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Sample records for accidental release prevention

  1. 40 CFR 63.95 - Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs.

    2010-07-01

    ... accidental release prevention programs. 63.95 Section 63.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs. (a) A State submission for approval... (“federally-listed chemicals”) that an approvable State Accidental Release Prevention program is...

  2. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 14: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF PHOSGENE

    The report, discussing phosgene, is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Phosgene, a highly reactive and corrosive liquid that boils at room temperature has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (lDLH) conctntration of 2 ppm, ...

  3. Static and mobile networks design for atmospheric accidental releases monitoring

    The global context of my PhD thesis work is the optimization of air pollution monitoring networks, but more specifically it concerns the monitoring of accidental releases of radionuclides in air. The optimization problem of air quality measuring networks has been addresses in the literature. However, it has not been addresses in the context of surveillance of accidental atmospheric releases. The first part of my thesis addresses the optimization of a permanent network of monitoring of radioactive aerosols in the air, covering France. The second part concerns the problem of targeting of observations in case of an accidental release of radionuclides from a nuclear plant. (author)

  4. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention...

  5. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense.

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  6. Can accidental introductions of non-native species be prevented by fish stocking audits ?

    Davies, G. D.; Gozlan, Rodolphe; Britton, J R

    2013-01-01

    Accidental introductions of non-native species into aquatic environments often result in invasive populations that cause substantial conservation concerns. They account for 8% of all fish introductions and often occur when fish consignments are intentionally released into the wild (stocked') but are unknowingly contaminated with a hitch-hiking' species that is also released.This study tested the efficacy of a fish stocking audit procedure in preventing the introduction of a model hitch-hiking...

  7. Accidental Continuous Releases from Coal Processing in Semi-Confined Environment

    Bruno Fabiano; Emilio Palazzi; Fabio Currò

    2013-01-01

    Notwithstanding the enforcement of ATEX EU Directives (94/9/EC of 23 March 1994) and safety management system application, explosions in the coal sector still claim lives and cause huge economic losses. Even a consolidated activity like coke dry distillation allows the opportunity of preventing explosion risk connected to fugitive emissions of coke oven gas. Considering accidental releases under semi-confined conditions, a simplified mathematical approach to the maximum allowed gaseous build-...

  8. Numerical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport

    Piskunov, V.N.; Aloyan, A.A.; Gerasimov, V.M.; Pinaev, V.S.; Golubev, A.I.; Yanilkin, Yu.V.; Ivanov, N.V.; Nikonov, S.N.; Kharchenko, A.I. [and others

    1995-05-01

    Statement of work for contract 006 {open_quotes}Mathematical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport{close_quotes} implies that the final result of the activity within this task will be VNIIEF developed techniques which will provide for the prediction of the post-accidental environment. Report [1] presents the description of physical models and calculation techniques which were chosen by VNIIEF to accomplish this task. These techniques were analysed for their capabilities, the areas of their application were defined, modifications within contract 006 were described, the results of test and methodical calculations were presented. Moreover, the experimental data were analysed over the source parameters and contamination measurements which can be used in the comparison with the calculation results. Based an these data this report compares the calculation results obtained with VNIIEF calculation techniques with the LANL-presented experimental results. The calculations which statements and results are given in section 1, included the following processes: explosion cloud ascent dynamics and jet release origin; aerosols kinetics in the release source including composite particle origin in the explosion cloud caused by radioactive substance sorption an the soil particles; contaminant transport in atmosphere and their in-site fallout due to the accidental explosions and fires; atmospheric flow dynamics and industrial contamination transfer over the complicated terrain. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data. Section 2 presents the parameters for a typical source in the explosion accidents based an the experimental results and calculated data from Section 1, as well as contamination patterns were calculated with basic technique {open_quotes}Prognosis{close_quotes}.

  9. Evaluation and mitigation of accidental releases of radioactivity

    One result of the workshop was, that even in the case of severe accident sequences in modern nuclear power plants (other facilities were not discussed), there will be enough time to take active measures in order to lower the emissions and to diminish the consequences inside and outside of the plant. On the whole, new evidence from Harrisburg show that previously estimated accidental emissions, especially of radiologically relevant nuclides, have been rather conservative and that much lower emissions are possible, if the above measures are considered. Under accident conditions, models to predict radiation exposure must be applied under the event of a short-term release. (orig./DG)

  10. Rapid Deployment System for Complex Accidental Release Simulations

    Juruš, Pavel; Eben, Kryštof; Resler, Jaroslav; Belda, M.

    Brno : Masarykova univerzita, 2009 - (Hřebíček, J.; Hradec, J.; Pelikán, E.; Mírovský, O.; Pillmann, W.; Holoubek, I.; Bandholz, T.), s. 312-317 ISBN 978-80-210-4824-9. [Towards eEnvironment. European Conference of the Czech Presidency of the Council of the EU. Prague (CZ), 25.03.2009-27.03.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300414 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : environmental modelling * accidental release modelling * risk management planning Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  11. Accidental Continuous Releases from Coal Processing in Semi-Confined Environment

    Bruno Fabiano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the enforcement of ATEX EU Directives (94/9/EC of 23 March 1994 and safety management system application, explosions in the coal sector still claim lives and cause huge economic losses. Even a consolidated activity like coke dry distillation allows the opportunity of preventing explosion risk connected to fugitive emissions of coke oven gas. Considering accidental releases under semi-confined conditions, a simplified mathematical approach to the maximum allowed gaseous build-up is developed on the basis of the intrinsic hazards of the released compound. The results will help identifying and assessing low rate release consequences therefore to set-up appropriate prevention and control measures. The developed methodology was tested at the real-scale and validated by numerical computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations showing the effectiveness of the methodology to evaluate and mitigate the risk connected to confined hazardous releases.

  12. Environmental behaviour of accidentally released radionuclides in urban environments

    After a nuclear accident several radionuclides may be released and may contribute to the exposure of members of the public. After the passage of the radioactive cloud, doses to members of the public are mainly due to deposited radionuclides on the ground and other environmental surfaces. For the long-term it is already known that exposure is dominated by Cs-137, although Sr isotopes may also have a significant contribution is some specific environments, related to internal exposure pathways. However, in the first year, Ru and I isotopes may significantly contribute to the exposure of members of the public, from both external and internal exposure pathways. The objective of this work was to gather data on the environmental behaviour of Sr, I and Ru isotopes on urban environments and its contributions to the population exposure, aiming the support for decision making processes on countermeasures to protect people after an accidental release. Results on relative relevance of radionuclides and pathways for the exposure for members of the public, as a function of age and time after the release, are discussed. (author)

  13. Deposition on holm oak leaf surfaces of accidentally released radionuclides

    Rauret, G.; Tent, J.; Rigol, A.; Llaurado, R.M. (Analytical Chemistry Department, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)); Alegre, L.H.; Utrillas, M.J. (Vegetal Biology Department, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain))

    1994-10-14

    The retention of aerosols by canopies of holm oak trees in a typical Mediterranean forest is studied. Firstly, dry deposition is measured both under and outside the canopy during several months. No clear differences are observed either in the amount or in the chemical composition of the particles collected under and outside the canopy. Secondly, the leaf morphology and anatomy as well as the aerosol deposited onto the leaf surfaces are studied by scanning electron microscopy. Cuticle thickness is measured and differences are observed between young and old leaves. The distribution of aerosol particles over leaf surface is also established. Finally, the possible incorporation into leaves of a radioactive aerosol released in an accidental situation is studied, by means of a sequential extraction procedure using water and an organic solvent. From the results it can be deduced that neither the abiotic layer nor the cuticle play any important role in the retention of caesium. The studied radionuclides are mainly found in particulate form, soluble in water, or incorporated into leaves.

  14. Muertes por enfermedades cardiacas y accidentes cerebrovasculares prevenibles - (Preventable Deaths from Heart Disease and Stroke)

    2013-09-03

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de septiembre del 2013 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. Más de 800,000 personas en los Estados Unidos mueren cada año a causa de enfermedades cardiacas y accidentes cerebrovasculares. Aprenda cómo controlar todos los principales factores de riesgo.  Created: 9/3/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/3/2013.

  15. International conference and workshop on modeling and mitigating the consequences of accidental releases of hazardous materials

    This conference was held September 26--29, 1995 in New Orleans, Louisiana. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the consequences of accidental releases of hazardous materials. Attention is focused on air dispersion of vapors. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  16. SUMMARY OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF RADIOACTIVITY DETECTED OFF THE NEVADA TEST SITE, 1963-1986

    Of the more than 450 underground nuclear explosives tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site from August 1963 (signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty) through the end of 1986, only 23 accidentally released radioactivity that was detectable beyond the boundary of the NTS. Of these ...

  17. MARC - the NRPB methodology for assessing radiological consequences of accidental releases of activity

    The National Radiological Protection Board has developed a methodology for the assessment of the public health related consequences of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. The methodology consists of a suite of computer programs which predict the transfer of activity from the point of release to the atmosphere through to the population. The suite of programs is entitled MARC; Methodology for Assessing Radiological Consequences. This report describes the overall framework and philosophy utilised within MARC. (author)

  18. Modelling 14C transfer in terrestrial environments in response to chronic and accidental 14C releases.

    Le Dizès, S.

    2011-01-01

    Concern about the quantity of carbon-14 (14C) released for several decades from nuclear facilities has prompted several modelling approaches of 14C behaviour in the environment. The TOCATTA model aims at estimating 14C (and 3H) transfers in terrestrial ecosystems exposed to atmospheric 14C (and 3H) releases from nuclear facilities under normal operating or accidental conditions. The model belongs to the larger framework of the SYMBIOSE modelling and simulation platform that aims at assessing ...

  19. Environmental monitoring after an accidental release of activity

    Environmental monitoring should be an integral part of the emergency planning following a radiation accident, especially immediately following the accident. Three phases are identified, each with distinct technical and managerial characteristics. The main features of each phase are discussed. In the Early phase - up to about twelve hours after the release - the main problem is to link the available monitoring data with predicted radiological consequences to be able to advise on rapid counter measures. Problems in the Intermediate phase (12 hours to 7 days after release) arise from the limitations imposed by resources to analyse environmental samples at the required level of sensitivity. Monitoring in the Long term phase (from 7 days onwards) is difficult to specify in advance, but relevant features from the Chernobyl aftermath are noted. (U.K.)

  20. Analyses of postulated accidental releases of UF6 inside process buildings

    Uranium Hexafluoride is a material used in the various processes which comprise the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle (conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication). Confinement of UF6 is a very important safety requirement since this material is highly reactive and presents safety hazards to humans. The present paper discusses the safety relevant aspects of accidental releases of UF6 inside process confinement buildings. Postulated accidental scenarios are analyzed and their consequences evaluated. Implant releases rates are estimated using computer code predictions. A time dependent homogeneous compartment model is used to predict concentrations of UF6, hydrogen fluoride and uranyl fluoride inside a confinement building, as well as to evaluate source terms released to the atmosphere. These source terms can be used as input to atmospheric dispersion models to evaluate consequences to the environment. The results can also be used to define adequate protective measures for emergency situations. (author)

  1. Modelling of accidental released toxic gases for emergency responders in Austria, Kosovo and Bulgaria.

    Stenzel, Sirma; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Gashi, Salih; Thaci, Bashkim; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Spassova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. A number of models for the prediction and simulation of hazard areas affected by accidental releases of toxic gases are available worldwide. Modelling accidental releases may be required for a variety of reasons: for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), for preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management (e.g. in the frame of the SEVESO directive). Depending on the demand and the particular purposes, the choice of the appropriate model is up to the authorities. The one year project was funded by the Austrian Science and research liaison Office (ASO, www.aso.zsi.at) as a part of the program: Research Cooperation and Networking between Austria, the public higher education institutions in Kosovo and South Eastern Europe. The project was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG, http://www.zamg.ac.at) in cooperation with the University of Prishtina (Kosovo, www.uni-pr.edu and the National Institute of meteorology and Hydrology (NIHM Bulgaria, www.meteo.bg). One of the main purposes of the project was to provide the both partners with basic knowledge in modelling with accidental release of toxic gases, based on the practical experience of the meteorologists from the ZAMG in the area. This knowledge can be used as scientific response to society driven current or upcoming problems especially in Kosovo. The activities involved know-how transfer on European standards and practice among the project partners, as well as joint efforts to adapt and disseminate the scientific methods and results in Kosovo. Within the project, the partners from Kosovo and Bulgaria were introduced to the atmospheric dispersion model (ALOHA - Areal

  2. Modelling accidental releases of carbon 14 in the environment: application as an excel spreadsheet

    An application as an Excel spreadsheet of the simplified modelling approach of carbon 14 transfer in the environment developed by Tamponnet (2002) is presented. Based on the use of growth models of biological systems (plants, animals, etc.), the one-pool model (organic carbon) that was developed estimates the concentration of carbon 14 within the different compartments of the food chain and in fine the dose to man by ingestion in the case of a chronic or accidental release of carbon 14 in a river or the atmosphere. Data and knowledge have been implemented on Excel using the object-oriented programming language VisualBasic (Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0). The structure of the conceptual model and the Excel sheet are first briefly exposed. A numerical application of the model under a scenario of an accidental release of carbon 14 in the atmosphere is then presented. Simulation results and perspectives are discussed. (author)

  3. Modelling accidental releases of tritium in the environment: application as an excel spreadsheet

    An application as an Excel spreadsheet of the simplified modelling approach of tritium transfer in the environment developed by Tamponnet (2002) is presented. Based on the use of growth models of biological systems (plants, animals, etc.), the two-pool model (organic tritium and tritiated water) that was developed estimates the concentration of tritium within the different compartments of the food chain and in fine the dose to man by ingestion in the case of a chronic or accidental release of tritium in a river or the atmosphere. Data and knowledge have been implemented on Excel using the object-oriented programming language VisualBasic (Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0). The structure of the conceptual model and the Excel sheet are first briefly exposed. A numerical application of the model under a scenario of an accidental release of tritium in the atmosphere is then presented. Simulation results and perspectives are discussed. (author)

  4. Accidental releases of radionuclides: a preliminary study of the consequences of land contamination

    The long term consequences of land contamination from accidental releases of activity from thermal reactors are examined. The radiological consequences are assessed using an analysis of the exposure of individuals and the population to ground deposits of the radionuclides released. The contribution of the different nuclides in the release by their various exposure routes to the irradiation of man are calculated as a function of time after release and the most radiologically important are identified. A preliminary assessment is made of off-site economic and social consequences of accidental releases by estimating the areas of land which would be affected by the introduction of countermeasures to control individual radiation exposure due to external irradiation from ground deposits (relocation of populations), and the intake of radionuclides contained in locally produced foodstuffs (restrictions on food production). The areas where administrative controls would be necessary decline in size with time after the release; estimates are made of this time-dependent behaviour using dynamic environmental transfer models. Finally, the collective doses saved by the introduction of countermeasures are estimated using population and agricultural distribution data for a rural location in the United Kingdom. (author)

  5. Hazards of combustible gases accidentally released from the process plant of HTGR process applications

    This report summarizes the preliminary work on reformer explosions for the indirect cycle plant design effort of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor for Process Heat (HTGR-PH). Models were completed for the determination of the combustible behavior of the releases (either instantaneous like puffs or continuous like jets or plumes), the amount of combustible material, and the propagation of detonation and shock waves (i.e., blast) as a consequence of potential explosions. A preliminary analysis reveals that (1) incombustible or flammable but nonexplosive mixtures can be formed by accidental releases from the reformer inlet flow and (2) the addition of sufficient steam to the reformer flow renders nonexplosive any accidental release from the reformer area. The explosion of combustible releases is then analyzed with reference to the worst contributor: synthesis gas. The explosions of instantaneous releases, while enroute, are analyzed under different meteorological conditions. The explosions of continuous releases are analyzed in situ for determining the effects on structures and equipment in the vicinity of the jets by considering (1) detonations inside the combustible region of jets and (2) blasts outside the combustible region of jets

  6. Estimation of the environmental or radiological impact in the event of accidental release of radionuclides in a DCLL fusion reactor

    Tritium production and activation in the LiPb products can pose a radiological risk in the event of accidental release in a fusion reactor. Within the research programme Consolider TECNOFUS (CSD2008-079) fusion technology has developed a design for a reactor with regenerative wrap with dual refrigeration (DCLL). The purpose of this communication is to present estimates of the radiological impact derived from an accidental release of radionuclides from the circuit of LiPb provinients. (Author)

  7. Relative public health effects from accidental release of fusion structural radioactivity

    The FUSECRAC code, a modification of the CRAC code, was developed to estimate public health effects from released fusion radioactivity both for safety studies and for comparison of the hazards associated with candidate structural materials. This paper summarizes the key motivations, problems, and results of the FUSECRAC comparison. The evolving CRAC code is a product of the Reactor Safety Study and represents the state of the art in fission accident consequence assessments. It was found that potential public health effects from accidental releases of 316 SS are two orders of magnitude higher than from V-15Cr-5Ti or TZM per unit volume of activated first wall released. The probabilities for releases among these materials were not addressed here

  8. The use of consequence modelling in assessing accidental releases of activity

    The radiological consequences of an accidental release can be expressed as the number of health effects in the exposed population and its descendents, and the economic and social implications that may result from restrictions placed on the consumption of foodstuffs, or on the occupation of domestic and commercial premises. For any given release of activity there will be a probability distribution of consequences which will depend on the meteorological characteristics and demographic data particular to the release location. The characteristics of this distribution should be important in reaching judgements on the acceptability of a given site or design. The relative importance of the different endpoints is analysed and the influence of the release location on the resulting distribution is considered. (author)

  9. Summary of accidental releases of radioactivity detected off the Nevada Test Site, 1963--1986

    Of the more than 450 underground nuclear explosives tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site from August 1963 (signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty) through the end of 1986, only 23 accidentally released radioactivity that was detectable beyond the boundary of the NTS. Of these 23, 4 were detectable off the NTS only by aircraft while the remainder were detectable by ground monitoring instruments. Since the Baneberry venting of December 1970, only two tests released radioactivity that was detectable off the NTS, and this was a seepage of radioactive noble gases. None of these releases from underground tests designed for complete containment caused exposure of the population living in the area that exceeded standards recommended by national and international radiation protection agencies. This report summarizes the releases from each of the tests, describes the monitoring that was conducted, and lists the location of the maximum exposure

  10. Assessment of radiation dose due to the accidental release of radionuclides from a DCLL reactor

    Highlights: ► Accidental release of radionuclides from a Dual-Coolant He/Pb15.7Li breeding blanket is studied. ► Activation analysis with ACAB code determines the main contributors to the environmental consequences of the accident. ► Atmospheric dispersion (in conditions D and F) is assessed with Hotspot code for the relevant radionuclides. ► The actual quantity of each radionuclide produced in 1 kg of LiPb is used in the dispersion model. ► The amount of LiPb releasable fulfilling the dose limit requirements is calculated. -- Abstract: A conceptual design for a DEMO fusion reactor based on a dual coolant He/Pb15.7Li breeding blanket (DCLL) is being developed within the Spanish Breeding Blanket Technology Programme: TECNOFUS. The production of tritium and activation products of LiPb might be a concern from the radiological safety point of view. Thus, in this contribution, an accidental release in atmosphere of radionuclides from LiPb breeder has been studied. Activation calculations have been performed with ACAB code assuming an irradiation scenario of 5 FPY for the maximum neutron fluence rate in the equatorial breeding zone. The results in terms of specific activity, surface gamma dose rate and committed effective dose (CED) due to inhalation at different times have been used to chose the potentially more hazardous radionuclides. Dispersion of the selected radionuclides has been modeled with HOTSPOT code using the Gaussian plume model and two different atmospheric conditions. Offsite dose (for external irradiation and inhalation) due to an accidental release of 1 kg of activated LiPb has been calculated after 5 FPY of irradiation (shutdown) using HOTSPOT atmospheric dispersion in class D weather conditions. According to the results, fulfilling the dose requirement for no evacuation would permit to release up to 40 kg of activated LiPb, without taking into account the possible isotopic purification and detritiation systems. This value can be compared

  11. Assessment of radiation dose due to the accidental release of radionuclides from a DCLL reactor

    Palermo, Iole, E-mail: iole.palermo@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gómez-Ros, J.M. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanz, J. [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, UNED, C/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mota, F. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Accidental release of radionuclides from a Dual-Coolant He/Pb15.7Li breeding blanket is studied. ► Activation analysis with ACAB code determines the main contributors to the environmental consequences of the accident. ► Atmospheric dispersion (in conditions D and F) is assessed with Hotspot code for the relevant radionuclides. ► The actual quantity of each radionuclide produced in 1 kg of LiPb is used in the dispersion model. ► The amount of LiPb releasable fulfilling the dose limit requirements is calculated. -- Abstract: A conceptual design for a DEMO fusion reactor based on a dual coolant He/Pb15.7Li breeding blanket (DCLL) is being developed within the Spanish Breeding Blanket Technology Programme: TECNO{sub F}US. The production of tritium and activation products of LiPb might be a concern from the radiological safety point of view. Thus, in this contribution, an accidental release in atmosphere of radionuclides from LiPb breeder has been studied. Activation calculations have been performed with ACAB code assuming an irradiation scenario of 5 FPY for the maximum neutron fluence rate in the equatorial breeding zone. The results in terms of specific activity, surface gamma dose rate and committed effective dose (CED) due to inhalation at different times have been used to chose the potentially more hazardous radionuclides. Dispersion of the selected radionuclides has been modeled with HOTSPOT code using the Gaussian plume model and two different atmospheric conditions. Offsite dose (for external irradiation and inhalation) due to an accidental release of 1 kg of activated LiPb has been calculated after 5 FPY of irradiation (shutdown) using HOTSPOT atmospheric dispersion in class D weather conditions. According to the results, fulfilling the dose requirement for no evacuation would permit to release up to 40 kg of activated LiPb, without taking into account the possible isotopic purification and detritiation systems. This value can be

  12. STUDY OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES HEAVY GAS DISPERSION COMPARING SLAB MODELS AND SCREEN-3 MODEL

    Prof.V.A.Bhosale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the chemical industries such as petroleum industries, refinery industries, fertilizer industries etc. releases rarely accidental gases it may be heavy gases like liquefied petroleum gas, chlorine, natural gas, ammonia etc do occur. The impact of these heavy gases (high molecular weight than air in the surrounding atmosphere is very harmful/ hazardous to the human health because the formation of heavy clouds of the respective gases nears the earth surface. In present paper, considered the effect of atmospheric parameter such as, direction of air, wind speed etc. as well as stack parameter like height of stack and released gas parameter as density, venting speed of the gas on the dispersion of heavy gas in to the surrounding. Here present work done to identify the downwind concentration along with the horizontal distances through a case study of industrial accidental release (Ammonia Gas scenario. SLAB model for the heavy gas dispersion and SCREEN-3 a single source Gaussian plume model these two types of dispersion models readily available in the public domain for industrial releases of gases. Result of downwind concentration of ammonia vapour in both of model has presented.

  13. Dynamic evaluation of environmental impact due to tritium accidental release from the fusion reactor

    As one of the key safety issues of fusion reactors, tritium environmental impact of fusion accidents has attracted great attention. In this work, the dynamic tritium concentrations in the air and human body were evaluated on the time scale based on accidental release scenarios under the extreme environmental conditions. The radiation dose through various exposure pathways was assessed to find out the potential relationships among them. Based on this work, the limits of HT and HTO release amount for arbitrary accidents were proposed for the fusion reactor according to dose limit of ITER. The dynamic results aim to give practical guidance for establishment of fusion emergency standard and design of fusion tritium system. - Highlights: • Dynamic tritium concentration in the air and human body evaluated on the time scale. • Different intake forms and relevant radiation dose assessed to find out the potential relationships. • HT and HTO release amount limits for arbitrary accidents proposed for the fusion reactor according to dose limit

  14. The assessment of the radiological significance of accidental releases of radionuclides to coastal waters

    Methods are described which enable the radiological consequences of an accidental release of activity to an estuary or sea to be assessed, assuming the release is in the same physical and chemical form as routine discharges. Critical group and collective exposures are considered for the most important seafood ingestion and external radiation pathways. Detailed consideration is given to the interaction of activity with marine sediments, and this enables a more realistic description of any resulting radiation exposure to be given than is possible by using existing mathematical models more suited to extended releases of radionuclides. The methods employed constitute an interesting use of a powerful technique involving the numerical inversion of Laplace transformed quantities. (author)

  15. IPSN model for the simplified calculation of atmospheric dispersion of accidental releases

    To assess the atmospheric dispersion of accidental releases, the Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN) has developed a so called gaussian plume model. It derives from tri-gaussian puffs, characterized by standard deviations parametrized with respect to the transfer time (for only two classes of vertical atmospheric stability). The analytic form of this model makes it possible to take into account the most important phenomena which change the content of the plume during transfer: reflections, radioactive decay, daughter products, dry and wet deposition. Limitations to the use of this plume model are examined. Its field of application is reduced in the case of weak winds, the more so when the release height is great. A limited number of reference meteorological conditions and standard values for dry deposition velocity (iodine and particles) and the washing rate by rain are proposed, and examples of results are given. This model predicts the order of magnitude of the consequences of accidental atmospheric releases over distances from several hundred meters up to several tens of kilometers

  16. Illustration of probabilistic approach in consequence assessment of accidental radioactive releases

    Pecha, Petr; Hofman, Radek; Kuča, P.

    Praha: ČVUT, 2008, s. 207-211. [ XXX . Days of Radiation Protection. Liptovský Ján (SK), 10.11.2008-14.11.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : admixtures propagation * uncertainty * probabilistic assessment Subject RIV: AQ - Safety, Health Protection, Human - Machine http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/AS/pecha-illustration of probabilistic approach in consequence assessment of accidental radioactive releases.pdf

  17. Dynamic evaluation of environmental impact due to tritium accidental release from the fusion reactor.

    Nie, Baojie; Ni, Muyi; Jiang, Jieqiong; Wu, Yican

    2015-10-01

    As one of the key safety issues of fusion reactors, tritium environmental impact of fusion accidents has attracted great attention. In this work, the dynamic tritium concentrations in the air and human body were evaluated on the time scale based on accidental release scenarios under the extreme environmental conditions. The radiation dose through various exposure pathways was assessed to find out the potential relationships among them. Based on this work, the limits of HT and HTO release amount for arbitrary accidents were proposed for the fusion reactor according to dose limit of ITER. The dynamic results aim to give practical guidance for establishment of fusion emergency standard and design of fusion tritium system. PMID:26164282

  18. Accidental ingestion of a barbed wire broach and its endoscopic retrieval: Prevention better than cure

    Rajashekar Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of instruments is a potential complication that can occur during dental procedures. We report a case of accidental ingestion of an endodontic barbed wire broach during root canal treatment and its subsequent retrieval by endoscopic methods. Although prevention is the best approach, proper management of such an event is also crucial. The objective of this report is to draw attention to the potentially serious complications that can occur if preventive techniques are not practised, and to discuss the accepted guidelines for management of such an event.

  19. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input

    Baumann-Stanzer, K.; Stenzel, S.

    2009-04-01

    Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. Uncertainties in the meteorological input together with incorrect estimates of the source play a critical role for the model results. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation gives a short introduction to the project and presents the results of task 1 (meteorological input). The results of task 2 are presented by Stenzel and Baumann-Stanzer in this session. For the aim of this project, the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) was used. INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) data were calculated with 1 km horizontal resolution and

  20. Preliminary investigations of the significance of the ingestion pathway following accidental releases with actinides

    Preliminary accident consequence assessments have been performed with the computer code UFOMOD to study the significance of the ingestion pathway in accidental releases with actinides. The investigation was based on the release category K1 of the 'Risk Oriented Analysis of the SNR 300', in which a higher fraction of actinides is released than in the worst release category for an LWR. The analysis was carried out using the currently implemented food chain transport model WASH-1400/BSU and data from the dynamic model from the MARC methodology. To study the influence of the time of the accident on the food chain-related results, releases in January and July were considered by means of the MARC data. In this report the differences are presented between both food chain transport models for transuranium elements and those which are observed in the potential doses due to ingestion, the areas affected by food-bans and the late health effects when using both models and taking the influence of the season into account. (orig./HP)

  1. The influence of season of the year on the predicted agricultural consequences of accidental releases of radionuclides to atmosphere

    In Europe, because of the seasonal nature of agricultural practices, the consequences for agriculture of an accidental release of radioactive materials to atmosphere are likely to vary depending upon the time of year when the release occurs. The quantification of this variation is complicated by the need to take into account the introduction of countermeasures to restrict the radiation exposure from ingestion of contaminated foods, and by the presence in accidental releases of radionuclides which persist over several seasons. In this study, the effect on agricultural consequences of accidental releases occurring at different times of the year is examined. The consequences are expressed in terms of the amount of produce affected by restrictions on food supplies and the collective radiation dose from ingestion of food. The investigation has been carried out for three hypothetical releases representing a range of releases postulated for pressurised water reactors (PWRs). The effect of season of the year was determined for accidental releases occurring both in a single, defined set of meteorological conditions and for a range of possible meteorological conditions. For the main part of the study, consideration was limited to agricultural production in the UK only, but the effect of extending the analysis beyond the UK boundary was also considered. The results of the study show that considerable variation can occur in agricultural consequences following an accidental release at different times of the year. For the larger releases considered, this variation is reduced due to the effect of the introduction of countermeasures, particularly when consideration is limited to the UK only. Seasonal variation tends to be greater for the results of a deterministic analysis, which uses a single set of constant meteorological conditions, than for the results of a full probabilistic assessment. From the results presented here it is also seen that for many applications of

  2. Modelling for radiological and radioecological consequences of an accidental radionuclide release at Sea

    Full text: Scenarios concerning accidental releases of radionuclides into water bodies can be found in the open literature, mostly in connection with nuclear power plants located either onshore or inland. However, meager attention has been given to nuclear reactors used as energy sources for propulsion at sea, which are also subject to accidents. Such potential accidents may involve the loss of part of the reactor core to the surrounding water body. In addition of the initial instantaneous releases, one can estimate delayed source terms based on the rate at which radionuclides are dissolved or leached from the solidified material, like part of the core or structural materials in contact with water. Most of such solidified material might be a mixture of uranium, zirconium, iron, calcium, silica, fission and activation products, and transuranium elements as oxides, forming a glassy type solid. Transport models were used to calculate radionuclide concentrations in water resulting from short and delayed source terms. Oceanographic data used in the calculations were taken either from the open literature or from unclassified reports of the Brazilian Navy, being, however, as generic as possible. Time-dependent concentration functions for radionuclides in aquatic food following an accidental release reflect the net result of intake and elimination processes. However, to avoid the complexities of multiple parameters involved in such processes, the model accounts only for trophic transfer of radionuclides, and yet avoids the necessity of analyzing the details of each transfer step used to determine fish, crustacea, molluscs and seaweed accumulation. Swimming and other aquatic sports are not included in the model used for dose calculations because of theirs relatively low importance in comparison with the pathways concerning ingestion of aquatic food

  3. The European Community dimension to the problem of accidental radioactive releases to the environment

    The European Community has to comply with the provisions of the Euratom Treaty, 1957. As well as providing the conditions necessary for the growth of nuclear industries it lays down the task to establish uniform Safety Standards to protect the health of workers and of the general public. This includes emergency planning in case of nuclear accidents. As a result the Community followed the guide, published in 1982 by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, on the radiological protection criteria for controlling doses to the public in the event of accidental releases of radioactive materials. However when the Chernobyl accident occured the Community and International arrangements proved to be inadequate to respond to the consequent widespread contamination over Europe. Measures have been taken since then to improve the preparedness of the Community. They include better exchange of information, control of contaminated foodstuffs and better information to the public. (U.K.)

  4. The accidental release of exotic species from breeding colonies and zoological collections.

    Barrat, J; Richomme, C; Moinet, M

    2010-04-01

    Exotic species have often been introduced into a new country in zoological or botanical gardens or on game and fur farms. When accidentally or deliberately released, these alien species can become invasive and have negative impacts on native plant and animal communities and human activities. This article focuses on a selection of such invasive species: principally the American mink (Neovison vison), but also the coypu (Myocastor coypus), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), raccoon (Procyon lotor) and African sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus). In each of these cases, the authors describe the biological characteristics and life history of the species, in relation to its invasive capacity, the origins and establishment of non-native populations, the environmental consequences and possible control measures. The main negative impacts observed are the destruction of habitat, the introduction and/or spread of pathogens and changes in the composition of native communities with consequent effects on biodiversity. PMID:20617652

  5. Methodology for evaluation of possible consequences of accidental atmospheric releases of hazardous matter

    Sites exist with high levels of risk of accidental atmospheric releases. These releases can be hazardous nuclear, chemical, and biological matter. Such accidents may occur during transport of waste, or they may be due to natural hazards, human errors, terror acts or various operations at high risk. Considering the operation of lifting and transport of the sunken Kursk nuclear submarine as an example, a methodology for risk assessment is described. This methodology includes two approaches: (1) probabilistic analysis of possible atmospheric transport pathways using trajectory modelling, and (2) evaluation of possible contamination and consequences using real-time operational atmospheric dispersion modelling. The first approach can be applied in advance of an operation during the preparation stage, the second in real time during the operation stage. For the cases considered in this study, the results of trajectory modelling are supported by the operational dispersion modelling, i.e., the westerly flow is dominant during fall occurring 79% of the time. Hence, September-October 2001 was more appropriate for the lifting and transport of the Kursk nuclear submarine in comparison with summer months, when atmospheric transport toward the populated regions of the Kola and Scandinavian Peninsulas was dominant. The suggested methodology may be applied to any potentially dangerous object involving a risk of atmospheric release of hazardous material of nuclear, chemical or biological nature. (author)

  6. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - utility for the fire brigades.

    Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

    2009-09-01

    Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios”), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Viennese fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program of the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. For the purpose of our study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Trace (Safer System), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer). A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed, with the models above, in order to predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. Furthermore, the application of the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in case of toxic release was

  7. The effectiveness of a multidisciplinary QI activity for accidental fall prevention: Staff compliance is critical

    Ohde Sachiko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental falls among inpatients are a substantial cause of hospital injury. A number of successful experimental studies on fall prevention have shown the importance and efficacy of multifactorial intervention, though success rates vary. However, the importance of staff compliance with these effective, but often time-consuming, multifactorial interventions has not been fully investigated in a routine clinical setting. The purpose of this observational study was to describe the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary quality improvement (QI activity for accidental fall prevention, with particular focus on staff compliance in a non-experimental clinical setting. Methods This observational study was conducted from July 2004 through December 2010 at St. Luke’s International Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. The QI activity for in-patient falls prevention consisted of: 1 the fall risk assessment tool, 2 an intervention protocol to prevent in-patient falls, 3 specific environmental safety interventions, 4 staff education, and 5 multidisciplinary healthcare staff compliance monitoring and feedback mechanisms. Results The overall fall rate was 2.13 falls per 1000 patient days (350/164331 in 2004 versus 1.53 falls per 1000 patient days (263/172325 in 2010, representing a significant decrease (p = 0.039. In the first 6 months, compliance with use of the falling risk assessment tool at admission was 91.5% in 2007 (3998/4368, increasing to 97.6% in 2010 (10564/10828. The staff compliance rate of implementing an appropriate intervention plan was 85.9% in 2007, increasing to 95.3% in 2010. Conclusion In our study we observed a substantial decrease in patient fall rates and an increase of staff compliance with a newly implemented falls prevention program. A systematized QI approach that closely involves, encourages, and educates healthcare staff at multiple levels is effective.

  8. Atmospheric dispersion modeling for an accidental release from the Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1)

    Atmospheric dispersion modeling and radiation dose calculations have been performed for a postulated accidental airborne radionuclide release from the Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) appropriate to a power upgrade to 10 MW. Estimates of releases for various radionuclide groups are based upon US-NRC regulatory guide 1.183. Committed Effective Doses (CEDs) to the public at various downwind distances were calculated using a health physics computer code 'HotSpot' developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, USA. The doses were calculated for various atmospheric stability classes, viz., Pasquill categories A-F with site-specific averaged meteorological conditions. The meteorological data on atmospheric stability conditions, mean wind speed and the frequency distribution of wind direction based on data collected near the reactor site have also been analyzed and are presented here. The results indicate that a person located within a downwind distance of about 500 m from the reactor would receive more than the permissible CED under the analyzed severe accident scenario. Analysis of one typical year of wind data indicates that the predominant wind direction is East-North East (ENE), which occurs at the site for more than 15% of the time

  9. Atmospheric dispersion modeling for an accidental release from the Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1)

    Raza, S. Shoaib [Nuclear Engineering Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)]. E-mail: ssraza@msn.com; Iqbal, M. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2005-07-15

    Atmospheric dispersion modeling and radiation dose calculations have been performed for a postulated accidental airborne radionuclide release from the Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) appropriate to a power upgrade to 10 MW. Estimates of releases for various radionuclide groups are based upon US-NRC regulatory guide 1.183. Committed Effective Doses (CEDs) to the public at various downwind distances were calculated using a health physics computer code 'HotSpot' developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, USA. The doses were calculated for various atmospheric stability classes, viz., Pasquill categories A-F with site-specific averaged meteorological conditions. The meteorological data on atmospheric stability conditions, mean wind speed and the frequency distribution of wind direction based on data collected near the reactor site have also been analyzed and are presented here. The results indicate that a person located within a downwind distance of about 500 m from the reactor would receive more than the permissible CED under the analyzed severe accident scenario. Analysis of one typical year of wind data indicates that the predominant wind direction is East-North East (ENE), which occurs at the site for more than 15% of the time.

  10. Modeling acute health risks associated with accidental releases of toxic gases

    Haskin, F.E.; Ding, C.; Summa, K.J. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Young, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Accident Analysis and Consequence Assessment Dept.

    1996-09-01

    CHEM{_}MACCS has been developed from the radiological accident consequence code, MACCS, to perform probabilistic calculations of potential off-site consequences of the accidental atmospheric release of hazardous chemicals. The principal phenomena considered in CHEM{_}MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways, and early and latent health effects. CHEM{_}MACCS provides the following capabilities: (1) statistical weather sampling data (8,760 hourly data points per year), (2) population dose and health effect risk calculations based on site-specific population data, (3) health effects calculations including the consideration of potential site specific mitigative actions (evacuation and shielding), and (4) modeling of multiple release segments. Three different sample problems are contained in this report to show how to use CHEM{_}MACCS. Three test problems are run to compare CHEM{_}MACCS and D2PC. The doses versus the downwind centerline distances from the source for the given doses are in very close agreement.

  11. Modeling accidental releases to the atmosphere of a dense reactive chemical (Uranium hexafluoride)

    Hanna, Steven R.; Chang, Joseph C.; Zhang, Xiaoming J.

    In order to model the atmospheric transport and dispersion of dense reactive chemicals such as uranium hexafluoride (UF 6), it is necessary to include algorithms that account for heat exchanges due to chemical reactions and phase changes. UF 6 may be released accidentally at uranium-enrichment plants as a warm gas from a pipeline rupture, or as a flashing liquid from a pressurized tank or line break. The resulting plume is initially very dense due to the large molecular weight of UF 6, but may become lighter-than-air as the UF 6 reacts with water vapor to form HF, which has a molecular weight less than that of air, and which may cause an increase in plume temperature due to the exothermic reaction. The major chemical and thermodynamic processes related to UF 6 have been incorporated in a modified version of an existing dense gas model, HGSYSTEM. The same general approach could be used to include other reactive chemicals in the modeling system. New modules that are applicable to any type of chemical release have also been added to HGSYSTEM to account for building downwash, lift-off of warm plumes from the ground, and deposition. The revised HGSYSTEM/UF 6 model has been evaluated with field data from UF 6 tests. The sensitivities of the model predictions to variations in input parameters have been assessed.

  12. UFOING: A program for assessing the off-site consequences from ingestion of accidentally released radionuclides

    The program UFOING estimates foodchain-related consequences following accidental releases of radionuclides to the atmosphere. It was developed as a stand-alone supplement to the accident consequence assessment program system UFOMOD to allow faster and more detailed investigations of the consequences arising from the foodchain pathways than possible with the version of UFOING which is implemented in UFOMOD. For assumed releases at different times of the year, age dependent individual doses, collective doses, individual risks for fatal stochastic somatic health effects as a function of time, the total numbers of the effects, and the areas affected by foodbans together with the estimated duration of the bans are calculated. In addition, percentage contributions of radionuclides and foodstuffs to the doses and risks can be evaluated. In the first part of this report, an overview over the program is given. The other parts contain a user's guide, a program guide, and descriptions of the data employed and of the version of UFOING which is implemented in UFOMOD. (orig.)

  13. Report of the consultant's meeting on monitoring accidentally released radionuclides in the environment

    At an earlier Research Co-ordination Meeting (12-16 August 1991, VIC, Vienna) for the IAEA Programme on 'Rapid Instrumental and Separation Methods for Monitoring Radionuclides in Food and Environmental Samples', it was recognized that a network of analytical laboratories with specially qualified scientists is needed which will provide a timely coordinated response to any future requests for assistance from Member States. The experience gained from the International Chernobyl Project revealed that there is a need for such a closely linked group when the Member State lacks sufficient technical resource to independently perform an assessment of environmental contamination following an accidental release of radioactivity. The existence of such a network of laboratories would help to assure responsible government representatives and the general public that the Agency has additional available resources including specialized experts to perform assessments on which to base required actions for many accident scenarios and their radiological consequences. The purpose of the present Consultants' Meeting is to discuss the organization and scope of the proposed network of analytical laboratories. The Consultants should discuss the matrices and nuclides of interest at various time frames of an accidental release of radioactivity. It is also intended that the Consultants should discuss the laboratories from their experience which would have the specialized expertise needed, in both terrestrial and aquatic sample collection and analysis. Finally, it is intended that the Consultants should discuss whether it would be desirable for the Agency to produce a technical document based on the achievements of the Agency programme on 'Rapid Instrumental and Separation Methods for Monitoring Radionuclides in Food and Environmental Samples'. A Guide Book was considered essential by the participants of this Co-ordinated Research Programme because it would be a succinct form and on a common

  14. Game theory of pre-emptive vaccination before bioterrorism or accidental release of smallpox.

    Molina, Chai; Earn, David J D

    2015-06-01

    Smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s, but new outbreaks could be seeded by bioterrorism or accidental release. Substantial vaccine-induced morbidity and mortality make pre-emptive mass vaccination controversial, and if vaccination is voluntary, then there is a conflict between self- and group interests. This conflict can be framed as a tragedy of the commons, in which herd immunity plays the role of the commons, and free-riding (i.e. not vaccinating pre-emptively) is analogous to exploiting the commons. This game has been analysed previously for a particular post-outbreak vaccination scenario. We consider several post-outbreak vaccination scenarios and compare the expected increase in mortality that results from voluntary versus imposed vaccination. Below a threshold level of post-outbreak vaccination effort, expected mortality is independent of the level of response effort. A lag between an outbreak starting and a response being initiated increases the post-outbreak vaccination effort necessary to reduce mortality. For some post-outbreak vaccination scenarios, even modest response lags make it impractical to reduce mortality by increasing post-outbreak vaccination effort. In such situations, if decreasing the response lag is impossible, the only practical way to reduce mortality is to make the vaccine safer (greater post-outbreak vaccination effort leads only to fewer people vaccinating pre-emptively). PMID:25926701

  15. Methodology and practical basis for emergency planning in case of accidental releases

    Statistical methods are used to anticipate offsite consequences resulting from an accidental release of radioactivity into the atmosphere for the 1-100 km range. This approach is very useful for safety purposes, for example to select nuclear sites; but it cannot be used for emergency preparedness plans. The preparation of emergency plans must be dependent upon the type of nuclear facility and site characteristics, and should take into account the conditions pertaining to the time of application (e.g. weather). In other words, the preparation of an emergency situation depends upon all the specific characteristics of each site. The plan has to be established considering a wide range of accidents which could occur at the site, including those with a very low probability of occurrence. Furthermore, emergency countermeasures have to be provided for in view of the radiological risk to individual members of the public. This implies calculation of the ''projected'' dose due to external irradiation (plume and deposits) and inhalation (plume and resuspension of deposits). Calculations are based on the use of an atmospheric transfer model as simple and as realistic as possible so that it can cover a wide range of situations. A description of the model used by the French Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety is given, together with an appropriate example

  16. Modeling of the dispersion of tritium from postulated accidental releases from nuclear power plants

    This study has the aim to assess the impact of accidental release of tritium postulate from a nuclear power reactor through environmental modeling of aquatic resources. In order to do that it was used computational models of hydrodynamics and transport for the simulation of tritium dispersion caused by an accident in a CANDU reactor located in the ongoing Angra 3 site. It was postulated, then, the LOCA - Loss of Coolant Accident -, accident in the emergency cooling system of the nucleus ( without fusion), where was lost 66m3 of soda almost instantaneously. This inventory contained 35 PBq and was released a load of 9.7 TBq/s in liquid form near the Itaorna beach, Angra dos Reis - RJ. The models mentioned above were applied in two scenarios ( plant stopped or operating) and showed a tritium plume with specific activities larger than the reference level for seawater (1.1MBq/m3), during the first 14 days after the accident. The main difference between the scenario without and with seawater recirculation (pumping and discharge) is based on the enhancement of dilution of the highest concentrations in the last one. This dilution enhancement resulting in decreasing concentrations was observed only during the first two weeks, when they ranged from 1x109 to 5x105 Bq/m3 close to the Itaorna beach spreading just to Sandri Island. After 180 days, the plume could not be detected anymore in the bay, because their activities would be lower than the minimum detectable value (3). (author)

  17. Modelling of tritium dispersion from postulated accidental release of nuclear power plants

    This study has the aim to assess the impact of accidental release of tritium postulate from a nuclear power reactor through environmental modeling of aquatic resources. In order to do that it was used computational models of hydrodynamics and transport for the simulation of tritium dispersion caused by an accident in a CANDU reactor located in the ongoing Angra 3 site. This exercise was accomplished with the aid of a code system (SisBAHIA) developed in the Rio de Janeiro Federal University (COPPE/UFRJ). The CANDU reactor is one that uses heavy water (D2O) as moderator and coolant of the core. It was postulated, then, the LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) accident in the emergency cooling system of the nucleus (without fusion), where was lost 66 m3 of soda almost instantaneously. This inventory contained 35 PBq and was released a load of 9.7 TBq/s in liquid form near the Itaorna beach, Angra dos Reis - RJ. The models mentioned above were applied in two scenarios (plant stopped and operating) and showed a tritium plume with specific activities larger than the reference level for seawater (1.1 MBq/m3 ) during the first 14 days after the accident. The main difference between the scenario without and with seawater recirculation (pumping and discharge) is based on the enhancement of dilution of the highest concentrations in the last one. This dilution enhancement resulting in decreasing concentrations was observed only during the first two weeks, when they ranged from 1x109 to 5x105 Bq/m3 close to the Itaorna beach spreading just to Sandri Island. After 180 days, the plume could not be detected anymore in the bay, because their activities would be lower than the minimum detectable value (3). (author)

  18. Experimental optimization of iodine prophylaxis for prevention of radiation injury from accidental intake of radioiodine

    As is proved by nuclear disaster in Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), iodine prophylaxis may be respected as one of the most urgent and effective methods of prevention of radiation injury of the thyroid gland in the population affected. On the basis of experiments in rats, analytical ways of determination of the dietary iodine intake (iodine supply) of people living around NPP Paks (Hyngary) as well as compartment modelling, experiments it is shown, that for optimization of iodine prophylaxis in masses it is very important to increase the iodine supply upto the recommended values. Combined use of decreased doses of potassium iodide and perchlorate was found to be the optimal way for removal of radioiodine from pregnant organisms and their offsprings following accidental intake of radioiodine

  19. Radionuclide dispersion and hydrodynamics of Ilha Grande Bay (Angra dos Reis, RJ) simulated from hypothetical accidental releases of liquid wastes

    This study has the aim to assess the impact of accidental release of radionuclides postulate from a nuclear power reactor through environmental modeling of aquatic resources. In order to do that it was used computational models of hydrodynamic circulation and transport for the simulation of tritium dispersion caused by an accidental release in Ilha Grande Bay from the site of the future third plant in two circulation scenarios. The main difference between the scenarios is based on the enhancement of dilution of the highest concentrations in the last one. This dilution enhancement resulting in decreasing concentrations was observed only during the first two weeks, when they ranged from 1 x 109 to 5 x 105 Bq/m³ close to the Itaorna beach spreading just to Sandri Island. After 180 days, the plume could not be detected anymore in the bay, because their activities would be lower than the minimum detectable value (< 11 kBq/m³). (author)

  20. Maximum permissible amounts of accidentally released tritium derived from an environmental experiment to meet dose limits for public exposure

    This paper reports that it is important in the design of future fusion reactors and associated facilities that incorporate passive safety to take account of the possible environmental impact of accidental tritium release. Reliable information on dose consequences can be obtained by evaluating urine samples from persons exposed to tritium. Translating the results of the environmental HT experiment performed in France in 1986 into worst-case exposure conditions, the effective dose equivalent to an individual with highest exposure at a distance of 800 m (typical for site boundaries) is ∼1 x 10-4 Sv per gram of tritium emitted as HT when inhalation and skin absorption are considered. From this value, maximum permissible amounts of accidentally released HT can be derived on the basis of regulatory or anticipated dose limits

  1. Source, dispersion and combustion modelling of an accidental release of hydrogen in an urban environment

    Hydrogen is likely to be the most important future energy carrier, for many stationary and mobile applications, with the potential to make significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions especially if renewable primary energy sources are used to produce the hydrogen. A safe transition to the use of hydrogen by members of the general public requires that the safety issues associated with hydrogen applications have to be investigated and fully understood. In order to assess the risks associated with hydrogen applications, its behaviour in realistic accident scenarios has to be predicted, allowing mitigating measures to be developed where necessary. A key factor in this process is predicting the release, dispersion and combustion of hydrogen in appropriate scenarios. This paper illustrates an application of CFD methods to the simulation of an actual hydrogen explosion. The explosion occurred on 3 March 1983 in a built up area of central Stockholm, Sweden, after the accidental release of approximately 13.5 kg of hydrogen from a rack of 18 interconnected 50 l industrial pressure vessels (200 bar working pressure) being transported by a delivery truck. Modelling of the source term, dispersion and combustion were undertaken separately using three different numerical tools, due to the differences in physics and scales between the different phenomena. Results from the dispersion calculations together with the official accident report were used to identify a possible ignition source and estimate the time at which ignition could have occurred. Ignition was estimated to occur 10 s after the start of the release, coinciding with the time at which the maximum flammable hydrogen mass and cloud volume were found to occur (4.5 kg and 600 m3, respectively). The subsequent simulation of the combustion adopts initial conditions for mean flow and turbulence from the dispersion simulations, and calculates the development of a fireball. This provides physical values, e.g. maximum

  2. Plutonium in the environment: key factors related to impact assessment in case of an accidental atmospheric release

    Guétat, Philippe; Moulin, V. M.; Reiller, Pascal E.; Vercouter, T.; Bion, L.,; Fritsch, P; Monfort, M.; Flury-Herard, A.; Comte, A.; Ménétrier, F.; Ansoborlo, Eric; Jourdain, F.; Boucher, L; Vandorpe, F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with plutonium and key factors related to impact assessment. It is based on recent work performed by CEA which summarize the main features of plutonium behaviour from sources inside installations to the environment and man, and to report current knowledge on the different parameters used in models for environmental and radiological impact assessment. These key factors are illustrated through a case study based on an accidental atmospheric release of Pu in a nuclear facility.

  3. Severe Nuclear Accident Program (SNAP) - a real time model for accidental releases

    The model: Several Nuclear Accident Program (SNAP) has been developed at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (DNMI) in Oslo to provide decision makers and Government officials with real-time tool for simulating large accidental releases of radioactivity from nuclear power plants or other sources. SNAP is developed in the Lagrangian framework in which atmospheric transport of radioactive pollutants is simulated by emitting a large number of particles from the source. The main advantage of the Lagrangian approach is a possibility of precise parameterization of advection processes, especially close to the source. SNAP can be used to predict the transport and deposition of a radioactive cloud in e future (up to 48 hours, in the present version) or to analyze the behavior of the cloud in the past. It is also possible to run the model in the mixed mode (partly analysis and partly forecast). In the routine run we assume unit (1 g s-1) emission in each of three classes. This assumption is very convenient for the main user of the model output in case of emergency: Norwegian Radiation Protection Agency. Due to linearity of the model equations, user can test different emission scenarios as a post processing task by assigning different weights to concentration and deposition fields corresponding to each of three emission classes. SNAP is fully operational and can be run by the meteorologist on duty at any time. The output from SNAP has two forms: First on the maps of Europe, or selected parts of Europe, individual particles are shown during the simulation period. Second, immediately after the simulation, concentration/deposition fields can be shown every three hours of the simulation period as isoline maps for each emission class. In addition, concentration and deposition maps, as well as some meteorological data, are stored on a public accessible disk for further processing by the model users

  4. Illustration of probabilistic approach in consequence assessment of accidental radioactive releases

    We are describing a certain application of uncertainty analysis of environmental model HARP applied on atmospheric and deposition sub-model. Simulation of uncertainties propagation through the model is basic inevitable task bringing data for advanced techniques of probabilistic consequence assessment and further improvement of reliability of model predictions based on statistical procedures of assimilation with measured data. The activities are investigated in the institute IITA AV CR within the grant project supported by GACR (2007-2009). The problem is solved in close cooperation with section of information systems in institute NRPI. The subject of investigation concerns evaluation of consequences of radioactivity propagation after an accidental radioactivity release from nuclear facility.Transport of activity is studied from initial atmospheric propagation, deposition of radionuclides on terrain and spreading through food chains towards human body .Subsequent deposition processes of admixtures and food chain activity transport are modeled. In the final step a hazard estimation based on doses on population is integrated into the software system HARP. Extension to probabilistic approach has increased the complexity substantially, but offers much more informative background for modem methods of estimation accounting for inherent stochastic nature of the problem. Example of probabilistic assessment illustrated here is based on uncertainty analysis of input parameters of SGPM model. Predicted background field of Cs-137 deposition are labelled with index p. as PXSGPM. Final goal is estimation of a certain unknown true background vector χtrue, which accounts also for deficiencies of the SGPM formulation in itself insisting in insufficient description of reality. We must have on mind, that even if we know true values of all input parameters θmtrue (m= 1 ,..., M) of SGPM model, the χtrue still remain uncertain. One possibility how to approach reality insists in

  5. Historical Doses To The Public from Routine and Accidental Releases of Tritium - Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1953 - 2005

    Peterson, S; Raskob, W

    2007-08-15

    Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 29,300 TBq of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; about 75% of this was released accidentally as gaseous tritium in 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 3,700 TBq gaseous tritium and about 2,800 TBq tritiated water vapor to the total. Mean annual doses (with 95% confidence intervals) to the most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Because time-dependent tritium models require detailed meteorological data that were unavailable for the large releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from experience with UFOTRI. Even with assumptions to assure that doses would not be underestimated, all doses from routine and accidental releases were below the level (3.6 mSv) at which adverse health effects have been documented, and most were below the current regulatory limit of 100 {micro}Sv per year from releases to the atmosphere.

  6. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

  7. Estimation of the environmental or radiological impact in the event of accidental release of radionuclides in a DCLL fusion reactor; Estimacion del impacto radiologico ambiental en caso de liberacion accidental de radionucleidos en un reactor de fusion DCLL

    Palermo, I.; Gomez Ros, J. M.; Sanz, J.; Mota, F.

    2013-07-01

    Tritium production and activation in the LiPb products can pose a radiological risk in the event of accidental release in a fusion reactor. Within the research programme Consolider TECNO{sub F}US (CSD2008-079) fusion technology has developed a design for a reactor with regenerative wrap with dual refrigeration (DCLL). The purpose of this communication is to present estimates of the radiological impact derived from an accidental release of radionuclides from the circuit of LiPb provinients. (Author)

  8. Development of a dose assessment module in case of modeling of long range atmospheric transport of accidental releases from NPP

    The Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) is in operation in the Bulgarian National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology with Bulgarian Academy of sciences (NIMH-BAS) since 1995. BERS is based on numerical weather forecast and numerical long-range dispersion model accounting for the transport, dispersion, chemical and radioactive transformations of pollutants. The previous versions of this system were used and successfully tested during the ETEX experiments and a number of international and national exercises. In the present paper the further development of the system for calculation of a mixture of 31 radioactive gaseous and aerosol radioactive nuclides is described. The basic module of this system - the numerical dispersion model EMAP is upgraded with a 'dose calculation module' for estimation of the prognostic dose fields for the essential radionuclides from the calculated by EMAP concentration and deposition fields. Testing of the system is performed simulating hypothetical accidental atmospheric releases with real meteorology in real time from real NPPs situated in Europe based on emission scenarios created for the basic reactor types being into operation in Europe. The effective doses from external irradiation, from air submersion and ground shinning, effective dose from inhalation and absorbed thyroid dose formed by the different radionuclides, significant for the early stage of a nuclear accident, are calculated as dose fields in the different case studies. The presented study is an important step in the development of the BERS by producing decision-ready output directed to enhancing the Bulgarian emergency preparedness in case of accidental releases. (author)

  9. Final Report: Safety of Plasma Components and Aerosol Transport During Hard Disruptions and Accidental Energy Release in Fusion Reactor

    Bourham, Mohamed A.; Gilligan, John G.

    1999-08-14

    Safety considerations in large future fusion reactors like ITER are important before licensing the reactor. Several scenarios are considered hazardous, which include safety of plasma-facing components during hard disruptions, high heat fluxes and thermal stresses during normal operation, accidental energy release, and aerosol formation and transport. Disruption events, in large tokamaks like ITER, are expected to produce local heat fluxes on plasma-facing components, which may exceed 100 GW/m{sup 2} over a period of about 0.1 ms. As a result, the surface temperature dramatically increases, which results in surface melting and vaporization, and produces thermal stresses and surface erosion. Plasma-facing components safety issues extends to cover a wide range of possible scenarios, including disruption severity and the impact of plasma-facing components on disruption parameters, accidental energy release and short/long term LOCA's, and formation of airborne particles by convective current transport during a LOVA (water/air ingress disruption) accident scenario. Study, and evaluation of, disruption-induced aerosol generation and mobilization is essential to characterize database on particulate formation and distribution for large future fusion tokamak reactor like ITER. In order to provide database relevant to ITER, the SIRENS electrothermal plasma facility at NCSU has been modified to closely simulate heat fluxes expected in ITER.

  10. An estimate of the radiological consequence of notional accidental releases of radioactivity from a fast breeder reactor

    In this report an assessment is made of the radiological consequences of notional accidental releases of activity from a fast breeder reactor under certain circumstances. It was prepared under contract to the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (Health and Safety Executive) to assist them in making a preliminary safety assessment of fast reactors. The range of releases considered in the report was specified by the Inspectorate and comprises the vaporisation and release of varying fractions of the core of a 1300 MW(e) reactor. Two cases are evaluated depending on assumptions relating to the remainder of the core. No attempt is made to assign any probability to the occurrence of a given release; the report provides no more than a part of the information necessary for a safety assessment and is to be considered only within this limited context. The subject is dealt with under the following headings: introduction; parameters used in the assessment; atmospheric dispersion; pathways of exposure and dosimetric models; doses associated with the release of one tonne of fuel; biological effects; consequences of releases in which the nuclide composition differs from that in the fuel. (U.K.)

  11. Description of the SAFRAN Model for Evaluation of Public Exposure Resulting from Accidental Release of Airborne Radioactive Materials into the Atmosphere and User’s Guide. Annex II

    This document describes the method used in the SAFRAN tool for calculation of exposure arising from accidental release of airborne radioactive materials into the atmosphere. Model can be used for evaluation of public exposure to allow comparison with the relevant dose limiting criteria. The model is based on the public exposure evaluation concept as described in IAEA reports. While both these reports in primary addresses impacts arising from routine (e.g. long time permanent) releases, the concept employed can be adapted for assessment of impacts arising from accidental (e.g. short time) releases. Another source which has also been extensively used is the German Incident calculation bases

  12. Proposal of procedures to prevent errors in radiotherapy based in learned lessons of accidental expositions

    In order to consider some procedures to prevent errors in radiotherapy based in learned lessons of accidental expositions and in accordance with information contained in international reports elaborated by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and of the data base availability by the European group Radiation Oncology Safety Information System (ROSIS) on the events, a research of the occurred errors was performed. For the evaluation of the incidents a data base based in the ROSIS and added plus a parameter was created 'type of error'. All the stored data make possible the evaluation of the 839 incidents in terms of frequency of the type of error, the process of detention, the number of reached patients and the degree of severity. Of the 50 types of found errors, the type of error more frequently was 'incorrect treatment coordinate', confirmed with the data of literature and representing 28,96 por cent of the total of the incidents. The results showed 44,44 por cent are discovered at the moment of the treatment and that the process of verification of the fiche or clinical revision of the patient is a verification more occurred insurance and in 43,33 por cent of the searched events. The results indicated that more than 50 por cent of the incidents the severity degree are void and approximately 62 por cent a patient are affected during the accomplishment of the radiotherapy. This work showed that to analyze the data base according to methodology proposal for Klein et al.; for Reason, and Dunscombe et al. is interesting to insert more characteristic detailed in the data base such as: the number of fractions for affected patient, number of fields of treatment for fraction that was affected, shunting line of the prescribed dose and shunting line of the volume prescribed in all the registered in cadastral map events. Some causes exist that can lead the errors when patient they are submitted to the radiotherapy. Some measures can be taken so that these errors do not

  13. User guide for UFOTRI: A program for assessing the off-site consequences from accidental tritium releases

    The computer program UFOTRI for assessing the consequences of accidental tritium releases from fusion facilities has been developed; its first version is now being released. Processes such as the conversion of tritium gas (HT) into tritiated water (HTO) in the soil, reemission after deposition and the conversion of HTO into organically bound tritium are considered. During a time period of some days, all the relevant transfer processes between the compartments of the biosphere (atmosphere, soil, plants, animals) are described dynamically. A first order compartment model calculates the longer term pathway of tritium in the foodchains. Additionally, UFOTRI allows probabilistic assessments of the tritium impact in the environment. This report contains a description of the main processes which are important for the understanding of the input parameter list, as well as a detailed listing of the input parameters which can be changed by the user. Additionally, an input and output description with examples completes the report. (orig.)

  14. Towards the operational estimation of a radiological plume using data assimilation after a radiological accidental atmospheric release

    Winiarek, Victor; Vira, Julius; Bocquet, Marc; Sofiev, Mikhail; Saunier, Olivier

    2011-06-01

    In the event of an accidental atmospheric release of radionuclides from a nuclear power plant, accurate real-time forecasting of the activity concentrations of radionuclides is required by the decision makers for the preparation of adequate countermeasures. The accuracy of the forecast plume is highly dependent on the source term estimation. On several academic test cases, including real data, inverse modelling and data assimilation techniques were proven to help in the assessment of the source term. In this paper, a semi-automatic method is proposed for the sequential reconstruction of the plume, by implementing a sequential data assimilation algorithm based on inverse modelling, with a care to develop realistic methods for operational risk agencies. The performance of the assimilation scheme has been assessed through the intercomparison between French and Finnish frameworks. Two dispersion models have been used: Polair3D and Silam developed in two different research centres. Different release locations, as well as different meteorological situations are tested. The existing and newly planned surveillance networks are used and realistically large multiplicative observational errors are assumed. The inverse modelling scheme accounts for strong error bias encountered with such errors. The efficiency of the data assimilation system is tested via statistical indicators. For France and Finland, the average performance of the data assimilation system is strong. However there are outlying situations where the inversion fails because of a too poor observability. In addition, in the case where the power plant responsible for the accidental release is not known, robust statistical tools are developed and tested to discriminate candidate release sites.

  15. Partitioning of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorohexanesulfonate in the aquatic environment after an accidental release of aqueous film forming foam at Schiphol Amsterdam Airport

    Kwadijk, C.J.A.F.; Kotterman, M.J.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2008, an accidental release of Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) took place at Schiphol Amsterdam Airport (The Netherlands). After the release, water, fish and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSA). In situ perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)

  16. Accidental release of iodine 131 by the IRE of the Fleurus site: return on experience by the Belgian safety authority

    After a presentation of the activities of the IRE, the Belgian National Institute of Radio-elements, i.e. the production of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, this report describes the process and chemical reaction which caused an accidental release of iodine 131. It analyzes the causes of this incident, and how the incident has been managed by the Belgian safety authority. It discusses the first assessment of radiological consequences, describes how the incident has been managed at the federal level, and how population and media have been informed. It discusses the actual radiological consequences through measurements performed on grass and vegetables (graphs and maps indicate contamination levels and contaminated areas), and through the assessment of exposure of adults and children by different ways. Lessons learned are then discussed

  17. Comparison of the MARC and CRAC2 programs for assessing the radiological consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material

    Hemming, C R; Charles, D; Ostmeyer, R M

    1983-01-01

    This report describes a comparison of the MARC (Methodology for Assessing Radiological Consequences) and CRAC2 (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences, version 2) computer programs for assessing the radiological consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material. A qualitative comparison has been made of the features of the constituent sub-models of the two codes, and potentially the most important differences identified. The influence of these differences has been investigated quantitatively by comparison of the predictions of the two codes in a wide variety of circumstances. Both intermediate quantities and endpoints used as a measure of risk have been compared in order to separate the variables more clearly. The results indicate that, in general, the predictions of MARC and CRAC2 are in good agreement.

  18. Visits to Australia by nuclear powered or armed vessels: contingency planning for the accidental release of ionizing radiation

    The adequacy of current contingency planning by Federal and State authorities to deal with the accidental release of ionizing radiation from visiting nuclear powered or armed vessels in Australian waters and ports is reported on and 39 recommendations are made. After introductory chapters, the remainder of the report consists of two parts. Chapters 3 to 10 deal with the main issues relating to nuclear powered warship (NPW) visits and the adequacy of current contingency plans. Chapters 11 to 13 deal with the question whether any specific planning is required for visits by nuclear weapons capable warships. In part one the present emergency arrangements and criticisms of the current plans are reviewed. The NPWs' reactors, safety records and visit arrangements in other countries are discussed. The validity of the reference accident on which current NPW emergency planning is based is assessed. In part two nuclear weapons and their accidents are reviewed. The dissenting report of one of the Senators is included

  19. ACCI38 XL 2: a useful tool for dose assessment in case of accidental atmospheric releases of radionuclides

    In the scope of its assignments in the field of nuclear risks, the French Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) develops tools to assess the impact of nuclear facilities on their environment and surrounding populations. The code ACCI38 XL 2 is a tool dedicated to the assessment of integrated concentrations in the environment and of dosimetric consequences on man, in case of accidental atmospheric releases of radionuclides (up to 170 radionuclides). This code is widely used by IRSN for studies on accidents, mainly for the analysis of regulatory documents from nuclear operators. The aim of this communication is to present the main features of the model used in the code ACCI38 XL 2, and to give details about the code. After a general presentation of the model, a detailed description of atmospheric dispersion, transfer in the environment and radiological impact is given. Then, some information on parameters and limitations of the model and the code are presented

  20. Visits to Australia by nuclear powered or armed vessels: contingency planning for the accidental release of ionizing radiation

    The report refers to the adequacy of current contingency planning by the Australian Federal and Senate authorities to deal with the accidental release of ionizating radiation from visiting nuclear powered or armed vessels in Australian waters and ports. Much of the material was obtained in response to questions put in writing by the Senate Standing Committee to the Department of Defence, ANSTO and others. In addition, the report contains relevant information from Commonwealth documents as well as the Committee findings and recommendations. Issues considered include: types of visiting nuclear powered vessels, accident likelihood and consequences, differences between naval and land-based reactors, safety records. The persons or organizations who made submissions or appeared in all public hearings are listed in the appendixes, along with all visits to Australian ports by nuclear powered warships from 1976 to 1988

  1. A CASE STUDY OF CHLORINE TRANSPORT AND FATE FOLLOWING A LARGE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE

    Buckley, R.; Hunter, C.; Werth, D.; Whiteside, M.; Chen, K.; Mazzola, C.

    2012-08-01

    A train derailment that occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina during the early morning hours of 06 January, 2005 resulted in the prompt release of approximately 60 tons of chlorine to the environment. Comprehensive modeling of the transport and fate of this release was performed including the characterization of the initial three-phased chlorine release, a detailed determination of the local atmospheric conditions acting to generate, disperse, and deplete the chlorine vapor cloud, the establishment of physical exchange mechanisms between the airborne vapor and local surface waters, and local aquatic dilution and mixing.

  2. The assessment of accidental releases of radionuclides into the marine environment

    Unplanned releases of radionuclides into the marine environment could occur from land-based sources, e.g. during an incident at a nuclear power station, or from sea-going vessels such as nuclear submarines and ships carrying spent nuclear fuel. An approach which can be used to assess the effects of unplanned releases into the sea is discussed. The approach described is an extension of a compartment modelling system developed for studies of routine effluents released into coastal seas of northern Europe. The main features of the model are presented and a demonstration source term is used to illustrate the application of the model. (author)

  3. New tracers identify hydraulic fracturing fluids and accidental releases from oil and gas operations.

    Warner, N R; Darrah, T H; Jackson, R B; Millot, R; Kloppmann, W; Vengosh, A

    2014-11-01

    Identifying the geochemical fingerprints of fluids that return to the surface after high volume hydraulic fracturing of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs has important applications for assessing hydrocarbon resource recovery, environmental impacts, and wastewater treatment and disposal. Here, we report for the first time, novel diagnostic elemental and isotopic signatures (B/Cl, Li/Cl, δ11B, and δ7Li) useful for characterizing hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids (HFFF) and distinguishing sources of HFFF in the environment. Data from 39 HFFFs and produced water samples show that B/Cl (>0.001), Li/Cl (>0.002), δ11B (25-31‰) and δ7Li (6-10‰) compositions of HFFF from the Marcellus and Fayetteville black shale formations were distinct in most cases from produced waters sampled from conventional oil and gas wells. We posit that boron isotope geochemistry can be used to quantify small fractions (∼0.1%) of HFFF in contaminated fresh water and likely be applied universally to trace HFFF in other basins. The novel environmental application of this diagnostic isotopic tool is validated by examining the composition of effluent discharge from an oil and gas brine treatment facility in Pennsylvania and an accidental spill site in West Virginia. We hypothesize that the boron and lithium are mobilized from exchangeable sites on clay minerals in the shale formations during the hydraulic fracturing process, resulting in the relative enrichment of boron and lithium in HFFF. PMID:25327769

  4. Predicting the 137Cs ingestion dose from marine fish consumption in Hong Kong after an accidental release

    Caesium-137 is one of the more important radionuclides released during a nuclear power plant accident. Based on a mathematical model developed earlier by the present authors for estimating 137Cs ingestion dose from consumption of marine fish in Hong Kong, doses due to an accidental release into Daya Bay from the Guangdong Nuclear Power Station are predicted. Assuming a release of 30 000 TBq of 137Cs, results show that the cumulative dose rises rapidly during the first five years and then gradually levels off. In the first and 50th years after discharge, doses to an average Hong Kong citizen would cumulate to 17 and 38 μSv respectively, which are dominated by the contribution from fish cultured in Hong Kong waters. The first year dose to members of the critical group of local fish farmers is estimated to be 1600 μSv, accumulating to 3600 μSv in the 50th year. Apart from this small number of critical group members whose doses may need some monitoring, the doses to the population at large are considered small compared with an annual dose of 175 μSv from ingestion of natural radionuclides in food and drinks in Hong Kong. (note)

  5. Estimation of radiological consequences from accidental iodine releases at nuclear power plants

    The radiological consequences of a beyond design-basis accident at an NPP for a VVER-1000 reactor are evaluated. Using the software code COSYMA and accounting for radioiodine activity release to the atmosphere at the early stage of the accident, the radionuclide concentration in air and ground deposition densities were estimated. Inhalation and ingestion thyroid doses to different population sub-groups have been calculated. Using modern knowledge about the risk of radiation-induced cancer, the radiological danger of radionuclides released is evaluated for different exposure pathways. Thyroid doses and risk was estimated for populations living at different distances from the NPP. The comparative analysis of exposure pathways and radiological danger of the radionuclides in release during early and intermediate stage of accident has conducted. (author)

  6. Numerical analysis of accidental hydrogen releases from high pressure storage at low temperatures

    Markert, Frank; Melideo, Daniele; Baraldi, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    . The vessel dynamics are modeled using a simplified engineering and a CFD model to evaluate the performance of various EOS to predict vessel pressures, temperatures mass flow rates and jet flame lengths. It is shown that the chosen EOS and the chosen specific heat capacity correlation are important to......Evaluations of the performance of simplified engineering and CFD models are important to improve risk assessment tools e.g. to predict accurately releases from various types of hydrogen storages. These tools have to predict releases from a wide range of storage pressures (up to 80 MPa) and...... temperatures (down to 20 K), e.g. cryogenic compressed gas storage covers pressures up to 35 MPa and temperatures between 33 K and 338 K. Accurate calculations of high pressure releases require real gas EOS. This paper compares a number of EOS to predict hydrogen properties typical in different storage types...

  7. Study on plutonium distribution in Palomares ecosystem after an accidental aerosol release of transuranic radionuclides

    A discharge of plutonium and transuranic elements accidentally ocurred near Palomares (Almeria, Spain) in 1966. After decontamining operations, about 10 g of finely dispersed plutonium remained on the soil and was spreaded on the sorroundings and into Mediterranean sea. An analytical study including a 34 sampling sites of marine sediments, chemical clean-up, analytical methods for isolating plutonium from interfering radionuclides in the alfa-spectra was carried out. The detection limit level reached for the 239 u+240Pu was 10 mBq/Kg one of the lowest cited in the Spanish analytical literature until now. These results were attained following a careful electroplating Pu deposition method developed by our laboratory as result of the high signal/noise rates measured and a 20 KeV resolution. Several analytical assurance quality procedures specially developed for the Palomares ecological system were applied to the results, at the CIEMAT laboratories using reference standard certified samples. The values were unbiased and with no differences statistically significants between them. Interlaboratory comparisons were carried out. After 20 years of plutonium traces environmental transport their concentration were from two at three times the leves of radionuclides in the fallout of the zone studied. The plutonium concentration range in surface sediments was 0.3-5.0 Bq/Kg. The highest values corresponding in the coastal sediments and the lowest in the deep sea. Plutonium concentrations are highly correlated with the sediments structure, grain size composition and distance from the mouth of Almanzora river. The most important contribution at the transport from the land into sea could be the freshet occured at 1973. For this reason the plutonium ecologycal path has been from Palomares sorroundings into the sea. Sites in the Mediterranean sea not affected by plutonium apportation from Almanzora river showed Pu levels approximately the same as the mean value for the whole

  8. Numerical simulation of atmospheric dispersion and high radiological dose zone due to accidental releases from Fukushima Power Plant

    Atmospheric dispersion calculations are made for the accidental releases of radionuclides from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) using a weather model coupled Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART-WRF in a 30 km range to understand the formation of high radiation impact zone on the land region near to the FDNPP. The period during 11-17 March 2011 is considered for the study with the available source term estimates for 137Cs, 134Cs and 113I released during the accident. Simulated high resolution (1km) flow field with nested WRF model was largely westerly from 11 to 14 March. It has been found that the flow changed to northeasterly, easterly and southeasterly on 15 March under the influence of a low pressure and precipitation occurred on 15 March. Dispersion simulations showed the plume moved in a clockwise direction from Pacific Ocean to the land region to the northwest sector of Fukushima resulting in large activity depositions in that sector. The simulations show depositions of 106 to 108 Bq/m2 for 131I and 134Cs; and air dose rates of 10 μSv/h to 100 μSv/h in a distance range of 20 km in the northwest sector of Fukushima prefecture. The model could simulate the observed spike in the instantaneous air dose and its time variation at off-site monitoring stations around the reactor in reasonable agreement with highest doses at Fukushima, Litate located in the northwest sector followed by other sectors. (author)

  9. Assessment of Cesium, Iodine, Strontium and Ruthenium isotopes behaviour in urban areas, after contamination from accidental release

    The exposures of urban populations to the radiation derived from the deposition, after accidental atmospheric releases, of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 129 I, 131 I, 133 I, 89 Sr, 103 Ru and 106 Ru were assessed, using the integrated system for the evaluation of environmental radiological impact in emergency situations, developed by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD)/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN). These radionuclide are fission products likely to be emitted in the occurrence of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Their environmental behaviour in urban areas, due to their deposition in soil, in urban surfaces and in vegetable-garden food products, such as leafy and non-leafy vegetables, were analyzed, and dose assessments at the short, medium and long terms were performed, with an without the application of protective measures for reduction of doses. Simulations of unitary initial deposition for each radionuclide and of two different potential accidents involving water reactors (PWR), with different source terms and distinct deposition for each radionuclide, were performed. Results were analyzed on the basis of relative relevance of radionuclides and pathways for the exposure of members of the public, as a function of age and time after the release. It was also performed an assessment of the effectiveness of protective measures as a function of the moment of their implementation. (author)

  10. Performance evaluation of of caesium, iodine, strontium and ruthenium isotopes in urban areas after contamination by accidental release

    The exposures of urban populations to the radiation derived from the deposition, after accidental atmospheric releases, of I37Cs, 134Cs, 129I, 131I, 133I, 89Sr, l03Ru and 106Ru were assessed, using the integrated system for the evaluation of environmental radiological impact in emergency situations (SIEM), developed by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD) / Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN). These radionuclides are fission products likely to be emitted in the occurrence of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Their environmental behaviour in urban areas, due to their deposition in soil, in urban surfaces and in vegetable-garden food products, such as leafy and non-leafy vegetables, were analyzed, and dose assessments at the short, medium and long terms were performed, with and without the application of protective measures for reduction of doses. Simulations of unitary initial deposition for each radionuclide and of two different potential accidents involving pressurized water reactors (PWR), with different source terms and distinct deposition for each radionuclide, were performed. Results were analyzed on the basis of the relative relevance of radionuclides and pathways for the exposure of members of the public, as a function of age and time after the release. It was also performed an assessment of the effectiveness of protective measures as a function of the moment of their implementation. (author)

  11. Modelling accidental releases of dangerous gases into the lower troposphere from mobile sources

    Bernatík, A.; Zimmermann, W.; Pitt, M.; Střižík, M.; Nevrlý, J.; Zelinger, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 86, B3 (2008), s. 198-207. ISSN 0957-5820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 111 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk OC 186 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : major accidents * transportation of dangerous * substances modelling of release and dispersion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.400, year: 2008

  12. Assessment of radioactive material released from a fuel fabrication plant under accidental conditions

    This report evaluates the amounts of fissile material released both inside and outside a mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant (MOFFP) for light water reactors. The first section begins with a descriptive study of fissile material containment systems, and the methods available for quantifying accident occurrence probabilities. In addition to accidents common to all industrial facilities, other much rarer accidents were considered, such as aircraft crashes. The minimum occurrence probability limit for consideration in this study was set at 10-6 per annum. The second part of this report attempts to assess the consequences of the accidents considered (i.e. with occurrence probabilities exceeding 10-6 per annum) by determining maximum values for such accidents. Acts of sabotage and other accidents of this type are beyond the scope of this study and were not taken into consideration. The most serious potential accident would be a fire involving all of the glove boxes in the PuO2 powder calcination and preparation cell, which could release 76.5 mg of PuO2 powder into the atmosphere; the occurrence probability of such an accident, however, is slight (less than 10-5 per annum). The second possibility, is a specially nuclear hazard that would release fission products into the atmosphere. The occurrence probability of such an accident is currently evaluated at 10-3 per annum

  13. Modeling the wind-fields of accidental releases by mesoscale forecasting

    Albritton, J.R.; Lee, R.L.; Mobley, R.L.; Pace, J.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hodur, R.A.; Lion, C.S. [Navel Research Lab, Monterey, CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Modeling atmospheric releases even during fair weather can present a sever challenge to diagnostic, observed-data-driven, models. Such schemes are often handicapped by sparse input data from meteorological surface stations and soundings. Forecasting by persistence is only acceptable for a few hours and cannot predict important changes in the diurnal cycle or from synoptic evolution. Many accident scenarios are data-sparse in space and/or time. Here we describe the potential value of limited-area, mesoscale, forecast models for real-time emergency response. Simulated wind-fields will be passed to ARAC`s operational models to produce improved forecasts of dispersion following accidents.

  14. Study of applying the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability to nuclear power plants. [Use of ARAC to forecast hazards of accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere

    Orphan, R.C.

    1978-06-01

    Each utility licensee for a nuclear power reactor is required to minimize the adverse effects from an accidental radionuclide release into the atmosphere. In the past the ability to forecast quantitatively the extent of the hazard from such a release has been limited. Now powerful atmospheric modeling techniques are available to assist nuclear reactor site officials with greatly improved assessments. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) has developed a prototype system called the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) which is designed to integrate the modeling with advanced sensors, data handling techniques, and weather data in order to provide timely, usable advisories to the site officials. The purpose of this project is to examine the ways and means of adapting ARAC for application to many nuclear power reactors widely dispersed across the nation. The project will emphasize the management aspects, including government-industry relationships, technology transfer, organizational structure, staffing, implementing procedures, and costs. Benefits and costs for several alternative systems will be compared. The results will be reviewed and evaluated by the management and staff of the ARAC project at LLL and also by selected staff members of the sponsoring government agency.

  15. Accidental release of iodine-131 by IRE at Fleurus: back experience of Belgium safety authority

    The IRE (National institute for radioelements) produces radionuclides for nuclear medicine from highly enriched uranium irradiated targets. On 22/08/2008, fresh production wastes were transferred into an almost empty decay tank. The mixing of these liquids led to the release of approximately 47 GBq of molecular iodine-131 into the atmosphere. The first conservative assessments of the radiological consequences did not require taking direct protective actions for the population, such as sheltering or stable iodine intake. However, the estimated iodine-131 deposits could locally reach or exceed the derived reference levels for the contamination of milk (4 kBq/m2) and leafy vegetables (10 kBq/m2). For this reason, and because there was a threat of a further release, the federal emergency plan was activated on 28/08 and the population potentially concerned was recommended to avoid consumption of locally produced fruits, vegetables and fresh milk. These protective actions were lifted on 7/09 and the emergency plan was lifted on 12/09. The main lesson learned from this event concerns the paramount importance of the rapid exchange of information that is as accurate and complete as possible between the different stakeholders: from the operator up to the population, through federal and local authorities. (authors)

  16. Calculation of Doses Due to Accidentally Released Plutonium From An LMFBR

    Fish, B.R.

    2001-08-07

    Experimental data and analytical models that should be considered in assessing the transport properties of plutonium aerosols following a hypothetical reactor accident have been examined. Behaviors of released airborne materials within the reactor containment systems, as well as in the atmosphere near the reactor site boundaries, have been semiquantitatively predicted from experimental data and analytical models. The fundamental chemistry of plutonium as it may be applied in biological systems has been used to prepare models related to the intake and metabolism of plutonium dioxide, the fuel material of interest. Attempts have been made to calculate the possible doses from plutonium aerosols for a typical analyzed release in order to evaluate the magnitude of the internal exposure hazards that might exist in the vicinity of the reactor after a hypothetical LMFBR (Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor) accident. Intake of plutonium (using data for {sup 239}Pu as an example) and its distribution in the body were treated parametrically without regard to the details of transport pathways in the environment. To the extent possible, dose-response data and models have been reviewed, and an assessment of their adequacy has been made so that recommended or preferred practices could be developed.

  17. Radioiodine: a boon and a bane emergency preparedness during accidental release of radioiodine

    Radioiodine, can be a double edged sword and can be dangerous and lethal. It will turn out to be a bane rather than a boon, exposing millions of individuals in and far away from the side of accident across geographical borders depending upon the weather conditions. Iodine is an indispensable element because of its being a constituent of the thyroid hormones, biosynthesized and released from the thyroid gland for the growth and over all metabolic functions. This gland weighing 20-30 g in a normal human adult, is comparatively very vascular organ with 5 lit. of blood flowing through it every hour. It contains 90% of the body iodine amounting to 5000-7000 μg, in the form of iodo aminoacids

  18. Forecasting the consequences of accidental releases of radionuclides in the atmosphere from ensemble dispersion modelling

    The RTMOD system is presented as a tool for the intercomparison of long-range dispersion models as well as a system for support of decision making. RTMOD is an internet-based procedure that collects the results of more than 20 models used around the world to predict the transport and deposition of radioactive releases in the atmosphere. It allows the real-time acquisition of model results and their intercomparison. Taking advantage of the availability of several model results, the system can also be used as a tool to support decision making in case of emergency. The new concept of ensemble dispersion modelling is introduced which is the basis for the decision-making application of RTMOD. New statistical parameters are presented that allow gathering the results of several models to produce a single dispersion forecast. The devised parameters are presented and tested on the results of RTMOD exercises

  19. Time-integrated thyroid dose for accidental releases from Pakistan Research Reactor-1

    The two-hourly time-integrated thyroid dose due to radio-iodines released to the atmosphere through the exhaust stack of Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1), under accident conditions, has been calculated. A computer program, PAKRAD (which was developed under an IAEA research grant, PAK/RCA/8990), was used for the dose calculations. The sensitivity of the dose results to different exhaust flow rates and atmospheric stability classes was studied. The effect of assuming a constant activity concentration (as a function of time) within the containment air volume and an exponentially decreasing air concentration on the time-integrated dose was also studied for various flow rates (1000-50,000 m3 h-1). The comparison indicated that the results were insensitive to the containment air exhaust rates up to or below 2000 m3 h-1, when the prediction with the constant activity concentration assumption was compared to an exponentially decreasing activity concentration model. The results also indicated that the plume touchdown distance increases with increasing atmospheric stability. (note)

  20. Time-integrated thyroid dose for accidental releases from Pakistan Research Reactor-1.

    Raza, S Shoaib; Iqbal, M; Salahuddin, A; Avila, R; Pervez, S

    2004-09-01

    The two-hourly time-integrated thyroid dose due to radio-iodines released to the atmosphere through the exhaust stack of Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1), under accident conditions, has been calculated. A computer program, PAKRAD (which was developed under an IAEA research grant, PAK/RCA/8990), was used for the dose calculations. The sensitivity of the dose results to different exhaust flow rates and atmospheric stability classes was studied. The effect of assuming a constant activity concentration (as a function of time) within the containment air volume and an exponentially decreasing air concentration on the time-integrated dose was also studied for various flow rates (1000-50000 m3 h(-1)). The comparison indicated that the results were insensitive to the containment air exhaust rates up to or below 2000 m3 h(-1), when the prediction with the constant activity concentration assumption was compared to an exponentially decreasing activity concentration model. The results also indicated that the plume touchdown distance increases with increasing atmospheric stability. PMID:15511022

  1. Consideration for modelling studies of migration of accidentally released radionuclides in a river watershed

    Concerning radionuclides that might be released in an event of an accident from a nuclear facility, much attention has been paid to the migration pathways including the atmospheric deposition and subsequent inflow to surface water bodies since the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986. In European countries, computer-coded systems for predicting the migration including those pathways and providing scientific supports for decision makers to manage the contamination have been developed. This report is a summary of presentations and discussion made at the occasion of the visit of Dr. Monte in order to have directions related to the current subject of research, development of a mathematical model of the behavior of radionuclides in a river watershed. Those presentations and discussions were made at JAERI and also at prominent universities and institutes of Japan involved in this study field. As a result of these discussions, distinct advantages and key issues in use of a mathematical model for prediction of the migration of radionuclides in a river watershed have been identified and analyzed. It was confirmed that the use of mathematical modeling has distinct advantages. Re-arrangement of the existing experimental knowledge on the environment in an ordered way according to a theory (a mathematical model) will lead to a new angle to consider a problem in that environment, despite several gaps in the data array. A model to assess the radionuclide behaviour in contaminated aquatic ecosystems is a basis of decision analysis tools for helping decision-makers to select the most appropriate intervention strategies for the ecosystems. Practical use of a mathematical model and continuous effort in its validation were recognized as crucial. (author)

  2. Leakage and accidental releases from Sillamaee waste depository and environmental risk assessment

    An environmental risk assessment has been performed for the Sillamaee depository. The object of the study is to illustrate the consequences to man if the hazardous substances contained in the depository reach the sea. Two cases were studied: 1) the environmental impact at present conditions with a relatively low continuous leakage of the elements from the dam, and 2) the impact from a sudden dam collapse. The radiological dose impact on the population in the Baltic Sea area has been calculated for the observed leaking rate. The highest individual dose is less than 1μSv while for the dam collapse the dose will be in the order of 2 μSv and the dominant exposure pathway is via consumption of fish. The collective dose is about 1 manSv (emanating from fish caught in all parts of the Baltic Sea for both cases). Furthermore, the consequences of release of some metals (copper, zinc, niobium and molybdenum) were studied in the case of a dam break. In the Bay of Narva, outside the nearest coast, the additional contribution to the natural concentration in water will be neglectable for zinc and niobium. However, for copper and molybdenum the concentration will rise considerably during the first year. The additional load from the depository will still after 50 years be in the same order as published concentrations in the sea. The intake by man of those metals via fish caught in the Bay of Narva will be well below the limits of intake for zinc and molybdenum, (no recommendation of limits for niobium was found), while the calculated intake of copper from the depository will be in the same order as internationally recommended limits of intake. 34 refs

  3. Decision analysis of countermeasures for the milk pathway after an accidental release of radionuclides

    A facilitated workshop was arranged to plan countermeasures that could reduce the dose arising from the consumption of radionuclide-contaminated milk products. It was assumed that a hypothetical accident in a nuclear facility had led to the release of considerable amounts of radionuclides, which subsequently spread across one of Finland's most important agricultural regions and contaminated the milk produced there. The participants in the workshop, interest groups on food issues, considered all the factors influencing the countermeasure decision, not only radiological or monetary ones but less tangible psychosocial effects as well. The participants preferred the countermeasures provision of uncontaminated fodder and production control to banning and disposal. The analysis showed that these countermeasures could be implemented even if the radionuclide concentrations in foodstuffs were below internationally recommended intervention levels. Banning and withdrawal of milk products from sale was not a favourable option, because of the high costs and disadvantages to producers and the industry, and because the disposal of enormous amounts of milk causes a considerable environmental problem. The study revealed the need to further develop methods to realistically assess the radiological and cost implications of food countermeasures. The feasibility and constraints of actions also need further investigation. The experience gained strongly supports the format of a facilitated workshop to tackle a decision problem that concerns different stakeholders. The participants considered the workshop and the decision analysis very useful in exercises. They also expected a similar approach to be applicable in a real situation, although the suitability was not rated as high as for exercises. It is concluded that a facilitated workshop is a valuable instrument for emergency management and in exercises, when revising emergency plans or in order to identify issues that need to be resolved

  4. Use of taste repellants and emetics to prevent accidental poisoning of dogs.

    Houpt, K; Zgoda, J C; Stahlbaum, C C

    1984-08-01

    Twelve taste repellents and 3 oral emetics were tested. The taste repellents were capsaicin, capsicum, oleoresin, sucrose octaacetate, quinine tonic, quassia wood extract, vanillamide, horseradish extract, caffeine, pepperoni enhancer, acorn extract, and commercially available bitter and hot flavors. The emetics tested were: antimony potassium tartrate, apomorphine, and copper sulfate. Intake of a 20% sucrose solution by Beagles was significantly depressed by addition of vanillamide at concentrations greater than 0.001%, by capsicum and capsaicin at concentrations greater than 0.01%, and by horseradish extract, pepperoni enhancer, and a commercially available hot flavor at concentrations greater than 0.1%. Antimony potassium tartrate, when added to the 20% sucrose solution at a concentration of 0.1%, produced emesis as did apomorphine at a concentration of 0.005% and copper sulfate at 1%. When the emetic antimony potassium tartrate was combined with vanillamide in a 20% sucrose solution, intake was reduced to less than 20 ml, and vomiting occurred within 15 minutes. Capsaicin (0.02%) inhibited intake of ethylene glycol to less than the lethal dose in 5 dogs tested. Incorporation of such taste repellents and/or emetics into potentially poisonous substances would reduce accidental poisoning of animals and children. PMID:6476561

  5. Toxics Release Inventory Pollution Prevention Search Tool

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a publicly available EPA database that contains information on toxic chemical releases and waste management and pollution...

  6. An integrated, multi-scale modelling approach for the simulation of multiphase dispersion from accidental CO2 pipeline releases in realistic terrain

    Woolley, RM; Fairweather, M.; Wareing, CJ; Proust, C.; Hebrard, J; Jamois, D.; Narasimhamurthy, VD; Storvik, IE; Skjold, T; Falle, SAEG; S. Brown; Mahgerefteh, H.; Martynov, S.; Gant, SE; Tsangaris, DM

    2014-01-01

    The deployment of a complete carbon capture and storage chain requires a focus upon the hazards posed by the operation of pipelines transporting carbon dioxide (CO2) at high pressure in a dense-phase (supercritical or liquid state). The consequences of an intentional or accidental release from such pipelines must be considered as an integral part of the design process. There are a number of unique challenges to modelling these releases due to the unusual phase-transition behaviour of CO2. Add...

  7. Prevention and management of accidental foreign body ingestion and aspiration in orthodontic practice

    Umesan UK; Chua KL; Balakrishnan P

    2012-01-01

    Uday Kumar Umesan,1 Kui Lay Chua,1 Priya Balakrishnan21National Dental Centre, 2Kg Kiarong, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei DarussalamAbstract: Among the myriad emergencies that could arise in the dental clinical setting there are a few that occur occasionally despite being entirely preventable. Ingestion or aspiration of dental materials, appliances, or instruments comprises this category. Regardless of incidence, foreign body ingestion or aspiration episodes are recognized as potential complica...

  8. Prevention and management of accidental foreign body ingestion and aspiration in orthodontic practice

    Umesan UK

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Uday Kumar Umesan,1 Kui Lay Chua,1 Priya Balakrishnan21National Dental Centre, 2Kg Kiarong, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei DarussalamAbstract: Among the myriad emergencies that could arise in the dental clinical setting there are a few that occur occasionally despite being entirely preventable. Ingestion or aspiration of dental materials, appliances, or instruments comprises this category. Regardless of incidence, foreign body ingestion or aspiration episodes are recognized as potential complications in the specialty of orthodontics. Despite their infrequent occurrence, the morbidity from a single incident and the amount of specialty medical care that may be needed to manage such incidents is too high to ignore. There is also the associated risk of malpractice litigation given the fact that these incidents are preventable. At present, no clear guidelines exist regarding prevention of this emergency in practice. This article attempts to review relevant literature and aims to formulate certain recommendations based on best available evidence to minimize the incidence of such events, while also suggesting guidelines toward making their management more effective. A flow chart outlining management options and strategies to aid the clinician in the event of such an emergency is also presented.Keywords: foreign bodies, ingestion, orthodontics, respiratory aspiration, orthodontic appliances

  9. Prevention and management of accidental foreign body ingestion and aspiration in orthodontic practice.

    Umesan, Uday Kumar; Chua, Kui Lay; Balakrishnan, Priya

    2012-01-01

    Among the myriad emergencies that could arise in the dental clinical setting there are a few that occur occasionally despite being entirely preventable. Ingestion or aspiration of dental materials, appliances, or instruments comprises this category. Regardless of incidence, foreign body ingestion or aspiration episodes are recognized as potential complications in the specialty of orthodontics. Despite their infrequent occurrence, the morbidity from a single incident and the amount of specialty medical care that may be needed to manage such incidents is too high to ignore. There is also the associated risk of malpractice litigation given the fact that these incidents are preventable. At present, no clear guidelines exist regarding prevention of this emergency in practice. This article attempts to review relevant literature and aims to formulate certain recommendations based on best available evidence to minimize the incidence of such events, while also suggesting guidelines toward making their management more effective. A flow chart outlining management options and strategies to aid the clinician in the event of such an emergency is also presented. PMID:22701326

  10. Assessment of the Public Health impact from the accidental release of UF6 at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation Facility at Gore, Oklahoma (Docket No. 40-8027). Volume 2

    Following the accidental release of UF6 from the Sequoyah Fuels Facility on January 4, 1986, an Ad Hoc Interagency Public Health Assessment Task Force was established. The Task Force consists of technical staff members from various agencies who have prepared this assessment of the public health impact associated with the accidental release. Volume 2 of the report contains Appendices which provide more detailed information used in the assessment and support the discussion in Volume 1

  11. The GIS-based SafeAirView software for the concentration assessment of radioactive pollutants after an accidental release

    The European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy) has long been running nuclear installations for research purposes. The Nuclear Decommissioning and Facilities Management Unit (NDFM) is responsible for the surveillance of radioactivity levels in nuclear emergency conditions. The NDFM Unit has commissioned the implementation of a specifically developed decision support system, which can be used for quick emergency evaluation in the case of hypothetical accident and for emergency exercises. The requisites were to be a user-friendly software, able to quickly calculate and display values of air and ground radioactive contamination in the complex area around JRC, following an accidental release of radioactive substances from a JRC nuclear research installation. The developed software, named 'SafeAirView', is an advanced implementation of GIS technology applied to an existing MS-DOS mode dispersion model, SAFEAIR (Simulation of Air pollution From EmissionsAbove Inhomogeneous Regions). SAFEAIR is a numerical model which simulates transport, diffusion, and deposition of airborne pollutants emitted in the low atmosphere above complex orography at both local and regional scale, under non-stationary and inhomogeneous emission and meteorological conditions. SafeAirView makes use of user-friendly MS-Windows type interface which drives the dispersion model by a sequential and continuous input-output process, allowing a real time simulation. The GIS environment allows a direct interaction with the territory elements in which the simulation takes place, using data for the JRC Ispra region represented in geo-referenced cartography. Furthermore it offers the possibility to relate concentrations with population distribution and other geo-referenced maps, in a geographic view. Output concentration and deposition patterns can be plotted and/or exported. In spite of the selected specific databases, the SafeAirView software architecture is a general structure

  12. Review of decontamination and clean-up techniques for use in the UK following accidental releases of radioactivity to the environment

    This review examines decontamination and clean-up methodologies that may be applied following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere in the UK. An accidental release of radionuclides to the environment could cause contamination of land and property, and may necessitate movement of the resident population to reduce their exposure. Decontamination procedures may reduce the level of contamination and, in determining whether to implement such procedures in an affected area, it is necessary to weigh the effectiveness of the techniques against the associated economic costs and other disadvantages. The report gives a review of available methods of decontamination and clean-up in terms of the effectiveness of the various methods to remove activity from building or land surfaces and dose saved. It also considers associated disadvantages, costs, clean-up rates for land and buildings, waste disposal implications, and personnel and resource requirements. On the basis of these factors, the techniques are prioritised and overall strategies for decontamination following releases of both fission products and alpha emitters are presented. (author)

  13. The radiological consequences of notional accidental releases of radioactivity from fast breeder reactors: sensitivity of the incidence of early effects to the duration

    The radiological consequences of a wide range of notional accidental releases from a 1300 MW(e) LMFBR were assessed in a study published in 1977 (NRPB-R53). In that study representative values were in general adopted for each of the important parameters while recognising that in reality they could vary considerably. In this study the sensitivity of the predicted incidence of early effects to the release duration, in so far as it affects the crosswind spread of the activity, is investigated. Two situations are considered; a short release in which the crosswind distribution of the activity is assumed to be Gaussian and a more prolonged release (as modelled in the initial study) in which the crosswind distribution of activity is assumed uniform over a 300 sector. For the particular conditions and population distributions considered, the incidence of early effects is greater for the short compared with the more prolonged release. The size of the increase depends upon the radionuclide composition, the magnitude of the release, the distribution of the exposed population, and the prevailing meteorological conditions, but in general the increase is not large. This relatively limited sensitivity indicates that the results obtained in the initial study can be assumed, to a good approximation, to be applicable irrespective of the release duration. (author)

  14. Predictive contamination of animal products due to the inhalation of air and the ingestion of soil of cattle in an accidental release of radioactive materials. Focusing on contaminative influence of milk

    In an accidental release of radioactive materials to the environment, the contaminative influence of animal products due to the inhalation of air and the ingestion of soil of cattle, both of which are considered as minor contaminative pathways in most radioecological models but may be important ones, was investigated with the improvement of the Korean radioecological model DYNACON. Although mathematical models for both contaminative pathways have been established for considering all animal products and incorporated into the model, investigation was limited to milk. As a result, it was found that both pathways are influential in the contamination of milk during the non-grazing period of dairy cows. Precipitation was an influential factor in milk contamination due to the ingestion of soil, especially for 137Cs. In the case of an accidental release during the grazing period of dairy cows, the contaminative influence due to the inhalation of air was negligible irrespective of the existence of precipitation during an accidental release. (author)

  15. The radiological consequences of notional accidental releases of radioactivity from fast breeder reactors: sensitivity to the dose-effect relationships adopted for early biological effects

    This study considered the sensitivity to the dose-response relationships adopted for the estimation of early biological effects from notional accidental releases of radioactivity from fast breeder reactors. Two distinct aspects were considered: the sensitivity of the predicted consequences to variation in the dose-mortality relationships for irradiation of the bone marrow and the lung; and the influence of simple supportive medical treatment in reducing the incidence of early deaths in the exposed population. The numbers of early effects estimated in the initial study were relatively insensitive to variation in the dose-mortality relationships within the bounds proposed. The few exceptions concerned releases of particular nuclide composition, and the variation in the predicted consequences could be around an order of magnitude; the absolute numbers of effects however were in general small when the sensitivity was most pronounced. The reduction in the incidence of early deaths when using simple supportive treatment varied markedly with the nuclide composition of the release. Areas of uncertainty were identified where further research and investigation might most profitably be directed with a view to improving the reliability of the dose-effect relationships adopted and hence of the predicted consequences of the release considered. (author)

  16. Liquid pathway generic study. Impacts of accidental radioactive releases to the hydrosphere from floating and land-based nuclear power plants

    The staff concludes that for representative sites, there are differences in the impacts of accidental radioactive releases to the hydrosphere between floating nuclear plants (FNPs) and land-based plants (LBPs) of the ice-condenser type. The consequences of releases from design basis accidents are found to be lower for an FNP than for an LBP. For core-melt events which we consider to be of very low probability, the staff results indicate that the expected liquid pathway consequences are higher at an FNP than at an LBP, and that interdiction at the site is not likely for an FNP. The staff considers this combination of differences in release magnitude and interdiction potential to be significant. An assessment of the overall significance of the total risk associated with potential releases to liquid and airborne pathways will be considered in a forthcoming environmental impact statement for the FNP. This environmental impact statement will include a consideration of the environmental, social, and economic impacts of the operation of the FNP, as well as a value-impact analysis of alternatives which may avoid or mitigate radiological impacts to the environment

  17. The restraint of accidental blowout following the core meltdown of a bwr by release of pressure and filtering

    The report discusses core meltdown which may cause high pressure and blow the reactor containment. This might involve fission product release. A way to limit the release is to permit a controlled blowing of gases and vapour through a filter. The filter could be composed of a stonebed, a sandbed or a water basin. The specifications of a design applicable to a filtered release are discussed. (G.B.)

  18. Description of the SAFRAN Models for Evaluation of Worker Exposure Resulting from Accidental Release of Airborne Radioactive Materials snd User’s Guide. Annex I

    This document describes the method used in the SAFRAN tool for the calculation of exposure arising from accidental release of airborne radioactive materials. Models can be used for evaluation of occupational exposure to allow comparison with the relevant dose limiting criteria. Presently, four models are available to address different exposure conditions. The first three are ‘no dilution’ model, ‘gradual mixing’ model and ‘complete mixing’ model. The fourth combined ‘gradual mixing / complete mixing’ model is a combination of the two last models and allows the user to run subsequently the ‘gradual mixing and ‘complete mixing’ models. Each of the models are created using Ecolego. Each of the models is described and their practical use is explained

  19. R91-STAR (Short Term Accidental Release) and action plan and their use in aiding decision making for implementation of agriculture countermeasures

    This paper briefly describes the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food's arrangements to deal with a nuclear accident in England, and how technical information is translated into advice for decision makers. Two systems, R91-STAR (Short Term Accidental Release), a plume dispersion model, and Action-Plan, a geographic information system, are described, highlighting how these systems are used to produce predictions of the likely consequences to the food chain, the use of field measurements to improve model calculations and the subsequent production of advice for decision makers. Developments are discussed including linkage of the two systems to allow for direct flow data without multiple input, and to automate some calculations currently done manually. Practical examples of its use are also outlined. (author)

  20. Risk assessment, risk management and risk-based monitoring following a reported accidental release of poliovirus in Belgium, September to November 2014.

    Duizer, Erwin; Rutjes, Saskia; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Schijven, Jack

    2016-01-01

    On 6 September 2014, the accidental release of 10(13) infectious wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) particles by a vaccine production plant in Belgium was reported. WPV3 was released into the sewage system and discharged directly to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and subsequently into rivers that flowed to the Western Scheldt and the North Sea. No poliovirus was detected in samples from the WWTP, surface waters, mussels or sewage from the Netherlands. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) showed that the infection risks resulting from swimming in Belgium waters were above 50% for several days and that the infection risk by consuming shellfish harvested in the eastern part of the Western Scheldt warranted a shellfish cooking advice. We conclude that the reported release of WPV3 has neither resulted in detectable levels of poliovirus in any of the samples nor in poliovirus circulation in the Netherlands. This QMRA showed that relevant data on water flows were not readily available and that prior assumptions on dilution factors were overestimated. A QMRA should have been performed by all vaccine production facilities before starting up large-scale culture of WPV to be able to implement effective interventions when an accident happens. PMID:27020766

  1. The radiological consequences of notional accidental releases of radioactivity from fast breeder reactors: sensitivity to the choice of atmospheric dispersion model

    The radiological consequences of a wide range of notional accidental releases from a 1300 MW(e) LMFBR were assessed in a study published in 1977 (NRPB - R53). In that study representative values were in general adopted for each of the important parameters while recognising that in reality they could vary considerably. The present study is concerned with the sensitivity of the predicted consequences to the choice of atmospheric dispersion models. A comparison is made of the air concentrations predicted by a number of atmospheric models (which have found broad application) for releases of activity in selected meteorological conditions. The implications, in terms of the radiological consequences of particular releases, of differences in the air concentrations predicted by the respective models are assessed semi-quantitatively. In general the radiological consequences are shown to be relatively insensitive to the choice of atmospheric dispersion model. This is particularly so for the incidence of late biological effects; for early biological effects the sensitivity is more pronounced although of the models considered, that adopted in the initial study would yield results at the upper end of the predicted range. (author)

  2. Mobility of accidentally released radiocesium in a 'soil-water' system: looking at Fukushima from Chernobyl perspective - Mobility and bioavailability of radiocesium of accidental origin: looking at Fukushima from Chernobyl perspective

    Konoplev, Alexei; Nanba, Kenji; Takase, Tsugiko; Zheleznyak, Mark [Institute of Environmental Radioactivity, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan); Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi [Center for Research in Isotopes and Environmental Dynamics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8572 (Japan); Yoshimura, Kazuya [Sector of Fukushima Research and Development, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokyo 100-8577 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Mobility and bioavailability of radiocesium of accidental origin is governed by the ratio of radiocesium chemical forms in fallout and site-specific environmental characteristics determining the rates of leaching, fixation/remobilization, as well as sorption-desorption of the mobile fraction (its solid-liquid distribution). When the Chernobyl accident occurred, fuel particles were released which determined the two main features of the Chernobyl-origin radiocesium behavior: a) the initial mobility and availability of radiocesium in the near field was lower that for similar conditions in case of the global fallout, the Kyshtym accident and application of isotopes in the form of solutions; b) deposition of fuel particles on the underlying surface, primarily in the near field, led to strong dependence of the radiocesium initial mobility on the distance to the damaged reactor. In the case of the Fukushima accident there are no grounds to anticipate a dependence of the initial mobility of deposited radiocesium on the distance to the nuclear power plant, i.e. the initial chemical forms of radiocesium can probably be taken to be identical on all parts of the trail. A conceptual model was proposed for the key transformation processes of radiocesium speciation in soil and water bodies. The model includes the processes of radiocesium leaching from deposited particles, sorption-desorption by the ion-exchange mechanism, fixation and remobilization. The uncertainty associated with estimates and predictions of radionuclides behavior in the natural environmental media can be significantly reduced through the use of the exchangeable distribution coefficient K{sub dex} instead of the total K{sub dtot}. A method for parameterization of the wash-off coefficients using hydrological characteristics of the run-off has been proposed, which enables the experimental characteristics obtained in Chernobyl to be used for prediction purposes on Fukushima territories. A model has been proposed

  3. Mobility of accidentally released radiocesium in a 'soil-water' system: looking at Fukushima from Chernobyl perspective - Mobility and bioavailability of radiocesium of accidental origin: looking at Fukushima from Chernobyl perspective

    Mobility and bioavailability of radiocesium of accidental origin is governed by the ratio of radiocesium chemical forms in fallout and site-specific environmental characteristics determining the rates of leaching, fixation/remobilization, as well as sorption-desorption of the mobile fraction (its solid-liquid distribution). When the Chernobyl accident occurred, fuel particles were released which determined the two main features of the Chernobyl-origin radiocesium behavior: a) the initial mobility and availability of radiocesium in the near field was lower that for similar conditions in case of the global fallout, the Kyshtym accident and application of isotopes in the form of solutions; b) deposition of fuel particles on the underlying surface, primarily in the near field, led to strong dependence of the radiocesium initial mobility on the distance to the damaged reactor. In the case of the Fukushima accident there are no grounds to anticipate a dependence of the initial mobility of deposited radiocesium on the distance to the nuclear power plant, i.e. the initial chemical forms of radiocesium can probably be taken to be identical on all parts of the trail. A conceptual model was proposed for the key transformation processes of radiocesium speciation in soil and water bodies. The model includes the processes of radiocesium leaching from deposited particles, sorption-desorption by the ion-exchange mechanism, fixation and remobilization. The uncertainty associated with estimates and predictions of radionuclides behavior in the natural environmental media can be significantly reduced through the use of the exchangeable distribution coefficient Kdex instead of the total Kdtot. A method for parameterization of the wash-off coefficients using hydrological characteristics of the run-off has been proposed, which enables the experimental characteristics obtained in Chernobyl to be used for prediction purposes on Fukushima territories. A model has been proposed for

  4. 14 CFR 1213.106 - Preventing release of classified information to the media.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preventing release of classified... ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF INFORMATION TO NEWS AND INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.106 Preventing release of classified... employee from responsibility for preventing any unauthorized release. See NPR 1600.1, Chapter 5, Section...

  5. Modelling of the tritium dispersion from postulated accidental release of nuclear power plants; Modelagem da dispersao de tritio a partir de liberacoes acidentais postuladas de centrais nucleares

    Soares, Abner Duarte; Simoes Filho, Francisco Fernando Lamego; Cunha, Tatiana Santos da [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Aguiar, Andre Silva de; Lapa, Celso Marcelo Franklin, E-mail: asoares@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: flamego@ien.gov.b, E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This study has the aim to assess the impact of accidental release of tritium postulate from a nuclear power reactor through environmental modeling of aquatic resources. In order to do that it was used computational models to simulation of tritium dispersion caused by an accident in a Candu reactor located in the ongoing Angra 3 site. The Candu reactor is one that uses heavy water (D{sub 2}O) as moderator and coolant of the core. It was postulated, then, the LOCA accident (without fusion), where was lost 66 m3 of soda almost instantaneously. This inventory contained 35 P Bq and was released a load of 9.7 TBq/s in liquid form near the Itaorna beach, Angra dos Reis - RJ. The models mentioned above were applied in two scenarios (plant stopped or operating) and showed a tritium plume with specific activities larger than the reference level for seawater (1.1 MBq/m{sup 3}) during the first 14 days after the accident. (author)

  6. Prevention and mitigation of groundwater contamination from radioactive releases

    This document gives basic information on potential pathways and mechanisms, by which radioactive materials from releases can reach man, and on modelling considerations to predict the behaviour of radioactive materials in the ground. The main objective is to present an overview of existing techniques for preventing the offsite releases of contaminants into the groundwater systems and techniques for mitigation of effects of such releases should they occur. The recommended techniques are fully applicable to any hazardous materials, such as organic liquids, and toxic materials or otherwise dangerous materials, the presence of which in the accessible biosphere can represent health risks as well as economic losses to the general public. 11 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  7. SPEEDI: a computer code system for the real-time prediction of radiation dose to the public due to an accidental release

    SPEEDI, a computer code system for prediction of environmental doses from radioactive materials accidentally released from a nuclear plant has been developed to assist the organizations responsible for an emergency planning. For realistic simulation, have been developed a model which statistically predicts the basic wind data and then calculates the three-dimensional mass consistent wind field by interpolating these predicted data, and a model for calculation of the diffusion of released materials using a combined model of random-walk and PICK methods. These calculation in the system is carried out in conversational mode with a computer so that we may use the system with ease in an emergency. SPEEDI has also versatile files, which make it easy to control the complicated flows of calculation. In order to attain a short computation time, a large-scale computer with performance of 25 MIPS and a vector processor of maximum 250 MFLOPS are used for calculation of the models so that quick responses have been made. Simplified models are also prepared for calculation in a minicomputer widely used by local governments and research institutes, although the precision of calculation as same with the above models can not be expected to obtain. The present report outlines the structure and functions of SPEEDI, methods for prediction of the wind field and the models for calculation of the concentration of released materials in air and on the ground, and the doses to the public. Some of the diffusion models have been compared with the field experiments which had been carried out as a part of the SPEEDI development program. The report also discusses the reliability of the diffusion models on the basis of the compared results, and shows that they can reasonably simulate the diffusion in the internal boundary layer which commonly occurs near the coastal region. (J.P.N.)

  8. Accidental Innovation

    Austin, Robert D.; Devin, Lee; Sullivan, Erin E.

    2012-01-01

    Historical accounts of human achievement suggest that accidents can play an important role in innovation. In this paper, we seek to contribute to an understanding of how digital systems might support valuable unpredictability in innovation processes by examining how innovators who obtain value from...... they incorporate accidents into their deliberate processes and arranged surroundings. By comparing makers working in varied conditions, we identify specific factors (e.g., technologies, characteristics of technologies) that appear to support accidental innovation. We show that makers in certain specified...... conditions not only remain open to accident but also intentionally design their processes and surroundings to invite and exploit valuable accidents. Based on these findings, we offer advice for the design of digital systems to support innovation processes that can access valuable unpredictability....

  9. A computer code to estimate accidental fire and radioactive airborne releases in nuclear fuel cycle facilities: User's manual for FIRIN

    This manual describes the technical bases and use of the computer code FIRIN. This code was developed to estimate the source term release of smoke and radioactive particles from potential fires in nuclear fuel cycle facilities. FIRIN is a product of a broader study, Fuel Cycle Accident Analysis, which Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The technical bases of FIRIN consist of a nonradioactive fire source term model, compartment effects modeling, and radioactive source term models. These three elements interact with each other in the code affecting the course of the fire. This report also serves as a complete FIRIN user's manual. Included are the FIRIN code description with methods/algorithms of calculation and subroutines, code operating instructions with input requirements, and output descriptions. 40 refs., 5 figs., 31 tabs

  10. Dutch distribution zones of stable iodine tablets based on atmospheric dispersion modelling of accidental releases from nuclear power plants

    Rapid administration of stable iodine is essential for the saturation and subsequent protection of the thyroid gland against the potential harm caused by radio-iodines. This paper proposes the Dutch risk analysis that uses an atmospheric dispersion model to calculate the size of the zones around nuclear power plants where radiological thyroid doses for children might be sufficiently high to warrant iodine administration. Dose calculations for possible releases from the nuclear power plants of Borssele (The Netherlands), Doel (Belgium) and Emsland (Germany) are based on two scenarios in combination with a 1-y set of authentic, high-resolution meteorological data. The dimensions of the circular zones were defined for each nuclear power plant. In these zones, with a radius up to 50 km, distribution of stable iodine tablets is advised. (authors)

  11. Accidental release of UF6 at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation facility at Gore, Oklahoma, U.S.A

    On January 4, 1986, a 14-ton UF6 cylinder ruptured at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation (SFC) site at Gore, Oklahoma, U.S.A., resulting in a massive release of uranium hexafluoride. One SFC worker was killed and some workers were hospitalized. About 100 offsite individuals were admitted for medical screening in a local hospital. Shortly after the accident, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) gathered a group of experts (the Ad Hoc Interagency Task Force) to assess the potential health impact to the general public from this accident. In addition, the NRC formed a group to review and improve the protection of the general public from future accidents. A description of the accident, the public health impact, development of procedures for hospital screening, suggestions for future improvements, and the requirement for emergency planning for this type of facility is discussed in the following sections

  12. Evaluation of radiation doses to man due to consumption of milk and leafy vegetables after the accidental atmospheric releases of 131I and 137Cs

    This paper deals with the evaluation of doses to man due to the consumption of milk and leafy vegetables after accidental environmental releases of 131I, and 137Cs. In this study air to plant transfer factors have been experimentally determined using a specially designed exposure chamber. The experimentally obtained mass interception factors for spinach and fenugreek are 0.18 and 0.14 m2 kg-1 (wet weight basis) respectively. The average yearly consumption of leafy vegetable and milk by an adult Indian is 28 kg and 39 liter as per the UNSCEAR-2000. The large milching animals in India on an average, consume about 8.1 kg/day of dry grass. Washing of these plants, brings down the level of contamination and hence radiation doses to man by 20-30%. The dose received by a member of public by consuming milk and leafy vegetable works out to about 409 and 170 nSv per day with 1 kBq m-2 ground deposition, each of 131I and 137Cs. (author)

  13. User Guide ECOREA-RICE (version 1.0). Program for assessing the transfer of radionuclides released accidentally onto flooded rice-fields

    The computer code ECOREA-RICE is a dynamic compartment model that is specially designed for estimating the transfer of radionuclides deposited onto flooded rice-fields after an accidental release. The model consists of six independent compartments including rice-body, grain, surface water, root-zone soil, fixed soil and deep soil, and takes into account the transfer processes including radioactive decay, percolation, leaching, shoot-base absorption, root-uptake, weathering, translocation, fixation in soil by adsorption and desorption, and soil-mixing by plowing. The rate of the change of radioactivity in compartments is expressed by a set of the first order ordinary differential equations, which are solved by the fourth order Runge-Kutta algorithm. Input to the program includes the deposition date, transplanting date, ear emergence date, harvest date, soil data, the biomass data of rice-plant, and rate constants associated with transfer processes. Output includes the list of input data, the activity of radionuclides in compartment, the rate constant, and the transfer factor of rice-body and grain with time

  14. The contribution of the CSNI Principal Working Group on Confinement of Accidental Radioactive Releases to the technical consensus and spreading of knowledge on severe accidents

    The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) is an international committee made up of scientists and engineers. It was set up 1973 to develop and co-ordinate the activities of the NEA concerning the technical aspects of the design, construction and operation of nuclear installations insofar as they affect the safety of such installations. The Committee's purpose is to foster international cooperation in nuclear safety amongst the Member countries. Five Principal Working Groups (PWG) operate under the leadership of CSNI. PWG4 is named 'Confinement of Accidental Radioactive Releases' and its main activities are State of the Art Reports, International Standard Problem exercises, Specialist Meetings and Technical Opinion Papers. Together with other groups of experts involved in severe accident work, PWG4 has strongly contributed to the understanding of phenomena and the development of the knowledge base in that area, to the resolution of technical issues, and to the dissemination of the results. Taking examples from the products of the work of PWG4, the paper shows how this working group fosters international co-operation in the area of severe accidents and their management, and contributes to the development of a technical consensus. (author)

  15. Derived emergency reference levels for the introduction of countermeasures in the early and intermediate phases of accidental releases to atmosphere

    When an unplanned release of radioactive material to atmosphere is identified or suspected, environmental survey teams under the direction of the operator of the nuclear installation are sent into the anticipated path of the plume of activity to make measurements and take samples. In the case of external dose, measurements can be easily related to projected doses to individual members of the public. However, the radiological interpretation of measurements of airborne activity concentrations, of activity levels on soil, pasture grass and crops, and of radionuclide levels in milk and drinking water requires the use of quantities which relate the appropriate environmental concentration to an implied dose. The derivation of these quantities is not a simple procedure, particularly when they are to be generally applicable. It involves interpretation of the primary dose criteria which have been established for planning the introduction of countermeasures, making assumptions about the habits of the group of people who could receive the highest doses, and using mathematical models to obtain a relationship between dose and activity concentrations in environmental materials. The paper describes recent work by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) to provide guidance on derived quantities for use in the United Kingdom (UK). While some of the numerical values obtained are specific to UK conditions, the methods and models are more generally applicable. (author)

  16. Impact of 1986 Chernobyl accidental radioactive release on biomass supply for industrial use in central western Belarus

    The 1986 reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) in Ukraine had caused considerable radioactive fallouts throughout much of Belarus. It has been estimated that more than 20 % of Belarus would still remain contaminated with radionuclides 30 years after the NPP accident. Residual Cs-137 radionuclide is considered to be the most important. The physical half-life of Cs-137 is 30 years. Relatively high level of Cs-137 was identified to have been deposited in the top soil of several areas in the western region of Grodno oblast, during the first decade after the NPP accident. The mobility of Cs-137 in the soil is similar to that of K. In the 2004 survey data released by the United Nations, Cs-137 in the top soil of most of Belarus appeared to have dissipated largely into the natural cycle, including physical decay, high water solubility, and transference from the soil into the growing biomass (e.g., annual grain crops) which is exported from the affected region. The accumulation of Cs-137 in wood residues could be very problematic. Unlike annual cereal crops, trees are harvested typically in ~80-year cycles. Repeated exposure of workers to fugitive Cs-137 in wood wastes could pose a significant health hazard

  17. Modelling of tritium dispersion from postulated accidental release of nuclear power plants; Modelagem da dispersao de tritio a partir de liberacoes acidentais postuladas de centrais nucleares

    Soares, Abner Duarte

    2010-07-01

    This study has the aim to assess the impact of accidental release of tritium postulate from a nuclear power reactor through environmental modeling of aquatic resources. In order to do that it was used computational models of hydrodynamics and transport for the simulation of tritium dispersion caused by an accident in a CANDU reactor located in the ongoing Angra 3 site. This exercise was accomplished with the aid of a code system (SisBAHIA) developed in the Rio de Janeiro Federal University (COPPE/UFRJ). The CANDU reactor is one that uses heavy water (D{sub 2}O) as moderator and coolant of the core. It was postulated, then, the LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) accident in the emergency cooling system of the nucleus (without fusion), where was lost 66 m{sup 3} of soda almost instantaneously. This inventory contained 35 PBq and was released a load of 9.7 TBq/s in liquid form near the Itaorna beach, Angra dos Reis - RJ. The models mentioned above were applied in two scenarios (plant stopped and operating) and showed a tritium plume with specific activities larger than the reference level for seawater (1.1 MBq/m{sup 3} ) during the first 14 days after the accident. The main difference between the scenario without and with seawater recirculation (pumping and discharge) is based on the enhancement of dilution of the highest concentrations in the last one. This dilution enhancement resulting in decreasing concentrations was observed only during the first two weeks, when they ranged from 1x10{sup 9} to 5x10{sup 5} Bq/m{sup 3} close to the Itaorna beach spreading just to Sandri Island. After 180 days, the plume could not be detected anymore in the bay, because their activities would be lower than the minimum detectable value (< 11 kBq/m{sup 3}). (author)

  18. Assessment of the public health impact from the accidental release of UF6 at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation Facility at Gore, Oklahoma (Docket No. 40-8027, License No. SUB-1010). Main report. Volume 1

    Following the accidental release of UF6 from the Sequoyah Fuels Facility on January 4, 1986, an Ad Hoc Interagency Public Health Assessment Task Force was established. The Task Force consists of technical staff members from various agencies who have prepared this assessment of the public health impact associated with the accidental release. The assessment consists of two volumes and is based on data from the accident available as of February 14, 1986. Volume 1 of the report describes the effects from the intake of uranium and fluoride and summarizes the findings and recommendations of the Task Force. Volume 2 of the report contains Appendices which provide more detailed information used in the assessment and support the discussion in Volume 1. 57 refs., 26 figs., 12 tabs

  19. Emergency procedures for nuclear installations: on the simulation and interpretation of offsite air sampling measurements during the early phase of an accidental release of radioactivity to the atmosphere

    During the early stages of an accidental release of radioactive material to the atmosphere, the immediate aims of the offsite Emergency management scheme are twofold: firstly, to determine the extent of any contamination occurring close to the site (i.e. out to a few km) for purposes of protecting the local public; secondly, to provide early estimates of source term and hence permit consequences farther afield to be assessed. In practice, these objectives would be largely reliant upon the sampling measurements made by mobile offsite survey teams and the ability with which they may be interpreted in terms of an atmospheric dispersion model. This paper investigates the methodology and effectiveness of these tasks for the rapid provision of advice to decision makers. SF6 tracer experiments which simulate the offsite plume sampling procedure are described. These provide realistic demonstrations of data quality with respect to variability and sparsity, and provide practical insight into the cause of these effects as well as guidance to improve the effectiveness of the sampling strategy. A statistical scheme is described which may be used in conjunction with a plume dispersion model to analyse such data and to provide hourly averaged estimates of source strength and plume concentration/dose. Worked examples using SF6 simulation data sets for a single sampling vehicle and a 2-dimensional gaussian plume model are presented and used to assess the accuracy and limitations of the averall approach. Although the results are encouraging, performance is found to fairly sensitive to the quality and quantity of the data

  20. The conceptual definition of a crisis management system CMDSS for evaluating acceptable countermeasures to reduce ingestion dose after an accidental release of radioactivity

    A typical example for decision making in a crisis situation could be an environmental accident involving extensive radioactive or chemical contamination. Due to the large consequences and the great number of people which may be affected, the selection of the best countermeasures to ameliorate the imminent impact is very difficult and the political responsibility is enormous. Judging the advantages and disadvantages of a particular action with respect to one or more criteria will be very difficult, because the required data will often not be available and the decision makers have to cope with qualitative statements and uncertainty about many factors. Due to stress, uncertainty, information distortion or information overload, decision quality is often negatively affected in a crisis situation and decision makers operating under acute stress are scarcely capable of considering judgment. To help overcome such problems the Institute for Automation and Operations Research at the University of Fribourg has been charged by the Swiss government to design a concept for a Crisis Management Decision Support System CMDSS and to implement a prototype. It should help evaluate the most efficient and acceptable countermeasures after an accidental release of radioactivity allowing for such factors as variable consumption rates, technological processing or dilution with uncontaminated food stuff, for instance. To allow a quick reaction and a clear choice between certain alternatives, special decision-aid-instruments will be used such as filtering techniques, optimization features and outranking methods. The prototype of the designed Crisis Management Decision Support System CMDSS will be established corresponding to the possibilities of a modern computer support. This includes a monitoring and sensoring system, a threat assessment component and all the necessary models to generate and rank the different countermeasures. A multicriteria outranking approach and different group decision

  1. Evacuation of the population as a means of mitigating the radiological effects following an accidental atmospheric release of radioactivity from a nuclear power plant

    Evacuation of the population in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant following an accidental release of radioactivity into the atmosphere, is one of the protective means which might reduce the radiation doses and radiological effects caused to the population. An evacuation simulation model - RECLEAR - was developed in order to investigate the dependency of the evacuation efficiency on various parameters. It was found that the efficiency is dependent on many factors - meteorological, demographic and transportation parameters. RECLEAR was developed by coupling two computer codes: a) CLEAR (Mo82) a simulation model which calculates the time required to evacuate the population from a given area - Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) and b) REMAND (St85) - a radiological consequence model which evaluates the radiation doses and radiological effects caused to (a stationary) population, following an accident in a nuclear power plant. RECLEAR is a simulation code which calculates the evacuation duration as well as the radiation doses to the population, received while evacuating. The code describes the progress of individual vehicles along the site's specific road network (composed of road segments), using the relationships between traffic flow rates, travel velocity and road capacity in each road segment. The code also simulates traffic jams and intersections. Preliminary results reveal two main factors that might effect the efficiency of evacuation: 1) The traffic density during evacuation and 2) The delay of the population before onset of movement. It should be emphasized that the results presented in this study are of a preliminary nature, however, the model and the results received so far might constitute a basis for further work on the subject and it can also be used as a tool in non-radiological emergency planning and, with some adaptions, as a means of a real-time hazards evaluation

  2. Mediterranean fruit fly preventative release programme in southern California

    California employs several area-wide pest management programmes that use the release of sterile insects to protect its commercial and dooryard agriculture. The first was developed in response to the discovery of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, in Tijuana, Mexico and adjacent areas in San Diego County, California. Initially pesticide sprays of malathion and bait were applied to host plants around each fly find site. Additionally, soil sprays of diazion (0.05 kg per 93 m2) were applied under every host plant around each fly find site. It soon became apparent that this approach was expensive and environmentally damaging. This led the interested parties, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the government of Mexico to develop a programme that utilises the release of sterile Mexican fruit flies over the city of Tijuana in order to prevent the establishment of a breeding population of this fly in the city. The belief is that preventing the Mexican fruit fly from breeding in Tijuana will help protect both that city and California. To date, no Mexican fruit fly larvae have been found in Tijuana or the adjacent areas of California. The second programme was developed in response to the discovery of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, in cotton in the Imperial Valley area of southern California. As the pink bollworm spread throughout the cotton growing region of southern California, it became a significant pest that threatened the 405,000 hectares of cotton grown in the San Joaquin Valley to the north. To keep this pest out of the San Joaquin Valley, the CDFA/USDA and California cotton growers use the large-scale releases of sterile pink bollworms in areas in which wild pink bollworms are captured each year. Thus far, the pink bollworm has been prevented from establishing a permanent presence in the San Joaquin Valley and the cotton growers in southern California, Arizona and

  3. Post clubfoot release skin necrosis: a preventable disaster

    Sajad Ahmad Salati

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Complications of pedal wounds closed primarily after release of neglected cases of club foot are well known in literature. We treated a 12-year-old boy presenting with widespread necrosis involving medial aspect of foot after release of neglected talipes equinovarus. Such widespread necrosis is even known to end up in amputations and permanent disabilities. In our case, the foot was successfully salvaged by resorting to dedicated wound care, multiple debridements, use of topical negative pressure (vacuum-assisted closure – VAC, and skin grafting. Various means to prevent such adverse events are also presented. The aim of publishing this case is to stress the need to:Take proper measures preoperatively in neglected club feet to decrease the impact of deformity.To be aware of various different flaps and methods of closure as mentioned in literature and to reaffirm the fact that primary closures done under tension are bound to fail and end up in disasters.To be patient and use the modern concepts of wound management like topical negative pressure if such unfortunate complications do occur and thereby attempt to salvage the feet.

  4. Current status of development of the HARP software tool serving to estimate radiological impacts of accidental atmospheric radioactivity releases on the population

    Current state of development of the HARP (HAzardous Radioactivity Propagation) software tool serving to estimate radiological burden on the population arising from accidental radioactivity leaks into the air is described with focus on the deterministic HAVAR-DET approach. The deterministic root of the HARP system estimates atmospheric propagation of radioactivity and its subsequent infiltration into the human body. (orig.)

  5. Accidental tritium release from nuclear technologies and a radiobiological survey of the impact of low dose tritium on the developing mouse brain

    Full text: The Atomic Energy Act, 1962 provides for the development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy for the welfare of the people in India. The licensing policy adopted for nuclear power stations in India requires that the plants meet stringent requirements based on the system of dose limitation, recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). Currently, nuclear energy is contributing just 3% of the country's power generation. The share of nuclear power is proposed to be increased to 10% in the near future. With the introduction of nuclear energy, the need to assess the radioecological and radiobiological impact of radionuclides of long half- life existing in the environment for longer duration has appeared. Tritium, a radioactive by-product of power reactors is one of such major radionuclides of concern. In the world, routine releases and accidental spills of tritium from nuclear power plants pose a growing health and safety concern. Tritium has been observed in ground water in the vicinity of several nuclear stations. Exposure to tritium has been clinically proven to cause deleterious and detectable effects such as teratogenesis, cancer and life shortening in laboratory animals. There is, now, a growing emphasis on tritium in radiation protection as the challenge of nuclear fusion comes nearer. Present investigation is an attempt to elucidate the effects of low dose tritiated water exposure on developing mouse cerebellum. Pregnant Swiss albino mice (12-15 in number were given a priming injection 7.4 and 74 kBq/ml of body water) of tritiated water (HTO) on 16th day of gestation. From the same day onward, through parturition, till the last interval studied, the pregnant females were continuously maintained respectively on 11.1 and 111 kBq/ml of tritiated drinking water provided ad libidum. After cervical dislocation the litters were autopsied on 1, 3, 5 and 6 weeks post- partum. Brains were fixed and then cerebellum from each of

  6. 小儿意外伤害危险因素分析与预防%Analysis and Prevention the Risk Factor of Children Accidental Injury

    彭丽琨

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究探讨造成小儿意外伤害的危险因素以及原因,并对这些危险因素进行分析,提出预防措施。方法选择2014年1月~2015年1月期间,在我院各个科室接受治疗的330例小儿意外伤害患儿作为此次的研究对象,并对其遭受的意外伤害的种类及患儿的年龄段进行分析。结果意外伤害高发年龄段为1~3岁年龄段,为幼儿期,占在我院各个科室接受治疗的330例小儿意外伤害患儿的70.61%(233/330)。儿童遭受的意外伤害种类病例最多的为外伤,所占比例为66.67%(56/330),其次便是窒息,所占比例为16.97%(56/330)。结论造成儿童损伤的危险因素很多,最主要的是外伤,可以采取有针对性的措施预防儿童意外伤害。%Objective To study the risk factors and cause of children's accident harm,and analyzes these risk factors,prevention measures are put forward.Methods Choose 330 cases of pediatric injury patients as the research object in our hospital from January 2014 to January 2015 who were during the period of each department for treatment,analyses the sufers accident harm、types and the patient's age.ResultsThe age in high incidence of accident harm is 1~3 years of age,as an early childhood,each department in our hospital for treatment of 330 cases of children's accidental injury 70.61% (233/330). Children sufers accident harm to kinds of most cases of trauma,the proportion was 66.67% (56/330). the second is choking, the percentage was 16.97% (56/330).Conclusion Children damage risk factor for many,the mainest is trauma which can take targeted measures to prevent accidental injury in children.

  7. Report of the first research co-ordination meeting on the co-ordinated research programme: Development and selection of analytical techniques for measuring accidentally released radionuclides in environment

    The participants at the second Research Co-ordination Meeting (Vienna, 12-16 August 1991) of the CRP on 'Rapid Instrumental and Separation Methods for Monitoring Radionuclides in Food and Environmental Samples', recommended that a new CRP be established. The current CRP on 'Development and Selection of Analytical Techniques and Procedures for Measuring Accidentally Released Radionuclides in Environment' was established based on this recommendation. The objectives of this CRP are to conduct research and development on applicable methodologies for response to accidental releases, and to improve and maintain the capabilities of the network of laboratories and provide training of individuals within member states. Thus, the CRP serves as a vehicle to maintain contact within the network of laboratories, while developing and transferring analytical techniques and procedures for measuring accidentally released radioactivity. The purpose of the Research Co-ordination Meeting is to discuss the proposed research programs, the status to date and the work planned for the duration of the CRP. The meeting also provides the opportunity for the CRP participants to exchange ideas and possibly develop collaborations in their research. The members of the CRP also need to discuss issues related to the previous CRP on Rapid methods. These include: the preparation of the final report of the previous CRP, the preparation of an addendum to TRS-295 and the ultimate revision or updating of TRS-295. Finally, it is intended that the members of the CRP should discuss the mandate and scope of work of the network of analytical laboratories and the steps needed to firmly establish this network

  8. 40 CFR 267.1102 - What other requirements must I meet to prevent releases?

    2010-07-01

    ... prevent releases? 267.1102 Section 267.1102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... to prevent releases? You must use controls and practices to ensure containment of the hazardous waste... of the unit so that the height of any containment wall is not exceeded. (c) Take measures to...

  9. Post clubfoot release skin necrosis: a preventable disaster

    Salati, Sajad Ahmad; al Aithan, Bandar

    2011-01-01

    Complications of pedal wounds closed primarily after release of neglected cases of club foot are well known in literature. We treated a 12-year-old boy presenting with widespread necrosis involving medial aspect of foot after release of neglected talipes equinovarus. Such widespread necrosis is even known to end up in amputations and permanent disabilities. In our case, the foot was successfully salvaged by resorting to dedicated wound care, multiple debridements, use of topical negative pres...

  10. A multiple lines of evidence approach for the ecological risk assessment of an accidental bitumen release from a steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) well in the Athabasca oil sands region.

    Berger, Robert G; Aslund, Melissa Whitfield; Sanders, Greg; Charlebois, Michael; Knopper, Loren D; Bresee, Karl E

    2016-01-15

    To assess the ecological impacts of two independent accidental bitumen releases from two steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells in the Athabasca oil sands region, a multiple lines of evidence (LOE) approach was developed. Following the release in 2010, action was taken to minimize environmental impact, including the selective removal of the most highly impacted vegetation and the use of oil socks to minimize possible runoff. An ecological risk assessment (ERA) was then conducted based on reported concentrations of bitumen related contaminants in soil, vegetation, and water. Results of biological assessments conducted at the site were also included in the risk characterization. Overall, the conclusion of the ERA was that the likelihood of long-term adverse health effects to ecological receptors in the area was negligible. To provide evidence for this conclusion, a small mammal sampling plan targeting Southern red-back voles (Myodes gapperi) was carried out at two sites and two relevant reference areas. Voles were readily collected at all locations and no statistically significant differences in morphometric measurements (i.e., body mass, length, foot length, and adjusted liver weight) were found between animals collected from impact zones of varying levels of coverage. Additionally, no trends corresponding with bitumen coverage were observed with respect to metal body burden in voles for metals that were previously identified in the source bitumen. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was statistically significantly elevated in voles collected from the high impact zones of sites compared to those collected from the reference areas, a finding that is indicative of continued exposure to contaminants. However, this increase in EROD was not correlated with any observable adverse population-wide biological outcomes. Therefore the biological sampling program supported the conclusion of the initial ERA and supported the hypothesis of no significant

  11. Mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Stevens, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    A mathematical model was constructed for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included. 25 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  12. Safety barriers on oil and gas platforms. Means to prevent hydrocarbon releases

    Sklet, Snorre

    2005-12-15

    The main objective of the PhD project has been to develop concepts and methods that can be used to define, illustrate, analyse, and improve safety barriers in the operational phase of offshore oil and gas production platforms. The main contributions of this thesis are; Clarification of the term safety barrier with respect to definitions, classification, and relevant attributes for analysis of barrier performance Development and discussion of a representative set of hydrocarbon release scenarios Development and testing of a new method, BORA-Release, for qualitative and quantitative risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases Safety barriers are defined as physical and/or non-physical means planned to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. The means may range from a single technical unit or human actions, to a complex socio-technical system. It is useful to distinguish between barrier functions and barrier systems. Barrier functions describe the purpose of safety barriers or what the safety barriers shall do in order to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. Barrier systems describe how a barrier function is realized or executed. If the barrier system is functioning, the barrier function is performed. If a barrier function is performed successfully, it should have a direct and significant effect on the occurrence and/or consequences of an undesired event or accident. It is recommended to address the following attributes to characterize the performance of safety barriers; a) functionality/effectiveness, b) reliability/ availability, c) response time, d) robustness, and e) triggering event or condition. For some types of barriers, not all the attributes are relevant or necessary in order to describe the barrier performance. The presented hydrocarbon release scenarios include initiating events, barrier functions introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and barrier systems realizing the barrier functions. Both technical and human

  13. Models selected for calculation of doses, health effects and economic costs due to accidental radionuclide releases from nuclear power plants. Technical report

    Models are described for use in site-specific environmental consequence analysis of nuclear reactor accidents of Classes 3 through 9. The models presented relate radioactivity released to resulting doses, health effects, and costs of remedial actions. Specific models are presented for the major exposure pathways of airborne releases, waterborne releases and direct irradiation from activity within the facility buildings, such as the containment. Time-dependent atmospheric dispersion parameters, crop production parameters, and other variable parameters are used in the models. The environmental effects are analyzed for several accident start times during the year. Several remedial actions are considered

  14. The Adoption of Urgent Measures to Protect the Population in the Event of an Accidental Release of Radioactivity into the Environment

    The authors consider a situation in which there is a risk of the population being seriously exposed to radiation through the accidental entry of radioactive material into the environment. The specific features of the situation under consideration are such that the appropriate protective measures can only be effective if implemented in time, i.e. within the first few hours or days of the emergency. Hence a programme providing for protection of the population against radiation in an emergency should include (a) methods by which the dosimetric information required for a rapid evaluation of the potential radiation hazard can be promptly obtained, and (b) criteria for the . adoption of urgent measures, i.e., the levels of radioactive contamination or irradiation justifying or not justifying the need for the implementation of specific protective measures. The authors make recommendations (draft regulations) on which to base such decisions. The criterion for the decisions is based on two hazard levels (A and B) for each of the irradiation paths, potentially significant in the given situation: external and contact irradiation, inhalation, and contamination of foodstuffs. Decisions to adopt immediate protective measures should be based on a comparison between the evaluated (predicted) hazard levels and the critical levels, defined as those hazard levels at which implementation of the protective measures under consideration is (A) desirable or (B) obligatory, irrespective of the specific circumstances. Figures for the critical levels are chosen with regard to the specific nature of the situation and protective measures, maximum permissible levels for occupational exposure, and known information on the biological risk of certain exposure levels. (author)

  15. Radiative accidental matter

    Sierra, D Aristizabal; Wegman, D

    2016-01-01

    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that $\\mu\\to e \\gamma$ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below $10^6\\,$ GeV, a value (natur...

  16. The Impact of Pollution Prevention on Toxic Environmental Releases from U.S. Manufacturing Facilities.

    Ranson, Matthew; Cox, Brendan; Keenan, Cheryl; Teitelbaum, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Between 1991 and 2012, the facilities that reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) Program conducted 370,000 source reduction projects. We use this data set to conduct the first quasi-experimental retrospective evaluation of how implementing a source reduction (pollution prevention) project affects the quantity of toxic chemicals released to the environment by an average industrial facility. We use a differences-in-differences methodology, which measures how implementing a source reduction project affects a facility's releases of targeted chemicals, relative to releases of (a) other untargeted chemicals from the same facility, or (b) the same chemical from other facilities in the same industry. We find that the average source reduction project causes a 9-16% decrease in releases of targeted chemicals in the year of implementation. Source reduction techniques vary in effectiveness: for example, raw material modification causes a large decrease in releases, while inventory control has no detectable effect. Our analysis suggests that in aggregate, the source reduction projects carried out in the U.S. since 1991 have prevented between 5 and 14 billion pounds of toxic releases. PMID:26477531

  17. Transfer of Tritium in the Environment after Accidental Releases from Nuclear Facilities. Report of Working Group 7 Tritium Accidents of EMRAS II Topical Heading Approaches for Assessing Emergency Situations. Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (Emras II) Programme

    Environmental assessment models are used for evaluating the radiological impact of actual and potential releases of radionuclides to the environment. They are essential tools for use in the regulatory control of routine discharges to the environment and also in planning measures to be taken in the event of accidental releases. They are also used for predicting the impact of releases which may occur far into the future, for example, from underground radioactive waste repositories. It is important to verify, to the extent possible, the reliability of the predictions of such models by a comparison with measured values in the environment or with predictions of other models. The IAEA has been organizing programmes of international model testing since the 1980s. These programmes have contributed to a general improvement in models, in the transfer of data and in the capabilities of modellers in Member States. IAEA publications on this subject over the past three decades demonstrate the comprehensive nature of the programmes and record the associated advances which have been made. From 2009 to 2011, the IAEA organized a programme entitled Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II), which concentrated on the improvement of environmental transfer models and the development of reference approaches to estimate the radiological impacts on humans, as well as on flora and fauna, arising from radionuclides in the environment. Different aspects were addressed by nine working groups covering three themes: reference approaches for human dose assessment, reference approaches for biota dose assessment and approaches for assessing emergency situations. This publication describes the work of the Tritium Accidents Working Group

  18. Risk-based fault tree analysis method for identification, preliminary evaluation, and screening of potential accidental release sequences in nuclear fuel cycle operations

    A method is described for identification, preliminary evaluation, and screening of potential accident sequences leading to uncontrolled release of radioactive materials. Included is a procedure for estimating the risk sum of all identified sequences. In addition, portions of the procedures have been developed for detailed analysis of the dominant (highest risk) sequences so screened. This method was developed for the ERDA-sponsored risk analysis of systems for managing high-level waste, part of the Waste Fixation Program (WFP). The method begins with certain preliminary analyses. The facility and operation are described and analysis bounds are established. A type of fault tree construction, the ''to/through'' approach, was chosen for the WFP waste management system. The to/through fault tree approach offers advantages over others in several respects. The analysis is considered more complete because the system is treated as a whole. The screening process was successfully demonstrated on a conceptual waste management system for the Waste Fixation Program. Fault trees were constructed and evaluated for processing, handling, transporting, and storing high-level waste. Trees of up to 14,000,000 release sequences (BICS-Boolean-indicated cut sets) were screened and the top few hundred or thousand sequences preliminarily ranked. An estimate of the total risk represented in the fault tree was also obtained

  19. Risk-based fault tree analysis method for identification, preliminary evaluation, and screening of potential accidental release sequences in nuclear fuel cycle operations

    Smith, T.H.; Pelto, P.J.; Stevens, D.L.; Seybold, G.D.; Purcell, W.L.; Kimmel, L.V.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for identification, preliminary evaluation, and screening of potential accident sequences leading to uncontrolled release of radioactive materials. Included is a procedure for estimating the risk sum of all identified sequences. In addition, portions of the procedures have been developed for detailed analysis of the dominant (highest risk) sequences so screened. This method was developed for the ERDA-sponsored risk analysis of systems for managing high-level waste, part of the Waste Fixation Program (WFP). The method begins with certain preliminary analyses. The facility and operation are described and analysis bounds are established. A type of fault tree construction, the ''to/through'' approach, was chosen for the WFP waste management system. The to/through fault tree approach offers advantages over others in several respects. The analysis is considered more complete because the system is treated as a whole. The screening process was successfully demonstrated on a conceptual waste management system for the Waste Fixation Program. Fault trees were constructed and evaluated for processing, handling, transporting, and storing high-level waste. Trees of up to 14,000,000 release sequences (BICS-Boolean-indicated cut sets) were screened and the top few hundred or thousand sequences preliminarily ranked. An estimate of the total risk represented in the fault tree was also obtained. (auth)

  20. A computer code to estimate accidental fire and radioactive airborne releases in nuclear fuel cycle facilities: User's manual for FIRIN

    Chan, M.K.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Owczarski, P.C.

    1989-02-01

    This manual describes the technical bases and use of the computer code FIRIN. This code was developed to estimate the source term release of smoke and radioactive particles from potential fires in nuclear fuel cycle facilities. FIRIN is a product of a broader study, Fuel Cycle Accident Analysis, which Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The technical bases of FIRIN consist of a nonradioactive fire source term model, compartment effects modeling, and radioactive source term models. These three elements interact with each other in the code affecting the course of the fire. This report also serves as a complete FIRIN user's manual. Included are the FIRIN code description with methods/algorithms of calculation and subroutines, code operating instructions with input requirements, and output descriptions. 40 refs., 5 figs., 31 tabs.

  1. Identification and characterization of five non-traditional-source categories: Catastrophic/accidental releases, vehicle repair facilities, recycling, pesticide application, and agricultural operations. Final report, September 1991-September 1992

    The work is part of EPA's program to identify and characterize emissions sources not currently accounted for by either the existing Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) or State Implementation Plans (SIP) area source methodologies and to develop appropriate emissions estimation methodologies and emission factors for a group of these source categories. Based on the results of the identification and characterization portions of the research, five source categories were selected for methodology and emission factor development: catastrophic/accidental releases, vehicle repair facilities, recycling, pesticide application and agricultural operations. The report presents emissions estimation methodologies and emission factor data for the selected source categories. The discussions for each selected category include general background information, emissions generation activities, pollutants emitted, sources of activity and pollutant data, emissions estimation methodologies, issues to be considered and recommendations. The information used in these discussions was derived from various sources including available literature, industrial and trade association publications and contracts, experts on the category and activity, and knowledgeable federal and state personnel

  2. A fast method for monitoring I-129 in milk in the surveillance of radioactive waste repositories in the event of accidental releases

    The German Guidelines for Monitoring the Emission and Imission from Nuclear Facilities [1] stipulate the monitoring of I-129 in milk produced in the vicinity of nuclear waste repositories when the release of this nuclide is possible e. g. after a fault or an accident. The monitoring detection limit is 2 Bq I-129 per litre milk. This paper describes a simple radiochemical method for separating I-129 from liquid milk in a form suitable for direct γ-spectrometry of the characteristic 39.6 keV emission line of I-129. The iodine is extracted from the milk with an anion exchange resin, eluted from the resin with aqueous sodium hypochlorite, then bound directly from the eluate to a small amount of cuprous sulfide. This is collected on a small filter paper disc, dried and counted with a low level, low energy germanium γ-spectrometer. After 60 minutes counting of iodine separated from 0.5 litre milk samples the detection limit was about 0.35 Bq/l i. e. the required limit was readily attained. (orig.)

  3. ISDOSE 3.0: A simple code to calculate inhalation and submersion dose equivalents from routine and accidental releases of radioactive material

    The ISDOSE (Inhalation and Submersion DOSE equivalent) computer code was developed at Battelle Memorial Institute for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to calculate submersion and inhalation doses from atmospheric releases of radionuclides from routine and unanticipated events during the preclosure phase at a nuclear waste repository. This user's manual presents the third version of the ISDOSE code (ISDOSE 3.0). ISDOSE is a simple code; i.e., it performs functions that can be verified easily by hand calculations. ISDOSE uses two dose conversion factor libraries: one for submersion dose conversion factors and one for inhalation dose conversion factors. The libraries contain data for 30 radionuclides that are of interest during the preclosure phase of the repository. The conversion factors are based on recommendations and dosimetric data published by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. The libraries contain both effective dose equivalent factors and dose equivalent factors for 11 organs. The inhalation dose equivalent factor library contains data for the different solubility classes of each radionuclide. ISDOSE can be set up to calculate a collective dose equivalent to a given population, or a maximum individual dose equivalent. The population distribution input parameter is in the form of a circular grid, which is divided into 16 sectors and 5 concentric annuli (i.e., 80 sections). A wind frequency input value is required for each of the sixteen sectors of the grid, and a ξ/Q value, the dispersion factor for airborne contaminants, is required for each of the 80 sections of the grid. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Portable Filtered Air Suction System for Released Radioactive Gases Prevention under a Severe Accident of NPPs

    In this paper, the portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for released radioactive gases prevention under a severe accident of NPP is proposed. This technology can prevent the release of the radioactive gases to the atmosphere and it can be more economical than FVCS because PoFASS can cover many NPPs with its high mobility. The conceptual design of PoFASS, which has the highest cost effectiveness and robustness to the environment condition such as wind velocity and precipitation, is suggested and the related previous research is introduced in this paper. The portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for released radioactive gases prevention can play a key role to mitigate the severe accident of NPP with its high cost effectiveness and robustness to the environment conditions. As further works, the detail design of PoFASS to fabricate a prototype for a demonstration will be proceeded. When released radioactive gases from the broken containment building in the severe accident of nuclear power plants (NPPs) such as the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents occur, there are no ways to prevent the released radioactive gases spreading in the air. In order to solve this problem, several European NPPs have adopted the filtered vented containment system (FVCS), which can avoid the containment failure through a pressure relief capability to protect the containment building against overpressure. However, the installation cost of FVCS for a NPP is more than $10 million and this system has not been widely welcomed by NPP operating companies due to its high cost

  5. Portable Filtered Air Suction System for Released Radioactive Gases Prevention under a Severe Accident of NPPs

    Gu, Beom W.; Choi, Su Y.; Rim, Chun T. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, the portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for released radioactive gases prevention under a severe accident of NPP is proposed. This technology can prevent the release of the radioactive gases to the atmosphere and it can be more economical than FVCS because PoFASS can cover many NPPs with its high mobility. The conceptual design of PoFASS, which has the highest cost effectiveness and robustness to the environment condition such as wind velocity and precipitation, is suggested and the related previous research is introduced in this paper. The portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for released radioactive gases prevention can play a key role to mitigate the severe accident of NPP with its high cost effectiveness and robustness to the environment conditions. As further works, the detail design of PoFASS to fabricate a prototype for a demonstration will be proceeded. When released radioactive gases from the broken containment building in the severe accident of nuclear power plants (NPPs) such as the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents occur, there are no ways to prevent the released radioactive gases spreading in the air. In order to solve this problem, several European NPPs have adopted the filtered vented containment system (FVCS), which can avoid the containment failure through a pressure relief capability to protect the containment building against overpressure. However, the installation cost of FVCS for a NPP is more than $10 million and this system has not been widely welcomed by NPP operating companies due to its high cost.

  6. 防范突发性海上石油污染的国际法律制度研究%International Legal Regime of Preventing Accidental Oil Pollution at Sea

    张相君

    2011-01-01

    Accidental oil pollution at sea and inter alia grave accidental pollution near seashore may cause immense damages.Since the end of World War I,the international community has begun to realize problems caused by oil pollution at sea and attempted to resolve them.It was when the Second World War ended,efforts by the international community finally turned out to be fruitful,which was due to grave oil pollution accidents in a short time.International legal regime was finally framed out and made noticeable success after several decades of practice.Efforts and successes by the international community on preventing accidental oil pollution will be of inspirations for China,which is now rapidly developing its marine economies.%海上突发性石油污染事故,尤其是发生在近岸海域的大型溢油事故对海洋环境造成了巨大损害。自一战之后,国际社会即开始意识到海上石油污染所造成的种种问题并试图在国际法上予以解决。至二战之后,遭受到巨大海上石油污染事故的冲击之后,国际社会的努力才真正开花结果,相应的国际法律规范逐渐丰富完善起来,并经过数十年的实践取得了明显成果。国际社会在防范突发性海上石油污染事故方面的努力,对于正快速发展海洋经济的中国如何防范此类突发事故具有很好的借鉴和启示作用。

  7. Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan (ERP and CP) annual review and update for 1993

    Jannik, G.T. [comp.; Mamatey, A.; Arnett, M.

    1993-10-05

    In the Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan (ERP and CP), WSRC made a commitment to conduct the following follow-up activities and actions: (1) Complete the action items developed in response to the findings and recommendation of the Environmental Release Prevention Taskteam (WSRC-RP-92-356). (2) Complete all batch and continuous release procedure revisions to incorporate the attributes that WSRC senior management required of each procedure. (3) DOE-SR Assistance Managers and WSRC counterparts to reach consensus and closure on the identified engineered solutions documented in the ERP and CP, develop and drive implementation of facility changes per the agreements. (4) Continue to analyze releases and monitor performance in accordance with the ERP and CP, and utilize the ALARA Release Guides Committee to drive improvements. (5) Conduct annual re-evaluations of the cost benefit analyses of the identified engineered solutions, and identify new options and alternatives for each outfall in response to site mission and facility changes. This report documents the efforts that have been completed over the past year in response to these commitments.

  8. Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan (ERP and CP) annual review and update for 1993

    In the Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan (ERP and CP), WSRC made a commitment to conduct the following follow-up activities and actions: (1) Complete the action items developed in response to the findings and recommendation of the Environmental Release Prevention Taskteam (WSRC-RP-92-356). (2) Complete all batch and continuous release procedure revisions to incorporate the attributes that WSRC senior management required of each procedure. (3) DOE-SR Assistance Managers and WSRC counterparts to reach consensus and closure on the identified engineered solutions documented in the ERP and CP, develop and drive implementation of facility changes per the agreements. (4) Continue to analyze releases and monitor performance in accordance with the ERP and CP, and utilize the ALARA Release Guides Committee to drive improvements. (5) Conduct annual re-evaluations of the cost benefit analyses of the identified engineered solutions, and identify new options and alternatives for each outfall in response to site mission and facility changes. This report documents the efforts that have been completed over the past year in response to these commitments

  9. Radionuclides in an arctic terrestrial ecosystem affected by atmospheric release from the Kraton-3 accidental underground nuclear explosion. 2001-2002

    Current distributions of artificial radionuclides (ARN) were studied in the main compartments of a larch-tree forest lethally affected by a radioactive release from the Kraton-3 peaceful underground nuclear explosion (65.9 deg N, 112.3 deg E; Yakutia, Russia; 1978). Samples of soil, fungi, lichens, mosses, grasses, shrubs and trees were obtained at points belonging to four zones categorised by the severity of the ecosystem damage. Sampling was supplemented by dose rate measurements in air and mapping. The area of forest characterised by 100% lethality to adult larches (Larix gmelinii) and with partial, visually-detectable damage of other more radio-resistance species (e.g. lichens, mosses) covers a territory of approximately 1.2 km2. Elevated levels of long-lived ARN were found at all sampling sites. Maximum registered levels of the ground contamination with radionuclides of Cs, Sr and Pu were three orders of magnitude higher than those expected from global fallout. The ratios of 137Cs to some other significant radionuclides in the ground contamination were as follows [mean (range)]: 90Sr - 0.57(0.02-0.93); 239,240Pu 44(25-72); 60Co 470(220-760). Twenty-three years after a discrete contamination event, 90-95% of the total deposited radiocesium and plutonium has still remained in the lichen-moss on-ground cover and in the top 5 cm organic soil layer. At the same time, vertical and horizontal migrations of 90Sr in soil were more pronounced. Strong surface contamination with 137Cs, 90Sr and plutonium was detected at the twigs and bark of the dead larches. The young larches that grew at the contaminated area following the initial destruction of the forest demonstrated a substantial ability to accumulate 137Cs, 90Sr and plutonium via roots, while the bushes selectively accumulated mainly radiostrontium. In contrast, some fungi concentrated mostly radiocesium. The levels of gamma dose rate in air and the environmental contamination with 137Cs were found to correspond

  10. 14 CFR 1213.107 - Preventing unauthorized release of sensitive but unclassified (SBU) information/material to the...

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preventing unauthorized release of sensitive but unclassified (SBU) information/material to the news media. 1213.107 Section 1213.107... INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.107 Preventing unauthorized release of sensitive but unclassified (SBU)...

  11. Radiative accidental matter

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal; Simoes, C.; Wegman, D.

    2016-07-01

    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that μ → eγ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below 5×105 GeV, a value (naturally) assured by the radiative suppression mechanism. Sizeable τ → μγ branching fractions within SuperKEKB sensitivity are possible for lower lepton-number breaking scales. We thus point out that these scenarios can be tested not only in direct searches but also in lepton flavor-violating experiments.

  12. Studies report: methods for the evaluation and the prevention of accidental risks (DRA 35 - report Ω 11). Knowledge of solid fuels self-heating

    The aim of this document is to present a synthesis of the knowledge on risks bond to auto-heating phenomena which occur in solid fuels storage. It analyzes the role of some factors on the heating, and more specially the mass, temperature, oxygen content of the atmosphere and humidity. It presents a general methodology of risks evaluation and measures on the risks detection and prevention. (A.L.B.)

  13. SMALLHOLDER FIRE PREVENTION AND BURNING ACTIVITIES UNDER THE THREAT OF ACCIDENTAL FIRE: A HOUSEHOLD MODEL APPLICATION FROM THE TAPAJÃ S NATIONAL FOREST IN THE STATE OF PARÃ , BRAZIL

    Bowman, Maria Susannah

    2006-01-01

    Land-clearing fires set by settlers in the Brazilian Amazon give rise to large scale wildfires that threaten mature forests, agricultural plantations, and settlement areas. Our purpose is to examine labor devoted to fire prevention (firebreak establishment) and burning for crop production for subsistence smallholders in the Tapajós National Forest in Pará, Brazil. Both the decision to engage in each activity and the scale of the activity are examined. A household model addressing decisio...

  14. Accidental swallowing of orthodontic expansion appliance key.

    Monini, André da Costa; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Jacob, Helder Baldi; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga

    2011-08-01

    Ingestion of a foreign object, including a dental object, can lead to a trip to the emergency room. This article describes the accidental swallowing of a key that was used to activate a rapid maxillary expander. An orthodontic patient swallowed the key while trying to activate the appliance at home. The object's trajectory was followed on radiographs until it was eliminated. Possible clinical complications, legal implications of this situation, and practices for prevention are described. PMID:21803265

  15. Microencapsulation of rifampicin for the prevention of endophthalmitis: In vitro release studies and antibacterial assessment.

    Lee, Mi Yeon; Bourgeois, Sandrine; Almouazen, Eyad; Pelletier, Jocelyne; Renaud, François; Fessi, Hatem; Kodjikian, Laurent

    2016-05-30

    Rifampicin encapsulated microparticles were designed for intraocular injection after cataract surgery to prevent postoperative endophthalmitis. Microparticles were formulated by emulsification diffusion method using poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) as polymer in order to propose a new form of rifampicin that overcome its limitations in intraocular delivery. Depending on processing formulation, different types of microparticles were prepared, characterized and evaluated by in vitro release studies. Two types of microparticles were selected to get a burst release of rifampicin, to reach minimal inhibitory concentrations to inhibit 90% of Staphylococcus epidermidis mainly involved in postoperative endophthalmitis, combined with a sustained release to maintain rifampicin concentration over 24h. The antibacterial activity and antiadhesive property on intraocular lenses were evaluated on S. epidermidis. Microparticles, with a rapid rifampicin release profile, showed an effect towards bacteria development similar to free rifampicin over 48h. However, slow-release profile microparticles exhibited a similar antibacterial effect during the first 24h, and were able to destroy all the S epidermidis in the medium after 30h. The association of the two formulations allowed obtaining interesting antibacterial profile. Moreover, rifampicin-loaded microparticles have shown a very efficient anti-adherent effect of S. epidermidis on intraocular lenses at 24h. These results propose rifampicin microparticles as suitable for antibioprophylaxis of the postoperative endophthalmitis. PMID:26997423

  16. Plant air quality following accidental radioactive releases

    Radionuclides exhausted to the atmosphere through vent stacks may contaminate the immediate building structure and/or nearby adjacent buildings resulting in hazardous contaminants entering the intake air. The objective of the work reported here was to obtain an overview of the analytical and experimental tools available to evaluate the transport and diffusion of vented effluents, and the nature of flows about structures, in order to predict the concentrations adjacent to an subsequently inside the immediate and nearby structures. A scaling analysis established the requirements for physical modelling of flows about structures in wind and/or water tunnels. Subsequently, a series of test model studies were conducted in a water tunnel in the Mechanical Engineering Department of the University of Waterloo. The expected result that increased stack height and structure separation have on reducing recirculation and interference is clearly illustrated. Interference was still significant on the downstream structure when the vent stack height was increased to its maximum of one model cube height above the cube. A literature survey was conducted to establish the nature and mathematical modelling of flows about structures. Also, mathematical modelling of the concentration field from roof-top vent effluents and subsequently the models for predicting concentrations within structures was investigated. No specific data on concentrations within structures were found. There is a strong need for well documented test on the concentration fields about model structures, with which more generic models may be developed. Very little data is available on multiple structures. It is recommended that physical model studies be conducted, that simulate realistic exhaust and intake air vents with measurement of both the inside and the outside concentration fields. (59 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.)

  17. HIV-1 Vpu promotes release and prevents endocytosis of nascent retrovirus particles from the plasma membrane.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV type-1 viral protein U (Vpu protein enhances the release of diverse retroviruses from human, but not monkey, cells and is thought to do so by ablating a dominant restriction to particle release. Here, we determined how Vpu expression affects the subcellular distribution of HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus (MLV Gag proteins in human cells where Vpu is, or is not, required for efficient particle release. In HeLa cells, where Vpu enhances HIV-1 and MLV release approximately 10-fold, concentrations of HIV-1 Gag and MLV Gag fused to cyan fluorescent protein (CFP were initially detected at the plasma membrane, but then accumulated over time in early and late endosomes. Endosomal accumulation of Gag-CFP was prevented by Vpu expression and, importantly, inhibition of plasma membrane to early endosome transport by dominant negative mutants of Rab5a, dynamin, and EPS-15. Additionally, accumulation of both HIV and MLV Gag in endosomes required a functional late-budding domain. In human HOS cells, where HIV-1 and MLV release was efficient even in the absence of Vpu, Gag proteins were localized predominantly at the plasma membrane, irrespective of Vpu expression or manipulation of endocytic transport. While these data indicated that Vpu inhibits nascent virion endocytosis, Vpu did not affect transferrin endocytosis. Moreover, inhibition of endocytosis did not restore Vpu-defective HIV-1 release in HeLa cells, but instead resulted in accumulation of mature virions that could be released from the cell surface by protease treatment. Thus, these findings suggest that a specific activity that is present in HeLa cells, but not in HOS cells, and is counteracted by Vpu, traps assembled retrovirus particles at the cell surface. This entrapment leads to subsequent endocytosis by a Rab5a- and clathrin-dependent mechanism and intracellular sequestration of virions in endosomes.

  18. Acacetin inhibits glutamate release and prevents kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Tzu-Yu Lin

    Full Text Available An excessive release of glutamate is considered to be a molecular mechanism associated with several neurological diseases that causes neuronal damage. Therefore, searching for compounds that reduce glutamate neurotoxicity is necessary. In this study, the possibility that the natural flavone acacetin derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Clerodendrum inerme (L. Gaertn is a neuroprotective agent was investigated. The effect of acacetin on endogenous glutamate release in rat hippocampal nerve terminals (synaptosomes was also investigated. The results indicated that acacetin inhibited depolarization-evoked glutamate release and cytosolic free Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+]C in the hippocampal nerve terminals. However, acacetin did not alter synaptosomal membrane potential. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of acacetin on evoked glutamate release was prevented by the Cav2.2 (N-type and Cav2.1 (P/Q-type channel blocker known as ω-conotoxin MVIIC. In a kainic acid (KA rat model, an animal model used for excitotoxic neurodegeneration experiments, acacetin (10 or 50 mg/kg was administrated intraperitoneally to the rats 30 min before the KA (15 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection, and subsequently induced the attenuation of KA-induced neuronal cell death and microglia activation in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. The present study demonstrates that the natural compound, acacetin, inhibits glutamate release from hippocampal synaptosomes by attenuating voltage-dependent Ca(2+ entry and effectively prevents KA-induced in vivo excitotoxicity. Collectively, these data suggest that acacetin has the therapeutic potential for treating neurological diseases associated with excitotoxicity.

  19. The Use of Release-Active Antibody-Based Preparations for Vertigo Prevention in Adults.

    Barchukov, V V; Zhavbert, E S; Dugina, Yu L; Epstein, O I

    2015-11-01

    The effectiveness of antibody-based release-active preparations Impaza (antibodies to eNOS), Tenoten (antibodies to brain-specific protein S-100), Dietressa (antibodies to type 1 cannabinoid receptor), Brizantin (combined preparation, antibodies to brain-specific protein S-100 and type 1 cannabinoid receptor), and Divaza (combined preparation, antibodies to brain-specific protein S-100 and eNOS) in the prevention of vertigo was studied on the model of intermittent accumulation of Coriolis accelerations (ICCA). Modification of activity of vestibular receptors and signal systems by release-active preparations contributed to an increase in ICCA tolerance time. Combined preparation Impaza possessed the most significant antinaupathic properties. Brizantin was less potent in this respect. PMID:26608378

  20. Ultra Structural Characterisation of Tetherin - a Protein Capable of Preventing Viral Release from the Plasma Membrane

    Ravindra K. Gupta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Tetherin is an antiviral restriction factor made by mammalian cells to protect them from viral infection. It prevents newly formed virus particles from leaving infected cells. Its antiviral mechanism appears to be remarkably uncomplicated. In 2 studies published in PLoS Pathogens electron microscopy is used to support the hypothesis that the tethers that link HIV-1 virions to tetherin expressing cells contain tetherin and are likely to contain tetherin alone. They also show that the HIV-1 encoded tetherin antagonist that is known to cause tetherin degradation, Vpu, serves to reduce the amount of tetherin in the particles thereby allowing their release.

  1. Guia de cuidados de enfermagem na prevenção da extubação acidental Conductas de enfermería para la prevención de la extubación accidental Guideline for nursing care in the prevention of accidental extubation

    Théia Maria Forny Wanderley Castellões

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Artigo que relata a experiência do emprego de um guia preventivo da extubação acidental que ocorre associada ao cuidado de enfermagem para os quatro momentos de maior incidência e que são: banho no leito, transporte, troca de fixação e mudança de decúbito. O conteúdo do guia está pautado nas recomendações encontradas em levantamento bibliográfico no MedLine e na experiência profissional. O guia vem sendo aplicado desde setembro de 2005. Espera-se que o guia contribua para diminuir cada vez mais a incidência da extubação acidental e por tanto seja uma ferramenta para desenvolver um indicador de qualidade na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, assim como, seja capaz de oferecer uma assistência que objetive a segurança do paciente.És un artículo que trata del empleo de un guía para orientar los cuidados de enfermería e evitar la extubación que ocurre con más frecuencia en cuatro tiempos: en el baño, la transferencia del enfermo, el cambio de la fixación y los cambios de posición en la cama. Su contenido se apoyo en la experiencia y en levantamiento bibliográfico en el Medline.Se ha venido usando desde septiembre de 2005 y hemos tenido solo dos extubaciones. Creemos que sirva para atender al enfermo con más seguranza así también como un indicador de calidad de enfermería.Article reports the experience of the use of a preventive guideline for the prevention of accidental extubation that occurs associated nursing care for the four moments of bigger incidence that are: bath in the stream bed, transportation, exchange of setting and change of decubitus. The content of the guide is based in the recommendations found in bibliographical survey in the MedLine and in the professional experience. The guideline is being used since September, 2005. This contribution aims at decreasing extubation incidence and to be a tool to develop a quality indicator in Intensive Care Units as well as for offering an assistance that aims patient

  2. Novel application method of talcum powder to prevent sticking tendency and modify release of esomeprazole magnesium enteric-coated pellets.

    Liu, Zan; Wang, Weiwei; Chen, Hao; Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Wenli

    2016-01-01

    Actually, reflecting drug release from polymer-coated pellets remains a challenge. In this study, sticking of pellets caused by Eudragit®L30D-55 was observed during the release process, leading to change in drug release. Talcum powder (talc) was used in esomeprazole magnesium pellets to prevent sticking and modify release of pellets. Three methods including talc incorporated in enteric layer, physically mixed and coating resulted pellets were employed to prevent the sticking. The release of pellets was modified by addition talc into subcoat. The dispersion coefficient (Fd) and release profiles were determined in phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.8 and 6.0) and distilled water. It was found that the first manner made Fd increase to about 0.75, but the latter two methods could completely prevent sticking. Also, the second manner was more simple and readily scaled up. In addition, talc in subcoat significantly slowed the drug release in water, but the slowing release effect is less pronounced at pH 6.0 and 6.8. These different effects of talc were attributed to a different release mechanism in three media. The release profiles in water were fitted to Nuttanan model, and the K designated as "diffusive resistance constant" was linearly increased with talc levels in subcoat (R(2)=0.9874). PMID:25708151

  3. Two new tools and a working method for crisis management of accidental spills at sea. Doctoral thesis

    Koops, W.

    1992-12-14

    Tables of Contents: Accidental spills and crisis management at sea; Present global situation concerning prevention of accidental spills; Present regional situation concerning preparation for accidental spills in the North Sea; Present national (Dutch) situation concerning response to accidental spills; Improvements in present crisis management approach; Design of the gravity scale for accidental spills; Introduction and design of a diagnostic model for accidental spills at sea; Introduction and design of a working method to support decision making in response situations; The computer program; Calibration and evaluation of the newly developed tools and working method; and, Appendices with background information.

  4. Prevention of organ rejection in renal and liver transplantation with extended release tacrolimus

    Reschen ME

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael E Reschen, Christopher A O’Callaghan Henry Wellcome Building, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom Abstract: Tacrolimus is the key immunosuppressant used to prevent allograft rejection in kidney and liver transplant recipients. Despite the efficacy of tacrolimus and adjunctive immunosuppressants, a substantial number of patients experience episodes of acute rejection and late graft loss. Nonadherence is an etiological factor in both acute rejection and graft loss. In 2007, a prolonged release version of tacrolimus became available that allows once daily administration, thus halving the pill burden compared to the standard twice-daily tacrolimus. An increasing number of studies in de novo transplantation and in treatment conversion have evaluated the pharmacokinetic profile, efficacy, and safety of prolonged-release tacrolimus. We have reviewed the literature on the use of prolonged-release tacrolimus and hope that this will be of value in the design of protocols for transplant immunosuppression.Keywords: immunosuppression, kidney, hepatic, allograft, adherence

  5. Accidental Bolus of Parenteral Nutrition.

    Lodeserto, Frank; Al-Jaghbeer, Mohammed; Huang, David

    2016-08-01

    There is a paucity of data that exists regarding acute toxicity and management in the setting of parental nutrition (PN) overdose. We describe a case of a patient who received an accidental rapid bolus of PN and fat emulsion. She developed a seizure, metabolic acidosis, arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia, altered mental status, hypotension, and hypoxemia likely caused by elevated triglycerides, leading to a hyperviscosity syndrome. After failing standard therapy, she was successfully treated with a single-volume plasma exchange with resolution of symptoms. Fat emulsion or intravenous lipid emulsion and much of its safety have been recently described in its use as a rescue therapy in resuscitation from drug-related toxicity. Elevated serum triglyceride levels can result in a picture similar to a hyperviscosity syndrome. Plasma exchange is a known therapeutic modality for the management of hyperviscosity syndrome and a novel therapy in the treatment of hyperviscosity syndrome due to fat emulsion therapy. In a patient receiving PN with development of rapid deterioration of clinical status, without an obvious etiology, there should be consideration of PN overdose. A rapid assessment and treatment of severe electrolyte abnormalities should be undertaken immediately to prevent life-threatening cardiovascular and central nervous system collapse. If fat emulsion was rapidly coadministered and there are signs and symptoms of hyperviscosity syndrome, then consideration should be given to plasma exchange as an effective therapeutic treatment option. PMID:25666023

  6. Medidas y estrategias para la prevención y control de los accidentes de tránsito: experiencia peruana por niveles de prevención Actions and strategies for the prevention and control of road traffic injuries: peruvian experience by levels of prevention

    Hernán Málaga

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo busca describir las principales medidas de prevención primaria y secundaria sobre accidentes de tránsito que vienen desarrollándose en Perú, considerando aspectos epidemiológicos propios de la experiencia peruana, como lo reportado en otros países. Se aborda lo a nivel de prevención primaria lo relacionado a la restricción horaria de expendio de bebidas alcohólicas, detección de conductores con alcoholemia positiva y el conductor elegido. En cuanto a prevención secundaria, se presenta los estudios de puntos negros y los barriles de contención de impacto, asimismo, una breve visión de los sistemas de atención pre hospitalaria en el caso de los traumatismos por accidentes de tránsito. Existe la necesidad de una mejor caracterización del problema, para establecer las políticas públicas saludables en lo concerniente a accidentes de tránsito, existe la necesidad de valoraciones basadas en evidencia científica y en estudios de evaluaciones económicas.This article aims to describe the main actions that are being developed in Peru for primary and secondary prevention of road traffic injuries, considering the epidemiological aspects that characterize the Peruvian experience, as reported in other countries. At the primary prevention level, it addresses issues related to the timing restriction of the sales of alcoholic beverages, detection of drivers with positive testing for alcohol in blood and the chosen driver. Regarding secondary prevention, the studies on black spots and the impact containment barrels are presented, also a brief overview of the pre-hospital care systems in the case of road traffic injuries. There is a need for better characterization of the problem, in order to establish healthy public policies regarding traffic accidents, there is a need for evidence-based reviews and studies of economic evaluations.

  7. Ten Tips to Prevent an Accidental Overdose

    ... and Children Under 2 Years of Age Giving Medication to Children Avoiding Drug Interactions Know Active Ingredients in Children's Meds ... & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products ...

  8. Role of tacrolimus prolonged release in the prevention of allograft rejection

    Peter Abrams

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Peter Abrams, Abhinav Humar, Henkie P TanDepartment of Surgery, Thomas E Starzl Transplantation Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pennsylvania, USAAbstract: Successful management of the solid-organ transplant recipient begins with prevention of rejection and achieving a balance between insufficient and excessive immunosuppression. Standard tacrolimus therapy for prevention of solid-organ transplant rejection consists of 2 divided doses per day. In an effort to simplify tacrolimus dosing to once daily, a new formulation (tacrolimus prolonged release [PR] was chosen for its combination of a similar extent of bioavailability and a substantially reduced rate of clearance. Several clinical conversion studies have now been completed using PR to clarify its pharmacokinetics, efficacy at prevention of allograft rejection, and safety profiles in solid-organ transplant patients. A cohort of 67 stable kidney transplant recipients was converted from standard tacrolimus to PR in an open-label, multicenter study in the United States and Canada. A second open-label, multicenter study was performed in liver transplant recipients with stable graft function on standard tacrolimus therapy converted to PR. A third conversion study was performed as an open-label study at 5 centers in the United States in stable pediatric liver transplant recipients. As medication noncompliance can significantly contribute to the incidence of graft rejection and graft loss in transplant recipients, a potentially significant advance in the transplant community’s ongoing mission to optimize prevention of rejection occurred with the development of a once-daily tacrolimus PR. The results of these preliminary studies suggest that select solid-organ transplant recipients converted to PR can be safely maintained using the same monitoring and patient care techniques historically used for standard tacrolimus therapy.Keywords: immunosuppression, tacrolimus allograft

  9. Proposal of procedures to prevent errors in radiotherapy based in learned lessons of accidental expositions; Proposta de procedimentos para evitar erros em radioterapia baseados em licoes aprendidas de exposicoes acidentais

    Bueno, Giselle Oliveira Vieira

    2007-07-01

    In order to consider some procedures to prevent errors in radiotherapy based in learned lessons of accidental expositions and in accordance with information contained in international reports elaborated by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and of the data base availability by the European group Radiation Oncology Safety Information System (ROSIS) on the events, a research of the occurred errors was performed. For the evaluation of the incidents a data base based in the ROSIS and added plus a parameter was created 'type of error'. All the stored data make possible the evaluation of the 839 incidents in terms of frequency of the type of error, the process of detention, the number of reached patients and the degree of severity. Of the 50 types of found errors, the type of error more frequently was 'incorrect treatment coordinate', confirmed with the data of literature and representing 28,96 por cent of the total of the incidents. The results showed 44,44 por cent are discovered at the moment of the treatment and that the process of verification of the fiche or clinical revision of the patient is a verification more occurred insurance and in 43,33 por cent of the searched events. The results indicated that more than 50 por cent of the incidents the severity degree are void and approximately 62 por cent a patient are affected during the accomplishment of the radiotherapy. This work showed that to analyze the data base according to methodology proposal for Klein et al.; for Reason, and Dunscombe et al. is interesting to insert more characteristic detailed in the data base such as: the number of fractions for affected patient, number of fields of treatment for fraction that was affected, shunting line of the prescribed dose and shunting line of the volume prescribed in all the registered in cadastral map events. Some causes exist that can lead the errors when patient they are submitted to the radiotherapy. Some measures can be taken so that

  10. Amoco/Environmental Protection Agency Pollution Prevention Project, Yorktown refinery. Refinery release inventory. Final report

    The report volume summarizes physical data obtained during a 2-year pollution prevention study of Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown Virginia Refinery. The study was jointly sponsored as a cooperative effort of Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. A multi-media sampling program was used to identify potential pollution sources within the Refinery. Sampling and analysis included air, surface water, groundwater, and solid waste data. Public perceptions about environmental issues of concern in the vicinity of the Refinery were also surveyed. The inventory showed that nearly 99 percent of the releases were airborne at the facility. Most of the remainder involved land disposal of solid wastes. Specific sources of major pollutants are identified

  11. Applications of human factors engineering to LNG release prevention and control

    Shikiar, R.; Rankin, W.L.; Rideout, T.B.

    1982-06-01

    The results of an investigation of human factors engineering and human reliability applications to LNG release prevention and control are reported. The report includes a discussion of possible human error contributions to previous LNG accidents and incidents, and a discussion of generic HF considerations for peakshaving plants. More specific recommendations for improving HF practices at peakshaving plants are offered based on visits to six facilities. The HF aspects of the recently promulgated DOT regulations are reviewed, and recommendations are made concerning how these regulations can be implemented utilizing standard HF practices. Finally, the integration of HF considerations into overall system safety is illustrated by a presentation of human error probabilities applicable to LNG operations and by an expanded fault tree analysis which explicitly recognizes man-machine interfaces.

  12. Allegheny County Fatal Accidental Overdoses

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Fatal accidental overdose incidents in Allegheny County, denoting age, gender, race, drugs present, zip code of incident and zip code of residence. Zip code of...

  13. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.

    Cardis, E

    1996-01-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discu...

  14. Prevention of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients: the role of delayed-release posaconazole

    Soysal A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ahmet SoysalDivision of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Marmara University, Istanbul, TurkeyAbstract: Posaconazole is a triazole antifungal agent that has broad-spectrum activity against many yeasts and filamentous fungi, including Candida species, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus species, and Zygomycetes. This drug has been approved for the prevention of invasive fungal infections in patients with neutropenia and for the treatment of invasive fungal infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with graft-versus-host disease. Studies on the clinical efficacy, safety, tolerability, and cost-effectiveness of posaconazole therapy were performed using the oral suspension form of the drug. Pharmacokinetic studies have found that the oral suspension form of posaconazole has problemeatic bioavailability: its absorption is affected by concomitant medication and food. This article discusses the pharmacokinetic properties of the newly developed posaconazole delayed-release tablet formulation and reviews the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of both the oral suspension and the new tablet formulation. In conclusion, the posaconazole tablet formulation has better systemic bioavailability, thereby enabling once-daily administration and better absorption in the presence of concomitant medication and food. However, well-designed clinical studies are needed to evaluate the use of the tablet formulation in real-life settings.Keywords: posaconazole delayed-release tablet, prophylaxis, invasive fungal infections

  15. Fluoride-Releasing Materials to Prevent White Spot Lesions around Orthodontic Brackets: A Systematic Review.

    Nascimento, Patrícia Layane de Menezes Macêdo; Fernandes, Micaelle Tenório Guedes; Figueiredo, Fabricio Eneas Diniz de; Faria-E-Silva, André Luis

    2016-02-01

    The relation between orthodontic fixed appliances use and enamel demineralization is well established. Different preventive approaches have been suggested to this problem, but controversy remains about which is the best. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of clinical trials that investigated the effectiveness of materials containing fluorides to lute brackets or cover the bonding interface in order to inhibit the development and progression of white spot lesions. The null hypothesis was that fluoride materials do not affect the incidence of white spot lesions around brackets. A MEDLINE search was conducted for randomized clinical trials evaluating the development of white spot lesions in patients using fixed orthodontic appliances, followed by meta-analysis comparing the results for patients for whom dental materials containing fluorides were used (experimental group) to those for whom these materials were not used (control group). The pooled relative risk of developing white spot lesions for the experimental group was 0.42 (95% confidence interval: 0.25 to 0.72); hence, when fluoride-releasing materials are used, the patient has 58% less risk of white spot lesion development. Regarding white spot lesion extent, the pooled mean difference between the experimental and control groups was not statistically significant (-0.12; 95% confidence interval: -0.29 to 0.04). In conclusion, the results of the present systematic review suggest that fluoride-releasing materials can reduce the risk of white spot lesions around brackets. However, when white spot lesions had already occurred, there is no evidence that fluoride-releasing materials reduce the extent of these lesions. PMID:27007355

  16. DIDS prevents ischemic membrane degradation in cultured hippocampal neurons by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase release.

    Matthew E Pamenter

    prevented stimulus-evoked release of von Willebrand Factor from human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We conclude that DIDS inhibits MMP exocytosis and through this mechanism preserves neuronal membrane integrity during pathological stress.

  17. Accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance.

    Rohida, Neeraj S; Bhad, Wasundhara A

    2011-01-01

    Orthodontic appliances that become dislodged can cause problems in the airway or the gastrointestinal tract. Accidental ingestion of an appliance during a chair-side procedure or because of inadequate retention of the appliance can create a medical emergency with potentially serious complications, including death from aspiration of the foreign body. This article reports the accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance. The ease with which removable appliances can become dislodged if retention is inadequate is discussed, and some serious complications that can arise are described. Precautions the orthodontist can take to prevent such accidents are presented. PMID:21195285

  18. The accidental overexposures

    The radioisotope or ionizing radiation medical or industrial use may generate accidents where human beings are exposed to very high doses. The accident frequency is increasing quickly because of the industrial source use development. The accidents don't catch only the plant or hospital staffs but also public people. The serious accidents result from conception errors, bad installation maintenance, lack or not enough staff training, transgression of safety processes. The accidents happen in not very specialized firms. Those resulting from energy production reactors are very seldom except for Chernobyl or military submarines. In the medical or hospital installations, accidents may affect the staffs or the patients. Most of the accidents could have been avoided by the simple respect of the simple surety duties. The follow up and analysis of serious accidents can bring an effective collaboration to the prevention. 78 refs., 3 annexes., 14 tabs., 17 figs

  19. Accidental degeneracies in string compactification

    Bais, F.A.; Taormina, A.

    1986-11-27

    The equivalence of the torus and group manifold compactification of strings is established. Accidental degeneracies are shown to occur for a large class of compactifications. This way many examples are obtained in which modular invariance does not uniquely fix the representation content of the spectrum.

  20. Accidental degeneracies in string compactification

    Bais, F. A.; Taormina, A.

    1986-11-01

    The equivalence of the torus and group manifold compactification of strings is established. Accidental degeneracies are shown to occur for a large class of compactifications. This way many examples are obtained in which modular invariance does not uniquely fix the representation content of the spectrum.

  1. Accidente de Trabajo y Recargo

    Pérez Alonso, María Antonia

    2015-01-01

    En la actualidad existen diferentes formas de Accidente de Trabajo. En el presente trabajo se da a conocer las distintas formas y la doctrina de los tribunales. Se aborda el recargo de prestaciones de Seguridad Social y el deber del empresario en cumplir la normativa de Seguridad Social

  2. A mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I of the project: early effects of inhaled radionuclides

    The report presents a mathematical model for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included

  3. Conceptual Design of Portable Filtered Air Suction Systems For Prevention of Released Radioactive Gas under Severe Accidents of NPP

    Gu, Beom W.; Choi, Su Y.; Yim, Man S.; Rim, Chun T. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    It becomes evident that severe accidents may occur by unexpected disasters such as tsunami, heavy flood, or terror. Once radioactive material is released from NPP through severe accidents, there are no ways to prevent the released radioactive gas spreading in the air. As a remedy for this problem, the idea on the portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for the prevention of released radioactive gas under severe accidents was proposed. In this paper, the conceptual design of a PoFASS focusing on the number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are proposed. In order to design a flexible robot suction nozzle, mathematical models for the gaps which represent the lifted heights of extensible covers for given convex shapes of pipes and for the covered areas are developed. In addition, the system requirements for the design of the robot arms of PoFASS are proposed, which determine the accessible range of leakage points of released radioactive gas. In this paper, the conceptual designs of the flexible robot suction nozzle and robot arm have been conducted. As a result, the minimum number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are defined to be four and three, respectively. For further works, extensible cover designs on the flexible robot suction nozzle and the application of the PoFASS to the inside of NPP should be studied because the radioactive gas may be released from connection pipes between the containment building and auxiliary buildings.

  4. Conceptual Design of Portable Filtered Air Suction Systems For Prevention of Released Radioactive Gas under Severe Accidents of NPP

    It becomes evident that severe accidents may occur by unexpected disasters such as tsunami, heavy flood, or terror. Once radioactive material is released from NPP through severe accidents, there are no ways to prevent the released radioactive gas spreading in the air. As a remedy for this problem, the idea on the portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for the prevention of released radioactive gas under severe accidents was proposed. In this paper, the conceptual design of a PoFASS focusing on the number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are proposed. In order to design a flexible robot suction nozzle, mathematical models for the gaps which represent the lifted heights of extensible covers for given convex shapes of pipes and for the covered areas are developed. In addition, the system requirements for the design of the robot arms of PoFASS are proposed, which determine the accessible range of leakage points of released radioactive gas. In this paper, the conceptual designs of the flexible robot suction nozzle and robot arm have been conducted. As a result, the minimum number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are defined to be four and three, respectively. For further works, extensible cover designs on the flexible robot suction nozzle and the application of the PoFASS to the inside of NPP should be studied because the radioactive gas may be released from connection pipes between the containment building and auxiliary buildings

  5. Accidental Turbulent Discharge Rate Estimation from Videos

    Ibarra, Eric; Shaffer, Franklin; Savaş, Ömer

    2015-11-01

    A technique to estimate the volumetric discharge rate in accidental oil releases using high speed video streams is described. The essence of the method is similar to PIV processing, however the cross correlation is carried out on the visible features of the efflux, which are usually turbulent, opaque and immiscible. The key step in the process is to perform a pixelwise time filtering on the video stream, in which the parameters are commensurate with the scales of the large eddies. The velocity field extracted from the shell of visible features is then used to construct an approximate velocity profile within the discharge. The technique has been tested on laboratory experiments using both water and oil jets at Re ~105 . The technique is accurate to 20%, which is sufficient for initial responders to deploy adequate resources for containment. The software package requires minimal user input and is intended for deployment on an ROV in the field. Supported by DOI via NETL.

  6. Procedures, placement, and risks of further abuse after Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation

    Davis, P.; McClure, R; Rolfe, K; Chessman, N; Pearson, S.; Sibert, J; Meadow, R

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate outcome, management, and prevention in Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation.
DESIGN—Ascertainment through British Paediatric Surveillance Unit and questionnaires to responding paediatricians.
SETTING—The UK and Republic of Ireland, September 1992 to August 1994.
SUBJECTS—Children under 14 years diagnosed with the above.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Placement and child protection measures for victims and sib...

  7. Investigation of pregnancy outcome and ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome prevention in agonist and antagonist gonadotropin-releasing hormone protocol

    Behnaz Khani Rabati; Setare Nasiri Zeidi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the controversies regarding the effectiveness of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists in prevention of ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome stimulation, this study was designed to compare GnRH agonist protocol with GnRH antagonist protocol in patients who were candidate for assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs). Materials and Methods: This investigation was performed on 136 patients who were randomly allocated to two groups of GnRH agonist and GnRH antagonist. I...

  8. New technique for releasing tension to prevent widening of an abdominal scar.

    Kishi, Kazuo; Imanishi, Nobuaki; Kobayashi, Naoshi; Nakajima, Hideo; Nakajima, Tatsuo

    2012-10-01

    We developed an easy way to release tension from an abdominal cutaneous suture by plicating the anterior rectus sheath for several centimetres. We used this in two patients and the scars were satisfactory. Plication of the fascia is an easy and effective way of releasing the tension of a cutaneous sutured line. PMID:22747361

  9. Kinematics and kinetics of an accidental lateral ankle sprain

    Kristianslund, Eirik; Bahr, Roald; Krosshaug, Tron

    2011-01-01

    Ankle sprains are common during sporting activities and can have serious consequences. Understanding of injury mechanisms is essential to prevent injuries, but only two previous studies have provided detailed descriptions of the kinematics of lateral ankle sprains and measures of kinetics are missing. In the present study a female handball player accidentally sprained her ankle during sidestep cutting in a motion analysis laboratory. Kinematics and kinetics were calculated from 240 Hz recordi...

  10. Role of tacrolimus prolonged release in the prevention of allograft rejection

    Peter Abrams; Abhinav Humar; Tan, Henkie P.

    2010-01-01

    Peter Abrams, Abhinav Humar, Henkie P TanDepartment of Surgery, Thomas E Starzl Transplantation Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pennsylvania, USAAbstract: Successful management of the solid-organ transplant recipient begins with prevention of rejection and achieving a balance between insufficient and excessive immunosuppression. Standard tacrolimus therapy for prevention of solid-organ transplant rejection consists of 2 divided doses per day. In an effort to simplify t...

  11. Accidental hanging deaths in children in Konya, Turkey between 1998 and 2007.

    Dogan, Kamil H; Demirci, Serafettin; Erkol, Zerrin; Gulmen, Mete K

    2010-05-01

    In general, hanging cases are the result of suicide, and accidental and homicidal hanging cases are rarely seen. This study retrospectively investigated 4571 death examinations and autopsies that were performed at The Konya Branch of the Forensic Medicine Council (Turkey) between 1998 and 2007; hanging was involved in 201 (6.5%) of the cases. There were a total of 13 accidental hanging cases, where 12 of these involved children. In seven of the cases, the accidental hanging involved a scarf that wraps around swing-like cradles and is intended to prevent infants from falling down. It was concluded that accidental hanging deaths can be reduced by replacing swing-like cradles with cribs that are designed for children, removing ropes in and around the house, and preventing children from reaching and/or playing with rope-like objects. PMID:20202070

  12. Synaptic GABA release prevents GABA transporter type-1 reversal during excessive network activity

    Savtchenko, L.; Megalogeni, M.; Rusakov, D. A.; Walker, M. C.; Pavlov, I.

    2015-01-01

    GABA transporters control extracellular GABA, which regulates the key aspects of neuronal and network behaviour. A prevailing view is that modest neuronal depolarization results in GABA transporter type-1 (GAT-1) reversal causing non-vesicular GABA release into the extracellular space during intense network activity. This has important implications for GABA uptake-targeting therapies. Here we combined a realistic kinetic model of GAT-1 with experimental measurements of tonic GABAA receptor cu...

  13. Marine dispersion of radioactive elements susceptible to be released by the reactors of the Kursk damaged nuclear submarine; Dispersion marine des elements radioactifs susceptibles d'etre liberes par les reacteurs du sous-marin nucleaire accidente Koursk

    Calmet, D. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, 92 (France); Lepicard, S. [Centre d' Etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2000-07-01

    The Kursk nuclear submarine has been damaged on the 12. august 2000. It is on the bottom of the Barents sea. The loss of watertightness of the two nuclear reactors, that contain some hundred of kilograms of fuel (enriched uranium) would lead to the release of radioactive elements. This report specifies the general conditions of circulation of water mass susceptible to be concerned by an eventual radioactive contamination. evaluates the times of water transit that could be contaminated and then evaluates the activities contributions susceptible to be added with time to the sea waters and sea products from the French coasts of Atlantic and Channel. (N.C.)

  14. Prevention of organ rejection in renal and liver transplantation with extended release tacrolimus

    Reschen ME; O'Callaghan CA

    2014-01-01

    Michael E Reschen, Christopher A O’Callaghan Henry Wellcome Building, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom Abstract: Tacrolimus is the key immunosuppressant used to prevent allograft rejection in kidney and liver transplant recipients. Despite the efficacy of tacrolimus and adjunctive immunosuppressants, a substantial number of patients experience episodes of acute rejection and late graft loss. Nonadherence is an etiological factor in both acute...

  15. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P4[1,1,1,6,9] by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes

  16. Detecting spatiotemporal clusters of accidental poisoning mortality among Texas counties, U.S., 1980 – 2001

    Harris Ann

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental poisoning is one of the leading causes of injury in the United States, second only to motor vehicle accidents. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the rates of accidental poisoning mortality have been increasing in the past fourteen years nationally. In Texas, mortality rates from accidental poisoning have mirrored national trends, increasing linearly from 1981 to 2001. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are spatiotemporal clusters of accidental poisoning mortality among Texas counties, and if so, whether there are variations in clustering and risk according to gender and race/ethnicity. The Spatial Scan Statistic in combination with GIS software was used to identify potential clusters between 1980 and 2001 among Texas counties, and Poisson regression was used to evaluate risk differences. Results Several significant (p Conclusion The findings of the present study provide evidence for the existence of accidental poisoning mortality clusters in Texas, demonstrate the persistence of these clusters into the present decade, and show the spatiotemporal variations in risk and clustering of accidental poisoning deaths by gender and race/ethnicity. By quantifying disparities in accidental poisoning mortality by place, time and person, this study demonstrates the utility of the spatial scan statistic combined with GIS and regression methods in identifying priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation.

  17. The Frequency of the Accidental Contamination with Laboratory Samples in Yazd Clinical Laboratories’ personnel in 2011

    Jafari, AA. (PhD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: laboratory personnel have always accidental exposure to clinical samples, which can cause the transmission of infection. This threat can be prevented and controlled by education for the use of safety instruments. The purpose was to determine the frequency of accidental exposure to laboratory samples among Yazd laboratory personnel in 2011. Material and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 of Yazd clinical laboratory personnel. The data was collected, using a valid and reliable questioner, via interview and analyzed by means of SPSS software. Results: Eighty-six percent of the subjects reported an experience of accidental exposure to clinical samples, such as blood, serum and urine. The causes were carelessness (41% and work overload (29%. Needle- stick was the most prevalent injury (52% particularly in sampler workers (51% and in their hands (69%. There wasn’t significant relationship between accidental exposure to laboratory samples and the variables such as private and governmental laboratories (p=0.517, kind of employment (p=0.411, record of services (p=0.439 and academic degree (p=0.454. The subjects aged 20-29 (p=0.034 and worked in sampling unit had the highest accidental exposure. Conclusion: based on the results, inexperience of the personnel especially in sampling room, overload at work and ignorance of applying safety instruments are known as the most important reasons for accidental exposure to clinical samples. Keywords: Contamination; accidental Exposure; Infectious agents; laboratory; personnel

  18. CFD Modeling of the Releases and Dispersion of Accidental City Gas Pipeline in Urban Street Canyons%城燃管道街道峡谷泄漏扩散CFD数值模拟

    程浩力; 刘德俊; 刘倩倩; 高忠杰; 姜东方; 邓宗竹; 李明德

    2011-01-01

    城市燃气管道的安全时常受到市政建设的威胁而破坏,与天然气管线野外泄漏的情况不同的是,市区复杂的建筑环境会对气体的扩散情况造成干扰,严重危害人员财产安全.选择CFD数值模拟法,对城市街道峡谷内燃气管线的扩散泄漏进行了分析.基于二维街道峡谷断面模型,对截断阀关闭前后燃气泄漏扩散的基本规律进行了分析研究.数值模拟结果表明,风对燃气的扩散起主导作用,街道峡谷内形成的独立而稳定的涡旋气流场会使燃气聚集并且难以扩散.%City gas pipelines are always under the threat of municipal construction. Unlike in the wild, the building of the city will cause lots of trouble to the dispersion of the gas released, and the lives and property safety of people may be threatened. The dispersion of the city gas released in the street canyons was analyzed based on the two ~ dimensional CFD model. The situation before and after the shutting down of the block valves were studied respectively. The numerical simulation results show that the wind plays a leading role on the dispersion,and the aspect of the street canyon has significant effects on inner vortex airflow fields which will make the gas difficult to disperse.

  19. N-Palmitoylethanolamine Prevents the Run-down of Amplitudes in Cortical Spreading Depression Possibly Implicating Proinflammatory Cytokine Release.

    Richter, Frank; Koulen, Peter; Kaja, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD), a wave of neuronal depolarization in the cerebral cortex following traumatic brain injury or cerebral ischemia, significantly aggravates brain damage. Here, we tested whether N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA), a substance that effectively reduces lesion volumes and neurological deficits after ischemic stroke, influences CSD. CSD was elicited chemically in adult rats and occurrence, amplitude, duration and propagation velocity of CSD was determined prior to and for 6 hours after intraperitoneal injection of PEA. The chosen systemic administration of PEA stabilized the amplitude of CSD for at least four hours and prevented the run-down of amplitudes that is typically observed and was also seen in untreated controls. The propagation velocity of the CSD waves was unaltered indicating stable neuronal excitability. The stabilization of CSD amplitudes by PEA indicates that inhibition or prevention of CSD does not underlie PEA's profound neuroprotective effect. Rather, PEA likely inhibits proinflammatory cytokine release thereby preventing the run-down of CSD amplitudes. This contribution of PEA to the maintenance of neuronal excitability in healthy tissue during CSD potentially adds to neuroprotection outside a damaged area, while other mechanisms control PEA-mediated neuroprotection in damaged tissue resulting from traumatic brain injury or cerebral ischemia. PMID:27004851

  20. Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke

    ... free mailed brochure Cómo Prevenir un Accidente Cerebrovascular Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke Request free mailed brochure Table ... Americans are protecting their most important asset—their brain. Are you? Stroke ranks as the fourth leading ...

  1. Intervenção comunitária para prevenção de acidentes de trânsito entre trabalhadores ciclistas Intervención comunitaria para la prevención de accidentes de tránsito entre trabajadores ciclistas A community intervention to prevent traffic accidents among bicycle commuters

    Giancarlo Bacchieri

    2010-10-01

    intervención educacional de prevención de accidentes de tránsito con trabajadores que utilizan la bicicleta como modo de transporte. MÉTODOS: Estudio de intervención, longitudinal, con implementación escalonada, realizado en cinco urbanizaciones con características geográficas distintas en la ciudad de Pelotas, Sur de Brasil, de enero de 2006 a mayo de 2007. Fueron sorteados 42 sectores censados de dichas urbanizaciones. Todos los domicilios fueron visitados en búsqueda de trabajadores del sexo masculino que utilizasen la bicicleta como modo de transporte, resultando en una muestra de 1.133 individuos. Fueron analizados como resultados "accidentes de tránsito" y "casi-accidentes". Mensualmente, vía telefónica, los ciclistas eran interrogados con respecto a la ocurrencia de accidentes de tránsito y de "casi-accidentes". Quincenalmente, a partir del segundo mes de acompañamiento, un grupo de aproximadamente 60 ciclistas era convidado a participar de la intervención, que incluía un componente educativo (seminario y presentación de video educativo, distribución de un kit de seguridad (chaleco nocturno con reflexivo, cartilla educativa y cintas reflexivas y revisión de los frenos de la bicicleta (mantenimiento realizado al ser necesario. Regresión de Poisson, con ajuste para el efecto del tiempo, fue utilizada para medir el efecto de la intervención. RESULTADOS: Aproximadamente 45% de los ciclistas no comparecieron a la intervención. Durante el período de estudio, 9% de los individuos informaron un accidente de tránsito y 88% un casi-accidente. En total, ocurrieron 106 accidentes y 1.091 casi-accidentes. No fue observado efecto de la intervención en ambos resultados. CONCLUSIONES: La intervención propuesta no fue capaz de reducir accidentes entre trabajadores ciclistas. falta de interés en seguridad por parte de los ciclistas y factores externos, tales como infra-estructura de las vías y comportamiento de los choferes, pueden haber colaborado para ese

  2. Corps makes plant improvements to prevent release of oil into tailrace

    Like most hydroelectric plants designed in the 1960s, the US Army Corps of Engineers 160-MW Truman Power Plant, near Warsaw, MO, was built with a station drainage sump that collects all drainage from the plant. As designed, float switches activate sump pumps that discharge liquids directly into the tailrace. Because the system cannot distinguish between types of liquids, in the event of an oil leak in the hydroelectric plant, oil in the sump could be released into the tailrace. This situation was not environmentally sound and needed to be corrected. The sump system was identified as a problem area in a December 1991 assessment of the plant by a district team that conducted record searches, interviews, and site surveys to determine any areas of environmental non-compliance. To eliminate the potential problem posed by the Truman Power Plant's sump system, the Corps took the initiative to make several improvements. For containment in the event of a spill, the distict installed an oil skimmer for the sump (see the photographs), similar to one used at the Corps Clarence Cannon Dam, also in Missouri. The district also plugged a number of floor drains, and installed speed bumps, similar to those used in parking lots to slow traffic, for spill containment. Additionally, a cartmounted skimmer is available to serve as a mobile spill control unit for spills elsewhere in the plant. Long-term plans call for oil detectors that will automatically turn off the sump's pumps and turn on the skimmer

  3. Lessons learned from accidental exposures in radiotherapy

    The medical use of radiation is unique in that patients are intentionally exposed to radiation. The aim in radiation therapy is twofold: to deliver a dose and dose distribution that is adequate for tumour control, but which also minimizes complications in normal tissues. In therapeutic applications, the doses are high and a deviation from the prescribed dose may have severe or even fatal consequences. There is therefore a great need to ensure adequate radiation protection and safety in radiotherapy by verifying that all personnel involved are appropriately trained for their duties, that the equipment used meets relevant international specifications for radiation safety and that safety culture is embedded in routine activities in radiotherapy departments. Many individuals must interact and work together on highly technical measurements and calculations, and therefore the potential for mistakes is great. A review of the mistakes shows that most are due to human error. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115) require that a prompt investigation be conducted whenever an accidental medical exposure of patients occurs. The report of the investigation is to be disseminated to the appropriate parties so that lessons can be learned to prevent similar accidents or mitigate their consequences in the future. This Safety Report is a collection of a large number of events that may serve as a checklist against which to test the vulnerability of a facility to potential accidents, and to provide a basis for improving safety in the use of radiation in medical applications. A further purpose of this report is to encourage readers to develop a questioning and learning attitude, adopt measures for the prevention of accidents, and prepare for mitigation of the consequences of accidents if they occur

  4. Histone deacetylase inhibition prevents the impairing effects of hippocampal gastrin-releasing peptide receptor antagonism on memory consolidation and extinction.

    Petry, Fernanda S; Dornelles, Arethuza S; Lichtenfels, Martina; Valiati, Fernanda E; de Farias, Caroline Brunetto; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Parent, Marise B; Roesler, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    Hippocampal gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPR) regulate memory formation and extinction, and disturbances in GRPR signaling may contribute to cognitive impairment associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Histone acetylation is an important epigenetic mechanism that regulates gene expression involved in memory formation, and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) rescue memory deficits in several models. The present study determined whether inhibiting histone deacetylation would prevent memory impairments produced by GRPR blockade in the hippocampus. Male Wistar rats were given an intrahippocampal infusion of saline (SAL) or the HDACi sodium butyrate (NaB) shortly before inhibitory avoidance (IA) training, followed by an infusion of either SAL or the selective GRPR antagonist RC-3095 immediately after training. In a second experiment, the infusions were administered before and after a retention test trial that served as extinction training. As expected, RC-3095 significantly impaired consolidation and extinction of IA memory. More importantly, pretraining administration of NaB, at a dose that had no effect when given alone, prevented the effects of RC-3095. In addition, the combination of NaB and RC-3095 increased hippocampal levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These findings indicate that HDAC inhibition can protect against memory impairment caused by GRPR blockade. PMID:27025446

  5. Prevention

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  6. An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.

    Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2014-10-24

    An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the μ-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

  7. Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death

    Thomas Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema.

  8. LNG containment release: Comparison of NFPA-59A and 49-CFR-193

    Due to the potential wide area impact of an unplanned LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) release, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and later the US Department of Transportation issued standards and regulations which included specific methodologies for analyzing the consequence of an accidental LNG release. The concept of a ''design spill'' was defined in order to evaluate the consequences of an accidental LNG release, with particular attention to the influence of safety protective measures. In addition to specifying the magnitude of the unplanned release, the design spill also specified some of the parameters for estimation of the downwind LNG vapor dispersion and the extent of the radiant heat from an LNG pool fire. Since the NFPA-59A and 49-CFR-193 standards were the first in-depth regulation to address consequence analysis estimation for petroleum components, it is particularly important to consider their details in light of the recently proposed EPA 40-CFR-68 regulations [Risk Management for Chemical Accidental Release Prevention] which specifically address consequence analysis as a part of process safety management

  9. Control of radiation sources and general regulations for accidental situations

    In order to prevent accidents caused by application of radiation sources the Tunisian O.N.P.C. established straightforward strategy made up of 3 phases: prevention, planning and intervention. Civil Protection conducts prevention studies of all radiation sources by examining normal application conditions as well as possible accidental situations. It keeps up with scientific, technical and statistical aspects of radiation risks, elaborates specific plans and programs for intervention operations and cooperates with administrative and security services as well as international organisations. The O.N.P.C. established a model intervention plan based on observation (according to preliminary information), evaluation of the situation (according to the head of operation) intervention (specialized units) and post intervention (testing of personnel)

  10. Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan: 100 Areas

    The purpose of this Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is to identify the chemical spill control practices, procedures, and containment devices Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) employs to prevent a reportable quantity (RQ) of a hazardous substance (as defined in 40 CFR Part 302) from being released to the environment. The chemical systems and chemical storage facilities in the 100 Areas are described. This document traces the ultimate fate of accidental chemical spills at the 100 Areas. Also included in the document destinations, spill containment devices, and systems surveillance frequencies. 2 tabs

  11. Prevenção de queimaduras: percepção de pacientes e de seus familiares Prevención de accidentes por quemaduras: percepción del paciente y de sus familiares Burn prevention: perceptions of patients and their relatives

    Lídia Aparecida Rossi

    2003-02-01

    éstico. De las 57 entrevistas, 11 afirmaron que no podrían haber contribuido para evitar el accidente que provocó la quemadura. Veinte pacientes y 12 familiares identificaron situaciones de riesgo en el ambiente doméstico o en el trabajo; 13 pacientes y 12 familiares no identificaron ningún tipo de situación de riesgo. Los familiares y pacientes resaltaron como medidas preventivas de accidentes por quemaduras: estar atento a las actividades y tener cuidado en el manejo de productos inflamables.This study aimed at investigating the ways to prevent burns identified by burned patients and their relatives. Data were collected at the Burns Unit of the Ribeirão Preto Medical School Clinical Hospital, University of São Paulo - Brazil by means of interviews with burned patients and their relatives. Four referees categorized data. In order to verify the existence of agreement among the referees with regard to categorization, the non-parametric correlation measure was used - Contingency Coefficient. Fifty-seven people were interviewed: 24 relatives and 33 burned patients. Of the 33 interviewed patients, 18 had suffered accidents at home. Of the 57 interviewees, 11 stated that they could not have avoided the accident causing the burn. Twenty patients and 12 relatives identified risk situations at home or at work and 13 patients and 12 relatives did not identify any types of risk situations. The relatives and patients referred to the following preventive measures for burning accidents: to be attentive to the activities that they perform and to be more careful while handling flammable products.

  12. Mortalidad intrahospitalaria por accidente cerebrovascular

    Federico Rodríguez Lucci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La mortalidad global por accidente cerebrovascular (ACV ha disminuido en las últimas tres décadas, probablemente debido a un mejor control de los factores de riesgo vascular. La mortalidad hospitalaria por ACV ha sido tradicionalmente estimada entre 6 y 14% en la mayoría de las series comunicadas. Sin embargo, los datos de ensayos clínicos recientes sugieren que esta cifra sería sustancialmente menor. Se revisaron datos de pacientes internados con diagnóstico de ACV del Banco de Datos de Stroke de FLENI y los registros institucionales de mortalidad entre los años 2000 y 2010. Los subtipos de ACV isquémicos se clasificaron según criterios TOAST y los ACV hemorrágicos en hematomas intrapanquimatosos, hemorragias subaracnoideas aneurismáticas, malformaciones arteriovenosas y otros hematomas intraparenquimatosos. Se analizaron 1514 pacientes, 1079 (71% con ACV isquémico (grandes vasos 39%, cardioembólicos 27%, lacunares 9%, etiología indeterminada 14%, otras etiologías 11% y 435 (29% con ACV hemorrágico (intraparenquimatosos 27%, hemorragia subaracnoidea 30%, malformaciones arteriovenosas 25% y otros hematomas espontáneos 18%. Se registraron 38 muertes intrahospitalarias (17 ACV isquémicos y 21 ACV hemorrágicos, representando una mortalidad global del 2.5% (1.7% en ACV isquémicos y 4.8% en ACV hemorrágicos. No se registraron muertes asociadas al uso de fibrinolíticos endovenosos. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria en pacientes con ACV isquémico y hemorrágico en nuestro centro fue baja. El manejo en un centro dedicado a las enfermedades neurológicas y el enfoque multidisciplinario por personal médico y no médico entrenado en el cuidado de la enfermedad cerebrovascular podrían explicar, al menos en parte, estos resultados.

  13. Radioecological studies on terrestrial food chain analysis for accidental release

    Choi, Yong Ho; Lee, Jeong Ho; Lee, Hyun Duk [and others

    2000-03-01

    For investigating the contamination pathways of major radionuclides in staple food crops, greenhouse experiments in which rice, Chines cabbage and radish were exposed to mixed {gamma} radionuclides of Mn-54, Co-60, Sr-85, Ru-103 and Cs-134 and H-3 at different growth stages, were conducted to generate data on parameters concerning the direct contamination of those crops. Experiments of the exposure to iodine gas were also performed for rice and radish at their various growth stages to obtain contamination parameters of elemental iodine. Based on data obtained from the experiments mentioned above, a database program was constructed to make it possible to search parameter values for different radionuclides, crops and deposition times in an easy way have an graphic output of the variation in the contamination parameter with deposition times. Paddy-field soils were collected from 5 or 6 places around Kori and Youngkwang NPPs and physicochemical properties and background radioactivity levels of the soils were investigated. Soil-to-rice transfer factors of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in the collected soils were determined for different RI application times. For Kori soils, transfer factors were also measured in the second year to investigate the yearly variation. In addition, the conceptual design of an automatized experimental greenhouse was performed to be used as a basic material for a detailed design for the construction in the future.

  14. Guidelines for agricultural countermeasures following an accidental release of radionuclides

    The Chernobyl accident in 1986 caused significant radioactive contamination of the environment over widely separated areas, some relatively remote from the site. Considerable scientific research was stimulated directly and indirectly and a good deal of practical experience was obtained in dealing with the aftermath. The collation of the relevant information and experience concerning the transfer of radionuclides through food chains and ways of reducing this transfer is a prudent insurance for the management of agriculture should a major nuclear accident occur again. Work to this end was begun in 1990 by a consultants group convened in a co-ordinated research programme of the IAEA and the CEC on the Validation of Models for the Transfer of Radionuclides in Terrestrial, Urban and Aquatic Environments (VAMP). The work was further developed by a joint programme of the IAEA Division of Nuclear Safety and the Agrochemicals and Residues Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture entitled ''Alleviating the Adverse Effects of Excessive Radionuclide Contamination of the Agricultural Environment''. The present Guidelines are an output of this programme and are intended to assist those charged with administrative, scientific and advisory responsibilities to prepare more detail plans specific to the local conditions. 80 refs, 1 fig., 20 tabs

  15. Radioecological studies on terrestrial food chain analysis for accidental release

    For investigating the contamination pathways of major radionuclides in staple food crops, greenhouse experiments in which rice, Chines cabbage and radish were exposed to mixed γ radionuclides of Mn-54, Co-60, Sr-85, Ru-103 and Cs-134 and H-3 at different growth stages, were conducted to generate data on parameters concerning the direct contamination of those crops. Experiments of the exposure to iodine gas were also performed for rice and radish at their various growth stages to obtain contamination parameters of elemental iodine. Based on data obtained from the experiments mentioned above, a database program was constructed to make it possible to search parameter values for different radionuclides, crops and deposition times in an easy way have an graphic output of the variation in the contamination parameter with deposition times. Paddy-field soils were collected from 5 or 6 places around Kori and Youngkwang NPPs and physicochemical properties and background radioactivity levels of the soils were investigated. Soil-to-rice transfer factors of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in the collected soils were determined for different RI application times. For Kori soils, transfer factors were also measured in the second year to investigate the yearly variation. In addition, the conceptual design of an automatized experimental greenhouse was performed to be used as a basic material for a detailed design for the construction in the future

  16. Environmental Behaviour of Plutonium Accidentally Released at Thule, Greenland

    Aarkrog, Asker

    1977-01-01

    The environmental contamination resulting from the B-52 accident in 1968 at Thule was studied by scientific expeditions in 1968, 1970 and 1974. The contamination was mainly confined to the marine environment, where plutonium was preferentially located in the sediments and the benthic fauna....... Plutonium concentrations down through the sediment layers decayed exponentially with a half-depth of 1-2 cm. The horizontal distribution of the plutonium may be described by an exponential expression: mCi 239,240Pn km-2 = 460e-0.28R or by a power function: mCl 239,240Pu km-2 = 370 R-1.2, where R....... From 1968 to 1970 the 239,240Pu concentrations in the biota decreased by an order of magnitude, since 1970 the decrease has been less evident. In 1970 and 1974 there were no indications of increased plutonium concentrations in surface seawater or in sea plants or zooplankton. Higher animals...

  17. An operational model for the accidental release in Hungary

    Full text: A multi-layered (32) Eulerian passive tracer transport model has been developed for the statistical investigation of the spatial distribution and deposition of radionuclides or chemically toxic substances over Central Europe. Partial differential equations related to the transport and reaction of species have been solved by 'method of lines technique'. The two main components of a method of lines are application the spatial discretization and time integration routine. The model is discretized partial differential equations on an equidistant rectangular grid with a resolution of 0.0375 x 0.025 degrees. Vertical transport has been parameterized using K-theory via calculation of Monin-Obukhov length. This model has been coupled with the ALADIN meso-scale limited area numerical weather prediction model used by the Hungarian Meteorological Service. The efficiency of the transport model has been illustrated by the set of simulations of a hypothetical nuclear accident at the Paks NPP, in Central Hungary. The aim of our work was to develop a transport sub-model for the coupled TRansport- EXchange (the so-called TREX) model. (author)

  18. Investigation of Thermal Equilibrium around an Accidental Event and Impact on Possibly Enclosed Surrounding Environment

    Sarkar, Biswanath; Shah, Nitin; Choukekar, Ketan; Kapoor, Himanshu; Kumar, Uday; Das, Jotirmoy; Bhattacharaya, Ritendra; Vaghela, Hitensinh; Muralidhara, Srinivasa

    Complex and large cryogenic distribution systems are integral part of a fusion machine having superconducting magnets, cryopumps, etc. The various equipment of the cryogenic distribution system are interconnected via Cryogenic Transfer Lines (CTLs) to distribute cold helium to end users. During nominal operation of the fusion machine, helium inventory in CTLs could be in order of several tons. The cold helium present in CTLs could be released in surrounding volume due to accidental scenario. The present analysis, aims to estimate lowest temperature in the surrounding volume due to accidental scenario. The paper will describe simulation results and the test plan in a simulated condition.

  19. Lung nodules accidentally detected on CT scans

    Improving of the spatial resolution of modern CT scanners has increased the amount of information obtained by lung CT, and thus the amount of accidentally determined nodules and quality of their structure specification. To unify the criteria of their follow-up CT studies Fleischner Society has issued recommendations for management of solid pulmonary nodules, and then added recommendations for subsolid nodules. In this article the review of categories of such accidental findings in lungs is presented with follow-up criteria and annotations applied

  20. Inhaled Surfactant in the treatment of accidental Talc Powder inhalation: a new case report

    Lo Piparo Caterina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of talcum powder is incorrectly part of the traditional care of infants. Its acute aspiration is a very dangerous condition in childhood. Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported. We report on a patient in which accidental inhalation of baby powder induced severe respiratory difficulties. We also point out the benefits of surfactant administration. Surfactant contributed to the rapid improvement of the medical and radiological condition, preventing severe early and late complications and avoiding invasive approaches.

  1. Laryngeal impaction of an archwire segment after accidental ingestion during orthodontic adjustment.

    Umesan, Uday Kumar; Ahmad, Wizziyiane; Balakrishnan, Priya

    2012-08-01

    Orthodontic archwires or fractured appliances that are accidentally swallowed can become lodged in the airway or gastrointestinal tract. Inadvertent ingestion or aspiration of an appliance or archwire piece during orthodontic appliance adjustment is a medical emergency with potentially serious complications, including possible death from asphyxiation. This article reports the accidental ingestion of a piece of orthodontic archwire that became impacted in the larynx; it was subsequently retrieved. Some potential complications are discussed, along with suggested precautions to prevent such mishaps when using fixed appliances. PMID:22858337

  2. Tuberculosis cutánea por inoculación accidental Cutaneous tuberculosis accidental inoculation

    María Ascensión Maestre Naranjo; Jenry Borda Olivas; Arantxa Ortega Hernández; Esmeralda Tovar Benito; María Luisa Rodríguez de la Pinta; Rosa María Daza Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Caso clínico de una microbióloga con amplia experiencia, que sufre una inoculación accidental al manipular una cepa pura de Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Se pincha en la cara lateral externa de la falange distal del dedo índice, atravesando el guante con la aguja contaminada. (Imagen 1). La trabajadora procede de forma inmediata a la limpieza de la herida. El Servicio de Prevención, registra la inoculación como accidente de trabajo. A las tres semanas del accidente, aparece en el lugar de la in...

  3. Medical handling of accidentally exposed individuals: recommendations

    The manual Medical Handling of Accidentally Exposed Individual, IAEA Safety Series no. 88 has been translated to portuguese language. Additional considerations about the Goiania radiological accident were incorporated to the original text, which provides knowledge involving health problems to both workers and public members. Also information concerning blood, recent radiological accidents, recommended maximum limited doses and a glossary were introduced. 5 refs

  4. Accidental fire in the West Hall

    1977-01-01

    On January 7 an accidental fire due to the failure of standard circuit-breakers, destroyed the coils of two spectrometer magnets and severely damaged the apparatus of two experiments. See also photos 7701582X, 7701581X, 7701580X. (Annual Report 1977, pg. 127-128)

  5. Astressin B, a Nonselective Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Antagonist, Prevents the Inhibitory Effect of Ghrelin on Luteinizing Hormone Pulse Frequency in the Ovariectomized Rhesus Monkey

    Vulliémoz, Nicolas R; Xiao, Ennian; Xia-Zhang, Linna; Rivier, Jean; Ferin, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Administration of ghrelin, a key peptide in the regulation of energy homeostasis, has been shown to decrease LH pulse frequency while concomitantly elevating cortisol levels. Because increased endogenous CRH release in stress is associated with an inhibition of reproductive function, we have tested here whether the pulsatile LH decrease after ghrelin may reflect an activated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and be prevented by a CRH antagonist. After a 3-h baseline LH pulse frequency monit...

  6. Interest of stable iodine prophylaxis in accidental situation

    In the case of an accident on a nuclear reactor, radioactive substances could be released in atmosphere. among these substances, the presence of radioactive isotopes of iodine is a constant, that, in the lack of efficient counter measures could lead to an internal contamination, principally by inhalation but also by contaminated food ingestion. The radioactive iodine accumulate in the thyroid, leading to an exposure that at term can induce an increase of a cancer risk for this gland among the most sensitive persons, especially the children. It exists a simple and efficient protection mean: the taking of a tablet of stable iodine. In this article, the interest of the prophylaxis by stable iodine in accidental situation is tackled under the shape of eleven independent questions/answers, allowing a reading in several times but also the research of response elements to a question that the reader could wonder. (N.C.)

  7. Research progress in study of accidental hypothermia

    Yuan, Rui; Zhang, Zhi-cheng

    2016-01-01

    Accidental hypothermia refers to a state of lowering of core body temperature down to 35 ℃induced by drowning, burial in snow and prolonged exposure to cold environment, etc. Hypothermia may affect the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, digestive system, etc. The triad consisting "hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy" is an important factor accelerating the death of patients. Early, timely application of rewarming measures is regarded as the basic principle in treatment of hypotherm...

  8. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit

    Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea...

  9. Commitment of involved actors in the preparation of accidental and post-accident situations: European experiments

    The author briefly describes some approaches developed within the EURANOS European research programme between 2004 and 2009 which aims at promoting the building up of a European network (NERIS) for the management of nuclear accidental and post-accident situations. Notably, he comments the experiment which took place in the Montbeliard district where two types of radiological events have been modelled and simulated: an accident in the Fessenheim nuclear power plant with two scenarios of release, and a transportation accident with a release of radioactive caesium 137. He also evokes the Norwegian experience and some other actions in Finland, Great-Britain, Spain and Slovakia where reflections on the management of accidental and post-accident situations or crisis exercises have been organized

  10. Petroleum and hazardous material releases from industrial facilities associated with Hurricane Katrina.

    Santella, Nicholas; Steinberg, Laura J; Sengul, Hatice

    2010-04-01

    Hurricane Katrina struck an area dense with industry, causing numerous releases of petroleum and hazardous materials. This study integrates information from a number of sources to describe the frequency, causes, and effects of these releases in order to inform analysis of risk from future hurricanes. Over 200 onshore releases of hazardous chemicals, petroleum, or natural gas were reported. Storm surge was responsible for the majority of petroleum releases and failure of storage tanks was the most common mechanism of release. Of the smaller number of hazardous chemical releases reported, many were associated with flaring from plant startup, shutdown, or process upset. In areas impacted by storm surge, 10% of the facilities within the Risk Management Plan (RMP) and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) databases and 28% of SIC 1311 facilities experienced accidental releases. In areas subject only to hurricane strength winds, a lower fraction (1% of RMP and TRI and 10% of SIC 1311 facilities) experienced a release while 1% of all facility types reported a release in areas that experienced tropical storm strength winds. Of industrial facilities surveyed, more experienced indirect disruptions such as displacement of workers, loss of electricity and communication systems, and difficulty acquiring supplies and contractors for operations or reconstruction (55%), than experienced releases. To reduce the risk of hazardous material releases and speed the return to normal operations under these difficult conditions, greater attention should be devoted to risk-based facility design and improved prevention and response planning. PMID:20345576