidentally swallowed can become lodged in the airway or gastrointestinal tract. Inadvertent ingestion or aspiration of an appliance or archwire piece during orthodontic appliance adjustment is a medical emergency with potentially serious complications, including possible death from asphyxiation. This article reports the accidental ingestion of a piece of orthodontic archwire that became impacted in the larynx; it was subsequently retrieved. Some potential complications are discussed, along with suggested precautions to prevent such mishaps when using fixed appliances. PMID:22858337

  2. Tuberculosis cutánea por inoculación accidental Cutaneous tuberculosis accidental inoculation

    María Ascensión Maestre Naranjo; Jenry Borda Olivas; Arantxa Ortega Hernández; Esmeralda Tovar Benito; María Luisa Rodríguez de la Pinta; Rosa María Daza Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Caso clínico de una microbióloga con amplia experiencia, que sufre una inoculación accidental al manipular una cepa pura de Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Se pincha en la cara lateral externa de la falange distal del dedo índice, atravesando el guante con la aguja contaminada. (Imagen 1). La trabajadora procede de forma inmediata a la limpieza de la herida. El Servicio de Prevención, registra la inoculación como accidente de trabajo. A las tres semanas del accidente, aparece en el lugar de la in...

  3. Accidental fire in the West Hall

    1977-01-01

    On January 7 an accidental fire due to the failure of standard circuit-breakers, destroyed the coils of two spectrometer magnets and severely damaged the apparatus of two experiments. See also photos 7701582X, 7701581X, 7701580X. (Annual Report 1977, pg. 127-128)

  4. Medical handling of accidentally exposed individuals: recommendations

    The manual Medical Handling of Accidentally Exposed Individual, IAEA Safety Series no. 88 has been translated to portuguese language. Additional considerations about the Goiania radiological accident were incorporated to the original text, which provides knowledge involving health problems to both workers and public members. Also information concerning blood, recent radiological accidents, recommended maximum limited doses and a glossary were introduced. 5 refs

  5. Astressin B, a Nonselective Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Antagonist, Prevents the Inhibitory Effect of Ghrelin on Luteinizing Hormone Pulse Frequency in the Ovariectomized Rhesus Monkey

    Vulliémoz, Nicolas R; Xiao, Ennian; Xia-Zhang, Linna; Rivier, Jean; Ferin, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Administration of ghrelin, a key peptide in the regulation of energy homeostasis, has been shown to decrease LH pulse frequency while concomitantly elevating cortisol levels. Because increased endogenous CRH release in stress is associated with an inhibition of reproductive function, we have tested here whether the pulsatile LH decrease after ghrelin may reflect an activated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and be prevented by a CRH antagonist. After a 3-h baseline LH pulse frequency monit...

  6. Interest of stable iodine prophylaxis in accidental situation

    In the case of an accident on a nuclear reactor, radioactive substances could be released in atmosphere. among these substances, the presence of radioactive isotopes of iodine is a constant, that, in the lack of efficient counter measures could lead to an internal contamination, principally by inhalation but also by contaminated food ingestion. The radioactive iodine accumulate in the thyroid, leading to an exposure that at term can induce an increase of a cancer risk for this gland among the most sensitive persons, especially the children. It exists a simple and efficient protection mean: the taking of a tablet of stable iodine. In this article, the interest of the prophylaxis by stable iodine in accidental situation is tackled under the shape of eleven independent questions/answers, allowing a reading in several times but also the research of response elements to a question that the reader could wonder. (N.C.)

  7. Research progress in study of accidental hypothermia

    Yuan, Rui; Zhang, Zhi-cheng

    2016-01-01

    Accidental hypothermia refers to a state of lowering of core body temperature down to 35 ℃induced by drowning, burial in snow and prolonged exposure to cold environment, etc. Hypothermia may affect the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, digestive system, etc. The triad consisting "hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy" is an important factor accelerating the death of patients. Early, timely application of rewarming measures is regarded as the basic principle in treatment of hypotherm...

  8. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit

    Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea...

  9. Commitment of involved actors in the preparation of accidental and post-accident situations: European experiments

    The author briefly describes some approaches developed within the EURANOS European research programme between 2004 and 2009 which aims at promoting the building up of a European network (NERIS) for the management of nuclear accidental and post-accident situations. Notably, he comments the experiment which took place in the Montbeliard district where two types of radiological events have been modelled and simulated: an accident in the Fessenheim nuclear power plant with two scenarios of release, and a transportation accident with a release of radioactive caesium 137. He also evokes the Norwegian experience and some other actions in Finland, Great-Britain, Spain and Slovakia where reflections on the management of accidental and post-accident situations or crisis exercises have been organized

  10. Petroleum and hazardous material releases from industrial facilities associated with Hurricane Katrina.

    Santella, Nicholas; Steinberg, Laura J; Sengul, Hatice

    2010-04-01

    Hurricane Katrina struck an area dense with industry, causing numerous releases of petroleum and hazardous materials. This study integrates information from a number of sources to describe the frequency, causes, and effects of these releases in order to inform analysis of risk from future hurricanes. Over 200 onshore releases of hazardous chemicals, petroleum, or natural gas were reported. Storm surge was responsible for the majority of petroleum releases and failure of storage tanks was the most common mechanism of release. Of the smaller number of hazardous chemical releases reported, many were associated with flaring from plant startup, shutdown, or process upset. In areas impacted by storm surge, 10% of the facilities within the Risk Management Plan (RMP) and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) databases and 28% of SIC 1311 facilities experienced accidental releases. In areas subject only to hurricane strength winds, a lower fraction (1% of RMP and TRI and 10% of SIC 1311 facilities) experienced a release while 1% of all facility types reported a release in areas that experienced tropical storm strength winds. Of industrial facilities surveyed, more experienced indirect disruptions such as displacement of workers, loss of electricity and communication systems, and difficulty acquiring supplies and contractors for operations or reconstruction (55%), than experienced releases. To reduce the risk of hazardous material releases and speed the return to normal operations under these difficult conditions, greater attention should be devoted to risk-based facility design and improved prevention and response planning. PMID:20345576

  11. Investigation on the contaminative influence of animal products due to the inhalation of air and the ingestion of soil of cattle in accidental consequence

    In an accidental release of radioactive materials to the environment, the contaminative influence of animal products due to the inhalation of air and the ingestion of soil of livestock, both of which are dealt with as minor contaminative pathways in most radioecological models but may not be neglected, was investigated with the improvement of the Korean dynamic food chain model DYNACON. Although mathematical models for both contaminative pathways have been established for considering all animal products and incorporated into the model, investigation was limited to milk. As a result, it was found that both pathways are influential in the contamination of milk in the case of an accidental release during the non-grazing period of dairy cows, i.e., the non-growing season of pasture. In the case of an accidental release during the non-grazing period, the inhalation of air was more influential than the ingestion of soil in the early days following an accidental release. While, it was the opposite with the lapse of time. If precipitation is encountered during an accidental release, contaminative influence due to the ingestion of soil was greater compared with the cases of no precipitation, in general, because of a greater deposition of radionuclides onto the ground. In the case of an accidental release during the grazing period of dairy cows, i.e., the growing season of pasture, radioactive contamination due to the ingestion of pasture was dominant irrespective of the existence of precipitation during an accidental release, consequently the contaminative influence due to the inhalation of air and the ingestion of soil was negligible

  12. Demonstration of the astral post accidental code

    . The results proposed by ASTRAL can in turn be saved in its database, on the user's request, in order to be processed by other tools such as Geographical Information Systems, which enable spatial analysis and map production. Such maps are very helpful in crisis situations to decision makers since by answering to questions of a 'where?' type, at a given time, they complete the information delivered by ASTRAL, which answers to questions of a 'when?' type, at a given site. This is why a link to ASTRAL has been constructed in CARTINFO, an IRSN tool dedicated to mapping results for its Crisis Technical Center. Thus the CONRAD, ASTRAL and CARTINFO softwares constitute a chain for IRSN's Crisis Technical Center, calculating transfers through the environment and consequences of an atmospheric accidental radionuclide release. The development of this version started in 1999 and has been subject to a quality assurance program. The identified customers and users have been associated in a control committee expressing needs, validating choices and checking the good progress of the project. The programming is currently being validated by test scenarios that check the equations, parameters, functionalities and navigation through the screens. The technology and architecture chosen for the second version of ASTRAL are different from the previous ones. It now uses an internet technology and is of a three-third type, the software requiring an Oracle database, a Microsoft web server and a consultation station. These choices offer important advantages: the spreading and maintenance of the tool are very easy. In fact, once the server and the database have been installed an a network, the users only need a web browser to run the code. The initial installation and the updating are thus no more to be made an every user station, but only on the server and/or the database; the code may be installed on a portable computer, which hosts the database, the internet server and the web browser. This

  13. Prevention of calcification of glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium through controlled release polymeric implants: studies of Fe3+, Al3+, protamine sulphate and levamisole.

    Pathak, Y V; Boyd, J; Levy, R J; Schoen, F J

    1990-11-01

    Calcification is the principal cause of the clinical failure of bioprosthetic heart valves fabricated from glutaraldehyde pretreated porcine aortic valves or bovine pericardium. The present study investigated controlled-release implants for prevention of the calcification of glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium in a rat subdermal model. Either Al3+ and Fe3+ (inhibitors of the growth and dissolution rate of hydroxyapatite crystals), levamisole (alkaline phosphatase inhibitor) or protamine sulphate (charge modifier) were individually incorporated into various polymeric carriers (either silicone rubber, polyurethane or silicone rubber-polyurethane copolymer). Polymeric implants were evaluated for in vitro release kinetics, which revealed that sustained drug release was obtained from 21 d to more than 90 d from various drug matrices. In vivo efficacy was studied by co-implanting the polymeric delivery systems with glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium for 21 d using a subdermal rat model; glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium calcium levels were quantitated by atomic absorption spectroscopy in the explanted tissues. Fe3+ and Al3+ polymeric implants were the most effective for inhibiting deposition of calcium mineral. Al3+ demonstrated 82% inhibition of calcification compared to controls and Fe3+ resulted in 80% inhibition of calcification. Specific histologic staining methods showed that Fe3+ and Al3+ were localized within the devitalized cells of the explanted glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium. No adverse effects on somatic growth or recipient bone morphology were noted following controlled-release drug administration. Controlled release of protamine sulphate or levamisole did not significantly inhibit glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium calcification. It is concluded that regional controlled release of Fe3+ or Al3+ inhibits glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium calcification in the rat subdermal model without adverse

  14. Sudden releases of gases

    Chaloupecká Hana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conurbations all over the world have enlarged for numberless years. The accidental or intentional releases of gases become more frequent. Therefore, these crises situations have to be studied. The aim of this paper is to describe experiments examining these processes that were carried out in the laboratory of Environmental Aerodynamics of the Institute of Thermomechanics AS CR in Nový Knín. Results show huge puff variability from replica to replica.

  15. Construção da participação comunitária para a prevenção de acidentes domésticos infantis Construcción de la participación comunitaria para prevenir accidentes domesticos infantiles Constructing community involvement for the prevention of home accidents in children

    Justina Inês Brunetto Verruck Acker

    2009-02-01

    ámica ¿Qué es eso?, y la dinámica Casa Simulada. CONSIDERACIONES: Se evidencia que con creatividad y congruencia el grupo de salud ha desencadenado el proceso de movilización de la comunidad para prevenir accidentes domésticos infantiles.INTRODUCTION: This paper reports part of a study whose aim was to mobilise a team for the Family Health Program to enable the citizen community involvement aiming at preventing domestic accidents for children under age five, through the theoretical framework of the Seven Theses by Roberto Briceño-Léon. METHODOLOGY: the Convergent Care Research was used with a Team for the Family Health Programme in a town in the country in Rio Grande do Sul. Educational workshops were first performed with the team and then educational activities were done with the families in the community. Data were collected through the observation, interview and content analysis. RESULTS: Creation of four educational tools: the song 'A Lição do Sapeca', dramatisation of the song, the practice called 'O que é isto?' and the practice called 'Casa Simulada'. CONSIDERATIONS: It is showed that through creativity and congruence the health team unleashed a process of the citizen community involvement for preventing child domestic accidents.

  16. Accidental Kähler moduli inflation

    We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small Kähler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil Kähler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model

  17. The present status and recent applications of the accidental tritium assessment code UFOTRI

    The computer program UFOTRI can be used for assessing the impact of accidental released tritium in the two chemical forms tritiated water vapour and tritium gas. By applying UFOTRI to potential European sites for ITER, it could be demonstrated that the main goal, the nonevacuation criteria, is fulfilled for the present release limits. Contributions in international studies together with the re-evaluation of experimental data showed that the plant sub-model as well as the soil sub-model are areas for further improvement. (author)

  18. The present status and recent applications of the accidental tritium assessment code UFOTRI

    Raskob, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    The computer program UFOTRI can be used for assessing the impact of accidental released tritium in the two chemical forms tritiated water vapour and tritium gas. By applying UFOTRI to potential European sites for ITER, it could be demonstrated that the main goal, the nonevacuation criteria, is fulfilled for the present release limits. Contributions in international studies together with the re-evaluation of experimental data showed that the plant sub-model as well as the soil sub-model are areas for further improvement. (author)

  19. Accidentes de tránsito terrestre

    José Enrique Ramírez Muñoz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Los accidentes de tránsito terrestres en Costa Rica se han convertido en un serio problema de salud pública, que derivan ya sea en lesiones graves o bien en muertes de personas de todas las edades. Estos eventos incluyen el atropellamiento, las colisiones y choques, y producen cuadros lesionológicos muy diversos de acuerdo a la participación de las personas, el tipo de vehículo y la forma en la que se produce el traumatismo. Así mismo, se debe tener en cuenta la participación de factores coadyuvantes como el uso del casco y el cinturón de seguridad, o bien el consumo de alcohol y el uso del teléfono móvil. La valoración médico legal de las víctimas, vivas o muertas de accidentes de tránsito, está a cargo del Departamento de Medicina Legal del Organismo de Investigación Judicial, y se hace por solicitud de una Autoridad Judicial competente.

  20. Accidental gamma dose measurement using commercial glasses.

    Narayan, Pradeep; Vaijapurkar, S G; Senwar, K R; Kumar, D; Bhatnagar, P K

    2008-01-01

    Commercial glasses have been investigated for their application in accidental gamma dose measurement using Thermoluminescent (TL) techniques. Some of the glasses have been found to be sensitive enough that they can be used as TL dating material in radiological accident situation for gamma dosimetry with lower detection limit 1 Gy (the dose significant for the onset of deterministic biological effects). The glasses behave linearly in the dose range 1-25 Gy with measurement uncertainty +/- 10%. The errors in accidental dose measurements using TL technique are estimated to be within +/- 25%. These glasses have shown TL fading in the range of 10-20% in 24 h after irradiation under room conditions; thereafter the fading becomes slower and reaches upto 50% in 15 d. TL fading of gamma-irradiated glasses follows exponential decay pattern, therefore dosimetry even after years is possible. These types of glasses can also be used as lethal dose indicator (3-4 Gy) using TL techniques, which can give valuable inputs to the medical professional for better management of radiation victims. The glasses are easy to use and do not require lengthy sample preparation before reading as in case of other building materials. TL measurement on glasses may give immediate estimation of the doses, which can help in medical triage of the radiation-exposed public. PMID:18285317

  1. Medical management of accidentally exposed individuals

    Bone marrow aplasia is one of the main syndromes following a high dose accidental radiation exposure. Whilst transfusion and bone marrow transplantation have been used with some success starting with the first treatments of accident victims, other therapeutic strategies are needed. With the development of experimental and clinical haematology, promising new approaches to the treatment of aplasia have appeared. New trends for the treatment of haemopoietic injury based on bone marrow transplantation rely on new sources of compatible donor cells, such as cord blood, on the selection of immature haemopoietic cells and on new transplant regimens. Haemopoietic growth factors stimulate the proliferation and/or differentiation of haemopoietic progenitors and, possibly, stem cells. Furthermore, they act on the functions of mature cells. Currently, they have specific uses in haematology related to their role in the regulation of growth and in the differentiation of haemopoietic progenitor cells. Growth factors have already been used for the treatment of accidental radiation induced aplasia and lessons have been learned from their medical management and followup. (author)

  2. Medical management of accidentally exposed individuals

    Bone marrow aplasia is one of the main syndromes following a high dose accidental radiation exposure. Although both transfusion and bone marrow transplantation have been used with some success since the first treatments of patients, other therapeutic strategies are needed. New promising approaches of the treatment of aplasia have appeared with the development of experimental and clinical hematology. Some new trends for the treatment of the hematopoietic injury based on bone marrow transplantation rely on new sources of compatible donor cells, such as cord blood, on the selection of immature haemopoietic cells and on new transplant regimens. The hematopoietic growth factors stimulate proliferation and/or differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors and possibly stem cells. Furthermore, they act on the functions of mature cells. They have now specific uses in hematology, related to their role in the regulation of growth and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Some growth factors have already been used for the treatment of accidental radiation-induced aplasia and lessons have been learned from their medical management and follow-up. (author)

  3. Accidental radioisotope burns - Management of late sequelae

    Varghese Bipin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidental radioisotope burns are rare. The major components of radiation injury are burns, interstitial pneumonitis, acute bone marrow suppression, acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Radiation burns, though localized in distribution, have systemic effects, and can be extremely difficult to heal, even after multiple surgeries. In a 25 year old male who sustained such trauma by accidental industrial exposure to Iridium192 the early presentation involved recurrent haematemesis, pancytopenia and bone marrow suppression. After three weeks he developed burns in contact areas in the left hand, left side of the chest, abdomen and right inguinal region. All except the inguinal wound healed spontaneously but the former became a non-healing ulcer. Pancytopenia and bone marrow depression followed. He was treated with morphine and NSAIDs, epidural buprinorphine and bupivicaine for pain relief, steroids, antibiotics followed by wound excision and reconstruction with tensor fascia lata(TFL flap. Patient had breakdown of abdominal scar later and it was excised with 0.5 cm margins up to the underlying muscle and the wound was covered by a latissimis dorsi flap. Further scar break down and recurrent ulcers occurred at different sites including left wrist, left thumb and right heel in the next two years which needed multiple surgical interventions.

  4. Dosimetric significance of cytogenetic examinations in human accidental over exposures

    The damage to 13 workers following accidental exposures was assessed from lymphocyte chromosomal aberrations, and the results compared with those supplied by physical dosimetry and the clinical syndromes

  5. A perivascular system releasing sirolimus prevented intimal hyperplasia in a rabbit model in a medium-term study

    Skalský, I.; Szárszoi, O.; Filová, Elena; Pařízek, Martin; Lytvynets, Andrej; Malušková, J.; Lodererová, A.; Brynda, Eduard; Lisá, Věra; Burdíková, Zuzana; Čapek, Martin; Pirk, J.; Bačáková, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 427, č. 2 (2012), s. 311-319. ISSN 0378-5173 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR9358; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA102/08/0691; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0794 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : sirolimus * perivascular wrap * controlled drug release Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.458, year: 2012

  6. Analysis of accidental loss of pool coolant due to leakage in a PWR SFP

    Highlights: • Accidental loss of pool coolant due to leakage in a PWR SFP was studied using MAAP5. • The effect of emergency ventilation on the accident progression was investigated. • The effect of emergency injection on the accident progression was discussed. - Abstract: A large loss of pool coolant/water accident may be caused by extreme accidents such as the pool wall or bottom floor punctures due to a large aircraft strike. The safety of SFP under this circumstance is very important. Large amounts of radioactive materials would be easily released into the environment if a severe accident happened in the SFP, because the spent fuel pool (SFP) in a PWR nuclear power station (NPS) is often located in the fuel handing building outside the reactor containment. To gain insight into the loss of pool coolant accident progression for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) SFP, a computational model was established by using the Modular Accident Analysis Program (MAAP5). Important factors such as Zr oxidation by air, air natural circulation and thermal radiation were considered for partial and complete drainage accidents without mitigation measures. The calculation indicated that even if the residual water level was in the active fuel region, there was a chance to effectively remove the decay heat through axial heat conduction (if the pool cooling system failed) or steam cooling (if the pool cooling system was working). For sensitivity study, the effects of emergency ventilation and water injection on the accident progression were analyzed. The analysis showed that for the current configuration of high-density storage racks, it was difficult to cool the spent fuels by air natural circulation. Enlarging the space between the adjacent assemblies was a way of increasing air natural circulation flow rate and maintaining the coolability of SFP. Water injection to the bottom of the SFP helped to recover water inventory, quenching the high temperature assemblies to prevent

  7. Inhibition of Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Release and Suppression of Caspases by Gamma-Tocotrienol Prevent Apoptosis and Delay Aging in Stress-Induced Premature Senescence of Skin Fibroblasts

    Suzana Makpol

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the molecular mechanism of γ-tocotrienol (GTT in preventing cellular aging by focusing on its anti-apoptotic effect in stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS model of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs. Results obtained showed that SIPS exhibited senescent-phenotypic characteristic, increased expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal and promoted G0/G1 cell cycle arrest accompanied by shortening of telomere length with decreased telomerase activity. Both SIPS and senescent HDFs shared similar apoptotic changes such as increased Annexin V-FITC positive cells, increased cytochrome c release and increased activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 (P<0.05. GTT treatment resulted in a significant reduction of Annexin V-FITC positive cells, inhibited cytochrome c release and decreased activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 (P<0.05. Gene expression analysis showed that GTT treatment down regulated BAX mRNA, up-regulated BCL2A1 mRNA and decreased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression (P<0.05 in SIPS. These findings suggested that GTT inhibits apoptosis by modulating the upstream apoptosis cascade, causing the inhibition of cytochrome c release from the mitochondria with concomitant suppression of caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. In conclusion, GTT delays cellular senescence of human diploid fibroblasts through the inhibition of intrinsic mitochondria-mediated pathway which involved the regulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes and proteins.

  8. Studies report: methods for the evaluation and the prevention of accidental risks (DRA 35 - report {omega} 11). Knowledge of solid fuels self-heating; Rapport d'etude: methodes pour l'evaluation et la prevention des risques accidentels (DRA 35 - rapport {omega} 11). Connaissance des phenomenes d'autoechauffement des solides combustibles

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    The aim of this document is to present a synthesis of the knowledge on risks bond to auto-heating phenomena which occur in solid fuels storage. It analyzes the role of some factors on the heating, and more specially the mass, temperature, oxygen content of the atmosphere and humidity. It presents a general methodology of risks evaluation and measures on the risks detection and prevention. (A.L.B.)

  9. Methods for the evaluation and the prevention of accidental risks (DRA-006). The BLEVE, phenomenology and simulation of thermal effects; Methodes pour l'evaluation et la prevention des risques accidentels (DRA-006). Le BLEVE, phenomenologie et modelisation des effets thermiques

    NONE

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this document is to present a synthesis on the BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion) risk which could appear in the liquefied gases storage. The objective is to define a typology and a theory of the phenomena, based on passed accidents and instrumented tests, to present a synthesis of available models to describe the thermal effects generated by the BLEVE with a comparison of simulation and passed accidents, to propose some ideas for the BLEVE prevention. (A.L.B.)

  10. Consequence Analyses Following Potential Savannah River Site Hydrological Releases

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-07-28

    Postulated accidental release of radiological material to surface water bodies on the Savannah River Site and the resulting downstream contamination of the Savannah River pose a potential threat to downstream river users.

  11. Rede de Prevenção de Acidentes de Trabalho: uma estratégia de ensino a distância Red de Prevención de Accidentes deTrabajo: una estrategia para enseñanza a la distancia Network Prevention of Accidents at Work: a strategy for distance education

    Maria Helena Marziale

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudo quase-experimental cujo objetivo foi avaliar o treinamento interativo proposto, como estratégia de mudança no comportamento de trabalhadores para o adequado uso de luvas na administração de medicamentos endovenosos. O treinamento, estruturado no Modelo de Promoção da Saúde de Pender, foi realizado a distância pelo web site da Rede de Prevenção de Acidentes de Trabalho (REPAT, disponível em: http://repat.eerp.usp.br/estrategia/index.php e aplicado a 60 trabalhadores de enfermagem de dois hospitais estado de São Paulo. Antes do treinamento 58,3% dos trabalhadores usavam luvas para administrar medicamentos endovenosos na semana que antecedeu o treinamento e 83,3% trabalhadores informaram intenção do uso de luvas após o treinamento. Conclusão: a ferramenta interativa facilitou a aplicação da estratégia educativa no trabalho e pode auxiliar a mudança do comportamento do uso de luvas.Estudio casi-experimental cuyo objetivo fue evaluar el proyecto de formación interactiva, como una estrategia para el cambio en el comportamiento de los trabajadores, buscando el uso apropiado de guantes en la administración de drogas por vía intravenosa. La capacitación interactiva se estructuró en el Modelo de Promoción de la Salud de Pender, se llevó a cabo a través del acceso al sitio Web de la Red de Prevención de Accidentes de Trqabajo (REPAT, disponible en: http://repat.eerp.usp.br/estrategia/index.php y se aplicó en 60 trabajadores enfermería de dos hospital en el estado de Sao Paulo. En la semana antes del entrenamiento 58,3% de los trabajadores usaron guantes en la administración de drogas por vía intravenosa y, después del entrenamiento, 83,3% de los trabajadores informaron intención de usar guantes. Conclusión: la herramienta interactiva facilitado la aplicación de la estrategia educativa para la Promoción de la Salud en el Trabajo permitir que los trabajadores participen en las diferentes realidades de la vida y el

  12. Throat-cutting of accidental origin.

    Demirci, Serafettin; Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Gunaydin, Gursel

    2008-07-01

    Incised wounds of the neck can be accidental, homicidal, or suicidal. In this paper, a death case has been presented where a spinning circular saw of a cutting machine in a workshop came off its place and cut the throat of a 30-year-old male who was operating the machine. There was an incision (15 cm x 5 cm) that began in the middle of the neck down the thyroid cartilage, extended horizontally to the left of the neck and ended on the outer part of the neck in the outer left side of m. trapezius. Death occurred because of exsanguination caused by the cutting of carotis artery and jugular vein. In the case we presented, although the cut in the neck initially suggested homicide, it was found to have occurred as a result of an accident after the autopsy and death scene investigation. PMID:18489556

  13. Research progress in study of accidental hypothermia

    Rui YUAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Accidental hypothermia refers to a state of lowering of core body temperature down to 35 ℃induced by drowning, burial in snow and prolonged exposure to cold environment, etc. Hypothermia may affect the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, digestive system, etc. The triad consisting "hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy" is an important factor accelerating the death of patients. Early, timely application of rewarming measures is regarded as the basic principle in treatment of hypothermia. A series of rewarming measures, such as infusion of warm fluids, inspiration of warm air, abdominal infusion of warm fluid, instruction of warm fluid into pleural cavity, intravenous infusion of warm fluid, rewarming through ECMO, etc. have been used recently. Advance in research on the classification of hypothermia, its impact to the body and the treatment methods are reviewed in present paper. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.04.15

  14. Accidental etizolam ingestion in a child.

    Kato, Zenichiro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Funato, Michinori; Kuwabara, Hideaki; Kondo, Naomi

    2007-07-01

    Etizolam (ETZ) is an antidepressive thienodiazepine drug that is used worldwide. The most frequent adverse effects in adults are drowsiness and muscle weakness, and this can rarely cause paradoxical excitation; however, no information exists on intoxication in children. Furthermore, evidence bearing on its safety in children is not available. We present a case of a child who accidentally took a single dose of ETZ, approximately the same as a therapeutic dose for adults, and who showed paradoxical excitation and muscle weakness. The case presented here suggests that pediatricians and emergency physicians should be aware of the possible adverse effects in children and therapeutic approaches in intoxication of ETZ and the necessity of further investigations on a specific therapeutic guideline for overdose management especially in children. PMID:17666930

  15. Evidence that the branched-chain amino acid L-valine prevents exercise-induced release of 5-HT in rat hippocampus.

    Gomez-Merino, D; Béquet, F; Berthelot, M; Riverain, S; Chennaoui, M; Guezennec, C Y

    2001-07-01

    The branched-chain amino acid L-valine competes with tryptophan for transport into the brain and has previously been shown to decrease brain 5-HT synthesis. The purpose of this study was to assess, using a combined venous catheterization and in vivo microdialysis method, the effect of pre-exercise L-valine administration on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) metabolism in the ventral hippocampus of rats submitted to an acute intensive treadmill running (120 min at 25 m x min(-1) followed by 150 min of recovery). The presented results include measurement of extracellular tryptophan (TRP), the 5-HT precursor, and extracellular 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), the 5-HT metabolite. The data clearly demonstrate that exercise induces 5-HT release in the rat hippocampus: in control group, hippocampal 5-HT levels increase from 123.7 +/- 6.4% at the end of exercise to 133.9 +/- 6.4% after 60 min of recovery. Moreover, two hours of intensive running induced significant increases both in extracellular TRP levels (from 120 min of exercise to 30 min of recovery) and 5-HIAA levels (from 90 min of exercise to 90 min of recovery). Pre-exercise administration of L-valine prevents significantly the exercise-induced 5-HT release: 5-HT levels are maintained to baseline during exercise and recovery. With regard to the competitive effect of L-valine with TRP, we could observe a treatment-induced decrease in brain TRP levels (from 120 min of exercise to the end of recovery). Besides, L-valine does not prevent exercise-induced increase in 5-HIAA levels. The present study evidences that an acute intensive exercise stimulates 5-HT metabolism in the rat hippocampus, and that a pre-exercise administration of L-valine prevents, via a limiting effect on 5-HT synthesis, exercise-induced 5-HT release. This study provides some anwers to previous human and animal investigations, showing physiological and psychological benefits of branched-chain amino acids supplementation on performance. PMID:11510866

  16. Accidental foreign bodies in pediatric abdomens: A pictorial essay

    Foreign bodies in pediatric abdomens are caused by accidental ingestion or trauma. The purpose of this article is to review the various findings of accidental foreign bodies in pediatric abdomens. Abdominal radiography, fluoroscopic examination, gastrointestinal contrast studies and CT may be useful in evaluating the location and type of foreign body, and for evaluating complications such as bowel perforation and obstruction

  17. Accidental foreign bodies in pediatric abdomens: A pictorial essay

    Park, Chan Ho; Kim, Young Tong [Soonchunhyang Univ. Cheonan Hospital/Soonchunhyang Univ. College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Foreign bodies in pediatric abdomens are caused by accidental ingestion or trauma. The purpose of this article is to review the various findings of accidental foreign bodies in pediatric abdomens. Abdominal radiography, fluoroscopic examination, gastrointestinal contrast studies and CT may be useful in evaluating the location and type of foreign body, and for evaluating complications such as bowel perforation and obstruction.

  18. Radio Nuclides Release in Research Reactors

    One of the major topic in nuclear safety is the quantitative evaluation of the radionuclides source term in nuclear reactors under routine and accidental conditions. The present study considers the release paths from fuel to coolant during normal and accidental situations of research reactors. Equivalent full power days approach, has been adopted for implementing reactor operating history in the calculations. Origin II code , recoil and Knock out phenomena, experimental correlations, and mathematical models have been employed in determining source term in fuel, releases to fuel clad interface, release from clad to coolant, and concentration in coolant. Different volatile fission products have been manipulated as: Br-83, Kr-85, I-129, I-131, I-133, Xe-133, Xe-135, Cs-137, Te-127, Te-131 m, Tc-99, Tc 99 m, Mo-99, Sr-90, Ru-106. Normal operation and accidental situation have been studied. The results have been verified against published data during normal operating conditions, it showed a good agreement

  19. Taking in account of contextual parameters in post accidental radioecology

    The consequences on agricultural or breeding products of a radioactive accidental release are strongly linked to the context in which radioactive deposits occur: for example conditions of deposition in relation with agricultural and feeding schedules. These contextual parameters lead to a variation of results given by models greater than transfer factors uncertainties. For example, cow milk contamination stretches on several decades during the months following deposit as a function of feeding practices. In the same way, if a wheat plant receives the deposit during grain development, harvested grains will have a contamination level 103 to 104 times higher that if deposition occurs before the growing stage. To create a decision support system like the ASTRAL software, the need to realize a modelling of these contextual parameters has been encountered. Moreover, to help experts for evaluations, default informations relative to agricultural and breeding practices for France are given through databases. However, in case of a real accident, it would be important to re-initialize these contextual parameters which change from year to year, in order to obtain more precise assessments. (authors)

  20. Blockade of Toll-like receptor 2 prevents spontaneous cytokine release from rheumatoid arthritis ex vivo synovial explant cultures

    Nic An Ultaigh, Sinead

    2011-02-23

    Abstract Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the effect of blocking Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial cells. Methods RA synovial tissue biopsies, obtained under direct visualization at arthroscopy, were established as synovial explant cultures ex vivo or snap frozen for immunohistology. Mononuclear cell cultures were isolated from peripheral blood and synovial fluid of RA patients. Cultures were incubated with the TLR1\\/2 ligand, Pam3CSK4 (200 ng, 1 and 10 μg\\/ml), an anti-TLR2 antibody (OPN301, 1 μg\\/ml) or an immunoglobulin G (IgG) (1 μg\\/ml) matched control. The comparative effect of OPN301 and adalimumab (anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha) on spontaneous release of proinflammatory cytokines from RA synovial explants was determined using quantitative cytokine MSD multiplex assays or ELISA. OPN301 penetration into RA synovial tissue explants cultures was assessed by immunohistology. Results Pam3CSK4 significantly upregulated interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in RA peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), RA synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMCs) and RA synovial explant cultures (P < 0.05). OPN301 significantly decreased Pam3CSK4-induced cytokine production of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-8 compared to IgG control in RA PBMCs and SFMCs cultures (all P < 0.05). OPN301 penetration of RA synovial tissue cultures was detected in the lining layer and perivascular regions. OPN301 significantly decreased spontaneous cytokine production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ and IL-8 from RA synovial tissue explant cultures (all P < 0.05). Importantly, the inhibitory effect of OPN on spontaneous cytokine secretion was comparable to inhibition by anti-TNFα monoclonal antibody adalimumab. Conclusions These findings further support targeting TLR2 as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of RA.

  1. Kinematics and kinetics of an accidental lateral ankle sprain.

    Kristianslund, Eirik; Bahr, Roald; Krosshaug, Tron

    2011-09-23

    Ankle sprains are common during sporting activities and can have serious consequences. Understanding of injury mechanisms is essential to prevent injuries, but only two previous studies have provided detailed descriptions of the kinematics of lateral ankle sprains and measures of kinetics are missing. In the present study a female handball player accidentally sprained her ankle during sidestep cutting in a motion analysis laboratory. Kinematics and kinetics were calculated from 240 Hz recordings with a full-body marker setup. The injury trial was compared with two previous (non-injury) trials. The injury trial showed a sudden increase in inversion and internal rotation that peaked between 130 and 180 ms after initial contact. We observed an attempted unloading of the foot from 80 ms after initial contact. As the inversion and internal rotation progressed, the loads were likely to exceed injury threshold between 130 and 180 ms. There was a considerable amount of dorsiflexion in the injury trial compared to neutral flexion in the control trials, similar to the previously published kinematical descriptions of lateral ankle sprains. The present study also adds valuable kinetic information that improves understanding of the injury mechanism. PMID:21824618

  2. Conocimiento de Prevención de accidentes en niños de 1 a 5 años.: Policlínico Yaguajay. Año 2004 Knowledge on accident prevention in children aged from 1- 5.: “Yaguajay” Polyclinic. Year 2004

    Clarivel Hernández López; Lilian Lupe Aquino Pérez

    2007-01-01

    Con el avance de la ciencia y al técnica se han controlado múltiples enfermedades que en otros tiempos constituyeron un azote para la humanidad, sin embargo el nuevo azote de la población mundial son los accidentes. En los últimos años las publicaciones de la OMS han puesto de manifiesto que estos constituyen la primera causa de muerte en niños de 1 a 5 años superando a las debidas al cáncer. En los países de América Latina y el Caribe, incluyendo Cuba, figura entre las cinco primeras causas ...

  3. Evaluation of post-accidental rehabilitation strategies

    Post-accidental management aims at restoring acceptable life conditions for population on sanitary, social and economic aspects. It is then a matter for an optimisation process in a multicriteria context, which has to combine quantitative parameters as well as qualitative parameters. In order to fit with this problematic a methodological work has been realised at IPSN. The methodology consists in making a systematic evaluation of indicators in order to provide intercomparing data for many rehabilitation strategies. It relies on four steps: characterisation and formalization of the geographic and demographic environment, radiological diagnosis, selection of countermeasures from a well characterised set of techniques, and last, evaluation of the intercomparing factors. The methodology has been applied to the Becquerel national exercise. Rejects were limited and the contaminated area was less than 2000ha. Conclusions proposed depend on this context. For the selected countermeasures, radiological benefit and some incidences have been calculated: duration of realisation of the counter-measure, materials and human means, worker doses, and amount of generated wastes. In this context, calculations highlighted the importance of external exposition in built areas from the first year after the accident, for most of the reference groups. Ingestion is important only the first year for the highly autarkical level reference groups. Consequently, countermeasures applied to built areas, such as washing of sidewalks, of streets and roofs, or such as trees pruning ,are the most effective for the dosimetric criteria. In agricultural zone, taking off vegetation and ploughing enable to strongly reduce specific activity on food products. Reduction by soil removal is more effective. But here, management problems due to the large amount of generated waste could discard this kind techniques. Countermeasures on milk applied the first year reduce by 3 the dose for highly autarkical level

  4. Activation of microglial cells triggers a release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF inducing their proliferation in an adenosine A2A receptor-dependent manner: A2A receptor blockade prevents BDNF release and proliferation of microglia

    Gomes Catarina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been shown to control microglial responses in neuropathic pain. Since adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs control neuroinflammation, as well as the production and function of BDNF, we tested to see if A2AR controls the microglia-dependent secretion of BDNF and the proliferation of microglial cells, a crucial event in neuroinflammation. Methods Murine N9 microglial cells were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ng/mL in the absence or in the presence of the A2AR antagonist, SCH58261 (50 nM, as well as other modulators of A2AR signaling. The BDNF cellular content and secretion were quantified by Western blotting and ELISA, A2AR density was probed by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry and cell proliferation was assessed by BrdU incorporation. Additionally, the A2AR modulation of LPS-driven cell proliferation was also tested in primary cultures of mouse microglia. Results LPS induced time-dependent changes of the intra- and extracellular levels of BDNF and increased microglial proliferation. The maximal LPS-induced BDNF release was time-coincident with an LPS-induced increase of the A2AR density. Notably, removing endogenous extracellular adenosine or blocking A2AR prevented the LPS-mediated increase of both BDNF secretion and proliferation, as well as exogenous BDNF-induced proliferation. Conclusions We conclude that A2AR activation plays a mandatory role controlling the release of BDNF from activated microglia, as well as the autocrine/paracrine proliferative role of BDNF.

  5. Adverse events in humans associated with accidental exposure to the livestock brucellosis vaccine RB51.

    Ashford, David A; di Pietra, Jennifer; Lingappa, Jairam; Woods, Christopher; Noll, Heather; Neville, Bridget; Weyant, Robbin; Bragg, Sandra L; Spiegel, Richard A; Tappero, Jordan; Perkins, Bradley A

    2004-09-01

    Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine, is an attenuated live bacterial vaccine that was licensed conditionally by the Center for Veterinary Biologics, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA, on 23 February 1996, for vaccination of cattle in the United States. Accidental human inoculations can occur during vaccination of cattle, and previous live Brucella vaccines designed for cattle have been known to cause brucellosis in humans. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established passive surveillance for accidental inoculation with the RB51 vaccine in the United States to determine if this veterinary vaccine is associated with human disease, to describe the circumstances of accidental inoculation, to evaluate the potential efficacy of post-exposure chemoprophylaxis, and to develop recommendations for post-exposure management following exposure to RB51. Reports were received from 26 individuals. Accidental exposure to RB51 occurred by needle stick injury in 21 people (81%), conjunctival spray exposure in four (15%), and spray exposure of an open wound in one (4%) individual. At least one systemic symptom was reported in 19 (73%) people, including three (12%) who reported persistent local reactions with systemic involvement. One case required surgery, and B. abortus strain RB51 was isolated from the wound of that individual. Seven cases reported no adverse event associated with accidental exposure. Nine cases reported previous exposure to Brucella vaccines, including one case who also reported a previous diagnosis of brucellosis following exposure to S19 vaccine. Accidental needle stick injuries and conjunctival or open wound exposures of humans with the RB51 vaccine are associated with both local and systemic adverse events in the United States that are consistent with brucellosis; however, it remains undetermined if strain RB51 vaccine can cause systemic brucellosis in humans. Early culture attempts on those exposed and

  6. El accidente de trabajo. Concepto legal y jurisprudencia

    García Romero, José Daniel

    2015-01-01

    El trabajo final de grado versa sobre el concepto de accidente de trabajo que da la jurisprudencia a través de las diferentes sentencias del Tribunal Supremo en la Sala de lo Social, y de los diferentes Tribunales Superiores de Justicia. Analizaremos en profundidad que características tienen que concurrir para que sea considerado como tal, analizando los diferentes supuestos de accidente de trabajo como el accidente in itinere, en misión, etc. También hemos tratado las diferentes contingencia...

  7. Accidental ingestion of BiTine ring and a note on inefficient ring separation forceps

    Baghele ON

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Om Nemichand Baghele1, Mangala Om Baghele21Department of Periodontology, SMBT Dental College and Hospital, Sangamner, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India; 2Private General Dental Practice, Mumbai, IndiaBackground: Accidental ingestion of medium-to-large instruments is relatively uncommon during dental treatment but can be potentially dangerous. A case of BiTine ring ingestion is presented with a note on inefficient ring separation forceps.Case description: A 28-year-old male patient accidentally ingested the BiTine ring (2 cm diameter, 0.5 cm outward projections while it was being applied to a distoproximal cavity in tooth # 19. The ring placement forceps were excessively flexible; bending of the beaks towards the ring combined with a poor no-slippage mechanism led to sudden disengagement of the ring and accelerated movement towards the pharynx. We followed the patient with bulk forming agents and radiographs. Fortunately the ring passed out without any complications.Clinical implications: Checking equipment and methods is as important as taking precautions against any preventable medical emergency. It is the responsibility of the clinician to check, verify and then use any instrument/equipment.Keywords: foreign bodies/radiography, foreign bodies/complications, equipment failure, dental instrument, accidental ingestion

  8. Cellular automata-based forecasting of the impact of accidental fire and toxic dispersion in process industries

    The strategies to prevent accidents from occurring in a process industry, or to minimize the harm if an accident does take place, always revolve around forecasting the likely accidents and their impacts. Based on the likely frequency and severity of the accidents, resources are committed towards preventing the accidents. Nearly all techniques of ranking hazardous units, be it the hazard and operability studies, fault tree analysis, hazard indice, etc. - qualitative as well as quantitative - depend essentially on the assessment of the likely frequency and the likely harm accidents in different units may cause. This fact makes it exceedingly important that the forecasting the accidents and their likely impact is done as accurately as possible. In the present study we introduce a new approach to accident forecasting based on the discrete modeling paradigm of cellular automata. In this treatment an accident is modeled as a self-evolving phenomena, the impact of which is strongly influenced by the size, nature, and position of the environmental components which lie in the vicinity of the accident site. The outward propagation of the mass, energy and momentum from the accident epicenter is modeled as a fast diffusion process occurring in discrete space-time coordinates. The quantum of energy and material that would flow into each discrete space element (cell) due to the accidental release is evaluated and the degree of vulnerability posed to the receptors if present in the cell is measured at the end of each time element. This approach is able to effectively take into account the modifications in the flux of energy and material which occur as a result of the heterogeneous environment prevailing between the accident epicenter and the receptor. Consequently, more realistic accident scenarios are generated than possible with the prevailing techniques. The efficacy of the approach has been illustrated with case studies

  9. Miasis genital accidental por Eristalis tenax Accidental genital myiasis by Eristalis tenax

    Mauricio González M; Greissy Comte M; Javiera Monárdez P; Marcelo Díaz de Valdés L; Iván Matamala C

    2009-01-01

    Las miasis son infestaciones parasitarias de humanos o animales por larvas de mosca que infestan piel, tejidos necróticos y cavidades naturales. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 27 años, asintomática, que eliminó espontáneamente por vía vaginal larvas de Eristalis tenax, una especie de mosca ampliamente distribuida en el mundo, la que es clasificada como agente de miasis accidental. La paciente residía en un área urbana de nivel socioeconómico bajo y entregaba como antecedente el uso de ve...

  10. Understanding drug-related mortality in released prisoners: a review of national coronial records

    Andrews Jessica Y

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prisoner population is characterised by a high burden of disease and social disadvantage, and ex-prisoners are at increased risk of death following release. Much of the excess mortality can be attributed to an increased risk of unnatural death, particularly from drug overdose; however, relatively few studies have investigated the circumstances surrounding drug-related deaths among released prisoners. This study aimed to explore and compare the circumstances of death for those who died from accidental drug-related causes to those who died from all other reportable causes. Methods A nationwide search of the Australian National Coroners Information System (NCIS was conducted to identify reportable deaths among ex-prisoners from 2000 to 2007. Using a structured coding form, NCIS records for these cases were interrogated to explore causes and circumstances of death. Results Coronial records for 388 deceased ex-prisoners were identified. Almost half of these deaths were a result of accidental drug-related causes (45%. The majority of accidental drug-related deaths occurred in a home environment, and poly-substance use at or around the time of death was common, recorded in 72% of drug-related deaths. Ex-prisoners who died of accidental drug-related causes were on average younger and less likely to be Indigenous, born in Australia, married, or living alone at or around the time of death, compared with those who died from all other reportable causes. Evidence of mental illness or self-harm was less common among accidental drug-related deaths, whereas evidence of previous drug overdose, injecting drug use, history of heroin use and history of drug withdrawal in the previous six months were more common. Conclusions Drug-related deaths are common among ex-prisoners and often occur in a home (vs. public setting. They are often associated with use of multiple substances at or around the time of death, risky drug-use patterns, and even

  11. Glutamate-induced apoptosis in primary cortical neurons is inhibited by equine estrogens via down-regulation of caspase-3 and prevention of mitochondrial cytochrome c release

    Zhang YueMei

    2005-02-01

    absence of 17β-estradiol or Δ8, 17β-estradiol (10 nM-10 μM resulted in the prevention of cell death and was associated with a significant dose-dependent decrease in caspase-3 protein levels, with Δ8, 17β-E2 being more potent than 17β-E2. Protein levels of Fas receptor remained unchanged in the presence of glutamate. In contrast, treatment with glutamate induced, in a time-dependent manner, the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Cytosolic cytochrome c increased as early as 1.5 h after glutamate treatment and these levels were 5 fold higher after 6 h, compared to levels in the untreated cells. Concomitant with these changes, the levels of cytochrome c in mitochondria decreased significantly. Both 17β-E2 and Δ8, 17β-E2 reduced the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol and this decrease in cytosolic cytochrome c was associated with inhibition of glutamate-induced cell death. Conclusion In the primary cortical cells, glutamate-induced apoptosis is accompanied by up-regulation of caspase-3 and its activity is blocked by caspase protease inhibitors. These effects of glutamate on caspase-3 appear to be independent of changes in Fas receptor, but are associated with the rapid release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, which precedes changes in caspase-3 protein levels leading to apoptotic cell death. This process was differentially inhibited by estrogens with the novel equine estrogen Δ8, 17β-E2 being more potent than 17β-E2. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that equine estrogens can prevent glutamate-induced translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol in rat primary cortical cells.

  12. Cytogenetic biological dosimetry. Dose estimative in accidental exposure

    The methodology of cytogenetic biological dosimetry is studied. The application in estimation of dose in five cases of accidental exposure is reported. An hematological study and culture of lymphocytes is presented. (M.A.C.)

  13. Mistakes in diagnosing non-accidental injury: 10 years' experience

    Wheeler, David M; Hobbs, Christopher J

    1988-01-01

    Fifty children who were referred to the child abuse team in Leeds over the 10 years 1976-86 with suspected non-accidental injury were found to have conditions which mimicked non-accidental injury. These included impetigo (nine children) and blue spots (five children). Five children who presented with multiple bruising had haemostatic disorders. Eight children had disorders of the bone. Five children had been previously abused physically. Four showed evidence of neglect. One had evidence of no...

  14. Accidental Implant Screwdriver Ingestion: A Rare Complication during Implant Placement.

    Anshul Jain; Baliga, Shridhar D

    2014-01-01

    One of the complications during a routine dental implant placement is accidental ingestion of the implant instruments, which can happen when proper precautions are not taken. Appropriate radiographs should be taken to locate the correct position of foreign body; usually the foreign body passes asymptomatically from gastrointestinal tract but sometimes it may lead to intestinal obstruction, perforations and impactions. The aim of this article is to report accidental ingestion of 19 mm long scr...

  15. Accidental oil spills - project management strategy

    Planning and organisation, as well as actions taken during accidental discharging of hazardous substances (hydrocarbons) into the soil and water, show that without integrating all the functions of safety, occupational safety, fire and explosion protection, technical safety, all the way to the environmental protection, procedure of cleaning, rehabilitation and remediation of polluted areas into their original state cannot be successfully carried out. Neglecting any of the mentioned links/components of the procedure represents a risk to people's health and life, while pollution to the environment remains a constant threat. Development of technologies is quickly transforming the environment in which the professionals of all disciplines work. Therefore, the response to changes by application of new technologies and procedures in all domains is indispensable, however, through a comprehensive and expert perception and consideration of each of the essential correlations comprising the safety management in all the fields. Through management of safety projects in environmental protection, it has become obvious that a united management of different fields is necessary, as well as management of safety in general. Engineering, health, legislation, public, environmental standards, occupational safety, hazards, biophysical and socio-economic aspects are parts of an integral management. Experts joined efforts through interaction and communications are inter-disciplinary characteristics, i.e. multi-disciplinary safety management, but also the management of each project separately. Exactly this knowledge exchange is highly productive and becomes an indispensable element in recognition of indirect and cumulative actions, thus applicable in any field. Implementation of European standards and accreditation of procedures pursuant to the corresponding standards, from risk assessment through rehabilitation to independent expert confirmation of efficiency in implementing the entire

  16. Crisis Management of Accidental Extubation in a Prone-Positioned Patient with Klippel-Feil Syndrome.

    Spond, Matthew; Burns, Tyler; Rosenbaum, Thea; Lienhart, Kristen

    2016-06-15

    We present the case of an accidental extubation in a prone-positioned patient with a challenging airway because of Klippel-Feil syndrome and previous cervical spine fusions. The surgical procedure was well underway when this occurred, which added substantially to the difficulties produced by this event. We herein highlight the corrective steps we took in our case. We also recommend the need for a comprehensive preoperative briefing with all operating room personnel together with an action plan for how to prevent this particular scenario. PMID:27301052

  17. Hypothesis of a nuclear accident to the nuclear power plant of Gravelines with important radioactive release out of the site: risks prevention, intervention strategies. Evaluation of the sensitization to the nuclear risk of the physician practicing near the site

    This thesis has for hypothesis a nuclear accident at the nuclear power plant of Gravelines with radioactive release out of the site: the risks prevention and the strategies of intervention are studied. An evaluation of the sensitization to a nuclear risk is made for the general practitioner that practices near the site. (N.C.)

  18. Nitric Oxide-Releasing Nanoparticles Prevent Propionibacterium acnes-Induced Inflammation by Both Clearing the Organism and Inhibiting Microbial Stimulation of the Innate Immune Response.

    Qin, Min; Landriscina, Angelo; Rosen, Jamie M; Wei, Gabrielle; Kao, Stephanie; Olcott, William; Agak, George W; Paz, Karin B; Bonventre, Josephine; Clendaniel, Alicea; Harper, Stacey; Adler, Brandon L; Krausz, Aimee E; Friedman, Joel M; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Kim, Jenny; Friedman, Adam J

    2015-11-01

    Propionibacterium acnes induction of IL-1 cytokines through the NLRP3 (NLR, nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor) inflammasome was recently highlighted as a dominant etiological factor for acne vulgaris. Therefore, therapeutics targeting both the stimulus and the cascade would be ideal. Nitric oxide (NO), a potent biological messenger, has documented broad-spectrum antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties. To harness these characteristics to target acne, we used an established nanotechnology capable of generating/releasing NO over time (NO-np). P. acnes was found to be highly sensitive to all concentrations of NO-np tested, although human keratinocyte, monocyte, and embryonic zebra fish assays revealed no cytotoxicity. NO-np significantly suppressed IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-8, and IL-6 from human monocytes, and IL-8 and IL-6 from human keratinocytes, respectively. Importantly, silencing of NLRP3 expression by small interfering RNA did not limit NO-np inhibition of IL-1 β secretion from monocytes, and neither TNF-α nor IL-6 secretion, nor inhibition by NO-np was found to be dependent on this pathway. The observed mechanism by which NO-np impacts IL-1β secretion was through inhibition of caspase-1 and IL-1β gene expression. Together, these data suggest that NO-np can effectively prevent P. acnes-induced inflammation by both clearing the organism and inhibiting microbial stimulation of the innate immune response. PMID:26172313

  19. Development of management tools for accidental radiological contamination of the French coastal areas - Development of management tools for accidental radiological contamination in the French marine coastal areas

    The Fukushima nuclear accident led to the most important accidental release of artificial radionuclides into the sea. This accident has underlined the importance of being able to adequately reproduce the fate of radioactive releases and to estimate their consequences for the marine environment. For its Crisis Centre, the French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has operational tools, in order to help experts and decision makers in case of any atmospheric accidental release and terrestrial environment contamination. The on-going project aims to develop tools to manage any marine contamination of the French coastal areas. We should be able to evaluate and anticipate the marine post-accidental situation: contaminated areas localization and contamination levels, and possible consequences. Many sites has be considered as potential source terms into the sea: the Coastal Nuclear Power Plants, the La Hague reprocessing Plant, the Brest and Toulon Military Harbours as home-ports of nuclear powered vessels, and different river mouths (Rhone River, Gironde, Loire, Seine) that could be contaminated by upstream accidental release. To achieve this goal, two complementary approaches are developed: Marine sheets and a dedicated modelling tool (STERNE). - Marine sheets aim to summarize marine environment characteristics for the different sites, identify potential stakes for human protection such as aquaculture areas, beaches, or industrial water intakes, and ecological stakes. Whenever possible, a local climatology (main currents depending on meteorological or tide conditions) that could be a support to first environmental measurement strategy is proposed. A list of available local contacts for any operational management is also provided. - The modelling tool, STERNE (Simulation du Transport et du transfert d'Elements Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin), must predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination of water, marine species and sediments

  20. Development of management tools for accidental radiological contamination of the French coastal areas - Development of management tools for accidental radiological contamination in the French marine coastal areas

    Duffa, C.; Charmasson, S. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/LERCM - Antenne de Radioecologie Marine, Centre Ifremer, Zone portuaire de Bregaillon, 13507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Bailly du Bois, P.; Fievet, B. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/LRC (France); Couvez, C.; Renaud, P. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/DIR (France); Didier, D. [IRSN/PRP-CRI/SESUC/BMTA (France)

    2014-07-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident led to the most important accidental release of artificial radionuclides into the sea. This accident has underlined the importance of being able to adequately reproduce the fate of radioactive releases and to estimate their consequences for the marine environment. For its Crisis Centre, the French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has operational tools, in order to help experts and decision makers in case of any atmospheric accidental release and terrestrial environment contamination. The on-going project aims to develop tools to manage any marine contamination of the French coastal areas. We should be able to evaluate and anticipate the marine post-accidental situation: contaminated areas localization and contamination levels, and possible consequences. Many sites has be considered as potential source terms into the sea: the Coastal Nuclear Power Plants, the La Hague reprocessing Plant, the Brest and Toulon Military Harbours as home-ports of nuclear powered vessels, and different river mouths (Rhone River, Gironde, Loire, Seine) that could be contaminated by upstream accidental release. To achieve this goal, two complementary approaches are developed: Marine sheets and a dedicated modelling tool (STERNE). - Marine sheets aim to summarize marine environment characteristics for the different sites, identify potential stakes for human protection such as aquaculture areas, beaches, or industrial water intakes, and ecological stakes. Whenever possible, a local climatology (main currents depending on meteorological or tide conditions) that could be a support to first environmental measurement strategy is proposed. A list of available local contacts for any operational management is also provided. - The modelling tool, STERNE (Simulation du Transport et du transfert d'Elements Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin), must predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination of water, marine species and sediments

  1. [Severe accidental hypothermia in an elderly woman].

    Knobel, B; Mikhlin, A

    2001-11-01

    Profound hypothermia (core temperature of less than 28 degrees C) is a life threatening state and a medical emergency associated with a high mortality rate. The prognosis depends on underlying diseases, advanced or very early age, the duration prior to treatment, the degree of hemodynamic deterioration, and especially, the methods of treatment, including active external or internal rewarming. This is a case study of an 80-year-old female patient with severe accidental hypothermia (core temperature 27 degrees C). She was found in her home lying immobile on the cold floor after a fall. The patient was in a profound coma with cardiocirculatory collapse, and the medical staff treating her was inclined to pronounce her deceased. On her arrival at the hospital, she was resuscitated, put on a respirator and actively warmed. Very severe metabolic disorders were found, including a marked metabolic acidosis composed of diabetic ketoacidosis (she had suffered from insulin treated type 2 diabetes mellitus) and lactic acidosis with a very high anion gap (42) and a hyperosmotic state (blood glucose 1202 mg/dl). There were pathognomonic electrocardiographic abnormalities, J-wave of Osborn and prolonged repolarization. Slow atrial fibrillation with a ventricular response of 30 bpm followed by a nodal rhythm of 12 bpm and reversible cardiac arrest were recorded. The pulse and blood pressure were unobtainable. Despite the successful resuscitation and hemodynamic and cognitive improvement, rhabdomyolysis (CKP 6580 u/L), renal failure and hepatic damage developed. She was extubated and treated with intravenous fluids containing dopamine, bicarbonate, insulin and antibiotics. Her medical condition gradually improved, and she was discharged clear minded, functioning very well and independent. Renal and liver tests returned eventually to normal limits. Progressive bradycardia, hypotension and death due to ventricular fibrillation or asystole commonly occur during severe hypothermia

  2. Avancée dans la prévention des « chutes de plain-pied » au travail Progress in the prevention of occupational “falls on the same level”. Proposed operational definition of a new category: “Motion perturbation accidents (MPAs” Avances en la prevención de « caídas al mismo nivel » en el trabajo. Propuesta de la definición operacional de una nueva categoría : « los Accidentes con Perturbación del Movimiento (APM »

    Sylvie Leclercq

    2010-11-01

    causes injury due to its properties and subsequently called a “circumstantial hazard”. Finally, the reasoning behind the MPA classification is explained. In particular, it appears that prevention that focuses on the immediate causes of the injury is difficult, even impossible, in MPA cases, essentially because of requirements inherent in the work and the constraints on the enterprise to implement this prevention. Prevention implemented at the source of the risk therefore seems to be the only feasible solution. From commonplace accidents, MPAs reveal dysfunctions within the production system.Las caídas al mismo nivel continúan siendo un accidente laboral frecuente y grave. La terminología usada para describir estos accidentes es variada, relativamente imprecisa y no integra la diversidad de accidentes encontrados bajo diferentes apelaciones. En un inicio, el interés de considerar una categoría de accidentes con una perturbación del movimiento (APM es puesto en evidencia a partir de diversos extractos de relatos de accidentes laborales. A continuación, un modelo es propuesto para los APM, mostrando que en estos accidentes la lesión resulta a menudo de una asociación fortuita entre la energía del movimiento perturbado de la víctima y un elemento material, convertido en agresor por sus propiedades y subsecuentemente llamado un « peligro circunstancial ». Finalmente, el razonamiento detrás de la clasificación de estos accidentes es explicado. En particular, parece ser que la prevención enfocada en las causas inmediatas de la lesión es difícil, incluso imposible en los casos de APM, debido esencialmente a las exigencias inherentes al trabajo y a las dificultades que pesarían en la empresa para la implantación de esta prevención. La prevención realizada en la fuente del riesgo tiende entonces a convertirse en la única posibilidad. Así pues, los APM pasan de ser accidentes banales a ser reveladores de las disfunciones dentro de un sistema de

  3. Long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate versus oral paliperidone extended release: a comparative analysis from two placebo-controlled relapse prevention studies

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing availability and use of long-acting injectable antipsychotics have generated a need to compare these formulations with their oral equivalents; however, a paucity of relevant data is available. Methods This post hoc comparison of the long-term efficacy, safety and tolerability of maintenance treatment with paliperidone palmitate (PP) versus oral paliperidone extended release (ER) used data from two similarly designed, randomised, double-blind (DB), placebo-controlled schizophrenia relapse prevention trials. Assessments included measures of time to relapse, symptom changes/functioning and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Time to relapse between treatment groups was evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Between-group differences for continuous variables for change scores during the DB phase were assessed using analysis of co-variance models. Categorical variables were evaluated using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. No adjustment was made for multiplicity. Results Approximately 45% of enrolled subjects in both trials were stabilised and randomised to the DB relapse prevention phase. Risk of relapse was higher in subjects treated with paliperidone ER than in those treated with PP [paliperidone ER/PP hazard ratio (HR), 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.46–4.35; p 70, both approximately 58.5%; p = 1.000] compared with a 10.9% decrease for paliperidone ER (58.5% vs 47.6%, respectively; p = 0.048). The least squares mean change for Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score at DB end point in these previously stabilised subjects was 3.5 points in favour of PP (6.0 vs 2.5; p = 0.025). The rates of TEAEs and AEs of interest appeared similar. Conclusions This analysis supports maintenance of effect with the injectable compared with the oral formulation of paliperidone in patients with schizophrenia. The safety profile of PP was similar to that of paliperidone ER. Future studies are needed to confirm these

  4. Causes of accidental childhood deaths in China in 2010

    Chan, Kit Yee; Yu, Xin-Wei; Lu, Jia-Peng;

    2015-01-01

    middle-income country (LMIC) settings. In this paper, we aim to establish cause structure for accidental deaths in children aged 0-4 years in China in the year 2010. METHODS: In this paper, we explored the database of 208 multi-cause child mortality studies in Chinese that formed a basis for the first...... deaths. We identified 71 further studies that provided specific causes for accidental deaths. We used epidemiological modeling to estimate the number of accidental child deaths in China in 2010 and to assign those deaths to specific causes. RESULTS: In 2010, we estimated 314 581 deaths in children 0......-4 years in China, of which 31 633 (10.1%) were accidental. Accidental deaths contributed 7240 (4.0%) of all deaths in neonatal period, 8838 (10.5%) among all post-neonatal infant deaths, and 15 554 (31.7%) among children with 1-4 years of age. Among four tested models, the most predictive was used to...

  5. Mannosylated liposomal cytidine 5' diphosphocholine prevent age related global moderate cerebral ischemia reperfusion induced mitochondrial cytochrome c release in aged rat brain.

    Ghosh, S; Das, N; Mandal, A K; Dungdung, S R; Sarkar, S

    2010-12-29

    Mitochondrial dysfunctions generating from cerebral ischemia-reperfusion exert a potential threat on neuronal cell survival and hence, accelerate the aging process and age dependent neuropathology. Thirty min moderate cerebral ischemia induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) followed by 30 min reperfusion caused an increased diene production, depleted glutathione (GSH) content, reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities and pyramidal neuronal loss in young (2 months old) and aged (20 months old) rat brain compared to sham operated controls. Cytidine 5' diphosphocholine (CDP-Choline) is a known neuroprotective drug. CDP-Choline after metabolism in the liver suffers hydrolysis and splits into cytidine and choline before entering systemic circulation and hardly circumvents blood brain barrier (BBB) as such. Previous reports show CDP-Choline liposomes significantly increased in vivo uptake compared to "free drug" administration in cerebral ischemia. To enhance the therapeutic concentration build up in brain we sought to formulate mannosylated liposomal CDP-Choline (MLCDP) utilizing the mannose receptors. We tested the therapeutic supremacy of MLCDP over liposomal CDP-Choline (LCDP) in global moderate cerebral ischemia reperfusion induced neuronal damage. CDP-Choline in MLCDP delivery system was found potent to exert substantial protection against global moderate cerebral ischemia reperfusion induced mitochondrial damage in aged rat brain. Membrane lipid peroxidation, GSSG/GSH ratio and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in cerebral tissue were found to be higher in aged, compared to young rat. Further decline of those parameters was observed in aged rat brain by the induction of global moderate cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. MLCDP treatment when compared to free or LCDP treatment prevented global moderate cerebral ischemia-reperfusion induced mitochondrial damage as evident ultra structurally and release of cytochrome c

  6. Child abuse. Non-accidental head injury

    Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)

  7. Ingestion Pathway Consequences of a Major Release from SRTC

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-06-08

    The food ingestion consequences due to radioactive particulates of an accidental release, scenario 1-RD-3, are evaluated for Savannah River Technology Center. The sizes of land areas requiring the protective action of food interdiction are calculated. The consequences of the particulate portion of the release are evaluated with the HOTSPOT model and an EXCEL spreadsheet for particulates.

  8. A review of accidents, prevention and mitigation options related to hazardous gases

    Statistics on industrial accidents are incomplete due to lack of specific criteria on what constitutes a release or accident. In this country, most major industrial accidents were related to explosions and fires of flammable materials, not to releases of chemicals into the environment. The EPA in a study of 6,928 accidental releases of toxic chemicals revealed that accidents at stationary facilities accounted for 75% of the total number of releases, and transportation accidents for the other 25%. About 7% of all reported accidents (468 cases) resulted in 138 deaths and 4,717 injuries ranging from temporary respiratory problems to critical injuries. In-plant accidents accounted for 65% of the casualties. The most efficient strategy to reduce hazards is to choose technologies which do not require the use of large quantities of hazardous gases. For new technologies this approach can be implemented early in development, before large financial resources and efforts are committed to specific options. Once specific materials and options have been selected, strategies to prevent accident initiating events need to be evaluated and implemented. The next step is to implement safety options which suppress a hazard when an accident initiating event occurs. Releases can be prevented or reduced with fail-safe equipment and valves, adequate warning systems and controls to reduce and interrupt gas leakage. If an accident occurs and safety systems fail to contain a hazardous gas release, then engineering control systems will be relied on to reduce/minimize environmental releases. As a final defensive barrier, the prevention of human exposure is needed if a hazardous gas is released, in spite of previous strategies. Prevention of consequences forms the final defensive barrier. Medical facilities close by that can accommodate victims of the worst accident can reduce the consequences of personnel exposure to hazardous gases

  9. Reactor Room Experimental SF6 Tests to Determine Probable Stack Activity Response to Radioactive Releases

    This study was performed to obtain information that could be useful for obtaining an early estimate of the probable total stack activity monitor response in the event of an accidental release of radioactive activity in the process room

  10. Correcting for accidental correlations in saturated avalanche photodiodes

    Grieve, James A; Tang, Zhongkan; Ling, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a high-level numerical model for estimating rates of accidental correlations between a pair of passively quenched Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes operating in the saturated regime. By considering the recovery time of both the diodes and the detection circuit we introduce the concept of an "effective duty cycle" and show that it may be estimated by numeric simulation. The impact of effective duty cycle on the observed accidental rate is examined and we demonstrate that the updated model leads to an improved correction factor in actual experiments. This will improve the signal-to-noise ratio in applications depending on correlation measurements.

  11. Accidental exposures in radiotherapy: an history

    Radiotherapy accidents are exceedingly rare. However, they may have major negative consequences: for health (and sometimes life) of victims as well as for the trust that patients put in radiotherapy and radiation oncolysis. Each accident must be pointed out, analysed and reported, in order to allow preventive actions, avoiding repetitive accidents. Through examples of majors accidents occurred all over the world in the last decades, affecting professionals, public or patients themselves, the necessity of transparency is demonstrated. The International Commission of Radiobiological Protection has drawn positive lessons from such accidents and insists on following recommendations: necessity of sufficient number and competent professionals, importance of continuous and initial education, information of professionals and, in general, a strict Quality Assurance program. It is clear that each radiotherapy center remains at risk for errors. It is essential to develop preventive procedures to avoid transformation of errors into accidents. In that context, complete and detailed description and reports of each anomaly or incident must be encouraged as it is done for sectors of aviation or nuclear industry. Radiation oncology must develop such a culture of transparency and of systematic report of all incident. (authors)

  12. HIV Prevention

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  13. Accidental behaviour of nuclear fuel in a warehousing site under air: investigation of the nuclear ceramic oxidation and of fission gas release; Comportement accidentel du combustible nucleaire dans un site d'entreposage sous air: Etude de l'oxydation de la ceramique nucleaire et du relachement des gaz de fission

    Desgranges, L.

    2006-12-15

    After a brief presentation of the context of his works, i.e. the nuclear fuel, its behaviour in a nuclear reactor, and studies performed in high activity laboratory, the author more precisely presents its research topic: the behaviour of defective nuclear fuel in air. Then, he describes the researches performed in three main directions: firstly, the characterization and understanding of fission gas localisation (experimental localisation, understanding of the bubble forming mechanisms), secondly, the determination of mechanisms related to oxidation (atomic mechanisms related to UO{sub 2} oxidation, oxidation of fragments of irradiated fuel, the CROCODILE installation). He finally presents his scientific project which notably deals with fission gas release (from UO{sub 2} to U{sub 3}O{sub 7}, and from U{sub 3}O{sub 7} to U{sub 3}O{sub 8}), and with further high activity laboratory experiments

  14. Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule-A1 (CORM-A1) Improves Neurogenesis: Increase of Neuronal Differentiation Yield by Preventing Cell Death

    Almeida, Ana S.; Soares, Nuno L.; Vieira, Melissa; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases lead to impairment or death of neurons in the central nervous system. Stem cell based therapies are promising strategies currently under investigation. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous product of heme degradation by heme oxygenase (HO) activity. Administration of CO at low concentrations produces several beneficial effects in distinct tissues, namely anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory. Herein the CO role on modulation of neuronal differentiation was assessed. Three different models with increasing complexity were used: human neuroblastoma SH-S5Y5 cell line, human teratocarcinoma NT2 cell line and organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC). Cell lines were differentiated into post-mitotic neurons by treatment with retinoic acid (RA) supplemented with CO-releasing molecule A1 (CORM-A1). CORM-A1 positively modulated neuronal differentiation, since it increased final neuronal production and enhanced the expression of specific neuronal genes: Nestin, Tuj1 and MAP2. Furthermore, during neuronal differentiation process, there was an increase in proliferative cell number (ki67 mRNA expressing cells) and a decrease in cell death (lower propidium iodide (PI) uptake, limitation of caspase-3 activation and higher Bcl-2 expressing cells). CO supplementation did not increase the expression of RA receptors. In the case of SH-S5Y5 model, small amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation emerges as important signaling molecules during CO-promoted neuronal differentiation. CO’s improvement of neuronal differentiation yield was validated using OHSC as ex vivo model. CORM-A1 treatment of OHSC promoted higher levels of cells expressing the neuronal marker Tuj1. Still, CORM-A1 increased cell proliferation assessed by ki67 expression and also prevented cell death, which was followed by increased Bcl-2 expression, decreased levels of active caspase-3 and PI uptake. Likewise, ROS signaling emerged as key factors in CO

  15. Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol. I

    The World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (WAVFH) held an international round table conference in Stockholm, Sweden, January 26-29, 1987. The topic of the conference was 'Accidental Radiation Contamination of Food of Animal Origin'. The agenda was divided into three major topic areas: 1. Ecological Science; 2. Veterinary Science - Live Animals; and 3. Veterinary Science - Food of Animal Origin. Experts and delegates from member countries presented papers, participated in discussions and workshops and produced a multidisciplinary report covering the topic areas. The recent accidental release of radioactive substances into the environment from the Chernobyl accident, demonstrated the need for veterinary, ecological, physical and medical sciences to be prepared to respond to an incident in order to protect the environment, food chain, other agricultural assets and humans from the adverse effects of radionuclides. Several presentations suggested that even with the best technologies, national and regional commitment, and relatively unrestricted resource levels, nuclear incidents can cross international boundaries and can contaminate the environment to the extent that the integrity of various food and water supplies can be at risk. Speakers and subsequent discussers tended to concentrate on the issues associated with lessening future environmental impacts if similar types of incidents should occur again

  16. The accidental overexposures; Les surexpositions accidentelles

    Nenot, J.C.

    1993-03-01

    The radioisotope or ionizing radiation medical or industrial use may generate accidents where human beings are exposed to very high doses. The accident frequency is increasing quickly because of the industrial source use development. The accidents don`t catch only the plant or hospital staffs but also public people. The serious accidents result from conception errors, bad installation maintenance, lack or not enough staff training, transgression of safety processes. The accidents happen in not very specialized firms. Those resulting from energy production reactors are very seldom except for Chernobyl or military submarines. In the medical or hospital installations, accidents may affect the staffs or the patients. Most of the accidents could have been avoided by the simple respect of the simple surety duties. The follow up and analysis of serious accidents can bring an effective collaboration to the prevention. 78 refs., 3 annexes., 14 tabs., 17 figs.

  17. Quality control for handling of accidental blood exposures.

    Wijk, P.T. van; Pelk-Jongen, M.; Wijkmans, C.; Voss, A.; Schneeberger, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    A regional counselling service was established to handle all accidental blood exposures using a standardized protocol. Levels of risk were assessed using an algorithm. Accidents that posed a risk for the transmission of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were

  18. Are diabetic foot lesions precipitated by accidental trauma?

    Doshi, H K; Moissinac, K; Harwant, S

    2001-12-01

    Diabetic foot lesions may arise from frictional trauma due to tight or inappropriate footwear, repetitive stresses on parts of the foot, overlying bony prominence generated by walking and accidental trauma to the neuropathic foot. Many diabetics have been found to be unaware of their foot lesion, or know what the precipitating cause was. Based on the assumption that accidental trauma would affect the foot in a random fashion and result in lesions distributed evenly throughout the foot, a study was performed to determine whether foot lesions were distributed evenly or concentrated to certain areas of predilection. It was found that foot lesions were not evenly distributed but concentrated to certain areas of predilection. Even though relatively high proportion of the study population walked about in open slippers and barefeet, the study showed that accidental trauma was not a predominant precipitant of diabetic foot lesions. Diabetic foot lesions tend to occur as a result of cumulative, repetitive trauma to areas of prediliection rather than accidental trauma. PMID:14569763

  19. Study of stowage of radioactive materials packagings in accidental conditions

    The study of transport conditions shows that few data are available on accidental conditions. Two types of accidents are selected and defined by calculations and tests. Sizing of stowage is determined for a frontal shock (35 g deceleration), maintaining the packaging on the vehicle, and side shock rupture of the stowage system for a determined stress. Mathematical formulations are developed

  20. Brugada syndrome unmasked by accidental inhalation of gasoline vapors

    Kranjcec, Darko; Bergovec, Mijo; Rougier, Jean-Sébastien;

    2007-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the gene SCN5A can cause Brugada syndrome (BrS), which is an inherited form of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. We report the case of a 46-year-old patient, with no previous medical history, who had ventricular fibrillation after accidental inhalation of gasoline...

  1. Accidental Ingestion of Endodontic File: A Case Report

    Chandak, Manoj G.; Pradnya P. Nikhade; Saraf, Hrushikesh P.

    2012-01-01

    Ingestion of the endodontic instrument during root canal treatment is rare but can result in serious complications. The present paper reports a case in which endodontic file was accidentally swallowed by the patient undergoing root canal therapy, which entered digestive tract and passed uneventfully.

  2. Environmental release of chemicals and reproductive ecology.

    Bajaj, J S; Misra, A; Rajalakshmi, M; Madan, R

    1993-07-01

    Reproductive ecology is defined as "the study of causes and mechanisms of the effects of environmental risk factors on reproductive health and the methods of their prevention and management." Major areas of concern, within the purview of this paper, relate to adverse pregnancy outcomes, effects on target tissues in the male and the female, and alterations in the control and regulatory mechanisms of reproductive processes. Teratogenic potential of chemicals, released as a result of accidents and catastrophes, is of critical significance. Congenital Minamata disease is due to transplacental fetal toxicity caused by accidental ingestion of methyl mercury. Generalized disorders of ectodermal tissue following prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls have been reported in Taiwan and Japan. The Bhopal gas disaster, a catastrophic industrial accident, was due to a leak of toxic gas, methyl isocyanate (MIC), in the pesticide manufacturing process. The outcome of pregnancy was studied in female survivors of MIC exposure. The spontaneous abortion rate was nearly four times more common in the affected areas as compared to the control area (24.2% versus 5.6%; p disasters are outlined. PMID:8243381

  3. Responsabilidad del empleador por accidentes de trabajo y enfermedades profesionales

    Cristina Mangarelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. 1. Responsabilidad del “empleador” por accidentes de trabajo y enfermedades profesionales. Noción. 2. La indemnización “tarifada”. Fundamento de su procedencia 3. Responsabilidad del empleador por accidentes de trabajo o enfermedades profesionales en la ley uruguaya (ley Nº 16.074. 4. La “ampliación” de la responsabilidad del empleador por el derecho común en el derecho uruguayo (artículo 7 ley Nº 16.074. 5. Requisitos para la ampliación de la responsabilidad patronal: culpa grave en el incumplimientode normas de seguridad y prevención. 6. La culpa grave. Concepto. 7. El modelo del hombre a tener en cuenta en la “culpa grave” no es el del buen padre de familia. 8. El grado de la culpa no puede ser medido por el resultado del accidente. 9. Se aplican las eximentes de la responsabilidad civil. 10. Distintos ámbitos de la responsabilidad patronal por accidentes de trabajo o enfermedades profesionales: A ante la víctima o los derecho-habientes; B ante el Banco de Seguros del Estado; C ante el Ministerio de Trabajo ySeguridad Social. 11. Recupero del BSE en caso de culpa grave en el incumplimiento de normas de seguridad y prevención. Requisitos 12. Responsabilidad del empleador en caso de accidente de trabajo o enfermedad profesional sufrido por un adolescente. Conclusiones.

  4. Prevent Pneumonia

    2015-08-06

    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  5. Accidental Laser Injury to the Eye.

    Kandari, Jamal Al; Raizada, Seemant; Razzak, Ahmed Abdul

    2010-03-01

    The unprotected human eye is extremely sensitive to laser radiation and can be permanently damaged from direct or reflected beams. Two cases of retinal injury by laser exposure outside hospital setting are reported. Two patients presented in retina clinic in Al-Bahar eye center in Kuwait with complaints of decrease in vision following exposure to unknown light. Case 1 was exposed to a laser used in military warfare and Case 2 exposed to laser pointer. Routine slit lamp examination and fundus examination of the patient was done along with fundus fluorescien angiography (FFA) and Optical coherence tomography (OCT). Patients were followed up in out patient department for 6 months. Patient with military laser exposure had severe permanent vision loss and persisted even after 6 months. Patient exposed to laser pointer beam had transient visual loss, which improved to 20/25 at 7 months follow-up. Laser retinal damage should be suspected in any patient with visual complaints after obvious exposure to unknown strong light. The treatment for laser retinal injuries is extremely limited and hence prevention is essential. PMID:20337345

  6. Hybrid parallel strategy for the simulation of fast transient accidental situations at reactor scale

    Highlights: • Reference accidental situations for current and future reactors are considered. • They require the modeling of complex fluid–structure systems at full reactor scale. • EPX software computes the non-linear transient solution with explicit time stepping. • Focus on the parallel hybrid solver specific to the proposed coupled equations. - Abstract: This contribution is dedicated to the latest methodological developments implemented in the fast transient dynamics software EUROPLEXUS (EPX) to simulate the mechanical response of fully coupled fluid–structure systems to accidental situations to be considered at reactor scale, among which the Loss of Coolant Accident, the Core Disruptive Accident and the Hydrogen Explosion. Time integration is explicit and the search for reference solutions within the safety framework prevents any simplification and approximations in the coupled algorithm: for instance, all kinematic constraints are dealt with using Lagrange Multipliers, yielding a complex flow chart when non-permanent constraints such as unilateral contact or immersed fluid–structure boundaries are considered. The parallel acceleration of the solution process is then achieved through a hybrid approach, based on a weighted domain decomposition for distributed memory computing and the use of the KAAPI library for self-balanced shared memory processing inside subdomains

  7. Risk determination method for accidental water basin contamination based on risk source coupling with sensitive targets.

    Li, Zongfeng; Zeng, Bo; Zhou, Tinggang; Li, Guowei; Zhu, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Accidental water basin pollution seriously threatens human health and ecological security, but rapid, effective methods for evaluating this threat are lacking. This paper aims to develop a risk evaluation method for basin accidents by coupling the risk source with sensitive targets to evaluate the zone accident risk levels of basins and prevent the accidental environmental pollution of water. This method incorporates the interplay between risk sources and sensitive targets by evaluating the zone risk levels of water environments from different sources, effectiveness of the risk source control mechanisms, vulnerability of sensitive targets and spatial and temporal relationships between these sources and targets. Using the Three Gorges Reservoir region as an example, a risk system for water basin pollution incidents consisting of a risk indicator quantification system, a risk zoning method and a verification method for the zoning results is developed and implemented. The results were verified in a field investigation, which showed that the risk zoning model provides rapid, effective and reliable zoning results. This research method could serve as a theoretical reference and technological support for evaluating water basin accident risks. Furthermore, the results are useful for evaluating and protecting the aquatic environments in the Three Gorges Reservoir region. PMID:26207430

  8. Chronic or accidental exposure of oysters to norovirus: is there any difference in contamination?

    Ventrone, Iole; Schaeffer, Julien; Ollivier, Joanna; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Pepe, Tiziana; Le Pendu, Jacques; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2013-03-01

    Bivalve molluscan shellfish such as oysters may be contaminated by human pathogens. Currently, the primary pathogens associated with shellfish-related outbreaks are noroviruses. This study was conducted to improve understanding of oyster bioaccumulation when oysters were exposed to daily contamination or one accidental contamination event, i.e., different modes of contamination. Oysters were contaminated with two representative strains of norovirus (GI.1 and GII.3) and then analyzed with real-time reverse transcription PCR. Exposure to a repeated virus dose for 9 days (mimicking a growing area subjected to frequent sewage contamination) led to an additive accumulation that was not significantly different from that obtained when the same total dose of virus was added all at once (as may happen after accidental sewage discharge). Similarly, bioaccumulation tests performed with mixed strains revealed additive accumulation of both viruses. Depuration may not be efficient for eliminating viruses; therefore, to prevent contaminated shellfish from being put onto the market, continuous sanitary monitoring must be considered. All climatic events or sewage failures occurring in production areas must be recorded, because repeated low-dose exposure or abrupt events may lead to similar levels of accumulation. This study contributes to an understanding of norovirus accumulation in oysters and provides suggestions for risk management strategies. PMID:23462089

  9. Accidentes de tránsito fatales en Costa Rica en el 2007

    Maikel Vargas Sanabria

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Los accidentes de tránsito en Costa Rica contribuyen significativamente con la tercera causa de muerte en el país en los últimos años: las causas externas, por ello resulta importante conocer el panorama más reciente de las fatalidades causadas por estos eventos. En el presente trabajo se analizarán desde el punto de vista médico legal los accidentes de tránsito fatales, cuyas víctimas fallecieron en el año 2007. Para ello se revisaron todas las autopsias efectuadas (un total de 3003 en el Departamento de Medicina Legal de Costa Rica para ese año. Se obtuvo que una cuarta parte de las mismas se originaron en accidentes de tránsito, lo cual generó una tasa de mortalidad de 16,58 por 100000 habitantes, considerada alta a nivel mundial. El perfil predominante de las víctimas fue: ser de género masculino, en edad económicamente productiva, con accidentes fatales de predominio en la noche, los fines de semana, en las provincias costeras, con fallecimiento en el sitio del hecho por trauma cráneo cervical en ocupantes de automotores o peatones, de los cuales un porcentaje significativo estaba bajo los efectos del alcohol y muy pocos bajo los efectos de otras drogas de abuso. Se insiste en la prevención como la herramienta fundamental para evitarlos.Traffic accidents in Costa Rica have been a contributing cause of death (the third cause of death over the last years; that ’s why its is a mayor issue to know the panorama of the latest fatalities caused by this events. In this article, it will be analyzed from the legal medicine point of view, the fatal transit accidents during the year 2007. For these reason all autopsies (a total of 3003 occurred during that year which were made by the Departamento de Medicina Legal de Costa Rica were reviewed. From these revision, it was obtained that one forth of these autopsies were transit accidents, which means that the mortality rate was 16,58 per 100000 habitants, that is consider high over the

  10. Disruption of lolCDE, Encoding an ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter, Is Lethal for Escherichia coli and Prevents Release of Lipoproteins from the Inner Membrane

    Narita, Shin-ichiro; Tanaka, Kimie; Matsuyama, Shin-ichi; Tokuda, Hajime

    2002-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter LolCDE was previously identified, by using reconstituted proteoliposomes, as an apparatus catalyzing the release of outer membrane-specific lipoproteins from the inner membrane of Escherichia coli. Mutations resulting in defective LolD were previously shown to be lethal for E. coli. The amino acid sequences of LolC and LolE are similar to each other, but the necessity of both proteins for lipoprotein release has not been proved. Moreover, previous reconstituti...

  11. Rheology as a Tool to Predict the Release of Alpha-Lipoic Acid from Emulsions Used for the Prevention of Skin Aging

    Vera Lucia Borges Isaac; Bruna Galdorfini Chiari-Andréo; Joana Marques Marto; Jemima Daniela Dias Moraes; Beatriz Alves Leone; Marcos Antonio Corrêa; Helena Margarida Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    The availability of an active substance through the skin depends basically on two consecutive steps: the release of this substance from the vehicle and its subsequent permeation through the skin. Hence, studies on the specific properties of vehicles, such as their rheological behavior, are of great interest in the field of dermatological products. Recent studies have shown the influence of the rheological features of a vehicle on the release of drugs and active compounds from the formulation....

  12. Suggested Methods for Assessment of Accidental External Exposure and Internal Contamination of Workers and their Medical Management

    Certain assumptions are given for the amount of fission products released from a research reactor after the occurrence of an accident. The size and location of radioactive cloud are assumed, and the corresponding external and internal exposures of workers are computed. A method is suggested for assessment of accidental external radiation dose based on experimental studies performed on the changes of quenching effect of plasma or sera as a.result of whole- body gamma-radiation ranging from 25-200 rems. For assessment of accidentally internally incorporated gamma emitters we suggest the standard chair whole-body counter technique which was found to detect reliably 1/100 of the maximum permissible body burden within eight minutes. It was also suggested that a separation method based on the use of absorption phenomena observed for Sephadex (gel resin) can be applied for quick determination of gross alpha activity in urine. For management of accidentally exposed workers to radiation doses of a lethal or sublethal nature, bone-marrow transplantation therapy and blood component therapy in sterile rooms is discussed in the light of experience gained from treatment of leukaemia with intensive chemotherapy. (author)

  13. Hybrid parallel strategy for the simulation of fast transient accidental situations at reactor scale

    This contribution is dedicated to the latest methodological developments implemented in the fast transient dynamics software EUROPLEXUS (EPX) to simulate the mechanical response of fully coupled fluid-structure systems to accidental situations to be considered at reactor scale, among which the Loss of Coolant Accident, the Core Disruptive Accident and the Hydrogen Explosion. Time integration is explicit and the search for reference solutions within the safety framework prevents any simplification and approximations in the coupled algorithm: for instance, all kinematic constraints are dealt with using Lagrange Multipliers, yielding a complex flow chart when non-permanent constraints such as unilateral contact or immersed fluid-structure boundaries are considered. The parallel acceleration of the solution process is then achieved through a hybrid approach, based on a weighted domain decomposition for distributed memory computing and the use of the KAAPI library for self-balanced shared memory processing inside sub-domains. (authors)

  14. [Accidental poisoning among children and adolescents in a county in southern Brazil].

    Martins, Christine Baccarat de Godoy; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; de Paiva, Priscila Aparecida Batista

    2006-02-01

    This study analyzes the characteristics of accidental poisoning among children and young adolescents (venomous animals and plants. Increased risk was observed in the 1-3-year age group, due to poisonous substances. Medications (47.5%), pesticides (14.1%), and cleaning products (11.3%) were the main substances involved (284 cases), and 17.2% of children were hospitalized. Among 189 cases of contact with venomous animals and plants, caterpillars (29.1%), bees (25.9%), and spiders (22.8%) were the main agents, with a 1.1% hospitalization rate. Incidence of poisoning is high, and there are important differences in the types of agents involved according to age group, which may help orient the prevention of such accidents. PMID:16501753

  15. [Protection of the Croatian population from accidental radioactive contamination of the food chain].

    Lokobauer, N; Franić, Z; Bauman, A

    1993-03-01

    The paper indicates the importance of investigating radionuclide translocation in the human food chain, and the contribution of selected food components in total exposure of the population after accidental radioactive contamination. Data on radioactive contamination and risk assessment of the Croatian population after the Chernobyl nuclear accident are given and possibilities of decontamination of food chain components are discussed. Literature data on radionuclide removal from the human food chain are compared to the results of own investigations. Emphasis is placed on biologically most important radionuclides, 131I, 90Sr, 137Cs, and the most effective means of protection are sought. The preventive measures following a nuclear accident should be based on the cost-benefit principle i.e. the damage from applying radiation protection measures should not exceed the benefit from possible dose reduction. PMID:8347101

  16. Accidental intraoral injection of formalin during extraction: case report.

    Swami, Pushp Chander; Raval, Rushik; Kaur, Mandeep; Kaur, Jasleen

    2016-04-01

    Transparent, clear solutions such as hydrogen peroxide, alcohol, sodium hypochlorite, formaldehyde, and local anaesthetics are widely used in dentistry, so the tissues are liable to accidental injury. Formalin, a 37%-40% solution of formaldehyde, is extensively used in 10% solution as a tissue preservative, but it has toxic effects on systems such as the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, skin, and mucosa. However, we know of few reports of cases of inadvertent injection of alcohol and formalin directly into the human body. In this case report we describe the early and delayed clinical effects of accidental intraoral injection of formalin, the subsequent symptoms and management, and some prudent points that should be learnt to avoid such incidents in the future. PMID:26794082

  17. Leading global projects for professional and accidental project leaders

    Moran, Robert T

    2008-01-01

    This book is a must-read for anyone responsible for projects and initiatives that span functional and geographical divides. Authors Moran and Youngdahl bring extensive experience and learning from industry practice to present a clear and straightforward treatment of the leadership skills and knowledge required to lead projects that are global in nature. They have written the first book of its kind to address the three essential skills of global project leaders - strategic project management, project leadership, and cross-cultural leadership. The authors argue that global project leadership is an essential skill in our project-based world and that we are all either intentional or accidental project leaders. Intentional project leaders pursue formal project management education and even certification whereas accidental project leaders find themselves leading global projects and initiatives as a result of a special assignment or promotion. Moran and Youndahl have found that the vast majority of global projects ...

  18. Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal

    Chen, Ze-Guo

    2014-04-09

    Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect.

  19. [Sustained-release dextropropoxyphene.].

    Kurz-Müller, K; Zenz, M

    1991-12-01

    Dextropropoxyphene is a mild opioid analgesic whose analgesic potency corresponds to that of acetylsalicylic acid and paracetamol. It has a similar analgesic effect to codeine but also a considerably lower addiction and dependence potential. Dextropropoxyphene is a therapeutic alternative to other weak opioids such as codeine or dihydrocodeine. In the case of absolute intolerance of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, their analgesic effect can be replaced by that of dextropropoxyphene. In case of relative intolerance, i.e. occurrence of non-tolerable side-effects, the dose of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents can be kept low by additional administration of dextropropoxyphene, which simultaneously enhances analgesia. Analgesics are prescribed according to a definite time schedule for the long-term treatment of chronic pain. The oral route of administration is preferred since it enables the patient to be independent of the nursing staff. Sustained-release drugs with a duration of action of at least 8 h are used in preference to other preparations. Sustained-release dextropropoxyphene provides analgesia for 8-12 h. Sustained-release dextropropoxyphene clearly differs from non-sustained-release dextropropoxyphene in its pharmacokinetics. Repeated administration of the sustained-release form at the therapeutically recommended intervals does not lead to cumulation, and the risk of accidental overdosage is extremely low. Intoxication can only occur after simultaneous ingestion of alcohol or other centrally depressant substances or in the presence of hepatic and/or renal failure. Sustained-release dextropropoxyphene is a sensible and undeniable alternative for the second stage in the analgesic ladder of chronic pain therapy. PMID:18415177

  20. Accidental inhalation of mercury vapour: respiratory and toxicologic consequences.

    Lien, D. C.; Todoruk, D. N.; Rajani, H. R.; Cook, D A; Herbert, F. A.

    1983-01-01

    Four adults, including a pregnant woman, and three children were admitted to hospital following accidental exposure to mercury vapour produced by heating mercury-gold amalgam. Initial symptoms and signs included a paroxysmal cough, dyspnea, chest pain, tachypnea, nausea, vomiting, fever and leukocytosis. Pulmonary function testing performed on the second day after exposure revealed air-flow obstruction and minor restrictive defects in three patients. The diffusing capacity of the lung for car...

  1. A case of accidental ingestion of ant bait containing fipronil.

    Fung, Hin Tat; Chan, Kar Ki; Ching, Wei Ming; Kam, Chak Wah

    2003-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman accidentally ingested a commercial ant bait containing fipronil without development of obvious toxicity, supporting the safety of this new insecticide as demonstrated in animal studies. However, concentrated agricultural products may be more toxic, and the potential for seizures should not be overlooked. The pharmacological action, mechanism of selective insect toxicity, and clinical effects of fipronil are discussed. PMID:12807306

  2. Paediatric femur fractures at the emergency department: accidental or not?

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M M; Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Thekla F; Bakx, Roel; Van Rijn, Rick R

    2016-01-01

    Only a small proportion of all paediatric fractures is caused by child abuse or neglect, especially in highly prevalent long bone fractures. It can be difficult to differentiate abusive fractures from non-abusive fractures. This article focuses on femoral fractures in young children. Based on three cases, this article presents a forensic evidence-based approach to differentiate between accidental and non-accidental causes of femoral fractures. We describe three cases of young children who were presented to the emergency department because of a suspected femur fracture. Although in all cases, the fracture had a similar location and appearance, the clinical history and developmental stage of the child led to three different conclusions. In the first two cases, an accidental mechanism was a plausible conclusion, although in the second case, neglect of parental supervision was the cause for concern. In the third case, a non-accidental injury was diagnosed and appropriate legal prosecution followed. Any doctor treating children should always be aware of the possibility of child abuse and neglect in children with injuries, especially in young and non-mobile children presenting with an unknown trauma mechanism. If a suspicion of child abuse or neglect arises, a thorough diagnostic work-up should be performed, including a full skeletal survey according to the guidelines of the Royal College of Radiologists and the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. In order to make a good assessment, the radiologist reviewing the skeletal survey needs access to all relevant clinical and social information. PMID:26642309

  3. The Classification of Accidental Situations’ Scenarios on Hydropower Plants

    Skvortsova Olga; Dashkina Anastasiia; Petrovskaia Ekaterina; Terleev Vitaly; Nikonorov Aleksandr; Badenko Vladimir; Volkova Yulia; Pavlov Sergey

    2016-01-01

    The collapse of hydropower plant could lead to significant financial, social and environmental damages. Accordingly the issue of safety and reliability is one of major problems of designing, maintenance and operation. The proposed solution consists in evaluation of implementation frequency of emergencies scenario, which can be defined by suggested classification of accidental situations’ scenarios based on systems analysis to implement incidents on hydropower plants. Emergency scenarios on hy...

  4. Accidental Symmetries and N=1 Duality in Supersymmetric Gauge Theory

    Leigh, Robert G; Leigh, Robert G.; Strassler, Matthew J.

    1996-01-01

    We note that the accidental symmetries which are present in some examples of duality imply the existence of continuously infinite sets of theories with the same infrared behavior. These sets interpolate between theories of different flavors and colors; the change in color and flavor is compensated by interactions (often non-perturbative) induced by operators in the superpotential. As an example we study the behavior of SU(2) gauge theories with 2\

  5. Conservative management of accidental gall bladder puncture during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Patil, Nikhil A.; Kundargi, Vinay S.; Patil, Siddangouda B.; Biradar, Ashok N.; Desai, Anup S.

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has been an excellent option for the management of kidney stones. There have been many complications in regards to solid organ injury during PCNL. Here we discuss an interesting case of 45-year-old woman, who underwent PCNL for right renal staghorn calculus, and had an accidental puncture of the gall bladder. Post operatively, the patient was conservatively managed and recovered well. A small number of cases has been reported until now in literature.

  6. Accidental Sulfur Poisoning in a Group of Holstein Heifers

    Gunn, Moira F.; Baird, John D.; Wilkie, Judith S. Nimmo

    1987-01-01

    Fourteen animals died or were euthanized after toxic levels of elemental sulfur were accidentally fed to a group of 120 Holstein heifers. Dehydration, rumen stasis, tachycardia, and diarrhea were seen along with metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, and hypochloremia. The majority of deaths occurred from 3 to 10 days after the sulfur was fed to the heifers. Postmortem examination showed rumenitis, acute alveolitis, and renal tubular necrosis. The toxicity of ingested sulfur was attributed to the c...

  7. Timing, ``Accidentals'' and Other Artifacts in EPR Experiments

    Thompson, Caroline H.

    1997-01-01

    Subtraction of ``accidentals'' in Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiments frequently changes results compatible with local realism into ones that appear to demonstrate non-locality. The validity of the procedure depends on the unproven assumption of the independence of emission events. Other possible sources of bias include enhancement, imperfect synchronisation, over-reliance on rotational invariance, and the well-known detection loophole. Investigation of existing results may be more fruitful t...

  8. Accidental catheterization of epidural venous plexus: tomographic analysis

    Mariano Paiva Souza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Inadvertent venous catheterizations occur in approximately 9% of lumbar epidural anesthetic procedures with catheter placement and, if not promptly recognized, can result in fatal consequences. The objective of this report is to describe a case of accidental catheterization of epidural venous plexus and its recording by computed tomography with contrast injection through the catheter. CASE REPORT: A female patient in her sixties, physical status II (ASA, underwent conventional cholecystectomy under balanced general anesthesia and an epidural with catheter for postoperative analgesia. During surgery, there was clinical suspicion of accidental catheterization of epidural venous plexus because of blood backflow through the catheter, confirmed by the administration of a test dose through the catheter. After the surgery, a CT scan was obtained after contrast injection through the catheter. Contrast was observed all the way from the skin to the azygos vein, passing through anterior and posterior epidural venous plexuses and intervertebral vein. CONCLUSION: It is possible to identify the actual placement of the epidural catheter, as well as to register an accidental catheterization of the epidural venous plexus, using computed tomography with contrast injection through the epidural catheter.

  9. Accidental dural puncture rates in UK obstetric practice.

    Gleeson, C M; Reynolds, F

    1998-10-01

    Headache following epidural analgesia is a common cause of complaint, but accidental dural puncture rates vary among hospitals and with techniques. We were therefore interested to discover the extent of audit of dural puncture, the dural puncture rates in those UK centres that kept reliable records, and the techniques they used for detecting the epidural space. Consultants in charge of anaesthetic services to all 257 obstetric units in the UK were sent a questionnaire requesting numbers of obstetric epidurals, techniques used to detect the epidural space and the numbers of accidental dural punctures in the years 1991-1995. Replies were received from 191 respondents (74%) of whom 104 were able to provide some information about dural puncture rates. Dural puncture rate was inversely related to the number of epidurals performed; the highest recorded rate was 3.6% in a unit with 1000. Most respondents did not record the loss of resistance technique used but among those who did, the dural puncture rate using mainly saline was 0.69% and using mainly air was 1.11% (P<0.001). Since accurate patient information is crucial for informed consent, audit needs to be improved in many centres. Though the accidental dural puncture rate may be under-reported in this survey, our data are in agreement with other findings that loss of resistance to saline is safer than loss of resistance to air. PMID:15321187

  10. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  11. Acute hazardous substance releases resulting in adverse health consequences in children: Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance system, 1996-2003.

    Wattigney, Wendy A; Kaye, Wendy E; Orr, Maureen F

    2007-11-01

    Because of their small size and ongoing organ development, children may be more susceptible than adults to the harmful effects of toxic chemicals. The objective of the study reported here was to identify frequent locations, released substances, and factors contributing to short-term chemical exposures associated with adverse health consequences experienced by children. The study examined the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system data from 1996-2003. Eligible events involved the acute release of a hazardous substance associated with at least one child being injured. The study found that injured children were predominantly at school, home, or a recreational center when events took place. School-related events were associated with the accidental release of acids and the release of pepper spray by pranksters. Carbon monoxide poisonings occurring in the home, retail stores, entertainment facilities, and hotels were responsible for about 10 percent of events involving child victims. Chlorine was one of the top chemicals harmful to children, particularly at public swimming pools. Although human error contributed to the majority of releases involving child victims, equipment failure was responsible for most chlorine and ammonia releases. The authors conclude that chemical releases resulting in injury to children occur mostly in schools, homes, and recreational areas. Surveillance of acute hazardous chemical releases helped identify contributing causes and can guide the development of prevention outreach activities. Chemical accidents cannot be entirely prevented, but efforts can be taken to provide safer environments in which children can live, learn, and play. Wide dissemination of safety recommendations and education programs is required to protect children from needless environmental dangers. PMID:18044249

  12. An atmospheric tritium release database for model comparisons. Revision 1

    A database of vegetation, soil, and air tritium concentrations at gridded coordinate locations following nine accidental atmospheric releases is described. While none of the releases caused a significant dose to the public, the data collected are valuable for comparison with the results of tritium transport models used for risk assessment. The largest, potential, individual off-site dose from any of the releases was calculated to be 1.6 mrem. The population dose from this same release was 46 person-rem which represents 0.04% of the natural background radiation dose to the population in the path of the release

  13. An atmospheric tritium release database for model comparisons

    A database of vegetation, soil, and air tritium concentrations at gridded coordinate locations following nine accidental atmospheric releases is described. While none of the releases caused a significant dose to the public, the data collected is valuable for comparison with the results of tritium transport models used for risk assessment. The largest, potential, individual off-site dose from any of the releases was calculated to be 1.6 mrem. The population dose from this same release was 46 person-rem which represents 0.04% of the natural background radiation dose to the population in the path of the release

  14. Combined Treatment of Hydroxytyrosol with Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecule-2 Prevents TNF α -Induced Vascular Endothelial Cell Dysfunction through NO Production with Subsequent NF κ B Inactivation

    Houda Zrelli; Che Wei Wu; Nahla Zghonda; Hidehisa Shimizu; Hitoshi Miyazaki

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the atheroprotective properties of olive oil polyphenol, hydroxytyrosol (HT), in combination with carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) that acts as a carbon monoxide donor using vascular endothelial cells (VECs). Our results showed that CORM-2 could strengthen the cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic effects of HT against TNF α -induced cellular damage by enhancing cell survival and the suppression of caspase-3 activation. While HT alone attenuated NF κ Bp65 phos...

  15. Long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate versus oral paliperidone extended release: a comparative analysis from two placebo-controlled relapse prevention studies

    Markowitz, Michael; Fu, Dong-Jing; Levitan, Bennett; Gopal, Srihari; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Alphs, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing availability and use of long-acting injectable antipsychotics have generated a need to compare these formulations with their oral equivalents; however, a paucity of relevant data is available. Methods This post hoc comparison of the long-term efficacy, safety and tolerability of maintenance treatment with paliperidone palmitate (PP) versus oral paliperidone extended release (ER) used data from two similarly designed, randomised, double-blind (DB), placebo-controlled schi...

  16. Risk management and prevention plans: An opportunity for risk communication

    Article 2 of Chapter 6.95 of the California Health and Safety Code, the so-called Risk Management and Prevention Program (RMPP), requires facilities that handle, store, and/or manufacture acutely hazardous materials (AHMs - equivalently, extremely hazardous substances or highly hazardous materials) identify hazards associated with each AHM and implement risk reduction measures. Risk reduction can be in the form of changes in engineering design, equipment modification, installation of mitigation capabilities, procedural changes, and management systems. Originally, the California RMPP required disclosure of information pertaining to off-site consequences of a release to agencies responsible for first response in a hazardous materials release incident, namely, fire department and county health departments. Recently, legislation has been captured that requires public disclosure of off-site consequences that are anticipated by the RMPP in the event of accidental release of AHMs. This paper assesses the structure and content of the RMPP disclosure document in terms of a risk communication vehicle in which facilities communicate directly to the surrounding community. The concept has application to the nuclear industry's search for public acceptance

  17. Typical occupational accidents with employees of a university hospital in the south of Brazil: epidemiology and prevention Accidentes de trabajo típicos de trabajadores de un hospital universitario de la región sur de Brasil: epidemiología y prevención Acidentes de trabalho típicos envolvendo trabalhadores de hospital universitário da região sul do Brasil: epidemiologia e prevenção

    Iara Aparecida de Oliveira Sêcco

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Descriptive epidemiologic study that aimed to analyze the typical occupational accidents notified by employees of a university hospital in the South of Brazil from 1997 to 2002, and to estimate their risk indicators. A total of 717 accidents were registered; 86% of them (616 were typical and presented an annual average risk coefficient of 6.0 per 100 employees. The groups that presented more risks for accidents were cooks, woodworkers and nursing auxiliaries, while hands were the most affected area. Regarding the accidents nature, the greatest risks involved biological material. Hence, it is necessary to orient personnel about the legal aspects of occupational accidents and review work processes, especially those related to employees who perform activities at greater risk of transmissible diseases like AIDS and hepatitis B and C.Se trata de un estudio epidemiológico descriptivo que tuvo como objetivo analizar los accidentes de trabajo típicos notificados por los trabajadores de un hospital universitario de la región sur de Brasil, de 1997 a 2002 y estimar indicadores de riesgo. Fueron notificados 717 accidentes, siendo 86% (616 típicos, cuyo Coeficiente de Riesgo Promedio Anual fue igual a 6,0 accidentes a cada 100 trabajadores. Los equipos que corrieron los mayores riesgos de sufrir tales accidentes fueron los de los cocineros, carpinteros y auxiliares de enfermería, siendo las manos la parte del cuerpo más afectada. En cuanto a la naturaleza de los accidentes, los de mayor riesgo fueron los relacionados a materiales biológicos. Se constató la necesidad de orientar al personal sobre los aspectos legales de los accidentes y revisar los procesos de trabajo desarrollados, especialmente para los que actúan en funciones cuyos riesgos son mayores de contraer enfermedades graves como SIDA y Hepatitis B y C.Estudo epidemiológico descritivo objetivou analisar os acidentes de trabalho típicos notificados pelos trabalhadores de um hospital

  18. Prevention IS Care

    2009-03-26

    This podcast provides an overview of the Prevention IS Care campaign, which provides HIV prevention tools for medical care providers to use on a daily basis with patients who are living with HIV.  Created: 3/26/2009 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/26/2009.

  19. Region study of the impact of an accidental radioactive pollution on the corn of winter

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the sensitivity of corn of winter with respect to an accidental release of radioactivity. We want to know if a uniform and specific deposit would involve the same contamination on the scale of the whole territory. the study was based on the equations of the A.S.T.R.A.L. model which makes it possible to evaluate the transfer of the radionuclides in the terrestrial food chain following an accidental atmospheric emission. The parameter of A.S.T.R.A.L. on which the study concentrated is the factor of transfer of the radioactivity of the air to the grain. This factor depends on the parameters of captation and translocation, since harvest is contaminated when the radionuclides deposited on the leaves are assimilated and transported towards the grain. Methodology thus consisted in regionalizing these two parameters. for that, software S.T.I.C.S. (multidisciplinary simulator for standard cultures) developed by the I.N.R.A. of Avignon was used. This model proposes a daily follow-up of the foliar index, as well as the dates of occurrence of the agronomic stages of corn. These variables were correlated with captation and translocation. The outputs of the simulations carried out on 12 climates and 2 varieties made it possible to express the parameters of captation and translocation according to the typology of A.S.T.R.A.L., i e according to the time deposit-harvest. Then, these values were compared with bibliographical data and with data issued from I.R.S.N. programs R.E.S.S.A.C. and R.A.D.E.M.I.C.. (authors)

  20. Development of emergency response tools for accidental radiological contamination of French coastal areas.

    Duffa, Céline; Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Caillaud, Matthieu; Charmasson, Sabine; Couvez, Céline; Didier, Damien; Dumas, Franck; Fievet, Bruno; Morillon, Mehdi; Renaud, Philippe; Thébault, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident resulted in the largest ever accidental release of artificial radionuclides in coastal waters. This accident has shown the importance of marine assessment capabilities for emergency response and the need to develop tools for adequately predicting the evolution and potential impact of radioactive releases to the marine environment. The French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) equips its emergency response centre with operational tools to assist experts and decision makers in the event of accidental atmospheric releases and contamination of the terrestrial environment. The on-going project aims to develop tools for the management of marine contamination events in French coastal areas. This should allow us to evaluate and anticipate post-accident conditions, including potential contamination sites, contamination levels and potential consequences. In order to achieve this goal, two complementary tools are developed: site-specific marine data sheets and a dedicated simulation tool (STERNE, Simulation du Transport et du transfert d'Eléments Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin). Marine data sheets are used to summarize the marine environment characteristics of the various sites considered, and to identify vulnerable areas requiring implementation of population protection measures, such as aquaculture areas, beaches or industrial water intakes, as well as areas of major ecological interest. Local climatological data (dominant sea currents as a function of meteorological or tidal conditions) serving as the basis for an initial environmental sampling strategy is provided whenever possible, along with a list of possible local contacts for operational management purposes. The STERNE simulation tool is designed to predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination in seawater and marine species by incorporating spatio-temporal data. 3D hydrodynamic forecasts are used as input data. Direct discharge points or

  1. A risk assessment method for accidental releases from nuclear power plants in Europe

    Slaper H; Blaauboer RO; Eggink GJ

    1994-01-01

    At present over 200 nuclear power reactors are operational. The question raised is to what extent possible accidents with nuclear power reactors pose a risk for the European population. In this report a method is described for evaluating the probability of death due to stochastic effects, combining

  2. A risk assessment method for accidental releases from nuclear power plants in Europe

    Slaper H; Blaauboer RO; Eggink GJ

    1994-01-01

    At present over 200 nuclear power reactors are operational. The question raised is to what extent possible accidents with nuclear power reactors pose a risk for the European population. In this report a method is described for evaluating the probability of death due to stochastic effects, combinin

  3. Handbook of exposure situations following accidental releases of radioactive substances. Part of a Nordic Project

    In an emergency situation the need for appropriate tools for information support is obvious, as fast decisions may have to be made and a service provided to the general public. To meet these needs adequately, a computerised system has several advantages compared to traditional information on paper. A computerised handbook was developed within a project in the Nordic Nuclear Safety Programme, with the basic purpose of creating a common basis for Nordic handling of nuclear emergencies. The handbook is a user-friendly, fast system to help in collecting radiological information. The primary objectives of the computerised 'handbook' are to act as an appropriate tool for the radiation protection institutes concerning: support for decision making; all necessary information for making dose calculations; information and communication to the general public. (R.P.)

  4. Reliability of real-time computing with radiation data feedback at accidental release

    At the first workshop in 1985 we reported on the real-time dose computing method used at the Paks Nuclear Power Plant and on the telemetric system developed for the normalization of the computed data. At present, the computing method normalized for the telemetric data represents the primary information for deciding on any necessary counter measures in case of a nuclear reactor accident. In this connection we analyzed the reliability of the results obtained in this manner. The points of the analysis were: how the results are influenced by the choice of certain parameters that cannot be determined by direct methods and how the improperly chosen diffusion parameters would distort the determination of environmental radiation parameters normalized on the basis of the measurements (131I activity concentration, gamma dose rate) at points lying at a given distance from the measuring stations. A further source of errors may be that, when determining the level of gamma radiation, the radionuclide doses in the cloud and on the ground surface are measured together by the environmental monitoring stations, whereas these doses appear separately in the computations. At the Paks NPP it is the time integral of the aiborne activity concentration of vapour form 131I which is determined. This quantity includes neither the other physical and chemical forms of 131I nor the other isotopes of radioiodine. We gave numerical examples for the uncertainties due to the above factors. As a result, we arrived at the conclusions that there is a need to decide on accident-related measures based on the computing method that the dose uncertainties may reach one order of magnitude for points lying far from the monitoring stations. Different measures are discussed to make the uncertainties significantly lower

  5. APUD-3.0, Off-Site Contamination Assessment from Accidental Release

    1 - Description of program or function: APUD is a research exercise aimed at providing rough yet fast predictive information to assist alert and intervention in the early- to-intermediate phases of nuclear accidents. Basically, the code calculates integral solutions of the advection-diffusion equation for the airborne activity concentration and related quantities such as deposition rates, time- integrated concentrations, and depositions that were brought to compact algebraic expressions under the following assumptions: (i) a uniform wind field over the territory and time of relevance; a vertical fall rate depending on the radii of the particles; (ii) K-type eddy-diffusion coefficients, which are uniform in space and time-independent; (iii) flat terrain, no ground reflection, no inversion layers; (iv) point-like virtual source above the real source at ground. The code handles 21 nuclides which are important in abnormal nuclear events. Preliminary intervention zones can be determined rapidly. The program handles nine geographical maps mainly covering South- East Europe. 2 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Since essentially a Gaussian dispersion model is employed, the program may be applied to distances up to a few hundred kilometers from the source, at most. The time scale should be limited to periods of stable meteorological conditions

  6. Real-time, GPS-driven simulation of field measurements associated with accidental nuclear releases

    Full text: One of the greatest challenges associated with nuclear emergency exercises has to do with creating scenarios and generating radiological data that reflect realistic accident conditions. S3-Exercise allows emergency response survey personnel to obtain instrument readings during an exercise as they would during a real event. S3-Exercise is a Windows program that was developed to automate the generation of radiological data from exercise scenarios. The program simulates gamma dose rate survey instruments, electronic personal dosimeters, and air sample filter measurements in a flexible manner. The program can generate printed data, can be run in real-time during table-top exercises or can be deployed in survey vehicles equipped with a GPS receiver. The scenario data includes the source term magnitude as a function of time and variable meteorological wind data. The software comes bundled with pre-defined exercise scenarios for the main reactor types, however the user has the option of changing them, or creating entirely new exercise scenarios. S3-Exercise can generate radiological data in four different modes of operation: real-time with GPS, real-time at pre-defined locations, real-time with a mouse on a map and static (hardcopy). The GPS mode requires a GPS unit that can communicate with a computer through an NMEA connector. The real-time at pre-defined locations mode simulates a detector array around a nuclear site. The mouse mode converts the movement of the cursor on a map into simulated movement in the field and generates real-time instrument readings. The static mode data is stored in an Excel spreadsheet that can be printed for inclusion in an exercise manual. (author)

  7. Maximum permissible dietary contamination after the accidental release of radioactive materials from a nuclear reactor

    After the accident to No. 1 pile at Windscale on October 10, 1957 (Atomic Energy Office, 1957), the Atomic Energy Authority asked the Medical Research Council for advice on the maximum intake of certain radioactive isotopes that should be regarded as permissible, under emergency conditions, for members of the general population living in, or deriving food from, an area contaminated owing to an accident to a reactor. The Council's Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations, together with its Subcommittees on Internal and External Radiations, has considered this problem, and concludes that the intake of radioactive materials by ingestion of contaminated food would generally be the limiting source of hazard after any such accident. Intake by inhalation, or radiation from the exterior, would become of importance only in rather special circumstances. In the following report, therefore, the Committee proposes maximum permissible levels of dietary contamination for the relevant isotopes in the emergency conditions envisaged. In proposing these levels, the Protection Committee has used the fullest information available on the radiation doses that would be delivered to different body tissues and at different ages by the isotopes concerned, and on the ways in which these materials would enter the body

  8. Modelling of accidental releases from a high pressure CO2 pipelines

    Molag, M.; Dam, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the near future large quantities of CO2 will be transported over a large distance from Carbon dioxide Capture plants to onshore and off-shore underground Storage (CCS) sites. The risk assessments for the existing CO2 pipelines show distances to harmful threshold concentrations from 1 to 7.2 km. S

  9. [Theoretic evaluation of allowable time for evacuation from occupational zone of accidentally released uranium hexafluoride].

    Babenko, S P

    2005-01-01

    Transdermal intake of uranium hexafluoride hydrolysis products is analysed. The authors present calculations of uranium and fluor amounts entering human body, in accordance with duration of stay in hazardous circumstances. PMID:16381480

  10. The Chernobyl – Thirty Years After The Post – Accidental Radiological – Hygienic and Medical Consequences

    G. G. Onishchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the result of the Chernobyl NPP accident more than 200 thousand square kilometers of the European territories were contaminated by Cs-137 in the amount of above 37 kBq/m2 (1 Ci/km2 . Belorussia, Russia and Ukraine amount up to 70% of this entire affected area. More than 600 000 people were engaged in the accidental cleanup operations, 340000 were evacuated or relocated within 1986-1991. The early stage evacuation efficacy is confirmed by the absence of acute radiation syndrome among the population and by the prevented collective dose which amounts to no less than 10 000 man/Sv. The effective measure to reduce the internal radiation dose to the population at the early accidental stage was introduction of maximum tentative permissive levels of radionuclide content in the foodstuffs.Among the identified post -accident medical consequences of the Chernobyl is the radiation syndrome found in 134 emergency cleanup workers within the first 24 hours of the accident’s development. Out of that number, 28 people died within the first four months, 19 people died before 2006. The accident’s liquidators developed radiation -induced leukemia ( the attributive risk value is 45-60% . People exposed to high radiation doses display the statistically significant 18% morbidity increase of all types of solid cancers at the doses above 150 mSv. There is the statistically significant information indicating the increased amount of thyroid cancer morbidity among those who were just children and teenagers at the time of the accident. The adverse psychological consequences are accounted for not just the fear of overexposure but also for the disturbance of the habitual lifestyle especially mindful of the forced relocation.The longterm protection measures, radionuclide decay and selfcleaning of the contaminated areas resulted in the drastic reduction of the population dose in the radioactively contaminated territories. In 2015, only in some settlements of the Briansk

  11. Purkinje cell long-term depression is prevented by T-588, a neuroprotective compound that reduces cytosolic calcium release from intracellular stores

    Kimura, Tatsuo; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) of the parallel-fiber (PF) Purkinje synapse induced by four different experimental paradigms could be prevented in rat cerebellar slices by T-588, a neuroprotective compound. The paradigms consisted of pairing PF activation with climbing-fiber activation, direct depolarization, glutamic iontophoretic depolarization, or caffeine. In all cases, LTD was determined by patch-clamp recording of PF excitatory postsynaptic currents at the Purkinje cell somata. T-588 at 1 μM...

  12. The risk of accidental incorporation of radioactive substances in medicine and scientific laboratories: Reports, hypothetical situations, emergency measures and precautions

    Accidental incorporations of radioactive substances in medicine and scientific laboratories are possible by inhalation, ingestion, percutaneous resorption and wound contamination. They may involve staff and/or patients. In the staff of laboratories, incorporations by inhalation of I-125 activities up to 7,4 kBq (200 nCi) have been reported for the personnel occupied with iodine labelling. On the contrary, no incorporations were found in labs using ready for use RIA kits. In nuclear medicine, incorporations by inhalation of I-131 activities up to 18,5 kBq (500 nCi) have been reported in the staff of radioiodine therapy units. Sufficient change of room air or the use of ventilation hoods prevents accidental inhalation of radioiodine. In contrast to those relatively unimportant risks, some cases of lethal incorporations by misadministration of radioactive substances to patients have been reported from nuclear medicine. They were caused by mix up or false calibration of therapeutic activities. For routine diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine, extremely conservative risk estimations are given under the assumption that the complete stock of a radiopharmaceutical would have been mis-administered to a single patient. The radiation exposure of critical organs remains limited with an estimated maximum of 4 Gy (400 rad). Only after misadministration of I-131-NaI organ doses up to 10 Gy (1000 rad) may be imaginable. However, this accidental radiation exposure may be reduced by the proposed decorporation procedures. Obviously, such a misadministration must be prevented primarily by appropriate precautions which are discussed as well. (orig.)

  13. Early diagnosis and monitoring of whole-body accidental exposure

    This paper deals with the handling of accidental, acute or protracted, whole-body overexposures. It is complementary to the report DPS 86/07 SEAPS previously published. The criteria for initial classification, as a function of the mean absorbed dose, the clinical and paraclinical evaluation, the monitoring methods and the treatments to undertake are described successively. The basic components of the therapy are the intensive care of the hematological syndrome with blood products transfusions and anti-infection prophylaxy. The indications and conditions for bone-marrow grafts are also discussed

  14. Biokinetics of radionuclides and treatment of accidental intakes

    This paper describes the objectives and reviews the progress of EULEP Working Party 5, convened under the auspices of the European Union's Fifth Framework Programme, to 'cluster' two EU-supported contracts, Biokinetics and Dosimetry of Internal Contamination (BIODOS (EU Contract FIS5-1999-00214)) and Radionuclide Biokinetics Database (EULEP) ( RBDATA-EULEP (Concerted Action Contract FIS5-1999-00218), and two non-EU funded projects, Biokinetics of Radionuclides in Human Volunteers (RNHV (non-EU Funded Project) and Treatment of Accidental Intakes of Radionuclides (TAIR (part-funded by EULEP)). (author)

  15. Accidentes de trabajo en un hospital de agudos

    Pérez Bermúdez B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: El mejor conocimiento de los determinantes y circunstancias de producción de los accidentes laborales, favorecerá la implantación de medidas correctoras. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir la evolución temporal de los accidentes de trabajo (AT y determinar los factores de riesgo de baja médica en el Hospital Dr. Peset de Valencia. MÉTODOS: Descripción y análisis retrospectivo de los accidentes de trabajo producidos en el Hospital Dr. Peset de Valencia durante los años 1992 a 1995. Se estimó por métodos deterministas la tendencia y estacionalidad de las series (índices estacionales, IE. Se aplicó un modelo de regresión logística para identificar los factores pronósticos de baja médica y determinar su probabilidad de ocurrencia . RESULTADOS: Las tasas más elevadas de AT se produjeron entre los trabajadores de cocina y lavandería (10,00 AT por 100 trabajadores-año. Los AT con baja médica mantienen una tendencia cercana a cero siendo febrero el mes con I.E más elevado (IE=139,8. Los que cursan sin baja médica tienen una tendencia positiva (r²=0,23, p<0,0001, siendo mayo el mes de mayor siniestralidad (IE=134,2. La probabilidad de que el accidente curse con baja médica aumenta significativamente con la edad, cuando se produce por la tarde, si ha tenido lugar en cocina/lavandería, y si se trata de un esguince o tendinitis. CONCLUSIONES: la actuación sobre la siniestralidad en los AT que cursen con IT, debería centrarse sobre los trabajos menos cualificados y en las áreas de cocina y lavandería.

  16. Funciones superiores en pacientes con accidente cerebro vascular.

    Felipe Rodríguez; Alfonso Urzúa

    2009-01-01

    Los estudios realizados en Chile hasta la fecha no permiten detectar de manera significativa el deterioro neuropsicológico causado por el accidente cerebro vascular (ACV) y el impacto que éste tiene en el paciente a nivel de su desenvolvimiento diario y familiar. Con base a esto el objetivo de esta investigación fue elaborar un perfil de deterioro neuropsicológico de las diversas funciones cerebrales superiores causado por un ACV, en un grupo de 50 pacientes de la Unidad de Medicina Física de...

  17. Methemoglobinemia as a result of accidental lacquer thinner poisoning

    Ranju Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lacquer thinner, commonly used for removing household paints, is known to contain a mixture of various aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and naptha; if ingested, it may cause methemoglobinemia. We report two cases who presented to us with a history of accidental ingestion of paint thinner. Both the patients had very high levels of methemoglobin and were treated with methylene blue (MB, but did not respond to the MB therapy. One of them received an exchange transfusion followed again by MB and survived. Unfortunately the other patient succumbed to the poisoning.

  18. ECMO for Cardiac Rescue after Accidental Intravenous Mepivacaine Application

    Michael Froehle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mepivacaine is a potent local anaesthetic and used for infiltration and regional anaesthesia in adults and pediatric patients. Intoxications with mepivacaine affect mainly the CNS and the cardiovascular system. We present a case of accidental intravenous mepivacaine application and intoxication of an infant resulting in seizure, broad complex bradyarrhythmia, arterial hypotension and finally cardiac arrest. The patient could be rescued by prolonged resuscitations and a rapid initiation of ECMO and survived without neurological damage. The management strategies of this rare complication including promising other treatment options with lipid emulsions are discussed.

  19. Tratamiento de Terapia Ocupacional en el accidente cerebrovascular

    Domingo García, AM

    2006-01-01

    RESUMENEntre los muchos pacientes que necesitan tratamiento rehabilitador en Terapia Ocupacional están los que en la edad adulta han sufrido un accidente cerebrovascular.Uno de los factores de riesgo asociados con más frecuencia a las alteraciones del sistema nervioso central es el progresivo envejecimiento de la población, debido a esto orientaré el siguiente artículo hacia la intervención sobre la población geriátrica.La Terapia Ocupacional ofrece un tratamiento global que abarca las áreas ...

  20. Calidad de vida de cuidadores de adultos con accidente cerebrovascular

    INNA ELIDA FLÓREZ TORRES; AMPARO MONTALVO PRIETO; ARLETH HERRERA LIÁN

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo: describir la calidad de vida de los cuidadores familiares de adultos con secuelas de accidente cerebrovascular, en Cartagena, Colombia. Método: estudio descriptivo cuantitativo realizado durante el segundo semestre de 2008. Muestra no probabilística por conveniencia de 97 cuidadores. Se empleó el instrumento propuesto por Ferrell et ál. Para valorar cada uno de los bienestares que integran la calidad de vida se utilizaron medidas de tendencia central y coeficiente de variación. Resu...

  1. Clinical perspectives on osteogenesis imperfecta versus non-accidental injury.

    Pereira, Elaine Maria

    2015-12-01

    Although non-accidental injuries (NAI) are more common in cases of unexplained fractures than rare disorders such as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), ruling out OI and other medical causes of fracture is always indicated. The majority of OI patients can be diagnosed with the help of family history, physical examination, and radiographic findings. In particular, there are a few radiological findings which are seen more commonly in NAI than in OI which may help guide clinician considerations regarding the probability of either of these diagnoses. At the same time, molecular testing still merits careful consideration in cases with unexplained fractures without obvious additional signs of abuse. PMID:26492946

  2. Indicaxanthin inhibits NADPH oxidase (NOX)-1 activation and NF-κB-dependent release of inflammatory mediators and prevents the increase of epithelial permeability in IL-1β-exposed Caco-2 cells.

    Tesoriere, L; Attanzio, A; Allegra, M; Gentile, C; Livrea, M A

    2014-02-01

    Dietary redox-active/antioxidant phytochemicals may help control or mitigate the inflammatory response in chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the present study, the anti-inflammatory activity of indicaxanthin (Ind), a pigment from the edible fruit of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica, L.), was shown in an IBD model consisting of a human intestinal epithelial cell line (Caco-2 cells) stimulated by IL-1β, a cytokine known to play a major role in the initiation and amplification of inflammatory activity in IBD. The exposure of Caco-2 cells to IL-1β brought about the activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX-1) and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to activate intracellular signalling leading to the activation of NF-κB, with the over-expression of inflammatory enzymes and release of pro-inflammatory mediators. The co-incubation of the cells with Ind, at a nutritionally relevant concentration (5-25 μM), and IL-1β prevented the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, PGE2 and NO, the formation of ROS and the loss of thiols in a dose-dependent manner. The co-incubation of the cells with Ind and IL-1β also prevented the IL-1β-induced increase of epithelial permeability. It was also shown that the activation of NOX-1 and NF-κB was prevented by Ind and the expression of COX-2 and inducible NO synthase was reduced. The uptake of Ind in Caco-2 cell monolayers appeared to be unaffected by the inflamed state of the cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the dietary pigment Ind may have the potential to modulate inflammatory processes at the intestinal level. PMID:23931157

  3. Normal neurologic and developmental outcome after an accidental intravenous infusion of expressed breast milk in a neonate.

    Ryan, C Anthony

    2012-02-03

    Here we describe a premature male infant who was accidentally given 10 mL of expressed breast milk intravenously over a 3.5-hour period. Having survived this event with supportive care, this boy was attending regular school with no obvious neurologic or learning difficulties at 6 years of age. In 1998, after a query on an e-mail discussion group for health care providers in neonatology (NICU-net), we were informed of 8 similar events that proved fatal in 3 infants. A root-cause analysis revealed that accidental intravenous administration of breast milk or formula can be avoided by the use of color-coded enteral-administration sets with Luer connections that are not compatible with intravenous cannulas. The addition of methylene blue to feeds, or bolus enteral feeds (instead of continuous gastric feedings), may also help prevent such errors. These cases show the value of gathering information about rare but important events through a neonatal network. In addition, they confirm that prevention of medical error should focus on faulty systems rather than faulty people.

  4. Savannah River Site Ingestion Pathway Methodology Manual for Airborne Radioactive Releases

    Vincent, A.W. III

    2001-01-03

    This manual documents a recommended methodology for determining the ingestion pathway consequences of hypothetical accidental airborne radiological releases from facilities at the Savannah River Site. Both particulate and tritiated radioactive contaminants are addressed. Other approaches should be applied for evaluation of routine releases.

  5. Epidemiological Characteristics and Overall Burden of Accidental Injuries in Navarra, Spain: Epidemiology of Injuries in Children.

    Ferraz-Torres, Marta; Belzunegui-Otano, Tomás; Martínez-García, Oscar; Iriarte-Cerdán, Laura; Salgado-Reguero, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Injuries caused by accidents or violent situations in pediatric patients are a serious social problem where prevention plays a key role. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological situation of pediatric injuries in Spain. A prospective study of pediatric patients receiving care in the Emergency Service of the Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra due to for reasons of accidental injury was conducted. The study covered a period of 1 year and assessed a total of 16 variables. There were a total of 8,876 patients, of whom 56.4% were males. Traumatic injuries such as fractures and craniocerebral trauma were identified as the most frequent injuries, occurring as a result of injuries mainly in the home. In females, there was a decrease in the incidence of injuries related to age. There was a greater incidence at the end of the day, during the weekend, and in the months of March to October. The epidemiological profile of pediatric patients who met with accidents in Navarra, Spain, is described. The knowledge of the main areas and factors related to injuries allows us to improve preventive measures, which would contribute to better control in this region of Spain. PMID:27414146

  6. Triterpene alcohols and sterols from rice bran lower postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide release and prevent diet-induced obesity in mice.

    Fukuoka, Daisuke; Okahara, Fumiaki; Hashizume, Kohjiro; Yanagawa, Kiyotaka; Osaki, Noriko; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is now a worldwide health problem. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a gut hormone that is secreted following the ingestion of food and modulates energy metabolism. Previous studies reported that lowering diet-induced GIP secretion improved energy homeostasis in animals and humans, and attenuated diet-induced obesity in mice. Therefore, food-derived GIP regulators may be used in the development of foods that prevent obesity. Rice bran oil and its components are known to have beneficial effects on health. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the effects of the oil-soluble components of rice bran on postprandial GIP secretion and obesity in mice. Triterpene alcohols [cycloartenol (CA) and 24-methylene cycloartanol (24Me)], β-sitosterol, and campesterol decreased the diet-induced secretion of GIP in C57BL/6J mice. Mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with a triterpene alcohol and sterol preparation (TASP) from rice bran for 23 wk gained less weight than control mice. Indirect calorimetry revealed that fat utilization was higher in TASP-fed mice than in control mice. Fatty acid oxidation-related gene expression in the muscles of mice fed a TASP-supplemented diet was enhanced, whereas fatty acid synthesis-related gene expression in the liver was suppressed. The treatment of HepG2 cells with CA and 24Me decreased the gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c. In conclusion, we clarified for the first time that triterpene alcohols and sterols from rice bran prevented diet-induced obesity by increasing fatty acid oxidation in muscles and decreasing fatty acid synthesis in the liver through GIP-dependent and GIP-independent mechanisms. PMID:25257874

  7. Preventing stroke

    Stroke - prevention; CVA - prevention; cerebral vascular accident - prevention; TIA - prevention, transient ischemic attack - prevention ... live a longer, healthier life. This is called preventive care. An important way to help prevent stroke ...

  8. International Olympic Committee consensus statement: harassment and abuse (non-accidental violence) in sport.

    Mountjoy, Margo; Brackenridge, Celia; Arrington, Malia; Blauwet, Cheri; Carska-Sheppard, Andrea; Fasting, Kari; Kirby, Sandra; Leahy, Trisha; Marks, Saul; Martin, Kathy; Starr, Katherine; Tiivas, Anne; Budgett, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Despite the well-recognised benefits of sport, there are also negative influences on athlete health, well-being and integrity caused by non-accidental violence through harassment and abuse. All athletes have a right to engage in 'safe sport', defined as an athletic environment that is respectful, equitable and free from all forms of non-accidental violence to athletes. Yet, these issues represent a blind spot for many sport organisations through fear of reputational damage, ignorance, silence or collusion. This consensus statement extends the 2007 IOC Consensus Statement on Sexual Harassment and Abuse in Sport, presenting additional evidence of several other types of harassment and abuse-psychological, physical and neglect. All ages and types of athletes are susceptible to these problems but science confirms that elite, disabled, child and lesbian/gay/bisexual/trans-sexual (LGBT) athletes are at highest risk, that psychological abuse is at the core of all other forms and that athletes can also be perpetrators. Harassment and abuse arise from prejudices expressed through power differences. Perpetrators use a range of interpersonal mechanisms including contact, non-contact/verbal, cyber-based, negligence, bullying and hazing. Attention is paid to the particular risks facing child athletes, athletes with a disability and LGBT athletes. Impacts on the individual athlete and the organisation are discussed. Sport stakeholders are encouraged to consider the wider social parameters of these issues, including cultures of secrecy and deference that too often facilitate abuse, rather than focusing simply on psychopathological causes. The promotion of safe sport is an urgent task and part of the broader international imperative for good governance in sport. A systematic multiagency approach to prevention is most effective, involving athletes, entourage members, sport managers, medical and therapeutic practitioners, educators and criminal justice agencies. Structural and

  9. Atorvastatin prevents age-related and amyloid-beta-induced microglial activation by blocking interferon-gamma release from natural killer cells in the brain

    Lyons, Anthony

    2011-03-31

    Abstract Background Microglial function is modulated by several factors reflecting the numerous receptors expressed on the cell surface, however endogenous factors which contribute to the age-related increase in microglial activation remain largely unknown. One possible factor which may contribute is interferon-γ (IFNγ). IFNγ has been shown to increase in the aged brain and potently activates microglia, although its endogenous cell source in the brain remains unidentified. Methods Male Wistar rats were used to assess the effect of age and amyloid-β (Aβ) on NK cell infiltration into the brain. The effect of the anti-inflammatory compound, atorvastatin was also assessed under these conditions. We measured cytokine and chemokine (IFNγ, IL-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and IFNγ-induced protein 10 kDa (IP-10)), expression in the brain by appropriate methods. We also looked at NK cell markers, CD161, NKp30 and NKp46 using flow cytometry and western blot. Results Natural killer (NK) cells are a major source of IFNγ in the periphery and here we report the presence of CD161+ NKp30+ cells and expression of CD161 and NKp46 in the brain of aged and Aβ-treated rats. Furthermore, we demonstrate that isolated CD161+ cells respond to interleukin-2 (IL-2) by releasing IFNγ. Atorvastatin, the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, attenuates the increase in CD161 and NKp46 observed in hippocampus of aged and Aβ-treated rats. This was paralleled by a decrease in IFNγ, markers of microglial activation and the chemokines, MCP-1 and IP-10 which are chemotactic for NK cells. Conclusions We propose that NK cells contribute to the age-related and Aβ-induced neuroinflammatory changes and demonstrate that these changes can be modulated by atorvastatin treatment.

  10. Atorvastatin prevents age-related and amyloid-β-induced microglial activation by blocking interferon-γ release from natural killer cells in the brain

    Clarke Rachael

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microglial function is modulated by several factors reflecting the numerous receptors expressed on the cell surface, however endogenous factors which contribute to the age-related increase in microglial activation remain largely unknown. One possible factor which may contribute is interferon-γ (IFNγ. IFNγ has been shown to increase in the aged brain and potently activates microglia, although its endogenous cell source in the brain remains unidentified. Methods Male Wistar rats were used to assess the effect of age and amyloid-β (Aβ on NK cell infiltration into the brain. The effect of the anti-inflammatory compound, atorvastatin was also assessed under these conditions. We measured cytokine and chemokine (IFNγ, IL-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and IFNγ-induced protein 10 kDa (IP-10, expression in the brain by appropriate methods. We also looked at NK cell markers, CD161, NKp30 and NKp46 using flow cytometry and western blot. Results Natural killer (NK cells are a major source of IFNγ in the periphery and here we report the presence of CD161+ NKp30+ cells and expression of CD161 and NKp46 in the brain of aged and Aβ-treated rats. Furthermore, we demonstrate that isolated CD161+ cells respond to interleukin-2 (IL-2 by releasing IFNγ. Atorvastatin, the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, attenuates the increase in CD161 and NKp46 observed in hippocampus of aged and Aβ-treated rats. This was paralleled by a decrease in IFNγ, markers of microglial activation and the chemokines, MCP-1 and IP-10 which are chemotactic for NK cells. Conclusions We propose that NK cells contribute to the age-related and Aβ-induced neuroinflammatory changes and demonstrate that these changes can be modulated by atorvastatin treatment.

  11. A national survey (NAP5-Ireland baseline) to estimate an annual incidence of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia in Ireland.

    Jonker, W R

    2014-06-29

    As part of the 5th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland concerning accidental awareness during general anaesthesia, we issued a questionnaire to every consultant anaesthetist in each of 46 public hospitals in Ireland, represented by 41 local co-ordinators. The survey ascertained the number of new cases of accidental awareness becoming known to them for patients under their care or supervision for a calendar year, as well as their career experience. Consultants from all hospitals responded, with an individual response rate of 87% (299 anaesthetists). There were eight new cases of accidental awareness that became known to consultants in 2011; an estimated incidence of 1:23 366. Two out of the eight cases (25%) occurred at or after induction of anaesthesia, but before surgery; four cases (50%) occurred during surgery; and two cases (25%) occurred after surgery was complete, but before full emergence. Four cases were associated with pain or distress (50%), one after an experience at induction and three after experiences during surgery. There were no formal complaints or legal actions that arose in 2011 related to awareness. Depth of anaesthesia monitoring was reported to be available in 33 (80%) departments, and was used by 184 consultants (62%), 18 (6%) routinely. None of the 46 hospitals had a policy to prevent or manage awareness. Similar to the results of a larger survey in the UK, the disparity between the incidence of awareness as known to anaesthetists and that reported in trials warrants explanation. Compared with UK practice, there appears to be greater use of depth of anaesthesia monitoring in Ireland, although this is still infrequent.

  12. Accidental staggered paracetamol overdose: An interesting case report

    Kanakkande Aabideen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol is one of the most commonly used drugs both over the counter and on prescription. Liquid paracetamol is available over the counter all over the world. Most commonly available concentrations are 120 mg/5 ml and 250 mg/5 ml. Many parents and healthcare professionals assume that doses available in different countries are similar. However, 500 mg/5 ml bottle is available in some countries including the United Kingdom. This leaves a potential for accidental overdose with therapeutic intent. We have reviewed the experience of diagnosing and managing an interesting case of paracetamol over dosage caused by several ingestions over 24 hours period (staggered paracetamol over dosage. It highlights the importance of communication between health professionals and parents while managing common medical problems.

  13. Nodular goiter after occupational accidental exposure to radiation

    Pisarev, M.A. [Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Human Biochemistry, Uninversity of Buenos Aires, School of Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schnitman, M. [Center of Endocrinology and Metabolism, French Hospital C.Milstein, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-07-01

    In the present paper we present the consequences of an accidental occupational radiation exposure at a local hospital in Buenos Aires. Control at a local radiology service showed the lack of correct shielding in the X-ray equipment. The physicians and technicians (14 persons) exposed to radiation during 12 months were examined. The survey shows that: a) In 11 out of 14 radiation-exposed patients nodular goiter developed and an additional patient had diffuse goiter which means a goiter incidence of 85.7%; b) In 5 of the nodular goiter patients an increase in the size or the appearance of new nodules was observed along the follow-up period. No cancer was detected by FNA; c) Hypothyroidism was observed in 3/14 patients, and an additional patient had an abnormal TRH-TSH test, suggesting subclinical hypothyroidism; and d) Increased circulating antithyroid antibodies were found in one of the hypothyroid patients

  14. Siquieros accidental painting technique: a fluid mechanics point of view

    Zetina, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This is an entry for the Gallery of Fluid Motion of the 65th Annual Meeting of the APS-DFD (fluid dynamics video). This video shows an analysis of the 'accidental painting' technique developed by D.A. Siqueiros, a famous Mexican muralist. We reproduced the technique that he used: pouring layers of paint of different colors on top of each other. We found that the layers mix, creating aesthetically pleasing patterns, as a result of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Due to the pigments used to give paints their color, they can have different densities. When poured on top of each other, if the top layer is denser than the lower one, the viscous gravity current undergoes unstable as it spread radially. We photograph the process and produced slowed-down video to visualize the process.

  15. Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at the IPNS

    Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenetic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem

  16. Accidental intrathecal injection of magnesium sulfate for cesarean section

    Mehryar Taghavi Gilani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium sulfate is used frequently in the operation room and risks of wrong injection should be considered. A woman with history of pseudocholinesterase enzyme deficiency in the previous surgery was referred for cesarean operation. Magnesium sulfate of 700 mg (3.5 ml of 20% solution was accidentally administered in the subarachnoid space. First, the patient had warm sensation and cutaneous anesthesia, but due to deep tissue pain, general anesthesia was induced by thiopental and atracurium. After the surgery, muscle relaxation and lethargy remained. At 8-10 h later, muscle strength improved and train of four (TOF reached over 0.85, and then the endotracheal tube was removed. The patient was evaluated during the hospital stay and on the anesthesia clinic. No neurological symptoms, headache or backache were reported. Due to availability of magnesium sulfate, we should be careful for inadvertent intravenous, spinal and epidural injection; therefore before injection must be double checked.

  17. Notas sobre Accidentes Aéreos causados por Aves

    Oscar Rivera

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En varios artículos de opinión publicados en Engormix, el autor se ha referido a dos épocas muy peligrosas para la presentación de accidentes aéreos en diferentes países, situados especialmente en el hemisferio norte (Boreal. Comprenden dos etapas, la primera, en los meses de Septiembre y Octubre, cuando comienza el invierno en el Ártico que deja a millones de aves sin alimento, razón por la cual inician la migración a los diferentes continentes en busca de alimentos; la segunda, durante los meses de Febrero y Marzo, cuando emprenden su regreso al sitio de partida, coincidiendo con la iniciación de la primavera que les garantiza comida suficiente...

  18. Accidental intraoral formalin injection: a rare case report

    Ramakant Dandriyal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Formalin is a hazardous chemical that needs cautious handling and special storage. Owing to its disinfectant and fixative (i.e. for preserving pathologic tissue specimens in histopathology properties, it is widely used in dentistry. Although, the terms formaldehyde and formalin are often confused as being identical, these are different as to the concentrations of the primary component i.e. formaldehyde. In fact, the common fixative available as 10% neutral buffered formalin is actually a 4% solution of formaldehyde (i.e., a 10% solution made from a 37-40% commercially pure formaldehyde solution. This case report describes an unfortunate case of accidental injection instead of local anesthetic, of formalin into the pterygomandibular space in a 35-year old woman during inferior alveolar nerve block for surgical removal of impacted lower right third molar and its successful management by cautious debridement (under both local and general anesthesia and empirical drug therapy (utilizing analgesics and antibiotics.

  19. Accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad y el riesgo de cáncer

    Hoja informativa acerca de los riesgos del cáncer asociados con accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad. Incluye información para pacientes con cáncer que viven en una zona que puede haber sido afectada por un accidente en una planta nuclear.

  20. Two Cases of Accidental Injection of Epinephrine into a Digit Treated with Subcutaneous Phentolamine Injections

    Ryan P. Bodkin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental injection into the digit from an epinephrine autoinjection device can cause discoloration, pain, and paresthesias. Although loss of digit is rare, treatment in the emergency department is commonly aimed at vasodilation of the affected tissue. We report two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into the digits that were successfully treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injection with no adverse events.

  1. Two Cases of Accidental Injection of Epinephrine into a Digit Treated with Subcutaneous Phentolamine Injections

    Bodkin, Ryan P.; Acquisto, Nicole M.; Wiegand, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Accidental injection into the digit from an epinephrine autoinjection device can cause discoloration, pain, and paresthesias. Although loss of digit is rare, treatment in the emergency department is commonly aimed at vasodilation of the affected tissue. We report two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into the digits that were successfully treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injection with no adverse events. PMID:24024046

  2. Performance test of a portable TLD system for accidental doses

    Full text: A portable TLD measuring system was constructed at the J. Stefan Institute many years ago, motivated by the thread of a catastrophic nuclear event. It was designed for fast measurements in accidental dosimetry mainly for military and civil protection use. The system consists of a robust portable measuring unit built for measurements in field conditions, sized about 40 cm in diameter and weighting 5 kg. Dosimeters are based on CaF2:Mn ceramic tablets closed in water resistant plastic housings. In original design producer assured measuring range from cGy to kGy. Specially designed energy compensating filters are used to satisfy requirements for energy response from 0,1 to 3 MeV. Stability of readings is maintained with the temperature stabilized light source. Measuring time for manually driven heating-reading cycle of one dosimeter is about 30 sec. Many systems of the type with sets of dosimeters were stored unused for some years in depositories of different institutions. Modernization of equipment in last years raised questions of applicability of such measurement systems for contemporary needs. The system was thus tested in a secondary standards dosimetry laboratory for compliance with up to date requirements for accidental individual monitoring. Dosimeter characteristics as repeatability, linearity and directional response were of particular interest. As a result of the tests, technical improvements are suggested to extent systems measuring capabilities in order to meet new standards. Possibilities of its use in different fields of dosimetry are discussed, where quick in field measurements of high doses is required as for example in medicine or in civil protection motivated by the new threads of terrorist attacks. (author)

  3. Accidental contamination with 90Sr: a case study

    A case of accidental inhalation and extensive contamination by 90Sr was observed in November 1995 in two workers who were handling a defective waste container with an old source of 90Sr used for lightning rods. An internal monitoring programme was established to obtain experimental excretion data from each worker. Urine bioassays were carried out and activities of 90Sr were determined from analyses of excreta by the liquid scintillation technique. The results were evaluated in accordance with ICRP recommendations using the dosimetric code GENMOD-PC. Since no information was available concerning aerosol size nor compound of the radionuclide, estimations of intakes were made following ICRP 30 recommendations, and an AMAD of 1 μm was assumed for the inhaled radioactive aerosol supposedly containing strontium titanate. The ICRP 30 theoretical excretion curve did not agree with the experimental data. Confirming that the source contained SrTiO3, the assumed 1 μm particle size of the aerosol accidentally inhaled had to be changed to 10 μm, in order to adjust the urinary excretion function to the measured values. The initial estimation for one of the exposed workers, assuming a 1 μm particle size, resulted in a 90Sr intake of 5 ALIs. The final intake estimations were made with the following assumptions: acute inhalation 24 November 1995, AMAD = 10 μm, Class Y solubility and ICRP 30 Respiratory Tract Model for Standard Man. The 90Sr estimated intake was 2.6 x 105 Bq (37% ALI) for one of the workers and 6.6 x 104 Bq (10% ALI) for the other. The committed whole-body effective dose equivalents were 19 mSv and 5 mSv respectively, and the dose equivalents to lung were 147 mSv and 37 mSv, respectively. (author)

  4. Management options in the food chain for accidental radionuclide deposition

    Finland with four other countries participated in the European Union's network project FARMING in 2000 - 2004. The aim of the project was to invite participants from each country representing the food supply chain in a stakeholder group and advance with the groups the networking in building preparedness for accidental contamination of the food production systems. The task of the groups was to evaluate the practicability of management options suggested for reduction of radiation exposure through foodstuffs, and for disposal of waste generated in implementation of these options. The criteria for practicability were effectiveness in reduction of radiation exposure through foodstuffs, technical feasibility, capacity, costs for implementation, secondary costs for waste disposal, socio-economic impact, and acceptability concerning ecology and protection of environment and landscape. Practicable management options aimed at sustainable restoration of food production systems after accidental contamination. The Finnish stakeholder group represented farm production, processing industry, food marketing, catering, advisor organisations for households and agriculture, consumers, nature conservation, the media, experts on environmental impact and authorities responsible for production, safety and security of foodstuffs, food supply and feedstuffs. The group was expected to examine the effect of the Finnish, and, also more generally, northern production conditions on the practicability of the suggested management options. The stakeholder group members first familiarized themselves with intervention after accidental contamination of a large milk production area and thereafter with practicability of individual management options. The evaluation was based on the group members' complementary expertise that very well covered the chain 'from field to fork' whether the issue was related to legislation, production methods, logistics, environmental impacts, or the issues of consumers and

  5. Mycobacterium abscessus glycopeptidolipid prevents respiratory epithelial TLR2 signaling as measured by HβD2 gene expression and IL-8 release.

    Lisa B Davidson

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium abscessus has emerged as an important cause of lung infection, particularly in patients with bronchiectasis. Innate immune responses must be highly effective at preventing infection with M. abscessus because it is a ubiquitous environmental saprophyte and normal hosts are not commonly infected. M. abscessus exists as either a glycopeptidolipid (GPL expressing variant (smooth phenotype in which GPL masks underlying bioactive cell wall lipids, or as a variant lacking GPL which is immunostimulatory and invasive in macrophage infection models. Respiratory epithelium has been increasingly recognized as playing an important role in the innate immune response to pulmonary pathogens. Respiratory epithelial cells express toll-like receptors (TLRs which mediate the innate immune response to pulmonary pathogens. Both interleukin-8 (IL-8 and human β-defensin 2 (HβD2 are expressed by respiratory epithelial cells in response to toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 receptor stimulation. In this study, we demonstrate that respiratory epithelial cells respond to M. abscessus variants lacking GPL with expression of IL-8 and HβD2. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this interaction is mediated through TLR2. Conversely, M. abscessus expressing GPL does not stimulate expression of IL-8 or HβD2 by respiratory epithelial cells which is consistent with "masking" of underlying bioactive cell wall lipids by GPL. Because GPL-expressing smooth variants are the predominant phenotype existing in the environment, this provides an explanation whereby initial M. abscessus colonization of abnormal lung airways escapes detection by the innate immune system.

  6. Determination of reduction in life expectancy from stochastic somatic fatalities after accidental radiation exposure

    In risk studies for plants of the nuclear industry usually the number of fatalities by radiation induced health effects are assessed. They are divided into 'early fatalities' (mortality by acute radiation syndrom) and 'late fatalities' (deaths due to leukemia and cancer). For the individuals as well as for the society as a whole both health effects are in principle of different significance because of the different times of death after irradiation. Risk assessments which give only the number of fatalities therefore show an uncomplete picture of the consequence because they do not consider the age of the individuals at the time of death. In this report the mathematical models for the computation of the individual and collective reduction of life expectancy from stochastic somatic effects after accidental releases of radioactivity are described. Computational results with regard to the age distribution of the population are presented for persons living during the nuclear accident and persons born afterwards. Thereby the exposure pathways, organs and nuclides ot the German Risk Study are treated separately. A raw estimation of the reduction in life expectancy due to the late fatalities calculated in this study is given. (orig.)

  7. Accidental nuclear excursion recuplex operation 234-5 facility: Final medical report

    Fuqua, P. A.

    1962-04-07

    The April 7, 1962 criticality accident involving human exposures was the first to have occurred in any production facility at Hanford. The accidental nuclear excursion did not result in any mechanical damage or spread of contamination. Three employees received over-exposure to gamma and neutron radiation. None were fatally exposed and in each case the over-exposure was recognized promptly. Following an initial period of medical observation and testing, the men were released to work. They continued to be followed clinically. Clinical studies performed were hematological procedures including leukocyte chromosome aberrations, morphologically aberrant blood cells, bone marrow evaluations, blood chemistry determinations, amino acid excretion studies, seminal fluid, urinary gonadotropins and estrogen excretion studies, testicular biopsies and crystalline lens examinations. These studies, along with a brief description of the accident and of the dosimetry, are summarized in this report by those participating in the studies. In view of the dose ranges received in these cases, both the negative and positive findings are considered to be of unusual interest due to the lack of knowledge of effects following human exposures at these levels.

  8. Development of a framework for the risk assessment of Na-Tech accidental events

    Natural events impacting on chemical and process plants may cause severe accidents, triggering the release of relevant quantities of hazardous substances. The present study focused on the development of the tools needed to build up a general framework allowing the extension of quantitative risk assessment procedure to include the analysis of the industrial accidents caused by natural events. Specific methods and models were developed to allow the quantitative assessment of risk caused by two categories of 'Na-Tech' accidents: accidents triggered by earthquakes and accidents triggered by floods. The approach allows the identification of the different damage modes expected for process equipment and of the accidental scenarios that may be triggered. The damage models developed allow the calculation of the damage probability of equipment items due to the natural events. A specific methodology was issued to take into account the consequences of the possible contemporary failure of several process units due to the impact of the natural event. The procedure allows the calculation of the overall individual and societal risk indexes including the multiple-failure scenarios caused by the impact of natural events. The overall methodology was applied to the analysis of specific case studies.

  9. STA local sustained release system to The clinical application for the prevention of ELAP(endodontic interappointment pain)%STA局麻缓释系统预防根管预备约诊间痛的临床应用

    由力; 张宇

    2013-01-01

    Objective: through the comparison of the STA injection of tinidazole injection and common blue blue syringe injection, test in the prevention of ELAP. Methods: Use of local anesthesia (group A) STA sustained release periodontal ligament injection (group B) and ordinary syringe periodontal ligament injection blue injection, one-time completion of root canal preparation, 7 days after the appointment confirmed ELAP cases, Analysis of two methods to prevent the effect of inter appointment pain Results: the incidence of dry socket in A group were significantly lower than those in B group ( P<0.05 ) conclusion: STA injection and Tinidazole Injection in the prevention of blue inter appointment pain is better than that of common injection blue injection.%目的:通过比较STA注射替硝唑碧蓝注射液与普通注射器注射碧蓝注射液,试验其在预防根管治疗约诊间痛方面的作用。方法利用(A组)STA局麻缓释系统牙周膜注入与(B组)普通注射器牙周膜注射碧蓝注射液,均一次性完成根管预备,7天后复诊确认约诊间痛例数,分析两种方法对约诊间痛的预防效果。结果 A组约诊间痛发病率明显低于B组(P<0.05)结论 STA注射替硝唑碧蓝注射液在预防约诊间痛明显优于普通注射碧蓝注射液。

  10. Characterization and Comparison of Injuries Caused by Accidental and Non-accidental Blunt Force Trauma in Dogs and Cats.

    Intarapanich, Nida P; McCobb, Emily C; Reisman, Robert W; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Intarapanich, Pichai P

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) are often difficult to distinguish from non-accidental injury (NAI). This retrospective case-control study compared animals with known MVA trauma against those with known NAI. Medical records of 426 dogs and cats treated after MVA and 50 after NAI were evaluated. Injuries significantly associated with MVA were pelvic fractures, pneumothorax, pulmonary contusion, abrasions, and degloving wounds. Injuries associated with NAI were fractures of the skull, teeth, vertebrae, and ribs, scleral hemorrhage, damage to claws, and evidence of older fractures. Odds ratios are reported for these injuries. MVA rib fractures were found to occur in clusters on one side of the body, with cranial ribs more likely to fracture, while NAI rib fractures were found to occur bilaterally with no cranial-caudal pattern. Establishing evidence-based patterns of injury may help clinicians differentiate causes of trauma and may aid in the documentation and prosecution of animal abuse. PMID:27364279

  11. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  12. An experimental study of temperatures in cloud from release of flashing liquid CO2 in 3m long channel.

    Adhikari, Amrit; Gaathaug, André Vagner; Bjerketvedt, Dag; Vågsæther, Knut

    2014-01-01

    Flashing of the liquid CO2 is an accidental hazards that may occurs in many industrial sector such as, process industries, carbon capture and storage projects, crude oil extraction process etc. Sometimes the accidental release of liquid CO2 that causes the health hazards which may costs loss of lives and properties. In order to alleviate the aforementioned probable hazards, the experiment will be highly beneficial. This research activity is conducted through the temperature measurement in the...

  13. An experimental study of temperatures in cloud from release of flashing liquid CO2 in 3m long channel

    Amrit Adhikari, André V. Gaathaug, Dag Bjerketvedt, Knut Vaagsaether

    2014-01-01

    Flashing of the liquid CO2 is an accidental hazards that may occurs in many industrial sector such as, process industries, carbon capture and storage projects, crude oil extraction process etc. Sometimes the accidental release of liquid CO2 that causes the health hazards which may costs loss of lives and properties. In order to alleviate the aforementioned probable hazards, the experiment will be highly beneficial. This research activity is conducted through the temperature measurement in the...

  14. Radioactive releases from nuclear installations

    This paper considers the various stages in the pathway from irradiated nuclear fuel to man as separate modules, in each of which mathematical models are derived to represent the transfer of radioactivity. It begins with the generation of the radioactive inventories within fuel, both fission products and the build-up of transuranic elements; the release from fuel is then considered for metal and oxide fuels, following which the effects of plate-out in the reactor circuit are discussed. There is then a detailed treatment of the behaviour of the effluent in the atmosphere including effective height of release, building entrainment, meteorological dispersion, mechanisms for ground deposition and the effects of the duration of release. Having specified the radioactive environment, its interaction with man is described including external exposures from γ-emitting plumes of activity and the estimation of depth doses, as well as the internal organ doses resulting from inhalation or ingestion of radioactivity. Finally, applications of the methods are described in reanalysing the 1957 Windscale accident and in the planning of procedures for reactor accident monitoring as well as in the implications of future reactor designs to assessments of accidental releases. A brief summary of the reactor siting criteria adopted in the U.K. and in the U.S.A. has also been given as a background against which to review the predictive techniques and results from the range of studies of accident considered. (author)

  15. Secrecy, disclosure and accidental discovery: perspectives of diaphragm users in Mombasa, Kenya.

    Okal, Jerry; Stadler, Jonathan; Ombidi, Wilkister; Jao, Irene; Luchters, Stanley; Temmerman, Marleen; Chersich, Matthew F

    2008-01-01

    The diaphragm is receiving renewed attention as a promising female-controlled method of preventing HIV and other sexually-transmitted infections. It is anticipated that female-controlled technologies will reduce women's biological susceptibility and assist in counteracting their sociocultural vulnerability to HIV. Understanding the subjective experiences of diaphragm users in different settings has the potential to inform the development and promotion of such methods. This paper explores the perspectives of female sex workers and women attending sexual and reproductive health services in Mombasa, Kenya. Data are reported from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with women and men, following a prospective study investigating diaphragm continuation rates over six months. Discussions highlighted covert use of the diaphragm, during sex work or with casual partners, and coital independence as favourable attributes. These features were especially pronounced compared with male condoms. Few difficulties with diaphragm use were reported, although its insertion and removal occasionally presented problems. Many women--especially those in long term partnerships--wished to disclose its use but found the disclosure process highly problematic. Accidental discovery often resulted in partner conflict. Although future uptake of the diaphragm may be high in this setting, its use may be limited to certain types of relationships and relationship context. PMID:18038278

  16. Accidental firearm injury in childhood--a predictor of social and medical outcome?

    Ponzer, S; Bergman, B; Brismar, B; Johansson, S E

    1997-09-01

    This paper reports register data on a consecutive series of 141 children and teenagers hospitalized due to firearm injuries during a 21-year period in a community with restrictive firearm laws. Most of the injuries were minor and hospitalization was short. Shot by an air gun resulting in an eye injury was the most frequent reason for hospitalization. The patients hospitalized due to firearm injuries were compared with a control group composed of 141 individuals matched pair-wise for sex and age. The total morbidity during the follow-up period of on average 10 years was higher among patients compared with controls concerning both somatic diseases and injuries. All cases of severe psychopathology were found in the patient group. Criminality was higher among patients compared with controls and the former were younger at the time of the first crime compared with the latter. This study indicates that, irrespective of firearm laws, young people suffering from firearm injuries, even if the injury is classified as accidental, run a higher risk of becoming psychosocially disadvantaged and criminal as adults. This makes preventative measures highly necessary not only from a societal point of view, but also to avoid individual suffering in this high-risk group of youngsters. PMID:9426991

  17. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning presenting without a history of exposure: A case report

    Bennetto Luke

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning is easy to diagnose when there is a history of exposure. When the exposure history is absent, or delayed, the diagnosis is more difficult and relies on recognising the importance of multi-system disease. We present a case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. Case presentation A middle-aged man, who lived alone in his mobile home was found by friends in a confused, incontinent state. Initial signs included respiratory failure, cardiac ischaemia, hypotension, encephalopathy and a rash, whilst subsequent features included rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, amnesia, dysarthria, parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, supranuclear gaze palsy and cerebral haemorrhage. Despite numerous investigations including magnetic resonance cerebral imaging, lumbar puncture, skin biopsy, muscle biopsy and electroencephalogram a diagnosis remained elusive. Several weeks after admission, diagnostic breakthrough was achieved when the gradual resolution of the patient's amnesia, encephalopathy and dysarthria allowed an accurate history to be taken for the first time. The patient's last recollection was turning on his gas heating for the first time since the spring. A gas heating engineer found the patient's gas boiler to be in a dangerous state of disrepair and it was immediately decommissioned. Conclusion This case highlights several important issues: the bewildering myriad of clinical features of carbon monoxide poisoning, the importance of making the diagnosis even at a late stage and preventing the patient's return to a potentially fatal toxic environment, and the paramount importance of the history in the diagnostic method.

  18. Accidental intoxication of the infant-juvenile population in households: profiles of emergency care

    Jackeline Gonçalves Brito

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Analyzing profiles of intoxication and accidental poisoning of infant-juvenile population (0-24 years in the household, treated at a reference facility for Emergency and Primary Care, during the year 2013. METHOD A descriptive, cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed using Epi-Info, by way of simple and bivariate analyzes. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (protocol 405.578. RESULTS There were 45 intoxications, with a prevalence of males (60.0%, aged 1-4 years (71.1%. Among children under one, there was a higher frequency of pesticide poisoning (66.6%, between the ages of 1-4 by cleaning products (34.4%, and between 5-9 years of age by pharmacological substances (66.6%. The primary assistance was provided only at health institutions, with hospital admissions in 24.4% of the cases. CONCLUSION The importance of prevention through legislation is evident, in order to ensure greater safety in packaging of various products, and community awareness to eliminate risks in the household environment.

  19. Clinical and ethical orientations in case of accidental ingestion of foreign body during dental treatment

    Rhonan Ferreira da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The passage of foreign bodies through the oropharynx during dental treatment is an accident that can be avoided in most cases,especially when the dentist adopts preventive measures such as using rubber dam or tying certain objects with dental floss. Objective:To emphasize the importance of avoiding the accident of ingesting foreign bodies during dental treatment and to guide the dentist on how to proceed,clinically and ethically, if the accident occurs.Case report:A minor female patient, unaccompanied,accidentally ingested a bur used for finishing a composite resin restoration during a dental treatment performed in the public service, due to a defect in the high-speed handpiece.The patient and their parents were informed of the accident,and the object was monitored radiographically until its elimination by natural means,with no reports of discomfort.Conclusion:It is the responsibility of the dentist to know and follow the necessary measures to avoid or solve complications from ingesting foreign bodies, since patient’s health and integrity must be protected. In addition, the dentist will also avoid possible ethical and legal demands when fulfilling his responsibilities as a health care professional.

  20. The effects of acute irradiation on a forest biogeocenosis: Experimental data, model and practical applications for accidental cases

    The effects of acute irradiations of a mixed pine and birch forest in spring and autumn with a high power point-type gamma radiation source (1180 TBq 137Cs) have been described. Radiation dose relationships for numerous response reactions of woody and herbaceous plants (growth and development of organs of woody plants, cytogenetical, physiological and biochemical changes in trees, reproductive potential of plants, damage and dying off of the forest as a biogeocenosis on the whole) have been calculated. Post-radiation recovery of the forest was investigated. Changes involving the secondary reactions related to radiation damage and death of the trees are presented. A model for radiation damage of forests has been designed. Examples are given on the usage of this model in the description of radiation effects in forests in the event of accidental releases of radionuclides into environment

  1. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    2011-10-24

    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.  Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/24/2011.

  2. Specialists' meeting on fission product release and transport in gas-cooled reactors. Summary report

    The purpose of the Meeting on Fission Product Release and Transport in Gas-Cooled Reactors was to compare and discuss experimental and theoretical results of fission product behaviour in gas-cooled reactors under normal and accidental conditions and to give direction for future development. The technical part of the meeting covered operational experience and laboratory research, activity release, and behaviour of released activity

  3. Factores de riesgo asociados a los accidentes en el hogar

    Lidia Arlaes Yero

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio analítico retrospectivo (caso-control sobre accidentes en el hogar ocurridos en la población de dos consultorios de médicos de familia del área centro en el municipio Sancti Spiritus, durante el año 1996. Se tuvo en cuenta la ocurrencia de estos eventos en la población general, la incidencia estuvo representada por 77 casos y se escogió como grupo control el resto de la población. Como resultado se observó que los accidentes del hogar (AH son más frecuentes en mujeres en edades avanzadas, con una distribución temporal mayor en el cuarto trimestre del año. Los AH fueron más frecuentes en los individuos que ingieren psicofármacos en las edades extremas de la vejez. El horario de ocurrencia más frecuente fue el de la tarde; y los lugares, la cocina y el patio. Como tipo de lesión predominó la contusión y la herida. Se concluyó además que la presencia de factores predisponentes constituyen riesgo de gran magnitud en la aparición de los AHAn analytical retrospective study (case-control about home accidents occurred among the population of 2 family physician’s offices in the central area of the municipality of Sancti Spiritus, during 1996, was conducted. The occurrence of such events in the general population was taken into account. Incidence was represented by 77 cases and the rest of the population was chosen as a control group. As a result, it was observed that home accidents were more frequent in aged women, with a greater temporary distribution in the fourth trimester of the year. Home accidents took place more frequently in those individuals taking psychotropic drugs a extreme advanced ages. Most of the accidents occurred in the afternoon, and the kitchen and the backyard were the commonest places. Contusions and wounds were the predominant injuries. It was concluded that the presence of predisposing factors is a high risk for the occurrence of home accidents

  4. La prevención de accidentes (2

    Chinchilla, M.

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Everyone prefers to work in those organizations where their dignity of human beings is respected. One of the most efficient means at the disposal of any firm, to improve the morale of the individual employees, and to establish a spirit of cooperation between the individual and the firm, is to set up a program of accident benefit. It will avoid direct and indirect losses due to working accidents, as analyzed in a previous article, and it will make it possible to improve total performance of each worker, since he will work in a more favorable environment, free from worry about potential danger to his person. It is almost impossible to describe in detail all those items that should be taken into account in a safety program. None the less, and as an indication of their diversity, some sources of danger are mentioned in this chapter, which are closely connected with human safety, such as public curiosity, travelling from one place to another, cleanliness and order.Todas las personas prefieren desempeñar sus tareas en aquellas organizaciones que tienen hacia ellos las consideraciones correspondientes a un ser humano. Uno de los medios más eficaces a disposición de cualquier empresa para elevar la moral del individuo y para crear un lazo de cooperación común entre el individuo y la empresa, es la de llevar a cabo un programa de prevención de accidentes, programa que redundará en el doble fruto: evitar las pérdidas directas e indirectas causadas por los accidentes de trabajo que se detallaron en un trabajo anterior, y conseguir aumentar el rendimiento del operario al hacerle un ambiente más grato por la preocupación que se demuestra hacia su persona. Es casi imposible detallar todos aquellos puntos que se deben tener en cuenta en un programa de seguridad; sin embargo, y como exponente de su diversidad, se señalan en este capítulo algunas causas, que, sin estar ligadas directamente con el trabajo individual, no obstante se encuentran

  5. Intrathecal co-administration of ketamine and morphine preventing activation of astrocytes and decreasing releases of IL-1β and IL-6 from spinal cord in rats of morphine tolerance

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of intrathecal administration of ketamine, a non-competitive N-methy-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, combined with morphine on the activation of astrocytes and releases of IL-1β and IL-6 from spinal cord in the rats of morphine tolerance. Methods: Twenty-seven Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into sham-operated, morphine tolerance, and morphine plus ketamine group. The subarachnoid catheterization of all the rats was prepared by the method of Jianping Yang.Morphine 20 μg in 10 μl was administrated intrathecally to induce spinal morphine tolerance once daily for 5 consecutive days. Morphine and ketamine 250 μg in 10 μl total volume was given in morphine plus ketamine group. Three groups all received intrathecal morphine 5 μg in 10 μl for morphine challenge test at 24 h after last administration of the morphine. After morphine challenge test, lumbar spinal tissues were taken for measurement of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) of astrocyte in lumbar spinal horn cord by immunohistochemistry and IL-1βand IL-6 of spinal cord by ELISA. Results: The decrease of %MPE induced by chronic intrathecal morphine was inhibited by ketamine and hyperalgesia and allodynia induced by morphine-withdrawl were alleviated. The average areas, the average absorbency (-A), the integral absorbency (A) of GFAP immuno-reactive cells in the dorsal horn, and IL-1β and IL-6 of spinal cord were significantly larger in morphine tolerance group than in morphine plus ketamine group. Conclusion: Co-administration of ketamine and morphine enhance antinociceptive effect of morphine and prevent the development of morphine tolerance. Ketamine might attenuate the activation of astrocytes and inhibit the release of IL-1β and IL-6 from spinal cord in repeated intrathecal morphine rats.

  6. Computer simulation of tritium releases in inertial fusion reactors

    Perlado, J.M.; Velarde, M. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, DENIM (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Accidental releases of tritium from Inertial Fusion reactors are presented. A well-established computer code, MACCS2, is used with realistic models. Release fractions of 1 - 10 - 50 - 100 % of inventories are considered, with height of emissions 10, 30, 60 m, and duration of 10 min. and 2 hours. Only early emergency phase is considered with mitigative actions and shielding factors. It is concluded that except in 100 % releases for some reactors and heights the effective doses to workers and general population does not exceed the regulatory limits. Differences with very conservative results can attain 2 orders of magnitude. (authors)

  7. Relocation impacts of a major release from SRTC

    The relocation impacts of an accidental release, scenario 1-RD-3 , are evaluated for the Savannah River Technology Center. The extent of the area potentially contaminated to a level that would result in doses exceeding the relocation protective action guide(PAG)is calculated. The maximum calculated distance downwind from the accident at which the relocation PAG is exceeded is also determined. The consequences of the particulate portion of the release are evaluated using the HOTSPOT model and an EXCEL spreadsheet. The consequences of the tritium release are evaluated using UFOTRI

  8. Using the 'PARIS' software for the preparation of post-accidental situations

    PARIS (Post-accidental Radiological Imitation System) is a software developed by the Russian Radiological Protection Institute (IBRAE) at the request of IPSN (French Nuclear Protection and Safety Institute). Its objective is the modelling of post-accidental situations. The PARIS code allows one, in fact, to generate post-accidental scenarios, by simulating the different data flows, notably measurement results, such as they could reach the experts in a real-life situation. The PARIS software is presented, covering its principles, architecture, functions, specifications and application examples. (R.P.)

  9. Pre-accidental situations highlighted by RECUPERARE method and data

    Matahri, N. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    RECUPERARE method has been developed for operating feedback analysis and built on the French Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) principles. It is used to study the causes of human errors or technical failures occurred in French PWRs and the recovery process of events. Based on an event classification (6 categories) model according to the nature of the link between failure and recovery, the identified and recorded data are: the causes of the defects (technical, human, organizational) and the context in which they appear; the factors of the recovery performance (depending on technical and organizational aspects); a chronological analysis, designed to collect delays between failures and their detection/recovery for each event. About 3600 events reported in French PWRs (1997-2003) had been reviewed through this model. Initially, the weight of factors and the most important factors, which influenced the detection and recovery delay, are defined. For this purpose, the regression Partial Least Square (PLS) is used. Then, to link RECUPERARE results with pre-accidental data, conditional probabilities of events linked between them by a cause and effect relationship are calculated. For this, the Bayesian method with the Bayesian network is built with the PLS obtained results and applied. This constitutes a first approach to take into account in HRA the human and organizational factors highlighted by operating feedback. (author)

  10. Learning From Biomarkers in Victims Accidentally Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    Yan Wang; Liqing Du; Chang Xu; Qin Wang; Zhiyi Song; Jianxiang Liu; Xu Su

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers,such as chromosome aberration and micronuclei assays,prove to be reliable for facilitating clinical diagnosis in radiation accidents.In a radiation accident in India,chromosomal aberration,γ-H2AX,as well as other blood markers,were detected in accidentally exposed victims.This multi-parametric approach aided in confirming that individuals had been exposed by ionizing radiation.However,doses were impossible to estimate because of a 30-day delay in accident awareness.Exposure dose for victims was estimated using a dose-response curve previously established.Dose estimation,blood cell depletion kinetics,and no appearance of prodromal symptoms suggested that doses of exposure were low.Hematologic investigation,sampling time,and chromosome aberration scoring were all proposed according to data from the victims exposed to 60Co.Finally,knowledge regarding chromosome aberration analysis and the importance of international co-operation and assistance should be shared from this accident.

  11. Non-Accidental Flecainide Overdose - A Case Report

    Abdelilah Ghannam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Flecainide acetate is an antiarrhythmic drug used in the treatment of supraventricular arrhythmias. Flecainide causes very rare but often serious intoxications. These intoxications happen either due to a non-accidental overdose or because of a narrow therapeutic index in a patient who suffers from cardiomyopathy or has electrolyte abnormalities. We report an original case of a patient who had taken a high dose of flecainide with the aim of suicide. The patient suffered a cardiogenic shock with complications of lactic metabolic acidosis. Fast diagnosis is essential to reduce the high morbidity and mortality of this intoxication. The treatment plan is symptomatic. It aims at eliminating the poison and compensating cardiac function by treating the shock and the electrolyte imbalances. This allowed us to swiftly regain normal electrical and mechanical cardiac function in our patient. 3 weeks after the psychiatric consultation no sequelae were found. This case highlights that thorough history is essential in order to determine the diagnosis of a drug intoxication since the range of used products is wide. On the other hand, in case of any intoxication, while we apply a specific treatment, a well-managed, systematic, symptomatic treatment is essential to reduce morbidity and mortality.

  12. Prolonged Toxic Encephalopathy following Accidental 4-Aminopyridine Overdose

    Maria Ballesta Méndez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP is a drug that is used to improve motor fatigue in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS. Medication error can occur, as commercial preparation may not be available in some countries. Case Presentation. A 58-year-old woman with progressive MS presented with status epilepticus. She was receiving 4-AP for more than 3 years. The symptoms started soon after the ingestion of a single pill that was supposed to contain 10 mg 4-AP, but further investigations revealed that each pill had been inadvertently prepared with an 100 mg 4-AP concentration. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU for appropriate management (orotracheal intubation, sedation, and antiepileptic drugs. The first electroencephalogram (EEG showed abundant irregular spike-waves on the left central regions. Neurological condition gradually improved from day 7, while the EEG did not reveal any more electrical seizures but was still consistent with toxic encephalopathy. The patient stayed in the ICU until day 13. At discharge from the rehabilitation ward (2.5 months later, the patient had not yet recovered her previous cognitive and functional condition. Conclusion. A single 100 mg 4-AP accidental overdose may cause serious immediate complications, with a slow and incomplete neurological recovery.

  13. Accidental over-exposure from dental X-ray equipment

    A description is given of an unusual dental X-ray procedure which resulted in accidental over-exposure both to the dentist and to several of his patients when a short-circuit was present in newly-installed equipment. The short-circuit by-passed the exposure control and energized the tube for certain orientations of the X-ray tube. The dentist left the patients, who wore protective aprons, to initiate the exposure themselves, using the control button. Although the warning lights were on, the dentist was not present in the room during the exposure, and the over-exposures were only detected when the developed X-ray films were found to be completely blackened. A reconstruction of the procedure enabled estimates to be made of the dose equivalents to the dentist's body and to the skin of the head, the eyes and the gonads of the patients. The dentist had overlooked several of basic principles recommended in the Code of Practice for the Protection of Persons against Ionizing Radiations from Medical and Dental Use (1972). It is pointed out that incidents involving failure of dental equipment (usually the timer mechanism) are not infrequent. (U.K.)

  14. Accidental Cutaneous Burns Secondary to Salbutamol Metered Dose Inhaler

    Ashutosh Kale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of accidental cutaneous burns caused by salbutamol metered dose inhaler. A 9-year-old boy underwent dental extraction at a children's hospital and was incidentally noted to have burn injuries on dorsum of both hands. On questioning, the boy revealed that a few days ago his 14-year-old brother, who is an asthmatic, playfully sprayed his salbutamol metered dose inhaler on the back of both his hands with the inhaler's mouth piece being in direct contact with the patient's skin. On examination, there was a rectangular area of erythema with superficial peeling on the dorsum of both hands, the dimensions of which exactly matched those of the inhaler's mouthpiece. It is possible that the injury could have been a chemical burn from the pharmaceutical/preservative/propellant aerosol or due to the physical effect of severe cooling of the skin or mechanical abrasive effect of the aerosol blasts or a combination of some or all the above mechanisms. This case highlights the importance of informing children and parents of the potentially hazardous consequences of misusing a metered dose inhaler.

  15. Funciones superiores en pacientes con accidente cerebro vascular.

    Felipe Rodríguez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios realizados en Chile hasta la fecha no permiten detectar de manera significativa el deterioro neuropsicológico causado por el accidente cerebro vascular (ACV y el impacto que éste tiene en el paciente a nivel de su desenvolvimiento diario y familiar. Con base a esto el objetivo de esta investigación fue elaborar un perfil de deterioro neuropsicológico de las diversas funciones cerebrales superiores causado por un ACV, en un grupo de 50 pacientes de la Unidad de Medicina Física del Hospital San José al cuál se le administró un Protocolo de Evaluación Neuropsicológica, comparándose luego con un grupo control de 50 sujetos evaluados con el mismo protocolo. Se encuentra que sobre un 20% de la población con ACV evaluada presenta deterioro en al menos uno de los ítems evaluados, siendo las funciones ejecutivas, la memoria a largo plazo y la memoria a corto plazo las áreas mayoritariamente afectada en la población evaluada.

  16. Pre-accidental situations highlighted by RECUPERARE method and data

    RECUPERARE method has been developed for operating feedback analysis and built on the French Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) principles. It is used to study the causes of human errors or technical failures occurred in French PWRs and the recovery process of events. Based on an event classification (6 categories) model according to the nature of the link between failure and recovery, the identified and recorded data are: the causes of the defects (technical, human, organizational) and the context in which they appear; the factors of the recovery performance (depending on technical and organizational aspects); a chronological analysis, designed to collect delays between failures and their detection/recovery for each event. About 3600 events reported in French PWRs (1997-2003) had been reviewed through this model. Initially, the weight of factors and the most important factors, which influenced the detection and recovery delay, are defined. For this purpose, the regression Partial Least Square (PLS) is used. Then, to link RECUPERARE results with pre-accidental data, conditional probabilities of events linked between them by a cause and effect relationship are calculated. For this, the Bayesian method with the Bayesian network is built with the PLS obtained results and applied. This constitutes a first approach to take into account in HRA the human and organizational factors highlighted by operating feedback. (author)

  17. Calidad de vida de cuidadores de adultos con accidente cerebrovascular

    INNA ELIDA FLÓREZ TORRES

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir la calidad de vida de los cuidadores familiares de adultos con secuelas de accidente cerebrovascular, en Cartagena, Colombia. Método: estudio descriptivo cuantitativo realizado durante el segundo semestre de 2008. Muestra no probabilística por conveniencia de 97 cuidadores. Se empleó el instrumento propuesto por Ferrell et ál. Para valorar cada uno de los bienestares que integran la calidad de vida se utilizaron medidas de tendencia central y coeficiente de variación. Resultados: el grupo de cuidadores presentó en el bienestar físico un promedio de 11,1 con relación al máximo puntaje, lo que indica el peor estado de salud; los bienestares psicológico y social tuvieron promedios de 48,8 y 21,9, respectivamente, con menor afectación. El mejor estado se halló en el bienestar espiritual, con promedio de 22,6. Conclusiones: la experiencia de ser cuidador modifica de manera importante la calidad de vida de las personas; los cuidadores, como fuente importante de cuidado informal, requieren apoyo de los sistemas de salud y, como parte de este, de los profesionales de enfermería.

  18. Managing Terrorism or Accidental Nuclear Errors, Preparing for Iodine-131 Emergencies: A Comprehensive Review

    Braverman, Eric R.; Kenneth Blum; Bernard Loeffke; Robert Baker; Florian Kreuk; Samantha Peiling Yang; Hurley, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Chernobyl demonstrated that iodine-131 (131I) released in a nuclear accident can cause malignant thyroid nodules to develop in children within a 300 mile radius of the incident. Timely potassium iodide (KI) administration can prevent the development of thyroid cancer and the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and a number of United States governmental agencies recommend KI prophylaxis. Current pre-distribution of KI by the United States government and other governments with nuclear reactors i...

  19. Investigation of CO2 release pressures in pipeline cracks

    Gorenz, Paul; Herzog, Nicoleta; Egbers, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    The CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) technology can prevent or reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide. The main idea of this technology is the segregation and collection of CO2 from facilities with a high emission of that greenhouse gas, i.e. power plants which burn fossil fuels. To segregate CO2 from the exhaust gas the power plant must be upgraded. Up to now there are three possible procedures to segregate the carbon dioxide with different advantages and disadvantages. After segregation the carbon dioxide will be transported by pipeline to a subsurface storage location. As CO2 is at normal conditions (1013,25 Pa; 20 °C) in a gaseous phase state it must be set under high pressure to enter denser phase states to make a more efficient pipeline transport possible. Normally the carbon dioxide is set into the liquid or supercritical phase state by compressor stations which compress the gas up to 15 MPa. The pressure drop makes booster stations along the pipeline necessary which keep the CO2 in a dens phase state. Depending on the compression pressure CO2 can be transported over 300km without any booster station. The goal of this work is the investigation of release pressures in pipeline cracks. The high pressurised pipeline system consists of different parts with different failure probabilities. In most cases corrosion or obsolescence is the reason for pipeline damages. In case of a crack CO2 will escape from the pipeline and disperse into the atmosphere. Due to its nature CO2 can remain unattended for a long time. There are some studies of the CO2 dispersion process, e.g. Mazzoldi et al. (2007, 2008 and 2011) and Wang et al. (2008), but with different assumptions concerning the pipeline release pressures. To give an idea of realistic release pressures investigations with the CFD tool OpenFOAM were carried out and are presented within this work. To cover such a scenario with an accidental release of carbon dioxide a pipeline section with different diameters and

  20. Commitment of involved actors in the preparation of accidental and post-accident situations: European experiments; Engagement des parties prenantes a la preparation aux situations accidentelles et post-accidentelles: experiences Europeennes

    Schneider, Th. [CEPN, 28 rue de la Redoute, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2010-07-01

    The author briefly describes some approaches developed within the EURANOS European research programme between 2004 and 2009 which aims at promoting the building up of a European network (NERIS) for the management of nuclear accidental and post-accident situations. Notably, he comments the experiment which took place in the Montbeliard district where two types of radiological events have been modelled and simulated: an accident in the Fessenheim nuclear power plant with two scenarios of release, and a transportation accident with a release of radioactive caesium 137. He also evokes the Norwegian experience and some other actions in Finland, Great-Britain, Spain and Slovakia where reflections on the management of accidental and post-accident situations or crisis exercises have been organized

  1. Preventing stroke

    Stroke - prevention; CVA - prevention; cerebral vascular accident - prevention; TIA - prevention, transient ischemic attack - prevention ... A stroke occurs when the blood supply is cut off to any part of the brain. A stroke is ...

  2. Sustained Nitric Oxide-Releasing Nanoparticles Induce Cell Death in Candida albicans Yeast and Hyphal Cells, Preventing Biofilm Formation In Vitro and in a Rodent Central Venous Catheter Model.

    Ahmadi, Mohammed S; Lee, Hiu Ham; Sanchez, David A; Friedman, Adam J; Tar, Moses T; Davies, Kelvin P; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Martinez, Luis R

    2016-04-01

    Candida albicansis a leading nosocomial pathogen. Today, candidal biofilms are a significant cause of catheter infections, and such infections are becoming increasingly responsible for the failure of medical-implanted devices.C. albicansforms biofilms in which fungal cells are encased in an autoproduced extracellular polysaccharide matrix. Consequently, the enclosed fungi are protected from antimicrobial agents and host cells, providing a unique niche conducive to robust microbial growth and a harbor for recurring infections. Here we demonstrate that a recently developed platform comprised of nanoparticles that release therapeutic levels of nitric oxide (NO-np) inhibits candidal biofilm formation, destroys the extracellular polysaccharide matrices of mature fungal biofilms, and hinders biofilm development on surface biomaterials such as the lumen of catheters. We found NO-np to decrease both the metabolic activity of biofilms and the cell viability ofC. albicansin vitroandin vivo Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis found NO-np to induce apoptosis in biofilm yeast cellsin vitro Moreover, NO-np behave synergistically when used in combination with established antifungal drug therapies. Here we propose NO-np as a novel treatment modality, especially in combination with standard antifungals, for the prevention and/or remediation of fungal biofilms on central venous catheters and other medical devices. PMID:26810653

  3. 75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010

    2010-03-19

    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-6222 Filed 3-18-10...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8484 of March 15, 2010 National Poison... National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers of accidental poisonings...

  4. Ethical and Unethical Methods of Plagiarism Prevention in Academic Writing

    Bakhtiyari, Kaveh; Salehi, Hadi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Shakiba, Masoud; Zavvari, Azam; Shahbazi-Moghadam, Masoomeh; Ebrahim, Nader Ale; Mohammadjafari, Marjan

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses plagiarism origins, and the ethical solutions to prevent it. It also reviews some unethical approaches, which may be used to decrease the plagiarism rate in academic writings. We propose eight ethical techniques to avoid unconscious and accidental plagiarism in manuscripts without using online systems such as Turnitin and/or…

  5. Non-accidental pediatric trauma: radiographic findings in the abused child

    Deltoff, Marshall

    1994-01-01

    The common radiographic manifestations of abused children are discussed along with the mandated obligation of the doctor to recognize and report any reasonable suspicion of non-accidental trauma in his/her pediatric patients.

  6. The radioelectronic equipment as object the theories hiperbolic-accidental of the phenomena

    J. F. Zinkovskiy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of definition of parameters of functional assignment radioelectronic apparatus are considered at designing on the basis of the theory hyperbolic-accidental of the phenomena

  7. Fate of Accidental Symmetries of the Relativistic Hydrogen Atom in a Spherical Cavity

    Al-Hashimi, M H; Wiese, U -J

    2015-01-01

    The non-relativistic hydrogen atom enjoys an accidental $SO(4)$ symmetry, that enlarges the rotational $SO(3)$ symmetry, by extending the angular momentum algebra with the Runge-Lenz vector. In the relativistic hydrogen atom the accidental symmetry is partially lifted. Due to the Johnson-Lippmann operator, which commutes with the Dirac Hamiltonian, some degeneracy remains. When the non-relativistic hydrogen atom is put in a spherical cavity of radius $R$ with perfectly reflecting Robin boundary conditions, characterized by a self-adjoint extension parameter $\\gamma$, in general the accidental $SO(4)$ symmetry is lifted. However, for $R = (l+1)(l+2) a$ (where $a$ is the Bohr radius and $l$ is the orbital angular momentum) some degeneracy remains when $\\gamma = \\infty$ or $\\gamma = \\frac{2}{R}$. In the relativistic case, we consider the most general spherically and parity invariant boundary condition, which is characterized by a self-adjoint extension parameter. In this case, the remnant accidental symmetry is ...

  8. Simple battery armor to protect against gastrointestinal injury from accidental ingestion

    Laulicht, Bryan; Traverso, Giovanni; Deshpande, Vikram; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Accidental battery ingestion in children is a recognized source of significant morbidity and mortality. To mitigate the risks of accidental battery ingestion, legislation has been introduced to regulate the locking of battery compartments. Regulation of battery housings has translated into modest reductions in the number of battery ingestion cases reported. We report here the fabrication of waterproof, pressure-sensitive battery coatings that are nonconductive in the low-pressure gastrointest...

  9. Fate of accidental symmetries of the relativistic hydrogen atom in a spherical cavity

    Al-Hashimi, M. H.; Shalaby, A. M.; Wiese, U. -J.

    2015-01-01

    The non-relativistic hydrogen atom enjoys an accidental $SO(4)$ symmetry, that enlarges the rotational $SO(3)$ symmetry, by extending the angular momentum algebra with the Runge-Lenz vector. In the relativistic hydrogen atom the accidental symmetry is partially lifted. Due to the Johnson-Lippmann operator, which commutes with the Dirac Hamiltonian, some degeneracy remains. When the non-relativistic hydrogen atom is put in a spherical cavity of radius $R$ with perfectly reflecting Robin bounda...

  10. Menace of childhood non-accidental traumatic brain injuries: A single unit report

    Musa Ibrahim; Adamu Ladan Mu′azu; Nura Idris; Musa Uba Rabiu; Binta Wudil Jibir; Kabir Ibrahim Getso; Mohammad Aminu Mohammad; Femi Luqman Owolabi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) has high rate of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are dearths of reports from developing countries with large paediatric population on trauma; neurosurgery trauma of nonaccidental origin is not an exemption. This study analysed menace of non-accidental TBI in the paediatric population from our center. Materials and Methods: This is a single unit, retrospective study of the epidemiology of non-accidental TBI in children starting from S...

  11. Concept of radiological, medical and social protection of the population of Russia affected by accidental exposure

    Main principles of population radiation protection from various accidental exposure, including the Chernobyl accident, have been implemented in officially approved Concept ''On radiological, medical, social protection and rehabilitation of the Russian Federation population affected by accidental radiation exposure''. The concept includes basic principles of radiation protection, designation of regional radionuclide contaminated territories, records and registers of exposed persons, health protection and rehabilitation, socio-economic and legal aspects

  12. 美国疾病控制与预防中心寨卡病毒病防控指南解读%Interpretation of the guidelines for prevention and control of lika virus disease released by American center for disease control and prevention

    宋宁; 郭宪立; 刘跃; 袁胜芳; 贾伟华

    2016-01-01

    Recently,United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)released several guidelines for the evaluation and testing of Zika virus (ZIKV)in neonatal,infant,young children and pregnant women during a ZIKV outbreak,and published an interim guideline for the prevention of sexual transmission of ZIKV.This paper reviewed the current research progress of ZIKV and Zika virus disease (ZVD),and interpreted the CDC guidelines.The course covered biological characteristics,epidemic trends,clinical manifestations,route of transmission,laboratory examinations,diagnostic criteria,treatments and prevention protocols of ZIKV infection and ZVD in special population groups and etc,in order to improve the clinicians'understanding of ZIKV and ZVD.%近期美国疾病控制与预防中心(CDC)发布了针对寨卡病毒(ZIKV)流行期间新生儿、婴儿、青少年儿童、孕妇 ZIKV 感染的评估检测和防控指南,以及 ZIKV 性传播防控指南,本文即结合目前国内外 ZIKV 的研究进展对上述指南进行解读,内容涵盖了 ZIKV 生物学特征、流行趋势、临床表现、传播途径、实验室检查、诊断标准、预防治疗及特殊人群防控策略等,以提高临床医师对 ZIKV 及寨卡病毒病(ZVD)的认识。

  13. The release of lindane from contaminated building materials

    Volchek, Konstantin; Thouin, Geneviève; Kuang, Wenxing; Li, Ken; Tezel, F. Handan; Brown, Carl E.

    2014-01-01

    The release of the organochlorine pesticide lindane (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane) from several types of contaminated building materials was studied to assess inhalation hazard and decontamination requirements in response to accidental and/or intentional spills. The materials included glass, polypropylene carpet, latex-painted drywall, ceramic tiles, vinyl floor tiles, and gypsum ceiling tiles. For each surface concentration, an equilibrium concentration was determined in the vapour phase of the s...

  14. Simulation of thermal hydraulics accidental transients. Evaluation of MAAP5.02 versus CATHAREv2.5

    The Modular Accident Analysis Program (MAAP) is a deterministic code developed by EPRI that can simulate the response of light water moderated nuclear power plants during accidental transients for Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) applications. It can as well simulate severe accident sequences, including actions taken as part of the Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMGs). EPRI indicates that the latest version of the code - MAAP5.02 - benefits from major enhancements, in particular concerning the thermal hydraulics in the primary side. This code revision takes into account momentum equations allowing, to model thermal hydraulics transient with a good accuracy. EDF is interested in using MAAP5.02 as an incidental/accidental transient’s simulation tool for the management of crises on its 58 PWRs. In particular, it could evaluate the time before core uncovers, core melting and fission product releases. In order to assess MAAP5.02 ability to simulate accidental transients prior to core uncovery, EDF has compared MAAP5.02 results to the code used as a reference to simulate thermal hydraulics transients in France: CATHARE (that stands for Code for Analysis of Thermal hydraulics during an Accident of Reactor and safety Evaluation). CATHARE is a system code for PWR safety analysis, accident management, definition of plant operating procedures and for research and development. It is also used to quantify conservative analysis margins and for licensing. It is based on a 2-fluid 6-equation model. The version of CATHARE used for the comparison is CATHAREv2.5–2 (one of the latest CATHARE versions). Several transient analyses on LOCA and non LOCA transients have been performed by EDF. Transients at full power conditions as well as in shutdown states have been considered. Here are some of EDF analyzed transients: LOCA (small break on cold leg), LOOP (Loss Of Offsite Power), SGTR (Steam Generator Tube Rupture). The comparisons performed tend to prove that the

  15. Análisis de accidentes severos en contenciones nucleares

    Goicolea Ruigómez, José María

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis for severe accidents has recently been added to the long list of requisites imposed on nuclear power plants. In this work we study the rationale and justiflcation for this type of analysis. Calculations for the structural response of the containment buildings can be performed on the computer using advanced nonlinear Finite Element codes. A state of the art review of these methods is carried out, proposing a methodology based on analysis by numerical methods with experimental validation. Additionally we present some results obtained by the authors for the analysis of both reinforced concrete and steel containments. The concluding remarks show the validity of the proposed methodology, as well as the evidence of a large security margin in the containments, due mainly to the conservatisms in the design stage.

    El análisis frente a accidentes severos ha venido a añadirse recientemente a la larga lista de requisitos impuestos a las centrales nucleares. En este trabajo se pretende estudiar la problemática y justificación de este tipo de análisis. El cálculo de la respuesta de la contención se puede realizar en el ordenador mediante métodos avanzados de elementos finitos no lineales. Se hace una revisión del estado de la técnica en estos métodos, proponiendo una metodología basada en el análisis mediante modelos numéricos con validación experimental. Se presentan asimismo los resultados de análisis realizados, para contenciones tanto de hormigón armado como metálicas. Las conclusiones del trabajo establecen la validez de la metodología empleada, así como la constatación de un amplio margen de seguridad existente en las contenciones evaluadas, debido a los conservadurismos del proceso de diseño original.

  16. Comparison of the General Health, Self-Esteem and Social Support in Self-Inflicted Burn Patients and Non Self Inflicted Burn Patients of the Choromy Accidental and Burning Hospital of Ganaveh

    MS Enayati; A Heidarei; Malekzadeh, M.; Y Abolfathi

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Self-inflicted burn is a violent method of suicide. Since our society faces lots of psychological, social, personal and economical problems due to self-inflicted burn, more survey for this event can assist us to know its causes and prevent from its occurrence. This research was carried out to compare general health, self- esteem and social support in patient's self-inflicted burn and non-self-inflicted burn of the Choromy accidental and burning hospital...

  17. Accidentes de trabajo fatales y violencia interpersonal en Brasil, 2000-2010

    Vilma Sousa Santana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se estima la mortalidad proporcional por accidentes de trabajo provocados por violencia interpersonal en Brasil, entre 2000 y 2010. Se analizaron los datos del Sistema de Información sobre Mortalidad, basados en los informes estadísti- cos de defunción del Ministerio de Salud de Brasil, los cuales incluyen un campo para el registro de accidentes de trabajo que debe ser completado en toda defunción por causas externas. Se identificaron 1.368.732 casos de defunciones por causas externas, 31.576 (2,3% por accidentes de trabajo y solo 226 (0,02% por accidentes de trabajo con violen- cia interpersonal. Cerca del 80% de los informes estadísticos de defunción no tenían el campo “accidente de trabajo” completado. La mayor cantidad de casos ocurrió entre hom- bres (94,3% de 25-34 años, con nivel de escolaridad medio, ubicados en la región sudeste y noreste, que trabajan principalmente en la producción de bienes y servicios industriales y la actividad agropecuaria. La mayoría de los casos fueron causados por armas de fuego, seguidos por armas blancas, con un aumento relativo de estos últimos en el período estu- diado. Los resultados sugieren un gran subregistro de diagnósticos que reconocen la rela- ción con el trabajo. Se hace necesaria una mejor capacitación en el llenado de los informes estadísticos, así como estudios que cuantifiquen el subregistro de accidentes de trabajo y accidentes de trabajo con violencia interpersonal.

  18. Fatores contribuintes aos acidentes aeronáuticos Factores contribuyentes de accidentes aeronáuticos Contributive factors to aviation accidents

    Marcia Fajer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi comparar os resultados de investigações de acidentes aeronáuticos brasileiros do Centro de Investigação e Prevenção de Acidentes Aeronáuticos (Cenipa com os do sistema de análise e classificação de fatores humanos (Human Factors Analysis and Classification System - HFACS. Foram analisados e comparados os relatórios finais de 36 investigações de acidentes aeronáuticos ocorridos entre 2000 e 2005, no estado de São Paulo. Foram mencionados 163 fatores contribuintes dos acidentes aeronáuticos nos relatórios do Cenipa, enquanto 370 foram identificados por meio do HFACS. Conclui-se que as análises do Cenipa não contemplaram fatores organizacionais associados aos acidentes aéreos.El objetivo del estudio fue comparar los resultados de investigaciones de accidentes aeronáuticos brasileños del Centro de Investigación y Prevención de Accidentes Aeronáuticos (CENIPA con los del sistema de análisis y clasificación de factores humanos (Human Factors Analysis and Classification System - HFACS. Se analizaron y compararon los informes finales de 36 investigaciones de accidentes aeronáuticos ocurridos entre 2000 y 2005, en el estado de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil. Se mencionaron 163 factores contribuyentes de accidentes aeronáuticos en los informes del CENIPA, mientras que 370 fueron identificados por medio del HFACS. Se concluye que los análisis del CENIPA no contemplaron factores organizacionales asociados con los accidentes aéreos.The objective of the study was to compare the results of aviation accident analyses performed by the Center for Investigation and Prevention of Aviation Accidents (CENIPA with the method Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS. The final reports of thirty-six general aviation accidents occurring between 2000 and 2005 in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil were analyzed and compared. CENIPA reports mentioned 163 contributive factors, while HFACS

  19. Renin release

    Schweda, Frank; Friis, Ulla; Wagner, Charlotte;

    2007-01-01

    The aspartyl-protease renin is the key regulator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is critically involved in salt, volume, and blood pressure homeostasis of the body. Renin is mainly produced and released into circulation by the so-called juxtaglomerular epithelioid cells, located...

  20. Compliance of the Vaalputs national radioactive waste disposal facility to a frequency-magnitude release criterion as required for licensing

    Accidental releases of radioactivity from the Vaalputs nuclear waste repository have been quantified and release frequencies have been attached to a number of accident scenarios of human or natural origin. These have then been compared to a frequency-magnitude release criterion according to South African licensing requirements. It was shown that the criterion was applicable in three release bands. In two of these the criterion was met by some orders of magnitude. In the third band the permitted release frequency was a factor 55 below the limit in spite of pessimistic release assumptions

  1. Doctrinal elements for the post-accidental management of a nuclear accident - Final version

    This report examines and defines the objectives, principles and main actions for the post-accidental management of a nuclear accident. It defines the emergency phase and the post-accidental phase, three basic objectives (to protect the population against the hazards of ionizing radiations, to support populations affected by the accident consequences, to restore affected territories), management principles, key issues for post-accidental management. It defines actions to be undertaken: post-accidental zoning, monitoring of deposited radioactivity, early actions for the protection and taking charge of population, information. It addresses the different aspects of post-accidental management planning in a period of transition: reception of population, reduction of population exposure to deposited radioactivity, treatment of public health problems, improvement of the knowledge on the radiological situation of the environment, improvement of the radiological quality of the different environments, dealing with wastes, empowerment of stakeholders through an adequate governance, support and redeployment of economic activity, help and compensation, information. Appendices more deeply discuss actions to be undertaken just after the emergency phase, for the management of the transition period, and for the management of the long-term period

  2. Patterns and Trends in Accidental Poisoning Deaths: Pennsylvania’s Experience 1979-2014

    Balmert, Lauren C.; Buchanich, Jeanine M.; Pringle, Janice L.; Williams, Karl E.; Burke, Donald S.; Marsh, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to examine county and state-level accidental poisoning mortality trends in Pennsylvania from 1979 to 2014. Methods Crude and age-adjusted death rates were formed for age group, race, sex, and county for accidental poisonings (ICD 10 codes X40-X49) from 1979 to 2014 for ages 15+ using the Mortality and Population Data System housed at the University of Pittsburgh. Rate ratios were calculated comparing rates from 1979 to 2014, overall and by sex, age group, and race. Joinpoint regression was used to detect statistically significant changes in trends of age-adjusted mortality rates. Results Rate ratios for accidental poisoning mortality in Pennsylvania increased more than 14-fold from 1979 to 2014. The largest rate ratios were among 35–44 year olds, females, and White adults. The highest accidental poisoning mortality rates were found in the counties of Southwestern Pennsylvania, those surrounding Philadelphia, and those in Northeast Pennsylvania near Scranton. Conclusions The patterns and locations of accidental poisoning mortality by race, sex, and age group provide direction for interventions and policy makers. In particular, this study found the highest rate ratios in PA among females, whites, and the age group 35–44. PMID:26963396

  3. Fate of accidental symmetries of the relativistic hydrogen atom in a spherical cavity

    Al-Hashimi, M. H.; Shalaby, A. M.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2015-11-01

    The non-relativistic hydrogen atom enjoys an accidental SO(4) symmetry, that enlarges the rotational SO(3) symmetry, by extending the angular momentum algebra with the Runge-Lenz vector. In the relativistic hydrogen atom the accidental symmetry is partially lifted. Due to the Johnson-Lippmann operator, which commutes with the Dirac Hamiltonian, some degeneracy remains. When the non-relativistic hydrogen atom is put in a spherical cavity of radius R with perfectly reflecting Robin boundary conditions, characterized by a self-adjoint extension parameter γ, in general the accidental SO(4) symmetry is lifted. However, for R =(l + 1) (l + 2) a (where a is the Bohr radius and l is the orbital angular momentum) some degeneracy remains when γ = ∞ or γ =2/R. In the relativistic case, we consider the most general spherically and parity invariant boundary condition, which is characterized by a self-adjoint extension parameter. In this case, the remnant accidental symmetry is always lifted in a finite volume. We also investigate the accidental symmetry in the context of the Pauli equation, which sheds light on the proper non-relativistic treatment including spin. In that case, again some degeneracy remains for specific values of R and γ.

  4. Accidental Dark Matter: Case in the Scale Invariant Local $B-L$ Model

    Guo, Jun; Ko, P; Orikasa, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    We explore the idea of accidental dark matter (aDM) stability in the scale invariant local $U(1)_{B-L}$ model, which is a theory for neutrino and at the same time radiatively breaks scale invariance via quantum mechanical dynamics in the $U(1)_{B-L}$ sector. A real singlet scalar can be accidental DM with an accidental $Z_2$, by virtue of both extended symmetries. A $U(1)_{B-L}$ charged complex scalar can also be a viable accidental DM due to an accidental (or remanent) $Z_3$. They can reproduce correct relic density via the annihilations through the conventional Higgs portal or dark Higgs portal. The dark Higgs portal scenario is in tension with the LHC bound on $Z_{B-L}$, and only heavy DM of a few TeVs can have correct relic density. In particular, DM may trigger spontaneous breaking of scale Invariance (SISB). The situation is relaxed significantly in the $Z_3$ case due to the effective semi-annihilation mode and then light DM can be accommodated easily. In addition, the $Z_3$ model can accommodate the Ge...

  5. Patterns and Trends in Accidental Poisoning Deaths: Pennsylvania's Experience 1979-2014.

    Lauren C Balmert

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine county and state-level accidental poisoning mortality trends in Pennsylvania from 1979 to 2014.Crude and age-adjusted death rates were formed for age group, race, sex, and county for accidental poisonings (ICD 10 codes X40-X49 from 1979 to 2014 for ages 15+ using the Mortality and Population Data System housed at the University of Pittsburgh. Rate ratios were calculated comparing rates from 1979 to 2014, overall and by sex, age group, and race. Joinpoint regression was used to detect statistically significant changes in trends of age-adjusted mortality rates.Rate ratios for accidental poisoning mortality in Pennsylvania increased more than 14-fold from 1979 to 2014. The largest rate ratios were among 35-44 year olds, females, and White adults. The highest accidental poisoning mortality rates were found in the counties of Southwestern Pennsylvania, those surrounding Philadelphia, and those in Northeast Pennsylvania near Scranton.The patterns and locations of accidental poisoning mortality by race, sex, and age group provide direction for interventions and policy makers. In particular, this study found the highest rate ratios in PA among females, whites, and the age group 35-44.

  6. Environmental Impacts of Radiation Releases From Nuclear Power Plants

    Dabaa, 140 Km west Alexandria is the selected site for the first nuclear power plant in Egypt. The paper provides eight dispersion models to describe routine I accidental, short term I long term, and ground-level I elevated releases. The dispersion ratios, as well as the isopleths around the site, have been evaluated for all types of releases The analysis of meteorological data showed that Dabaa site has great stability over the whole year .Isopleths plotted revealed the suitability of the selected site to construct the first nuclear power plant in Egypt

  7. Tratamiento de Terapia Ocupacional en el accidente cerebrovascular

    Domingo García, AM

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEntre los muchos pacientes que necesitan tratamiento rehabilitador en Terapia Ocupacional están los que en la edad adulta han sufrido un accidente cerebrovascular.Uno de los factores de riesgo asociados con más frecuencia a las alteraciones del sistema nervioso central es el progresivo envejecimiento de la población, debido a esto orientaré el siguiente artículo hacia la intervención sobre la población geriátrica.La Terapia Ocupacional ofrece un tratamiento global que abarca las áreas funcional, motriz, sensorial, perceptivo y cognitiva. No debemos olvidar el asesoramiento realizado al paciente, a la familia y/ o cuidadores sobre el manejo de la persona que ha sufrido un ictus, la adaptación del entorno y la prescripción, uso y manejo de ayudas técnicas cuando sea necesario.Las propuestas terapéuticas que expondré a continuación, no son recetas únicas que se puedan emplear del mismo modo en todos las personas que hayan sufrido un ictus. Con cada paciente será necesario una evaluación individualizada de su situación y una adaptación de la terapia según sus déficit específicos.La meta final de la Terapia Ocupacional es la integración óptima del paciente dentro de su entorno familiar y social, con el mayor grado de autonomía posible.ABSTRACTAmong the patients who need Occupational Therapy’s rehabilitation treatment, there are those who have suffered a cerebrovascular damage when elderly.People’s gradual ageing is one of the risk factors in the nervous central system’s alterations and this is why I am going to write about intervention on geriatric population.The Occupational Therapy’s rehabilitation treatment works on the functional, motor, sensorial, perceptive and cognitive areas. Moreover, we should not forget to advise the patient and his/her family or caregivers about the way of treating ,the environment’s adaptation, the prescription and use of technical aids when needed.The following therapeutic

  8. Accidental swallowing of endodontic instrument: Could be a medical emergency

    Rhythm Bains

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidents are unpleasant incidences that happen when we are careless or when we do not follow the safety rules. In the dental office, foreign body ingestion or aspiration is a rare but serious mishappening. Ingestion of blunt foreign objects is less life-threatening and the object is generally egested through the gastrointestinal tract uneventfully, but sharp objects like endodontic files may sometimes cause intestinal perforation. Aspiration, on the other hand, is a more serious, but fortunately, less prevalent hazard and often leads to hospitalization of the patient. From a legal aspect also, such incidence is counted as negligence on the part of the operator and the dentist should be well aware of the legal liabilities and should take the appropriate preventive measures to prevent or intercept any untoward circumstance.

  9. News | Division of Cancer Prevention

    News about scientific advances in cancer prevention, program activities, and new projects are included here in NCI press releases and fact sheets, articles from the NCI Cancer Bulletin, and Clinical Trial News from the NCI website.

  10. Injury Prevention Research

    2009-09-01

    Research provides the knowledge that we need to understand what is possible, what is not, and the best way to proceed in our intervention efforts.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 9/1/2009.

  11. Bullying Prevention for Kids

    2012-01-19

    This podcast discusses what victims of bullying may experience and provides recommendations for coping with it.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  12. Preventing Skin Cancer

    2016-05-18

    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  13. Insomnia medication use and the probability of an accidental event in an older adult population

    Alon Y Avidan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Alon Y Avidan1, Liisa A Palmer2, Justin F Doan3, Robert W Baran31UCLA Department of Neurology, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Thomson Reuters, Washington, DC, USA; 3Takeda Global Research and Development Center, Deerfield, IL, USAObjective: This study examined the risk of accidental events in older adults prescribed a sedating antidepressant, long-acting benzodiazepine, short-acting benzodiazepine, and nonbenzodiazepine, relative to a reference group (selective melatonin receptor agonist.Methods: This was a retrospective cohort analysis of older adults (≥65 years with newly initiated pharmacological treatment of insomnia. Data were collected from the Thomson MarketScan® Medicare Supplemental and Coordination of Benefits databases (January 1, 2000, through June 30, 2006. Probit models were used to evaluate the probability of an accidental event.Results: Data were analyzed for 445,329 patients. Patients taking a long-acting benzodiazepine (1.21 odds ratio [OR], short-acting benzodiazepine (1.16 OR, or nonbenzodiazepine (1.12 OR had a significantly higher probability of experiencing an accidental event during the first month following treatment initiation compared with patients taking the reference medication (P < 0.05 for all. A significantly higher probability of experiencing an accidental event was also observed during the 3-month period following the initiation of treatment (1.62 long-acting benzodiazepine, 1.60 short-acting benzodiazepine, 1.48 nonbenzodiazepine, and 1.56 sedating antidepressant; P < 0.05.Conclusions: Older adults taking an SAD or any of the benzodiazepine receptor agonists appear to have a greater risk of an accidental event compared with a reference group taking an MR.Keywords: insomnia, accidental events, benzodiazepine receptor agonist, melatonin receptor agonist, older adults

  14. Comparison of intracranial computed tomographic (CT) findings in pediatric abusive and accidental head trauma

    Background. Child abuse specialists rely heavily on diagnostic neuroimaging. Objectives. Study objectives were: (1) to compare the frequencies of six specific intracranial CT abnormalities in accidental and non-accidental pediatric head trauma, and (2) to assess interobserver agreement regarding these CT findings. Materials and methods. Three pediatric radiologists blindly and independently reviewed cranial CT scans of pediatric patients who sustained closed head trauma between 1991 and 1994. All patients were less than 4 years of age. Study cases included thirty-nine (50 %) with non-accidental head trauma and thirty-nine (50 %) with accidental head trauma. Each scan was evaluated for the presence or absence of the following six intracranial findings: (1) interhemispheric falx hemorrhage, (2) subdural hemorrhage, (3) large (non-acute) extra-axial fluid, (4) basal ganglia edema, (5) posterior fossa hemorrhage, and (6) frontal-parietal shearing tear(s). Interobserver agreement was calculated as the percentage of total cases in which all reviewers agreed a specific CT finding was present or absent. Diagnosis required independent agreement by all three pediatric radiologists. The frequencies of these six intracranial CT abnormalities were compared between the two study groups by Chi-square analysis and Fisher's exact test. Results. Interobserver agreement between radiologists was greater than 80 % for all lesions evaluated, with the exception of frontal-parietal shearing tear(s). Interhemispheric falx hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage, large (non-acute) extra-axial fluid, and basal ganglia edema were discovered significantly more frequently in non-accidental trauma (P ≤.05). Conclusion. Although not specific for child abuse, discovery of these intracranial CT abnormalities in young patients should prompt careful evaluation of family and injury circumstances for indicators of non-accidental trauma. (orig.). With 6 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Influence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on the effect of chemotherapy upon ovarian cancer and the prevention of chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage: an experimental study with nu/nu athymic mice

    Qiong-yan LIN; Yi-feng WANG; Hui-nan WENG; Xiu-jie SHENG; Qing-ping JIANG; Zhi-ying YANG

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective:Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays an important role in the regulation of ovarian function and ovarian cancer cell growth.In this study,we determined whether administration of the GnRH agonist (GnRHa),triporelin,prior to cisplatin treatment affects cisplatin and/or prevents cisplatin-induced ovarian damage.Methods:nu/nu mice were injected with ovarian cancer OVCAR-3 cells intraperitoneally.After two weeks,the mice were treated with saline (control),cisplatin,GnRHa,or cisplatin plus GnRHa for four weeks.At the end of the experimental protocol,blood,tumor,ovary,and uterine tissues were resected for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining,immunohistochemical analyses of Ki67,nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB),and caspase-3,transmission electron microscopy of apoptosis,or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analyses of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH).Results:Cisplatin treatment effectively inhibited tumor growth in mice treated with human ovarian cancer cells; however the treatment also induced considerable toxicity.Immunohistochemical analyses showed that Ki67 expression was reduced in cisplatin-treated mice compared to control (P<0.05),but there was no statistically significant differences between cisplatin-treated mice and cisplatin plus GnRHa-treated mice (P>0.05),while expressions of NF-κB and caspase-3 were reduced and induced,respectively,in cisplatin-treated mice and cisplatin plus GnRHa-treated mice.Apoptosis occurred in the GnRHa,cisplatin,and cisplatin plus GnRHa-treated mice,but not in control mice.Ovaries exposed to GnRHa in both GnRHa mice and cisplatin-treated mice (combination group) had significantly more primordial and growth follicles and serum levels of AMH than those in the control mice and cisplatin-treated mice (P<0.05).Conclusions:Administration of GnRHa to mice significantly decreased the extent of ovarian damage induced by cisplatin,but did not affect the anti-tumor activity of cisplatin.

  16. Guidelines on the medical therapy of persons accidentally overexposed to ionizing radiations. External contamination

    The document represents a guide for the external decontamination of persons accidentally radio contaminated due to the use, production or transport of radioactive materials. The general conditions, from the medical point of view, to be kept in mind, in the event of accidental overexposures as decontamination treatment and the handling of samples are detailed throughout report. The external contamination without injury in skin or with wound its considered. The distribution of measures and responsibilities for the therapy of the irradiated patients with radioactive materials are enumerated. The preparations of decontaminate solutions are detailed in this work. Moreover, forms for the reception, physical evaluation of the patient and external contamination are presented. (author)

  17. La responsabilidad civil por los daños sufridos en un accidente de trabajo

    San José Sebrango, Marta

    2015-01-01

    RESUMEN: La preocupación por la siniestralidad laboral obliga al legislador a introducir constantes cambios con objeto de tratar de evitar accidentes o, al menos disminuirlos, con el fin de mejorar no solo la calidad de vida de los trabajadores, sino la calidad en el desempeño del trabajo, evitando situaciones gravosas o penosas por la especialización y mejoras reguladas, entre otras, en la Ley de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales. Sin embargo, es inevitable que los accidentes de trabajo se ...

  18. Accidentes de trabajo fatales y violencia interpersonal en Brasil, 2000-2010

    Vilma Sousa Santana; Elizabeth Costa Dias; Graziella Lage Oliveira; Maria Cláudia Peres Moura; Leticia Coelho da Costa Nobre; Jorge Mesquita Huet Machado

    2013-01-01

    En el presente estudio se estima la mortalidad proporcional por accidentes de trabajo provocados por violencia interpersonal en Brasil, entre 2000 y 2010. Se analizaron los datos del Sistema de Información sobre Mortalidad, basados en los informes estadísti- cos de defunción del Ministerio de Salud de Brasil, los cuales incluyen un campo para el registro de accidentes de trabajo que debe ser completado en toda defunción por causas externas. Se identificaron 1.368.732 casos de defunciones por ...

  19. Cuidados de Enfermería en el Accidente Ofídico

    Lorenzo Hernández, María Piedad; Hernández Cano, Rosa María; Soria Suárez, María Isabel

    2013-01-01

    El accidente ofídico supone una emergencia médica que requiere atención médica inmediata, pudiendo provocar la muerte de no realizarse una actuación adecuada precoz. El tratamiento varía según la geografía y características de las serpientes autóctonas, existiendo múltiples protocolos, que en ocasiones resultan contradictorios. El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar el proceso de atención de enfermería en el accidente ofídico, siendo imprescindible poseer un conocimiento integral de las e...

  20. A tunnel shape defect on maxillary bone after accidental injection of formocresol instead of anesthetic solution.

    Ege, Bilal; Demirkol, Mehmet; Mustafa, Rawand; Aras, Mutan Hamdi

    2014-09-01

    Accidental injection or leakages of various chemical disinfectants used during root canal preparation into adjacent tissues have been shown to have deleterious effects on surrounding tissue. Formocresol (FC) is an effective intracanal disinfectant used in endodontic procedures. However, it is known to have harmful effects into adjacent tissues. The aim of this article is to present an unusual case in which a 28-year-old male patient developed gingival and bone necrosis after the accidental injection of FC instead of local anesthetic solution for tooth extraction and to review cases in the literature where complications have occurred due to the use of FC. PMID:25148635

  1. Drogodependencias, conducción y accidentes de tráfico

    Cano Pérez, L.; Osca-Lluch, Julia; Haba Osca, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Los accidentes de tráfico suponen una causa importante de mortalidad, morbilidad y discapacidad. El uso y abuso de alcohol y drogas en los contextos recreativos nocturnos es frecuente y esta muy relacionado con los accidentes de tráfico. El consumo de drogas y la conducción bajo los efectos del alcohol, sin necesidad de efectuarse bajo un efecto de embriaguez, es uno de los grandes problemas que aparecen en el área de la seguridad vial.

  2. Rape prevention

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Sexual assault and STDs. In: Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep . 2010;17(59)(RR-12):90- ...

  3. Simulation of pressurized water reactor in accidental state

    The aim of this work is to develop the 1300 MWe 4 loops 'PWR' simulator called 'SATRAPE', witch the adopted physics modelisation allows a simplified neutronic calculation, and focus essentially on the reactor thermal hydraulic behavior in the case of the following accidents: - Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). - Steam Generator Tube Failure (SGTF). - Steam Line Break (SLB). In case of the 'LOCA' or 'SLB' accident, this modelisation enables the calculation of the pressure and the temperature in the containment building, and also the debit of the released dose in this latter in case of the 'LOCA' accident. The adopted models are relatively simple so as to allow an explicit resolve. In SATRAPE, two graphical interfaces enables to launch orders, whereas the other permits to visualize, the principal state variables of installations. The results obtained show a very good consistency with the envisaged commonly scenario at the time of the considered accidents. 33 refs., 52 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  4. Accidentes ocupacionales y conocimiento sobre precauciones universales en internos universitarios costarricenses

    Álvaro Rivera-Valdivia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo: los internos universitarios (estudiantes de medicina en su último año son vulnerables a accidentes ocupacionales con agujas y otros objetos cortantes, especialmente debido a su inexperiencia y falta de entrenamiento aunados a su deseo de realizar una serie de nuevas actividades y procedimientos. No existe información en nuestro país con respecto a la frecuencia de este tipo de accidentes en internos universitarios de la carrera de medicina. El objetivo del presente estudio fue estudiar la frecuencia y tipo de accidentes ocupacionales sufridos con mayor frecuencia por internos de medicina y evaluar su conocimiento sobre precauciones universales. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal a través de una encuesta directa y anónima. De todos los internos de medicina que trabajaban en el Valle Central de octubre de 2001 a enero de 2002 se seleccionó una muestra aleatoria de 201 internos (poder 95%, error 5%. A la población seleccionada se le aplicó una encuesta precodificada, la cual consistía en 20 preguntas estructuradas, la mayoría cerradas y tres abiertas relacionadas con la ocurrencia de accidentes ocupacionales en los médicos internos, número, tipo, acciones tomadas tras el accidente y conocimientos sobre precauciones universales. Posteriormente se hizo un análisis descriptivo de los resultados obtenidos. Resultados: de todos los participantes, 90% habían trabajado más de 3 meses como médicos internos. Más de la mitad habían realizado al menos 3 meses de rotación en una área médica y 3 meses en una área quirúrgica. La muestra incluyó estudiantes de 5 universidades diferentes. Sólo un 37% de los internos encuestados habían recibido la vacunación contra virus de la hepatitis B. Del total de internos, 64% admitió haber sufrido al menos un accidente ocupacional con sangre de algún paciente, un 20% admitió haber sufrido 3 o 4 accidentes. De los internos que

  5. Methane release

    The Swiss Gas Industry has carried out a systematic, technical estimate of methane release from the complete supply chain from production to consumption for the years 1992/1993. The result of this survey provided a conservative value, amounting to 0.9% of the Swiss domestic output. A continuation of the study taking into account new findings with regard to emission factors and the effect of the climate is now available, which provides a value of 0.8% for the target year of 1996. These results show that the renovation of the network has brought about lower losses in the local gas supplies, particularly for the grey cast iron pipelines. (author)

  6. 50 CFR 23.52 - What are the requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally destroyed CITES...

    2010-10-01

    ... lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally destroyed CITES document? 23.52 Section 23.52 Wildlife and...) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Application..., or accidentally destroyed CITES document? (a) Purpose. A Management Authority may issue a...

  7. Get Real about Diabetes Prevention

    2007-11-01

    This podcast delivers a diabetes prevention message promoting small steps that can lead to big rewards.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/15/2007.

  8. Probabilistic margin evaluation on accidental transients for the ASTRID reactor project

    Marquès, Michel

    2014-06-01

    ASTRID is a technological demonstrator of Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) under development. The conceptual design studies are being conducted in accordance with the Generation IV reactor objectives, particularly in terms of improving safety. For the hypothetical events, belonging to the accidental category "severe accident prevention situations" having a very low frequency of occurrence, the safety demonstration is no more based on a deterministic demonstration with conservative assumptions on models and parameters but on a "Best-Estimate Plus Uncertainty" (BEPU) approach. This BEPU approach ispresented in this paper for an Unprotected Loss-of-Flow (ULOF) event. The Best-Estimate (BE) analysis of this ULOFt ransient is performed with the CATHARE2 code, which is the French reference system code for SFR applications. The objective of the BEPU analysis is twofold: first evaluate the safety margin to sodium boiling in taking into account the uncertainties on the input parameters of the CATHARE2 code (twenty-two uncertain input parameters have been identified, which can be classified into five groups: reactor power, accident management, pumps characteristics, reactivity coefficients, thermal parameters and head losses); secondly quantify the contribution of each input uncertainty to the overall uncertainty of the safety margins, in order to refocusing R&D efforts on the most influential factors. This paper focuses on the methodological aspects of the evaluation of the safety margin. At least for the preliminary phase of the project (conceptual design), a probabilistic criterion has been fixed in the context of this BEPU analysis; this criterion is the value of the margin to sodium boiling, which has a probability 95% to be exceeded, obtained with a confidence level of 95% (i.e. the M5,95percentile of the margin distribution). This paper presents two methods used to assess this percentile: the Wilks method and the Bootstrap method ; the effectiveness of the two methods

  9. Probabilistic margin evaluation on accidental transients for the ASTRID reactor project

    ASTRID is a technological demonstrator of a Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) under development. The conceptual design studies are being conducted in accordance with the Generation IV reactor objectives, particularly in terms of improving safety. For the hypothetical events, belonging to the accidental category - severe accident prevention situations - having a very low frequency of occurrence, the safety demonstration is no more based on a deterministic demonstration with conservative assumptions on models and parameters but on a 'Best-Estimate Plus Uncertainty' (BEPU) approach. This BEPU approach is presented in this paper for an Unprotected Loss-of-Flow (ULOF) event. The Best-Estimate (BE) analysis of this ULOF transient is performed with the CATHARE2 code, which is the French reference system code for SFR applications. The objective of the BEPU analysis is twofold: first evaluate the safety margin to sodium boiling in taking into account the uncertainties on the input parameters of the CATHARE2 code (twenty-two uncertain input parameters have been identified, which can be classified into five groups: reactor power, accident management, pumps characteristics, reactivity coefficients, thermal parameters and head losses); secondly quantify the contribution of each input uncertainty to the overall uncertainty of the safety margins, in order to refocusing Research/Development efforts on the most influential factors. This paper focuses on the methodological aspects of the evaluation of the safety margin. At least for the preliminary phase of the project (conceptual design), a probabilistic criterion has been fixed in the context of this BEPU analysis; this criterion is the value of the margin to sodium boiling, which has a probability 95% to be exceeded, obtained with a confidence level of 95% (i.e. the M(5,95) percentile of the margin distribution). This paper presents two methods used to assess this percentile: the Wilks method and the Bootstrap method; the

  10. Probabilistic consequence assessment of hydrogen sulphide releases from a heavy water plant

    This report provides a summary of work carried out on behalf of the Atomic Energy Control Board, concerned with the consequences of accidental releases to the atmosphere of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) at a heavy water plant. In this study, assessments of consequences are made in terms of the probabilities of a range of possible outcomes, i.e., numbers of fatalities, given a certain release scenario. The report describes the major features of a computer model which was developed to calculate the consequences and their associated probabilities, and the major input data used in applying the model to a consequence assessment of the Bruce heavy water plant (HWP) in Ontario. The results of the sensitivity analyses of the model are summarized. Finally, the results of the consequence assessments of 43 accidental release scenarios at the Bruce HWP are summarized, together with a number of conclusions which were drawn from these results regarding the predicted consequences and the factors which influence them

  11. New developments in the rapid analysis of off-site consequences of airborne radioactive releases

    A number of techniques exist for the assessment of the offsite consequences of accidental airborne releases of radioactive material. These range from hand calculation methods using graphs and tables to very complex wind field computer models. The larger computer models require specialist personnel to operate them and, being centrally based, may not be available to operators due to communications breakdowns. Smaller computer models of varying complexity exist which can be used by the site personnel to determine the need for countermeasures in the early stages of an accidental release. The UKAEA UMPIRE system was developed to provide predictions of doses to individuals from airborne releases. Advances in computer technology made it necessary to update the hardware and carry out modifications to the programs. A method of incorporating monitoring data to modify the dose predictions has been under development and the increase in computing power has enabled this to be included in the new system

  12. Model description. NUDOS: A computer program for assessing the consequences of airborne releases of radionuclides

    NUDOS is a computer program that can be used to evaluate the consequences of airborne releases of radioactive material. The consequences which can be evaluated are individual dose and associated radiological risk, collective dose and the contamination of land. The code is capable of dealing with both continuous (routine) and accidental releases. For accidental releases both deterministic and probabilistic calculations can be performed, and the impact and effectiveness of emergency actions can be evaluated. This report contains a description of the models contained in NUDOS92 and the recommended values for the input parameters of these models. Additionally, a short overview is given of the future model improvement planned for the next NUDOS-version. (orig.)

  13. The environmental impact of radioactive releases from accidents in nuclear power reactors

    A survey of accidental releases of radioactivity from thermal and fast reactors is presented. Following a general discussion on the hazards involved, the nature of the environmental impact of radioactive releases is examined. This includes a brief review of the natural radiation background, the effect on human health of various levels of radiation and radioactivity, permissible and reference levels, and the type of hazards from both passing clouds of airbourne radioactive material and from ground deposited material. The problem of atmospheric dispersion and methods of calculations of radioactive materials in the atmosphere are examined in order for the consequences of accidental release to be analysed. National accidents and their environmental consequences are then examined. Finally there is a review of the risks to which man is always exposed because of his environment. Common and collective risks are also considered. Conclusions are reached as to the acceptibility or otherwise of the environmental impact of reactor accidents. (U.K.)

  14. Clinical study of lesions caused by accidental local exposure to ionizing radiations

    During the last few years the radiopathology service of the Curie Foundation has admitted more than a hundred patients who were followed and treated for irradiation or suspected irradiation after a work accident. Accidents followed by clinical symptoms account for about half the cases examined. Some of these clinical signs were benign whereas others developed very seriously, all possible conditions between these two extremes being represented. This report neglects cases of high total exposure and deals only with those of partial irradiation where local symptoms predominate, usually at the distal extremities of the upper limbs and exceptionally at the root or distal extremity of the lower limbs. Six clinical cases were selected as particularly revealing and are discussed below: accidental exposure of both hands to an iridium-192 source; chronic exposure to X-rays (left hand and right lower half-lip); accidental exposure of the right hand and antero-external face of the right thigh to a iridium-192 source; acute accidental exposure of the left hand to X-rays emitted under 50 kV; accidental exposure of both hands to cobalt-60 radiation; radiolesions of the left lower limb following a critical power excursion (gamma rays and neutrons)

  15. Accidental ingestion of Ecstasy by a toddler: unusual cause for convulsion in a febrile child.

    Cooper, A J; Egleston, C V

    1997-05-01

    The case is reported of a toddler who presented with an apparent febrile convulsion. The final diagnosis was that of accidental ingestion of Ecstasy. The child made an uneventful recovery. Ecstasy toxicity should be added to the list of differential diagnoses in a child presenting with fever and an unexplained seizure. PMID:9193992

  16. Accidental ingestion of Ecstasy by a toddler: unusual cause for convulsion in a febrile child.

    Cooper, A. J.; Egleston, C. V.

    1997-01-01

    The case is reported of a toddler who presented with an apparent febrile convulsion. The final diagnosis was that of accidental ingestion of Ecstasy. The child made an uneventful recovery. Ecstasy toxicity should be added to the list of differential diagnoses in a child presenting with fever and an unexplained seizure.

  17. Consequences of a double-ended severance of a steam generator tube and accidental development scenario

    The results of theoretical analysis for accidental sequences in a modular steam generator are presented. The most probable water leak development in sodium in case of steam generator emergency stop faults is examined. In all schemes the reactor safety is preserved

  18. Accidental displacement of a dental implant into the submandibular space during explantation.

    Kim, B H; Kim, B C; Lee, J

    2016-07-01

    Dental implants are reliable and widely used, but complications such as peri-implantitis occasionally necessitate their removal. Accidents during removal are similar to those that may occur during extraction, including displacement into another structure in the maxillofacial region. We present a rare case of accidental displacement into the submandibular space, which happened during an attempt to remove an implant. PMID:26507676

  19. Guidebook for the treatment of accidental internal radionuclide contamination of workers

    This work is a guide intended for the treatment of accidental internal radionuclide contamination of workers. It is a practical guide, based on an actual treatments examination to eliminate the incorporated radionuclides from organism, and to avoid the radioinduced diseases development. It should be used by work doctors, emergency doctors, radiation protection agents, nurses and medical personnel. (N.C.)

  20. Changes in Surface Charge Density of Blood Cells in Fatal Accidental Hypothermia.

    Szeremeta, Michał; Petelska, Aneta Dorota; Kotyńska, Joanna; Pepiński, Witold; Naumowicz, Monika; Figaszewski, Zbigniew Artur; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate postmortem changes concerning electric charge of human erythrocytes and thrombocytes in fatal accidental hypothermia. The surface charge density values were determined on the basis of the electrophoretic mobility measurements of the cells conducted at various pH values of electrolyte solution. The surface charge of erythrocyte membranes after fatal accidental hypothermia increased compared to the control group within whole range of experimental pH values. Moreover, a slight shift of the isoelectric point of erythrocyte membranes towards high pH values was observed. The surface charge of thrombocyte membranes in fatal accidental hypothermia decreased at low pH compared to the control group. However, at pH range 4-9, the values increased compared to the control group. The isoelectric point of thrombocyte membranes after fatal accidental hypothermia was slightly shifted towards low pH values compared to the control group. The observed changes are probably connected with the partial destruction and functional changes of the blood cell structure. PMID:26364031