WorldWideScience

Sample records for accidental radiation exposures

  1. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.

    Cardis, E

    1996-01-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discu...

  2. The accidental exposure to ionizing radiations

    This article is divided in three parts, the first one gives the radioactivity sources, the doses and the effects, the second part is devoted to the medical exposures, the third part concerns the accidents and the biological effects of an irradiation the different syndromes ( the acute whole-body irradiation syndrome, the localized irradiation syndrome, the inflammatory syndrome, hematopoietic syndrome,neuro-vascular syndrome) are detailed. (N.C.)

  3. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    Dörr Harald

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  4. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    Dörr Harald; Meineke Viktor

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the ab...

  5. Nodular goiter after occupational accidental exposure to radiation

    Pisarev, M.A. [Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Human Biochemistry, Uninversity of Buenos Aires, School of Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schnitman, M. [Center of Endocrinology and Metabolism, French Hospital C.Milstein, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-07-01

    In the present paper we present the consequences of an accidental occupational radiation exposure at a local hospital in Buenos Aires. Control at a local radiology service showed the lack of correct shielding in the X-ray equipment. The physicians and technicians (14 persons) exposed to radiation during 12 months were examined. The survey shows that: a) In 11 out of 14 radiation-exposed patients nodular goiter developed and an additional patient had diffuse goiter which means a goiter incidence of 85.7%; b) In 5 of the nodular goiter patients an increase in the size or the appearance of new nodules was observed along the follow-up period. No cancer was detected by FNA; c) Hypothyroidism was observed in 3/14 patients, and an additional patient had an abnormal TRH-TSH test, suggesting subclinical hypothyroidism; and d) Increased circulating antithyroid antibodies were found in one of the hypothyroid patients

  6. Clinical study of lesions caused by accidental local exposure to ionizing radiations

    During the last few years the radiopathology service of the Curie Foundation has admitted more than a hundred patients who were followed and treated for irradiation or suspected irradiation after a work accident. Accidents followed by clinical symptoms account for about half the cases examined. Some of these clinical signs were benign whereas others developed very seriously, all possible conditions between these two extremes being represented. This report neglects cases of high total exposure and deals only with those of partial irradiation where local symptoms predominate, usually at the distal extremities of the upper limbs and exceptionally at the root or distal extremity of the lower limbs. Six clinical cases were selected as particularly revealing and are discussed below: accidental exposure of both hands to an iridium-192 source; chronic exposure to X-rays (left hand and right lower half-lip); accidental exposure of the right hand and antero-external face of the right thigh to a iridium-192 source; acute accidental exposure of the left hand to X-rays emitted under 50 kV; accidental exposure of both hands to cobalt-60 radiation; radiolesions of the left lower limb following a critical power excursion (gamma rays and neutrons)

  7. Report of an accidental exposure of patients in radiation therapy

    Full text. Accident with radiation therapy patients, when they happen, have a high probability of being very severe. This paper reports an accident that occurred last November in Brazil involving several patients submitted to therapy with clinical electron beams from 6 to 12 MeV. A field response team from the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), and the Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas (LCR/DBB/UERJ), was sent to identify the causes of the accident and evaluate its consequences. The report suggests several actions to be observed by regulatory authorities, licensees and several other legal persons and individuals with subsidiary responsibilities. Evaluation of radiologic accidents is important because it permits to introduce the lessons learned in the radiation protection system, including design of equipment and installations, radiation procedures and personnel qualification and because it renders and attitude of continuous alert so a non usual event will not run into an accident. The accident A 'flat/sym'interlock problem occurred with the electron beam of a Mevatron-74 linear accelerator. After consulting the physicist, the technicians operated the equipment on the 'research mode' (non-clinical). Later the physicist came to verify the equipment and noticed that the dose rate presented high oscillation and that the 'pgm/norm'key was set to 'pgm'. After setting the control to 'norm'the equipment resumed working and some patients were treated in clinical mode and some in research mode. The machine then stops working and the service personnel were called. On 11/28 the maintenance technician fixed the equipment and the physicist measured the dose rate under 'pgm'mode and notice that it was about eight times over the normal value. COnclusion: the working group concluded that the accident could happen only if the equipment were operated on non-clinical mode. It can be summarized as : The event initiator: the flat/sym interlock. The accident promoter: the

  8. Radiative accidental matter

    Sierra, D Aristizabal; Wegman, D

    2016-01-01

    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that $\\mu\\to e \\gamma$ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below $10^6\\,$ GeV, a value (natur...

  9. Determination of reduction in life expectancy from stochastic somatic fatalities after accidental radiation exposure

    In risk studies for plants of the nuclear industry usually the number of fatalities by radiation induced health effects are assessed. They are divided into 'early fatalities' (mortality by acute radiation syndrom) and 'late fatalities' (deaths due to leukemia and cancer). For the individuals as well as for the society as a whole both health effects are in principle of different significance because of the different times of death after irradiation. Risk assessments which give only the number of fatalities therefore show an uncomplete picture of the consequence because they do not consider the age of the individuals at the time of death. In this report the mathematical models for the computation of the individual and collective reduction of life expectancy from stochastic somatic effects after accidental releases of radioactivity are described. Computational results with regard to the age distribution of the population are presented for persons living during the nuclear accident and persons born afterwards. Thereby the exposure pathways, organs and nuclides ot the German Risk Study are treated separately. A raw estimation of the reduction in life expectancy due to the late fatalities calculated in this study is given. (orig.)

  10. Radiative accidental matter

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal; Simoes, C.; Wegman, D.

    2016-07-01

    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that μ → eγ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below 5×105 GeV, a value (naturally) assured by the radiative suppression mechanism. Sizeable τ → μγ branching fractions within SuperKEKB sensitivity are possible for lower lepton-number breaking scales. We thus point out that these scenarios can be tested not only in direct searches but also in lepton flavor-violating experiments.

  11. Estimation of high radiation dose during accidental exposure using Calyculin - an induced premature chromosome condensation assay

    The conventional cytogenetic dosimetry, the gold standard chromosomal aberration assay fails to estimate high radiation dose exposure due to mitotic delay and severe leukopenia. Hence, there is a need to establish reliable, easier and quicker methods for biodosimetry. The Calyculin-A induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) assay is being recommended as a rapid method for biodosimetry. The calyculin-A is a strong inhibitor of both PP1 and PP2A phosphoprotein phosphatases and therefore, has been suggested to be a more potent inducer of PCC compared to other protein phosphatases inhibitor okadaic acid and fostriecin. In the present study, we have estimated coefficients of dose response curves for three PCC aberrations using Calyculin-A for biodosimetry purpose. The modified method outlined by Roser Puig et al 2013 was used to conduct Calyculin-A induced PCC assay in human blood lymphocytes. Calyculin A treatment was given for last 1 hr of the 48 hr culture. Final concentration of the Calyculin A was 50 nM and the study was carried out in the dose range 2.5-20 Gy using 60Co gamma rays. The centric rings, acentric rings and fragments are separately analyzed. Results show a linear dose dependent increase with a slope of 0.047±0.001 Gy-1 (R2=0.99 and P<0.0001) for centric rings and 0.07±0.002 (R2=0.99 and P<0.0001) for centric rings combined with acentric rings. The dose response of excess PCC fragments shows a linear quadratic response up to 15 Gy and thereafter it saturated. The linear and quadratic coefficients for fragments are 0.089 ± 0.04 Gy-1 and 0.0173 ± 0.003 Gy-2 (with R2=0.99 and P=3.5184E-4) respectively. The PCC index was 62% for 0 Gy, 56% for 2.5 Gy, 69% for 5 Gy, 73% for 7.5 Gy, 64% for 10 Gy, 55% for 15 Gy and 43% for 20 Gy. Results indicate that Calyculin-A induced PCC assay provides very high PCC index compared to okadaic acid and gives valuable biodosimetric information in the case of high dose accidental exposure. (author)

  12. In vivo EPR dosimetry of accidental exposures to radiation: experimental results indicating the feasibility of practical use in human subjects

    Low frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) provides the potential advantage of making accurate and sensitive measurements of absorbed radiation dose in teeth in situ, i.e. without removing the teeth from the potential victim. The potential limiting factors for making such measurements are: (1) whether low frequency EPR is sufficiently sensitive to detect radiation-induced signal in human teeth; (2) whether sufficient sensitivity can be maintained under in vivo conditions. In this manuscript, we summarize results indicating that this approach is feasible. Using 1.2 GHz EPR spectroscopy, we found that the lower limit for these measurements in isolated human teeth is 0.2 Gy or lower. Measurements of radiation-induced EPR signals in the teeth of living rats were achieved with sufficient sensitivity to indicate that, when taking into consideration the larger mass of human teeth, similar measurements in human teeth in situ would provide sensitivity in the dose range for potential accidental exposures. We estimate that the current lower limit for detecting radiation doses in human teeth in situ (in vivo) is 0.5-1.0 Gy; this would be sufficient for determining if a person has been exposed to potentially life threatening doses of ionizing radiation. The limiting factor for sensitivity appears to be background signals rather than signal/noise, and there are feasible means to overcome this problem and further increase sensitivity. The additional instrumental developments required to make an effective in vivo EPR dosimetric spectrometer for the measurements in teeth in human subjects in situ, seem quite achievable

  13. Current radiation exposure of man: a comparison between digital imaging and environmental, workplace and accidental radiation burden

    X-ray imaging in diagnostic radiology is recognized worldwide as an outstanding tool for the early recognition and prevention of diseases. The reverse side is that radiography contributes essentially to the exposure of the public. Mean effective doses, averaged over patients and non-patients, are reaching or exceeding the level of natural radiation. This is particularly the case when digital imaging techniques are utilized, such as CT, coronary angiography and interventional radiology. Individual effective doses for a patient may occur between several mSv and several hundred mSv by one examination or a series of examinations, while individual organ doses of a patient may reach equivalent doses even up to several Sv, such as for the skin. The purpose of this review is to provide information on effective dose levels occurring in diagnostic radiology as compared with individual effective doses achieved from environmental radiation, radiation at workplaces and after major radiation incidents. (author)

  14. Personnel Dosimetry for Radiation Accidents. Proceedings of a Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation

    Accidents involving the exposure of persons to high levels of radiation have been few in number and meticulous precautions are taken in an effort to maintain this good record. When, however, such an accident does occur, a timely estimate of the dose received can be of considerable help to the physician in deciding whether a particular person requires medical treatment, and in selecting the most appropriate treatment. Individual dosimetry provides the physical basis for relating the observed effects to those in other accident cases, to other human data, and to data from animal experiments, thus providing an important aid to rational treatment and to the accumulation of a meaningful body of knowledge on the subject. It is most important therefore that, where there is a possibility of receiving high-level exposure, methods of personnel dosimetry should be available that would provide the dosimetric information most useful to the physician. Provision of good personnel dosimetry for accidental high-level exposure is in many cases an essential part of emergency planning because the information provided may influence emergency and rescue operations, and can lead to improved accident preparedness. Accordingly, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization jointly organized the Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation for the discussion of such methods and for a critical review of the procedures adopted in some of the radiation accidents that have already occurred. The meeting was attended by 179 participants from 34 countries and from five other international organizations. The papers presented and the ensuing discussions are published in these Proceedings. It is hoped that the Proceedings will be of help to those concerned with the organization and development of wide-range personnel monitoring systems, and with the interpretation of the results provided

  15. The accidental exposure to ionizing radiations; L'exposition accidentelle aux rayonnements ionisants

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This article is divided in three parts, the first one gives the radioactivity sources, the doses and the effects, the second part is devoted to the medical exposures, the third part concerns the accidents and the biological effects of an irradiation the different syndromes ( the acute whole-body irradiation syndrome, the localized irradiation syndrome, the inflammatory syndrome, hematopoietic syndrome,neuro-vascular syndrome) are detailed. (N.C.)

  16. Application of the Alkaline Comet Assay and the Analysis of Structural Chromosome Aberrations in Assessment of Genetic Damage After Accidental Exposure to Ionising Radiation

    Full text: Living with the effects of low-level ionising radiation is one of the normal hazards of life. However, the effects of lower doses may not show up for years after exposure and are due to various changes in DNA molecules and chromosomes. Radiation-induced mutations seem to be brought about by the deletion of small pieces of chromosomes during the process of chromosome breakage and repair. Since chromosome damage is most likely to happen in dividing cells, ionising radiation usually cause cancer in those parts of the body where cells are actively dividing. Ionising radiation kills rapidly dividing cells, blood lymphocytes among them. People are exposed to high doses of ionising radiation when radiation accidents occur. The cytogenetical consequences of accidental exposure to gamma-radiation (radiation dose 221 mSv) were investigated by using alkaline Comet assay and the analysis of structural chromosomal aberrations (CA). Blood samples were repeatedly collected during one-year period after the accident. By using the Comet assay immediately after accidental exposure a high level of DNA damage was recorded. Although this level was decreasing over a one-year period, it was still elevated compared to normal values of DNA damage for unexposed persons. Immediately after the accident prevalence of CA (dicentrics, acentrics) over chromatid aberrations was recorded. However, one year afterwards only a few chromatid breaks were recorded. Our results confirmed usefulness of the alkaline Comet assay as a simple and sensitive technique for the biomonitoring of DNA damages, especially in the cases of accidental exposure to ionising radiation. (author)

  17. Lessons learned from accidental exposures in radiotherapy

    The medical use of radiation is unique in that patients are intentionally exposed to radiation. The aim in radiation therapy is twofold: to deliver a dose and dose distribution that is adequate for tumour control, but which also minimizes complications in normal tissues. In therapeutic applications, the doses are high and a deviation from the prescribed dose may have severe or even fatal consequences. There is therefore a great need to ensure adequate radiation protection and safety in radiotherapy by verifying that all personnel involved are appropriately trained for their duties, that the equipment used meets relevant international specifications for radiation safety and that safety culture is embedded in routine activities in radiotherapy departments. Many individuals must interact and work together on highly technical measurements and calculations, and therefore the potential for mistakes is great. A review of the mistakes shows that most are due to human error. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115) require that a prompt investigation be conducted whenever an accidental medical exposure of patients occurs. The report of the investigation is to be disseminated to the appropriate parties so that lessons can be learned to prevent similar accidents or mitigate their consequences in the future. This Safety Report is a collection of a large number of events that may serve as a checklist against which to test the vulnerability of a facility to potential accidents, and to provide a basis for improving safety in the use of radiation in medical applications. A further purpose of this report is to encourage readers to develop a questioning and learning attitude, adopt measures for the prevention of accidents, and prepare for mitigation of the consequences of accidents if they occur

  18. Assessment of risks associated to ionizing radiations: lung cancers after domestic radon exposure and thyroid cancers after accidental exposure to radioactive iodines

    The aim of this work is to develop a critical analysis of quantitative risk assessment in the field of ionizing radiation and to provide new estimates of attributable risks for particular situations of environmental exposure to ionizing radiation. This work is based on knowledge about dose-response relationships and ionizing radiation exposure of the general population. The work focuses on two different situations that both present an important interest for public health: lung cancer associated with domestic radon exposures (natural situation) and thyroid cancer associated with the Chernobyl accident fallout (accidental situation). The assessment of lung cancer risk associated with domestic radon exposure considers 10 dose-response relationships resulting from miner cohorts and case-control studies in the general population. A critical review of available data on smoking habits has been performed and allowed to consider the interactions between radon and tobacco. The exposure data come from measurements campaigns carried out since the beginning of the 1980 by the Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety and the Health General Directory in France. The French lung cancer mortality data are provided by the I.N.S.E.R.M.. Estimates of the number of attributable cancers are carried out for the whole country, stratified by 8 large regions (Z.E.A.T.) and by 96 departments for the year 1999 allowing to perform a sensibility analysis according to the geographical level of calculation. Uncertainties associated to risk coefficients and exposures have been quantified and it's impact on risk estimates is calculated. The estimated number of deaths attributable to domestic radon exposure ranges from 543 (90% uncertainty interval (U.I.): 75-1,097) to 3,108 (90% U.I.: 2,996-3,221). The corresponding risk fractions range from 2.2% (90% U.I.: 0.3%-4.4%) to 12.4% (90% U.I.: 11.9%-12.8%). The assessment of thyroid cancer risk in the most exposed area of France due to the

  19. Concept of radiological, medical and social protection of the population of Russia affected by accidental exposure

    Main principles of population radiation protection from various accidental exposure, including the Chernobyl accident, have been implemented in officially approved Concept ''On radiological, medical, social protection and rehabilitation of the Russian Federation population affected by accidental radiation exposure''. The concept includes basic principles of radiation protection, designation of regional radionuclide contaminated territories, records and registers of exposed persons, health protection and rehabilitation, socio-economic and legal aspects

  20. Dosimetric significance of cytogenetic examinations in human accidental over exposures

    The damage to 13 workers following accidental exposures was assessed from lymphocyte chromosomal aberrations, and the results compared with those supplied by physical dosimetry and the clinical syndromes

  1. Emergency measures and treatment in the event of accidental aver exposure to radiation or of radioactive contamination

    In the first part the author presents an overall view of emergency measures to be applied in the case of internal or external radioactive contamination. He states in particular, in these two cases, the methods by which it is possible to eliminate the contaminating radioactive substances from the organism. The author then considers the therapeutic methods to be adopted in the case of an accident of overexposure to radiation, distinguishing between the case of a partial irradiation and that of an acute total irradiation. There will be essentially three methods used depending on the physical measures carried out (irradiation, conditions, estimation of the dose received) and of the clinical data collected: particular treatments, treatment for helping the organism during its return to normal activity, temporary or permanent replacement of the organs affected. (author)

  2. Cytogenetic biological dosimetry. Dose estimative in accidental exposure

    The methodology of cytogenetic biological dosimetry is studied. The application in estimation of dose in five cases of accidental exposure is reported. An hematological study and culture of lymphocytes is presented. (M.A.C.)

  3. Accidental over-exposure from dental X-ray equipment

    A description is given of an unusual dental X-ray procedure which resulted in accidental over-exposure both to the dentist and to several of his patients when a short-circuit was present in newly-installed equipment. The short-circuit by-passed the exposure control and energized the tube for certain orientations of the X-ray tube. The dentist left the patients, who wore protective aprons, to initiate the exposure themselves, using the control button. Although the warning lights were on, the dentist was not present in the room during the exposure, and the over-exposures were only detected when the developed X-ray films were found to be completely blackened. A reconstruction of the procedure enabled estimates to be made of the dose equivalents to the dentist's body and to the skin of the head, the eyes and the gonads of the patients. The dentist had overlooked several of basic principles recommended in the Code of Practice for the Protection of Persons against Ionizing Radiations from Medical and Dental Use (1972). It is pointed out that incidents involving failure of dental equipment (usually the timer mechanism) are not infrequent. (U.K.)

  4. Quality control for handling of accidental blood exposures.

    Wijk, P.T. van; Pelk-Jongen, M.; Wijkmans, C.; Voss, A.; Schneeberger, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    A regional counselling service was established to handle all accidental blood exposures using a standardized protocol. Levels of risk were assessed using an algorithm. Accidents that posed a risk for the transmission of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were

  5. Optimizing bone surveys performed for suspected non-accidental trauma with attention to maximizing diagnostic yield while minimizing radiation exposure: utility of pelvic and lateral radiographs

    Skeletal surveys for non-accidental trauma (NAT) include lateral spinal and pelvic views, which have a significant radiation dose. To determine whether pelvic and lateral spinal radiographs should routinely be performed during initial bone surveys for suspected NAT. The radiology database was queried for the period May 2005 to May 2011 using CPT codes for skeletal surveys for suspected NAT. Studies performed for skeletal dysplasia and follow-up surveys were excluded. Initial skeletal surveys were reviewed to identify fractures present, including those identified only on lateral spinal and/or pelvic radiographs. Clinical information and MR imaging was reviewed for the single patient with vertebral compression deformities. Of the 530 children, 223 (42.1%) had rib and extremity fractures suspicious for NAT. No fractures were identified solely on pelvic radiographs. Only one child (<0.2%) had vertebral compression deformities identified on a lateral spinal radiograph. This infant had rib and extremity fractures and was clinically paraplegic. MR imaging confirmed the vertebral body fractures. Since no fractures were identified solely on pelvic radiographs and on lateral spinal radiographs in children without evidence of NAT, nor in nearly all with evidence of NAT, inclusion of these views in the initial evaluation of children for suspected NAT may not be warranted. (orig.)

  6. Optimizing bone surveys performed for suspected non-accidental trauma with attention to maximizing diagnostic yield while minimizing radiation exposure: utility of pelvic and lateral radiographs

    Jha, Priyanka; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Seibert, Anthony; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L. [University of California Davis Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Coulter, Kevin [University of California Davis Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Sacramento, CA (United States); Li, Chin-Shang [University of California Davis Medical Center, Division of Biostatistics, Department of Public Health Sciences, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Skeletal surveys for non-accidental trauma (NAT) include lateral spinal and pelvic views, which have a significant radiation dose. To determine whether pelvic and lateral spinal radiographs should routinely be performed during initial bone surveys for suspected NAT. The radiology database was queried for the period May 2005 to May 2011 using CPT codes for skeletal surveys for suspected NAT. Studies performed for skeletal dysplasia and follow-up surveys were excluded. Initial skeletal surveys were reviewed to identify fractures present, including those identified only on lateral spinal and/or pelvic radiographs. Clinical information and MR imaging was reviewed for the single patient with vertebral compression deformities. Of the 530 children, 223 (42.1%) had rib and extremity fractures suspicious for NAT. No fractures were identified solely on pelvic radiographs. Only one child (<0.2%) had vertebral compression deformities identified on a lateral spinal radiograph. This infant had rib and extremity fractures and was clinically paraplegic. MR imaging confirmed the vertebral body fractures. Since no fractures were identified solely on pelvic radiographs and on lateral spinal radiographs in children without evidence of NAT, nor in nearly all with evidence of NAT, inclusion of these views in the initial evaluation of children for suspected NAT may not be warranted. (orig.)

  7. Accidental exposures in radiotherapy: an history

    Radiotherapy accidents are exceedingly rare. However, they may have major negative consequences: for health (and sometimes life) of victims as well as for the trust that patients put in radiotherapy and radiation oncolysis. Each accident must be pointed out, analysed and reported, in order to allow preventive actions, avoiding repetitive accidents. Through examples of majors accidents occurred all over the world in the last decades, affecting professionals, public or patients themselves, the necessity of transparency is demonstrated. The International Commission of Radiobiological Protection has drawn positive lessons from such accidents and insists on following recommendations: necessity of sufficient number and competent professionals, importance of continuous and initial education, information of professionals and, in general, a strict Quality Assurance program. It is clear that each radiotherapy center remains at risk for errors. It is essential to develop preventive procedures to avoid transformation of errors into accidents. In that context, complete and detailed description and reports of each anomaly or incident must be encouraged as it is done for sectors of aviation or nuclear industry. Radiation oncology must develop such a culture of transparency and of systematic report of all incident. (authors)

  8. Learning From Biomarkers in Victims Accidentally Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    Yan Wang; Liqing Du; Chang Xu; Qin Wang; Zhiyi Song; Jianxiang Liu; Xu Su

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers,such as chromosome aberration and micronuclei assays,prove to be reliable for facilitating clinical diagnosis in radiation accidents.In a radiation accident in India,chromosomal aberration,γ-H2AX,as well as other blood markers,were detected in accidentally exposed victims.This multi-parametric approach aided in confirming that individuals had been exposed by ionizing radiation.However,doses were impossible to estimate because of a 30-day delay in accident awareness.Exposure dose for victims was estimated using a dose-response curve previously established.Dose estimation,blood cell depletion kinetics,and no appearance of prodromal symptoms suggested that doses of exposure were low.Hematologic investigation,sampling time,and chromosome aberration scoring were all proposed according to data from the victims exposed to 60Co.Finally,knowledge regarding chromosome aberration analysis and the importance of international co-operation and assistance should be shared from this accident.

  9. Estimation of the radiation exposure resulting from accidental discharges of radionuclides from nuclear facilities into rivers considering the time dependency on relevant parameters

    This report deals with possible source terms as well as with the transport of radionuclides in rivers. An estimate is presented of the radionuclide concentrations of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in the river system due to supposed or estimated short- and long-term source terms. The results are described of validating calculations for determination of the concentrations of Co-60 in the suspended load and sediment media. Then the radiation exposure resulting from the various source terms as well as selected results are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Accidental internal exposure of all groups of Chernobyl nuclear power plant employees

    Accidental internal exposure of Chernobyl NPP employees has started from April, 1986 and it was found to be decreased to pre-accident level at the end of 1987. Significant number of people from all groups of staff and temporary employees were measured using whole body counters situated in Clinical Department of the Institute of Biophysics, which has represented the main body for medical assistance and expertise in these people including those, who suffered from acute radiation syndrome as well as the people engaged in all kinds of works at Chernobyl NPP site. Technical characteristics of the equipment and techniques used to assess the internal exposure are given. (author)

  11. Individual dosimetry in planned, existing and accidental exposure situations

    There are three types of radiation exposure which include Planned exposure situations, Existing exposure situations and Emergency exposure situations which are defined as Situations that may occur during the operation of a planned situation, or from a malicious act, or from any other unexpected situation, and require urgent action in order to avoid or reduce undesirable consequences. A given individual may be exposed as a worker, and/or as a member of the public, and/or as a patient. Workers in medical professions involving radiation are occupationally exposed. For individual monitoring of exposed workers, Film badges or thermo luminescence dosimeters are in use. In cases where individual may be suspected to be contaminated internally, contamination monitors are used to monitor the site and whole body counters to monitor individuals. Members of the public are exposure to cosmic rays during air flights. Film badges were used to exposure of workers to NORM during maintenance work in old oil field. TLD is used for exposure workers in nuclear medicine department. Any radiation accident will add knowledge and experience. Accidents from lost, stolen or neglected sources are particularly special because the radiation exposure patterns of the individuals involved and the scenario of the accident are always different

  12. Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at the IPNS

    Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenetic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem

  13. Pathological characteristics of extremely severe acute radiation injury in a patient's legs and hands after a very uneven accidental exposure to an extremely high dose of 192Ir

    The pathological characteristics of an extremely high dose radiation in the legs and hands of a patient is reported. the patient was exposed to 192Ir γ-rays for 9 hours and 20 minutes, the activity of which was 2.76 TBq. The amputations of the right thigh and left forearm had to be performed 8 days after the irradiation and the debridements and skin graftings were performed on the right hand and the inner side of left knee 55 days after the radiation. Microscopically, massive necrosis of cells of the epidermis, cutaneous appendages, hypodermics and skeletal muscles, and hemorrhage in the dermis, hypodermics and skeletal muscles were seen in the local irradiated parts of the right shank. But the arrector pili muscles in the dermis of the right shank remained. On the fingers and the palm of the left hand, vacuolar degeneration and massive necrosis of the cells of epidermis were present with extensive neutrophil infiltration. Cysts of large or small size were formed from the necrotic cells, separating epidermis from dermis. There were degeneration and necrosis of glandular epithelium cells of sweat glands. Hemorrhage was present in dermis and hypodermics. All the hematopoietic tissues in the bone marrow in the upper ends of the tibia and fibula and in the lower ends of the femur, the radius and the ulna disappeared. Acute radiation ulcers were present on the skin of the left knee and on the skin of the thumb, index finger and middle finger of the right hand. The extremely severe acute radiation injury caused by extremely high dose of 192Ir led to the necrosis of the extensive soft tissues deep to skeletal muscles and the disappearance of the hematopoietic tissues in the bone marrow

  14. Use of ubiquitous materials for the estimation of accidental exposures

    Incidents involving unexpected radiation exposure do take place due to human error, equipment failure or other reasons in spite of regulatory systems being in place. Medical physicists who are also radiation safety officers (RSO) of their institutions in several countries, like India, have the responsibility of radiation protection of the staff, carers and comforters of the patients, visitors and public at large, apart from ensuring patient-specific treatment planning for accurate dose delivery, adoption of optimized practices, and minimization of chances of radiation accidents in radiation therapy, radio-diagnostic, and nuclear medicine practices. Theft and mishandling of 137Cs teletherapy source in 1987 in Goiania (Brazil) in which 28 people suffered radiation burns and five people (three men, one woman, and one child) died and several other incidents demonstrated that mishandling of a source from a place like hospital cannot be ruled out. In the recent times, especially after terrorist attack on World Trade Center, New York, USA (on September 11, 2001), apprehensions of radiation terrorism and other malevolent uses (Dirty Bomb) of radioactive materials have considerably increased all over the world. To meet the situation of any radiation accident (due to external sources or the hospital-based sources), preparedness for dosimetry of the exposed persons in the quickest possible way becomes important for the implementation of the necessary follow-up procedures

  15. Control of radiation sources and general regulations for accidental situations

    In order to prevent accidents caused by application of radiation sources the Tunisian O.N.P.C. established straightforward strategy made up of 3 phases: prevention, planning and intervention. Civil Protection conducts prevention studies of all radiation sources by examining normal application conditions as well as possible accidental situations. It keeps up with scientific, technical and statistical aspects of radiation risks, elaborates specific plans and programs for intervention operations and cooperates with administrative and security services as well as international organisations. The O.N.P.C. established a model intervention plan based on observation (according to preliminary information), evaluation of the situation (according to the head of operation) intervention (specialized units) and post intervention (testing of personnel)

  16. Pituitary tumors following fallout radiation exposure

    Two pituitary tumors were diagnosed in a small population of Marshallese accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in 1954. Endocrinologic findings in the exposed population, are reported and the possible relation of the tumors to radiation exposure and thyroid disease is discussed

  17. Monobath Films for Determining Accidental High-Level Exposures

    For remote reactor plants and others not provided with a permanent monitoring team to measure the dose to the personnel, the monobath method is recommended for handling film dosimeters. With this method it is possible to determine on the spot and without any loss of time whether persons have received a critical dose calling for medical care. The films recommended enable doses from about 10 to 2000 r to be detected by subjecting the films to an extremely simple monobath process. The density curves, their dependence on the radiation energy and on the temperature of the monobath developer are shown. The films are processed in daylight in a small device the size of a cigarette packet. By means of this device, which is described in detail, 40 film dosimeters can be processed and evaluated by one person in about one hour. The dose is determined by comparing the film blackening with that of a strip fitted into the device for this purpose. The monobath films are conveniently worn in small sturdy film badges which are insensitive to external influences. Film evaluation is made only if the exposure to radiation is likely to have caused a substantial personnel dose. The films have a lifetime of at least two years. The badges contain a lead filter rendering the film blackening largely independent of the radiation energy over the range from about 75 keV up to 3 MeV and more. If desired, the lead filter can be provided with a window so that part of the radiation can reach the film unattenuated. In this way it is possible to draw conclusions as to the type (gamma or beta rays) and energy of the radiation, both essential factors for a correct evaluation of the hazards. The described monobath film dosimeters can be used alone in the event of an incident or together with other film dosimeters of high sensitivity or with pocket dosimeters based on ionization under normal monitoring conditions. (author)

  18. Multiple-Purpose Personal Dosimeter Suitable for Dosimetry of High Accidental Exposures

    The paper describes the personal dosimeter designed by the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique to permit evaluation of the doses received by workers liable to high accidental exposures. It consists of a film dosimeter plus a glass, threshold and activation detector pack. The film dosimeter consists of a case fitted with screens demarcating seven different areas of the film. The latter, which provides density measurements by reflection, consists of three emulsions of different sensitivities on a common base, so that a single development covers the dose range between 20 mr and 800 r. An NTA nuclear-emulsion, fast-neution dosimeter can be added. Two glass dosimeters of different characteristics are included to permit separate evaluation of gamma and thermal neutron radiation. The unit also possesses conventional threshold and activation detectors. (author)

  19. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service

  20. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service.

  1. Hazards of radiation exposure

    Radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis form the main risks to health from exposure to low levels of radiation. There is scant data on somatic and genetic risks at environmental and occupational levels of radiation exposure. The available data on radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis are for high doses and high dose rates of radiation. Risk assessments for low level radiation are obtained using these data, assuming a linear dose-response relationship. During uranium mining the chief source of radiation hazard is inhalation of radon daughters. The correlation between radon daughter exposure and the increased incidence of lung cancer has been well documented. For radiation exposures at and below occupational limits, the associated risk of radiation induced cancers and genetic abnormalities is small and should not lead to a detectable increase over naturally occurring rates

  2. Radiation exposure records management

    Management of individual radiation exposure records begins at employment with the accumulation of data pertinent to the individual and any previous occupational radiation exposure. Appropriate radiation monitorinng badges or devices are issued and accountability established. A computer master file is initiated to include the individual's name, payroll number, social security number, birth date, assigned department, and location. From this base, a radiation exposure history is accumulated to include external ionizing radiation exposure to skin and whole body, contributing neutron exposure, contributing tritium exposure, and extremity exposure. It is used also to schedule bioassay sampling and in-vivo counts and to provide other pertinent information. The file is used as a basis for providing periodic reports to management and monthly exposure summaries to departmental line supervision to assist in planning work so that individual annual exposures are kept as low as practical. Radiation exposure records management also includes documentation of radiation surveys performed by the health physicist to establish working rates and the individual estimating and recording his estimated exposure on a day-to-day basis. Exposure information is also available to contribute to Energy Research and Development Administration statistics and to the National Transuranium Registry

  3. Health safety planning for possible accidental exposures of workers and population in Italy

    Unforeseen radiation exposures may be caused by technical or human faults in the utilization of radioactive devices, namely radionuclide sources, as well as from the peaceful uses of nuclear energy; the first instance is in general the more common one. The paper discusses the principal basis for health intervention planning in the case of possible accidental exposures of workers and/or the population to ionizing radiation, also with reference to hypothetical accidents at nuclear power stations. For this last purpose an important aspect is the definition of the 'source term' problem. The main differences existing between 'conventional' and radiation emergencies in the pre-planning of technical and health safety operations are discussed. Even if the general organizational planning is based on similar operating structures, radiation emergencies require a somewhat different approach. Besides the specialized aspects of prophylaxis and therapy which are needed in these cases, radiation emergencies call for a comparison of the social cost, the possible health detriment induced by health-related countermeasures and the specific radiation risk in a single case. In many instances, furthermore, a key role may also be played by psychological factors. Following this philosophy, a flexible organization plan has been drawn up, which consists of three-steps as follows: (1) local and/or regional level; (2) national level; (3) European or international level. For the first two levels, besides the possibility of utilizing health services, there is provision to arrange them into structures of increasing complexity, using modular, integrated and fixed operative units to adapt the intervention to specific aspects of each accident or emergency. The third level is represented by the WHO International Centre of Radiopathology (ICR) in Paris. An official agreement was recently signed by the ENEA and the Centre. (author)

  4. Early diagnosis and monitoring of whole-body accidental exposure

    This paper deals with the handling of accidental, acute or protracted, whole-body overexposures. It is complementary to the report DPS 86/07 SEAPS previously published. The criteria for initial classification, as a function of the mean absorbed dose, the clinical and paraclinical evaluation, the monitoring methods and the treatments to undertake are described successively. The basic components of the therapy are the intensive care of the hematological syndrome with blood products transfusions and anti-infection prophylaxy. The indications and conditions for bone-marrow grafts are also discussed

  5. Risk of potential radiation accidental situations at TESLA accelerator installation

    The main aim of this paper is to recognize some of the numerous risks of potential exposure and to quantify requirements and probability of failure of radiation protection system due to design event tree. Nature of design and construction of Tesla Accelerator Installation (T.A.I.) make possibility of potential exposure as a result of proven design and modification, trade off, human error as well as defense in depth. In the case of potential exposure human risk is the result of two random events: first, the occurrence of the event that causes the exposure, and the second, the appearance of a harmful effect. The highest doses during potential exposure at T.A.I. can be received at the entrance to primary beam space (V.I.N.C.Y. cyclotron vault) as well as in space with target for fluorine production, high energy experimental channels, proton therapy channel and channel for neutron researches. Expected values of prompt radiation equivalent dose rate in the cyclotron vault is considerably high, in order of 10 Sv/h. Serious problem deals with such large research installation is a number of workers, as visiting research workers of different educational levels and people in Institute who are not professionally connected with ionizing radiation. They could cause willing or unwilling opening of the cyclotron vault doors. Considering some possible scenarios we assumed that during 7000 working hours per year it is reasonably to expect 300 unsafe entries per year. It can be concluded that safety system should be designed so that probability of failure of radiation protection system has to be less than 1.9 10-6. (authors)

  6. Suggested Methods for Assessment of Accidental External Exposure and Internal Contamination of Workers and their Medical Management

    Certain assumptions are given for the amount of fission products released from a research reactor after the occurrence of an accident. The size and location of radioactive cloud are assumed, and the corresponding external and internal exposures of workers are computed. A method is suggested for assessment of accidental external radiation dose based on experimental studies performed on the changes of quenching effect of plasma or sera as a.result of whole- body gamma-radiation ranging from 25-200 rems. For assessment of accidentally internally incorporated gamma emitters we suggest the standard chair whole-body counter technique which was found to detect reliably 1/100 of the maximum permissible body burden within eight minutes. It was also suggested that a separation method based on the use of absorption phenomena observed for Sephadex (gel resin) can be applied for quick determination of gross alpha activity in urine. For management of accidentally exposed workers to radiation doses of a lethal or sublethal nature, bone-marrow transplantation therapy and blood component therapy in sterile rooms is discussed in the light of experience gained from treatment of leukaemia with intensive chemotherapy. (author)

  7. Prenatal radiation exposure. Dose calculation

    The unborn child requires special protection. In this context, the indication for an X-ray examination is to be checked critically. If thereupon radiation of the lower abdomen including the uterus cannot be avoided, the examination should be postponed until the end of pregnancy or alternative examination techniques should be considered. Under certain circumstances, either accidental or in unavoidable cases after a thorough risk assessment, radiation exposure of the unborn may take place. In some of these cases an expert radiation hygiene consultation may be required. This consultation should comprise the expected risks for the unborn while not perturbing the mother or the involved medical staff. For the risk assessment in case of an in-utero X-ray exposition deterministic damages with a defined threshold dose are distinguished from stochastic damages without a definable threshold dose. The occurrence of deterministic damages depends on the dose and the developmental stage of the unborn at the time of radiation. To calculate the risks of an in-utero radiation exposure a three-stage concept is commonly applied. Depending on the amount of radiation, the radiation dose is either estimated, roughly calculated using standard tables or, in critical cases, accurately calculated based on the individual event. The complexity of the calculation thereby increases from stage to stage. An estimation based on stage one is easily feasible whereas calculations based on stages two and especially three are more complex and often necessitate execution by specialists. This article demonstrates in detail the risks for the unborn child pertaining to its developmental phase and explains the three-stage concept as an evaluation scheme. It should be noted, that all risk estimations are subject to considerable uncertainties.

  8. Adverse events in humans associated with accidental exposure to the livestock brucellosis vaccine RB51.

    Ashford, David A; di Pietra, Jennifer; Lingappa, Jairam; Woods, Christopher; Noll, Heather; Neville, Bridget; Weyant, Robbin; Bragg, Sandra L; Spiegel, Richard A; Tappero, Jordan; Perkins, Bradley A

    2004-09-01

    Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine, is an attenuated live bacterial vaccine that was licensed conditionally by the Center for Veterinary Biologics, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA, on 23 February 1996, for vaccination of cattle in the United States. Accidental human inoculations can occur during vaccination of cattle, and previous live Brucella vaccines designed for cattle have been known to cause brucellosis in humans. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established passive surveillance for accidental inoculation with the RB51 vaccine in the United States to determine if this veterinary vaccine is associated with human disease, to describe the circumstances of accidental inoculation, to evaluate the potential efficacy of post-exposure chemoprophylaxis, and to develop recommendations for post-exposure management following exposure to RB51. Reports were received from 26 individuals. Accidental exposure to RB51 occurred by needle stick injury in 21 people (81%), conjunctival spray exposure in four (15%), and spray exposure of an open wound in one (4%) individual. At least one systemic symptom was reported in 19 (73%) people, including three (12%) who reported persistent local reactions with systemic involvement. One case required surgery, and B. abortus strain RB51 was isolated from the wound of that individual. Seven cases reported no adverse event associated with accidental exposure. Nine cases reported previous exposure to Brucella vaccines, including one case who also reported a previous diagnosis of brucellosis following exposure to S19 vaccine. Accidental needle stick injuries and conjunctival or open wound exposures of humans with the RB51 vaccine are associated with both local and systemic adverse events in the United States that are consistent with brucellosis; however, it remains undetermined if strain RB51 vaccine can cause systemic brucellosis in humans. Early culture attempts on those exposed and

  9. Pregnancy and Radiation Exposure

    ... had that might impact the development of their sperm or their eggs (ova) and their risk of ... your concerns with them. Radiation Exposure to the Sperm from Diagnostic X-Ray Studies There are no ...

  10. Outcome of Accidental Exposure Prone to Blood Borne Viral Infections in an Educational Hospital

    Shahnaz Sali; Shabnam Tehrani; Sara Abulghasemi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk for transmission of blood-borne viruses (BBVs) such as Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) due to occupational exposure is a major concern in the health care setting.Materials and Methods: This study among 337 health care workers (HCWs) accidentally exposed to BBVs was carried out from January 2009 to March 2015. The data were reviewed in labbafinejhad hospital, Tehran, Iran.Results: 4 HCWs had exposure to HBS Ag positiv...

  11. Medical Inspection and Regrading of Workers Accidentally Exposed to Radiation

    Medical inspection and regrading of workers exposed to radiation at the time of an accident are basically variable according to the seriousness of the exposure. Minor cases only need a check-up at relatively lengthy intervals and regrading does not usually present any great problem. This paper deals with the particular case of whole-body irradiation involving very high exposure of a lower limb. Problems of medical supervision and regrading are still arising three years after the accident, without it being possible to determine or even foresee a consolidation period. The issues involved are legal, medical, social and psychological, and also relate to efficiency. The legal aspect of an accident of this kind involves a series of obligations, such as the prolonged inspection laid down in legal instruments, which varies, moreover, with the country. It also includes the jurisprudential aspect, in particular the much-debated distinction between an industrial accident and an occupational disease. The medical aspect of long-term supervision entails a fairly frequent check on the proper functioning of the different systems, with particular stress on blood sampling and genetic tests, including a chromosome examination. The social aspect is particularly important in the event of nuclear accidents. In the case under consideration the accident resulted in total incapacity to work for almost three years, followed by resumption of work on a part-time basis. The long period of isolation of the patient and the anxiety of his family and those around him regarding the possible outcome of the accident are aspects peculiar to serious exposure to radiation. The psychological aspect is furthermore a part of the social aspect. During his period of confinement the patient only comes into contact with a few persons, whereas once he has been discharged from hospital he is an object of curiosity and publicity that are at times excessive. Finally, regrading that does not involve downgrading

  12. Evaluation of health effects in Sequoyah Fuels Corporation workers from accidental exposure to uranium hexafluoride

    Urine bioassay measurements for uranium and medical laboratory results were studied to determine whether there were any health effects from uranium intake among a group of 31 workers exposed to uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and hydrolysis products following the accidental rupture of a 14-ton shipping cylinder in early 1986 at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation uranium conversion facility in Gore, Oklahoma. Physiological indicators studied to detect kidney tissue damage included tests for urinary protein, casts and cells, blood, specific gravity, and urine pH, blood urea nitrogen, and blood creatinine. We concluded after reviewing two years of follow-up medical data that none of the 31 workers sustained any observable health effects from exposure to uranium. The early excretion of uranium in urine showed more rapid systemic uptake of uranium from the lung than is assumed using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30 and Publication 54 models. The urinary excretion data from these workers were used to develop an improved systemic recycling model for inhaled soluble uranium. We estimated initial intakes, clearance rates, kidney burdens, and resulting radiation doses to lungs, kidneys, and bone surfaces. 38 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Oxycodone intoxication in an infant: accidental or intentional exposure?

    Levine, Barry; Moore, Karla A; Aronica-Pollak, Patricia; Fowler, David F

    2004-11-01

    A case is presented of a 10 month old male who went into cardiac arrest at a local store. The infant subsequently expired and was autopsied at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, State of Maryland. The only remarkable finding was the detection of oxycodone in the postmortem specimens; the blood and liver oxycodone concentrations were 0.6 mg/L and 1.6 mg/kg, respectively. Oxycodone was identified and quantitated by gas chromatography-nitrogen-phosphorus detection and confirmed by full scan electron ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The medical examiner ruled that the cause of death was oxycodone intoxication, and the manner of death was homicide. The key toxicologic question in this case was whether or not it was reasonable for the infant to be exposed to oxycodone exclusively through breast milk or through an alternate source. It was concluded that, at best, there were serious concerns about the likelihood of drug exposure through consumption of breast milk. PMID:15568714

  14. Assessment of risks associated to ionizing radiations: lung cancers after domestic radon exposure and thyroid cancers after accidental exposure to radioactive iodines; Evaluation des risques associes aux rayonnements ionisants: cancers du poumon apres exposition domestique au radon et cancers de la thyroide apres exposition accidentelle aux iodes radioactifs

    Catelinois, O

    2004-09-15

    The aim of this work is to develop a critical analysis of quantitative risk assessment in the field of ionizing radiation and to provide new estimates of attributable risks for particular situations of environmental exposure to ionizing radiation. This work is based on knowledge about dose-response relationships and ionizing radiation exposure of the general population. The work focuses on two different situations that both present an important interest for public health: lung cancer associated with domestic radon exposures (natural situation) and thyroid cancer associated with the Chernobyl accident fallout (accidental situation). The assessment of lung cancer risk associated with domestic radon exposure considers 10 dose-response relationships resulting from miner cohorts and case-control studies in the general population. A critical review of available data on smoking habits has been performed and allowed to consider the interactions between radon and tobacco. The exposure data come from measurements campaigns carried out since the beginning of the 1980 by the Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety and the Health General Directory in France. The French lung cancer mortality data are provided by the I.N.S.E.R.M.. Estimates of the number of attributable cancers are carried out for the whole country, stratified by 8 large regions (Z.E.A.T.) and by 96 departments for the year 1999 allowing to perform a sensibility analysis according to the geographical level of calculation. Uncertainties associated to risk coefficients and exposures have been quantified and it's impact on risk estimates is calculated. The estimated number of deaths attributable to domestic radon exposure ranges from 543 (90% uncertainty interval (U.I.): 75-1,097) to 3,108 (90% U.I.: 2,996-3,221). The corresponding risk fractions range from 2.2% (90% U.I.: 0.3%-4.4%) to 12.4% (90% U.I.: 11.9%-12.8%). The assessment of thyroid cancer risk in the most exposed area of France due to

  15. Chromosome damage and clinical manifestation in a fetus and the mother after accidental 60Co exposure in Xinzhou

    The authors present the clinical effect and chromosome damage sustained by a fetus and the four months pregnant mother in an accidental 60Co exposure in November of 1992 in Xinzhou, Shanxi Province. The mother suffered from a moderate acute radiation sickness with ratardation of fetal development. After delivery, the infant's body length, body weight and head circumference were all lowered by three percentiles compared with the normals. Four months after the exposure, the assay of the mother's peripheral lymphocytes showed a chromosome aberration rate of 36%, while concomitant examination of the baby failed to reveal any chromosome abnormality although the sister chromatid exchange rate was remarkably higher than that of the mother and the normal control

  16. Accidental phosgene gas exposure: A review with background study of 10 cases

    Arvind Kumar Vaish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, authors present a review on clinical presentation and management of exposure of phosgene gas after reviewing the literature by searching with keywords phosgene exposure on Google, Cochrane, Embase and PubMed with a background of experience gained from 10 patients who were admitted to our institute after an accidental phosgene exposure in February 2011 nearby a city in India. Phosgene is a highly toxic gas, occupational workers may have accidental exposure. The gas can also be generated inadvertently during fire involving plastics and other chemicals and solvents containing chlorine, which is of concern to emergency responders. Phosgene inhalation may cause initially symptoms of respiratory tract irritation, patients feel fine thereafter, and then die of choking a day later because of build up of fluid in the lungs (delayed onset non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Phosgene exposure is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with a history of exposure should be admitted to the hospital for a minimum of 24 h for observation because of the potential for delayed onset respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  17. Occupational radiation exposure

    The X-ray and Radiation Protection Ordinances in the Federal Republic of Germany and Austria were discussed. The demands of protection ordinances can only be met if the monitoring of the radiation dose is ensured to a large extent. This was stated in the lectures on dosimetry, but also in those on the technical know-how and knowledge and the quality control in radiodiagnostics. The leukemia and cancer risk for persons exposed to radiation at work came also up for discussion, and the report on the re-evaluation of data about Hiroshima and Nagasaki showing a statistically recordable rise in cancer mortality has to be seen in connection with the radiation protection laws. A lecture was held on a radiation accident in Brazil in 1987 in order to give an example of an increased radiation exposure with a fatal result. It was an off-plant radiation accident. Since a physical dosimetry naturally cannot take place in such cases, it becomes necessary to inform oneself on the extent of the detriment by means of the detrimental characteristics of the irradiated organism. Also reported was the ''biological dosimetry'' of the radiation accident in Brazil. The 23 contributions have been separately recorded in the data base. (orig./DG) With 43 figs., 41 tabs

  18. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure

    In 1977 population exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany has not changed as compared to the previous years. The main share of the total exposure, nearly two thirds, is attributed to natural radioactive substances and cosmic radiation. The largest part (around 85%) of the artificial radiation exposure is caused by X-ray diagnostics. In comparison to this, radiation exposure from application of ionizing radiation in medical therapy, use of radioactive material in research and technology, or from nuclear facilities is small. As in the years before, population exposure caused by nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities is distinctly less than 1% of the natural radiation exposure. This is also true for the average radiation exposure within a radius of 3 km around nuclear facilities. On the whole, the report makes clear that the total amount of artificial population exposure will substantially decrease only if one succeeds in reducing the high contribution to the radiation exposure caused by medical measures. (orig.)

  19. Doses from radiation exposure

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Practical implementation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) system of protection requires the availability of appropriate methods and data. The work of Committee 2 is concerned with the development of reference data and methods for the assessment of internal and external radiation exposure of workers and members of the public. This involves the development of reference biokinetic and dosimetric models, reference anatomical models of the human body, and reference anatomical and physiological data. Following ICRP's 2007 Recommendations, Committee 2 has focused on the provision of new reference dose coefficients for external and internal exposure. As well as specifying changes to the radiation and tissue weighting factors used in the calculation of protection quantities, the 2007 Recommendations introduced the use of reference anatomical phantoms based on medical imaging data, requiring explicit sex averaging of male and female organ-equivalent doses in the calculation of effecti...

  20. Management of individuals accidentally exposed to radiation or radioactive materials

    Sources of ionizing radiation are being used with increasing frequency in a wide spectrum of applications in society. These uses are accompanied by the possible occurrence of accidents resulting in persons exposed to radiation and contaminated with radioactivity. These persons pose a risk to facilities and attending personnel upon their arrival at the hospital. This risk can be minimized without compromising the quality of patient care only if careful planning for such patients has been conducted by the hospital. Planning should include identification of a radiation emergency area within the hospital, delineation of a radiation emergency response team of individuals knowledgeable about radiation and radioactivity, and development of protocols for the medical care and decontamination of patients involved in radiation accidents. Various agencies, including the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals, have stressed the need for preparation and periodic testing of radiation emergency response plans for hospitals

  1. Retinal photoreceptor focal disruption secondary to accidental Nd:YAG laser exposure.

    Milani, Paolo; Pierro, Luisa; Pece, Alfredo; Marino, Valerio; Scialdone, Antonio

    2011-10-01

    Retinal injuries caused by accidental laser exposure include retinal or vitreous hemorrhages, macular holes and edema. We describe the imaging of a bilateral macular lesion secondary to accidental Nd:YAG laser exposure. Observational case report. We performed color photography, fluorescein angiography and autofluorescence (AF) with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope, as well as time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). After accidental exposure to a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser, a patient experienced blurred vision in the left eye (LE) with visual acuity of 20/60. Color, fluorescein angiography and OCT imaging showed a retinal hemorrhage in the foveal area of the left eye and in the inferomacular region of the asymptomatic right eye. Steroid therapy was then administered, and 5 days later there was rapid improvement with progressive re-absorption of the hemorrhages and functional recovery. At 6 month follow-up, visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes with unremarkable biomicroscopy, except for focal foveal retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy in the LE. In comparison to previous hemorrhages, OCT could visualize focal disruption of the photoreceptor IS/OS junction in both eyes. Due to different macular pigment distribution and lesion localization, 787 nm near-infrared AF depicted a small hypofluorescent spot in both eyes, whilst at 488 nm AF a black spot became evident in the right eye only. Despite the re-absorption of foveal hemorrhage and the functional recovery, AF and OCT imaging highlighted the persistence of small focal disruptions of the photoreceptor outer segments and RPE. PMID:22002418

  2. Hematopoiesis research in aplastic anaemia induced by accidental protracted radiation

    Over the past few years there have been 2 radiation-related accidents involving a large number of individuals: the April 1986 accident in Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Ukraine and the September 1987 accident in Goiania, Brazil. These 2 radiation-related accidents highlight the major question raised by radiation-induced injury to the haematopoietic system, that is: does a given patient suffer from a reversible or an irreversible haematopoietic stem cell damage ? Although about 350 radiation accidents involving several thousand people are known from the literature, in-depth haematopoiesis analyses of individuals after a radiation-related accident have rarely been reported. In this paper we present the case of a young man with radiation-induced aplasia and compare some biological data to those of 16 normal individuals and of 17 patients with acquired aplastic anaemia. Our patient was clinically and biologically (as assessed by long-term bone marrow culture) indistinguishable from patients with idiopathic acquired aplastic anaemia. Furthermore, therapeutic attitudes in this patient are discussed. In-depth study of such radiation-induced aplastic anaemia cases can shed some light in the understanding of this disease and may help in therapeutic decisions. (author)

  3. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982

    Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

  4. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982

    This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

  5. Genomic damage in children accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation

    Fucic, A; Brunborg, G; Lasan, R;

    2007-01-01

    after the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident in 1986. The present review presents and discusses data collected from papers analyzing genome damage in children environmentally exposed to ionizing radiation. Overall, the evidence from the studies conducted following the Chernobyl accident, nuclear tests...

  6. Chronic or accidental exposure of oysters to norovirus: is there any difference in contamination?

    Ventrone, Iole; Schaeffer, Julien; Ollivier, Joanna; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Pepe, Tiziana; Le Pendu, Jacques; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2013-03-01

    Bivalve molluscan shellfish such as oysters may be contaminated by human pathogens. Currently, the primary pathogens associated with shellfish-related outbreaks are noroviruses. This study was conducted to improve understanding of oyster bioaccumulation when oysters were exposed to daily contamination or one accidental contamination event, i.e., different modes of contamination. Oysters were contaminated with two representative strains of norovirus (GI.1 and GII.3) and then analyzed with real-time reverse transcription PCR. Exposure to a repeated virus dose for 9 days (mimicking a growing area subjected to frequent sewage contamination) led to an additive accumulation that was not significantly different from that obtained when the same total dose of virus was added all at once (as may happen after accidental sewage discharge). Similarly, bioaccumulation tests performed with mixed strains revealed additive accumulation of both viruses. Depuration may not be efficient for eliminating viruses; therefore, to prevent contaminated shellfish from being put onto the market, continuous sanitary monitoring must be considered. All climatic events or sewage failures occurring in production areas must be recorded, because repeated low-dose exposure or abrupt events may lead to similar levels of accumulation. This study contributes to an understanding of norovirus accumulation in oysters and provides suggestions for risk management strategies. PMID:23462089

  7. Optoelectronic Reader for Accidental Chemical Radiation Dosimetric System

    Full text: The use of chlorobenzene solutions (10% by vol.) in ethanol-trimethylpentane mixture (1:8 by vol.) in radiation dosimetry is based on radiolytic dechlorination of chlorobenzene and subsequent reaction of hydrochloric acid formed with a dissolved pH indicator, thymolsulphonphthalein. The amount of the acid (red) form of the indicator is proportional to dose. High molar absorbtivity of the red form of the indicator at 550 nm is responsible for a high sensitivity of the system, enabling its application in radiation therapy and/or radiation accident dosimetry: doses in the range 0.2-12 Gy can be determined. Additional favourable dosimetric properties of the system are its linear response with dose, independence of the dose rate and quality of the incident radiation, and, most interestingly, the approximately equal response to gamma rays and neutrons for the same dose in tissue. Together with a visual colour comparator it has formed a personal dosimetry system, which had been adopted for the military and civil defence use. The precision of the readout by means of a colour comparator depended on the width of an interval between any two neighbouring colour standards and the ability of a person taking the reading to estimate the nuances and make interpolations. The newly constructed optoelectronic reader takes the subjectivity out of the readout process and enables full automatisation and computerisation. In addition, it offers a continuous dose estimation, as compared to discrete values only, as given by the colour comparator. The reader is based on shining the output of a two-colour light emitting diode (550 and 690 nm) through a dosimeter solution in an ampoule, and calculating the differential absorbance, which is directly related to dose. Further development towards self-contained, hand-held instrument is in progress. (author)

  8. Electron paramagnetic resonance technique for radiation dosimetry: emerging trends for laboratory and accidental dosimetry

    The applications of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) for radiation dosimetry are briefly reviewed. In particular, EPR-alanine dosimetry and accidental dosimetry using EPR signals from human tooth enamel have been discussed. The alanine dosimetry was found to be useful from low doses such as 1 Gy to high doses such as 100 kGy. The signals from tooth enamel are found to be invaluable in assessing the absorbed dose of people exposed to radiation accidents and also survivors of atomic bomb explosions. New emerging trends using EPR signals from bones exposed to radiation have also been briefly reviewed. (author)

  9. Pregnancy and radiation exposure

    In confirmed or presumptive pregnancy it is especially critical to determine the indications for X-ray examination. This assumes that every young woman, before an examination in the pelvic region, be asked explicity when her last normal period was. Examinations of the pelvis which are not acutely necessary should be postponed until the first 10 days after menstruation. If radiologic examination of the true pelvis must be carried out despite pregnancy or is inadvertently done because pregnancy was not recognized, the radiation exposure of the embryo is so small in most cases because of modern dose-sparing equipment, that an interruption of pregnancy is not justified. A dose of less than 1 rad is, as a rule, justifiable, but it is less justifiable that alarmed, uninformed physicians instill a deep-seated fear of giving brith to a freak in a woman through false information. (orig.)

  10. Thyroid cancer post exposure to radiation

    Reviewed and discussed is the radiation-induced thyroid cancer (TC) from aspects of epidemiology along with the medical and accidental exposure, and of gene level. Medical external exposure to the thyroid occurs by radiation therapy of head and neck diseases and the internal exposure, by radioiodine administration for treatment of Basedow disease and postoperative ablation of TC. Excessive relative risk of TC in A-bomb survivors is 1.15, statistically significant, is 10 times higher in 40 y. TC is generally rare (the incidence, 1 per 100thousands/y), but after the Chernobyl Accident, the incidence is increased to 10-100 times. The incidence of pediatric TC is found to reach the peak at 10 years after the Accident and has decreased to the normal level at present. Instead, TC is now at a peak incidence in adolescents and young adults (15-24 years old) who were exposed at their childhood: risk is found the highest in infants of the age 0-4 y. The exposure was mainly internal by radioiodine through breast milk and food. Histopathological tissue type of TC is rather different from that in Japan, suggesting the low iodine content in the area around Chernobyl. Risk of TC is obscure for the fetal exposure to radioiodine. Chernobyl Tissue Bank has a stock of 3,800 TC specimens. At present, gene mutation specific in radiation-induced TC alone is not found. Although the health risk of exposure to <100 mSv is said to be hardly proven and the internal exposure dose level by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident is said to be much lower than that by Chernobyl Accident, the health management of Fukushima residents should be followed up for long term. (T.T.)

  11. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984

    Adams, W.H.; Engle, J.R.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984

    March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  13. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  14. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  15. Environmental radiation and exposure to radiation

    Compared to 1977 the exposure to radiation of the population of the Federal Republic of Germany from both natural and artificial radiation sources has not greatly charged. The amin part of exposure to natural radiation is caused by environmental radiation and by the absorption of naturally radioactive substances into the body. Artificial exposure to radiation of the population is essentially caused by the use of ionizing rays and radioactive substances in medicine. When radioactive materials are released from nuclear facilities the exposure to radiation of the population is only very slightly increased. The real exposure to radiation of individual people can even in the worst affected places, have been at most fractions of a millirem. The exposure to radiation in the worst afected places in the area of a hard-coal power station is higher than that coming from a nuclear power station of the same capacity. The summation of all contributions to the exposure of radiation by nuclear facilities to the population led in 1978 in the Federal Republic of Germany to a genetically significant dose of clearly less than 1 millerem per year. The medium-ranged exposure to radiation by external radiation effects through professional work was in 1978 at 80 millirems. No difference to 1977. The contribution of radionuclide from the fallout coming from nuclear-weapon tests and which has been deposited in the soil, to the whole-body dose for 1978 applies the same as the genetically significant dose of the population with less than 1 millirem. (orig./HP)

  16. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  17. DOE 2009 occupational radiation exposure

    none,

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  18. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  19. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    An overview of occupational exposure is presented. Concepts and quantities used for radiation protection are explained as well as the ICRP system of dose limitation. The risks correlated to the limits are discussed. However, the actual exposure are often much lower than the limits and the average risk in radiation work is comparable with the average risk in other safe occupations. Actual exposures in various occupations are presented and discussed. (author)

  20. Radiation protection

    This work define procedures and controls about ionizing radiations. Between some definitions it found the following topics: radiation dose, risk, biological effects, international radioprotection bodies, workers exposure, accidental exposure, emergencies and radiation protection

  1. Medical documentation, bioanalytical evidence of an accidental human exposure to sulfur mustard and general therapy recommendations.

    Steinritz, Dirk; Striepling, Enno; Rudolf, Klaus-Dieter; Schröder-Kraft, Claudia; Püschel, Klaus; Hullard-Pulstinger, Andreas; Koller, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst; Gandor, Felix; Gawlik, Michael; John, Harald

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent (CWA) that was first used in World War I and in several military conflicts afterwards. The threat by SM is still present even today due to remaining stockpiles, old and abandoned remainders all over the world as well as to its ease of synthesis. CWA are banned by the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) interdicting their development, production, transport, stockpiling and use and are subjected to controlled destruction. The present case report describes an accidental exposure of three workers that occurred during the destruction of SM. All exposed workers presented a characteristic SM-related clinical picture that started about 4h after exposure with erythema and feeling of tension of the skin at the upper part of the body. Later on, superficial blister and a burning phenomenon of the affected skin areas developed. Similar symptoms occurred in all three patients differing severity. One patient presented sustained skin affections at the gluteal region while another patient came up with affections of the axilla and genital region. Fortunately, full recovery was observed on day 56 after exposure except some little pigmentation changes that were evident even on day 154 in two of the patients. SM-exposure was verified for all three patients using bioanalytical GC MS and LC MS/MS based methods applied to urine and plasma. Urinary biotransformation products of the β-lyase pathway were detected until 5 days after poisoning whereas albumin-SM adducts could be found until day 29 underlining the beneficial role of adduct detection for post-exposure verification. In addition, we provide general recommendations for management and therapy in case of SM poisoning. PMID:26321678

  2. Radiation exposures: risks and realities

    Discovery of radioactivity in 1869 by Henry Becquerel and artificial radioactivity by Irene Curie in 1934 led to the development of nuclear field and nuclear materials in 20th century. They are widely used for man-kind across the globe in electricity production, carbon dating, treatment and diagnosis of diseases etc. While deriving benefits and utilizing nuclear resources for the benefit of man-kind, it is inevitable that exposure to radiation can not be avoided. Radiation exists all around us either natural or man-made which can not be totally eliminated or avoided. Radiation exposures from natural background contribute 2.4 to 3.6 mSv in a year. Radiation exposures incurred by a member of public due to nuclear industries constitute less than one hundredth of annual dose due to natural background. Hence it is important to understand the risk posed by radiation and comparison of radiation risk with various risks arising due to other sources. Studies have indicated that risks due to environmental pollution, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, heart diseases are far higher in magnitude compared to radiation risks from man made sources. This paper brings about the details and awareness regarding radiation exposures, radiation risk, various risks associated with other industries and benefits of radiation exposures. (author)

  3. Radiation exposure from building materials

    A survey procedure was developed to find buildings in which the radiation exposure from gamma rays is relatively high. For modern structures NaI(Tl) survey meters are used to identify building materials with higher radionuclide content. Samples of these materials are analyzed by gamma-ray spectroscopy for 226Ra daughters, 232Th daughters, and 40K. The exposure rate in a building is computed from these concentrations on the basis of the geometrical configuration of building materials, acting both as radiation sources and as a shield against terrestrial radiation, and also on the basis of the outside radiation exposure rate at the building site. The procedure may also be applied to surveys of building material constituents and to materials in place in older structures. A calculational model was developed to predict radiation exposure rates within the houses

  4. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning presenting without a history of exposure: A case report

    Bennetto Luke

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning is easy to diagnose when there is a history of exposure. When the exposure history is absent, or delayed, the diagnosis is more difficult and relies on recognising the importance of multi-system disease. We present a case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. Case presentation A middle-aged man, who lived alone in his mobile home was found by friends in a confused, incontinent state. Initial signs included respiratory failure, cardiac ischaemia, hypotension, encephalopathy and a rash, whilst subsequent features included rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, amnesia, dysarthria, parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, supranuclear gaze palsy and cerebral haemorrhage. Despite numerous investigations including magnetic resonance cerebral imaging, lumbar puncture, skin biopsy, muscle biopsy and electroencephalogram a diagnosis remained elusive. Several weeks after admission, diagnostic breakthrough was achieved when the gradual resolution of the patient's amnesia, encephalopathy and dysarthria allowed an accurate history to be taken for the first time. The patient's last recollection was turning on his gas heating for the first time since the spring. A gas heating engineer found the patient's gas boiler to be in a dangerous state of disrepair and it was immediately decommissioned. Conclusion This case highlights several important issues: the bewildering myriad of clinical features of carbon monoxide poisoning, the importance of making the diagnosis even at a late stage and preventing the patient's return to a potentially fatal toxic environment, and the paramount importance of the history in the diagnostic method.

  5. Radiation exposure and infant cancer

    Medical exposures accompanied by an increase in radiation use in the field of pediatrics were described. Basic ideas and countermeasures to radiation injuries were outlined. In order to decrease the medical exposure, it is necessary for the doctor, x-ray technician and manufacturer to work together. The mechanism and characteristics of radio carcinogenesis were also mentioned. Particularly, the following two points were described: 1) How many years does it take before carcinogenesis appears as a result of radiation exposure in infancy 2) How and when does the effect of fetus exposure appear. Radiosensitivity in infants and fetuses is greater than that of an adult. The occurrence of leukemia caused by prenatal exposure was reviewed. The relation between irradiation for therapy and morbidity of thyroid cancer was mentioned. Finally, precautions necessary for infants, pregnant women and nursing mothers when using radioisotopes were mentioned. (K. Serizawa)

  6. Gene expression as a biomarker for human radiation exposure.

    Omaruddin, Romaica A; Roland, Thomas A; Wallace, H James; Chaudhry, M Ahmad

    2013-03-01

    Accidental exposure to ionizing radiation can be unforeseen, rapid, and devastating. The detonation of a radiological device leading to such an exposure can be detrimental to the exposed population. The radiation-induced damage may manifest as acute effects that can be detected clinically or may be more subtle effects that can lead to long-term radiation-induced abnormalities. Accurate identification of the individuals exposed to radiation is challenging. The availability of a rapid and effective screening test that could be used as a biomarker of radiation exposure detection is mandatory. We tested the suitability of alterations in gene expression to serve as a biomarker of human radiation exposure. To develop a useful gene expression biomonitor, however, gene expression changes occurring in response to irradiation in vivo must be measured directly. Patients undergoing radiation therapy provide a suitable test population for this purpose. We examined the expression of CC3, MADH7, and SEC PRO in blood samples of these patients before and after radiotherapy to measure the in vivo response. The gene expression after ionizing radiation treatment varied among different patients, suggesting the complexity of the response. The expression of the SEC PRO gene was repressed in most of the patients. The MADH7 gene was found to be upregulated in most of the subjects and could serve as a molecular marker of radiation exposure. PMID:23446844

  7. Carcinogenesis by internal radiation exposures

    Radiation carcinogenesis is based on the same molecular mechanisms, while spatial and temporal dose distribution in target cells is differed between internal and external radiation exposures. Animal models on dose-carcinogenic response relationships are required to complement an uncertainties in human epidemiological studies and finally to estimate human risk of internal exposures to radionuclides. Several dose response models for experimental carcinogenesis by internally administered radionuclides in laboratory animals were reviewed and discussed in this paper. (J.P.N.)

  8. Dose evaluation for external exposure in radiation accidents

    Abnormal exposures including emergency and accidental are categorized into external exposure and internal contamination, although both of these may be associated with external contamination. From a point of view of lifesaving in the abnormal exposures, it is primarily important to evaluate radiation dose of exposed persons as soon as possible. This report reviews the status of early dosimetry in the accidental exposures and discusses the optimum methodology of the early dose determination for external exposures in abnormal exposures. Personal monitors generally give an indication of dose to an exposed person only at a single part of the body. The data obtained from the personal monitors should be interpreted with care and in the light of information about the circumstances of exposure. In most cases, the records of environmental monitors or the survey with area monitors provide valuable information on the radiation fields. In the some cases, the reconstruction of the abnormal exposure is required for the dose evaluation by means of phantom experiments. In the case of neutron exposures, activation products in the body or its components or personnel possession can be useful for the early dosimetry. If the dose received by the whole body is evaluated as being very high, clinical observations and biological investigations may be more important guide to initial medical treatment than the early dosimetry. For the dose evaluation of general public, depending on the size of abnormal exposure, information that could be valuable in the assessment of abnormal exposures will come from the early dose estimates with environmental monitors and radiation survey meters. (author)

  9. Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy

    ... radiation and was devel- oped by the Health Physics Society. Stabin M, Breitz H. Breast milk excretion of radiopharmaceuticals: Mechanisms, findings, and radiation dosimetry. Continuing Medical Education Article, Journal of Nuclear Medicine 41(5):863-873; 2000. U.S. Nuclear ...

  10. Radiation Exposure and Cancer

    ... Compensation Programs for People Exposed to Radiation as Part of Nuclear Weapons Testing Between 1945 and 1962, several countries tested nuclear weapons in the open air. The US government has passed several laws to ... radiation as part of nuclear testing programs who later develop certain ...

  11. Malignant mesothelioma following radiation exposure

    Antman, K.H.; Corson, J.M.; Li, F.P.; Greenberger, J.; Sytkowski, A.; Henson, D.E.; Weinstein, L.

    1983-11-01

    Mesothelioma developed in proximity to the field of therapeutic radiation administered 10-31 years previously in four patients. In three, mesothelioma arose within the site of prior therapeutic radiation for another cancer. Mesothelioma in the fourth patient developed adjacent to the site of cosmetic radiation to a thyroidectomy scar. None of these four patients recalled an asbestos exposure or had evidence of asbestosis on chest roentgenogram. Lung tissue in one patient was negative for ferruginous bodies, a finding considered to indicate no significant asbestos exposure. Five other patients with radiation-associated mesothelioma have been reported previously, suggesting that radiation is an uncommon cause of human mesothelioma. Problems in the diagnosis of radiation-associated mesotheliomas are considered.

  12. Malignant mesothelioma following radiation exposure

    Mesothelioma developed in proximity to the field of therapeutic radiation administered 10-31 years previously in four patients. In three, mesothelioma arose within the site of prior therapeutic radiation for another cancer. Mesothelioma in the fourth patient developed adjacent to the site of cosmetic radiation to a thyroidectomy scar. None of these four patients recalled an asbestos exposure or had evidence of asbestosis on chest roentgenogram. Lung tissue in one patient was negative for ferruginous bodies, a finding considered to indicate no significant asbestos exposure. Five other patients with radiation-associated mesothelioma have been reported previously, suggesting that radiation is an uncommon cause of human mesothelioma. Problems in the diagnosis of radiation-associated mesotheliomas are considered

  13. Designing to minimize radiation exposure

    The radiation exposure received by the station staff must be considered during the design stage if CANDU stations are to achieve high capacity factor, high reliability and low maintenance and operational costs. On early CANDU stations, this exposure was higher than originally anticipated. Reviews to reduce exposure were started in 1969 and these have evolved into a formal program which defines specific objectives, classifies radiation levels, reviews designs and implements improvements where necessary. This paper outlines the program developed at AECL-PP (Power Projects) for use during the design of CANDU stations. (author)

  14. Sarcoma risk after radiation exposure

    Berrington de Gonzalez Amy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sarcomas were one of the first solid cancers to be linked to ionizing radiation exposure. We reviewed the current evidence on this relationship, focusing particularly on the studies that had individual estimates of radiation doses. There is clear evidence of an increased risk of both bone and soft tissue sarcomas after high-dose fractionated radiation exposure (10 + Gy in childhood, and the risk increases approximately linearly in dose, at least up to 40 Gy. There are few studies available of sarcoma after radiotherapy in adulthood for cancer, but data from cancer registries and studies of treatment for benign conditions confirm that the risk of sarcoma is also increased in this age-group after fractionated high-dose exposure. New findings from the long-term follow-up of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors suggest, for the first time, that sarcomas can be induced by acute lower-doses of radiation (

  15. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past five-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information has been analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  16. Maximum permissible amounts of accidentally released tritium derived from an environmental experiment to meet dose limits for public exposure

    This paper reports that it is important in the design of future fusion reactors and associated facilities that incorporate passive safety to take account of the possible environmental impact of accidental tritium release. Reliable information on dose consequences can be obtained by evaluating urine samples from persons exposed to tritium. Translating the results of the environmental HT experiment performed in France in 1986 into worst-case exposure conditions, the effective dose equivalent to an individual with highest exposure at a distance of 800 m (typical for site boundaries) is ∼1 x 10-4 Sv per gram of tritium emitted as HT when inhalation and skin absorption are considered. From this value, maximum permissible amounts of accidentally released HT can be derived on the basis of regulatory or anticipated dose limits

  17. Cardiovascular complications of radiation exposure.

    Finch, William; Shamsa, Kamran; Lee, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular sequelae of radiation exposure are an important cause of morbidity and mortality following radiation therapy for cancer, as well as after exposure to radiation after atomic bombs or nuclear accidents. In the United States, most of the data on radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) come from patients treated with radiation therapy for Hodgkin disease and breast cancer. Additionally, people exposed to radiation from the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, and the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear accident have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The total dose of radiation, as well as the fractionation of the dose, plays an important role in the development of RIHD. All parts of the heart are affected, including the pericardium, vasculature, myocardium, valves, and conduction system. The mechanism of injury is complex, but one major mechanism is injury to endothelium in both the microvasculature and coronary arteries. This likely also contributes to damage and fibrosis within the myocardium. Additionally, various inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines contribute to injury. Diagnosis and treatment are not significantly different from those for conventional cardiovascular disease; however, screening for heart disease and lifelong cardiology follow-up is essential in patients with past radiation exposure. PMID:25290729

  18. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure

    The environmental radioactivity in the Federal Republic of Germany was almost as high in 1976 as in 1975. It only increased temporarily in autumn 1976 as a result of the above-ground nuclear weapons test of the People's Republic of China on September 29th 1976 and then returned to its previous level. The radioactivity in food had a slight decreasing trend in 1976, apart from a temporary increase in the radioactivity in milk also caused by the nuclear weapons test mentioned. The population exposure remains basically unchanged in 1976 compared with 1975. The artificial radiation exposure is about half as high as the natural radiation exposure to which man has always been exposed. The former is based to 83% on using X-rays in medicine, particularly for X-ray diagnostic purposes. The population exposure due to nuclear power plants and other nuclear plants is still well below 1% of the natural radiation exposure although in 1976 three new nuclear power plants were put into operation. This is also true for the average radiation exposure within an area of 3 km around the nuclear plant. (orig.)

  19. Assessing exposure to radiation

    Since the founding of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have been world leaders in evaluating the risks associated with radiation. Ultrasensitive tools allow us not only to measure radionuclides present in the body but also to reconstruct the radiation dose from past nuclear events and to project the levels of radiation that will still be present in the body for 50 years after the initial intake. A variety of laboratory procedures, including some developed here, give us detailed information on the effects of radiation at the cellular level. Even today, we are re-evaluating the neutron dose resulting from the bombing at Hiroshima. Our dose reconstruction and projection capabilities have also been applied to studies of Nagasaki, Chernobyl, the Mayak industrial complex in the former Soviet Union, the Nevada Test Site, Bikini Atoll, and other sites. We are evaluating the information being collected on individuals currently working with radioactive material at Livermore and elsewhere as well as previously collected data on workers that extends back to the Manhattan Project

  20. Radiation Exposure of Passengers to Cosmic Radiation

    The main aim of the present study is to review exposure of Egyptian passengers and occupational workers to cosmic radiation during their work. Computed effective dose of passengers by computer code CARI-6 using during either short route, medium route or long route as well as recommended allowed number of flights per year

  1. Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol. I

    The World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (WAVFH) held an international round table conference in Stockholm, Sweden, January 26-29, 1987. The topic of the conference was 'Accidental Radiation Contamination of Food of Animal Origin'. The agenda was divided into three major topic areas: 1. Ecological Science; 2. Veterinary Science - Live Animals; and 3. Veterinary Science - Food of Animal Origin. Experts and delegates from member countries presented papers, participated in discussions and workshops and produced a multidisciplinary report covering the topic areas. The recent accidental release of radioactive substances into the environment from the Chernobyl accident, demonstrated the need for veterinary, ecological, physical and medical sciences to be prepared to respond to an incident in order to protect the environment, food chain, other agricultural assets and humans from the adverse effects of radionuclides. Several presentations suggested that even with the best technologies, national and regional commitment, and relatively unrestricted resource levels, nuclear incidents can cross international boundaries and can contaminate the environment to the extent that the integrity of various food and water supplies can be at risk. Speakers and subsequent discussers tended to concentrate on the issues associated with lessening future environmental impacts if similar types of incidents should occur again

  2. Human exposure to ultraviolet radiation.

    Diffey, B L

    1990-03-01

    Although the sun remains the main source of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure in humans, the advent of artificial UVR sources has increased the opportunity for both intentional and unintentional exposure. Intentional exposure is most often to tan the skin. People living in less sunny climates can now maintain a year-round tan by using sunbeds and solaria emitting principally UVA radiation. Another reason for intentional exposure to artificial UVR is treatment of skin diseases, notably psoriasis. Unintentional exposure is normally the result of occupation. Outdoor workers, such as farmers, receive three to four times the annual solar UV exposure of indoor workers. Workers in many industries, eg, photoprinting or hospital phototherapy departments, may be exposed to UVR from artificial sources. One group particularly at risk is electric arc welders, where inadvertent exposure is so common that the terms "arc eye" or "welders flash" are often used to describe photokeratitis. In addition to unavoidable exposure to natural UVR, the general public is exposed to low levels of UVR from sources such as fluorescent lamps used for indoor lighting and shops and restaurants where UVA lamps are often used in traps to attract flying insects. PMID:2203439

  3. Biological dose estimation for accidental supra-high dose gamma-ray exposure

    Chen, Y., E-mail: yingchen29@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100850 (China); Yan, X.K. [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100850 (China); Department of Radiation Safety, Beijing Institute of Nuclear and Chemical Safety, 14 Guan-cun, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100077 (China); Du, J.; Wang, Z.D.; Zhang, X.Q.; Zeng, F.G.; Zhou, P.K. [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100850 (China)

    2011-09-15

    To correctly estimate the biological dose of victims accidentally exposed to a very high dose of {sup 60}Co gamma-ray, a new dose-effect curve of chromosomal dicentrics/multicentrics and rings in the supra-high dose range was established. Peripheral blood from two healthy men was irradiated in vitro with doses of {sup 60}Co gamma-rays ranging from 6 to 22 Gy at a dose rate of 2.0 Gy/min. Lymphocytes were concentrated, cultured and harvested at 52 h, 68 h and 72 h. The numbers of dic + r were counted. The dose-effect curves were established and validated using comparisons with doses from the Tokai-mura accident and were then applied to two victims of supra-high dose exposure accident. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in chromosome aberration frequency among the different culture times from 52 h to 72 h. The 6-22 Gy dose-effect curve was fitted to a linear quadratic model Y = -2.269 + 0.776D - 7.868 x l0{sup -3}D{sup 2}. Using this mathematic model, the dose estimates were similar to data from Tokai-mura which were estimated by PCC ring. Whole body average doses of 9.7 Gy and 18.1 Gy for two victims in the Jining accident were satisfactorily given. We established and successfully applied a new dose-effect curve of chromosomal dicentrics plus ring (dic + r) after 6-22 Gy {gamma}-irradiation from a supra-high dose {sup 60}Co gamma-ray accident.

  4. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    Kokai, Masahiro [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2001-04-01

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  5. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  6. Radiation exposure in manned spaceflight

    Space missions exposure humans to a radiation environment of a particulate composition and intensity not encountered within our biosphere. The natural radiation environment encountered in Earth orbit is a complex mixture of charged particles of galactic and solar origin and of those trapped by the geomagnetic field. In addition, secondaries are produced by interaction of cosmic ray primaries with the spacecraft shielding material. Among this large variety of radiation components in space, it is likely that the heavy ions are the significant species as far as radiobiological effects are concerned. In addition, a synergistic interaction of microgravity and radiation on living systems has been reported in some instances. Based on an admissible risk of 3% mortality due to cancers induced during a working career, radiation protection guidelines have been developed for this radiation environment. (orig.)

  7. Therapeutic strategies for the treatment of accidental radiation-induced hematopoietic syndrome

    The hematopoietic syndrome induced by large field high dose accidental irradiation remains difficult to treat, mainly due to the heterogeneity of irradiation. As a result, there always remains an area of active hematopoiesis that was partly protected from irradiation. The choice of a therapeutic strategy thus must be based upon the estimate of radiation damage to the bone marrow. This can be achieved by the use of biological indicators of damage to specific organs. With this respect, we recently showed that the follow up of Flt3 ligand concentration in the blood allowed a direct evaluation of residual hematopoiesis soon after irradiation in animal models as well as in humans. Nevertheless, the possible therapeutic strategies available for the treatment of radiation-induced hematopoietic syndrome are limited to the choice between either stem cell transplantation or supportive care. Recently, the use of autologous cell therapy was proposed. The principle is to harvest the hematopoietic cells surviving to irradiation, to expand these cells in vitro and to re inject these cells to the patient. This is based upon the existence of a residual hematopoiesis and on the possibility to expand in vitro irradiated hematopoietic cells. Experimental work in a non human primate model of high-dose, heterogeneous irradiation showed that it was possible to harvest surviving hematopoietic cells after irradiation and to amplify these cells in vitro. However, the therapeutic efficiency of the reinjected cells was limited by the occurrence of a combined disease, implicating the lungs, the kidney and the liver, but also a severe vascular damage. Such a multiple organ disease syndrome induced by ionizing radiations was already observed in two radiation accidents, the Tokai MURA accident and the Neshvish accident. In an attempt to accelerate the hematopoietic recovery, we combined autologous cell therapy with G-CSF injections in the same model of heterogeneous irradiation with non human

  8. Experimental optimization of iodine prophylaxis for prevention of radiation injury from accidental intake of radioiodine

    As is proved by nuclear disaster in Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), iodine prophylaxis may be respected as one of the most urgent and effective methods of prevention of radiation injury of the thyroid gland in the population affected. On the basis of experiments in rats, analytical ways of determination of the dietary iodine intake (iodine supply) of people living around NPP Paks (Hyngary) as well as compartment modelling, experiments it is shown, that for optimization of iodine prophylaxis in masses it is very important to increase the iodine supply upto the recommended values. Combined use of decreased doses of potassium iodide and perchlorate was found to be the optimal way for removal of radioiodine from pregnant organisms and their offsprings following accidental intake of radioiodine

  9. Radiation exposure from nuclear energy

    The information booklet contains the following papers which were already reported: 1) Scientific advisory committee of the German Bundesaerztekammer (medical board): Statement on the subject hazard by nuclear power plants (Deutsches Aerzteblatt - Aerztliche Mitteilung 1975, p. 2821 et sequ.). 2) Recommendation of the German Commission on Radiological Protection dated from Feb. 19, 1976: On the toxicity of inhaled hot particles, especially plutonium. 3) Statement of the German Commission on Radiological Protection dated from Dec. 16, 1976: Comparability of natural radiation exposure with the exposure from nuclear facilities. 4) Report of the German Federal Goverment on Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in the year of 1975 (Bundestagsdrucksache 8/311 dated from Apr 22, 1977). (orig./HP)

  10. Personnel Monitoring of External Exposures Resulting from Radiation Accidents

    Part I. A brief review of methods and techniques for estimating the doses received from external sources in radiation accidents with emphasis on research and the development of improved methods is presented. Dosimetry methods such as film badges, ionization chambers, radio photoluminescence, radio thermoluminescence, conductivity, electronexoemission, track and activation detectors and individual alarm systems are discussed. Comparisons are made between their operational characteristics and the overall impression is broadly summarized. Part II. The mechanical model for expressing rems in connection with the present-day practice of personnel monitoring of external exposures is discussed. The necessary precision of dosimeters, the estimation of the exposure dose from dosimeter readings, the estimation of absorbed dose from exposure dose and, finally, dose-equivalent transformations are analysed. All necessary aspects of such transformations are mentioned. The role of the time estimation of the dose received and recovery during protracted accidental exposures are discussed. (author)

  11. Radiation exposure during equine radiography

    All personnel present in the X-ray examination room during equine radiography were monitored using low energy direct reading ionization chambers (pockets dosimeters) worn outside the lead apron at neck level. The individuals' task and dosimeter readings were recorded after each examination. Average doses ranged from 0 to 6 mrad per study. The greatest exposures were associated with radiography of the shoulder and averaged less than 4 mrad. The individual extending the horse's limb was at greatest risk although the individual holding the horse's halter and the one making the X-ray exposure received similar exposures. A survey of the overhead tube assembly used for some of the X-ray examinations also was performed. Meter readings obtained indicated an asymetric dose distribution around the tube assembly, with the highest dose occurring on the side to which the exposure cord was attached. Although the exposures observed were within acceptable limits for occupational workers, we have altered our protocol and no longer radiograph the equine shoulder unless the horse is anesthetized. Continued use of the pocket dosimeters and maintenance of a case record of radiation exposure appears to make the technologists more aware of radiation hazards

  12. DIFFICULTY IN BREATHING DUE TO ACCIDENTAL EXPOSURE TO HYPOCHLORITE SOLUTION IN ENDODONTIC TREATMENTREATHING DUE TO ACCIDENTAL EXPOSURE TO HYPOCHLORITE SOLUTION IN ENDODONTIC TREATMENT

    Buddiwati Punta

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available An important phase of endodontic treatment is the irrigation of the root canal system. Desirable functions of irrigation are antimicrobial activity, dissolution of necrotic tissue, and non toxicity to the periradicular tissue. Toxicity of NaOCl solution on vital tissue is still controversial. Severe complications may occur if this solution is inadvertently exposed to the oral mucosa, and it is very hazardous. The purpose of this paper is to caution dentists on the hazards of using NaOCl irrigation in endodontic treatment. A case is presented in which 2.5% NaOCl solution was accidentally streaming into the patient's throat because the irrigating needle was not securely attached to the syringe, with the result that the patient had difficulty in breathing. The patient was promptly taken to a pulmonologist, internist, and ENT. The patient was given dexamethasone 10 mg iv injection, delladryl 1 cc iv, and nebulizer with 1 ampoule of steroid, 1 ampoule of ventolin and 5 cc NaCl 3x within 24 hours, and after 24 hours the condition was increased. From this case it is concluded that the 2.5% NaOCl solution is very alkaline and irritating, resulting in deem of the larynx and plugging up of the respiratory system. Clinicians need to be cautious in using NaOCl solution to avoid endangering the patient's life.

  13. Monitoring of occupational radiation exposures

    The most widely used tool for occupational radiation exposure monitoring is a badge worn on the trunk to measure Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) of photon radiation. Monitoring of exposure to beta and neutron radiations is performed for about 20% and 5%, respectively, of the workers occupationally exposed to radiation. Monitoring for internal deposition of radionuclides is, in general, less well regulated, and the results of internal dosimetry programmes are scarcely available. Dose to workers can also be determined from the results of workplace monitoring. In the case of aircrews, dose is normally computed on the basis of data on cosmic radiation fields and flight profiles. New techniques are emerging for the individual monitoring of external radiation. Active and passive electronic dosimeter systems are providing new dimensions for dosimetry and data handling, including direct dose readout capabilities and application of modern data networks. A number of problems remain to be solved. Neutron and beta dosimeters are not yet fully satisfactory. Internal dosimetry, still the subject of major research activities, has a need for more standardized routine programmes and systematic reporting. Monitoring for naturally occurring radioactive materials has to be improved and included in existing programmes. For global exchange, standards on dose record formats, and most particularly, unique quantities and units, are indispensable. (author)

  14. Diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure

    Diagnostic and therapeutic radiology were studied as possible contaminants in the evaluations of A-bomb survivors in the ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study for radiation effects. Hiroshima and Nagasaki subjects received X-ray examinations elsewhere within three months of their ABCC visits at rates of 23 and 12%, respectively. Medical X-ray examinations were more frequent among survivors than comparison subjects. Hiroshima and Nagasaki radiologic practice steadily increased since 1948, and differed markedly by city. From 1946-70 the Hiroshima and Nagasaki X-ray bone marrow doses were 2,300 and 1,000 g-rads, respectively. By 1970, cumulated medical X-ray doses approximated A-bomb doses at distances from the hypocenters of 2,000 m in Hiroshima and 2,800 m in Nagasaki. ABCC X-ray examination doses per subject are routinely updated for comparison with A-bomb doses. Each subject's reported fluoroscopy, photofluorography and radiation therapy exposure elsewhere are for future reference. Dental radiography, though increasing, was not currently an important contributor to survivors' overall exposure. Radiation therapy exposures of 137 subjects were confirmed, and doses estimated for most. Two-thirds the treatments were for malignancies; therapy differed markedly by city; and five cancers possibly arose from earlier radiation therapy. This underscores the importance of considering diagnostic and therapeutic radiology when attributing diseases to the atomic bombs. (auth.)

  15. Rapid assessment of accidental exposures (RACE) in environment using ultra-sensitive LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-N) thermoluminescent detectors

    The main goal of this work is to demonstrate a concept and first results of a new system for Rapid Assessment of Accidental Exposures (RACE) which is based on a new generation of ultra sensitive thermoluminescent detectors LiF:Mg, Cu, P. The RACE system is envisaged to be able to monitor environmental radiation doses at a large number of locations within a few days. The RACE will further be able to work as a standard detector system for routine environmental monitoring, but the major innovation is its capability to perform a rapid, short-term (ca. 24-48 hours) in situ dose assessment in case of any type of nuclear accidents, radiocontamination of environment or restoration works. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs

  16. Radiation exposure and occupational disease

    The knowledge about ionising radiation and the compensation of occupational diseases were both improved during the past 50 years. Now, the adverse effects of the radiation can be compensated by two ways: the disease of a claimant is automatically recognised as an occupational disease if all the criteria of the 'sixth table' are fulfilled. When all the previous criteria are not fulfilled, the 'Comites regionaux de reconnaissance en maladie professionnelle' have to estimate the relationship between the usual exposure and the disease. The decisions of the Comites are implicitly based on the probability of causation., However, the non specificity of the diseases, the influence of non occupational factors and the role of low doses lead to uncertainty of risk estimates and probability of causation. The compensation system has to be improved and has to remain consistent whatever the occupational exposure. (author)

  17. Monitoring the genetic health of persons in Goiania accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation from caesium-137

    This work describes the long term genetic monitoring of the Goiania population exposed to ionizing radiation from 137Cs, using cytogenetic and molecular endpoints. Cytogenetically, micronucleus frequencies differentiated groups exposed to different levels of radiation. Two molecular methods were employed: 1) the hprt clonal assay, involving in vitro selection of 6-thioguanine-resistant hprt mutant clones which were characterized at the molecular level using RT-PCR and genomic analysis. Ionizing radiation exposure initially elevated hprt mutation frequency which gradually diminished, so that no significant increase was observed four and a half years after original exposure. The spectrum of hprt mutations recovered from ten individuals exposed to relatively high doses of radiation revealed a fourfold increase in the frequency of A:T → G:C transitions. The increase is consistent with the effects of ionizing radiation in prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes. Additionally, a twofold increase in the frequency of deletions was observed which may reflect radiation induced DNA strand breakage; 2) determination of microsatellite instability using fluorescent PCR and genomic DNA from mononuclear cells. The frequency distributions of somatic microsatellite alterations in exposed and non-exposed populations were not different. Our assay lacked sensitivity to discriminate between spontaneous and induced microsatellite instability and therefore, is not suitable for population monitoring. Finally, we estimated the risk associated with radiation exposure for the exposed Goiania population. The estimated genetic risk of dominant disorders in the first post-exposure generation was increased nearly twenty-fourfold. The risk of carcinogenesis was increased by a factor of 1.5. (author)

  18. Radiation exposure in diagnostic medicine

    This volume includes the manuscripts of the papers read at the conference as well as a summary and assessment of its results. The scientific discussions were centred upon the following issues: - International surveys and comparisons of rdiation exposures in diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine, frequency of the individual diagnostic procedures and age distribution of patients examined; - policies and regulations for the radiation protection of patients, charcteristic dosimetric values and practical usefulness of the effective dose concept during medical examinations; - assessments of the relative benefits and risks and measures to reduce the radiation exposure in the light of quality assurance aspects. The main objective of this conference not only was to evaluate the risks from diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine but also to encourgage a critical analysis and adjustment of examination routines followed in everyday practice. Among the measures recommended were quality assurance, maintenace of international standards, development of guidelines, introduction of standard doses, improved training and professional education of personnel as well as surveys and analyses of certain examination procedures associated with substantial radiation exposure. (orig./MG)

  19. Ferrofluid-associated Cutaneous Dyschromia: Discoloration of Hand and Fingers Following Accidental Exposure to Ferromagnetic Fluid

    Cohen, Philip R; Arfa, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ferrofluid is a colloidal suspension that usually consists of surfactant-coated nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4) in a carrier liquid. Ferromagnetic fluid forms spikes when the liquid is exposed to a magnetic field. Purpose: The authors describe a man who developed temporary discoloration of his right palm and fingers after accidental cutaneous contact with ferrofluid and discuss some of the current and potential applications of this unique liquid. Methods: A 28-year-old man was ...

  20. Radiation exposure in coronary intervention

    Furuta, Motomu [Kokura Memorial Hospital, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) based on plain old balloon angioplasty is the representative surgery in cardiac interventional radiography, which, with accompanying the increase of patients, causing the serious exposure problem to patients and staff. Recent progress in PTCA practice owes to the development of new devices like the stent with which reduction of exposure dose has been somewhat attained due to the short operation time. Further, standardization of the operation procedure helps to shorten the time. In author`s facility, the pulse fluoroscopy stands from four modes: low-dose, normal, high-quality and slow ones. In these modes, the exposure dose, not the irradiation dose, is taken into consideration according to the FDA concept. The respective modes resulted in the reduction to 33, 70, 70 and 50% of the ordinary fluoroscopy skin dose (12.96 mGy/min: 1.49 R/min). As for exposure to operating staff, the scattering radiation was measured with the DIGITEX 2400 CX apparatus, WAC water phantom and VICTOREEN 450 ionization chamber survey meters and with shielding curtains and lead-acryl board. Shielding was found important for reduction of exposure to the staff. (K.H.)

  1. Description of the SAFRAN Model for Evaluation of Public Exposure Resulting from Accidental Release of Airborne Radioactive Materials into the Atmosphere and User’s Guide. Annex II

    This document describes the method used in the SAFRAN tool for calculation of exposure arising from accidental release of airborne radioactive materials into the atmosphere. Model can be used for evaluation of public exposure to allow comparison with the relevant dose limiting criteria. The model is based on the public exposure evaluation concept as described in IAEA reports. While both these reports in primary addresses impacts arising from routine (e.g. long time permanent) releases, the concept employed can be adapted for assessment of impacts arising from accidental (e.g. short time) releases. Another source which has also been extensively used is the German Incident calculation bases

  2. Programs to calculate human radiation exposure caused by atmospheric diffusion of radioactive substances

    This report describes - with a discussion on the mathematical background of transport processes near the ground - a program system START which make possible the interactive calculation of human radiation exposure resulting from the accidental release of radioactivity from nuclear facilities into the atmosphere. The system supplies data relevant immediately after the release on the whole-body and thyroid exposure of adults caused by inhalation and γ-submersion. (orig./HP)

  3. Occupational radiation exposures in Cyprus

    For the first time ever the occupational radiation exposure data of all the radiation workers of Cyprus, as obtained by the personnel monitoring service of the Dosimetry Laboratory of the Medical Physics Department of the Ministry of Health, is published and compared with that of other countries. The presented data shows a systematic trend of improvement both with regards to the methodology of monitoring and data recording. The efforts of the past few years in educating and training the users of ionising radiation with regards to the importance of the personnel monitoring service and the hazards of ionising radiation, has paid off and this is evident from the doses recorded in the past three years which are compared favourably with those of other countries, as given by the UNSCEAR 1993 report. The introduction of extremity monitoring, promises even better improvement in the methodology of monitoring the doses received by personnel working in Interventional Radiology, as well as other groups whose hands, unavoidably, come close to radiation sources. (authors)

  4. Unintentional exposure to ultraviolet radiation

    To evaluate the risks from unintentional exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and to consider hazard control regulation, one must face first the problem of their state of scientific knowledge and the public's perception of UVR. Few people in the general public would question the health benefits of sunlight. Many flock to the beaches each summer to develop a healthy tan. Since the 1920's scientists have recognized that most of the benefits--and risks--of sunlight exposure result from the UVR present in sunlight. Dermatologists warn sunbathers to avoid exposure or protect themselves against the intense midday UVR or risk skin cancer. A growing number of scientists warn of hazards to the eye if UVR--perhaps even shorter visible wavelengths--are not filtered by lenses. In addition to any intentional exposure for health or cosmetic purposes, many people are also exposed to UVR without being aware of it or without their intent to be exposed. Outdoor workers are exposed to sunlight, many industrial workers (e.g., welders) are exposed to UVR from arc sources, some UVR penetrates clothing, and people indoors are exposed to UVR from artificial lighting

  5. Metaphase chromosome aberrations as markers of radiation exposure and dose

    Chromosome aberration frequency provides the most reliable biological marker of dose for detecting acute accidental radiation exposure. Significant radiation-induced changes in the frequency of chromosome aberrations can be detected at very low doses. Our paper provides information on using molecular chromosome probes ''paints'' to score chromosome damage and illustrates how technical advances make it possible to understand mechanisms involved during formation of chromosome aberrations. In animal studies chromosome aberrations provide a method to relate cellular damage to cellular dose. Using an In vivo/In vitro approach aberrations provided a biological marker of dose from radon progeny exposure which was used to convert WLM to dose in rat tracheal epithelial cells. Injection of Chinese hamsters with 144Ce which produced a low dose rate exposure of bone marrow to either low-LET radiation increased the sensitivity of the cells to subsequent external exposure to 60Co. These studies demonstrated the usefulness of chromosome damage as a biological marker of dose and cellular responsiveness

  6. Exposure to non ionizing radiations

    In the last years the exposure levels to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields of workers and citizens have dramatically increased due to the technological development as in the exemplar case of cellular phones. The object of this research concerns the biological evaluation of the risk from exposure to non ionizing radiations (NIR) by an opportunely designed biosensor based on immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and by an amperometric transducer (Clark oxygen electrode). The results have been obtained by comparing the respiratory activities of exposed and not exposed yeast cells to NIR (at 900 MHz, frequency of the first generation cellular phones). The measurements have been performed by irradiation of the cells in a G-TEM chamber. The obtained results clearly show a decrease of the respiration activity of the irradiation cells in comparison with blank. This variation results to be proportional to the exposure time. Concerning reversibility of the damage it seems that the recovery of the initial conditions begins after 4 hours since the end of exposition and is complete within the following 48 hrs

  7. Urban "accidental" wetlands mediate water quality and heat exposure for homeless populations in a desert city

    Palta, M.

    2015-12-01

    In urban settings where humans interact in complex ways with ecosystems, there may be hidden or unanticipated benefits (services) or harm (disservices) conferred by the built environment. We examined interactions of a highly vulnerable population, the homeless, with urban waterways and wetlands in the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A. Climate change models project increases in heat, droughts, and extreme floods for the southwestern U.S. These projected changes pose a number of problems for sustainability and quality of future water supply, and the ability of human populations to mitigate heat stress and avoid fatalities. Urban wetlands that are created "accidentally" (by water pooling in abandoned areas of the landscape) have many structural (e.g., soils and hydrology) and functional (e.g., high denitrification) elements that mimic natural, unaltered aquatic systems. Accidental wetland systems in the dry bed of the Salt River, fed by storm and waste water from urban Phoenix, are located within economically depressed sections of the city, and show the potential for pollutant and heat mitigation. We used a mixed-method socio-ecological approach to examine wetland ecosystem functions and the ways in which homeless populations utilize Salt River wetlands for ecosystem services. Interviews and trash surveys indicated that homeless people are accessing and utilizing the wetlands as a source of running water, for sanitary and heat mitigation services, and for recreation and habitation. Environmental monitoring demonstrated that the wetlands can provide a reliable source of running water, nutrient and pathogen removal, heat mitigation, and privacy, but they may also pose a health risk to individuals coming in contact with the water through drinking or bathing. Whether wetlands provided a net benefit vs. harm varied according to site, season, and particular service, and several tradeoffs were identified. For example, heat is highest during the summer storm season

  8. Monitoring hprt mutant frequency over time in T-lymphocytes of people accidentally exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation

    Modern technologies have provided the opportunity to monitor mutations in people in vivo. The subjects of this study were accidentally exposed to 137Cesium in a radiological accident that occurred in September 1987 in Goiania, Brazil, during which more than 150 people received doses greater than 0.1 Gy and as high as 7 Gy. The objective of this study was to determine how long the hprt mutant T-cells in the peripheral blood contribute to mutant T-cells in the peripheral blood contribute to mutant frequency by examining the timecourse of the T-lymphocyte response to ionizing radiation. This report describes the results obtained over a period of 2.3 to 4.5 years subsequent to the accident, from 11 subjects with doses ranging from 1 to 7 Gy, and from nine control subjects selected from the same population. The mean In MF (±SE) of the control group was 2.5 (±0.2) + In10-6. The exposed group had a significantly increased mutant frequency; the mean ln MF (±SE) were 3.3 (±0.3) + In10-6, 2.8 (±0.2) + In10-6, and 2.3 (±0.2) + In10-6, in the years 1990-1992 respectively and using Buckton's models, we demonstrated that mutant T-cells have a short-term memory with a half-life of 2.1 years. This relatively short half-half limits the effective use of the hprt assay as the method of choice to monitor past exposure. The data also demonstrate a positive correlation with age, and an inverse correlation with plating efficiency. 77 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Radiation exposure of airplane crews. Exposure levels

    Even at normal height levels of modern jet airplanes, the flying crew is exposed to a radiation level which is higher by several factors than the terrestrial radiation. There are several ways in which this can be hazardous; the most important of these is the induction of malignant growths, i.e. tumours. (orig./MG)

  10. Newspaper: Files. Radiotherapy and accidental radiation protection. Scientific management between I.G.R. and I.P.S.N

    The Gustave-Roussy Institute (I.G.R.), the biggest european center of cancer treatment, and the Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (I.P.S.N.) that lead important researches and expertise in accidental radiation protection have established an agreement for a research program for six years. The objective is to speed up the researches in radio-pathology and radiobiology to improve the techniques used to treat the irradiated persons, for therapeutic or accidental reasons. Three principal themes have been chosen as starting point: Diagnosis and prognosis bio-indicators of irradiation effects on the digestive system, biological dosimetry and long term effects of a high dose irradiation. New themes will be tackled in function of the results or new needs. (N.C.)

  11. Clinical study of fetal liver transplantation in treatment of four cases of accidental or therapeutic acute radiation sickness

    This report summarized the clinical experience of fetal liver transplantation (FLT) in the medical handling of accidental (case 1) or therapeutic (cases 2-4) acute radiation sickness of severe haemopoietic form. In addition to receiving 80 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide, cases 2, 3 and 4 were exposed to total body single irradiation of 5.5, 5.0 and 5.0 Gy, respectively; while case 1 was exposed to whole body irradiation of 5.2 Gy only. The total number of nucleated fetal liver cells transplanted was 2.26-4.1 x 108/kg. Only 2-5% of peripheral blood cells of cases 2, 3 and 4 were found to have allogeneic marker. The author points out that FLT may be beneficial in those cases of accidental irradiation or patients with acute leukemia when there were no HLA-identical bone marrow donors available

  12. A new radiation exposure record system

    The Hanford Radiological Records Program (HRRP) serves all Hanford contractors as the single repository for radiological exposure for all Hanford employees, subcontractors, and visitors. The program administers and preserves all Hanford radiation exposure records. The program also maintains a Radiation Protection Historical File which is a historical file of Hanford radiation protection and dosimetry procedures and practices. Several years ago DOE declared the existing UNIVAC mainframe computer obsolete and the existing Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) system was slated to be redeveloped. The new system named the Radiological Exposure (REX) System is described in this document

  13. Ambient radiation exposure: measurements and effects

    A brief review of the available literature, data and reports of various radiation exposure and protection studies and various measurements techniques are presented. A linear quadratic model has been given illustrating the validity of radiation hormesis

  14. Guidelines on the medical therapy of persons accidentally overexposed to ionizing radiations. External contamination

    The document represents a guide for the external decontamination of persons accidentally radio contaminated due to the use, production or transport of radioactive materials. The general conditions, from the medical point of view, to be kept in mind, in the event of accidental overexposures as decontamination treatment and the handling of samples are detailed throughout report. The external contamination without injury in skin or with wound its considered. The distribution of measures and responsibilities for the therapy of the irradiated patients with radioactive materials are enumerated. The preparations of decontaminate solutions are detailed in this work. Moreover, forms for the reception, physical evaluation of the patient and external contamination are presented. (author)

  15. Radiation Worker Protection by Exposure Scheduling

    Blankenbecler, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of the protective adaptive response of cells to a low dose of radiation suggests applications to radiation worker/first responder protection. Its use in cancer radiotherapy has been discussed in a separate publication. This paper describes simple changes in scheduling that can make use of these beneficial adaptive effects for protection. No increase in total exposure is necessary, only a simple change in the timing of radiation exposure. A low dose of radiation at a sufficient d...

  16. Aircrew radiation exposure: sources-risks-measurement

    A short review is given on the actual aircrew exposure and its sources. The resulting risks for harmful effects to the health and discuss methods for in-flight measurements of exposure is evaluated. An idea for a fairly simple and economic approach to a practical, airborne active dosimeter for the assessment of individual crew exposure is presented. The exposure of civil aircrew to cosmic radiation, should not be considered a tremendous risk to the health, there is no reason for panic. However, being significantly higher than the average exposure to radiation workers, it can certainly not be neglected. As recommended by ICRP, aircrew exposure has to be considered occupational radiation exposure and aircrews are certainly entitled to the same degree of protection, as other ground-based radiation workers have obtained by law, since long time. (author)

  17. Medical exposure and the effects of radiation

    Radiation gives cracks to genes. The influence is divided into deterministic effect with a threshold value, and the stochastic effect (tumor and genetic effect) which increases according to the exposure amount. Although we are put to various non-artificial radiations, which we cannot be avoided, on the earth, the contamination by artificial radiation can be defended. Artificial radioactive exposure includes medical exposure and non-medical exposure for example by nuclear power plant. As to medical examinations using radiation, the inquiry about the radiation exposure is increasing after the occurrence of the first nuclear power plant disaster of Fukushima. While concern about non-medical radioactive exposure increases, the uneasiness to medical irradiation is also increasing. The dose limit by artificial radioactive exposure other than medical exposure is set up in order to prevent the influence on the health. While the dose limit of the public exposure is set to the lower value than the total dose of non-artificial exposure concerning of a safety margin for all people, the dose limit of medical exposure is not defined, since it is thought that medical irradiation has a benefit for those who receive irradiation. Making an effort to decrease the radiation dose in performing the best medical treatment is the responsibility with which we are burdened. (author)

  18. Cross-sectional study on accidental occupational exposures amongst urban slum-based private medical practitioners

    Aniruddha A. Malgaonkar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This cross-sectional, complete enumeration study was conducted in an urban slum to determine the frequency of occupational exposure of private medical practitioners to patient body fluids and the remedial measures adopted following such events and also to examine their high-risk practices, personal protective measures, immunisation and training status in relation to occupational exposures. Methods: After Institutional Ethics Committee approval, private medical practitioners practising for and #8805; 1 year in the locality who gave written informed consent were interviewed in their own clinics using a pre-tested formatted questionnaire. Results: Of the 108 respondents interviewed, the majority were non-allopathic, male practitioners. The speciality-wise and gender-wise differences in training in occupational exposure were not significant (p=0.135. Prior to disposal, 10.18% cut needles while 26.85% disinfected needles with 1% hypochlorite solution (p=0.0001. 50.93% never bent or recapped needles (p=0.0008. Only 19.44% regularly used gloves while examining patients (p=0.0039. 41.66% were completely unimmunised against Hepatitis B (p=0.004, while only one female non-allopathic practitioner (0.92% had taken complete immunisation against tetanus (p<0.05. Of the 7.41% respondents who had history of needle stick injuries, only one female non-allopathic practitioner had reported occupational exposure. Those unaware about the need for post-exposure prophylaxis for occupational exposure and that anti-retroviral therapy was part of post-exposure prophylaxis constituted 87.96% and 95.37%, respectively. Conclusions: Reporting of occupational exposure, complete immunisation against hepatitis B and tetanus and use of personal protection was inadequate. Specialised hands-on training ought to be an integral component of continuing medical education for private medical practitioners. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3708-3713

  19. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1988 through December 1991

    The purpose of this report is to disseminate information concerning the medical status of 253 Marshallese exposed to fallout radiation in 1954. This report discusses the medical care provided and the medical findings for the years 1988-1991. Details of the BRAVO thermonuclear accident that caused the exposure have been published, and a 1955 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association describing the acute medical effects in the exposed population remains a definitive and relevant description of events. Participation in the Marshall Islands Medical Program by the exposed Marshallese is voluntary. In the spring and fall of each year, medical surveillance is provided to exposed and unexposed cohorts. Examinations performed include: a cancer-related examination as defined by the American Society, an annual thyroid examination and thyroid function testing, serum prolactin testing looking for pituitary tumors, annual blood counts to include platelets, and evaluation for paraneoplastic evidence of neoplasms. This report details the medical program, medical findings, and thyroid surgery findings. Deaths (4 exposed and 10 nonexposed) that occurred during the reporting period are discussed. There is a mild but relatively consistent depression of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet concentrations in the blood of the exposed population. This depression appears to be of no clinical significance. Thyroid hypofunction, either clinical or biochemical, has been documented as a consequence of radiation exposure in 14 exposed individuals. Previously, one other exposed person was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma. During this reporting period, a thyroid nodule was identified in an individual who was in utero during the exposure. Upon pathologic review, the nodule was diagnosed as occult papillary carcinoma

  20. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1988 through December 1991

    Howard, J.E.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.; Adams, W.H.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to disseminate information concerning the medical status of 253 Marshallese exposed to fallout radiation in 1954. This report discusses the medical care provided and the medical findings for the years 1988-1991. Details of the BRAVO thermonuclear accident that caused the exposure have been published, and a 1955 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association describing the acute medical effects in the exposed population remains a definitive and relevant description of events. Participation in the Marshall Islands Medical Program by the exposed Marshallese is voluntary. In the spring and fall of each year, medical surveillance is provided to exposed and unexposed cohorts. Examinations performed include: a cancer-related examination as defined by the American Society, an annual thyroid examination and thyroid function testing, serum prolactin testing looking for pituitary tumors, annual blood counts to include platelets, and evaluation for paraneoplastic evidence of neoplasms. This report details the medical program, medical findings, and thyroid surgery findings. Deaths (4 exposed and 10 nonexposed) that occurred during the reporting period are discussed. There is a mild but relatively consistent depression of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet concentrations in the blood of the exposed population. This depression appears to be of no clinical significance. Thyroid hypofunction, either clinical or biochemical, has been documented as a consequence of radiation exposure in 14 exposed individuals. Previously, one other exposed person was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma. During this reporting period, a thyroid nodule was identified in an individual who was in utero during the exposure. Upon pathologic review, the nodule was diagnosed as occult papillary carcinoma.

  1. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  2. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-12-31

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  3. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities

  4. Radiation exposure as a possible etiologic factor in hairy cell leukemia (leukemic reticuloendotheliosis).

    Stewart, D J; Keating, M J

    1980-10-01

    The frequency of prior occupational, accidental, or therapeutic radiation exposure was significantly higher for hairy cell leukemia patients than for a control group of solid tumor patients (8/23 vs. 4/56, P risk of radiation exposure such as chemist, engineer, physicist, and health care facility worker (7/23 vs. 4/56, P < 0.01). The observation that the incidence of thyroid disorders among hairy cell leukemia patients was also unusually high (5/23 vs. 2/56, P < 0.05) was interpreted as further indirect evidence of excessive radiation exposure. It appears that radiation exposure may be an important contribution factor in the development of some case of hairy cell leukemia. PMID:7417955

  5. Influences on radiation exposure in diagnostic radiology

    In 1,553 single examinations of 25 roentgendiagnostic procedures and measurements of interventional radiology, the patients' doses were determined. Influence of patient features and training of the radiologist for average radiation exposure were examined. Special control measurements examinations with highest radiation exposures showed up to 20% diminishing of dose. (orig.)

  6. Thyroid cancer following exposure to ionising radiation

    Exposure to ionising radiations during childhood increases the risk of thyroid cancer. Similar risk factors have been found after external radiation exposure or internal contamination with radioactive iodine isotopes. In case of contamination with radio-iodines, administration of potassium iodide can prevent thyroid irradiation. (authors)

  7. Pregnancy and exposure to ionizing radiations

    The sensitivity of the embryo and foetus varies during pregnancy. Recent studies confirm that the principal damage is mental retardation. It is generally admitted that the risk is negligible for a dose 200 mSv.The objective of this work is to provide precise information on the various risks related to the irradiation for the foetus, according to the age of gestation and delivered dose, and the action to be taken in case of accidental irradiation. The medical use of ionizing radiation in pregnant women can only be considered within the framework of precise information. (author)

  8. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    None, None

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  9. Sources of radiation exposure - an overview

    Sources of radiation exposure are reviewed from the perspective of mining and milling of radioactive ores in Australia. The major sources of occupational and public exposure are identified and described, and exposures from mining and milling operations are discussed in the context of natural radiation sources and other sources arising from human activities. Most radiation exposure of humans comes from natural sources. About 80% of the world average of the effective dose equivalents received by individual people arises from natural radiation, with a further 15-20% coming from medical exposures*. Exposures results from human activities, such as mining and milling of radioactive ores, nuclear power generation, fallout from nuclear weapons testing and non-medical use of radioisotopes and X-rays, add less than 1% to the total. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs

  10. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2006 report

    none,

    2006-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  11. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2005 report

    none,

    2005-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offi ce of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with the DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  12. Radiation exposure in fetal and childhood period

    After East Japan earthquake of March 2011 and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, much more attention has been paid against radiation exposure. Children are much more radiosensitive than adults for radiation exposure. Biological radiation effect has been studied and estimated primarily by using Hiroshima and Nagasaki data of the atomic bomb victims. And the effects of the long term low dose radiation and high dose exposure in the short term are not as well. Effects of radiation exposure in fetal period appear as miscarriage, malformation, and mental retardation. The estimated threshold is 100 mSv. On the other hand, there could be no threshold for the carcinogenesis as late effects of ionizing radiation. The risk of leukemia and solid cancers could be increased along with radiation exposure. Especially thyroid cancer in children increased after the Chernobyl accident. The linear no-threshold (LNT) model is based on the assumption that the risk is directly proportional to the dose at all dose levels, and forms the basis of the radiation protection of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). This leads to ALARA concept, which is an acronym for ''As Low As Reasonably Achievable''. Herewith I introduce the concept of radiation protection with review of previous reports, and discuss how to minimize diagnostic radiation exposure. (author)

  13. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2007 report

    none,

    2007-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The annual DOEOccupational Radiation Exposure 2007 Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and ALARA process requirements. In addition the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  14. Prenatal radiation exposure. Dose calculation; Praenatale Strahlenexposition. Dosisermittlung

    Scharwaechter, C.; Schwartz, C.A.; Haage, P. [University Hospital Witten/Herdecke, Wuppertal (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Roeser, A. [University Hospital Witten/Herdecke, Wuppertal (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology

    2015-05-15

    The unborn child requires special protection. In this context, the indication for an X-ray examination is to be checked critically. If thereupon radiation of the lower abdomen including the uterus cannot be avoided, the examination should be postponed until the end of pregnancy or alternative examination techniques should be considered. Under certain circumstances, either accidental or in unavoidable cases after a thorough risk assessment, radiation exposure of the unborn may take place. In some of these cases an expert radiation hygiene consultation may be required. This consultation should comprise the expected risks for the unborn while not perturbing the mother or the involved medical staff. For the risk assessment in case of an in-utero X-ray exposition deterministic damages with a defined threshold dose are distinguished from stochastic damages without a definable threshold dose. The occurrence of deterministic damages depends on the dose and the developmental stage of the unborn at the time of radiation. To calculate the risks of an in-utero radiation exposure a three-stage concept is commonly applied. Depending on the amount of radiation, the radiation dose is either estimated, roughly calculated using standard tables or, in critical cases, accurately calculated based on the individual event. The complexity of the calculation thereby increases from stage to stage. An estimation based on stage one is easily feasible whereas calculations based on stages two and especially three are more complex and often necessitate execution by specialists. This article demonstrates in detail the risks for the unborn child pertaining to its developmental phase and explains the three-stage concept as an evaluation scheme. It should be noted, that all risk estimations are subject to considerable uncertainties.

  15. The analysis of radiation exposure of hospital radiation workers

    This investigation was performed in order to improve the health care of radiation workers, to predict a risk, to minimize the radiation exposure hazard to them and for them to realize radiation exposure danger when they work in radiation area in hospital. The documentations checked regularly for personal radiation exposure in four university hospitals in Pusan city in Korea between January 1, 1993 and December 31, 1997 were analyz ed. There were 458 persons in this documented but 111 persons who worked less then one year were excluded and only 347 persons were included in this study. The average of yearly radiation exposure of 347 persons was 1.52±1.35 mSv. Though it was less than 5OmSv, the limitaion of radiation in law but 125 (36%) people received higher radiation exposure than non-radiation workers. Radiation workers under 30 year old have received radiation exposure of mean 1.87±1.01 mSv/year, mean 1.22±0.69 mSv between 31 and 40 year old and mean 0.97±0.43 mSv/year over, 41year old (p<0.001). Men received mean 1.67±1.54 mSv/year were higher than women who received mean 1.13±0.61 mSv/year (p<0.01). Radiation exposure in the department of nuclear medicine department in spite of low energy sources is higher than other departments that use radiations in hospital (p<0.05). And the workers who received mean 3.69±1.81 mSv/year in parts of management of radiation sources and injection of sources to patient receive high radiation exposure in nuclear medicine department (0<0.01). In department of diagnostic radiology high radiation exposure is in barium enema rooms where workers received mean 3.74±1.74 mSv/year and other parts where they all use fluoroscopy such as angiography room of mean 1.17±0.35 mSv/year and upper gastrointestinal room of mean 1.74±1.34 mSv/year represented higher radiation exposure than average radiation exposure in diagnostic radiology (p<0.01). Doctors and radiation technologists received higher radiation exposure of each mean 1.75±1

  16. Importance of reducing medical radiation exposure

    Medical exposure primarily refers to intentional irradiation of patients for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Among the man-made sources, diagnostic radiology is the major contributor of radiation dose to the public. This article (1) reviews the recommendations of International Commission of Radiological Protection pertaining to medical exposures, (2) stresses the importance of reducing exposure, (3) deals with the present status of medical exposure in India and (4) discusses the methodology for achieving reduction of medical exposure. Awareness, good equipment, safe work practices, discipline, trained personnel and continuing education will go a long way in achieving the goal of reduction of medical exposure. (author)

  17. Regulation of nuclear radiation exposures in India

    India has a long-term program of wide spread applications of nuclear radiations and radioactive sources for peaceful applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research and is already having several thousand places in the country where such sources are being routinely used. These places are mostly outside the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) installations. DAE supplies such sources. The most important application of nuclear energy in DAE is in electricity generation through nuclear power plants. Fourteen such plants are operating and many new plants are at various stages of construction. In view of the above mentioned wide spread applications, Indian parliament through an Act, called Atomic Energy Act, 1964 created an autonomous body called Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) with comprehensive authority and powers. This Board issues codes, guides, manuals, etc., to regulate such installations so as to ensure safe use of such sources and personnel engaged in such installations and environment receives radiation exposures within the upper bounds prescribed by them. Periodic reports are submitted to AERB to demonstrate compliance of its directives. Health, Safety and Environment Group of Bhabha Atomic Research Centres, Mumbai carries out necessary surveillance and monitoring of all installations of the DAE on a routine basis and also periodic inspections of other installations using radiation sources. Some of the nuclear fuel cycle plants like nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing involve large radioactive source inventories and have potential of accidental release of radio activity into the environment, an Environmental Surveillance Laboratory (ESL) is set up at each such site much before the facility goes into operation. These ESL's collect baseline data and monitor the environment throughout the life of the facilities including the de- commissioning stage. The data is provided to AERB and is available to members of the public. In addition, a multi

  18. Health risks associated with environmental radiation exposures

    Much is known about health effects associated with exposure to ionising radiation. Numerous epidemiologic studies of populations exposed to radiation under a variety of circumstances have been conducted. These studies have clearly shown that radiation exposure can result in an increased risk of many types of cancer, and the findings are supported by a substantial body of literature from experimental studies. Despite the fact that radiation exposures from environmental sources comprise a relatively minor component of total population exposure, this type of exposure is often the most feared by the public. An accident like Chernobyl or a natural disaster like that at Fukushima provides a unique opportunity to learn more about the health risks from environmental radiation exposures. However, establishing the infrastructure and expertise required to design and conduct all aspects of a complex field study presents formidable challenges. This paper summarises the principal findings from the main studies of environmental radiation exposure that have been successfully undertaken. Although such studies are often exceedingly difficult to conduct, and may be limited by an ecologic design, they can be informative in assessing risk. Any new environmental study that is initiated should focus on special circumstances; additional ecological studies are not recommended. (note)

  19. Exposure to background radiation in Australia

    Solomon, S.B. [Australian Radiation Lab., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    The average effective dose received by the Australian population is estimated to be {approx}1.8 mSv / year. One half of this exposure arises from exposure from terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays, the remainder from radionuclides within the body and from inhalation of radon progeny. This paper reviews a number of research programmes carried out by the Australian Radiation Laboratory to study radiation exposure from natural background, particularly in the workplace and illustrate approaches to the quantification and management of exposure to natural radiation. The average radiation doses to the Australian population are relatively low; the average annual radon concentration ranged from 6 Bq m{sup -3} in Queensland to 16 Bq m{sup -3} in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). Of more importance is the emerging issue of exposure to elevated background radiation in the workplace. Two situation are presented; the radiation exposure to air crues and show cave tour guides. Annual doses up to 3.8 mSv were estimated for international crew members while the highest estimate for show cave tour guides was 9 mSv per year. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  20. Exposure to background radiation in Australia

    The average effective dose received by the Australian population is estimated to be ∼1.8 mSv / year. One half of this exposure arises from exposure from terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays, the remainder from radionuclides within the body and from inhalation of radon progeny. This paper reviews a number of research programmes carried out by the Australian Radiation Laboratory to study radiation exposure from natural background, particularly in the workplace and illustrate approaches to the quantification and management of exposure to natural radiation. The average radiation doses to the Australian population are relatively low; the average annual radon concentration ranged from 6 Bq m-3 in Queensland to 16 Bq m-3 in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). Of more importance is the emerging issue of exposure to elevated background radiation in the workplace. Two situation are presented; the radiation exposure to air crues and show cave tour guides. Annual doses up to 3.8 mSv were estimated for international crew members while the highest estimate for show cave tour guides was 9 mSv per year

  1. Evaluation of lioxasol for the treatment of accidental local radiation injuries: an experimental and clinical study

    The Chernobyl accident caused the development of Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) in 134 individuals, these were either treated at Hospital 6 (Moscow) or in hospitals in Kiev. Local radiation injuries (LRI) were found in 54 patients from the 108 ARS patients treated in Moscow over the acute period; 2 additional patients from this group had combined radiation and thermal skin injuries (the total number of LRI patients was 56). The effectiveness of Lioxasol, an ethyl alcohol based product containing 2-alliloxoethanol, was investigated in these patients. The treatment group was composed of 8 survivors of ARS with a second degree LRI caused by relatively uniform gamma-beta exposure. The control group was composed of 8 patients suffering from ARS also of second degree (7 patients) or first degree (1 patient) reactions caused by external, relatively uniform, gamma-beta exposure between 1956 and 1970. The time of re-epithelisation in the treated group was 25.4±3.1 days after irradiation. This was slightly shorter than the 28.3±4.9 days in the control group. However, this difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The effectiveness of Lioxasol was further studied on pig skin. Multiple sites in the same animal were irradiated with 22.5 mm diameter 90Sr/90Y plaques. The time of onset of moist desquamation and the subsequent healing times were used as end points. Following a single dose of 35 Gy, a dose known to produce moist desquamation in all irradiated sites, Lioxasol was applied topically twice a day. Lioxasol treatment (twice daily), which started the day after irradiation, delayed the time of onset of moist desquamation significantly from 5.1±0.2 weeks to 5.5±0.2 weeks. However, the most marked effect was on the number of sites that healed within 3 weeks of the first appearance of moist desquamation. This was 80±10.3% for sites treated with lioxasol whereas in untreated sites only 26.7±11.4% of the irradiated fields were healed by this time (p3H

  2. Monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    A brief overview is presented of methods of monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation together with reasons for such monitoring and maintaining dose histories of radiation occupationally exposed persons. The various Australian providers of external radiation monitoring services and the types of dosemeters they supply are briefly described together with some monitoring results. Biological monitoring methods, are used to determine internal radiation dose. Whole body monitors, used for this purpose are available at Australian Radiation Lab., ANSTO and a few hospitals. Brief mention is made of the Australian National Radiation Dose Register and its objectives

  3. Assessment of radiation dose due to the accidental release of radionuclides from a DCLL reactor

    Highlights: ► Accidental release of radionuclides from a Dual-Coolant He/Pb15.7Li breeding blanket is studied. ► Activation analysis with ACAB code determines the main contributors to the environmental consequences of the accident. ► Atmospheric dispersion (in conditions D and F) is assessed with Hotspot code for the relevant radionuclides. ► The actual quantity of each radionuclide produced in 1 kg of LiPb is used in the dispersion model. ► The amount of LiPb releasable fulfilling the dose limit requirements is calculated. -- Abstract: A conceptual design for a DEMO fusion reactor based on a dual coolant He/Pb15.7Li breeding blanket (DCLL) is being developed within the Spanish Breeding Blanket Technology Programme: TECNOFUS. The production of tritium and activation products of LiPb might be a concern from the radiological safety point of view. Thus, in this contribution, an accidental release in atmosphere of radionuclides from LiPb breeder has been studied. Activation calculations have been performed with ACAB code assuming an irradiation scenario of 5 FPY for the maximum neutron fluence rate in the equatorial breeding zone. The results in terms of specific activity, surface gamma dose rate and committed effective dose (CED) due to inhalation at different times have been used to chose the potentially more hazardous radionuclides. Dispersion of the selected radionuclides has been modeled with HOTSPOT code using the Gaussian plume model and two different atmospheric conditions. Offsite dose (for external irradiation and inhalation) due to an accidental release of 1 kg of activated LiPb has been calculated after 5 FPY of irradiation (shutdown) using HOTSPOT atmospheric dispersion in class D weather conditions. According to the results, fulfilling the dose requirement for no evacuation would permit to release up to 40 kg of activated LiPb, without taking into account the possible isotopic purification and detritiation systems. This value can be compared

  4. Assessment of radiation dose due to the accidental release of radionuclides from a DCLL reactor

    Palermo, Iole, E-mail: iole.palermo@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gómez-Ros, J.M. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanz, J. [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, UNED, C/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mota, F. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Accidental release of radionuclides from a Dual-Coolant He/Pb15.7Li breeding blanket is studied. ► Activation analysis with ACAB code determines the main contributors to the environmental consequences of the accident. ► Atmospheric dispersion (in conditions D and F) is assessed with Hotspot code for the relevant radionuclides. ► The actual quantity of each radionuclide produced in 1 kg of LiPb is used in the dispersion model. ► The amount of LiPb releasable fulfilling the dose limit requirements is calculated. -- Abstract: A conceptual design for a DEMO fusion reactor based on a dual coolant He/Pb15.7Li breeding blanket (DCLL) is being developed within the Spanish Breeding Blanket Technology Programme: TECNO{sub F}US. The production of tritium and activation products of LiPb might be a concern from the radiological safety point of view. Thus, in this contribution, an accidental release in atmosphere of radionuclides from LiPb breeder has been studied. Activation calculations have been performed with ACAB code assuming an irradiation scenario of 5 FPY for the maximum neutron fluence rate in the equatorial breeding zone. The results in terms of specific activity, surface gamma dose rate and committed effective dose (CED) due to inhalation at different times have been used to chose the potentially more hazardous radionuclides. Dispersion of the selected radionuclides has been modeled with HOTSPOT code using the Gaussian plume model and two different atmospheric conditions. Offsite dose (for external irradiation and inhalation) due to an accidental release of 1 kg of activated LiPb has been calculated after 5 FPY of irradiation (shutdown) using HOTSPOT atmospheric dispersion in class D weather conditions. According to the results, fulfilling the dose requirement for no evacuation would permit to release up to 40 kg of activated LiPb, without taking into account the possible isotopic purification and detritiation systems. This value can be

  5. Guidelines on the medical therapy of persons accidentally overexposed to ionizing radiations. Internal contamination

    This work represent a guide for the treatment of accidental intakes of radionuclides. The different phases of radioactive contamination, the transfer and non-transfer of radioisotopes, the general principles in the treatment of internal contamination and the follow-up are determined. The in vivo monitoring and the evaluation of activity level are specified in this document. The applied treatment depends on the via of intake, that is: inhalation, ingestion, and through skin. The decontamination procedures that reduce the radionuclide transfer are specified. The different drugs, used to enhance radionuclides elimination, are enumerated in this work. Considerations about the iodine prophylaxis in radiologic als accidents are considered. (author)

  6. Handbook of exposure situations following accidental releases of radioactive substances. Part of a Nordic Project

    In an emergency situation the need for appropriate tools for information support is obvious, as fast decisions may have to be made and a service provided to the general public. To meet these needs adequately, a computerised system has several advantages compared to traditional information on paper. A computerised handbook was developed within a project in the Nordic Nuclear Safety Programme, with the basic purpose of creating a common basis for Nordic handling of nuclear emergencies. The handbook is a user-friendly, fast system to help in collecting radiological information. The primary objectives of the computerised 'handbook' are to act as an appropriate tool for the radiation protection institutes concerning: support for decision making; all necessary information for making dose calculations; information and communication to the general public. (R.P.)

  7. Control of radiation exposure (principles and methods)

    Biological risks are directly related to the tissue radiation dose, so it is very important to maintain personnel doses as low as realistically possible. This goal can be achieved by minimizing internal contamination and external exposure to radioactive sources

  8. Health consequences of ionizing radiation exposure

    The increasing use of ionizing radiations all over the world induces an ever increasing interest of the professionals as well as of the whole society in health protection and the risk due to these practices. Shortly after its discovery, it was recognized that ionizing radiation can have adverse health effects and knowledge of its detrimental effects has accumulated. The fact that ionizing radiation produces biological damage has been known for many years. The biological effects of ionizing radiation for radiation protection considerations are grouped into two categories: The deterministic and the stochastic ones. Deterministic radiation effects can be clinically diagnosed in the exposed individual and occur when above a certain 'threshold' an appropriately high dose is absorbed in the tissues and organs to cause the death of a large number of cells and consequently to impair tissue or organ functions early after exposure. A clinically observable biological effect (Acute Radiation Syndromes, ARS) that occurs days to months after an acute radiation dose. ARS is a complex of acute injury manifestations that occur after a sufficiently large portion of a person's body is exposed to a high dose of ionizing radiation. Such irradiation initially injures all organs to some extent, but the timing and extent of the injury manifestations depend upon the type, rate, and dose of radiation received. Stochastic radiation effects are the chronic effects of radiation result from relatively low exposure levels delivered over long periods of time. These are sort of effects that might result from occupational exposure, or to the background exposure levels (includes radioactive pollution). Such late effects might be the development of malignant (cancerous) disease and of the hereditary consequences. These effects may be observed many years after the radiation exposure. There is a latent period between the initial radiation exposure and the development of the biological effect. In this

  9. Health consequences of ionizing radiation exposure

    Full text: The increasing use of ionizing radiations all over the world induces an ever increasing interest of the professionals as well as of the whole society in health protection and the risk due to these practices. Shortly after its discovery, it was recognized that ionizing radiation can have adverse health effects and knowledge of its detrimental effects has accumulated. The fact that ionizing radiation produces biological damage has been known for many years. The biological effects of ionizing radiation for radiation protection considerations are grouped into two categories: The deterministic and the stochastic ones. Deterministic radiation effects can be clinically diagnosed in the exposed individual and occur when above a certain 'threshold' an appropriately high dose is absorbed in the tissues and organs to cause the death of a large number of cells and consequently to impair tissue or organ functions early after exposure. A clinically observable biological effect (Acute Radiation Syndromes, ARS) that occurs days to months after an acute radiation dose. ARS is a complex of acute injury manifestations that occur after a sufficiently large portion of a person's body is exposed to a high dose of ionizing radiation. Such irradiation initially injures all organs to some extent, but the timing and extent of the injury manifestations depend upon the type, rate, and dose of radiation received. Stochastic radiation effects are the chronic effects of radiation result from relatively low exposure levels delivered over long periods of time. These are sort of effects that might result from occupational exposure, or to the background exposure levels (includes radioactive pollution). Such late effects might be the development of malignant (cancerous) disease and of the hereditary consequences. These effects may be observed many years after the radiation exposure. There is a latent period between the initial radiation exposure and the development of the biological effect

  10. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada-1984

    This is the seventh in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The information is derived from the National Dose Registry of the Radiation Protection Bureau, Department of National Health and Welfare. As in the past this report presents by occupation: average yearly whole body doses by region, dose distributions, and variations of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are tabulated in summary form

  11. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1987

    This is the tenth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The information is derived from the National Dose Registry of the Bureau of Radiation and Medical Devices, Department of National Health and Welfare. This report presents by occupation average yearly whole body doses by region, dose distributions, and variations of the average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are tabulated in summary form

  12. Radioactivity in water and radiation exposure

    The radiation exposure of man via waters is outlined. Natural as well as man-made radionuclides are taken into account, also considering the influence by man on the activity distribution in the environment. Relations between air and water pollution are treated. The measured values in hand do not indicate a significant increase of radiation exposure of man by man-made radionuclides in drinking water. The importance is discussed of international agreements in order to overcome environmental problems. (orig.)

  13. Occupational radiation exposure in Austria in 1979

    The Institute for Radiation Protection at the Research Center Seibersdorf operates since over three years an automatic TLD-personnel monitoring service comprising some 13000 radiation workers all over Austria who are generally monitored during monthly periods according to radiation legislation. All dose readings obtained by the system are stored on computer in a central dose register. Electronic data handling techniques can easily be used to obtain statistical information on radiation exposure for different user branches. The following data include distribution of monthly dose values for different branches, average monthly dose readings and occupational exposure of different groups of age. Due to the very large number of individual dose readings a statistically significant view of the occupational radiation exposure in Austria during 1979 can be obtained. (author)

  14. Exposure of the orthopaedic surgeon to radiation

    We monitored the amount of radiation received by surgeons and assistants during surgery carried out with fluoroscopic assistance. The radiation was monitored with the use of MYDOSE MINIX PDM107 made by Aloka Co. Over a one year period from Aug 20, 1992 to Aug 19, 1993, a study was undertaken to evaluate exposure of the groin level to radiation with or without use of the lead apron during 106 operation (Group-1). In another group, radiation was monitored at the breast and groin level outside of the lead apron during 39 operations (Group-2). In Group-1, the average exposure per person during one year was 46.0 μSV and the average exposure for each procedure was 1.68 μSV. The use of the lead apron affirmed its protective value; the average radiation dose at the groin level out-side of the apron was 9.11 μSV, the measured dose beneath the apron 0.61 μSV. The average dose of exposure to the head, breast at groin level outside of the lead apron, were 7.68 μSV, 16.24 μSV, 32.04 μSV respectively. This study and review of the literature indicate that the total amount of radiation exposure during surgery done with fluoroscopic control remains well within maximum exposure limits. (author)

  15. Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiations: myths and truths

    In utero exposures to ionising radiation are a very important subject in radiological protection concerning not only the prevention but also the estimation of the associated risks. In these situations the perception of risks by the pregnant woman and the involved professionals could not always be correlated with their objective magnitude. In this communication we describe the effects of prenatal exposure to ionising, the thresholds and their relation with the gestational age, taking into account occupationally exposed women, patients undergoing medical procedures and public members. The dose estimation, the evaluation of the potential associated risks and the relation with the spontaneous incidence of the considered effects are analyzed in the framework of the basic principles of radiological protection. Most of diagnostic procedures properly done do not imply induction of deterministic effects in embryo/fetus. Therapeutical procedures and accidental overexposures could associated with significant risks of deterministic effects. Childhood cancer induction is an stochastic effect without threshold and every in utero exposure will increase their probability. (Author) 13 refs

  16. US Transuranium and Uranium Registries case study on accidental exposure to uranium hexafluoride

    d−1 and a median of 0.000 31 d−1. The effective dose per unit intake calculated using the dissolution parameters derived from the maximum likelihood and the Bayesian analyses was higher than the current ICRP dose coefficient for type F uranium by a factor of 2 or 7, respectively; the higher value of the latter was due to use of the revised respiratory tract model. The dissolution parameter values obtained here may be more appropriate to use for radiation protection purposes when individuals are exposed to a UF6 mixture that contains an insoluble uranium component. (paper)

  17. US Transuranium and Uranium Registries case study on accidental exposure to uranium hexafluoride.

    Avtandilashvili, Maia; Puncher, Matthew; McComish, Stacey L; Tolmachev, Sergei Y

    2015-03-01

    d(-1) and a median of 0.000 31 d(-1). The effective dose per unit intake calculated using the dissolution parameters derived from the maximum likelihood and the Bayesian analyses was higher than the current ICRP dose coefficient for type F uranium by a factor of 2 or 7, respectively; the higher value of the latter was due to use of the revised respiratory tract model. The dissolution parameter values obtained here may be more appropriate to use for radiation protection purposes when individuals are exposed to a UF6 mixture that contains an insoluble uranium component. PMID:25580579

  18. Radiation effects after exposure during prenetal development

    The embryo and fetus are very radiosensitive during the total prenatal development period. The quality and extent of radiation effects depend strongly on the developmental stage at which the exposure occurs. During the preimplantation period radiation exposure can cause death of the embryo after radiation doses of 0.2 Gy and higher. Malformations are only observed in very rare cases when genetic predispositions exist. Macroscopic-anatomical malformations are induced only after irradiation during the major organogenesis. On the basis of experimental data with mammals it is assumed that a radiation dose of about 0.2 Gy doubles the malformation risk. Studies in humans give rise to the assumption that the human embryo is more radioresistant than the embryos of mice and rats. Radiation exposure during the major organogenesis and the early fetal period lead to disturbances in the growth and developmental processes. During early fetogenesis (week 8-15 post coruption) high radiosensitity exists for the development of the central nervous system. Radiation doses of 1 Gy cause severe mental retardation in about 50% of exposed fetuses. Analysis of the dose-effect curves shows that there is probably a dose-effect curve with a threshold for this effect. It must be taken into account that radiation exposure during the fetal period also induces cancer. The studies, however, do not allow quantitative estimate of this radiation risk at present. It is therefore generally assumed that the risk is about the same level as for children. (orig.)

  19. Valuing the radiation detriment of occupational exposure

    The implications of changes in the radiation risk estimates on the valuation of radiation detriment for use in cost-benefit analysis are being considered at the National Radiological Protection Board. This paper discusses the pertinent factors that are currently being considered for further investigation. An example of relevance to occupational exposure is detailed. (author)

  20. Cosmic radiation exposure to airline flight passenger

    At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)

  1. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1980

    This report is the third in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The decrease in the overall average doses established over the last 20 years appears to be changing. In some occupational categories a consistent upward trend is observed

  2. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1982

    This report is the fifth in a series of annual reports in Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which contains dose records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included, and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded

  3. Radiation exposure modeling and project schedule visualization

    This paper discusses two applications using IGRIP (Interactive Graphical Robot Instruction Program) to assist environmental remediation efforts at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. In the first application, IGRIP is used to calculate the estimated radiation exposure to workers conducting tasks in radiation environments. In the second, IGRIP is used as a configuration management tool to detect interferences between equipment and personnel work areas for multiple projects occurring simultaneously in one area. Both of these applications have the capability to reduce environmental remediation costs by reducing personnel radiation exposure and by providing a method to effectively manage multiple projects in a single facility

  4. Radiation exposure modeling and project schedule visualization

    Jaquish, W.R.; Enderlin, V.R. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This paper discusses two applications using IGRIP (Interactive Graphical Robot Instruction Program) to assist environmental remediation efforts at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. In the first application, IGRIP is used to calculate the estimated radiation exposure to workers conducting tasks in radiation environments. In the second, IGRIP is used as a configuration management tool to detect interferences between equipment and personnel work areas for multiple projects occurring simultaneously in one area. Both of these applications have the capability to reduce environmental remediation costs by reducing personnel radiation exposure and by providing a method to effectively manage multiple projects in a single facility.

  5. Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol.II (Working papers)

    The World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (WAVFH) held an international round table conference in Stockholm, Sweden, January 26-29, 1987. The topic of the conference was 'Accidental Radiation Contamination of Food of Animal Origin'. The agenda was divided into three major topic areas: 1. Ecological Science; 2. Veterinary Science - Live Animals; and 3. Veterinary Science - Food of Animal Origin. Experts and delegates from member countries presented papers, participated in discussions and workshops and produced a multidisciplinary report covering the topic areas. Two volumes were produced; one a collection of all papers presented, and the other a compilation of the proceedings from each of the topic workshops. In order to rapidly distribute the Association's information to members, papers and other information were collated and disseminated as presented to the conference participants

  6. Visits to Australia by nuclear powered or armed vessels: contingency planning for the accidental release of ionizing radiation

    The adequacy of current contingency planning by Federal and State authorities to deal with the accidental release of ionizing radiation from visiting nuclear powered or armed vessels in Australian waters and ports is reported on and 39 recommendations are made. After introductory chapters, the remainder of the report consists of two parts. Chapters 3 to 10 deal with the main issues relating to nuclear powered warship (NPW) visits and the adequacy of current contingency plans. Chapters 11 to 13 deal with the question whether any specific planning is required for visits by nuclear weapons capable warships. In part one the present emergency arrangements and criticisms of the current plans are reviewed. The NPWs' reactors, safety records and visit arrangements in other countries are discussed. The validity of the reference accident on which current NPW emergency planning is based is assessed. In part two nuclear weapons and their accidents are reviewed. The dissenting report of one of the Senators is included

  7. Visits to Australia by nuclear powered or armed vessels: contingency planning for the accidental release of ionizing radiation

    The report refers to the adequacy of current contingency planning by the Australian Federal and Senate authorities to deal with the accidental release of ionizating radiation from visiting nuclear powered or armed vessels in Australian waters and ports. Much of the material was obtained in response to questions put in writing by the Senate Standing Committee to the Department of Defence, ANSTO and others. In addition, the report contains relevant information from Commonwealth documents as well as the Committee findings and recommendations. Issues considered include: types of visiting nuclear powered vessels, accident likelihood and consequences, differences between naval and land-based reactors, safety records. The persons or organizations who made submissions or appeared in all public hearings are listed in the appendixes, along with all visits to Australian ports by nuclear powered warships from 1976 to 1988

  8. Bases for establishing radiation exposure limits

    It is an essential requirement of good radiation protection that all unnecessary exposure of people should be avoided and that any necessary exposure, whether of workers or of members of the general public, should be minimized. It is, however, an additional requirement that such necessary exposures should not exceed certain stated limits. These principles are based on the possibility that even the smallest exposures may involve some risk of harm, that any risk of harm should be justifiable by the circumstances necessitating it, and that risk should always be limited to an appropriately low level. The bases for establishing exposure limits must therefore involve an assessment of the risk involved in any form of radiation exposure, and an opinion as to the degree of safety that should be ensured in circumstances which necessitate any occupational or public exposure to radiation. There is increasing quantitative evidence on the frequency on which harm, and particularly the induction of malignancies, may be caused in people exposed to radiation at high doses; and somewhat clearer bases than previously for inferring the possible frequencies at low doses. It is therefore easier to assess the degree of safety ensured by restricting radiation exposure to particular levels. It is clear also that a comparable degree of safety should be ensured whether the radiation exposure involves the whole body more of less uniformly, or individual tissues or organs selectively. The ''weighting'' factors appropriate to irradiation of particular tissues from internal emitters can thus be defined in terms of their likely individual contributions to the harm of whole-body irradiation. In this way the limits for different modes of exposure by external or internal radiation can be related so as to ensure that protection should be equally effective for different distributions of absorbed dose in the body. In particular, the over-simplified concept of a single critical organ determining the

  9. Routine medicare and radiation exposure. Introductory remarks

    As an introduction of the title series, outlines of radiation in physics, chemistry, biochemistry, biological effect and protection are explained from the clinical doctors' aspect of routine medicare, and of radiation exposure in which people's interest is raised after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident in 2011. For physics, ionizing effects of radiation are described in relation to its quantum energy transfer and its medical utilization like imaging and radiotherapy. Then mentioned in brief is the radiation from elements consisting of human body, cosmic ray and background radiation from the earth, with reference to natural and standardized limits of exposure doses. Radiations from 226Rn and 40K are explained as an instance of environmental natural sources together with the concepts of radioactive decay series/scheme, of internal exposure, of hazard like double strand break (DSB) and of medical use such as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). For an artifact radiation source, shown are fission products of 235U by neutron, first yielded in 1945. Evidence of evolution in biochemical repair mechanisms of DSB is explained with a comparison of irradiated drosophila mutation where linear non-threshold (LNT) hypothesis is proposed, and human non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination. Historical process of occupational, medical, public exposures and their protection is finally described from the discovery of X-ray in 1895 to the first ICRP publication in 1958 via the A-bomb explosion in 1945. (T.T.)

  10. Risks and management of radiation exposure.

    Yamamoto, Loren G

    2013-09-01

    High-energy ionizing radiation is harmful. Low-level exposure sources include background, occupational, and medical diagnostics. Radiation disaster incidents include radioactive substance accidents and nuclear power plant accidents. Terrorism and international conflict could trigger intentional radiation disasters that include radiation dispersion devices (RDD) (a radioactive dirty bomb), deliberate exposure to industrial radioactive substances, nuclear power plant sabotage, and nuclear weapon detonation. Nuclear fissioning events such as nuclear power plant incidents and nuclear weapon detonation release radioactive fallout that include radioactive iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium 90, uranium, plutonium, and many other radioactive isotopes. An RDD dirty bomb is likely to spread only one radioactive substance, with the most likely substance being cesium 137. Cobalt 60 and strontium 90 are other RDD dirty bomb possibilities. In a radiation disaster, stable patients should be decontaminated to minimize further radiation exposure. Potassium iodide (KI) is useful for iodine 131 exposure. Prussian blue (ferric hexacyanoferrate) enhances the fecal excretion of cesium via ion exchange. Ca-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) and Zn-DTPA form stable ionic complexes with plutonium, americium, and curium, which are excreted in the urine. Amifostine enhances chemical and enzymatic repair of damaged DNA. Acute radiation sickness ranges in severity from mild to lethal, which can be assessed by the nausea/vomiting onset/duration, complete blood cell count findings, and neurologic symptoms. PMID:24201986

  11. Radiation exposure management - The Westinghouse ALARA program

    Westinghouse has incorporated radiation management into the design of its NSSS plants. This paper describes the Westinghouse program for incorporating As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) radiation exposure into the design process. A description is given of the method of collecting data from operating Westinghouse plants. The analysis of this data and its use in the total NSSS plant exposure estimate is presented. Application of a detailed exposure review to the development of an improved mechanical component is described. A particular exposure review for a refueling task is discussed. One high exposure task is detailed and specific design improvements are identified. The disadvantages of the existing design are expressed and design improvements are suggested. The matrix management of the team that develops the improved design is described and the resulting product is presented. The specific example is used to illustrate the operation of the Westinghouse ALARA program

  12. Radiation Exposure According to Radiation Technologist' Working Departments

    Radiation dose to radiologists working at three hospitals in Seoul was investigated from Jan 1, 2006 to Dec. 31, 2006. The results are as follows. First, radiation dose to radiologists at a cardiac angiography room was measured as 1.41 mSv, the highest while radiation dose to radiologists at a department of radiation oncology was measured as 0.64 mSv, the lowest. Second, radiation dose proves to be in direct proportion to the number of X-ray treatment. Third, as for the radiation dose in X-ray treatments, radiologists in cardiac angiography room are exposed to the largest amount of radiation while radiologists in diagnostic radiology department are exposed to the smallest amount of radiation. Last, radiation dose at a cardiac angiography room is the largest and is followed by nuclear medicine, diagnostic radiology, and radiation oncology departments in order. According to ICRP, exposure less than 20 mSv per year is highly recommended while radiation dose is allowed as long as it is ranged less than 50 mSv per year or 100 mSv within a 5-year period. Taking into account the results, radiation exposure does not do any harm to radiologists at any related departments in Korean hospitals because the dose per year is less than 1.60 mSv.

  13. Radiation risk due to occupational exposure

    Exposure to ionizing radiation occurs in many occupations. Workers can be exposed to both natural and artificial sources of radiation. Any exposure to ionizing radiation incurs some risk, either to the individual or to the individual's progeny. This dissertation investigated the radiation risk due to occupational exposure in industrial radiography. Analysis of the reported risk estimates to occupational exposure contained in the UNSCEAR report of 2008 in industrial radiography practice was done. The causes of accidents in industrial radiography include: Lack of or inadequate regulatory control, inadequate training, failure to follow operational procedures, human error, equipment malfunction or defect, inadequate maintenance and wilful violation have been identified as primary causes of accidents. To minimise radiation risks in industrial radiography exposure devices and facilities should be designed such that there is intrinsic safety and operational safety ensured by establishing a quality assurance programme, safety culture fostered and maintained among all workers, industrial radiography is performed in compliance with approved local rules, workers engaged have appropriate qualifications and training, available safe operational procedures are followed, a means is provided for detecting incidents and accidents and an analysis of the causes and lessons learned. (author)

  14. Prenatal radiation exposure policy: A labor arbitration

    A policy on prenatal radiation exposure at two nuclear power plants was revised to give better assurance of compliance with NCRP recommendations on fetal radiation exposure. This action was taken after publication of NCRP 91 in June 1987 to provide better assurance that a total dose equivalent limit to an embryo-fetus be no greater than 0.5 mSv (0.05 rem) in any month and no more than 5 mSv (500 mrem) for a gestation period. For any female worker to receive radiation exposure greater than 1.5 mSv (0.15 rem) in a month at these nuclear power plants, she was asked to initiate an administrative request for radiation exposure in excess of this limit. In this request, she was asked to acknowledge that she was aware of the guidance in U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 8.13. A worker who had the potential for radiation exposure in excess of 1.5 mSv (0.15 rem) refused to process this request and was consequently denied overtime work. She filed a grievance for denial of overtime, and this grievance was submitted for labor arbitration in June 1988. The arbitration decision and its basis and related NRC actions are discussed

  15. Biological effects and hazards of radiation exposure

    Radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis form the main risk to health from exposure to low levels of radiation. This risk effects can be at least qualitatively understood by considering the effects of radiation on cell DNA. Whilst exposure to high levels of radiation results in a number of identifiable effects, exposure to low levels of radiation may result in effects which only manifest themselves after many years. Risk estimates for low levels of radiation have been derived on the basis of a number of assumptions. In the case of uranium mine workers a major hazard arises from the inhalation of radon daughters. Whilst the correlation between radon daughter exposure and lung cancer incidence is well established, the numerical value of the risk factor is the subject of controversy. ICRP 50 gives a value of 10 cases per 106 person-years at risk per WLM (range 5-15 x 10-6 PYR-1 WLM-1). The effect of smoking on lung cancer incidence rates amongst miners is also controversial. Nevertheless, smoking by miners should be discouraged

  16. Radiation exposure from civil aviation

    The question as to whether civil air crews and frequent air passengers ought to be classified among the group of occupationally exposed persons has in principle been decided by the recommendations adopted by the ICRP, the competent bodies of the EU, and national authorities. Measurements for more information on the radiation fields involved are planned. The German Radiation Protection Office (BfS) recently published a statement on dose commitments, assuming a maximum annual dose of approx. 8 mSv in addition to the mean value already determined. Legal provisions, which ought to be adopted also on EU level since civil aviation is a transboundary traffic system, have yet to come. (orig./HP)

  17. Disaster medicine. Present status of medicine for emergent radiation exposure

    Global and Japanese medical networks organized for the accidental emergent exposure are outlined, actual measures at Japanese accidents are summarized, and their present tasks/problems are discussed. ICRP issues comments concerning radiation protection based on scientific findings verified by UNSCEAR, where there are such international organizations for the emergent network as WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network (REMPAN) and IAEA Response Assistance Network (RANET). Two Japanese facilities (National Institute of Radiological Sciences: NIRS, and Nagasaki University) are in REMPAN and 3 (NIRS, Japan Atomic Energy Agency and Hiroshima Univ.), in RANET. The Radiation Emergency Medicine Network Council (REMNC, founded in NIRS, 1997) plays the central role in Japanese networks, consisting from medical facilities in prefectures having the nuclear facility and in their neighboring areas. Those facilities are responsible for the primary, secondary and tertiary medicare of the emergent exposure: id est (i.e.), respectively; in/near the nuclear facility, in its infirmary and in the emergency evacuation site; for hospitalization; and for hospitalization with expertized treatment. At Tokai JCO criticality accident in Ibaraki prefecture (1999), 3 workers exposed to the high dose of neutron flux were rapidly carried into the tertiary facility NIRS according to the treatment planning by REMNC. At Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident in 2011, the tertiary NIRS, Hiroshima Univ., and secondary Fukushima Medical Univ. in REMNC mainly intervened various kinds of medicare as early as at the first stage. Hospitals in Tochigi prefecture neighboring to Fukushima had to face the emergency derived from the radioactive plume. Present tasks/problems posed by these accidents are two: reconsideration of disaster measures for the network like REMNC to spread defined areas and facilities in wider regions and smaller hospitals; and importance of 3 risk

  18. Case of child abuse by radiation exposure

    On 2 May 1974, a father was convicted of castrating his 13-year-old son by exposing him to a 1-curie source of 137Cs to be used for oil gas well logging. The child was subjected to perhaps eight exposures or attempted exposures over a six-month period. A brief discussion of the medical descriptions of the radiation effects upon the skin and testes and the chromosomal system is included

  19. Rapid assessment of accidental exposures (RACE) with MCP-N (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) detectors

    The system is based on a new generation of ultra-sensitive thermoluminescent dosemeters and is able to monitor environmental radiation doses at a large number of locations within few days and to perform rapid (24 - 48 hours) in situ dose assessment in the event of any nuclear or radiation accident. Technical specifications of the instrumentation and procedures of the system are given. The linearity of the detector response for doses within the range of 1 μGy to 1 Gy is better than 2%. All the detectors investigated demonstrated a good stability in long-term exposure. The detectors are fully comparable with active detectors in short-term and daily routine dose rate measurements. (M.D.)

  20. Occupational radiation exposures in canada-1983

    This is the sixth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The information is derived from the National Dose Registry of the Radiation Protection Bureau, Department of National Health and Welfare. As in the past this report presents by occupation: average yearly whole body doses by region, dose distributions, and variations of the average doses with time. The format has been changed to provide more detailed information regarding the various occupations. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are tabulated in summary form

  1. European study of occupational radiation exposure (ESOREX)

    The European Study of Occupational Radiation Exposure (ESOREX) project was initiated by the general directive EC DG XI and carried out by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Germany (BfS). It consists of surveys carried out in the 28 European states. The study provides comparable description of the national administrative structures used to monitor and register individual occupational radiation exposure and the national dose statistics. It will establish the basis for identifying differences between the states and assessing the possibilities for European harmonisation. (author)

  2. Radiation exposure in nucleomedical examinations of children

    The problem of radiation exposure must be subjected to particularly careful scrutiny in nuclear diagnostic procedures in children. The contribution provides a survey of factors influencing the radiation exposure of children in the diagnostic use of radionuclides. These include the age of the child examined, the type of radiopharmaceutical used, the dose of the radiopharmaceutical and the procedure followed. Any state-of-the-art renal function study or skeletal examination using radionuclides requires previous measures to ensure that the child is sufficiently hydrated. The tables in the appendix provide estimations of the doses from the individual nucleomedical procedures used in paediatrics. (orig./MG)

  3. Radiation exposure from radium-226 ingestion

    The contribution of radium to total radiation exposure resulting from the consumption of natural levels of 226Ra in several public water supplies in an Oklahoma county was determined. A pilot-level study of total dietary intake indicated that the culinary use of water anomalously high in radium and the consumption of water-based beverages contributed significantly to radiation exposure. The mean dietary intake of 226Ra was 20.6 pCi/day in one community and resulted in an estimated bone dose of 310 mrem/year

  4. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ``As Low As Reasonably Achievable`` (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources.

  5. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ''As Low As Reasonably Achievable'' (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources

  6. Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout

    In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years

  7. Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout

    Conard, R.A.; Paglia, D.E.; Larsen, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years.

  8. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1994

    This is the seventeenth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The information is derived from the National Dose Registry of the Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada. As in the past, this report presents the following data by occupation: average yearly whole body doses by region, dose distributions, and variations of the average doses with time. (author). 17 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  9. Aircrew radiation exposure assessment for Yugoslav airlines

    The presented study shows that the crews of the intercontinental flights can receive significant annual effective doses (1.5-2.0 mSv). The exposure of the crews is comparable with natural radiation level on the ground level (it can be up to 5 times higher for some air crew members in the intercontinental flights), but smaller than maximum permissible dose for general population. The annual exposures of the passengers are generally smaller than the exposures of tile air crews. because the passengers have a limited number of flights per year compared with the members of the air-crews. (author)

  10. Natural radiation exposure modified by human activities

    We are now living in the radiation environment modified by our technology. It is usually called 'Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation' and have been discussed in the UNSCEAR Reports as an important source of exposure. The terrestrial radionuclide concentrations as well as the intensity of cosmic rays are considered to have been constant after our ancestors came down from trees and started walking on their two feet. However, we have been changing our environment to be more comfortable for our life and consequently ambient radiation levels are nomore what used to be. In this paper exposures due to natural radiation modified by our following activities are discussed: housing, balneology, cave excursion, mountain climbing, skiing, swimming, smoking and usage of mineral water, well water, coal, natural gas, phosphate rocks and minerals. In the ICRP Publication No. 39, it is clearly mentioned that even natural radiation should be controlled as far as it is controllable. We have to pay more attention to our activities not to enhance the exposure due to unnecessary, avoidable radiation. (author)

  11. Evaluation of radiation doses to man due to consumption of milk and leafy vegetables after the accidental atmospheric releases of 131I and 137Cs

    This paper deals with the evaluation of doses to man due to the consumption of milk and leafy vegetables after accidental environmental releases of 131I, and 137Cs. In this study air to plant transfer factors have been experimentally determined using a specially designed exposure chamber. The experimentally obtained mass interception factors for spinach and fenugreek are 0.18 and 0.14 m2 kg-1 (wet weight basis) respectively. The average yearly consumption of leafy vegetable and milk by an adult Indian is 28 kg and 39 liter as per the UNSCEAR-2000. The large milching animals in India on an average, consume about 8.1 kg/day of dry grass. Washing of these plants, brings down the level of contamination and hence radiation doses to man by 20-30%. The dose received by a member of public by consuming milk and leafy vegetable works out to about 409 and 170 nSv per day with 1 kBq m-2 ground deposition, each of 131I and 137Cs. (author)

  12. Exposure to UV radiation and human health

    Kimlin, Michael G.

    2005-08-01

    This paper will overview the significant issues facing researchers in relating the impact of exposure to sunlight and human health. Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is the major causative factor in most sun-related skin and eye disorders, however, very little is known quantitatively about human UV exposures. Interestingly, human exposure to sunlight also has a nutritional impact, namely the development of pre-Vitamin D, which is an important nutrient in bone health. New research suggest that low vitamin D status may be a causative factor in the development of selective types of cancer and autoimminue diseases, as well as a contributing factor in bone health. The 'health duality' aspect of sunlight exposure is an interesting and controversial topic that is a research focus of Kimlin's research group.

  13. Monitoring mutations in people: an in vivo study of people accidentally or occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    Recent developments in molecular biology and medicine now permit the monitoring of mutation in humans 'in vivo'. The most commonly used approach, and the main one reported in this paper, is the study of mutations at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus in peripheral T-lymphocytes. This paper deals with evidence from the radiological accident in Goiania, Brazil (where several hundred people were accidentally exposed to cesium-137), from a study of Soviet cosmonauts, and from monozygotic twins. The conclusions from Brazil are: mutation at hprt increases with age and is higher in smokers; in adults a linear dose response was found; no radiation-induced mutational fingerprint was found; children are particularly sensitive; the level of mutation dropped over several years (probably reflecting natural T-cell turnover). The conclusions from cosmonauts are: each cosmonaut had a significantly above-average level of mutation, but this may not be due to radiation at all; no 'fingerprint' was found, and there was no apparent dependence on dose. The study of twins showed a very strong correlation of mutant frequencies between one twin and the other, but this correlation decreased with age, presumably due to environmental effects. 1 tab., 2 figs

  14. Realtime radiation exposure monitor and control apparatus

    This patent application relates to an apparatus and methods used to obtain image information from modulation of a uniform flux. An exposure measuring apparatus is disclosed which comprises a multilayered detector structure having an external circuit connected to a transparent insulating layer and to a conductive plate a radiation source adapted to irradiate the detector structure with radiation capable of producing electron-hole pairs in a photoconductive layer of the detector wherein the flow of current within the external circuit is measured when the detector is irradiated by the radiation source. (author)

  15. Radiation exposure through radiopharmaceuticals in routine diagnostics

    So far proof is lacking that nuclear medical examinations have somatic or genetic radiation effects. The radioiodine test is a category apart, on account of its involving a high radiation exposure of the relatively exposed thyroid and because it has already been carried through on many patients. Recommendations for radiation hygiene can therefore only relate to the careful ascertainment of indications (e.g. skeletal scintigraphy in pre-school children), the dosage of the activity to be applied, the choice of the collimator, minimization of the bladder dose and quality controls carried out a.o. on equipment and radiopharmaceuticals. (DG)

  16. Radiation exposure in interventional radiology

    Pinto, N. G. V.; Braz, D.; Vallim, M. A.; Filho, L. G. P.; Azevedo, F. S.; Barroso, R. C.; Lopes, R. T.

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate dose values in patients and staff involved in some interventional radiology procedures. Doses have been measured using thermoluminescent dosemeters for single procedures (such as renal and cerebral arteriography, transjungular intrahepatic portasystemic shunt (TIPS) and chemoembolization). The magnitude of doses through the hands of interventional radiologists has been studied. Dose levels were evaluated in three points for patients (eye, thyroid and gonads). The dose-area product (DAP) was also investigated using a Diamentor (PTW-M2). The dose in extremities was estimated for a professional who generally performed one TIPS, two chemoembolizations, two cerebral arteriographies and two renal arteriographies in a week. The estimated annual radiation dose was converted to effective dose as suggested by the 453-MS/Brazil norm The annual dose values were 137.25 mSv for doctors, 40.27 mSv for nurses and 51.95 mSv for auxiliary doctors, and all these annual dose values are below the limit established. The maximum values of the dose obtained for patients were 6.91, 10.92 and 15.34 mGy close to eye, thyroid and gonads, respectively. The DAP values were evaluated for patients in the same interventional radiology procedures. The dose and DAP values obtained are in agreement with values encountered in the literature.

  17. Radiation exposure in interventional radiology

    Pinto, N.G.V. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE-UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970 (Brazil)], E-mail: nivia@lin.ufrj.br; Braz, D. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE-UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970 (Brazil); Vallim, M.A. [Department of Radioprotection, IEN-UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Filho, L.G.P.; Azevedo, F.S. [Clementino Fraga Filho Universitary Hospital, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro 21941-590 (Brazil); Barroso, R.C. [Physics Institute, University of Rio de Janeiro State, Rio de Janeiro 20559-900 (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE-UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970 (Brazil)

    2007-09-21

    The aim of this study is to evaluate dose values in patients and staff involved in some interventional radiology procedures. Doses have been measured using thermoluminescent dosemeters for single procedures (such as renal and cerebral arteriography, transjungular intrahepatic portasystemic shunt (TIPS) and chemoembolization). The magnitude of doses through the hands of interventional radiologists has been studied. Dose levels were evaluated in three points for patients (eye, thyroid and gonads). The dose-area product (DAP) was also investigated using a Diamentor (PTW-M2). The dose in extremities was estimated for a professional who generally performed one TIPS, two chemoembolizations, two cerebral arteriographies and two renal arteriographies in a week. The estimated annual radiation dose was converted to effective dose as suggested by the 453-MS/Brazil norm The annual dose values were 137.25 mSv for doctors, 40.27 mSv for nurses and 51.95 mSv for auxiliary doctors, and all these annual dose values are below the limit established. The maximum values of the dose obtained for patients were 6.91, 10.92 and 15.34 mGy close to eye, thyroid and gonads, respectively. The DAP values were evaluated for patients in the same interventional radiology procedures. The dose and DAP values obtained are in agreement with values encountered in the literature.

  18. Radiation exposure mitigation through food

    137CsCl2 was incorporated into plants (tomyao and broccoli) and these homogenized solutions were administered to rats. The whole-body retention was determined with an Armac counter. The whole body retention patterns of 137Cs incorporated into the plants were not significantly different from that of the 137CsCl2 solution. Chitosan is derived from chitin, which is a cellulose-like biopolymer distributed widely in nature, especially in crustaceans, insects, fungi and yeast. The present study was to investigate whether chitosan can be applied to animal and human bodies in order to reduce the bioavailability of radio-iron and -zinc in food. Chitosan inhibits dietary iron absorption only when rats eat on iron-deficient diet. The effectiveness of phytate (myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis dihydrogen phosphate) and chitosan in reducing the bioavailability of radio-zinc depend on the concentration of phytate and chitosan. Recently, the share of imported foods increased ca. 40% of Japanese total food consumption. Radioactivities in imported foods must be checked from the viewpoints of internal radiation for Japanese subjects. Concentrations of 232Th and 238U in some imported mineral waters were higher than domestic waters. However, internal doses of portable waters are negligible. Individual foodstuffs in major food groups (fish and shellfish, meats, mushrooms, root vegetables and so on), which contributed to some radionuclide intakes in Japanese, were also analyzed to clarify the critical pathway in Japanese subjects. (author)

  19. Radiation dosimetry of an accidental overexposure using EPR spectrometry and imaging of human bone

    On 11 December 1991 a radiation accident occurred at an industrial accelerator facility. 'A description of the facility and details of the accident are reported in Schauer et al., 1993a)'?. In brief, during maintenance on the lower window pressure plate of a 3 MV potential drop accelerator, an operator placed his hands, head, and feet in the radiation beam. The filament voltage of the electron source was turned ''off'', but the full accelerating potential was on the high voltage terminal. The operator's body, especially his extremities and head, were exposed to electron dark current. At approx. 3 months post-irradiation, the four digits of the victim's right hand and most of the four digits of his left hand were amputated. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry was used to estimate the radiation dose to the victim's extremities. Extremity dose estimates ranged from 55.0 Gy (±4.7 Gy) to 108 Gy (±24.1 Gy). (Author)

  20. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2000 report

    none,

    2000-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safety and Health publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE in making this report most useful to them. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  1. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2003 report

    none,

    2003-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  2. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2002 report

    none,

    2002-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  3. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1997 report

    none,

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  4. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1998 report

    none,

    1998-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health with support from Environment Safety and Health Technical Information Services publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  5. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    none,

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in their management of radiological safety programs and to assist them in the prioritization of resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside the DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of collective data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  6. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2004 report

    none,

    2004-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors, as well as members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  7. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1999 report

    none,

    1999-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safety and Health publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  8. Occupational radiation exposure in the Slovak Republic

    Recently are 2 nuclear power plants in operation in the Slovak republic. Apart from nuclear facilities there are 450 licensed undertakings with monitored workers. The majority of the licensed undertakings are active in health care. In Slovak republic are five dosimetry services performing assessments on personal doses due to external exposure and two dosimetry services are approved to carry out monitoring of internal exposure. Dosemeters used for the monitoring of external individual exposure include: personal whole-body film dosemeters, thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD) or optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSL) for measurements of beta and gamma radiation; TLD for measurements of neutron radiation and TLD for extremities. The measured operational dose quantities are Hp(10), Hp(3) and Hp(0.07). Approved dosimetry service reports the measured dose data to the employers and to the Central register of occupational doses (CROD). Annually are monitored about 12500 - 16200 active workers. Average effective doses per one monitored worker are presented. (authors)

  9. Radiation exposure in CT-guided interventions

    Kloeckner, Roman, E-mail: Roman.Kloeckner@unimedizin-mainz.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Santos, Daniel Pinto dos; Schneider, Jens [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Kara, Levent [Department of Radiology, Inselspital Bern, Freiburgstraße 18, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Dueber, Christoph; Pitton, Michael B. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT)-guided interventions, to establish reference levels for exposure, and to discuss strategies for dose reduction. Materials and methods: We analyzed 1576 consecutive CT-guided procedures in 1284 patients performed over 4.5 years, including drainage placements; biopsies of different organs; radiofrequency and microwave ablations (RFA/MWA) of liver, bone, and lung tumors; pain blockages, and vertebroplasties. Data were analyzed with respect to scanner settings, overall radiation doses, and individual doses of planning CT series, CT intervention, and control CT series. Results: Eighy-five percent of the total radiation dose was applied during the pre- and post-interventional CT series, leaving only 15% applied by the CT-guided intervention itself. Single slice acquisition was associated with lower doses than continuous CT-fluoroscopy (37 mGy cm vs. 153 mGy cm, p < 0.001). The third quartile of radiation doses varied considerably for different interventions. The highest doses were observed in complex interventions like RFA/MWA of the liver, followed by vertebroplasty and RFA/MWA of the lung. Conclusions: This paper suggests preliminary reference levels for various intervention types and discusses strategies for dose reduction. A multicenter registry of radiation exposure including a broader spectrum of scanners and intervention types is needed to develop definitive reference levels.

  10. Radiation exposure in CT-guided interventions

    Purpose: To investigate radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT)-guided interventions, to establish reference levels for exposure, and to discuss strategies for dose reduction. Materials and methods: We analyzed 1576 consecutive CT-guided procedures in 1284 patients performed over 4.5 years, including drainage placements; biopsies of different organs; radiofrequency and microwave ablations (RFA/MWA) of liver, bone, and lung tumors; pain blockages, and vertebroplasties. Data were analyzed with respect to scanner settings, overall radiation doses, and individual doses of planning CT series, CT intervention, and control CT series. Results: Eighy-five percent of the total radiation dose was applied during the pre- and post-interventional CT series, leaving only 15% applied by the CT-guided intervention itself. Single slice acquisition was associated with lower doses than continuous CT-fluoroscopy (37 mGy cm vs. 153 mGy cm, p < 0.001). The third quartile of radiation doses varied considerably for different interventions. The highest doses were observed in complex interventions like RFA/MWA of the liver, followed by vertebroplasty and RFA/MWA of the lung. Conclusions: This paper suggests preliminary reference levels for various intervention types and discusses strategies for dose reduction. A multicenter registry of radiation exposure including a broader spectrum of scanners and intervention types is needed to develop definitive reference levels

  11. Radiation exposure mitigation through food

    Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Yukawa, Masae; Watanabe, Yoshito; Shiraishi, Kunio; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Uchida, Shigeo [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Watabe, Teruhisa; Miyazaki, Taeko [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan). Lab. for Radioecology

    2001-12-01

    {sup 137}CsCl{sub 2} was incorporated into plants (tomyao and broccoli) and these homogenized solutions were administered to rats. The whole-body retention was determined with an Armac counter. The whole body retention patterns of {sup 137}Cs incorporated into the plants were not significantly different from that of the {sup 137}CsCl{sub 2} solution. Chitosan is derived from chitin, which is a cellulose-like biopolymer distributed widely in nature, especially in crustaceans, insects, fungi and yeast. The present study was to investigate whether chitosan can be applied to animal and human bodies in order to reduce the bioavailability of radio-iron and -zinc in food. Chitosan inhibits dietary iron absorption only when rats eat on iron-deficient diet. The effectiveness of phytate (myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis dihydrogen phosphate) and chitosan in reducing the bioavailability of radio-zinc depend on the concentration of phytate and chitosan. Recently, the share of imported foods increased ca. 40% of Japanese total food consumption. Radioactivities in imported foods must be checked from the viewpoints of internal radiation for Japanese subjects. Concentrations of {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U in some imported mineral waters were higher than domestic waters. However, internal doses of portable waters are negligible. Individual foodstuffs in major food groups (fish and shellfish, meats, mushrooms, root vegetables and so on), which contributed to some radionuclide intakes in Japanese, were also analyzed to clarify the critical pathway in Japanese subjects. (author)

  12. A translatable predictor of human radiation exposure.

    Joseph Lucas

    Full Text Available Terrorism using radiological dirty bombs or improvised nuclear devices is recognized as a major threat to both public health and national security. In the event of a radiological or nuclear disaster, rapid and accurate biodosimetry of thousands of potentially affected individuals will be essential for effective medical management to occur. Currently, health care providers lack an accurate, high-throughput biodosimetric assay which is suitable for the triage of large numbers of radiation injury victims. Here, we describe the development of a biodosimetric assay based on the analysis of irradiated mice, ex vivo-irradiated human peripheral blood (PB and humans treated with total body irradiation (TBI. Interestingly, a gene expression profile developed via analysis of murine PB radiation response alone was inaccurate in predicting human radiation injury. In contrast, generation of a gene expression profile which incorporated data from ex vivo irradiated human PB and human TBI patients yielded an 18-gene radiation classifier which was highly accurate at predicting human radiation status and discriminating medically relevant radiation dose levels in human samples. Although the patient population was relatively small, the accuracy of this classifier in discriminating radiation dose levels in human TBI patients was not substantially confounded by gender, diagnosis or prior exposure to chemotherapy. We have further incorporated genes from this human radiation signature into a rapid and high-throughput chemical ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (CLPA which was able to discriminate radiation dose levels in a pilot study of ex vivo irradiated human blood and samples from human TBI patients. Our results illustrate the potential for translation of a human genetic signature for the diagnosis of human radiation exposure and suggest the basis for further testing of CLPA as a candidate biodosimetric assay.

  13. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada, 1981

    This report is the fourth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes those records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The decrease in the overall average doses established over the last 20 years appears to have resumed after an interruption during 1979 to 1980. A brief summary of extremity dose data is also included

  14. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1979

    This report is the second in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers in Canada. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The 1979 data indicate that the gradually decreasing trend of the last two decades may be changing. In a number of areas the overall average doses and the averages for some job categories have increased over the corresponding values for 1977 and 1978

  15. Risk of cardiovascular disease following radiation exposure

    Excess radiation-induced cardiac mortalities have been reported among radiotherapy patients. Many case reports describe the occurrence of atherosclerosis following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease and breast cancer. Some case reports describe the cerebral infarction following radiotherapy to neck region, and of peripheral vascular disease of the lower extremities following radiotherapy to the pelvic region. The association of atomic bomb radiation and cardiovascular disease has been examined recently by incidence studies and prevalence studies of various endpoints of atherosclerosis; all endpoints indicated an increase of cardiovascular disease in the exposed group. It is almost certain that the cardiovascular disease is higher among atomic bomb survivors. However, since a heavy exposure of 10-40 Gy is delivered in radiotherapy and the bomb survivors were exposed to radiation at high dose and dose-rate, the question is whether the results can be extrapolated to individuals exposed to lower levels of radiation. Some recent epidemiological studies on occupationally exposed workers and population living near Chernobyl have provided the evidence for cardiovascular disease being a significant late effect at relatively low doses of radiation. However, the issue of non-cancer mortality from radiation is complicated by lack of adequate information on doses, and many other confounding factors (e.g., smoking habits or socio-economic status). This presentation will evaluate possible radiobiological mechanisms for radiation-induced cardiovascular disease, and will address its relevance to radiation protection management at low doses and what the impact might be on future radiation risk assessments. (authors)

  16. Description of the SAFRAN Models for Evaluation of Worker Exposure Resulting from Accidental Release of Airborne Radioactive Materials snd User’s Guide. Annex I

    This document describes the method used in the SAFRAN tool for the calculation of exposure arising from accidental release of airborne radioactive materials. Models can be used for evaluation of occupational exposure to allow comparison with the relevant dose limiting criteria. Presently, four models are available to address different exposure conditions. The first three are ‘no dilution’ model, ‘gradual mixing’ model and ‘complete mixing’ model. The fourth combined ‘gradual mixing / complete mixing’ model is a combination of the two last models and allows the user to run subsequently the ‘gradual mixing and ‘complete mixing’ models. Each of the models are created using Ecolego. Each of the models is described and their practical use is explained

  17. Factors Affecting the Medical Management and Care of Persons Accidentally Overexposed to Ionising Radiations

    All establishments where acute external radiation overexposure or significant intake of radioactive materials may occur have to make plans to deal with such situations. This paper describes the various stages in such plans and covers selection, early care and, where necessary, transfer of exposed persons for more specialised care. The factors influencing decisions on these matters are discussed, and the necessary degrees of urgency and precision at various stages of the process are reviewed. All emergency schemes have the objective of guarding against deterioration in the condition of the patient and of preparing him for further definitive treatment. In this respect, the approach to cases of internal contamination is different from that applicable to extemal radiation cases. These differences are reviewed and an outline emergency drill is described for each category of incident. Occupational radiation incidents can be considered as a specialised aspect of occupational health but the planning attention devoted to them has been more detailed than that thought appropriate in other fields of industrial hygiene and safety. The need for a clear distinction in the approach to procedures carried out for the benefit of the patient and those carried out for radiological reasons or research purposes is discussed. (author)

  18. Diagnosis and emergency treatment of human exposures to ionizing radiations: practical aspects

    In case of accidental exposure, occupational physicians in nuclear power plants are faced with problems of diagnosis and early treatment. External irradiation, external and internal contamination will be considered successively. The experience is large as the first unit of the nuclear plant, the second in the world for the capacity, was started up 8 years ago. Of course, problems of radiation protection are different from those encountered in a research center or a hospital and cannot be solved in the same manner. The information gathered should be useful to all those that are faced with such problems

  19. ESR radiation dose evaluation on radiation exposure accident in England

    A technician of nondestructive inspection in England died because of radiation injury even though his exposure record with film badge indicated only 104 mSv of the lifelong exposure dose. After the request of the National Radiation Protection Board of Great Britain, the author conducted measurement of the exposure dose with ESR dosimetry. ESR spectra were measured on tooth enamel and bones of the finger and the upper arm taken from the dead technician. The exposure dose is obtained from the enhancement of the ESR signal intensity of CO2- after international irradiation. 14 and 12 Gy for tooth enamel, 7.2 and 4.2 Gy for the bones of the finger and the upper arm respectively. The bone samples may show smaller dose due to metabolism in the body. The technician is assumed to be exposed about 10 mSv at the fingers and the arms for each time on the inspection of pipings for more than 10 years. He used to wear the film badge on his waist. The author stresses the importance of preservation of extracted tooth as a exposure record for radiation workers. (T.H.)

  20. Treatment plan of acute radiation-induced skin injuries with special reference to an accidentally exposed case

    Description was made as to clinical cource of one case of acute radiation-induced skin injury and practical use of medical treatment plan for radiation-induced skin injuries. The accident occurred during the working (5 o'clock in the afternoon) on development of x-ray tube for x-ray fluorescent analysis apparatus. The condition of x-ray exposure was 50 KeV and 10 mA, and the window of x-ray tube was Be 0.3 mm in thickness. The exposure time was about 5 seconds, and the exposure dose on the palm of the right hand which was the maximum was estimated as 10,000 rads. In the next morning after the exposure, the patient complained of extension feeling and edema in the palm of the right hand, and redness and blister appeared. On 11 days after the exposure, blister and edematous swelling grew to the greatest, and pain was emphasized. On 15 days after the exposure, tendency of cure appeared, and on 20 days after, pigmentation became marked. Main symptoms of local findings of one year and half after the exposure were skin atrophy, dilatation of capillary vessels, and depigmentation. The strict local rest, the protection from stimulations outside, the use of medicines for external application in which additives were small in quantity, the frequent and detailed local observation and detailed life guidance were mentioned as basic policies in the early treatment. Avoidance of the skin dryness, local observation with proper frequency, protection from stimulations outside, and life guidance were mentioned as basic policies during the period while the symptoms were fixed. In case of acute exposure, the importance of early treatment and necessity of endeavour of preventing delayed disturbances such as chronic ulcer and carcinogenesis were mentioned. (Tsunoda, M.)

  1. Radiation exposure of the UK population

    Man is continuously exposed to radiation from many sources, both natural and man-made. The man-made sources include medical irradiation, exposure from radioactive waste disposal, fallout from nuclear weapons tests and various 'miscellaneous sources' which include consumer products. The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) keeps these contributions to the radiation exposure of the population under continuous review and publishes reports on the subject periodically. This is the second such report and contains considerably more information than the first published in 1974. The balance of the report reflects the availability of data and the advice given in the sixth report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. The conclusions are: (a) that the major contribution to the dose to the population is from natural background radiation; (b) that the largest man-made contribution is from medical uses of radiation; (c) that the largest contribution from environmental contamination is still from the residual effects of fallout from nuclear weapons testing; (d) that occupational exposure and irradiation from miscellaneous sources, considered as contributions to the per caput dose to the population, are the next largest components; (e) that radioactive waste disposal is the smallest contributor to the per caput dose to the population. It was also felt useful to review the past trends in the doses resulting from the various sources and the authors have attempted to make some tentative predictions of doses up to the year 2000. (author)

  2. Personnel radiation exposure in HTGR plants

    Occupational radiation exposures in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) plants were assessed. The expected rate of dose accumulations for a large HTGR steam cycle unit is 0.07 man-rem/MW(e)y, while the design basis is 0.17 man-rem/MW(e)y. The comparable figure for actual light water reactor experience is 1.3 man-rem/MW(e)y. The favorable HTGR occupational exposure is supported by results from the Peach Bottom Unit No. 1 HTGR and Fort St. Vrain HTGR plants and by operating experience at British gas-cooled reactor stations

  3. Radiation exposure during air and ground transportation

    The results of a one year study program of radiation exposure experienced on both domestic and international flights of the China Airline and the Far East Airline in the Pacific, Southeast Asia and Taiwan areas and on trains and buses on Taiwan island are reported. CaSO4:Dy thermoluminescent dosimeters were used. It has been shown that transit exposures may amount to 10 times that on the ground with an altitude varying from 3,050 to 12,200 m. (U.K.)

  4. Justification of novel practices involving radiation exposure

    The concept of 'justification' of practices has been one of the three basic principles of radiation protection for many decades. The principle is simple in essence - that any practice involving radiation exposure should do more good than harm. There is no doubt that the many uses of radiation in the medical field and in industry generally satisfy this principle, yielding benefits that could not be achieved using other techniques; examples include CT scanning and industrial radiography. However, even in the early period after the introduction of the justification principle, there were practices for which the decision on justification was not clear and for which different decisions were made by the authorities in different countries. Many of these involved consumer products such as luminous clocks and watches, telephone dials, smoke detectors, lightning preventers and gas mantles. In most cases, these practices were relatively small scale and did not involve large exposures of either individual workers or members of the public. Decisions on justification were therefore often made by the regulator without extensive national debate. Over recent years, several practices have been proposed and undertaken that involve exposure to radiation for purposes that were generally not envisaged when the current system of radiation protection was created. Some of these practices were reviewed during a recent symposium held in Dublin, Ireland and involve, for example, the x-raying of people for theft detection purposes, for detection of weapons or contraband, for the prediction of physical development of young athletes or dancers, for age determination, for insurance purposes and in cases of suspected child abuse. It is particularly in the context of such novel practices that the need has emerged for clearer international guidance on the application of the justification principle. This paper reviews recent activities of the IAEA with respect to these issues, including the

  5. Reliability of real-time computing with radiation data feedback at accidental release

    At the first workshop in 1985 we reported on the real-time dose computing method used at the Paks Nuclear Power Plant and on the telemetric system developed for the normalization of the computed data. At present, the computing method normalized for the telemetric data represents the primary information for deciding on any necessary counter measures in case of a nuclear reactor accident. In this connection we analyzed the reliability of the results obtained in this manner. The points of the analysis were: how the results are influenced by the choice of certain parameters that cannot be determined by direct methods and how the improperly chosen diffusion parameters would distort the determination of environmental radiation parameters normalized on the basis of the measurements (131I activity concentration, gamma dose rate) at points lying at a given distance from the measuring stations. A further source of errors may be that, when determining the level of gamma radiation, the radionuclide doses in the cloud and on the ground surface are measured together by the environmental monitoring stations, whereas these doses appear separately in the computations. At the Paks NPP it is the time integral of the aiborne activity concentration of vapour form 131I which is determined. This quantity includes neither the other physical and chemical forms of 131I nor the other isotopes of radioiodine. We gave numerical examples for the uncertainties due to the above factors. As a result, we arrived at the conclusions that there is a need to decide on accident-related measures based on the computing method that the dose uncertainties may reach one order of magnitude for points lying far from the monitoring stations. Different measures are discussed to make the uncertainties significantly lower

  6. Radiation exposure and radiation risk of the population

    The major scientifically founded results concerning the assessment of the radiation exposure and the analysis and evaluation of the radiationhazards for the population, particularly in the range of low doses, are presented. As to the risk analysis special attention is paid to the rays with low ionization density (X-, γ-, β- and electronrays). Contents: 1) Detailed survey of the results and conclusions; 2) Data on the radiation load of the population; 3) Results to epidemiological questioning on the risk of cancer; 4) Genetical radiation hazards of the population. For quantification purposes of the risk of cancer by γ-radiation the observations with the a-bomb survivors in Japan are taken as a basis, as the available dosimetrical data have to be revised. Appendices: 1) German translation of the UNSCEAR-Report (1977); 2) BEIR-Report (1980); 3) Comments from the SSK on the comparability of the risks of natural-artificial radiation exposure; 4) Comments from the SSK on the importance of synergistical influences for the radiation protection (23.9.1977). (HP)

  7. Wireless Phones Electromagnetic Field Radiation Exposure Assessment

    A. D. Usman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Inadequate knowledge of electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones and increased usage at close proximity, created a lot of skepticism and speculations among end users on its safety or otherwise. Approach: In this study, near field electromagnetic field radiation measurements were conducted on different brand of mobile phones in active mode using a tri-axis isotropic probe and electric field meter. Results: The highest electromagnetic field exposure was recorded when the mobile phones are at outgoing call mode and backing the probe, which is higher in comparison to ICNIRP guidelines for exposure to general public. Conclusion: According to this finding, some mobile phones electromagnetic field radiation were found to be lower than the ICNIRP guidelines while some were far above the guidelines. Electromagnetic field intensity however, depends on the mode of operation and proximity of the mobile phones to the end user; hence it is safer to use mobile phones at SMS mode.

  8. Population exposure to ionising radiation in India

    Estimates of exposure from various radiation sources to Indian population are given. The per caput dose from all the identifiable sources, both natural and man-made is estimated to be 2490 μSv per year to the present population of India. 97.9% of this dose is contributed by natural sources which include cosmic and terrestrial radiations, 1.93% by medical sources used for diagnostic and treatment purpose, 0.3% by exposures due to activities related nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear tests and nuclear accidents, and 0.07% by miscellaneous sources such as industrial applications, consumer products, research activities, air travel etc. The monograph is written for the use of the common man. (M.G.B.). 25 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs

  9. Modeling Impaired Hippocampal Neurogenesis after Radiation Exposure.

    Cacao, Eliedonna; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2016-03-01

    Radiation impairment of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is one of several factors associated with cognitive detriments after treatment of brain cancers in children and adults with radiation therapy. Mouse models have been used to study radiation-induced changes in neurogenesis, however the models are limited in the number of doses, dose fractions, age and time after exposure conditions that have been studied. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel predictive mathematical model of radiation-induced changes to neurogenesis using a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to represent the time, age and dose-dependent changes to several cell populations participating in neurogenesis as reported in mouse experiments exposed to low-LET radiation. We considered four compartments to model hippocampal neurogenesis and, consequently, the effects of radiation treatment in altering neurogenesis: (1) neural stem cells (NSCs), (2) neuronal progenitor cells or neuroblasts (NB), (3) immature neurons (ImN) and (4) glioblasts (GB). Because neurogenesis is decreasing with increasing mouse age, a description of the age-related dynamics of hippocampal neurogenesis is considered in the model, which is shown to be an important factor in comparisons to experimental data. A key feature of the model is the description of negative feedback regulation on early and late neuronal proliferation after radiation exposure. The model is augmented with parametric descriptions of the dose and time after irradiation dependences of activation of microglial cells and a possible shift of NSC proliferation from neurogenesis to gliogenesis reported at higher doses (∼10 Gy). Predictions for dose-fractionation regimes and for different mouse ages, and prospects for future work are then discussed. PMID:26943452

  10. Hematologic consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation.

    Dainiak, Nicholas

    2002-06-01

    From the early 1900s, it has been known that ionizing radiation (IR) impairs hematopoiesis through a variety of mechanisms. IR exposure directly damages hematopoietic stem cells and alters the capacity of bone marrow stromal elements to support and/or maintain hematopoiesis in vivo and in vitro. Exposure to IR induces dose-dependent declines in circulating hematopoietic cells not only through reduced bone marrow production, but also by redistribution and apoptosis of mature formed elements of the blood. Recently, the importance of using lymphocyte depletion kinetics to provide a "crude" dose estimate has been emphasized, particularly in rapid assessment of large numbers of individuals who may be exposed to IR through acts of terrorism or by accident. A practical strategy to estimate radiation dose and triage victims based upon clinical symptomatology is presented. An explosion of knowledge has occurred regarding molecular and cellular pathways that trigger and mediate hematologic responses to IR. In addition to damaging DNA, IR alters gene expression and transcription, and interferes with intracellular and intercellular signaling pathways. The clinical expression of these disturbances may be the development of leukemia, the most significant hematologic complication of IR exposure among survivors of the atomic bomb detonations over Japan. Those at greatest risk for leukemia are individuals exposed during childhood. The association of leukemia with chronic, low-dose-rate exposure from nuclear power plant accidents and/or nuclear device testing has been more difficult to establish, due in part to lack of precision and sensitivity of methods to assess doses that approach background radiation dose. Nevertheless, multiple myeloma may be associated with chronic exposure, particularly in those exposed at older ages. PMID:12063018