WorldWideScience

Sample records for accident research programme

  1. Co-ordinated research programme on reference studies on probabilistic modelling of accident sequences

    The co-ordinated research programme (CRP) on probabilistic modelling of accident sequences was established in order to ensure that International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Member States not previously involved in international benchmark exercises obtain adequate practice in applying the available PSA techniques and benefit from the extensive international experience. A supportive peer review group was formed to provide guidance and transfer the insights derived from similar European projects. Seventeen countries participate in this programme which will be completed during 1991. Three working groups have been organized around different reactor types, namely WWER-440 PWRs (with a subgroup analysing AST-500, a district heating plant), Framatome PWRs and CANDU. Each participant in a group studied the same initiating event for a reference plant. For detailed analysis one particular accident sequence has been selected by each team. The logic models (event trees and fault trees) were developed and accident sequences were quantified. Sensitivity analyses are presently in progress. The paper presents some preliminary results and insights. The experiences gained from this CRP are considered as extremely useful for the national PSA programmes in several IAEA Member States. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  2. Accident prevention programme

    This study by the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission was made within the context of the application by undertakings of the principles of accident and disease prevention previously adopted by the said Commission. It puts forward recommendations for the effective and gradual implementation of a programme of action on occupational health and safety in the various departments of an undertaking and in the undertaking as a whole. The methods proposed in this study are likely to be of interest to all undertakings in the metallurgical industry and other industrial sectors

  3. Some aspects of the research and development programmes on the behaviour of containments during severe accidents

    The R and D programmes relating to the behaviour of containments during severe accidents cover several domains: .leaktightness of the containment: this programme concerns the mechanical resistance of the concretes and the cracking criteria, on the one hand, and the leak rate through the porosities or cracks, on the other; . gaseous releases inside the containment. In addition to the releases of steam and fission products from the primary circuit, the gaseous H20 and C02 releases from the concrete must also be studied: firstly during the corium-concrete interaction, and secondly during the heating of the internal surface of the containment which can be raised to a high temperature on contact with the atmosphere, for example during hydrogen combustion; . the release of fission products during the corium-concrete interactions; . the behaviour of the fission products inside the containment, particularly as regards iodine

  4. The severe accident research programme PHEBUS F.P.: First results and future tests

    Schwarz, M. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire IPSN, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Hardt, P. von der [Joint Research Centre - Safety Technology Institute, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    1996-03-01

    PHEBUS FP is an international programme, managed by the French Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Electricite de France and the European Commission in close collaboration with the USNRC (US), COG (Canada), NUPEC and JAERI (Japan) and KAERI (South Korea). Its objective is to investigate through a series of in-pile integral experiments, key phenomena involved in LWR severe accident such as the degradation of core materials up to molten pool, the subsequent release of fission products and of structural materials, their transport in the cooling system and their deposition in the containment with a special emphasis on the volatility of iodine. After a general programme description, the paper focuses on the status of analysis of the first test FPT-0, which involved trace irradiated fuel and which has shown some quite unexpected results regarding fuel degradation and iodine behaviour, and on the upcoming test FPT-1 which will use irradiated fuel. The status of the preparation of the remaining tests of the programme is also presented.

  5. Recent results from CEC cost sharing research programme on LWR fuel behaviour under accident conditions

    The present structure and intentions of the CEC sponsored cost sharing programme for LWR safety research are outlined. Detailed results are reported for two projects from this programme. The first project concerns experimental data on the thermohydraulic effects of flow diversion around ballooned fuel rods. Data are presented on single and two phase heat transfer in an electrically heated rod bundle. Detailed photographic data on droplet behaviour are also given. The second project is an investigation of the effects of zircaloy oxidation on rewetting during reflood. It is shown that as oxide thickness increases from 1μm to 76μm that rewet rates can increase by up to 40%. A systematic effect of oxidation on rewet temperatures is also noted. (author)

  6. The Chernobyl accident as a source of new radiological knowledge: implications for Fukushima rehabilitation and research programmes

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine in 1986 caused a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. During large scale activities focused on overcoming of its negative consequences for public health, various research programmes in radioecology, dosimetry and radiation medicine were conducted. New knowledge was applied internationally in substantial updating of radiation protection systems for emergency and existing situations of human exposure, for improvement of emergency preparedness and response. Radioecological and dosimetry models were significantly improved and validated with numerous measurement data, guidance on environmental countermeasures and monitoring elaborated and tested. New radiological knowledge can be of use in the planning and implementation of rehabilitation programmes in Japan following the Fukushima nuclear accident. In particular, the following activity areas would benefit from application of the Chernobyl experience: strategy of rehabilitation, and technology of settlement decontamination and of countermeasures applied in agriculture and forestry. The Chernobyl experience could be very helpful in planning research activities initiated by the Fukushima radionuclide fallout, i.e. environmental transfer of radionuclides, effectiveness of site-specific countermeasures, nationwide dose assessment, health effect studies, etc. (paper)

  7. The Chernobyl accident as a source of new radiological knowledge: implications for Fukushima rehabilitation and research programmes.

    Balonov, Mikhail

    2013-03-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine in 1986 caused a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. During large scale activities focused on overcoming of its negative consequences for public health, various research programmes in radioecology, dosimetry and radiation medicine were conducted. New knowledge was applied internationally in substantial updating of radiation protection systems for emergency and existing situations of human exposure, for improvement of emergency preparedness and response. Radioecological and dosimetry models were significantly improved and validated with numerous measurement data, guidance on environmental countermeasures and monitoring elaborated and tested.New radiological knowledge can be of use in the planning and implementation of rehabilitation programmes in Japan following the Fukushima nuclear accident. In particular, the following activity areas would benefit from application of the Chernobyl experience: strategy of rehabilitation, and technology of settlement decontamination and of countermeasures applied in agriculture and forestry. The Chernobyl experience could be very helpful in planning research activities initiated by the Fukushima radionuclide fallout, i.e. environmental transfer of radionuclides, effectiveness of site-specific countermeasures, nationwide dose assessment, health effect studies, etc. PMID:23295495

  8. French regulatory requirements concerning severe accidents in PWRs and associated research programme

    This report gives a global view of the French reactor safety approach; aspects in relation with severe accidents are pointed out: safety goals regarding population, and safety goals regarding plant design. Ultimate or U procedures involving physical phenomena of severe accidents are then described. R. and D. programs have been defined with regard to the priorities resulting from this approach

  9. Research on hydrogen risk mitigation resulting from hypothetical severe accident. Major results from the 4th framework programme and actual research in the 5th framework programme

    The evolution and release of hydrogen in the course of hypothetical severe accidents in light water reactors is seen to be a potential cause of early containment failure due to possible follow-on reactions in the containment. The cause of concern is the volume of hydrogen produced in the zirconium-water interaction of fuel cladding tubes and structural materials in the reactor core. As a result of deflagration processes and transfer processes, respectively, from deflagration to detonation, this hydrogen can cause local pressure peaks which exceed the containment design basis. For this reason, the phenomena of hydrogen generation, distribution, and reactions have been studied worldwide for a number of decades, and concepts are being developed for controlling this situation. In Germany and in other European countries, the concepts pursued comprise the use of recombiners and ignition devices or a combination of both systems. These systems are being planned for backfitting into existing nuclear power plants and for installation in the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) under development. Since the mid-nineties, several research programs have been devoted to this topic within the framework of joint European reactor safety research. Activities are concentrated on hydrogen generation, hydrogen distribution, the effectiveness of recombiners as well as turbulent combustion and the transition from deflagration to detonation, among others. (orig.)

  10. The screening approach for review of accident management programmes

    In this lecture the screening approach for review of accident management programmes are presented. It contains objective trees for accident management: logic structure of the approach; objectives and safety functions for accident management; safety principles

  11. Cosyma a new programme package for accident consequence assessment

    This report gives details of a new programme package for accident consequence assessment, prepared under the CEC's Maria programme (Methods for assessing the radiological impact of accidents) initiated in 1982 to review and build on the nuclear accident consequence assessment methods in use within the European Community

  12. Finnish bioenergy research programme

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.

  13. Proceedings of the Specialist Meeting on Severe Accident Management Programme Development

    Effective Accident Management planning can produce both a reduction in the frequency of severe accidents at nuclear power plants as well as the ability to mitigate a severe accident. The purpose of an accident management programme is to provide to the responsible plant staff the capability to cope with the complete range of credible severe accidents. This requires that appropriate instrumentation and equipment are available within the plant to enable plant staff to diagnose the faults and to implement appropriate strategies. The programme must also provide the necessary guidance, procedures, and training to assure that appropriate corrective actions will be implemented. One of the key issues to be discussed is the transition from control room operations and the associated emergency operating procedures to a technical support team approach (and the associated severe accident management strategies). Following a proposal made by the Senior Group of Experts on Severe Accident Management (SESAM), the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations decided to sponsor a Specialist Meeting on Severe Accident Management Programme Development. The general objectives of the Specialist Meeting were to exchange experience, views, and information among the participants and to discuss the status of severe accident management programmes. The meeting brought together utilities, accident management programme developers, personnel training programme developers, regulators, and researchers. In general, the tone of the Specialist Meeting - designed to promote progress, as contrasted with conferences or symposia where the state-of-the-art is presented - was to be rather practical, and focus on accident management programme development, applications, results, difficulties and improvements. As shown by the conclusions of the meeting, there is no doubt that this objective was widely attained

  14. Research and training programmes

    Daksha Patel

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Research is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as “a systematic investigation and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.”Research is embedded in the curricula of most postgraduate training programmes; students are expected to complete some form of original work towards a dissertation. This often evokes a range of reactions: “What is the purpose of this exercise? Why do I have to do research when I just want to do a job? Shouldn’t research rather be left to experts? I can’t do the course; I have no research background!”

  15. Research and training programmes

    Daksha Patel

    2007-01-01

    Research is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as “a systematic investigation and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.”Research is embedded in the curricula of most postgraduate training programmes; students are expected to complete some form of original work towards a dissertation. This often evokes a range of reactions: “What is the purpose of this exercise? Why do I have to do research when I just want to do a job? Shouldn’t research r...

  16. Bioergia Research Programme

    Asplund, D.

    1997-12-31

    The main objectives of Finland`s Bioenergia Research Programme are (1) To develop new methods of producing biofuels which can compete with imported fuels, demonstrating the most promising production methods through pilot schemes, (2) To develop and demonstrate 3 - 4 new pieces of equipment or methods connected with handling and using bioenergy, (3) To produce basic information on conversion techniques and evaluate the quality, usability and environmental impacts of the products as well as the overall economy of the entire production chain and to create 2-3 conversion methods for follow-up development by industry. The principle research areas are (1) Development of production technology for wood-derived fuels, (2) Peat production, (3) The use of bioenergy and (4) Biomass conversion. This conference paper discusses the results obtained so far and reviews in some detail the activities of the programme. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Bioergia Research Programme

    The main objectives of Finland's Bioenergia Research Programme are (1) To develop new methods of producing biofuels which can compete with imported fuels, demonstrating the most promising production methods through pilot schemes, (2) To develop and demonstrate 3 - 4 new pieces of equipment or methods connected with handling and using bioenergy, (3) To produce basic information on conversion techniques and evaluate the quality, usability and environmental impacts of the products as well as the overall economy of the entire production chain and to create 2-3 conversion methods for follow-up development by industry. The principle research areas are (1) Development of production technology for wood-derived fuels, (2) Peat production, (3) The use of bioenergy and (4) Biomass conversion. This conference paper discusses the results obtained so far and reviews in some detail the activities of the programme. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  18. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    Two years ago the World Health Assembly approved the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The Programme, set up under the auspices of WHO, provides support to the health authorities in Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine in dealing with the aftermath of the accident, and is intended to serve as a unifying framework for all international health-related activities arising from the accident carried out in the three countries. This document outlines the Programme's objectives, structure, accomplishments and future plans. As a background, it also provides a brief overview of the accident and of its current and potential impact on health in the three countries. 5 figs, 1 tab

  19. Conclusions on severe accident research priorities

    Highlights: • Estimation of research priorities related to severe accident phenomena. • Consideration of new topics, partly linked to the severe accidents at Fukushima. • Consideration of results of recent projects, e.g. SARNET, ASAMPSA2, OECD projects. - Abstract: The objectives of the SARNET network of excellence are to define and work on common research programs in the field of severe accidents in Gen. II–III nuclear power plants and to further develop common tools and methodologies for safety assessment in this area. In order to ensure that the research conducted on severe accidents is efficient and well-focused, it is necessary to periodically evaluate and rank the priorities of research. This was done at the end of 2008 by the Severe Accident Research Priority (SARP) group at the end of the SARNET project of the 6th Framework Programme of European Commission (FP6). This group has updated this work in the FP7 SARNET2 project by accounting for the recent experimental results, the remaining safety issues as e.g. highlighted by Level 2 PSA national studies and the results of the recent ASAMPSA2 FP7 project. These evaluation activities were conducted in close relation with the work performed under the auspices of international organizations like OECD or IAEA. The Fukushima-Daiichi severe accidents, which occurred while SARNET2 was running, had some effects on the prioritization and definition of new research topics. Although significant progress has been gained and simulation models (e.g. the ASTEC integral code, jointly developed by IRSN and GRS) were improved, leading to an increased confidence in the predictive capabilities for assessing the success potential of countermeasures and/or mitigation measures, most of the selected research topics in 2008 are still of high priority. But the Fukushima-Daiichi accidents underlined that research efforts had to focus still more to improve severe accident management efficiency

  20. SARNET: Severe accident research network of excellence

    51 organizations network in SARNET (Severe Accident Research NETwork of Excellence) their capacities of research in order to resolve the most important remaining uncertainties for enhancing, in regard of Severe Accidents (SA), the safety of existing and future Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). This project, co-funded by the European Commission (EC), has been defined in order to optimise the use of the available means and to constitute sustainable research groups in the European Union. SARNET tackles the fragmentation that exists between the different R and D national programmes, in defining common research programmes and developing common computer tools and methodologies for safety assessment. SARNET comprises most of the actors involved in SA research in Europe (plus Canada). To reach these objectives, all the organizations networked in SARNET contribute to a so-called Joint Programme of Activities (JPA), which consists in: Implementing an advanced communication tool for accessing all project information, fostering exchange of information, and managing documents; Harmonizing and re-orienting the research programmes; Jointly analysing the experimental results provided by research programmes in order to elaborate a common understanding of relevant phenomena; Developing the ASTEC code (integral computer code used to predict the NPP behaviour during a postulated SA), which capitalizes in terms of physical models the knowledge produced within SARNET; Developing Scientific Databases, in which all the results of research programmes are stored in a common format (DATANET); Developing a common methodology for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of NPPs; Developing courses and writing a text book on SA for students and researchers; Promoting personnel mobility between various European organizations. After the first period (2004-2008), co-funded by the EC, the network will progressively evolve toward self-sustainability. The bases for such an evolution, still under discussion

  1. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This report examines the scientific, organizational and financial aspects of the programme and describes the action taken by the WHO for its development

  2. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This document reports on progress made to date in terms of technical management and coordination and financial aspects of the programme. It also provides information on future activities and discusses related issues

  3. Swiss breeder research programme

    A new initiative for a Swiss Fast Breeder Research Program has been started during 1991. This was partly the consequence of a vote in Fall 1990, when the Swiss public voted for maintaining nuclear reactors in operation, but also for a moratorium of 10 years, within which period no new reactor project should be proposed. On the other hand the Swiss government decided to keep the option 'atomic reactors' open and therefore it was essential to have programmes which guaranteed that the knowledge of reactor technology could be maintained in the industry and the relevant research organisations. There is also motivation to support a Swiss Breeder Research Program on the part of the utilities, the licensing authorities and the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). The utilities recognise the breeder reactor as an advanced reactor system which has to be developed further and might be a candidate, somewhere in the future, for electricity production. In so far they have great interest that a know-how base is maintained in our country, with easy access for technical questions and close attention to the development of this reactor type. The licensing authorities have a legitimate interest that an adequate knowledge of the breeder reactor type and its functions is kept at their disposal. PSI and the former EIR have had for many years a very successful basic research programme concerning breeder reactors, and were in close cooperation with EFR. The activities within this programme had to be terminated owing to limitations in personnel and financial resources. The new PSI research programme is based upon two main areas, reactor physics and reactor thermal hydraulics. In both areas relatively small but valuable basic research tasks, the results of which are of interest to the breeder community, will be carried out. The lack of support of the former Breeder Programme led to capacity problems and finally to a total termination. Therefore one of the problems which had to be solved first was

  4. The DOE technology development programme on severe accident management

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a programme in technology development aimed at resolving the technical issues in severe accident management strategies for advanced and evolutionary light water reactors (LWRs). The key objective of this effort is to achieve a robust defense-in-depth at the interface between prevention and mitigation of severe accidents. The approach taken towards this goal is based on the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM). Applications of ROAAM to the severe accident management strategy for the US AP600 advanced LWR have been effective both in enhancing the design and in achieving acceptance of the conclusions and base technology developed in the course of the work. This paper presents an overview of that effort and its key technical elements

  5. Important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident

    After the Fukushima accident several investigation committees issued reports with lessons learned from the accident in Japan. Among those lessons, several recommendations have been made on severe accident research. Similar to the EURSAFE efforts under EU Program, review of specific severe accident research items was started before Fukushima accident in working group of Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) in terms of significance of consequences, uncertainties of phenomena and maturity of assessment methodology. Re-investigation has been started since the Fukushima accident. Additional effects of Fukushima accident, such as core degradation behaviors, sea water injection, containment failure/leakage and re-criticality have been covered. The review results are categorized in ten major fields; core degradation behavior, core melt coolability/retention in containment vessel, function of containment vessel, source term, hydrogen behavior, fuel-coolant interaction, molten core concrete interaction, direct containment heating, recriticality and instrumentation in severe accident conditions. Based on these activities and also author's personal view, the present paper describes the perspective of important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident. Those are specifically investigation of damaged core and components, advanced severe accident analysis capabilities and associated experimental investigations, development of reliable passive cooling system for core/containment, analysis of hydrogen behavior and investigation of hydrogen measures, enhancement of removal function of radioactive materials of containment venting, advanced instrumentation for the diagnosis of severe accident and assessment of advanced containment design which excludes long-term evacuation in any severe accident situations. (author)

  6. The Finnish research programme on reactor safety (RETU)

    In Finland the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM) has launched two national research programmes on the safety of nuclear reactors for the period 1995-1998. The research programme on Reactor Safety (RETU) concentrates on the search of safe limits of nuclear fuel and the reactor core, accident management methods and risk management of the operation of nuclear power plants. In the research programme the behaviour of high burnup nuclear fuel is studied both in normal operation and during power transients. In particular, the VVER fuel data base is supplemented by performing well-characterized experiments in international cooperation. The reactor dynamics codes are developed further to cope with complicated three-dimensional reactivity transients and accidents, and the operational range of the models is extended by implementing advanced flow models and numerical solution methods. In the research programme separate effects experiments are performed and severe accident calculation methods are developed. The Finnish thermal-hydraulic test facility PACTEL (Parallel Channel Test Loop) is used extensively for the evaluation of the VVER-440 plant accident behaviour, for the validation of the accident analysis computer codes and for the testing of proposed passive safety system concepts. Risk analysis is currently being introduced to safety-related risk decision-making among the power plant staff and the authorities. Methods of risk analysis are developed particularly for complicated accident sequences, where a general disturbance is combined with common-cause failures of equipment and human intervention. (4 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.)

  7. The Nordic Research programme on nuclear safety

    Only two of the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Finland, Norway and Sweden) - Sweden and Finland - operate nuclear power plants, but there are a number of nuclear installations close to their borders. Regular 4-year programmes were initiated in 1977, designated NKS-programmes. (NKS: Nordisk KerneSikkerhedsforskning - Nordic nuclear-safety research). The current fourth NKS-programme is, influenced by the Chernobyl accident, dominated by the necessity for acquiring knowledge on unexpected events and release of radioactive material from nuclear installations. The present programme is divided into the areas of emergency preparedness, waste and decommissioning, radioecology and reactor safety. It comprises a total of 18 projects, the results of which will later be published in the form of handbooks for use in cases of emergency etc. The future of joint Nordic project work in the nuclear safety field must be seen in the light of changing conditions in and around the Nordic countries, such as the opening of relations to neighbours in the east, the move towards the European Communities and the need for training a new generation of specialists in the nuclear field etc. Each project is described in considerable detail and a list of reports resulting from the third NKS-programme 1985-1989 is given. (AB)

  8. Progress on the Westinghouse Accident Tolerant Fuel Programme

    The Westinghouse led team on accident tolerant fuel (ATF) has made significant progress over the last decade on the development of economically attractive cladding and fuel options to utility customers that have the potential for increased tolerance for beyond design basis accidents. Since the occurrence of the Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011, Westinghouse has become increasingly focused on ATF development and has accelerated the programme with support from the Department of Energy (DOE). The Westinghouse ATF designs have been motivated by significantly enhanced accident tolerance, simplified designs for future Nuclear Steam Supply Systems (NSSS), and substantially improved fuel cycle costs. To date, Westinghouse, working with its partners, has a basic concept for silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic cladding and advanced pellet designs and has also performed early tests to show viability of the chosen concepts. The Westinghouse ATF concepts include: deposition of oxidation resistant titanium-aluminium-carbide (Ti2AlC) coatings on zirconium alloy as a mid-term cladding product and SiC composites as the long-term cladding product. Regarding fuels, uranium silicide (U3Si2) pellets are being developed as a mid-term fuel product, and waterproofed uranium nitride (U15N) as the long-term fuel product. The Westinghouse ATF Program, in conjunction with its partner General Atomics, continues to advance SiC technology in the areas of fabrication, testing, and modelling. High temperature oxidation tests are ongoing at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to evaluate accident tolerance of this cladding. While initial efforts regarding the deposition of oxidation resistant coatings on zirconium alloy cladding did not perform as desired, the University of Wisconsin is continuing to optimize deposition parameters. Critical work also continues in the area of advanced pellet development on both U3Si2 and waterproofed uranium nitride fuels at Idaho National Laboratory (INL

  9. New Euratom research programme 2002-2006

    Mustonen, R. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-06-01

    The European Union funded research is carried out under two distinct programmes; the European Community Framework Programme (EC Programme) covering research, technological development and demonstration activities; and the Euratom Framework Programme covering research and training activities in the nuclear sector. The contents, funding and timetable of the sixth Euratom Framework Programme (FP6) are shortly reviewed in this paper. The European Union (EU) FP6 for the years 2002 - 2006 starts at the beginning of the year 2003.

  10. Research Needs in the Domain of Severe Accidents

    The objectives of SARNET are to define common research programmes and to develop common computer tools and methodologies for safety assessment. To reach these objectives several elements or work programmes (WP) are established. One of them is the WP 'Severe Accident Research Priorities' (SARP) with the aims to harmonize and to re-orient research programmes, to define new ones, and to close a resolved issue on a common basis. This action will make use notably of (1) the outcome of the EURSAFE action, i.e., the results of the Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRT) on severe accidents, (2) the results of the qualification and benchmarking activities on ASTEC, (3) the results of reactor calculations carried out in the other activities, and (4) the outcome of the research performed in the three thematic sub domains of SARNET (corium, containment, source term). The main outcome of EURSAFE was a list of 21 topics which includes precise recommendations for experimental programmes and code developments and forms the basis of the work of the SARP. Also the methodology applied in EURSAFE to consider both risk potential and the severe accident issues where large uncertainties still subsist will be adopted. The analyses of the progress of research and developmental activities will be in close cooperation with the management team and the coordinators of the WPs. These analyses will consider whether (1) any research issue is resolved due to reduction of uncertainties or gain of scientific insights, (2) any new issue has to be added to the list of needed research, (3) any new process or phenomena have to be included in the general PIRT list taking into account the safety relevance and lack of knowledge, and (4) a new accident management programme has to be developed to cope with unresolved problems. Furthermore a strategy plan will be elaborated to ensure a wide consensus with the end users requirements and the objectives of SARNET research activities. (author)

  11. Implementation of accident management programmes in nuclear power plants

    good practices and developments in Member States and is intended as reference material for NPPs, as well as an information source for other organizations such as regulatory bodies. It is a follow-up to the IAEA report on Accident Management Programmes in Nuclear Power Plants, published in 1994, and reflects the considerable progress made since that time. The objective of this report is to provide a description of the elements to be addressed by the team responsible for developing and implementing a plant specific AMP at an NPP. Although it is intended primarily for use by NPP operators, utilities and their technical support organizations, it can also facilitate preparation of the relevant national regulatory requirements. Important event sequences that may lead to severe accidents shall be identified using a combination of probabilistic methods, deterministic methods and sound engineering judgement. These event sequences shall then be reviewed against a set of criteria aimed at determining which severe accidents should be addressed in the design. Potential design or procedural changes that could either reduce the likelihood of these selected events, or mitigate their consequences, should these selected events occur, shall be evaluated, and shall be implemented if reasonably practicable. Consideration shall be given to the plant full design capabilities, including the possible use of some systems (i.e. safety and non-safety systems) beyond their originally intended function and anticipated operating conditions, and the use of additional temporary systems to return the plant to a controlled state and/or to mitigate the consequences of a severe accident, provided that it can be shown that the systems are able to function in the environmental conditions to be expected. For multiunit plants, consideration shall be given to the use of available means and/or support from other units, provided that the safe operation of the other units is not compromised. Accident management

  12. EURATOM research framework programmes on reactor systems

    Deffrennes, M.; Hugon, M.; Manolatos, P.; Van Goethem, G.; Webster, S. [European Commission, DG Research J2 Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection CDMA 1/55, Brussels (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    The activities of the European Commission (EC) in the field of nuclear energy are governed by the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The research activities of the European Union (EU) are designed as multi-annual Framework Programmes (FP) managed by the European Commission. The EURATOM Research and Training Programmes cover both nuclear Fusion and Fission. EURATOM-FP6 supports the following projects: -) NULIFE project: Nuclear Plant Life Prediction; -) COVERS project: VVER Safety Research; -) PERFECT project: Prediction of Irradiation Damage Effects on Reactor Components; -) NURESIM project: European Platform for Nuclear Reactor Simulations; -)EC-SARNET project: Sustainable Integration of European Research on Severe Accident Phenomenology; -) RAPHAEL project: Reactor for Process Heat, Hydrogen and Electricity Generation; -)GCFR project: Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor; -) EUROTRANS project: Transmutation of HLW in ADS; -) JHR-CA project: Jules Horowitz Reactor Co-ordination Action; and NEPTUNO project: Nuclear European Platform of Training and University Organisations. Other parts of the EURATOM FP, covering Waste Management and Radiation Protection, as well as Fusion Energy, are not detailed in this paper.

  13. EURATOM research framework programmes on reactor systems

    The activities of the European Commission (EC) in the field of nuclear energy are governed by the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The research activities of the European Union (EU) are designed as multi-annual Framework Programmes (FP) managed by the European Commission. The EURATOM Research and Training Programmes cover both nuclear Fusion and Fission. EURATOM-FP6 supports the following projects: -) NULIFE project: Nuclear Plant Life Prediction; -) COVERS project: VVER Safety Research; -) PERFECT project: Prediction of Irradiation Damage Effects on Reactor Components; -) NURESIM project: European Platform for Nuclear Reactor Simulations; -)EC-SARNET project: Sustainable Integration of European Research on Severe Accident Phenomenology; -) RAPHAEL project: Reactor for Process Heat, Hydrogen and Electricity Generation; -)GCFR project: Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor; -) EUROTRANS project: Transmutation of HLW in ADS; -) JHR-CA project: Jules Horowitz Reactor Co-ordination Action; and NEPTUNO project: Nuclear European Platform of Training and University Organisations. Other parts of the EURATOM FP, covering Waste Management and Radiation Protection, as well as Fusion Energy, are not detailed in this paper

  14. Accident analysis in research reactors

    With the sustained development in computer technology, the possibilities of code capabilities have been enlarged substantially. Consequently, advanced safety evaluations and design optimizations that were not possible few years ago can now be performed. The challenge today is to revisit the safety features of the existing nuclear plants and particularly research reactors in order to verify that the safety requirements are still met and - when necessary - to introduce some amendments not only to meet the new requirements but also to introduce new equipment from recent development of new technologies. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an overview of the accident analysis technology applied to the research reactor, with emphasis given to the capabilities of computational tools. (author)

  15. A review of the HDR research programme

    In the German HDR (Heissdampfreaktor, hot steam reactor) reactor safety programme, experiments and simulating numerical analyses have been undertaken since 1976 to study the integrity and safety of light water reactors under operational and faulted conditions. The last experiments of the programme were conducted in 1991. The post test analyses have been finished by March 1994 and the last final reports were obtained a few months later. The report aims to inform the utilities and the regulatory body of Finland about the contents of the lokset HDR research programme and to consider the applicability of the results to safety analyses of Finnish nuclear power plants. The report centers around the thermal shock and piping component experiments within the last or third phase of the HDR programme. Investigations into severe reactor accidents, fire safety and non-destructive testing, also conducted during the third phase, are not considered. The report presents a review of the following experiment groups: E21 (crack growth under corrosive conditions, loading due to thermal stratification), E22 (leak rate and leak detection experiments of through-cracked piping), E23 (thermal transient and stratification experiments for a pipe nozzle), E31 (vibration of cracked piping due to blow down and closure of isolation valve), E32 (seismically induced vibrations of cracked piping), E33 (condensation phenomena in horizontal piping during emergency cooling). A comprehensive list of reference reports, received by VTT and containing a VTT more detailed description, is given for each experiment group. The review is focused on the loading conditions and their theoretical modelling. A comparison of theoretical and experimental results is presented for each experiment group. The safety margins are finally assessed with special reference to leak-before-break, a well known principle for assuring the integrity of primary circuit piping of nuclear power plants. (orig.) (71 figs., 5 tabs.)

  16. Spreading of Excellence in SARNET Network on Severe Accidents: The Education and Training Programme

    Sandro Paci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The SARNET2 (severe accidents Research NETwork of Excellence project started in April 2009 for 4 years in the 7th Framework Programme (FP7 of the European Commission (EC, following a similar first project in FP6. Forty-seven organisations from 24 countries network their capacities of research in the severe accident (SA field inside SARNET to resolve the most important remaining uncertainties and safety issues on SA in water-cooled nuclear power plants (NPPs. The network includes a large majority of the European actors involved in SA research plus a few non-European relevant ones. The “Education and Training” programme in SARNET is a series of actions foreseen in this network for the “spreading of excellence.” It is focused on raising the competence level of Master and Ph.D. students and young researchers engaged in SA research and on organizing information/training courses for NPP staff or regulatory authorities (but also for researchers interested in SA management procedures.

  17. Planning and implementation of nuclear research programmes

    The planning and implementation of nuclear research programmes in developed and developing countries is discussed. The main aspects of these programmes in USA, France, Japan, India and Brazil are reported. (M.W.O.)

  18. Summary and conclusions of the specialist meeting on severe accident management programme development

    The CSNI Specialist meeting on severe accident management programme development was held in Rome and about seventy experts from thirteen countries attended the meeting. A total of 27 papers were presented in four sessions, covering specific aspects of accident management programme development. It purposely focused on the programmatic aspects of accident management rather than on some of the more complex technical issues associated with accident management strategies. Some of the major observations and conclusions from the meeting are that severe accident management is the ultimate part of the defense in depth concept within the plant. It is function and success oriented, not event oriented, as the aim is to prevent or minimize consequences of severe accidents. There is no guarantee it will always be successful but experts agree that it can reduce the risks significantly. It has to be exercised and the importance of emergency drills has been underlined. The basic structure and major elements of accident management programmes appear to be similar among OECD member countries. Dealing with significant phenomenological uncertainties in establishing accident management programmes continues to be an important issue, especially in confirming the appropriateness of specific accident management strategies

  19. Severe Accident Research Program plan update

    In August 1989, the staff published NUREG-1365, ''Revised Severe Accident Research Program Plan.'' Since 1989, significant progress has been made in severe accident research to warrant an update to NUREG-1365. The staff has prepared this SARP Plan Update to: (1) Identify those issues that have been closed or are near completion, (2) Describe the progress in our understanding of important severe accident phenomena, (3) Define the long-term research that is directed at improving our understanding of severe accident phenomena and developing improved methods for assessing core melt progression, direct containment heating, and fuel-coolant interactions, and (4) Reflect the growing emphasis in two additional areas--advanced light water reactors, and support for the assessment of criteria for containment performance during severe accidents. The report describes recent major accomplishments in understanding the underlying phenomena that can occur during a severe accident. These include Mark I liner failure, severe accident scaling methodology, source term issues, core-concrete interactions, hydrogen transport and combustion, TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project, and direct containment heating. The report also describes the major planned activities under the SARP over the next several years. These activities will focus on two phenomenological issues (core melt progression, and fuel-coolant interactions and debris coolability) that have significant uncertainties that impact our understanding and ability to predict severe accident phenomena and their effect on containment performance SARP will also focus on severe accident code development, assessment and validation. As the staff completes the research on severe accident issues that relate to current generation reactors, continued research will focus on efforts to independently evaluate the capability of new advanced light water reactor designs to withstand severe accidents

  20. The severe accident research program at KIT

    The understanding of the plant behaviour under beyond design basis accidents as well as the interaction of the operators with the plant is the most important prerequisite to develop proper strategies to both control the accident progression and to minimize the radiological risk that may derive from operating nuclear power plants. In view of the Fukushima accident, a review of many issues important to safety e.g. severe accident analysis methodologies and assumptions, emergency operational procedures, severe accident management procedures (SAM), decision lines of the emergency team, etc. is needed to draw conclusions in order to avoid a repetition of Fukushima-like accidents.In addition, situations like the ‘black control room’ need to be reconsidered and a re-evaluation of the necessary instrumentation for hypothetical severe accident situations is urgently needed. If the real plant state during core meltdown accidents is unknown, no effective measures can be initiated by the emergency team in order to assure the integrity of the safety barriers and hence the release of radioactive material to the environment. The work performed in this area is integrated in the European Networks such as SARNET (Severe Accident Research Network) for the severe accidents, and for emergency management in the NERIS-TP. In future all the activities will be included in the NUGENIA platform. A brief overview of the KIT activities together with the experimental test facilities is given

  1. Research programme on radioactive wastes

    This report for the Swiss Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (DETEC) takes a look at work done within the framework of the research programme on radioactive wastes. The paper discusses the development of various projects and the associated organisations involved. Both long-term and short-term topics are examined. The long-term aspects of handling radioactive wastes include organisation and financing as well as the preservation of know-how and concepts for marking the repositories. Communication with the general public on the matter is looked at along with public perception, opinion-making and acceptance. Waste storage concepts are looked at in detail and aspects such as environmental protection, monitoring concepts, retrievability and encasement materials are discussed. Finally, ethical and legal aspects of radioactive waste repositories are examined. The paper is completed with appendixes dealing with planning, co-ordination and the responsibilities involved

  2. GSI research and development programme 1986

    In this report the programme of the GSI Darmstadt concerning heavy ion research is described. Especially discussed are the projects of a synchrotron and a storage ring for heavy ions. Then the research programme at the UNILAC concerning nuclear and atomic heavy ion research and applications to biology and materials research are described. Furthermore the development of accelerators, targets, and detectors are considered. (HSI)

  3. EC-sponsored research activities on accident management measures

    The European Commission (EC) is currently funding, via the 1994-1998 R and D Framework Programme, a number of activities in the field of Nuclear Fission Safety (NFS), and particularly in several areas related to 'Reactor Safety Severe Accidents'. This programme continues the research activities of the previous Community Reactor Safety Programme which was carried out as a Reinforced Concerted Action (RCA) during the period 1992-1995. The group of multi-partners projects selected for financial support from the EC under Area B.5.1 of the current NFS Programme, 'Supporting Activities / Accident Management Measures' (known as the 'AMM' cluster) are basically aiming at implementing the results of severe accident research into practical Accident Management (AM) strategies. The generic objective is to exchange information and to develop a common European approach regarding aspects such as phenomena related uncertainties, possible adverse effects of operator actions on the progression of the accident, interpretation of measurements, equipment performance, instrument survival and human error under stress. This paper briefly discusses the objectives and achievements of a completed project of the 1992-1995 RCA, known as 'Accident Management Support' ('AMS'), and also presents the current status of an on-going project of the 1994-1998 NFS Programme, 'Algorithm support for accident identification and Critical safety Functions signal validation' ('ASIA'). The objectives of the 'AMS' project were (i) to define, investigate and develop means and methods to provide reliable information and diagnostics, as well as support tools for accident management, and (ii) investigate the different signal validation methodologies with emphasis on the existing instrumentation rather than on new instrumentation needs. The work started with the writing of two state-of-the-art reports (SOARs) in these two areas. In parallel to the compilation of the SOARs, and later in a second phase, specific

  4. IAEA programme on research reactor safety

    This paper describes the IAEA programme on research reactor safety and includes the safety related areas of conversions to the use of low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The program is based on the IAEA statutory responsibilities as they apply to the requirements of over 320 research reactors operating around the world. The programme covers four major areas: (a) the development of safety documents; (b) safety missions to research reactor facilities; (c) support of research programmes on research reactor safety; (d) support of Technical Cooperation projects on research reactor safety issues. The demand for these activities by the IAEA member states has increased substantially in recent years especially in developing countries with increasing emphasis being placed on LEU conversion matters. In response to this demand, the IAEA has undertaken an extensive programme for each of the four areas above. (author)

  5. A training simulator to support the Loviisa VVER-440 severe accident management programme

    A simulation tool for training operators and technical support personnel for severe accidents is being developed at VTT. The system will be accomplished by implementing severe accident models into the APROS - Advanced Process Simulator - environment, which already includes a model of the Loviisa VVER-440 plant. The system development is closely coupled with the plant severe accident management programme. The Loviisa severe accident management programme consists of four high level actions: primary system depressurization, retention of molten core within the pressure vessel, hydrogen control and containment external spray cooling. The training system will at the first stage simulate in simple terms the key phenomena associated with these actions and their effect on the plant response. The paper describes the system objectives, outline and modelling philosophy

  6. Severe accident aerosol research in Finland

    The retention of fission products in the steam generator tubing and in the secondary side is poorly understood at the moment. Most experimental programs have concentrated on the initial stages of deposition. Much less attention has been paid to the situations when deposition-resuspension-revaporisation are important as the deposit layers are getting thicker. The understanding of fission product deposition in realistic steam generator conditions is needed to design efficient accident management procedures. For example if there is large deposition already in the ruptured pipe(s), the accident management procedure is different from the case where most deposition would occur in the secondary side. This is considered very important because steam generator tube rupture sequences are included in the risk dominant sequences. Aerosol deposition has been studied widely in laboratory scale. However, most of the studies have concentrated on situations where the deposit layer is thin and do not significantly affect the process. In severe accident applications the most important deposition studies have been LACE, STORM, TUBA, TRANSAT and AIDA programmes. None of these tests considered steam generator conditions. Thus we can say that there is basic knowledge on aerosol deposition and removal from gas streams in water pools, but it can not be applied directly to steam generator tube rupture cases. At the moment the effectiveness of such accident management procedures as secondary side flooding can not be verified as there is no experimental data and the models in severe accident codes are poor or non-existing. As a results of this work we will get data on deposition in the tubing, in the break location and in the secondary side. Experiments will be performed in horizontal steam generators (VVER reactors). (orig.)

  7. International programme to mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident: Establishment of an international centre

    In April 1990, an agreement was signed between the WHO and the USSR Ministry of Health to set up a long-term international programme to assist the populations affected by the Chernobyl accident, as well as to increase the body of scientific knowledge about radiation effects. This report outlines the contents of the agreement and describes the action taken by the WHO to implement the programme

  8. Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme bibliography, 1990

    This bibliography lists reports and papers written as part of the Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme, which is concerned with disposal of low-level and intermediate-level waste (LLW and ILW) and associated radiological assessments. (author)

  9. Finnish research programmes on nuclear power plant safety

    The current Finnish national research programme on nuclear power plant safety SAFIR2010 for the years 2007-2010 as well as the coming SAFIR2014 programme for the years 2011-2014 are based on the chapter 7a, 'Ensuring expertise', of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act. The objective of this chapter is realised in the research work and education of experts in the projects of these research programmes. SAFIR2010 research programme is divided in eight research areas that are Organisation and human, Automation and control room, Fuel and reactor physics, Thermal hydraulics, Severe accidents, Structural safety of reactor circuit, Construction safety, and Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA). All the research areas include both projects in their own area and interdisciplinary co-operational projects. Research projects of the programme are chosen on the basis of annual call for proposals. In 2010 research is carried out in 33 projects in SAFIR2010. VTT is the responsible research organisation in 26 of these projects and VTT is also the coordination unit of SAFIR2010 and SAFIR2014. In 2007-2009 SAFIR2010 produced 497 Specified research results (Deliverables), 618 Publications, and 33 Academic degrees. SAFIR2010 programme covers approximately half of the reactor safety research volume in Finland currently. In 2010 the programme volume is EUR 7.1 million and 47 person years. The major funding partners are VYR with EUR 2.96 million, VTT with EUR 2.66 million, Fortum with EUR 0.28 million, TVO with EUR 0.19 million, NKS with EUR 0.15 million, EU with only EUR 0.03 million and other partners with EUR 0.85 million. The new decisions-in-principle on Olkiluoto unit 4 for Teollisuuden Voima and new nuclear power plant for Fennovoima ratified by the Finnish Parliament on 1 July 2010 increase the annual funding collected according to the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act from Fennovoima, Fortum and Teollisuuden Voima for the SAFIR2014 programme to EUR 5.2 million from the current level of EUR 3

  10. UKAEA underlying research programme annual report

    Investment in fundamental research is essential to the success of an organisation such as Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) Technology whose business is the selling of Research and Development (R and D) and the services relating to it. Such research supplies the scientific understanding that underpins the technical expertise of the organisation, develops new skills and techniques, and stimulates technical innovation. The resulting scientific and technical excellence is the hall-mark of a major contract R and D organisation. Fundamental research in the AEA is co-ordinated through the Underlying Research Programme. This Report describes progress made during the financial year 1988/89 within all Technical Areas of the Programme, and additionally summarises the AEA's Underlying Research on the Safe Integral Reactor design and on 'Cold Fusion'. Highlights of recent technical achievements within the Programme are described in a separate brochure. (author)

  11. Interactions of severe accident research and regulatory positions (ISARRP)

    Sehgal, B.R. (comp.) [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Nuclear Power Safety

    2001-12-01

    The work Programme of the ISARRP Project was divided into several work packages. The work was conducted in the form of presentations and discussions, held during several meetings whose character was that of workshops. Short reports were prepared by the partners assigned to each task. Work Package 1: Critical review of the SA phenomenological research. The objective of this work package was to consider the progress made world-wide in research on the resolution of the outstanding phenomenological issues posed by severe accidents. Work Package 2: Relevance of severe accident research to SAMG requirements and implementation. The objective of this work package was to relate the progress made in the resolution of the SA issues to the practical matter of what results are required or have been used for the management of severe accidents. Clearly, the SAMG is the most important avenue employed by the regulatory organizations to assure themselves of the safe (from public perspective) performance of a nuclear plant in a postulated severe accident event. Work Package 3: Relevance of severe accident research to PSA and the risk informed regulatory approach. The objectives of this work package is to relate the results obtained by the severe accident research to the requirements of a PSA and of the new trend of employing the risk informed approach in promulgating regulations. Clearly a PSA identifies vulnerabilities in the knowledge base, however, their importance is decidedly plant specific. Nevertheless the uncertainties in the phenomenology or in resolution of issues lead to uncertainties in the PSA conclusions and in the adoption of the risk informed approach. Work Package 4: Questionnaire and the evaluation of responses to the questions. The purpose of this work package is to solicit the views of the regulatory organizations towards the results of the SA research and the benefits they have derived from it in terms of regulatory actions, or in the confidence they have gained

  12. Interactions of severe accident research and regulatory positions (ISARRP)

    The work Programme of the ISARRP Project was divided into several work packages. The work was conducted in the form of presentations and discussions, held during several meetings whose character was that of workshops. Short reports were prepared by the partners assigned to each task. Work Package 1: Critical review of the SA phenomenological research. The objective of this work package was to consider the progress made world-wide in research on the resolution of the outstanding phenomenological issues posed by severe accidents. Work Package 2: Relevance of severe accident research to SAMG requirements and implementation. The objective of this work package was to relate the progress made in the resolution of the SA issues to the practical matter of what results are required or have been used for the management of severe accidents. Clearly, the SAMG is the most important avenue employed by the regulatory organizations to assure themselves of the safe (from public perspective) performance of a nuclear plant in a postulated severe accident event. Work Package 3: Relevance of severe accident research to PSA and the risk informed regulatory approach. The objectives of this work package is to relate the results obtained by the severe accident research to the requirements of a PSA and of the new trend of employing the risk informed approach in promulgating regulations. Clearly a PSA identifies vulnerabilities in the knowledge base, however, their importance is decidedly plant specific. Nevertheless the uncertainties in the phenomenology or in resolution of issues lead to uncertainties in the PSA conclusions and in the adoption of the risk informed approach. Work Package 4: Questionnaire and the evaluation of responses to the questions. The purpose of this work package is to solicit the views of the regulatory organizations towards the results of the SA research and the benefits they have derived from it in terms of regulatory actions, or in the confidence they have gained

  13. Severe accident assessment. Results of the reactor safety research project VAHTI

    The report provides a summary of the publicly funded nuclear reactor safety research project Severe Accident Management (VAHTI). The project has been conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) during the years 1994-96. The main objective was to assist the severe accident management programmes of the Finnish nuclear power plants. The project was divided into five work packages: (1) thermal hydraulic validation of the APROS code, (2) core melt progression within a BWR pressure vessel, (3) failure mode of the BWR pressure vessel, (4) Aerosol behaviour experiments, and (5) development of a computerized severe accident training tool

  14. Radiation protection research and training programme review radiation protection programme 1960-89 synopsis of results 1985-89

    This document aims to trace the evolution of the CEC radiation protection programme over its 30 years of existence. During this time, research carried out in the framework of the Community programme has made major contributions to the scientific understanding of the action of ionizing radiation and the protection of man and his environment. This information was crucial for developing better radiation protection management for existing and new technologies and for providing the scientific basis for the regulatory activities of the Commission. One important feature of the programme was the success of bringing together scientists from different Member States to cooperate in the various fields of radiation protection and to integrate different areas of radiation protection research into a coherent approach. The structures thus developed within the programme have enabled research in radiation protection to be conducted in a cost-effective manner on behalf of the Member States. This document aims also to give a synopsis of the most important results of the 1985-89 radiation protection programme. This period was characterized by two challenges, the integration of two Member States into Community research and the impact of the Chernobyl accident. The programme has, in spite of reduced funding, continued to provide a high degree of expertise for the Community in the context of the needs in radiation protection. This has been explicity acknowledged in the evaluation of the 1980-89 programmes carried out by an independent panel

  15. Sustainable integration of EU research in severe accident phenomenology and management

    Highlights: → The SARNET network gathers most worldwide actors involved in severe accident research. → It defines common research programmes for resolving the most important pending safety issues. → It optimises the use of the available European resources and constitutes sustainable research groups. → It disseminates the knowledge on severe accidents through education courses. → Knowledge produced is capitalized through physical models in the ASTEC simulation code. - Abstract: In order to optimise the use of the available means and to constitute sustainable research groups in the European Union, the Severe Accident Research NETwork of Excellence (SARNET) has gathered, between 2004 and 2008, 51 organizations representing most of the actors involved in severe accident (SA) research in Europe plus Canada. This project was co-funded by the European Commission (EC) under the 6th Euratom Framework Programme. Its objective was to resolve the most important pending issues for enhancing, in regard of SA, the safety of existing and future nuclear power plants (NPPs). SARNET tackled the fragmentation that existed between the national R and D programmes, in defining common research programmes and developing common computer codes and methodologies for safety assessment. The Joint Programme of Activities consisted in: -Implementing an advanced communication tool for accessing all project information, fostering exchange of information, and managing documents; - Harmonizing and re-orienting the research programmes, and defining new ones; -Analyzing the experimental results provided by research programmes in order to elaborate a common understanding of relevant phenomena; -Developing the ASTEC code (integral computer code used to predict the NPP behaviour during a postulated SA) by capitalizing in terms of physical models the knowledge produced within SARNET; - Developing scientific databases, in which the results of research experimental programmes are stored in a common

  16. Radiation protection research and training programme, radiation protection programme revision 1988-89, post-Chernobyl actions executive summaries

    The CEC radiation protection research programme has taken several important initiatives to address the scientific problems created by the Chernobyl accident. It has defined additional research requirements, reoriented some existing research contracts and strategically placed some new contracts. It also asked for a revision of the current 1985-89 programme to deal with some particularly urgent issues: evaluation of data on the transfer of radionuclides in the food chain; improvement of reliable long-distance atmospheric transport models; radiological aspects of nuclear accident scenarios: (a) real-time emergency response systems, (b) the RADE-AID system; monitoring and surveillance in accident situations; underlying data for derived emergency reference levels; improvement of practical countermeasures against nuclear contamination in the agricultural environment; improvement of practical countermeasures against nuclear contamination in the urban environment; improvement of practical countermeasures: preventive medication; treatment and biological dosimetry of exposed persons; feasibility of studies on health effects due to the reactor accident at Chernobyl. This synopsis aims to present, in an easily understandable way, the rationale for and the principal results of the research undertaken in this area. As a whole, this research has considerably improved Community ability to handle such emergency situations and has developed the cohesion of Community science

  17. Sustainable integration of EU research in severe accident phenomenology and management (SARNET2 project)

    In order to optimise the use of the available means and to constitute sustainable research groups in the European Union, the Severe Accident Research NETwork of Excellence (SARNET) has gathered 51 organisations representing most of the actors involved in Severe Accident (SA) research in Europe plus Canada. This project was co-funded by the European Commission (EC) under the 6th Euratom Framework Programme. Its objective was to resolve the most important pending issues for enhancing, in regard of SA, the safety of existing and future Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). SARNET tackled the fragmentation that existed between the national R and D programmes, in defining common research programmes and developing common computer codes for safety assessment. The Joint Programme of Activities consisted in: (i) Implementing an advanced communication tool for accessing all project information, fostering exchange of information, and managing documents; (ii) Harmonizing and re-orienting the research programmes, and defining new ones; (iii) Analyzing the experimental results provided by research programmes in order to elaborate a common understanding of relevant phenomena; (iv) Developing the ASTEC code (integral computer code used to predict the NPP behaviour during a postulated SA) by integrating the knowledge produced within SARNET; (v) Developing Scientific Databases, in which the results of research experimental programmes are stored in a common format; (vi) Developing a common methodology for Probabilistic Safety Assessment of NPPs; (vii) Developing short courses and writing a text book on Severe Accidents for students and researchers; (viii) Promoting personnel mobility amongst various European organizations. This paper presents the major achievements after four and a half years of operation of the network, in terms of knowledge gained, of improvements of the ASTEC reference code, of dissemination of results and of integration of the research programmes conducted by the various

  18. Severe accident research in the UK

    Severe Accident R and D in the UK builds on more than 25 years experience and for the PWR is firmly committed to international collaboration. The focus for the work has been the support for a comprehensive Level 3 PSA for Sizewell 'B'. The paper outlines the particular contributions that the UK has made to research in direct containment heating, steam explosions, fission product behaviour and code development and assessment. (author)

  19. Fusion research programme in India

    Shishir Deshpande; Predhiman Kaw

    2013-10-01

    The fusion energy research program of India is summarized in the context of energy needs and scenario of tokamak advancements on domestic and international fronts. In particular, the various technologies that will lead us to ultimately build a fusion power reactor are identified along with the steps being taken for their indigenous development.

  20. Research programme 1978-1980

    Description of basic and application-minded research projects on dispersion and transport processes in flows: A) Turbulent diffusion processes in bodies of water, B) transport processes in bodies of water, C) diffusion and transport processes in dammed-up water and groundwater, D) development of new methods of measurement for turbulent flows. (GL)

  1. Nuclear power plant Severe Accident Research Plan

    The Severe Accident Research Plan (SARP) will provide technical information necessary to support regulatory decisions in the severe accident area for existing or planned nuclear power plants, and covers research for the time period of January 1982 through January 1986. SARP will develop generic bases to determine how safe the plants are and where and how their level of safety ought to be improved. The analysis to address these issues will be performed using improved probabilistic risk assessment methodology, as benchmarked to more exact data and analysis. There are thirteen program elements in the plan and the work is phased in two parts, with the first phase being completed in early 1984, at which time an assessment will be made whether or not any major changes will be recommended to the Commission for operating plants to handle severe accidents. Additionally at this time, all of the thirteen program elements in Chapter 5 will be reviewed and assessed in terms of how much additional work is necessary and where major impacts in probabilistic risk assessment might be achieved. Confirmatory research will be carried out in phase II to provide additional assurance on the appropriateness of phase I decisions. Most of this work will be concluded by early 1986

  2. ITER operations and research programme

    As part of the documentation of the ITER Conceptual Design Activities, this report describes the operations and research program of the ITER project. The project is divided into two phases: physics, and technology. Descriptions of the operations during the two phases, including experimental goals, are described. Included is a description of the three phases involving different activation resulting from fusion reactions. The operational flexibility and technological testing programs are described. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Plutonium contaminated materials research programme

    The paper is a progress report for 1985 from the Plutonium Contaminated Materials Working Party (PCMWP). The PCMWP co-ordinates research and development on a national basis in the areas of management, treatment and immobilisation of plutonium contaminated materials, for the purpose of waste management. The progress report contains a review of the development work carried out in eight areas, including: reduction of arisings, plutonium measurement, sorting and packaging, washing of shredded combustible PCM, decommissioning and non-combustible PCM treatment, PCM immobilisation, treatment of alpha bearing liquid wastes, and engineering objectives. (UK)

  4. RETU. The Finnish research programme on reactor safety. Interim report 1995 - May 1997

    Vanttola, T.; Puska, E.K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Energy] [eds.

    1997-08-01

    The Finnish national research programme on Reactor Safety (RETU, 1995-1998) concentrates on the search of safe limits of nuclear fuel and the reactor core, accident management methods and risk management of the operation of nuclear power plants. The annual volume of the programme has been about 26 person years and the annual funding FIM 15 million. This report summarises the structure and objectives of the programme, research fields included and the main results obtained during the period 1995 - May 1997. In the field of operational margins of a nuclear reactor, the behaviour of high burnup nuclear fuel is studied both in normal operation and during power transients. The static and dynamic reactor analysis codes are developed and validated to cope with new fuel designs and complicated three-dimensional reactivity transients and accidents. Research on accident management aims at development and validation of calculation methods needed to plan preventive measures and to train the personnel to severe accident mitigation. Other goals are to reduce uncertainties in phenomena important in severe accidents and to study actions planned for accident management. In the field of risk management probabilistic methods are developed for safety related decision making and for complex phenomena and event sequences. Effects of maintenance on nuclear power plant safety are studied and more effective methods for the assessment of human reliability and safety critical organisations are searched. 135 refs.

  5. RETU. The Finnish research programme on reactor safety. Interim report 1995 - May 1997

    The Finnish national research programme on Reactor Safety (RETU, 1995-1998) concentrates on the search of safe limits of nuclear fuel and the reactor core, accident management methods and risk management of the operation of nuclear power plants. The annual volume of the programme has been about 26 person years and the annual funding FIM 15 million. This report summarises the structure and objectives of the programme, research fields included and the main results obtained during the period 1995 - May 1997. In the field of operational margins of a nuclear reactor, the behaviour of high burnup nuclear fuel is studied both in normal operation and during power transients. The static and dynamic reactor analysis codes are developed and validated to cope with new fuel designs and complicated three-dimensional reactivity transients and accidents. Research on accident management aims at development and validation of calculation methods needed to plan preventive measures and to train the personnel to severe accident mitigation. Other goals are to reduce uncertainties in phenomena important in severe accidents and to study actions planned for accident management. In the field of risk management probabilistic methods are developed for safety related decision making and for complex phenomena and event sequences. Effects of maintenance on nuclear power plant safety are studied and more effective methods for the assessment of human reliability and safety critical organisations are searched

  6. The role of SKI in the severe accident management programme in Sweden

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) has responsibilities in all regulatory aspects of the licensing and operation of nuclear reactors. The twelve Swedish reactors have all implemented technical as well as procedural features for the avoidance and mitigation of the consequences of severe accidents. Work is presently in progress to further develop accident management as well as to further reinforce the basis of knowledge in order to verify measures taken. In the event of an accident, SKI has a specific duty to provide an independent assessment of the potential course of the accident in order to assist regional authorities in making decisions on emergency actions. This paper accounts for SKI's past and present efforts in the severe accident management programme. In all parts of reactor operation human factor aspects are essential, and so indeed in severe accident management. The paper brings forward these aspects in the SKI programme. In conclusion: In war it is common sense that you can only trust proven equipment and trained organizations. The same applies to Severe Accident Management. Technical equipment must be adequate and operable. Tools must be logical, clean cut, easy to find, easy to use and if possible easy to learn. The organization should be clear with regard to distribution of authority and responsibility, have short links of communication, be easy to mobilize and be staffed with competent and dedicated people who are well trained to their tasks. Preparedness against nuclear accidents must always be a consideration in daily operational work. Ensuring that good conditions exist for accident management is one important objective of SKI's assessment. Another is the analysis of organizational behaviour in emergency situations. A frequent conclusion of accident analysis is the major role played by the human factor. It is not hard to find examples where accident management decisions have been taken too soon, on the basis of insufficient information

  7. European Union research in safety of LWRs with emphasis on accident management measures

    On April 26th 1994 the European Union (EU) adopted via a Council Decision a multiannual programme for community activities in the field of nuclear research and training for the period 1994 to 1998. This programme continued the EU research activities of the 1992-1995 Reactor Safety Programme which was carried out as a Reinforced Concerted Action (RCA), and which covered mainly research activities in the area of severe accident phenomena, both for the existing and next-generation light water reactors. The 1994-1998 Framework programme includes activities regarding Research and Technological Development (R and TD), such as demonstration projects, international cooperation, dissemination and optimization of results, as well as training, in a wide range of scientific fields, including nuclear fission safety and controlled thermonuclear fusion. The 1994-1998 specific programme for nuclear fission safety has five main activity areas: (i) Exploring Innovative Approaches, (ii) Reactor Safety, (iii) Radioactive Waste Management, Disposal, and Decommissioning, (iv) Radiological Impact on Man and Environment, and (v) Mastering Events of the past. The specific topics included in this work programme were chosen in consultation with the EU Joint Research Centres (JRC), and with experts in the different fields taking into account the needs of the end users of the Community research, i.e. vendors, utilities and licensing and regulators authorities. This paper briefly discusses the objectives and achievements of the 1992-1995 RCA and also describes the projects being (or to be) implemented as part of the 1994-1995 programme in the areas of Reactor Safety/Severe Accidents, particularly those related to Accident Management (AM) Measures. In addition to this, some relevant projects related to AM which have been funded via independent PHARE/TACIS assistance programmes will also be mentioned

  8. Current severe accident research facilities and projects

    The Working Group on the Analysis and Management of Accidents (GAMA) is mainly composed of technical specialists in the areas of coolant system thermal-hydraulics, in-vessel protection, containment protection, and fission product retention. Its general functions include the exchange of information on national and international activities in these areas, the exchange of detailed technical information, and the discussion of progress achieved in respect of specific technical issues. Severe accident management is one of the important tasks of the group. This document is an update of the 'Current Severe Accident Research Facilities and Projects' list. Facilities and projects are sorted according to the following criteria: In-Vessel Phenomena: Core Degradation and Melt Progression, Molten Core Debris Interaction with the Reactor Pressure Vessel Lower Head and Mechanical Behaviour of Reactor Pressure Vessel Lower Head; In-Vessel and Ex-Vessel Molten Fuel/Coolant Interactions; Ex-Vessel Phenomena: Molten Core Debris/Concrete Interactions, Molten Core/Ceramic Interaction, Melt Release (including DCH), Melt Spreading and Catching Devices Studies, Melt Coolability, Corium Melt properties; Hydrogen Transport and Combustion: Mixing and Distribution, Deflagration, Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition, Passive Recombiner Performance; Mechanical Behaviour of Reactor Pressure Vessel Lower Head; Containment Structural Integrity: Containment Failure Experiment and Analysis, Material Properties and Structural Behaviour, Containment Thermal-Hydraulics, Containment Cooling, Cable Penetration Integrity; Fission Products and Aerosols: Effects of Specific Elements on Iodine Volatility, Release of Low-Volatility Fission Products/Late In-Vessel Fission Product Release, Reactor Materials Release, Aerosol and Iodine Behaviour in Reactor Coolant System and Containment, Retention, Resuspension and Revaporization in Primary Circuit, Aerosol Nucleation and Transport, Source Term, Containment

  9. Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health'

    on this information, to provide authoritative statements and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. An additional purpose of the Forum was to provide the information in non-scientific, appropriate languages (Russian and English) to the affected populations. Under the Forum's auspices, the WHO's Radiation and Environmental Health Programme convened a series of international scientific expert meetings. They included scientists of international repute who had been conducting research on Chernobyl. This report is the outcome of WHO's contribution to the Forum. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) review of the scientific literature on Chernobyl health effects published in 2000 was used in this review and updated with more recent information. Many lessons have been learned from the Chernobyl accident and preparations have been made to respond to and mitigate future accidents. An international system of response to nuclear emergencies and radiological accidents has been established, including the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Response Network. Over the past 20 years, people in the three affected countries have come a long way in Overcoming the consequences of the accident. Providing the public and key professionals with accurate information about the health and environmental consequences of the disaster should be a high priority. This report is the result of a sound scientific evaluation of the available evidence and provides a firm basis for moving forward

  10. EURATOM Research Framework Programme on Reactor Systems

    The activities of the European Commission (EC) in the field of nuclear energy are governed by the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The research activities of the European Union (EU) are designed as multi-annual Framework Programmes (FP). The EURATOM 6. Framework Programme (EURATOM FP -6), covering the period 2002-2006, is funded with a budget of 1, 230 million Euros and managed by the European Commission. Beyond the general strategic goal of the EURATOM Framework Programmes to help exploit the potential of nuclear energy, in a safe and sustainable manner, FP -6 is designed to contribute also to the development of the 'European Research Area' (ERA), a concept described in the Commission's Communication COM(2000)6, of January 2000. Moreover EURATOM FP-6 contributes to the creation of the conditions for sharing the same nuclear safety culture throughout the EU-25 and the Candidate Countries, fostering the acceptance of nuclear power as an element of the energy mix. This paper gives an overview of the research activities undertaken through EURATOM FP-6 in the area of Reactor Systems, covering the safety of present reactors, the development of future safe reactors, and the needs in terms of research infrastructures and education and training. The actions under FP-6 are presented in their continuity of actions under FP-5. The perspectives under FP -7 are also provided. Other parts of the EURATOM FP, covering Waste Handling and Radiation Protection, as well as Fusion Energy, are not detailed in this paper. (authors)

  11. Perspective on post-Fukushima severe accident research

    After the Fukushima Daiichi accident in March 2011 several investigation committees issued reports with lessons learned from the accident, in which some recommendations on severe accident research are included. The review of specific severe accident research items had already started before Fukushima accident in working group of Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) in terms of significance of consequences, uncertainties of phenomena and maturity of assessment methodology. Re-investigation started after the Fukushima accident in this working group to cover additional effects of Fukushima accident, such as core degradation behaviors, sea water injection, containment failure/leakage and re-criticality. The review results are categorized in nine major fields; core degradation behavior, core melt coolability/retention in containment vessel, function of containment vessel, source term, hydrogen behavior, fuel-coolant interaction, molten core concrete interaction, recriticality and instrumentation in severe accident conditions. In January 2012, in collaboration with this working group, Research Expert Committee on Evaluation of Severe Accident was established in AESJ in order to investigate severe accident related issues for future LWR development. Based on these activities and also author's personal view, the present paper describes the seven important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident. They are (1) investigation of damaged core and components, (2) advanced severe accident analysis capabilities and associated experimental investigations, (3) development of reliable passive cooling system for core/containment, (4) analysis of hydrogen behavior and investigation of hydrogen measures, (5) enhancement of removal function of radioactive materials of containment venting, (6) advanced instrumentation for the diagnosis of severe accident and (7) assessment of advanced containment design which exchides long-term evacuation in any severe accident situations

  12. Analysis and research status of severe core damage accidents

    The Severe Core Damage Research and Analysis Task Force was established in Nuclear Safety Research Center, Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI, in May, 1982 to make a quantitative analysis on the issues related with the severe core damage accident and also to survey the present status of the research and provide the required research subjects on the severe core damage accident. This report summarizes the results of the works performed by the Task Force during last one and half years. The main subjects investigated are as follows; (1) Discussion on the purposes and necessities of severe core damage accident research, (2) proposal of phenomenological research subjects required in Japan, (3) analysis of severe core damage accidents and identification of risk dominant accident sequences, (4) investigation of significant physical phenomena in severe core damage accidents, and (5) survey of the research status. (author)

  13. The Russian nuclear data research programme

    The report contains the Russian programme of nuclear data research, approved by the Russian Nuclear Data Committee on 16 December 1994. It gives surveys on nuclear data needs, on the structure of nuclear data activities, on experimental facilities for nuclear data measurements at five Russian institutes, on theoretical model work, nuclear data evaluation, and nuclear data testing. It describes four Russian nuclear data centers and their relations to the International Nuclear Data Centres Network, and their holdings of nuclear data libraries of Russian and international origin. A summary of nuclear data applications in energy and non-energy fields is given. An appendix contains a detail nuclear data research programme for the years 1995 - 2005. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs

  14. Advances in operational safety and severe accident research

    Simola, K. [VTT Automation (Finland)

    2002-02-01

    A project on reactor safety was carried out as a part of the NKS programme during 1999-2001. The objective of the project was to obtain a shared Nordic view of certain key safety issues related to the operating nuclear power plants in Finland and Sweden. The focus of the project was on selected central aspects of nuclear reactor safety that are of common interest for the Nordic nuclear authorities, utilities and research bodies. The project consisted of three sub-projects. One of them concentrated on the problems related to risk-informed deci- sion making, especially on the uncertainties and incompleteness of probabilistic safety assessments and their impact on the possibilities to use the PSA results in decision making. Another sub-project dealt with questions related to maintenance, such as human and organisational factors in maintenance and maintenance management. The focus of the third sub-project was on severe accidents. This sub-project concentrated on phenomenological studies of hydrogen combustion, formation of organic iodine, and core re-criticality due to molten core coolant interaction in the lower head of reactor vessel. Moreover, the current status of severe accident research and management was reviewed. (au)

  15. Advances in operational safety and severe accident research

    A project on reactor safety was carried out as a part of the NKS programme during 1999-2001. The objective of the project was to obtain a shared Nordic view of certain key safety issues related to the operating nuclear power plants in Finland and Sweden. The focus of the project was on selected central aspects of nuclear reactor safety that are of common interest for the Nordic nuclear authorities, utilities and research bodies. The project consisted of three sub-projects. One of them concentrated on the problems related to risk-informed deci- sion making, especially on the uncertainties and incompleteness of probabilistic safety assessments and their impact on the possibilities to use the PSA results in decision making. Another sub-project dealt with questions related to maintenance, such as human and organisational factors in maintenance and maintenance management. The focus of the third sub-project was on severe accidents. This sub-project concentrated on phenomenological studies of hydrogen combustion, formation of organic iodine, and core re-criticality due to molten core coolant interaction in the lower head of reactor vessel. Moreover, the current status of severe accident research and management was reviewed. (au)

  16. Swiss Biomass Programme - Overview report on the 2007 research programme; Programm Biomasse: Ueberblicksbericht zum Forschungsprogramm 2007

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2008-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of the results obtained in 2007 within the framework of the Swiss Biomass research programme. The potential for biomass use in Switzerland is reviewed and the emphases of the national programme are discussed. The results obtained are noted for the following areas: process optimisation, including - amongst others - particle emissions and control aspects as well as combined wood-pellets and solar heating systems. Projects involving non-wood biomass are reported on, including biomass digesters and various biogas systems. Further reports deal with the analysis and optimisation of material flows, organic pollutants and methane losses. New conversion technologies are reported on. Further reports deal with basic strategies and concepts in the area of biomass usage. National and international co-operation is also discussed. A selection of innovative pilot and demonstration projects is also presented and research and development projects are listed.

  17. UKAEA underlying research programme annual report

    Work from all technical areas of the Authority's underlying research programme is described. This is typically in the form of an interim progress report for the year April 1987 to March 1988. The seventeen chapters report research into radiation damage, fracture studies, chemical effects at surfaces, surface physics and corrosion, fluid mechanics and heat transfer, nuclear studies, neutron beam studies, theoretical sciences, instrumentation, reactor physics and control, fabrication processes, laser isotope separation, nuclear fuel cycle studies, quantum electronics, radiological protection, and miscellaneous underlying research. (author)

  18. FFUSION research programme 1993-1998. Final report of the Finnish fusion research programme

    Karttunen, S.; Heikkinen, J.; Korhonen, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)] [and others

    1998-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of the Fusion Energy Research Programme, FFUSION, during the period 1993-1998. After the planning phase the programme started in 1994, and later in March 1995 the FFUSION Programme was integrated into the EU Fusion Programme and the Association Euratom-Tekes was established. Research areas in the FFUSION Programme are (1) fusion physics and plasma engineering, (2) fusion reactor materials and (3) remote handling systems. In all research areas industry is involved. Recently, a project on environmental aspects of fusion and other future energy systems started as a part of the socio-economic research (SERF) in the Euratom Fusion Programme. A crucial component of the FFUSION programme is the close collaboration between VTT Research Institutes, universities and Finnish industry. This collaboration has guaranteed dynamic and versatile research teams, which are large enough to tackle challenging research and development projects. Regarding industrial fusion R and D activities, the major step was the membership of Imatran Voima Oy in the EFET Consortium (European Fusion Engineering and Technology), which further strengthened the position of industry in the engineering design activities of ITER. The number of FFUSION research projects was 66. In addition, there were 32 industrial R and D projects. The total cost of the FFUSION Programme in 1993-1998 amounted to FIM 54 million in research at VTT and universities and an additional FIM 21 million for R and D in Finnish industry. The main part of the funding was provided by Tekes, 36%. Since 1995, yearly Euratom funding has exceeded 25%. The FFUSION research teams have played an active role in the European Programme, receiving excellent recognition from the European partners. Theoretical and computational fusion physics has been at a high scientific level and the group collaborates with the leading experimental laboratories in Europe. Fusion technology is focused on reactor materials, joining

  19. FFUSION research programme 1993-1998. Final report of the Finnish fusion research programme

    This report summarizes the results of the Fusion Energy Research Programme, FFUSION, during the period 1993-1998. After the planning phase the programme started in 1994, and later in March 1995 the FFUSION Programme was integrated into the EU Fusion Programme and the Association Euratom-Tekes was established. Research areas in the FFUSION Programme are (1) fusion physics and plasma engineering, (2) fusion reactor materials and (3) remote handling systems. In all research areas industry is involved. Recently, a project on environmental aspects of fusion and other future energy systems started as a part of the socio-economic research (SERF) in the Euratom Fusion Programme. A crucial component of the FFUSION programme is the close collaboration between VTT Research Institutes, universities and Finnish industry. This collaboration has guaranteed dynamic and versatile research teams, which are large enough to tackle challenging research and development projects. Regarding industrial fusion R and D activities, the major step was the membership of Imatran Voima Oy in the EFET Consortium (European Fusion Engineering and Technology), which further strengthened the position of industry in the engineering design activities of ITER. The number of FFUSION research projects was 66. In addition, there were 32 industrial R and D projects. The total cost of the FFUSION Programme in 1993-1998 amounted to FIM 54 million in research at VTT and universities and an additional FIM 21 million for R and D in Finnish industry. The main part of the funding was provided by Tekes, 36%. Since 1995, yearly Euratom funding has exceeded 25%. The FFUSION research teams have played an active role in the European Programme, receiving excellent recognition from the European partners. Theoretical and computational fusion physics has been at a high scientific level and the group collaborates with the leading experimental laboratories in Europe. Fusion technology is focused on reactor materials, joining

  20. The Nirex safety assessment research programme

    This report describes progress on the Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme in 1987/88. The programme is concerned with research into the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and intermediate-level waste (ILW) into underground repositories. At the beginning of 1987/88 a range of techniques for measuring and modelling far-field phenomena were being applied to near-surface disposal of low-level waste in clay. However, during the year the far-field studies were redirected to consider generic geological materials of interest for deep disposal of low and intermediate-level waste, which is now the preferred option in the UK. A substantial part of the programme is concerned with the effectiveness of near-field barriers to water-borne leakage of radionuclides from cementitious repositories. Considerable progress has been made in quantifying this and laying the foundations for robust and reliable radiological assessments to be made with appropriate models. New projects have also been initiated to study the evolution and migration of gases from an underground repository and to consider the contribution of the biosphere to the retardation of radionuclides. (author)

  1. The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme

    Dahlin, E. [ed.

    1996-03-01

    This report includes abstracts from a workshop arranged by the Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme 11-12 March 1996. The abstracts are organized according to the sessions: (1) Regional effects of climate change with emphasis on ecology, (2) Climate research related to the North Atlantic, (3) What lessons can be drawn from paleoclimatology about changes in the current climate?, (4) Changes in the ozone layer and their effect on UV and biology. Abstracts of a selection of papers presented at the workshop can be found elsewhere in the present data base. 70 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. FINNUS: The Finnish research programme on nuclear power plant safety. Interim report 1999 - August 2000

    FINNUS (1999-2002) is the Finnish public research programme on nuclear power plant safety, launched and administrated by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM). The programme concentrates on the themes of ageing, accidents and risks. The general objectives of the programme are to develop tools and practices for safety authorities and utilities, to provide a basis for safety-related decisions, to educate new nuclear energy experts and to promote technology and information transfer. The technical objectives of the programme are prepared in the guidance of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), but the views of the power companies are taken into consideration. Funding of the programme is mainly from public sources. The annual volume of the programme is about FIM 22 million ( 3.6 million) and 30 person years. The research is coordinated and mainly conducted by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). The effects of ageing on nuclear power plants are studied intensively, in order to evaluate safe remaining lifetime of the components and efficiency of the corrective measures. The programme concentrates on studies in material sciences of metallic structures, structural integrity and in-service inspection and monitoring methods. The accident theme concerns operational aspects of nuclear power plant safety. The issues of nuclear fuel behaviour, reactor physics and dynamics modelling, thermal-hydraulics and severe accidents are addressed under the theme. In the risk field attention is paid on one hand on advanced risk analysis methods and their applicability, and on the other hand, on the evaluation of fire risks, safety critical applications of software based technology, as well as human and organisational performance. The report summarises goals and results of the programme during the period 1999 - August 2000

  3. An overview of selected severe accident research and applications

    Severe accident research is being conducted world wide by industry organizations, utilities, and regulatory agencies. As this research is disseminated, it is being applied by utilities when they perform their Individual Plant Examinations (IPEs) and consider the preparation of Accident Management programs. The research is associated with phenomenological assessments of containment challenges and associated uncertainties, severe accident codes and analysis tools, systematic evaluation processes, and accident management planning. The continued advancement of this research and its applications will significantly contribute to the enhanced safety and operation of nuclear power plants. (author)

  4. Non-cancer health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes

    In September 2004, the Expert Group on Health of the Chernobyl Forum specifically focused on non-cancer diseases and mortality associated with the Chernobyl accident as well as on medical follow-up. The group considered the following topics: cataracts, cardiovascular disease, cytogenetic markers, immunological effects, reproductive effects and children's health, psychological and mental effects, mortality due to the accident, and medical programmes and medical monitoring. The issues of potential cataracts at low doses as well as follow-up of liquidators disease incidence and mortality should be continued. Cytogenetic effects may be used to assess doses above 0.2 Gy but are unlikely to be useful at lower doses. There is no clear evidence of radiation-related adverse clinical effects on the immune system of the general public or on hereditary or reproductive outcomes (particularly congenital malformations). Lifespan reduction and death rates of the general public are higher in both contaminated and clean areas than in other countries as is infant mortality, but these are not felt to be radiation related. Although the major potential radiation-related health effect is felt to be the cancer risk, screening programmes are not felt to be useful when absorbed doses are in the range of tens of mGy or lower. Psychological effects are real and represent the biggest public health impact of the accident. These will need continuing attention for the foreseeable future. While the paper is focused entirely on potential adverse effects of the accident, one should recognize the efforts of the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine to protect and take care of the affected populations. (author)

  5. RETU The Finnish research programme on reactor safety 1995-1998. Final Symposium

    The Reactor Safety (RETU, 1995-1998) research programme concentrated on search of safe limits for nuclear fuel and the reactor core, accident management methods and risk management of nuclear power plants. The total volume of the programme was 100 person years and funding FIM 58 million. This symposium report summarises the research fields, the objectives and the main results obtained. In the field of operational margins of a nuclear reactor, the behaviour of high burnup nuclear fuel was studied both in normal operation and during power transients. The static and dynamic reactor analysis codes were developed and validated to cope with new fuel designs and complicated three-dimensional reactivity transients. Advanced flow models and numerical solution methods for the dynamics codes were developed and tested. Research on accident management developed and validated calculation methods needed to plan preventive measures and to train the personnel to severe accident mitigation. Efforts were made to reduce uncertainties in phenomena important in severe accidents and to study actions planned for accident management. The programme included experimental work, but also participation in large international tests. The Finnish thermal-hydraulic test facility PACTEL was used extensively for the evaluation of the VVER-440 plant accident behaviour, for the validation of the accident analysis computer codes and for the testing of passive safety system concepts for future plant designs. In risk management probabilistic methods were developed for safety related decision making and for complex event sequences. Effects of maintenance on safety were studied and effective methods for assessment of human reliability and safety critical organisations were searched. To enhance human competencies in control of complex environments, practical tools for training and continuous learning were worked out, and methods to evaluate appropriateness of control room design were developed. (orig)

  6. Biomass programme: Overview of the 2006 Swiss research programme; Programm Biomasse. Ueberblicksbericht zum Forschungsprogramm 2006

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2007-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews work done within the framework of the Swiss biomass research programme in 2006. The programme concentrates on the efficient conversion of biomass into heat, electrical power and motor fuels. Projects concerned with the optimisation of processes are reported on, including low-particle-emission systems, control systems for bivalent heating installations, use of demanding biomass fuels, combined pellets and solar heating systems and the elimination of ammonia emissions. In the material flow area, measurement campaigns, organic pollutants in compost, the effects of fermented wastes in agriculture and methane losses in biogas conditioning are reported on. New conversion technologies are reviewed, including hydro-thermal gasification, plant-oil fuelled combined heat and power units, flameless burners and catalytic direct liquefaction. In the area of basics, studies and concepts, eco-balances and life-cycle analyses are reported on; the production of synthetic natural gas and the influence of combustion particles are discussed and decentralised power generation from solid biomass is reported on. National and international co-operation is reviewed. The report is concluded with a review of eight pilot and demonstration projects, a review of work to be done in 2007 and a list of research and demonstration projects.

  7. Inr training programme in nuclear research

    The field of scientific research goes through rapid changes to which organizations must dinamically and efficiently adapt, which leads to the need to develop a continuous learning process that should be the basis for a long-term operational performance. Thus, human resource management systems and continuous learning should be perfectly correlated/alligned with the organizational strategy and knowledge. The research institutes through the nature of their activity are constantly undergoing a transformation process by exploring new research areas which presumes ensuring competent human resources who have to continuously learn and improve. The «learning organization » concept represents a metaphor rooted in the search of a strategy for promoting the personal development of the individual within an organization through a continuous transformation. Learning is associated with the idea of continuous transformation based on the individual and organizational development. Within « learning organizations » the human development strategy occupies a central role in management strategies. It was learned that organizations which perform excellently depend on the employees committment, especially in the budget constraints environment. For this, the human resources have to be used at maximum capacity but this is possible only with an increased committment of the employee towards the organization. The purpose of this paper is to present the basic training programme for the new employees which is part of the training strategy which carry out activities in the nuclear field of SCN Pitesti. With the majority of the research personnel aged between 45 and 60 years old there is the risk of loosing the knowledge gained in this domain. The expertise gained by experienced experts in the institute nationally and internationally can be exploited through the knowledge transfer to the new employees by organizing training programmes. The knowledge transfer between generations is one of the

  8. Towards a New Virtualist Design Research Programme

    David Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers how the influence of computer-cyber networks informs a new way of seeing on the part of designers as well as design researchers.  In an adaptation of the notion of “virtual realities” made possible by computer technology, this new way of seeing is termed the New Virtualism.  The INTRODUCTION suggests that this computer-cyber way of seeing is only the third paradigm shift in Western architectural history, following design predicated on the paradigm of the human body (1 and the machine (2.  These three paradigms, following Tzonis and Lefaivre, are termed epiphores.  After the introduction, PART I outlines implications of New Virtualist ways of seeing as expressed design trends, in terms of style. This is followed by PART II, in which is addressed seven ways New Virtualism can impact design research.  The paper suggests that, while cyber technology vis-à-vis design might encourage some excesses of expression, cyber technology vis-à-vis design research actually helps to return design inquiry to constructs previous to the positivism inherited from the Enlightenment outlook.  In other words, a New Virtualist design research programme can accommodate the qualitative aspects of design research more comfortably than the science-based positivism derived from the machine epiphore.  This in turn promises new qualitative horizons for design research.

  9. Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme bibliography, 1987

    This bibliography lists reports and papers written as part of the Nirex Safety Assessment Research programme, which is concerned with disposal of low-level and intermediate-level waste (LLW and ILW). All work referred to has been funded, or partly funded, by UK Nirex Limited, previously known as the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX). The bibliography has been divided into two sections, a List of Publications in roughly chronological order and an Author Index. The topics involved include near-field and far-field studies. The near-field includes the waste, its immobilising medium, its container, the engineered structure in which the containers are emplaced, and the immediately adjacent geological formation disturbed by the construction of the repository. The far-field is the undisturbed geological formation between the near-field and the biosphere. (author)

  10. Radiation research within the framework programmes of the European Commission

    Karaoglou, A.; Kelly, G.N.; Desmet, G.; Menzel, H.G.; Schibilla, H.; Olast, M.; Gasperini, F.; Chadwick, K.H.; Sinnave, J. [European Commission Directorate General science, Brussels (Belgium). Research and Development, Radiation Protection Research Action

    1997-09-01

    The background to the radiation protection research and training programme of the European Commission is described in the presentation. The objectives and achievements of the third framework programme are summarised together with a description of how the achievements led to the establishment of the priorities for the fourth framework programme. Indications on the preliminary prospects for the fifth framework programme, 1998-2002 are also given. (6 refs.).

  11. An exercise on clean-up actions in an urban environment after a nuclear accident. Report of the NKS EKO 4 programme

    The EKO 4/c working group of the environmental effects and emergency preparedness programme (EKO) of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) organised a decision conference on August 30th and 31st, 1995 in Stockholm, Sweden. The meeting was designed to be attended by those responsible for planning and deciding on protective actions in the Nordic countries after a nuclear accident. Issues concerning clean-up strategies in an urban environment after a hypothetical and very severe reactor accident were discussed at the meeting. The objectives of the meeting were to provide a shared understanding between the decision makers and the radiation protection community on concerns and issues related to decision on protective actions after a nuclear accident. (6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.)

  12. FINNUS The Finnish research programme on nuclear power plant safety 1999-2002. Final report

    FINNUS (1999-2002) is the Finnish public research programme on nuclear power plant safety, launched and administrated by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM). The programme has concentrated on the themes of ageing, accidents and risks. The general objectives of the programme have been to develop tools and practices for safety authorities and utilities, to provide a basis for safety-related decisions, to educate new nuclear energy experts, and to promote technology and information transfer. The technical objectives of the programme have been prepared under the guidance of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), but the views of the Finnish power companies have been taken into consideration. Funding of the programme has been mainly from public sources. The annual volume of the programme has been about Euro 3.6 million and 30 person-years. The research has been co-ordinated and mainly conducted by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) with a significant contribution from Lappeenranta University of Technology (LTKK). The effects of ageing on nuclear power plants have been studied intensively in order to evaluate the safe remaining lifetime of the components and the efficiency of the corrective measures. The programme has mainly concentrated on studies in ageing effects on material properties and degradation mechanisms of metallic structures, structural integrity and in-service inspection as well as monitoring methods including reinforced concrete structures as a new area. The accident theme has concentrated on operational aspects of nuclear power plant safety. The issues of nuclear fuel behaviour, reactor physics and dynamics modelling, thermal hydraulics and severe accidents were addressed under the theme by conducting both computational and experimental studies. In the risk field, attention has been paid to advanced risk analysis methods and their applicability, and to the evaluation of fire risks, safety critical applications of software

  13. A survey of aerosol research in European community programmes

    In the European Commission's (EC) 3rd Framework Programme (1990-1994) of community research and technological development, aerosol problems are of particular importance in the specific programmes Environment, Nuclear Fission Safety (with emphasis on Reactor Safety and on the Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations), Industrial and Materials Technologies, and Measurement and Testing. Under Environment, significant efforts are directed towards monitoring natural and anthropogenic aerosols in the atmosphere, understanding the role played by aerosols in ecosystem regulation, and the development of techniques to reduce aerosol emission from industrial plants. To ensure Nuclear Fission Safety, investigations are necessary to identify the mechanisms and determine the quantities of fission product aerosols released in the event of an accident and to develop measures for aerosol retention in such cases. The release of radioactive aerosols from nuclear installations in case of fire has been studied, and methods of aerosol abatement by acoustic techniques are under investigation. In decommissioning of nuclear installations the problem of aerosol formation and dispersion arises during dismantling operations. Industrial and Materials Technologies require information on aerosols ranging from welding fumes, asbestos fibres, lead compounds and quartz particles to aerosol/vapour mixtures of toxic products, aerosols from biotechnology industries and airborne micro-organisms. Finally, for Measurement and Testing, reference aerosols are needed for calibration purposes and to improve and harmonize particle counting characterisation. A brief summary of examples for each of the above activities, carried out in the form of EC cost shared actions or at the Commission's Joint Research Centre, will be given, together with a description of some aerosol problems still to be solved. (Author)

  14. Finnish Fusion Research Programme Yearbook 1993-1994

    Finnish Fusion Research Programme (FFUSION) is one of the national energy research programmes funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry and from 1995 by TEKES. National organization for fusion research is necessary for efficient and successful participation in international fusion programmes. FFUSION programme serves well for this purpose and it made possible to establish relations and the dialogue with the European Fusion Programme. The process led to the Finnish Association Euratom-TEKES in early 1995. The first period of the FFUSION programme (1993-1994) was preparation for the association to the Community Programme. The strategy was to emphasize fusion technology parallel with the basic fusion and plasma physics and to activate the related Finnish industry to collaborate and participate in the FFUSION programme and later in the European Fusion Programme. The key element in the strategy is the focusing our fairly small R and D effort to a few topics, which increases possibilities to be competitive in Europe. The physics programme in FFUSION deals mainly with theoretical and computational studies of radio-frequency heating in tokamak plasmas. Technology programme started with prestudies in 1993 and it concentrates into two areas: fusion reactor materials and remote handling systems. (8 figs., 3 tabs.)

  15. Environmental and climate research programme 1988/89

    The Study Group of the Large-scale Research Institutes (AGF) has been reporting on these projects since 1972, in its programme for 'Environmental and Climate Research'. The programme, which is worked out by the AGF's Coordination Office for Environmental Research, is closely connected with the programmes of the Federal Government; it is revised and updated periodically by the AGF's Coordination Committees for 'Environmental Research' and 'Climate Research'. The 1988/89 programme gives an up-to-date overview of research projects in the field of 'Research and Technology for Health, Nutrition and the Environment' financed with the AGF programme budget of 1988. At the same time, however, it also documents projects of other areas of the programme concerned with environmental issues. Development trends are also discernible in the specification of the goals for 1989. The figures mentioned in the present programme are not comparable with those of earlier programmes, owing to inclusion of the programme section concerned with issues of climate, and to structural changes. (orig./KW)

  16. Taking into account a reactivity accident in research reactors design

    The particular studies realized in France for research reactors design at a Borax accident type are described. The cases of ORPHEE and RHF reactors are particularly developed. The evolution of the studies and the conservatism used are given

  17. Nuclear power plant severe accident research plan. Revision 1

    Subsequent to the Three Mile Island Unit 2 accident, recommendations were made by a number of review committees to consider regulatory changes which would provide better protection of the public from severe accidents. Over the past six years a major research effort has been underway by the NRC to develop an improved understanding of severe accidents and to provide a technical basis to support regulatory decisions. The purpose of this report is to describe current plans for the completion and extension of this research in support of ongoing regulatory actions in this area

  18. SAFIR. The Finnish research programme on nuclear power plant safety 2003-2006. Final report

    Major part of Finnish public research on nuclear power plant safety during the years 2003-2006 has been carried out in the SAFIR programme. The programme has been administrated by the steering group that was nominated by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM). The steering group of SAFIR has consisted of representatives from Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), Fortum Power and Heat Oy, Fortum Nuclear Services Oy (Fortum), Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (Tekes), Helsinki University of Technology and Lappeenranta University of Technology. The key research areas of SAFIR have been (1) reactor fuel and core, (2) reactor circuit and structural safety, (3) containment and process safety functions, that was divided in 2005 into 3a) thermal hydraulics and 3b) severe accidents, (4) automation, control room and IT, (5) organisations and safety management and (6) riskinformed safety management. The research programme has included annually from 20 up to 24 research projects, whose volume has varied from a few person months to several person years. The total volume of the programme during the four year period 2003-2006 is 19.7 million euros and 148 person years. The research in the programme has been carried out primarily by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). Other research units responsible for the projects include Lappeenranta University of Technology, Fortum Nuclear Services Oy, Helsinki University of Technology and RAMSE Consulting Oy. In addition, there have been a few minor subcontractors in some projects. The programme management structure has consisted of the steering group, a reference group in each of the seven research areas and a number of ad hoc groups in the various research areas. This report gives a summary of the results of the SAFIR programme for the period January 2003 - November 2006. (orig.)

  19. SAFIR. The Finnish research programme on nuclear power plant safety 2003-2006. Executive summary

    Major part of Finnish public research on nuclear power plant safety during the years 2003-2006 has been carried out in the SAFIR programme. The programme has been administrated by the steering group that was nominated by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM). The steering group of SAFIR has consisted of representatives from Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), Fortum Power and Heat Oy, Fortum Nuclear Services Oy (Fortum), Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (Tekes), Helsinki University of Technology (TKK) and Lappeenranta University of Technology (LTY). The key research areas of SAFIR have been (1) reactor fuel and core, (2) reactor circuit and structural safety, (3) containment and process safety functions, that was divided in 2005 into (3a) thermal hydraulics and (3b) severe accidents, (4) automation, control room and IT, (5) organisations and safety management and (6) risk-informed safety management. The research programme has included annually from 20 up to 24 research projects, whose volume has varied from a few person months to several person years. The total volume of the programme during the four year period 2003-2006 has been 19.7 million euros and 148 person years. The research in the programme has been carried out primarily by Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). Other research units responsible for the projects include Lappeenranta University of Technology, Fortum Nuclear Services Oy, Helsinki University of Technology and RAMSE Consulting Oy. In addition, there have been a few minor subcontractors in some projects. The programme management structure has consisted of the steering group, a reference group in each of the seven research areas and a number of ad hoc groups in the various research areas. This report gives a short summary of the results of the SAFIR programme for the period January 2003 - November

  20. Nirex safety assessment research programme bibliography, 1991

    This bibliography lists reports and papers written as part of the Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme, which is concerned with disposal of low-level and intermediate-level waste (LLW and ILW) and associated radiological assessments. The bibliography has been divided into two sections, a list of Publications in roughly chronological order and an Author Index. The topics involved include near-field and far-field studies. The near-field includes the waste package, filling or sealing materials, and those parts of the host medium whose characteristics have been or could be altered by the repository or its content. The far-field is the rock formation outside the repository, including the surrounding strata, at a distance from the waste disposal site such that, for modelling purposes, the site may be considered as a single entity, and the effects of individual waste packages are indistinguishable in the effects of the whole. The far-field includes also the biosphere, into which radionuclides from the waste could conceivably migrate in the future. (author)

  1. Graduate nuclear engineering programmes motivate educational and research activities

    Some fifteen years ago the University of Ljubljana, Faculty for Mathematics and Physics together with the national research organisation the J. Stefan jointly established a Graduate programme of Nuclear Engineering. From the onset, the programme focused on nuclear technology, nuclear safety, and reactor physics and environment protection. Over the years this graduate programme has became the focal point of nuclear related, research and educational activities in Slovenia. It has grown into a meeting ground for recognised national and distinguished foreign educators and experienced professionals from the industry. In conjunction with an important national project, supported by the Slovenian government, entitled 'Jung Researcher' it also enhances the knowledge transfer to the next generation. Since the programme was introduced, the interest for this programme has been steadily growing. Accordingly, a number of PhD and MS degrees in NE have been awarded. The graduates of this programme have encountered very good job opportunities in nuclear as well as in non-nuclear sector. (author)

  2. Research on nuclear energy within the European Commission Research Framework Programme

    The strategic goal of the 5th EURATOM RTD Framework Programme (FP5) is to help exploit the full potential of nuclear energy in a sustainable manner, by making current technologies even safer and more economical and by exploring promising new concepts. The programme covers nuclear fusion, nuclear fission and radiation protection. Part of the programme on nuclear fission and radiation protection is being implemented through ''indirect actions'', i.e. research co-sponsored (up to 50% of total costs) and co-ordinated by DG RESEARCH of the European Commission (EC) but carried out by external public and private organisations as multi-partner projects. The budget available for these indirect actions during FP5 (1998-2002) is 191 MEuro. The programme covers four different areas: safety of existing reactors, including plant life management, severe accident management and development of evolutionary systems; safety of the fuel cycle, including radioactive waste management and disposal, partitioning and transmutation and decommissioning of nuclear installation; safety of future systems, including new or revisited reactor or fuel cycle concepts; radiation protection and radiological sciences, including both basic radiobiology and radiophysics and issues connected to the application of radiation protection. After the first calls for proposals of FP5, which were evaluated in 1999 about 140 research projects have been selected for funding and is now in the process of starting. In parallel the research projects that were supported in the 4th Framework Programme (1994 - 1998) are coming to an end, and being reported, at the same time as the first thoughts on the 6th FP are discussed.An important new component for the future research in Europe is the concept of a European Research Area (ERA). The purpose of ERA is to create better overall framework conditions for research in Europe. Some of the concepts being discussed in this context are networking of centres of excellence, a

  3. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a

  4. Progress in LWR severe accident research at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe

    The R and D program at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), performed within Project Nuclear Safety Research (PSF), is centered around phenomena and processes that could possibly endanger containment integrity of a large Pressurized Water Reactor after a severe accident. It includes activities on in-vessel accident progression, in-vessel steam explosion, hydrogen behavior and mitigation, ex-vessel melt behavior. The goal is to describe and quantify the governing mechanisms and to develop verified models and calculational tools which are able to predict maximum possible loads for realistic accident scenarios on full plant scale. (author)

  5. Revised Severe Accident Research Program plan, FY 1990--1992

    For the past 10 years, since the Three Mile Island accident, the NRC has sponsored an active research program on light-water-reactor severe accidents as part of a multi-faceted approach to reactor safety. This report describes the revised Severe Accident Research Program (SARP) and how the revisions are designed to provide confirmatory information and technical support to the NRC staff in implementing the staff's Integration Plan for Closure of Severe Accident Issues as described in SECY-88-147. The revised SARP addresses both the near-term research directed at providing a technical basis upon which decisions on important containment performance issues can be made and the long-term research needed to confirm and refine our understanding of severe accidents. In developing this plan, the staff recognized that the overall goal is to reduce the uncertainties in the source term sufficiently to enable the staff to make regulatory decisions on severe accident issues. However, the staff also recognized that for some issues it may not be practical to attempt to further reduce uncertainties, and some regulatory decisions or conclusions will have to be made with full awareness of existing uncertainties. 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. Loss of Coolant Accident Analysis for Israel Research Reactor

    One of the main objectives of reactor safety systems is to keep the reactor core in condition that does not permit any release of radioactivity into the environment. In order to ensure this, the reactor must have sufficient safety margins during all possible operational and accident conditions. This paper focuses on the analysis of loss of coolant accident (LOCA), which is one of the most severe scenarios among other hypothetical events such as reactivity induced accidents, loss of flow accident, etc. The analysis was carried out for the Israel Research Reactor 1 (IRR-1), which is a 5MW swimming pool type research reactor. The IRR-1 core consists of MTR highlyenriched uranium (HEU) fuel type, and is reflected by Graphite elements. During normal operation, the reactor core is cooled by downward forced flow of light water circulated by a primary cooling circuit pump. But during shutdown stage, the reactor core is cooled by upward natural convection flow through a safety flapper valve. There could be several primary causes to initiate a LOCA in research reactors, such as breaks in the piping system, ruptures of the beam tubes, and concrete wall failures of the reactor pool. Although probability of large break accident in research reactors is very low, once the accident occurs, it may cause major core damages, so it must be considered

  7. The Finnish research programme on climate change. Final report

    Roos, J. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    This is the final report of the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU). This report includes the final results and conclusions made by the individual research groups. The aim of this report is to lay out the research work, and to present the main results and conclusions obtained during the six-year work. The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU) was a multidisciplinary national research programme on climate and global change. The principal goals of SILMU were: (1) to increase our knowledge on climate change, its causes, mechanisms and consequences, (2) to strengthen the research on climate change in Finland, (3) to increase the participation of Finnish researchers in international research programmes, and (4) to prepare and disseminate information for policy makers on adaptation and mitigation. The key areas of the research were: (1) quantification of the greenhouse effect and the magnitude of anticipated climatic changes,(2) assessment of the effects of changing climate on ecosystems, and (3) development of mitigation and adaptation strategies. The research programme started in June 1990, and it comprised more than 80 individual research projects, ranging from atmospheric chemistry to economics. There were approximately two hundred scientists working within the programme in seven universities and eleven research institutions. The research activities that comprise SILMU were grouped into four interdisciplinary subprogrammes: atmosphere, waters, terrestrial ecosystems and integration and human interactions

  8. Researching Effects of Drivers Features on Traffic Accidents: Kocaeli Model

    UÇKUN, Ceylan Gazi; ÇELİKKOL, Ethem Soner; TEKİN, Vasfı Nadir; ÇELİKKOL, Şimal

    2013-01-01

    In addition to environmental conditions, weather conditions and density, situations related to drivers are more effective on traffic accidents, according to available data. Regarding occurrence of traffic accidents, it is observed that point of view of drivers towards traffic rules and drivers’ compliance with these rules is not parallel. It is important to research the reasons that cause this situation. A normal person’s mental state does not change without any reason at traffic. It is clear...

  9. RESEARCHING EFFECTS OF DRIVERS FEATURES ON TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS: KOCAELİ MODEL

    CEYLAN GAZI UÇKUN; ETHEM SONER ÇELİKKOL; VASFI NADIR TEKİN; ŞIMAL ÇELİKKOL

    2013-01-01

    In addition to environmental conditions, weather conditions and density, situations related to drivers are more effective on traffic accidents, according to available data.Regarding occurrence of traffic accidents, it is observed that point of view of drivers towards traffic rules and drivers’ compliance with these rules is not parallel. It is important to research the reasons that cause this situation. A normal person’s mental state does not change without any reason at traffic. It is clear ...

  10. The research programme in radiation protection of the European Community

    A brief summary is given of the progress in radiation protection achieved by the last six five-year research programmes organized by the Commission of the European Communities. The way in which the research programmes are determined and the role of the Management and Coordination Advisory Committee (CAC) in evaluating research proposals are discussed. Finally the main areas of research envisaged for the 1990-1994 programme are outlined; these include radiation dosimetry and its interpretation, behaviour of radionuclides in the environment, acute effects of ionising radiation, late effects of ionising radiation, radiation genetics and the evaluation of radiation risks and optimization of radiological protection. (U.K.)

  11. JYT - Publicly financed nuclear waste management research programme

    The nuclear waste management research in Finland is funded both by the state and the utilities (represented in cooperation by the Nuclear Waste Commission of the Finnish power companies). A coordinated research programme (JYT) comprising the publicly financed waste management studies was started in 1989 and continues until 1993. The utilities continue to carry out a parallel research programme according to their main financial and operational responsibility for nuclear waste management. The research programme covers the following main topic areas: (1) Bedrock characteristics, groundwater and repository, (2) Release and transport of radionuclides, (3) Performance and safety assessment of repositories, and (4) Waste management technology and costs

  12. Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Waste Management (KYT). Framework Programme for 2002-2005

    The new Finnish research programme on nuclear waste management (KYT) will be conducted in 2002 - 2005. This framework programme describes the starting point, the basic aims and the organisation of the research programme. The starting point of the KYT programme is derived from the present state and future challenges of Finnish nuclear waste management. The research programme is funded mainly by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Posiva Oy, Fortum Oyj, Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), and the National Technology Agency (Tekes). As both regulators and implementors are involved, the research programme concentrates on neutral research topics that must be studied in any case. Methods and tools for experimental and theoretical studies fall in this category. State of the art -reviews on relevant topics also create national know-how. Topics that directly belong to licensing activities of nuclear waste management are excluded from the research programme. KYT carries out technical studies that increase national know-how in the area of nuclear waste management. The aim is to maintain and develop basic expertise needed in the operations derived from the national nuclear waste management plan. The studies have been divided into strategic studies and studies enhancing the long-term safety of spent nuclear fuel disposal. Strategic studies support the overall feasibility of Finnish nuclear waste management. These studies include basic options and overall safety principles related to nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear waste management. In addition, general cost estimates as well as general safety considerations related to transportations, low- and medium level wastes, and decommissioning are included in strategic studies. Studies supporting the long-term safety of spent fuel disposal include issues related to performance assessment methodology, release of radionuclides from the repository, behaviour of bedrock and groundwater

  13. SAFIR2014. The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2011-2014. Interim Report

    Simola, K. (ed.)

    2013-02-15

    The Finnish Nuclear Power Plant Safety Research Programme 2011-2014, SAFIR2014, is a 4-year publicly funded national technical and scientific research programme on the safety of nuclear power plants. The programme is funded by the State Nuclear Waste Management Fund (VYR), as well as other key organisations operating in the area of nuclear energy. The programme provides the necessary conditions for retaining knowledge needed for ensuring the continuance of safe use of nuclear power, for developing new know-how and for participation in international co-operation. The SAFIR2014 Steering Group, responsible of the strategic alignements of the programme, consists of representatives of the Finnish Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Ministry of Employment and the Economy (MEE), Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO), Fortum Power and Heat Oy (Fortum), Fennovoima Oy, Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT), Aalto University (Aalto), Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (Tekes), Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (TTL) and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM). The research programme is divided into nine areas: Man, organisation and society, Automation and control room, Fuel research and reactor analysis, Thermal hydraulics, Severe accidents, Structural safety of reactor circuits, Construction safety, Probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), and Development of research infrastructure. A reference group is assigned to each of these areas to respond for the strategic planning and to supervise the projects in its respective field. Research projects are selected annually based on a public call for proposals. Most of the projects are planned for the entire duration of the programme, but there can also be shorter one- or two-year projects. The annual volume of the SAFIR2014 programme in 2011-2012 has been 9,5-9,9 M euro. Main funding organisations were the State Nuclear Waste Management Fund (VYR) with over 5 M euro and

  14. SAFIR2014. The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2011-2014. Interim Report

    The Finnish Nuclear Power Plant Safety Research Programme 2011-2014, SAFIR2014, is a 4-year publicly funded national technical and scientific research programme on the safety of nuclear power plants. The programme is funded by the State Nuclear Waste Management Fund (VYR), as well as other key organisations operating in the area of nuclear energy. The programme provides the necessary conditions for retaining knowledge needed for ensuring the continuance of safe use of nuclear power, for developing new know-how and for participation in international co-operation. The SAFIR2014 Steering Group, responsible of the strategic alignements of the programme, consists of representatives of the Finnish Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Ministry of Employment and the Economy (MEE), Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO), Fortum Power and Heat Oy (Fortum), Fennovoima Oy, Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT), Aalto University (Aalto), Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (Tekes), Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (TTL) and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM). The research programme is divided into nine areas: Man, organisation and society, Automation and control room, Fuel research and reactor analysis, Thermal hydraulics, Severe accidents, Structural safety of reactor circuits, Construction safety, Probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), and Development of research infrastructure. A reference group is assigned to each of these areas to respond for the strategic planning and to supervise the projects in its respective field. Research projects are selected annually based on a public call for proposals. Most of the projects are planned for the entire duration of the programme, but there can also be shorter one- or two-year projects. The annual volume of the SAFIR2014 programme in 2011-2012 has been 9,5-9,9 M euro. Main funding organisations were the State Nuclear Waste Management Fund (VYR) with over 5 M euro and

  15. The role of fission product in whole core accidents - research in the USA

    Safety of nuclear reactors has been a central concern of the nuclear energy industry from the very beginning. This concern, and the resultant excellence of design, fabrication, and operation, aided by extensive engineered safety features, has given nuclear energy its superior record of protection of the environment and of the public health and safety. With respect to the fast reactor, it was recognized early in the programme that there exists a theoretical possibility of a core compaction leading to significant energy release. Early analysis of this problem employed a number of conservative assumptions in attempting to bound the energy release. As reactors have grown in size, the suitability of such bounding calculations has diminished, and research into hypothetical accident analysis has emphasized a more mechanistic approach. In the USA, much effort has been directed towards modeling and computer code development aimed at following the course of an accident from its initiation to its ultimate conclusion with a stable, permanently subcritical, coolable core geometry, along with considerations of post-accident heat removal and radiological consequence assessment. Throughout this effort, the potential role of fission products has been recognized and account taken of the effects of fission products in determining accident progression. It is important to recognize that reactor safety is a very diverse topic, requiring consideration of a number of factors. While the major questions of public risk appear to be related to the hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA), it is necessary that the probability of having such an accident be extremely low In order that acceptable public risk be demonstrated. Such a demonstration requires sound engineering design and Implementation, with high standards of reliability, inspectability, maintainability, and operation, along with the requisite quality control and assurance. Tile current approach, typified by that taken by the

  16. Development through science: The IAEA research contract programme

    The IAEA strives to stimulate the growth of science in developing countries by assuring that the IAEA and the scientific communities of developed and developing countries share their knowledge and experience. If the assistance provided is well organized and in keeping with the needs of developing countries it can make the crucial difference in sustainable development. This booklet provides a survey of the historical development of the IAEA's Research Contract Programme and outlines the aims and achievements of selected Co-ordinated Research Programmes. A complete listing of Co-ordinated Research Programmes is provided

  17. Final report on the Risoe monitoring programme after the Chernobyl accident for the period Oct 1, 1986 - Sept 30, 1987

    In cooperation with the National Agency of Environmental Protection in Denmark, Risoe National Laboratory has examined the radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl accident. The programme for these investigations was an expansion of the countrywide monitoring programme operated since 1962 by Risoe National Laboratory. The present report cover the period Oct 1, 1986 to Sept. 30, 1987. All types of environmental samples relevant for radioactive contamination has been analysed. Most samples were collected countrywide and all samples were analysed for radiocaesium (134Cs and 137Cs). Many samples were furthermore anlaysed for 90Sr and in a few samples transuranic elements (29,240Pu, 241Am and 242Cm) were determined. On the basis of the diet and wholebody measurements of radiocaesium the individual mean dose equivalent commitment from Danish diet consumed in the first two years after the Chernobyl accident was calculated to 27 μ Sv. (author)

  18. Start of new Research and Innovation Programme, Horizon 2020

    2013-01-01

    The overall EU budget for 2014-2020 was approved on 20 November, with €79 billion allocated for the Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation programme.   The first calls and final work programmes in Horizon 2020 will be published on 11 December 2013 and the programme will officially start on 1 January 2014. In preparation for the next major programme, the CERN EU Projects Office has launched a redesigned website to keep you informed and to alert you to opportunities in Horizon 2020: cerneu.web.cern.ch. Organised by Euresearch, the Swiss launch event will take place from 14 to 17 January 2014. This four-day conference will offer the possibility to discover the new European Framework Programme for Research and Innovation. The event is open for registration: www.launch-h2020.ch.

  19. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Radiological Protection and Human Health Div. (DRPH), Radiobiology and Epidemiology Dept., 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Kellerer, A.M. [Munchen Univ., Strahlenbiologisches Institut (Germany); Bazyka, D. [Chornobyl Center (CC), Kiev regoin (Ukraine)

    2006-07-01

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a

  20. Severe accident research at the Transuranium Institute Karlsruhe: A review of past experience and its application to future challenges

    Highlights: • Severe accident research at the Transuranium Institute, Karlsruhe has been reviewed. • Large (Phébus, TMI-2) and smaller tests have improved understanding of core degradation. • Cladding/structural materials interaction and attack of fuel are important in degradation. • Formation and composition of molten fuel pool in the lower bundle was reproducible. • This mechanistic knowledge has greatly assisted severe accident modelling. - Abstract: With the current situation in Japan one should examine previous research into severe accidents and the current state of European severe accident research to assess what are the priorities for research for existing and future nuclear reactors. The European Commission’s SARNET 2 (Severe Accident NETwork of Excellence) programme and its SARP (Severe Accident Research Priorities) assessments have been made and have outlined the future needs as seen from the EU point of view. There is already considerable research that will be very valuable in analysing and guiding the investigation and remediation activities at Fukushima Dai-ichi. This includes investigations into previous major accidents and international severe fuel damage projects. Facilities using analogue materials are able to analyse large-scale behaviour of materials, while smaller-scale testing of irradiated fuel for detailed property measurements are important for mechanistic studies. The final (and very important) aspect is application of this information to formulate codes to model the identified mechanisms and also to have their predictions validated by the data. This paper will take examples from the Transuranium Institute’s (ITU Karlsruhe’s) contribution to projects such as the TMI-2 accident investigation and the Phébus PF bundle and fission product deposit investigations as well as some of the smaller scale testing and modelling support that ITU has performed over the last 20 years. This will show what has been learnt about fuel and

  1. Peace programme for evaluating the impact of accidents contaminating the environment

    Brechignac, F.; Vallejo, R.; Sauras, T.; Casadesus, J.; Thiry, Y.; Waegeneers, N.; Forsberg, S.; Shaw, G.; Madoz-Escande, C.; Gonze, M.A. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, 92 (France)

    2000-07-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which led to substantial release of radioactive materials in the atmosphere, demonstrated that large environmental areas may be contaminated by fall-out deposition of radioactivity. In particular, contamination by Cs and Sr of agro-ecosystems where food production is taking place is most susceptible to contribute to population radiation dose. Nuclear safety analysis shows that, although very small, the probability of an accident occurring on a pressurized water reactor (PWR) cannot be completely set aside. In such a situation, decision making and management of the contaminated agricultural surfaces largely depend on our ability to predict how, and to which extent, the initial contamination may lead to polluted foodstuffs. Furthermore, the efficiency of the prediction models relies on our level of understanding of the mechanisms governing the transfer of radionuclides in the soil-plant system. Unraveling these mechanisms from in situ observations of environmental areas contaminated by past events is difficult due to the lack of control on both, the contamination itself, which happened in a critical situation, and the natural environment, which is highly variable, temporally and spatially. Such conditions prevent a clear identification of the most relevant parameters influencing the radionuclides transfer and thereby the prediction goal. In particular, current transfer factors introduced in prediction models suffer from unresolved and poorly documented variabilities. This is why IPSN developed a unique research facility capable of generating, in closed and controlled environmental conditions, a mini-accident with release of radioactive aerosols on small-scale, but realistic, samples of crops. These crops are conducted on undisturbed soil monoliths, featuring several soil types from various European countries, managed in lysimeters with advanced water movement control, and placed in greenhouses where three typical climates can be reproduced

  2. Peace programme for evaluating the impact of accidents contaminating the environment

    The Chernobyl accident, which led to substantial release of radioactive materials in the atmosphere, demonstrated that large environmental areas may be contaminated by fall-out deposition of radioactivity. In particular, contamination by Cs and Sr of agro-ecosystems where food production is taking place is most susceptible to contribute to population radiation dose. Nuclear safety analysis shows that, although very small, the probability of an accident occurring on a pressurized water reactor (PWR) cannot be completely set aside. In such a situation, decision making and management of the contaminated agricultural surfaces largely depend on our ability to predict how, and to which extent, the initial contamination may lead to polluted foodstuffs. Furthermore, the efficiency of the prediction models relies on our level of understanding of the mechanisms governing the transfer of radionuclides in the soil-plant system. Unraveling these mechanisms from in situ observations of environmental areas contaminated by past events is difficult due to the lack of control on both, the contamination itself, which happened in a critical situation, and the natural environment, which is highly variable, temporally and spatially. Such conditions prevent a clear identification of the most relevant parameters influencing the radionuclides transfer and thereby the prediction goal. In particular, current transfer factors introduced in prediction models suffer from unresolved and poorly documented variabilities. This is why IPSN developed a unique research facility capable of generating, in closed and controlled environmental conditions, a mini-accident with release of radioactive aerosols on small-scale, but realistic, samples of crops. These crops are conducted on undisturbed soil monoliths, featuring several soil types from various European countries, managed in lysimeters with advanced water movement control, and placed in greenhouses where three typical climates can be reproduced

  3. Programmes and calls for public health research in European countries

    Conceição, Claúdia; Grimaud, Olivier; McCarthy, Mark; Barnhoorn, Floris; Sammut, Marvic; Saliba, Amanda; Katreniakova, Zuzana; Narkauskaite, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Public health research, at population and organizational level, needs to be identified independently within 'health' research from biomedicine and life sciences. In PHIRE (Public Health Innovation and Research in Europe), we investigated the extent and character of public health research calls and programmes in European countries. METHODS: Country respondents, identified through national member associations of the European Public Health Association completed a standardi...

  4. SARNET: Integrating Severe Accident Research in Europe - Safety Issues in the Source Term Area

    SARNET (Severe Accident Research Network) is a Network of Excellence of the EU 6. Framework Programme that integrates in a sustainable manner the research capabilities of about fifty European organisations to resolve important remaining uncertainties and safety issues concerning existing and future nuclear plant, especially water-cooled reactors, under hypothetical severe accident conditions. It emphasises integrating activities, spreading of excellence (including knowledge transfer) and jointly-executed research. This paper summarises the main results obtained at the middle of the current 4-year term, highlighting those concerning radioactive release to the environment. Integration is pursued through different methods: the ASTEC integral computer code for severe accident modelling, development of PSA level 2 methods, a means for definition, updating and resolution of safety issues, and development of a web database for storing experimental results. These activities are helped by an evolving Advanced Communication Tool, easing communication amongst partners. Concerning spreading of excellence, educational courses covering severe accident analysis methodology and level 2 PSA have been organised for early 2006. A text book on Severe Accident Phenomenology is being written. A mobility programme for students and young researchers has started. Results are disseminated mainly through open conference proceedings, with journal publications planned. The 1. European Review Meeting on Severe Accidents in November 2005 covered SARNET activities during its first 18 months. Jointly executed research activities concern key issues grouped in the Corium, Containment and Source Term areas. In Source Term, behaviour of the highly radio-toxic ruthenium under oxidising conditions, including air ingress, is investigated. Models are proposed for fuel and ruthenium oxidation. Experiments on transport of oxide ruthenium species are performed. Reactor scenario studies assist in defining

  5. Public sector's research programme on nuclear waste management

    According to the Finnish nuclear energy legislation, each producer of nuclear waste is responsible for the safe handling, management and disposal of the waste as well as for the arising costs. Authorities supervise and control the implementation of the national waste management programme and set the necessary safety and other requirements. In these tasks the authorities are supported by a research programme on nuclear waste management that is independent of the implementing organisations and power companies. The main objective of the research programme has been to provide the authorities with information and research results relevant for the safety of nuclear waste management. The main emphasis in this research programme has been devoted to the final disposal of spent fuel. The whole area of the research programme has been subdivided into the following main topic areas: (1) Behaviour of bedrock (2) Geohydrology and geochemistry, (3) Release of radionuclides from repository and subsequent transport in bedrock, (4) Engineered safety barriers of the repository, system, (5) Performance and safety assessment of spent fuel disposal facilities, (6) Waste management technology and costs (7) Evaluation of the contents and scope of and observation of the realisation of the environmental impact assessment procedure for the siting of spent nuclear fuel disposal facility, and research on other societal and sociopolitical issues, and (8) Public information, attitude, and image issues for waste management facilities. The research programme has generated considerably increased information on the behaviour of the natural and technical release barriers of the disposal system and thereby contributed to building of confidence on the long-term safety of geological disposal of spent fuel. Furthermore, increased confidence among the public in the affected candidate municipalities has probably been achieved by the complementary studies conducted within the research programme on topics

  6. SAFIR2010. The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010. Final Report

    Major part of Finnish public research on nuclear power plant safety during the years 2007-2010 has been carried out in the SAFIR2010 programme. The steering group of SAFIR2010 consisted of representatives from Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Ministry of Employment and the Economy (MEE), Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO), Fortum Power and Heat Oyj, Fortum Nuclear Services Oy (Fortum), Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (Tekes), Aalto University School of Science and Technology (Aalto, former Helsinki University of Technology) and Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT). In addition to representatives of these organisations, the Steering Group had permanent experts from the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) and Fennovoima Oy (Fennovoima). SAFIR2010 research programme was divided in eight research areas that were Organisation and human, Automation and control room, Fuel and reactor physics, Thermal hydraulics, Severe accidents, Structural safety of reactor circuit, Construction safety, and Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA). Research projects of the programme were chosen on the basis of annual call for proposals. The annual volume of the SAFIR2010-programme in 2007-2010 has been 6,5-7,1 M euro and approximately 50 person years. Main funding organisations in 2007-2010 have been the State Waste Management Fund VYR with 2,7-3,0 M euro and VTT with 2,4-2,7 M euro annually. In 2010 research was carried out in 33 projects. The research in the programme has been carried out primarily by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Other research units responsible for the projects solely or in co-operation with other institutions include Lappeenranta University of Technology, Aalto University (previously Helsinki University of Technology), Tampere University of Technology, Fortum Power and Heat Oy (previously Fortum Nuclear Services Oy), Finnish Institute of Occupational Health and Finnish

  7. SAFIR2010. The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010. Final Report

    Puska, E.K.; Suolanen, V. (eds.)

    2011-02-15

    Major part of Finnish public research on nuclear power plant safety during the years 2007-2010 has been carried out in the SAFIR2010 programme. The steering group of SAFIR2010 consisted of representatives from Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Ministry of Employment and the Economy (MEE), Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO), Fortum Power and Heat Oyj, Fortum Nuclear Services Oy (Fortum), Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (Tekes), Aalto University School of Science and Technology (Aalto, former Helsinki University of Technology) and Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT). In addition to representatives of these organisations, the Steering Group had permanent experts from the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) and Fennovoima Oy (Fennovoima). SAFIR2010 research programme was divided in eight research areas that were Organisation and human, Automation and control room, Fuel and reactor physics, Thermal hydraulics, Severe accidents, Structural safety of reactor circuit, Construction safety, and Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA). Research projects of the programme were chosen on the basis of annual call for proposals. The annual volume of the SAFIR2010-programme in 2007-2010 has been 6,5-7,1 M euro and approximately 50 person years. Main funding organisations in 2007-2010 have been the State Waste Management Fund VYR with 2,7-3,0 M euro and VTT with 2,4-2,7 M euro annually. In 2010 research was carried out in 33 projects. The research in the programme has been carried out primarily by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Other research units responsible for the projects solely or in co-operation with other institutions include Lappeenranta University of Technology, Aalto University (previously Helsinki University of Technology), Tampere University of Technology, Fortum Power and Heat Oy (previously Fortum Nuclear Services Oy), Finnish Institute of Occupational Health and Finnish

  8. SARNET: Sustainable integration of EU research on severe accident phenomenology and management

    In spite of the accomplishments reached in severe accident research, thanks notably to the EU projects carried out during previous Framework Programmes, a limited number of specific items remain where research activities are still necessary to reduce further uncertainties that are considered of importance for nuclear reactor safety and to consolidate severe accident management plans. Facing and anticipating budget reductions, 52 European R and D organizations, including technical supports of safety authorities, industry, utilities and universities, have decided to join their efforts in a durable way by networking their research activities in the frame of a Network of Excellence proposed as a FP-6 project called SARNET, coordinated by the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire. The integral severe accident analysis code ASTEC, developed by IRSN and GRS, will provide the backbone of the integration. Actions are proposed to integrate in ASTEC the current knowledge and all the future knowledge generated within SARNET. In addition, integrating activities will be carried out as the creation of large scientific databases, the elaboration of a research priority index, education and training. (authors)

  9. Towards an Ethics of "Research Programmes" in Special Education

    Hausstatter, Rune Sarromaa; Connolley, Steven

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the different perspectives and ideologies within the evolving field of special education research. This examination has claimed that Imre Lakatos' notion of "research programmes", which allows for a plurality of directions of research, provides a valuable guide for understanding the development and current…

  10. A Rationale for Mixed Methods (Integrative) Research Programmes in Education

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2008-01-01

    Recent research shows that research programmes (quantitative, qualitative and mixed) in education are not displaced (as suggested by Kuhn) but rather lead to integration. The objective of this study is to present a rationale for mixed methods (integrative) research programs based on contemporary philosophy of science (Lakatos, Giere, Cartwright,…

  11. Summary of the co-ordinated research programme

    This article summarizes the Co-ordinated Research Programme to improve the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock (the only other vector-borne disease studied was tropical theileriosis). The main objectives of the programme were to develop and validate enzyme immunoassay methods for the diagnosis of trypanosomiasis and to use these methods to monitor and improve the effectiveness of trypanosomiasis and/or tsetse control programmes in the African region. 4 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  12. Nirex safety assessment research programme: 1987/88

    The Nirex Safety Assessment Research programme's objective is to provide information for the radiological safety case for disposing low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in underground repositories. The programme covers a wide range of experimental studies and mathematical modelling for the near and far field. It attempts to develop a quantitative understanding of events and processes which have an impact on the safety of radioactive waste disposal. (U.K.)

  13. TRIGLAV - a computer programme for research reactor calculation

    Persic, A.; Ravnik, M.; Slavic, S.; Zagar, T. (J.Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia))

    1999-12-15

    TRIGLAV is a new computer programme for burn-up calculation of mixed core of research reactors. The code is based on diffusion model in two dimensions and iterative procedure is applied for its solution. The material data used in the model are calculated with the transport programme WIMS. In regard to fission density distribution and energy produced by the reactor the burn-up increment of fuel elements is determined. (orig.)

  14. LWR severe accident source term research in the USA

    Fission product releases to the environment, or source terms, arise as a result of a highly diverse group of phenomena involved in any particular severe accident sequence. Because of the multiplicity of accident sequences that can occur for a given plant as well as the diversity of the, as yet, imperfectly understood severe accident phenomena, it is not surprising that reactor accidents such as, for example, those documented in NUREG-1150 have indicated large uncertainties in source terms which represent a significant contribution to the uncertainty in the absolute value of risk. Because of the difficulty and expense involved in performing prototypic experiments, substantial reliance has been placed on the development and validation of detailed mechanistic computer codes for analyzing severe accident phenomena and the source terms associated with them. This paper discusses the extensive research and other efforts that have taken place over the last decade to address the technical issues which have a bearing on being able to describe quantitatively the source term(s) and its characteristics. It also summarizes our present state of knowledge and points out areas where additional research will add further to our understanding. In this context the paper discusses the information that could be provided by the PHEBUS-FP program and its use to assess severe accident integral evaluation codes such as VICTORIA and CONTAIN. Finally, this paper discusses the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission 's efforts to revise the licensing source term (TID-14844) and the implications of this revision, especially for siting and design of future power plants. (author)

  15. Genetic algorithm-based neural network for accidents diagnosis of research reactors on FPGA

    The Nuclear Research Reactors plants are expected to be operated with high levels of reliability, availability and safety. In order to achieve and maintain system stability and assure satisfactory and safe operation, there is increasing demand for automated systems to detect and diagnose such failures. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are one of the most popular solutions because of their parallel structure, high speed, and their ability to give easy solution to complicated problems. The genetic algorithms (GAs) which are search algorithms (optimization techniques), in recent years, have been used to find the optimum construction of a neural network for definite application, as one of the advantages of its usage. Nowadays, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are being an important implementation method of neural networks due to their high performance and they can easily be made parallel. The VHDL, which stands for VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuits) Hardware Description Language, have been used to describe the design behaviorally in addition to schematic and other description languages. The description of designs in synthesizable language such as VHDL make them reusable and be implemented in upgradeable systems like the Nuclear Research Reactors plants. In this thesis, the work was carried out through three main parts.In the first part, the Nuclear Research Reactors accident's pattern recognition is tackled within the artificial neural network approach. Such patterns are introduced initially without noise. And, to increase the reliability of such neural network, the noise ratio up to 50% was added for training in order to ensure the recognition of these patterns if it introduced with noise.The second part is concerned with the construction of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) using Genetic algorithms (GAs) for the nuclear accidents diagnosis. MATLAB ANNs toolbox and GAs toolbox are employed to optimize an ANN for this purpose. The results obtained show

  16. SAFIR2010. The Finnish research programme on nuclear power plant safety 2007-2010. Interim report

    Major part of Finnish public research on nuclear power plant safety during the years 2007-2008 has been carried out in the SAFIR2010 programme. The steering group of SAFIR2010 consists of representatives from Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Ministry of Employment and the Economy (MEE), VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO), Fortum Power and Heat Oyj, Fortum Nuclear Services Oy (Fortum), Tekes - the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (Tekes), Helsinki University of Technology (TKK) and Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT). In addition to representatives of these organisations, the Steering Group has permanent experts from the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) and Fennovoima Oy (Fennovoima). SAFIR2010 research programme is divided in eight research areas that are Organisation and human, Automation and control room, Fuel and reactor physics, Thermal hydraulics, Severe accidents, Structural safety of reactor circuit, Construction safety, and Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA). Research projects of the programme are chosen on the basis of annual call for proposals. The annual volume of the SAFIR2010 programme in 2007-2008 has been 6,3-6,7 M euro and approximately 50 person years. Main funding organisations in 2007-2008 were State Waste Management Fund VYR with 2,7-3,0 M euro and VTT with 2,4-2,5 M euro annually. In 2008 research was carried out in 30 projects. The research in the programme has been carried out primarily by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Other research units responsible for the projects solely or in co-operation with other institutions include Lappeenranta University of Technology, Helsinki University of Technology, Tampere University of Technology, Fortum Nuclear Services Oy, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health and Finnish Meteorological Institute. In addition, there have been a few minor subcontractors in some projects. The programme management

  17. University of Tennessee Comparative Animal Research Laboratory accident in 1971

    On 4 February 1971, a 32-year-old research technologist performing seed irradiated experiments at the University of Tennessee Comparative Animal Research Laboratory was exposed to a Cobalt 60 source of 7700 curies for 40 seconds. Details of the accident, dose estimates from dosimetry studies, and acute biological clinical findings are discussed. Follow-up clinical data on the hematopoietic system, biochemistry, fingers, and blood counts are discussed

  18. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Results of the IPHECA pilot projects and related national programmes. Scientific report. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA)

    Since the Chernobyl accident, massive efforts have been made by the governmental authorities to mitigate the effects, to provide diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation to those affected and to investigate the effects on health which had occurred. Vast amounts of resources have and continue to be expended in supporting these efforts. In 1991, WHO officially joined this effort through the establishment by the World Health Assembly of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The objectives of this Programme were: to contribute to the efforts to alleviate the health consequences of the accident by assisting health authorities in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine; to consolidate the experience gained from treatment of over-exposure and from various practical interventions and thereby improve medical preparedness for the future; and to acquire data in the fields of radiation epidemiology and medical response to disasters. IPHECA initially concentrated on five priority areas, and pilot projects were developed for implementation in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine for each: thyroid, haematology, brain damage in-utero, epidemiological registry and oral health (only in Belarus). This publication is intended to fulfil a number of purposes. It provides an account of what was accomplished during the pilot phase of IPHECA. It discusses the protocols which were developed and used, summarizes the investigations which were carried out and reports on the instrumentation, supplies and training programmes which were provided. The publication also describes and discusses the results which have been obtained to date and identifies the still existing gaps in knowledge

  19. Effects of ageing on US university research programmes

    The history of University Research Reactor (URR) programmes in the United States is analyzed from the 1954 Atoms for Peace program until today. Of the 72 URRs commissioned only 34 remain in operation. The ageing process has had a minimal impact on physical structures and components. The greater impact of ageing has been on the programmes conducted at URRs. After initial construction with substantial federal support, a severe lack of funding existed for normal operating expenses, conducting active research programmes, and maintaining facilities in a state-of-the-art condition. Some facilities funded improvements by selling services to purchase new equipment and support the staff. Improvements also resulted form a recent $4 million federal upgrade program. Efforts are underway to establish a rational program of support to equip the network of URRs as contemporary research centers more committed to their educational and research missions and less driven by the need to perform service work to support their existence. (orig.)

  20. Mentoring health researchers globally: Diverse experiences, programmes, challenges and responses.

    Cole, Donald C; Johnson, Nancy; Mejia, Raul; McCullough, Hazel; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Barnoya, Joaquin; Falabella Luco, María Soledad

    2016-10-01

    Mentoring experiences and programmes are becoming increasingly recognised as important by those engaged in capacity strengthening in global health research. Using a primarily qualitative study design, we studied three experiences of mentorship and eight mentorship programmes for early career global health researchers based in high-income and low- and middle-income countries. For the latter, we drew upon programme materials, existing unpublished data and more formal mixed-method evaluations, supplemented by individual email questionnaire responses. Research team members wrote stories, and the team assembled and analysed them for key themes. Across the diverse experiences and programmes, key emergent themes included: great mentors inspire others in an inter-generational cascade, mentorship is transformative in personal and professional development and involves reciprocity, and finding the right balance in mentoring relationships and programmes includes responding creatively to failure. Among the challenges encountered were: struggling for more level playing fields for new health researchers globally, changing mindsets in institutions that do not have a culture of mentorship and building collaboration not competition. Mentoring networks spanning institutions and countries using multiple virtual and face-to-face methods are a potential avenue for fostering organisational cultures supporting quality mentorship in global health research. PMID:26234691

  1. Research reactor utilization in chemistry programmes

    The establishment and roles of the Philippines Atomic Energy Commission in promoting and regulating the use of atomic energy are explained. The research reactor, PRR-1 is being converted to TRIGA to meet the increasing demands of high-flux. The activities of PAEC in chemistry research programs utilizing reactor are discussed in detail. The current and future plans of Research and Development programs are also included. (A.J.)

  2. A proposed programme for energy risk research

    The report consists of two parts. Part I presents an overview of technological risk management, noting major contributions and current research needs. Part II details a proposed program of energy research, including discussions of some seven recommended projects. The proposed energy risk research program addresses two basic problem areas: improving the management of energy risks and energy risk communication and public response. Specific recommended projects are given for each. (Auth.)

  3. Radiation protection survey of research and development activities initiated after the Chernobyl accident. Review report

    The compilation of research and development activities in the various fields of radiation protection in OECD Member countries which have been undertaken or planned specifically to address open questions arising from the Chernobyl reactor accident experience shows a potential for international cooperative arrangements and/or coordination between national programmes. Both the preliminary review of the answers, which only cover a part of the relevant activities in OECD Member countries, and a computerized literature search indicate that the multidisciplinarity of the research area under consideration will call for special efforts to efficiently implement new models and new quantitative findings from the different fields of activity to provide an improved basis for emergency management and risk assessment. Further improvements could also be achieved by efforts to initiate new activities to close gaps in the programmes under way, to enhance international cooperation, and to coordinate the evaluation of the results. This preliminary review of the answers of 17 Member countries to the questionnaire on research and development activities initiated after the Chernobyl accident is not sufficient as a basis for a balanced decision on those research areas most in need for international cooperation and coordination. It may however serve as a guide for the exploration of the potential for international cooperative arrangements and/or coordination between national programmes by the CRPPH. Even at this preliminary stage, several specific activities are proposed to the NEA/OECD by Member countries. Whole body counting and the intercomparison of national data bases on the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment did attract most calls for international cooperation sponsored by the NEA

  4. Research reactor activities in support of national nuclear programmes

    This report is the result of an IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Research Reactor Activities in Support of National Nuclear Programmes held in Budapest, Hungary during 10-13 December 1985. The countries represented were Belgium, Finland, France, Federal Republic of Germany, German Democratic Republic, India, Poland, Spain, United Kingdom, United States, Yugoslavia and Hungary. The purpose of the meeting was to present information and details of several well-utilized research reactors and to discuss their contribution to national nuclear programmes. A related Agency activity, a Seminar on Applied Research and Service Activities for Research Reactor Operations was held in Copenhagen, Denmark during 9-13 September 1985. Selected papers from this Seminar relevant to the topic of research reactor support of national nuclear programmes have been included in this report. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 19 papers presented at the Technical Committee Meeting on Research Reactor Activities in Support of National Nuclear Programmes and for each of 15 papers selected from the presentations of the Seminar on Applied Research and Service Activities for Research Reactor Operations

  5. Proceedings of the European Review Meeting on Severe Accident Research - ERMSAR 2005

    The SARNET network has been set up under the aegis of the Framework Programmes (FP) of the European Commission on research. Two projects have been defined, both coordinated by IRSN (France), in the FP6 (2004-08) and FP7 (2009-13), with the following key objectives: Improving knowledge on severe accidents (SA) in order to reduce the uncertainties on the pending issues, thereby enhancing the plant safety, Coordinating research resources and expertise available in Europe, Preserving the research data and disseminating knowledge. The network members commit to contribute to a Joint Programme of Activities that can be broken into several elements: - Implementing an advanced communication tool for fostering exchange of information; - Harmonizing and re-orienting the research programmes, and defining commonly new ones; - Analysing commonly the experimental results provided by research programmes in order to elaborate a common understanding of concerned phenomena; - Developing ASTEC, which capitalizes in terms of models the knowledge produced within SARNET; - Developing Scientific Databases, in which all the results of research programmes are stored; - Developing a common methodology for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of NNPs; - Developing educational courses and text (source) books; - Promoting personnel mobility between the various European organisations. SARNET provides an appropriate frame for achieving within a couple of years a sustainable integration of the European research capacities on SA. By capitalizing the acquired knowledge in ASTEC and in Scientific Databases, SARNET produces necessary conditions for preserving the knowledge produced by thousands of men-years and diffusing it to a large number of end-users. By fostering collaborative work on developing and validating ASTEC, SARNET makes this code as the European reference for any kind of water-cooled NPP existing in Europe. By fostering collaborative work in the domain of code development and PSA

  6. YKAe - Research programme on nuclear power plant systems behaviour and operational aspects of safety

    The major part of nuclear energy research in Finland has been organised as five-year nationally coordinated research programs. The research programme on Systems Behaviour and Operational Aspects of Safety is under way during 1990-1994. Its annual volume has been about 35 person-years and its annual expenditure about FIM 18 million. Studies in the field on safe operational margins of nuclear fuel and reactor core concentrate on fuel high burn-up behaviour, VVER fuel experiments, and reactor core behaviour in complex reactivity transients such as 3-D phenomena and ATWS events. The PACTEL facility is used for the thermal hydraulic studies of the Loviisa type reactors (scaled 1:305). Validation of accident analysis codes is carried out by participation in international standard problems. Advanced foreign computer codes for severe reactor accidents are implemented, modified as needed and applied to level-2 PSAs and the improvement of accident management procedures. Fire simulation methods are tested using data from experiments in the German HDR facility. A nuclear plant analyzer for efficient safety analyses is being developed using the APROS process simulation environment. Computerized operator support systems are being studied in cooperation with the OECD Halden Project. The basic factors affecting plant operator activities and the development of their competence are being investigated. A comprehensive system for the control of plant operational safety is being developed by combining living PSA and safety indicators

  7. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accidents (IPHECA). Protocol for the pilot project ''Thyroid''

    The protocol document for the Thyroid Project of International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accidents (IPHECA) describes the main aims of the project, namely 1) to detect and describe selected diseases of the thyroid among children and adolescents in population centres assigned earlier as ''strictly controlled zones'' and, 2) to determine, if possible, the link between the prevalence of the diseases and radiation doses received by the thyroid. Population to be investigated, medical and laboratory examinations and advanced diagnostics for thyroid diseases to be undertaken are enlisted in the protocol

  8. The EPR concept for serious accident management, and accompanying research

    An accident, even if the probability of occurrence is so low that it can practically be excluded, must not require any serious external emergency measures, such as evacuation of human populations outside the immediate neighbourhood of the plant. This demand, which in the meantime has also become part of the German article law, creates a new situation for future light water reactors. In addition to the measures which are to reduce the probability of occurrence of serious accidents, a level is introduced which is designed to control the consequences of serious accidents with postulated core meltdown. The introduction of specific measures and design characteristics is a new challenge which cannot be met by industry alone. It is necessary to resort, to a large extent, to present and future research and development work which has been and will be carried out in this area by large-scale research institutions and universities. As regards the EPR, research and development cooperation in this field has been intensified recently. The CEA research centres and the FZKA signed an agreement on information exchange. (orig./HP)

  9. Analysis of reactivity induced accidents at Pakistan Research Reactor-1

    Analysis of reactivity induced accidents in Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) utilizing low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, has been carried out using standard computer code PARET. The present core comprises of 29 standard and five control fuel elements. Various modes of reactivity insertions have been considered. The events studied include: start-up accident; accidental drop of a fuel element on the core; flooding of a beam tube with water; removal of an in-pile experiment during reactor operation etc. For each of these transients, time histories of reactor power, energy released and clad surface temperature etc. were calculated. The results reveal that the peak clad temperatures remain well below the clad melting temperature during these accidents. It is concluded that the reactor, which is operated safely at a steady-state power level of 10 MW, with coolant flow rate of 950 m3/h, will also be safe against any possible reactivity induced accident and will not result in a fuel failure

  10. Analysis of reactivity induced accidents at Pakistan Research Reactor-1

    Bokhari, I.H. E-mail: ishtiaq@pinstech.org.pk; Israr, M.; Pervez, S

    2002-12-01

    Analysis of reactivity induced accidents in Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) utilizing low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, has been carried out using standard computer code PARET. The present core comprises of 29 standard and five control fuel elements. Various modes of reactivity insertions have been considered. The events studied include: start-up accident; accidental drop of a fuel element on the core; flooding of a beam tube with water; removal of an in-pile experiment during reactor operation etc. For each of these transients, time histories of reactor power, energy released and clad surface temperature etc. were calculated. The results reveal that the peak clad temperatures remain well below the clad melting temperature during these accidents. It is concluded that the reactor, which is operated safely at a steady-state power level of 10 MW, with coolant flow rate of 950 m{sup 3}/h, will also be safe against any possible reactivity induced accident and will not result in a fuel failure.

  11. Overview of severe accident research at the USNRC

    This paper summarizes the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (USNRC) severe accident research activities, in particular, progress made in the past year toward the resolution and/or improved understanding of a number of severe accident issues. The direct containment heating (DCH) is nearing resolution for Combustion Engineering and Babcock and Wilcox type pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are well as for ice condensers. Additionally, two lower pressure DCH tests were conducted recently at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under the NRC/IPSN/FzK sponsorship to provide data regarding intentional depressurization as an accident management strategy to mitigate DCH loads. In the area of lower head integrity, the experimental program to investigate boiling heat transfer on downward facing curved surfaces with insulation was completed. Finally, the SNL program investigating the creep rupture behavior of the lower head under the combined thermo-mechanical loading was completed recently. Additional lower head experiments at SNL are being planned as an OECD project. During the past year, the USNRC participated in two programs aimed at extending the data base on hydrogen combustion into more prototypic situations. Testing was performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to investigate detonation transmission at elevated temperatures. In a cooperative program under the sponsorship of NRC/IPSN/FzK, Russian Research Center (RRC) investigated hydrogen combustion issues at large scale at the RUT facility. The experimental program at the SNL to examine the performance of Passive Autocatalytic Recombiners (PARs) was completed also this year. In the fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) area, the experimental work at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to investigate chemical augmentation of FCI energetics was completed as was the experimental work at the University of Wisconsin (UW) involving one-dimensional propagation experiments (similar to KROTOS). The USNRC is

  12. Landmine Detection Technology Research Programme at TNO

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of most of the activities on research and development in the technology area for landmine detection at TNO in the Netherlands. The projects cover the range from military applications to humanitarian demining. In the “conventional” detection systems area the activi

  13. The European Research on Severe Accidents in Generation-II and -III Nuclear Power Plants

    Jean-Pierre Van Dorsselaere

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-three organisations from 22 countries network their capacities of research in SARNET (Severe Accident Research NETwork of excellence to resolve the most important remaining uncertainties and safety issues on severe accidents in existing and future water-cooled nuclear power plants (NPP. After a first project in the 6th Framework Programme (FP6 of the European Commission, the SARNET2 project, coordinated by IRSN, started in April 2009 for 4 years in the FP7 frame. After 2,5 years, some main outcomes of joint research (modelling and experiments by the network members on the highest priority issues are presented: in-vessel degraded core coolability, molten-corium-concrete-interaction, containment phenomena (water spray, hydrogen combustion…, source term issues (mainly iodine behaviour. The ASTEC integral computer code, jointly developed by IRSN and GRS to predict the NPP SA behaviour, capitalizes in terms of models the knowledge produced in the network: a few validation results are presented. For dissemination of knowledge, an educational 1-week course was organized for young researchers or students in January 2011, and a two-day course is planned mid-2012 for senior staff. Mobility of young researchers or students between the European partners is being promoted. The ERMSAR conference is becoming the major worldwide conference on SA research.

  14. EC Research Contribution to Decision-making Processes Relevant to Severe Accident Management

    As a result of the two well-known civil nuclear accidents and of the consequent increase in safety requirements, the need to properly assess severe accident (SA) scenarios for present and future nuclear power plants (going beyond the traditional three-level defence-in-depth strategy) became evident. In this line, various research activities were launched and are performed within the Euratom Framework Programmes, in particular the completed Fourth one (F P-4, 1994-1998) and the present Fifth one (FP-5, 1998-2002). The initial orientation of the EC research activities was mainly focused on improving the understanding of the phenomena and mechanisms involved in such accidents, in order to contribute to prevent possible final radioactivity releases. A consensus on how to model those SA phenomena in accident safety analyses by means of specific tools (SA codes developed, verified and validated through experimental results provided) is reasonably advanced. Currently, the EC research activities related to severe accidents are balanced between a twofold approach aimed at assessing the risks related with severe accident scenarios and to support the development of severe accident management (SAM) strategies, together with the optimisation of backfitting measures for existing reactors or specific designs for future nuclear power plants. This new orientation is confronting difficulties, inherent to the phenomenological character of several research activities, which make a direct application of the results into SAM measures premature in some cases. In this regard, this paper presents a series of ten selected FP-5 projects with emphasis placed on the applicability of research results towards SAM strategies to be used by decision-makers amongst utilities, the nuclear industry in particular designers, and regulators. The majority of them also contain -further to the SAM approach- supporting elements focused on risk assessment. The revised programme of the key action 'Nuclear

  15. Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre. Programme budget 1988

    Following a general survey of tasks, planned activities and developmental trends of the nuclear research centre, the report gives an account of the activities to be performed in the subject fields of main interest, showing the budgeting figures for annual expenditure (for personnel, investments, operating costs) up to the year 1991. Further information explains the infrastructure of the centre and the distribution of overall expenditure as well as the budgetary planning. (UA)

  16. The Nirex safety assessment research programme for 1987/88

    This report outlines the work of the Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme during the period 1st April 1987 to 31st March 1988. The research programme has the specific objective of providing the information requirements of the post-emplacement radiological safety case for the disposal of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste in underground repositories. For convenience the programme has been divided into seven areas: physical containment, near-field radionuclide chemistry, evolution of the near-field aqueous environment, mass transfer in the geosphere, the biosphere, gas evolution and migration, and integrated studies. The near-field includes the waste, its immobilising medium, its container, the engineered structure in which the container is emplaced and the immediately adjacent geological formation disturbed by the construction of the repository. (author)

  17. Evaluation of the Community's nuclear reactor safety research programme

    This report describes an evaluation of the 1980-85 CEC reactor safety programme prepared, at the invitation of the Commission, by a panel of six independent experts by means of examining the relevant document and by holding hearings with the responsible CEC staff. It contains the recommendations made by the panel on the following topics: the need for the JRC to continue to make its competence in the reactor safety field available to the Community; the importance of continuity in the JRC and shared-cost action programmes; the difficulty of developing reactor safety research programmes which satisfy the needs of users with diverse needs; the monitoring of the utilization of the research results; the maintenance of the JRC computer codes used by the Member States; the spin-off from research results being made available to other industrial sectors; the continued contact between the JRC researchers and the national experts; the coordination of LWR safety research with that of the Member States; and, the JRC work on fast breeders to be planned with regard to the R and D programmes of the Fast Reactor European Consortium

  18. Towards a New Virtualist Design Research Programme

    David Wang

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers how the influence of computer-cyber networks informs a new way of seeing on the part of designers as well as design researchers.  In an adaptation of the notion of “virtual realities” made possible by computer technology, this new way of seeing is termed the New Virtualism.  The INTRODUCTION suggests that this computer-cyber way of seeing is only the third paradigm shift in Western architectural history, following design predicated on the paradigm of the human body (1) an...

  19. Towards a Lakatosian Programme of Research into Concept Development.

    Gilbert, John; Swift, David

    Although the ideas of Jean Piaget still dominate the field of science education, the range and severity of criticisms has increased progressively. In recent years, the emergence of a different theory of cognitive development has begun. This paper tentatively outlines a Lakatosian Research Programme for the alternative conceptions field. The…

  20. Implications of the Fukushima Accident on Research Reactor Safety

    Preliminary findings of Fukushima accident show that there is no evidence of major human errors as in previous accidents in the nuclear power industry, namely, Three Mile Island (USA) and Chernobyl (Soviet Union), and that the initiating event, a natural catastrophe of extraordinary magnitude, caused a long term loss of the normal power supply producing the failure of each defence-in depth barriers with the final release of radioactive material to the atmosphere. It is worth noticing that the direct damage caused in Japan by the earthquake and tsunami far exceeded any damage caused by the accident at the nuclear plant. In the light of this event the question whether safety systems of research reactors will cope with this type of scenarios arises. The objective of this works is to present an overview of the current practice commonly used in the safety analysis in research reactors and to assess the capability to mitigate conditions from a beyond-design-basis event like the one occurred at Fukushima power plant. (author)

  1. Biomass - Overview of Swiss Research Programme 2003

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results obtained in 2003 in various research projects worked on in Switzerland on the subject of biomass. In the biomass combustion area, subjects discussed include system optimisation for automatic firing, combustion particles, low-particle pellet furnaces, design and optimisation of wood-fired storage ovens, efficiency of filtering techniques and methane generation from wood. Also, an accredited testing centre for wood furnaces is mentioned and measurements made on an installation are presented. As far as the fermentation of biogenic wastes is concerned, biogas production from dairy-product wastes is described. Other projects discussed include a study on eco-balances of energy products, certification and marketing of biogas, evaluation of membranes, a measurement campaign for solar sludge-drying, the operation of a percolator installation for the treatment of bio-wastes, the effects of compost on the environment and the fermentation of coffee wastes. Also, statistics on biogas production in 2002 is looked at. Finally, a preliminary study on biofuels is presented

  2. Computer code application programme of TAEA for thermal hydraulic research

    Evaluation of thermal-hydraulic conditions, fuel behavior, and reactor kinetic during various operating and postulated accident conditions results in conclusions that support decision-making process, the review of license application, and the resolution of other technical issues related to nuclear safety. Also these activities increase the understanding and involvement into new technical developments. Thermal-hydraulic research activities at TAEA focus on the application of computer codes that simulate the behavior of the reactor system. The computer codes are used to analyzed loss of coolant accidents, and system transients in light water nuclear reactors and to assess the consequences if imbalance occurs and to determine the effectiveness of mitigating actions. TAEA has used nuclear reactor system codes (RELAP5/Mod3.2 and higher versions, PARCS) and nuclear plant visual analyzer codes (NPA, SNAP, and XNGR5) obtained by in the framework of the CAMP Agreement signed between TAEA and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC). TAEA performs and documents the code assessments including improvements and error corrections. Moreover, research activities concerning the passive cooling application and simulations of advanced nuclear power plant have been carried out by both experimental and theoretical means. For example, the experiment test facility, which was designed to investigate the effect of noncondensable gases on condensation, was conducted in cooperation with the Mechanical Engineering Department of the Middle East Technical University in Ankara (Turkey) and was finished. The text matrix obtained from this research was also submitted to US NRC data bank. Application of RELAP5 code f system transients include International Standard Problem (ISP) studies (ISP 33, 38, 42, 45, 46), accident analysis for different reactors and special topics in nuclear heat transfer problems (mid-loop operation). Research studies of severe accidents assess the detailed

  3. The IAEA programme on research reactor safety - An update

    There are close to 270 operating research reactors (RR) worldwide. Only four of these reactors are new (i.e., commissioned in 1995 or later), while 23 reactors have been shutdown in this period. Technical and safety problems, lack of strong utilization programmes and of adequate budgets and concern about ageing are the primary causes for this situation. Indeed, over 50% of the operating RRs are over 30 years old, and 25% are between 20-30 years old. On this background, decommissioning programmes gain increasing importance beside plans for refurbishment of old reactors. The IAEA's programme on RR Safety entails three major projects: (1) The development of guidance documents on research reactor safety, covering both general aspects and special topics of current concern; 2) rendering advisory other services related to RR safety to Member States, such as safety review missions, training courses, and other technical assistance through Technical Co-operation Projects; and 3) promotion of the sharing and exchange of information on RR safety through the organization of conferences and topical seminars and of coordinated research programmes and through the establishment and maintenance of an Incident Reporting System for RRs (IRSRR). Essentially, the actual programme is constantly modified to reflect current needs and concerns. Thus, among the new documents developed are guidelines for the determination of source terms for RR safety analyses and emergency planning a guide on RR core and fuel handling, and another guide on extended shutdowns and mothballing of RRs. Among the new services envisaged are extension of the NPP ASSET service (Assessment of Safety Significant Events Teams) to RRs, conducting trainings on self assessments, and providing specific assistance to regulatory bodies. An expansion of the number and types of technical assistance regional and country projects and training courses is also planned. The new Incident Reporting System for RRs launched last year

  4. Presentation of the Nirex disposal safety research programme

    Implementation of Nirex plans for the disposal of solid low and intermediate level radioactive waste deep underground requires assurances of safety at every stage. This includes assessment of long-term safety, which must be based on an understanding of how the repository and its contents will behave far into the future. This understanding is being provided by the company's substantial disposal research and development programme, currently running at a level of more than Pound 5 million annually. The principal contractor for the work is the UKAEA's Harwell Laboratory, with contributions from experts in universities and industry. Information from other national and international programmes also contributes. This document supports a presentation held at the CEGB Conference Centre, Didcot Power Station, Oxfordshire on 1st November 1988 to outline the scope of the work and its objectives in the context of the Company's plans and the requirements of safety assessments. It summarises the results and understanding being obtained from the current programme. (author)

  5. The role of opinion research in communications programmes

    Nirex is a company financed by the UK nuclear industry to dispose of intermediate and some long-lived low-level radioactive waste. The company has no responsibility for high-level radioactive waste. Most low-level waste is disposed of at a shallow site owned by BNFL, one of Nirex's shareholders. At Nirex, we use opinion research in a number of ways: as a map to guide communications programmes; to set baselines and targets to isolate issues of concern to our publics. The Company carries out market research covering three key audiences: the general public, politicians, and journalists. For Nirex, opinion research is a map. It guides our communication programmes in dealing with our key audiences. Without it, we would be driving blind. Opinion research allows us to isolate key issues for communication. It also allows us to measure performance and to see which initiatives are successful and which are not

  6. Recent Activities on the Experimental Research Programme Using Small Tokamaks

    A new concept of interactive co-ordinated research using small tokamaks in the mainstream fusion science areas, in testing of new diagnostics, materials and technologies as well as in education, training and broadening of the geography of fusion research in the scope of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) is discussed in this paper. Besides the presentation of the recent activities on the experimental research programme using small tokamaks and scientific results achieved at the participating laboratories, information is provided about the organisation of the co-ordinated research project. Future plans of the co-ordinated activities within the CRP are discussed

  7. Highlights from the IAEA coordinated research programme on fuel performance and fission product data

    Seven countries are cooperating with the objectives (i) to document the status of the experimental data base and of the predictive methods for Gas-Cooled Reactor fuel performance and fission product behaviour; (ii) to verify and validate methods in fuel performance and fission product retention prediction. These countries are China, France, Germany, Japan, Russia, USA and the UK. Duration of the programme is 1993-96. The technology areas addressed in this IAEA Coordinated Research Programme are: Fuel design and manufacture, Normal operation fuel performance and fission product behaviour, Accident condition fuel performance and fission product behaviour, -core heatup, -fast transients, -oxidising conditions (water and air ingress), Plateout, re-entrainment of plateout, fission product behaviour in the reactor building, and Performance of advanced fuels. Work performed so far has generated a 300-page draft document with important information for normal operations (Germany, Japan, China, Russia) and accident conditions (USA, Japan, Germany, Russia) and, additionally, a special chapter on advanced fuels (Japan). (author)

  8. Licensing programmes for research reactors and critical assemblies personnel

    The Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) has established, in its norms of licensing for personnel of facilities Class I, two separate stages: the obtaining of an Individual License and the obtaining of the Specific Authorization. The Individual License requires the approval of an examination on general theoretical knowledge, and the Specific Authorization requires the approval of an examination on the installation and the tasks for witch it is asked for. Because the ARN has among its functions the one to participate in the evaluation of the people and to grant these Licenses and Authorizations, it decided to define, in consultation with the specialists of the facilities, thematic programmes for the obtaining of Licenses and Specific Authorizations in all the specified functions. The formulation of this programme required the definition of technical knowledge and skills necessary to fulfill each one of the specified functions in research reactors and critical assemblies. This programme has, as an added value, the definition of the base for the qualification programmes and training of the personnel. In order to establish a certain logical ordering, four subjects were defined in case of Licenses (Reactor Engineering, Documentation and Standards, Radiological Safety, Nuclear Safety) and three subjects in case of Specific Authorizations (Manuals and Procedures, Plant Knowledge, Normal and Emergencies Tasks). On the other hand, in addition to the listing of the corresponding subjects, it was necessary to define levels of depth for each of the item mentioned. This paper describes the criteria and conclusions of the work developed for the preparation of the thematic programme for the obtaining of Licenses and Specific Authorization of the personnel with specified functions of research reactors and critical assemblies. The paper is completed with the example of a programme for some specified functions of a generic reactor. (author)

  9. Power Excursion Accident Analysis of Research Water Reactor

    A three-dimensional neutronic code POWEX-K has been developed, and it has been coupled with the sub-channel thermal-hydraulic core analysis code SV based on the Single Mass Velocity Model. This forms the integrated neutronic/thermal hydraulics code system POWEX-K/SV for the accident analysis. The Training and Research Reactors at Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME-Reactor) has been taken as a reference reactor. The cross-section generation procedure based on WIMS. The code uses an implicit difference approach for both the diffusion equations and thermal-hydraulics modules, with reactivity feedback effects due to coolant and fuel temperatures. The code system was applied to analyzing power excursion accidents initiated by ramp reactivity insertion of 1.2 $. The results show that the reactor is inherently safe in case of such accidents i.e. no core melt is expected even if the safety rods do not fall into the core

  10. The scientific research programmes of Lakatos and applications in parasitology

    Cabaret J.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of scientific research programme (MSRP proposed by Lakatos was in the line of the proposals made by Popper. MSRP were intended for constructing and evaluating research programme, which is unique among philosophers of science. Surprisingly, scientists dedicated to research in mathematics, physic or biology have not used much MRSP. This could be due to the fact that scientists are not aware of the existence of MSRP, or they find it difficult to apply to their own investigations. That is why we present firstly the main characteristics of this methodology (hard core – the group of hypothesis that are admitted by experts in the field, auxiliary hypotheses – which are intended to protect and refine the hypotheses of the hard-core, and heuristics for mending and evaluating the MSRP and, secondly, propose an example in helminthology. We think that the methodology of Lakatos, is a useful tool, but it cannot encompass the large flexibility of investigations pathways.

  11. Advanced sodium fast reactor accident source terms : research needs.

    Powers, Dana Auburn; Clement, Bernard [IRSN/DPAM.SEMIC Bt 702, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France; Denning, Richard [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH; Ohno, Shuji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan; Zeyen, Roland [Institute for Energy Petten, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France

    2010-09-01

    An expert opinion elicitation has been used to evaluate phenomena that could affect releases of radionuclides during accidents at sodium-cooled fast reactors. The intent was to identify research needed to develop a mechanistic model of radionuclide release for licensing and risk assessment purposes. Experts from the USA, France, the European Union, and Japan identified phenomena that could affect the release of radionuclides under hypothesized accident conditions. They qualitatively evaluated the importance of these phenomena and the need for additional experimental research. The experts identified seven phenomena that are of high importance and have a high need for additional experimental research: High temperature release of radionuclides from fuel during an energetic eventEnergetic interactions between molten reactor fuel and sodium coolant and associated transfer of radionuclides from the fuel to the coolantEntrainment of fuel and sodium bond material during the depressurization of a fuel rod with breached claddingRates of radionuclide leaching from fuel by liquid sodiumSurface enrichment of sodium pools by dissolved and suspended radionuclidesThermal decomposition of sodium iodide in the containment atmosphereReactions of iodine species in the containment to form volatile organic iodides. Other issues of high importance were identified that might merit further research as development of the mechanistic model of radionuclide release progressed.

  12. Research of severe accident induced by small LOCA and accident mitigation

    Fangjiashan nuclear power plant is modeled, by using MAAP4 code. Base on this model, the small LOCA accident is calculated, which will cause the worst consequence. The response of the plant and relevant severe accident phenomena are obtained. The phenomena of DCH (direct containment heat) happened during the accident, containment failure and release of the fission production are analyzed. Then, according to the related severe accident management and characteristic of this accident, the strategy of mitigating the accident consequence is studied and calculated. The result indicated that the mitigation action is very efficient. Therefore, a feasible strategy of mitigating the severe accident consequence is provided for the three-loop plant like Fangjiashan in China. (authors)

  13. Accomplishments and challenges of the severe accident research

    This paper describes the progress of the severe accident research since 1980, in terms of the accomplishments made so far and the challenges that remain. Much has been accomplished: many important safety issues have been resolved and consensus is near on some others. However, some of the previously identified safety issues remain as challenges, while some new ones have arisen due to the shift in focus from containment integrity to vessel integrity. New reactor designs have also created some new challenges. In general, the regulatory demands in new reactor designs are much stricter, thereby requiring much greater attention to the safety issues concerned with the containment design of the new large reactors

  14. Generational interdependencies in families: The MULTILINKS research programme

    Pearl A. Dykstra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND We identify four research themes where MULTILINKS, a programme of research on intergenerational family ties funded through the Seventh Framework of the European Commission, has brought new and unique insights. Key premises of the MULTILINKS approach involved an emphasis on (1 both young and old in families, (2 the ways in which social policies structure independencies in families, and (3 the influence of historical, economic and cultural contexts. METHODS Our overview includes research done in the context of the MULTILINKS programme at large as well as the papers in this special collection. RESULTS Firstly, by combining macro and micro perspectives on family constellations across Europe it has been possible to provide a more nuanced view than is common in conventional portrayals of family change. Secondly, by extending research to Eastern European countries, the programme has not only identified crucial regional differences in family patterns, but also shown that explanations of well-being differentials are similar in Eastern and Western Europe. Thirdly, by focusing on legal and policy frameworks regarding the division of caring and financial responsibilities for the young and old between the family and the state, it has been possible to distinguish patterns in the degree to which national policies strengthen or weaken generational interdependencies in families. Fourthly, research conducted in the context of the MULTILINKS programme has demonstrated the usefulness of paying attention to preferences about family members' responsibilities for each other. CONCLUSIONS Recognition of the key premises of MULTILINKS has led to challenging, critical insights on intergenerational family ties.

  15. Combustion chemistry - activities in the CHEK research programme

    Dam-Johansen, K.; Johnsson, J.E.; Glarborg, P.; Frandsen, F.; Jensen, A.; Oestberg, M. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-10-01

    The combustion chemistry in the oxidation of fossil fuels and biofuels determines together with mixing and heat transfer the required size of a furnace, the emission of gaseous pollutants, and the formation of ash and deposits on surfaces. This presentation describes technologies for solid fuels combustion and gives a summary of the fuels, the pollutant chemistry and the inorganic chemistry in combustion processes. Emphasis is put on the work carried out in the CHEC (Combustion and Harmful Emission Control) Research Programme. (orig.)

  16. The South African National Accelerator Centre and its research programme

    Watanabe, Y. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    An overview of the South African National Accelerator Centre and its research activities is given with emphasis on medium energy nuclear physics and nuclear data measurements for medical use. Also presented is a preliminary result of {sup 40}Ca(p,p`x) spectrum measurement for 392 MeV which has been carried out at RCNP, Osaka University, under the South Africa-Japan collaborative programme. (author)

  17. Researching the Impact of Teacher Professional Development Programmes Based on Action Research, Constructivism, and Systems Theory

    Zehetmeier, Stefan; Andreitz, Irina; Erlacher, Willibald; Rauch, Franz

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the topic of professional development programmes' impact. Concepts and ideas of action research, constructivism, and systems theory are used as a theoretical framework and are combined to describe and analyse an exemplary professional development programme in Austria. Empirical findings from both quantitative and qualitative…

  18. Bioenergy Research Programme. Yearbook 1994. Production of wood fuels

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of energy technology programmes of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (in 1995 TEKES, Technology Development Center). The aim of Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling and using of biofuels. The funding for 1994 was nearly 50 million FIM and projects numbered 60. The main goal of the production of wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m3). There were 27 projects in 1994 for research on wood fuel production. This part of the yearbook 1994 presents the main results of these projects. The wood reserves do not limit the obtainability of the target. Research and development work has, however, directed to development of equipment and research on wood fuels production chains. Many devices, designed for both separate and integrated production of wood fuels became ready or were becoming ready for prototyping, to be used for production tests. Results of the biomass harvesting and properties research were obtained for utilization in 1994. According to the results it is possible to obtain the desired targets both in integrated and separated production of wood fuels. (author)

  19. An Ageing Management Programme for the SAFARI-1 Research Reactor

    The SAFARI-1 Research Reactor is a 20 MW high flux material test reactor and has been continuously operational for nearly 47 years. In this period, ageing of the facility has been addressed by means of various, mainly reactive, maintenance and upgrade initiatives to replace components that have become unmaintainable for various reasons such as wear, corrosion and obsolescence. With the facility now approaching 50 years of continuous operation, a programme has been implemented to assess, address and implement ageing management in a more formal and proactive manner. The programme conforms to the recently published IAEA Safety Guide SSG-10 Ageing Management for Research Reactors and makes extensive use of the guidelines set therein as well as other tools and methods developed in various international meetings and workshops at the IAEA for identifying ageing issues at the facility. The paper presents an outline of the methodology for implementing the ageing management programme at the SAFARI-1 research reactor. Identification of SSCs important to the safety and sustainability of the facility that are susceptible to ageing, the ageing mechanisms affecting them and the remedial actions identified to mitigate or remove the effects of ageing are discussed. A methodology for determining priorities is also elaborated. Remedial actions are divided into four groups: safety critical, mission critical, lifetime extension and organizational, and an implementation strategy is described. (author)

  20. Review of the Common European R + D programme on the development and propagation of leakage accidents in sodium-heated steam generators

    Sodium-water reactions caused by water-into-sodium leakages are an essential topic in safety considerations for LMFBR steam generators. Research work in this field has been performed worldwide for some decades. Nevertheless, not all questions have been answered yet. So investigations are still going on, nowadays preferably directed to special problem areas and/or to certain design requirements of actual reactor projects. For the European Fast Reactor (EFR) a comprehensive R + D programme is being performed covering all important aspects of leakage accidents (development and consequences of leakages, detection methods, counter measures, codes development). The work is shared between France (CEA), Great Britain (AEA) and Germany (Interatom), cooperating as partners in the development of the EFR. The individual tasks are performed in a great variety of test installations in a well coordinated manner. Based on the results the design basis accident (DBA) for the EFR steam generators will be established and computer codes will be provided for design and licensing purposes. (author). 3 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  1. In-depth analysis of accidents : a pilot study and possibilities for further research.

    Oude Egberink, H. Stoop, J. & Poppe, F.

    1988-01-01

    Until recently The Netherlands did not have a tradition in the field of in-depth research of road traffic accidents. Due to the high number and severity of road traffic accidents and in response to a particularly large motorway accident, it was considered to explore the possibility of using the resu

  2. The Chernobyl accident

    In connection with the Chernobyl accident the report gives a description of the technical features of importance to the accident, the course of events, and the estimated health hazards in the local environment. Dissimilarities in western and Sovjet reactor safety philosophy are dealt with, as well as conceivable concequences in relation to technology and research in western nuclear power programmes. Results of activity level measurements of air and foodstuff, made in Norway by Institute for Energy Technology, are given

  3. Severe accident research and management in Nordic Countries - A status report

    The report describes the status of severe accident research and accident management development in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark. The emphasis is on severe accident phenomena and issues of special importance for the severe accident management strategies implemented in Sweden and in Finland. The main objective of the research has been to verify the protection provided by the accident mitigation measures and to reduce the uncertainties in risk dominant accident phenomena. Another objective has been to support validation and improvements of accident management strategies and procedures as well as to contribute to the development of level 2 PSA, computerised operator aids for accident management and certain aspects of emergency preparedness. Severe accident research addresses both the in-vessel and the ex-vessel accident progression phenomena and issues. Even though there are differences between Sweden and Finland as to the scope and content of the research programs, the focus of the research in both countries is on in-vessel coolability, integrity of the reactor vessel lower head and core melt behaviour in the containment, in particular the issues of core debris coolability and steam explosions. Notwithstanding that our understanding of these issues has significantly improved, and that experimental data base has been largely expanded, there are still important uncertainties which motivate continued research. Other important areas are thermal-hydraulic phenomena during reflooding of an overheated partially degraded core, fission product chemistry, in particular formation of organic iodine, and hydrogen transport and combustion phenomena. The development of severe accident management has embraced, among other things, improvements of accident mitigating procedures and strategies, further work at IFE Halden on Computerised Accident Management Support (CAMS) system, as well as plant modifications, including new instrumentation. Recent efforts in Sweden in this area

  4. Severe accident research and management in Nordic Countries - A status report

    Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI (Sweden)] (ed.)

    2002-01-01

    The report describes the status of severe accident research and accident management development in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark. The emphasis is on severe accident phenomena and issues of special importance for the severe accident management strategies implemented in Sweden and in Finland. The main objective of the research has been to verify the protection provided by the accident mitigation measures and to reduce the uncertainties in risk dominant accident phenomena. Another objective has been to support validation and improvements of accident management strategies and procedures as well as to contribute to the development of level 2 PSA, computerised operator aids for accident management and certain aspects of emergency preparedness. Severe accident research addresses both the in-vessel and the ex-vessel accident progression phenomena and issues. Even though there are differences between Sweden and Finland as to the scope and content of the research programs, the focus of the research in both countries is on in-vessel coolability, integrity of the reactor vessel lower head and core melt behaviour in the containment, in particular the issues of core debris coolability and steam explosions. Notwithstanding that our understanding of these issues has significantly improved, and that experimental data base has been largely expanded, there are still important uncertainties which motivate continued research. Other important areas are thermal-hydraulic phenomena during reflooding of an overheated partially degraded core, fission product chemistry, in particular formation of organic iodine, and hydrogen transport and combustion phenomena. The development of severe accident management has embraced, among other things, improvements of accident mitigating procedures and strategies, further work at IFE Halden on Computerised Accident Management Support (CAMS) system, as well as plant modifications, including new instrumentation. Recent efforts in Sweden in this area

  5. Design research for accident prevention in CANDU reactor

    Study of PHWR Candu Design under severe accident has been done. Severe accident is defined as one in which the fuel is not removed by the coolant in the primary heat transport system. A severe accident could only result if a process system failed and the appropriate protective system was simultaneous unavailable. Severe accidents of the Candu reactor relevant to severe accident are set first by the inherent properties of the design. With the system sufficiently independent, the frequencies of a severe accident could be made acceptable low. This paper discussed that the separately cooled moderator in a Candu provides an effective heat sink in the event of a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) accompanied by total failure of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS). The moderator heat sink prevents fuel melting and maintain the integrity of the fuel channels, therefore terminating this severe accidents short of severe core damage

  6. The Research Contract Programme annual report and statistics for 2000

    53 Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) were completed in 2000. 38 of these CRPs concerned topics in Nuclear Sciences and Applications and 15 were related to nuclear energy and safety. These CRPs were funded for $9,275,648; the average annual cost per CRP was $38,892. A list of these CRPs is included. Evaluations of these CRPs will be completed by the end of 2001 and included in the next annual report. The Agency's unique position as a technical international organization has enabled it to act as an international platform to lead groups of nuclear scientists by co-ordinating research and developmental activities addressing important problems in Member States. CRPs have been used to transfer existing technologies to developing countries, as well as for the development of new technologies in those countries. Since CRPs are tailored to finding solutions to specific problems, as compared to general techniques, their potential value in terms of the effect on Member States' level of development is substantial. In an effort to further enhance the effectiveness of CRPs developed and coordinated by the Agency, various initiatives have been suggested and the Research Contract Programme has been the subject of several advisory fora. The PPAS of Major Programme 2, the Senior Evaluation Group (SEG), and an internal audit of the programme have recently made recommendations to this end. Based on these reviews, the Agency has begun to fund fewer, but better focused and more substantially funded CRPs. Whereas in 1999, the Agency was carrying out 159 CRPs, 132 CRPs were carried out in 2000. The average annual amount of funding available per CRP during this period increased by 14%, from US $47,500 in 1999 to US $ 54,000 in 2000. In addition, the introduction of a new type of CRP (called Thematic CRP), meant to complement traditional CRPs, is currently being tested by the Human Health programme. This new, optional type of CRP is designed to strengthen promotion of research on nuclear

  7. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident (IPHECA). Report of the management committee meeting Geneva 16-17 March 1994

    The International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) have been initiated in mid-1991 following its endorsement by the Forty-fourth World Health Assembly in resolution WHA44.36. The report of the Management Committee Meeting outlines the progress made in the implementation of the Programme, and summarises the scientific information obtained to date on the health effects and planned future activities. Status reports were provided by the representatives of Belarus, Russia, Ukraine and the WHO Secretariat. The major projects under the programme include Thyroid project, Hematology project, Dosimetry and Communication Support Services, Brain Damage in utero project and Epidemiological Registry project. 4 tabs

  8. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. Report by the Director-General. Executive Board 95. session, provisional agenda item 12

    The International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) have been initiated in mid-1991 following its endorsement by the Forty-fourth World Health Assembly in resolution WHA44.36. This report by the Director General outlines the progress made in the implementation of the Programme, and summarises the scientific information obtained to date on the health effects and planned future activities. The major projects under the programme include Thyroid project, Hematology project, Dosimetry and Communication Support Services, Brain Damage in utero project and Epidemiological Registry project

  9. Building Digital Economy - The Research Councils Programme and the Vision

    Hand, John

    We at the Research Councils believe that there are many aspects of society and business that could be transformed by the innovative design and use of digital technologies. This has led to the Digital Economy Programme. The Digital Economy is an RCUK Cross-Research Council Programme, led by the EPSRC, but working closely with ESRC, MRC, AHRC and TSB. What is Digital Economy? Digital Economy is the novel design or use of information and communication technology to help transform the lives of individuals, society or business. All Digital Economy research involves the user community. This can include industry, government, society, charities or other groups as applicable. The research will understand the technologies and also why change is needed, what the impacts will be and who will benefit. Research in this cross-research council area can be driven by economic, social or technical need. The early involvement of the user community is vital if new technologies are to be integrated successfully into business opportunities, technical solutions or commercial products and processes. Challenges in the Digital Economy will require multi-disciplinary academic input, including, but not limited to, the arts and humanities, economic and social sciences and medical sciences, in addition to engineering and physical sciences.

  10. Development of accident diagnosis and prediction system for research reactor

    A pilot system of early fault detection expert system has been developed. The early fault detection expert system is one of subsystems in the accident diagnosis and prediction system for the research reactor JRR-3 in JAERI. Functions of the pilot system are to detect deviations of process parameters from the steady state in the early stage of the transient and, if possible, to provide procedures to operators to avoid scram actuation. The reactor accident diagnosis system, DISKET, which had been developed in JAERI, was applied for developing the pilot system by extending functions as follows. (1) A frame structure has been introduced to a part of the knowledge base of DISKET in order to infer efficiently. (2) Numerical equation has been introduced to rule representation in order to calculate numerical value for rules. The pilot system was tested against some simulated transients to validate the effectiveness of the extension mentioned above as well as the performance of the system. This report describes development of the pilot system and the results of the test. (author)

  11. Present status of research reactor decommissioning programme in Indonesia

    At present Indonesia has 3 research reactors, namely the 30 MW MTR-type multipurpose reactor at Serpong Site, two TRIGA-type research reactors, the first one being 1 MW located at Bandung Site and the second one a small reactor of 100 kW at Yogyakarta Site. The TRIGA Reactor at the Bandung Site reached its first criticality at 250 kW in 1964, and then was operated at 1000 kW since 1971. In October 2000 the reactor power was successfully upgraded to 2 MW. This reactor has already been operated for 38 years. There is not yet any decision for the decommissioning of this reactor. However it will surely be an object for the near future decommissioning programme and hence anticipation for the above situation becomes necessary. The regulation on decommissioning of research reactor is already issued by the independent regulatory body (BAPETEN) according to which the decommissioning permit has to be applied by the BATAN. For Indonesia, an early decommissioning strategy for research reactor dictates a restricted re-use of the site for other nuclear installation. This is based on high land price, limited availability of radwaste repository site, and other cost analysis. Spent graphite reflector from the Bandung TRIGA reactor is recommended for a direct disposal after conditioning, without any volume reduction treatment. Development of human resources, technological capability as well as information flow from and exchange with advanced countries are important factors for the future development of research reactor decommissioning programme in Indonesia. (author)

  12. The NIHR Public Health Research Programme: responding to local authority research needs in the United Kingdom

    Dorling, Hannah; Cook, Andrew; Ollerhead, Liz; Westmore, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The remit of the National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research (PHR) Programme is to evaluate public health interventions, providing new knowledge on the benefits, costs, acceptability and wider impacts of interventions, set outside of the National Health Service, intended to improve the health of the public and reduce inequalities. This paper illustrates how the PHR Programme is providing new knowledge for public health decision makers, based on the nine key areas for local a...

  13. Research investigation report on Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident

    This report was issued in February 2012 by Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation's Independent Investigation Commission on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, which consisted of six members from the private sector in independent positions and with no direct interest in the business of promoting nuclear power. Commission aimed to determine the truth behind the accident by clarifying the various problems and reveal systematic problems behind these issues so as to create a new starting point by identifying clear lessons learned. Report composed of four chapters; (1) progression of Fukushima accident and resulting damage (accident management after Fukushima accident, and effects and countermeasure of radioactive materials discharged into the environment), (2) response against Fukushima accident (emergency response of cabinet office against nuclear disaster, risk communication and on-site response against nuclear disaster), (3) analysis of historical and structural factors (technical philosophy of nuclear safety, problems of nuclear safety regulation of Fukushima accident, safety regulatory governance and social background of 'Safety Myth'), (4) Global Context (implication in nuclear security, Japan in nuclear safety regime, U.S.-Japan relations for response against Fukushima accident, lessons learned from Fukushima accident - aiming at creation of resilience). Report could identify causes of Fukushima accident and factors related to resulting damages, show the realities behind failure to prevent the spread of damage, and analyze the overall structural and historical background behind the accidents. (T. Tanaka)

  14. iWitness pollution map: crowdsourcing petrochemical accident research.

    Bera, Risha; Hrybyk, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Community members living near any one of Louisiana's 160 chemical plants or refineries have always said that accidents occurring in these petrochemical facilities significantly impact their health and safety. This article reviews the iWitness Pollution Map tool and Rapid Response Team (RRT) approach led by the Louisiana Bucket Brigade, an environmental nonprofit group, and their effectiveness in documenting these health and safety impacts during petrochemical accidents. Analysis of a January 2013 RRT deployment in Chalmette, LA, showed increased documentation of current petrochemical accidents and suggested increased preparedness to report future accidents. The RRT model encourages government response and enforcement agencies to integrate with organized community groups to fully document the impacts during ongoing accidents, lead a more timely response to the accident, and prevent future accidents from occurring. PMID:24135064

  15. Present status of research activities in severe accident evaluation for nuclear power plants

    The basis for securing nuclear safety is to prevent occurrence of accidents and to mitigate propagation of abnormal events or accidents to severe accidents. In practice, a nuclear power plant is designed and constructed so that abnormal events can be detected at the early phase to cope with the events and safety features and facilities are installed to mitigate and reduce the consequences in the case of such accidents. However it is important to prepare preventive measures as well as mitigative measures to cope with severe accidents to further improve the level of safety. Research on the evaluation of severe accidents is needed to develop such measures. Severe accident research is performed in many countries including Japan and a lot of findings have been made. At JAERI, experiments are being conducted to clarify severe accident phenomena and to make quantitative evaluation of safety margin of a nuclear power plant against severe accidents. A lot of findings on the fuel damage process in the early phase of severe accidents have been obtained in the past years. However there are still large uncertainties on the fuel damage process in the late phase of accidents. In the area of accident management, there exists need for experiments and analyses. (author)

  16. A review of the HDR research programme; HDR-tutkimusohjelman tulosten arviointi

    Talja, H.; Koski, K.; Rintamaa, R. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland); Keskinen, R. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-10-01

    In the German HDR (Heissdampfreaktor, hot steam reactor) reactor safety programme, experiments and simulating numerical analyses have been undertaken since 1976 to study the integrity and safety of light water reactors under operational and faulted conditions. The last experiments of the programme were conducted in 1991. The post test analyses have been finished by March 1994 and the last final reports were obtained a few months later. The report aims to inform the utilities and the regulatory body of Finland about the contents of the lokset HDR research programme and to consider the applicability of the results to safety analyses of Finnish nuclear power plants. The report centers around the thermal shock and piping component experiments within the last or third phase of the HDR programme. Investigations into severe reactor accidents, fire safety and non-destructive testing, also conducted during the third phase, are not considered. The report presents a review of the following experiment groups: E21 (crack growth under corrosive conditions, loading due to thermal stratification), E22 (leak rate and leak detection experiments of through-cracked piping), E23 (thermal transient and stratification experiments for a pipe nozzle), E31 (vibration of cracked piping due to blow down and closure of isolation valve), E32 (seismically induced vibrations of cracked piping), E33 (condensation phenomena in horizontal piping during emergency cooling). A comprehensive list of reference reports, received by VTT and containing a VTT more detailed description, is given for each experiment group. The review is focused on the loading conditions and their theoretical modelling. A comparison of theoretical and experimental results is presented for each experiment group. The safety margins are finally assessed with special reference to leak-before-break, a well known principle for assuring the integrity of primary circuit piping of nuclear power plants. (orig.) (71 figs., 5 tabs.).

  17. SARNET. Severe Accident Research Network - key issues in the area of source term

    About fifty European organisations integrate in SARNET (Network of Excellence of the EU 6th Framework Programme) their research capacities in resolve better the most important remaining uncertainties and safety issues concerning existing and future Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) under hypothetical Severe Accident (SA) conditions. Wishing to maintain a long-lasting cooperation, they conduct three types of activities: integrating activities, spreading of excellence and jointly executed research. This paper summarises the main results obtained by the network after the first year, giving more prominence to those from jointly executed research in the Source Term area. Integrating activities have been performed through different means: the ASTEC integral computer code for severe accident transient modelling, through development of PSA2 methodologies, through the setting of a structure for definition of evolving R and D priorities and through the development of a web-network of data bases that hosts experimental data. Such activities have been facilitated by the development of an Advanced Communication Tool. Concerning spreading of excellence, educational courses covering Severe Accident Analysis Methodology and Level 2 PSA have been set up, to be given in early 2006. A detailed text book on Severe Accident Phenomenology has been designed and agreed amongst SARNET members. A mobility programme for students and young researchers is being developed, some detachments are already completed or in progress, and examples are quoted. Jointly executed research activities concern key issues grouped in the Corium, Containment and Source Term areas. In Source Term, behaviour of the highly radio-toxic ruthenium under oxidising conditions (like air ingress) for HBU and MOX fuel has been investigated. First modelling proposals for ASTEC have been made for oxidation of fuel and of ruthenium. Experiments on transport of highly volatile oxide ruthenium species have been performed. Reactor

  18. Gas research programme in Sweden 1994-1996. Evaluation report

    Hustad, J.E. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Jahkola, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland); Norhammar, U. [STOSEB (Sweden)

    1997-05-01

    This evaluation report is written by an international committee at the request of the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development (NUTEK). The committee was invited to look into the quality of a research programme funded jointly by Svenskt Gastekniskt Center SGC (Swedish Gas Technical Centre) and NUTEK. Criteria`s considered in the evaluation have in short been as follows: scientific value of the projects and of the results obtained; merits of the methods; capability of research groups and adequacy of resources; quality of research in the view of problem oriented applied research; necessity of future financial support. Although the projects are the main elements to be evaluated, the evaluators have paid attention to structural and other problems wherever such a need has been seen.

  19. Radiation chemical research after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    On March 11, 2011 we had the Great East Japan Earthquake and induced tsunami, which attacked the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS). Due to the blackout of the NPS and no cooling water, the cores of the unit of -1, -2 and -3 reactors were melt down and hydrogen explosion took place at the unit -1, -3 and -4. In addition, seawater was injected to primary containment vessel, pressure reactor vessel and spent fuel pool. New radiation research projects appeared after the Fukushima Accident. Among the projects, (1) radiolysis of zeolite and management of zeolite waste, (2) effect of seawater injection, and (3) radiation induced dissolution of UO2 are selected and briefly presented. (author)

  20. Safety Approach of BORAX Type Accidents in French Research Reactors

    Most of pool type French research reactors are designed to withstand an explosive BORAX accident, defined as a pressure load on the pool walls. The purpose of this paper is to present the approach implemented at IRSN to analyse this accident by linking safety assessment and supporting studies. Examples of recent work on Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) and ORPHEE will be presented. Although all aspects of the accident are addressed, we will focus on the first two frames of the transient: the reactivity insertion and the consequences on the core. The first step of the BORAX analysis is to identify the most penalizing plausible reactivity insertion. This means characterising the sequences of events that can induce a reactivity surge and evaluate the worth of such variation. Neutronic computations are then required to quantify the reactivity increase. To comply with the geometrical specificities of research reactors, IRSN chose to use the homemade Monte Carlo code MORET5. The control rod worth calculations on the JHR were in good agreement with the operator results, whereas in ORPHEE, IRSN demonstrated that the beam channels reactivity worth was largely. In both cases the obtained results allowed an interesting dialogue with the operator and were used in the conclusions of the safety assessment. Following the accidental sequence of events, the second stage analysed by IRSN is the power transient occurring in the core and the consequences on the fuel. IRSN applied on JHR a homemade simplified model based on point kinetics and standard thermal balance equations to compute power evolution taking into account the temperatures of the fuel for feedback reactivity. As heat exchange coefficients between cladding and water for such fast transients are unknown, IRSN took the conservative hypothesis of adiabatic heating of the plates. The comparison the JHR power pulse calculation results against SPERT experimental measurements enabled IRSN to be optimistic about the possibility

  1. Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. Research and development programme 1988

    A general survey of planned activities and developmental trends of the nuclear research centre is followed by a more detailed account of projects and goals. The various institutes and laboratories are presented together with their specific task schedules. (UA)

  2. Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. Research and development programme 1989

    The R and D activities of the KfK are classified in 10 main research activities: 1) Project fast breeder; 2) separation nozzle method; 3) project nuclear fusion; 4) project reprocessing and waste processing; 5) ultimate storage; 6) environment and safety; 7) solid-state and materials research; 8) nuclear and elementary particle physics; 9) microtechnics e.g. X-ray lithography; 10) materials handling. (HP)

  3. THAI experimental programme for containment safety assessment under severe accident conditions

    Gupta, S.; Freitag, M. [Becker Technologies GmbH, Eschborn (Germany); Poss, G.

    2016-05-15

    The THAI (THAI = Thermal hydraulics, Hydrogen, Aerosols, Iodine) experimental programme aims to address open questions concerning the behavior of hydrogen, iodine and aerosols in the containment of water cooled reactors. Since its construction in 2000, THAI programme is being performed in the frame of various national projects (sponsored by German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, BMWi) and two international joint projects (under auspices of OECD/NEA). THAI experimental data have been widely used for the validation and further development of Lumped Parameter (LP) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes with 3D capabilities. Selected examples of code benchmark exercises performed based on the THAI data include; hydrogen distribution experiment (ISP-47 and OECD/NEA THAI code benchmark), hydrogen combustion behaviour (ISP-49), hydrogen mitigation by PARs (OECD/NEA THAI-2 code benchmark), iodine/surface interactions, iodine mass transfer, and iodine transport and multi-compartment behaviour (EU-SARNET and EU-SARNET2), thermal-hydraulic tests (German CFD-network). In the present paper, a brief overview on the THAI experiments and their role in the containment safety assessment is discussed.

  4. Combustion chemistry. Activities in the CHEC research programme

    Dam-Johansen, K.; Johnsson, J.E.; Glarborg, P.; Frandsen, F.; Jensen, A.; Oestberg, M. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The combustion chemistry in the oxidation of fossil fuels and biofuels determines together with mixing and heat transfer the required size of a furnace, the emission of gaseous pollutants, and the formation of ash and deposits on surfaces. This paper describes technologies for solid fuels combustion and gives a summary of the fuels, the pollutant chemistry and the inorganic chemistry in combustion processes. Emphasis is put on the work carried out in the CHEC (Combustion and Harmful Emission Control Research Programme). (au) 173 refs.

  5. Research and technology programmes supporting waste management in BNFL

    Fairhall, G.A.; Horner, A.M. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Waste Management is a major activity of BNFL in the UK and at various locations internationally. To support these activities extensive programmes of Research and Technology have been undertaken for many years. This involves practical studies involving active and non-active work at laboratory and pilot plant scale. Extensive use is also made of theoretical and modelling techniques. Current work is aimed at underpinning and improving current operations supporting the design and safety cases of new plant and addressing waste management activities of the future including decommissioning. (authors)

  6. IAEA Sub-Programme on Research Reactor Safety

    The IAEA has greatly contributed through its programmes and activities to the records of safe operation of research reactors worldwide. Since 2006, the activities of the IAEA sub-programme on research reactor safety have been mainly focusing on supporting Member States (MSs) to enhance the safety of their research reactors mainly through the application of the Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors for the management of the safety of these facilities. In doing so, the key part of the implementation strategy of the activities included the development of Safety Standards and supporting documents. At present, the corpus of Safety Standards for research reactors has reached maturity. Safety review services, based on the IAEA Safety Standards, were provided, in the field, through the implementation of Integrated Safety Assessment (INSARR) missions and other safety review and expert missions. Since 2006, about one hundred missions were conducted to research reactors worldwide. Fact finding missions were also implemented by the IAEA in MSs establishing their first research reactors in order to identify gaps and define actions to assist them building the necessary technical and safety infrastructures. An important part of the implementation strategy for the IAEA safety enhancement plan included the fostering of regional and international cooperation to enhance operational safety and regulatory supervision of research reactors, and support for the establishment and functioning of regional advisory safety committees and nuclear safety networks. International exchange of information and sharing of operating experience feedback are essential contributors for enhancing safety and have been promoted through the IAEA web-based incident reporting system for research reactors IRSRR which ensures the collection of data and information on events and the dissemination of lessons learned from their analysis. Existing inconsistencies in the safety demonstrations for research

  7. Proceedings of the workshop on severe accident research held in Japan (SARJ-98)

    Sugimoto, Jun [ed.

    1999-07-01

    The Workshop on Severe Accident Research held in Japan (SARJ-98) was taken place at Hotel Lungwood on November 4-6, 1998, and attended by 181 participants from 13 countries. The 63 papers, which cover wide areas of severe accident research both in experiments and analyses, such as in-vessel melt retention, fuel-coolant interaction, fission products behavior, structural integrity, containment behavior, computer simulations, and accident management, are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  8. Proceedings of the workshop on severe accident research held in Japan (SARJ-97)

    Sugimoto, Jun [ed.

    1998-05-01

    The Workshop on Severe Accident Research held in Japan (SARJ-97) was taken place at Pacifico Yokohama on October 6 - 8, 1997, and attended by 180 participants from 15 countries and one international organizations. The 59 papers, which cover wide areas of severe accident research both in experiments and analysis, such as in-vessel melt retention, fuel-coolant interaction, fission products behavior, structural integrity, containment behavior, computer simulations, and accident management, are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  9. Proceedings of the workshop on severe accident research held in Japan (SARJ-98)

    The Workshop on Severe Accident Research held in Japan (SARJ-98) was taken place at Hotel Lungwood on November 4-6, 1998, and attended by 181 participants from 13 countries. The 63 papers, which cover wide areas of severe accident research both in experiments and analyses, such as in-vessel melt retention, fuel-coolant interaction, fission products behavior, structural integrity, containment behavior, computer simulations, and accident management, are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  10. Proceedings of the workshop on severe accident research held in Japan (SARJ-97)

    The Workshop on Severe Accident Research held in Japan (SARJ-97) was taken place at Pacifico Yokohama on October 6 - 8, 1997, and attended by 180 participants from 15 countries and one international organizations. The 59 papers, which cover wide areas of severe accident research both in experiments and analysis, such as in-vessel melt retention, fuel-coolant interaction, fission products behavior, structural integrity, containment behavior, computer simulations, and accident management, are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  11. Improving Physics Teaching through Action Research: The Impact of a Nationwide Professional Development Programme

    Grace, Marcus; Rietdijk, Willeke; Garrett, Caro; Griffiths, Janice

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an independent evaluation of the Action Research for Physics (ARP) programme, a nationwide professional development programme which trains teachers to use action research to increase student interest in physics and encourage them to take post-compulsory physics. The impact of the programme was explored from the perspective of…

  12. A comparison of the consequences of the design basis accident of the Greek Research Reactor with those of a serious realistic accident

    An analysis of the radiological consequences of the design basis and the coolant flow blockage accidents of the Greek Research Reactor is presented. The results indicate that the consequences of the coolant flow blockage accident are practically trivial being 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than the corresponding consequences of the design basis accident. (author)

  13. NSARP [NIREX Safety Assessment Research Programme] reference document

    UK Nirex Ltd is planning the development of a deep geological repository at Sellafield in Cumbria for the disposal of solid low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The post-closure performance assessments for this repository are being undertaken by the Disposal Safety Assessment Team (DSAT). It is supported by the Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme (NSARP). The broad objectives of this programme are: to understand the important physical, chemical and biological processes that govern the transport of radionuclides away from the repository; to construct models that provide a good representation of these processes, allowing the description of what is currently observed and the prediction of future evolution; to provide data, by laboratory and field investigations, for the important parameters and radionuclides; to provide advice to Nirex on matters such as repository materials and to liaise with the DSAT, so that the research is focused on key processes and parameters. The NSARP focuses on supporting the assessments of release of radioactivity in groundwater and as a gas. This report describes the work of the NSARP in the area of radionuclide transport through the geosphere and the biosphere. (author)

  14. Detailed programme for research and development 1999-2004

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This report is a background to RD and D-Programme 98. The report gives an account of most of the research and development being conducted by SKB. The current state of knowledge is described, along with the goals and programmes that govern the continued work. The period of immediate concern comprises the next three years, 1999-2001. Chapters 2 and 3 give an account of the development of the safety assessment, and the methods and models used to assess long-term safety. Then follow a number of chapters that give an account of the R and D with primary purpose to support the safety assessment. There is also a description of some technical development of the deep repository and its components, as well as review of alternative methods such as partitioning and transmutation. Methods for investigation and evaluation of sites for the deep repository are also being further examined and developed, with sights set on the commencement of a site investigation by no earlier than 2001. A large part of SKBs research, development and demonstration is conducted in the form of projects. The majority of the projects have international participation. The Aespoe HRL (Hard Rock Laboratory) is an excellent example of this. A considerable portion of SKBs project-oriented R and D is concentrated to the Aespoe HRL. An important task for the Aespoe HRL is to test and demonstrate parts of the disposal system on a full scale. Finally, there is a chapter on scientific information. We want to communicate our scientific findings to the public and to local politicians and community leaders to obtain acceptance for a deep repository. It is the purpose of the safety assessment to develop and administer the methods and models for calculations employed by the safety assessment (Chapters 2 and 3). The topic-specific programmes serve to develop a better understanding of the processes dealt with in the safety assessment, to develop and review alternative models and to compile background data for the safety

  15. Detailed programme for research and development 1999-2004

    This report is a background to RD and D-Programme 98. The report gives an account of most of the research and development being conducted by SKB. The current state of knowledge is described, along with the goals and programmes that govern the continued work. The period of immediate concern comprises the next three years, 1999-2001. Chapters 2 and 3 give an account of the development of the safety assessment, and the methods and models used to assess long-term safety. Then follow a number of chapters that give an account of the R and D with primary purpose to support the safety assessment. There is also a description of some technical development of the deep repository and its components, as well as review of alternative methods such as partitioning and transmutation. Methods for investigation and evaluation of sites for the deep repository are also being further examined and developed, with sights set on the commencement of a site investigation by no earlier than 2001. A large part of SKBs research, development and demonstration is conducted in the form of projects. The majority of the projects have international participation. The Aespoe HRL (Hard Rock Laboratory) is an excellent example of this. A considerable portion of SKBs project-oriented R and D is concentrated to the Aespoe HRL. An important task for the Aespoe HRL is to test and demonstrate parts of the disposal system on a full scale. Finally, there is a chapter on scientific information. We want to communicate our scientific findings to the public and to local politicians and community leaders to obtain acceptance for a deep repository. It is the purpose of the safety assessment to develop and administer the methods and models for calculations employed by the safety assessment (Chapters 2 and 3). The topic-specific programmes serve to develop a better understanding of the processes dealt with in the safety assessment, to develop and review alternative models and to compile background data for the safety

  16. Education and Training Programme at the Research Reactor TRIGA Mainz

    Hampel, Gabriele; Eberhardt, Klaus [University of Mainz, Institute for Nuclear Chemistry, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Education and training are important elements for the future of nuclear science, technology and safety. Fields of interest include high- technology applications in nuclear techniques and neutron sources, advances in the areas of power reactor safety, establishing the scientific basis of new reactors, training of personnel needed to operate, maintain, regulate and improve reactors or other facilities associated with nuclear power. Also, creating a knowledgeable public through education usually means less opposition and more support. Education and training for safeguards, operators, researchers and quality programmes (calibration services, etc.) are one of the main utilisations of TRIGA research reactors. Use of a reactor as a training tool for university students studying nuclear engineering and/or physics, where there is a growing demand at European Universities, is of vital importance. In particular, the TRIGA Mark II reactor, located at the University of Mainz, one of the largest universities in Germany, offers a broad range of nuclear-related courses for training and education. (author)

  17. Education and Training Programme at the Research Reactor TRIGA Mainz

    Education and training are important elements for the future of nuclear science, technology and safety. Fields of interest include high- technology applications in nuclear techniques and neutron sources, advances in the areas of power reactor safety, establishing the scientific basis of new reactors, training of personnel needed to operate, maintain, regulate and improve reactors or other facilities associated with nuclear power. Also, creating a knowledgeable public through education usually means less opposition and more support. Education and training for safeguards, operators, researchers and quality programmes (calibration services, etc.) are one of the main utilisations of TRIGA research reactors. Use of a reactor as a training tool for university students studying nuclear engineering and/or physics, where there is a growing demand at European Universities, is of vital importance. In particular, the TRIGA Mark II reactor, located at the University of Mainz, one of the largest universities in Germany, offers a broad range of nuclear-related courses for training and education. (author)

  18. Sustainable energy systems and the EURATOM research programme

    We are at a turning point in European research. With the launch of the EU's 7th Framework Programme, committing some Euro 53 billion of public funds to the European research effort over the next 7 years, Europe has finally woken up to the importance of Research and Development in the realisation of the most fundamental objectives defining the Union: growth, competitiveness, and knowledge. At the same time, and with strong links to growth and competitiveness but also to environmental protection, the Union is in the throws of an intense debate on future energy policy and climate change. Part of the research budget, some would say too small a part, is earmarked for energy - in particular the technological aspects of low carbon systems such renewables. This effort, together with measures to improve the EU's security and independence of supply, are essential if Europe is to respond effectively to solve the future energy conundrum. But where does nuclear fit in all this? What will the Union be doing in the area of nuclear research? Indeed, does nuclear figure at all in the long-term plans of the Union? Through the EURATOM part of the Framework Programme, the EU is maintaining important support to up-stream research in the area of advanced reactor technologies. This effort is being coordinated at the global level through EURATOM's membership of the Generation-IV International Forum. Though EU research in this field still has its critics among the Member States, and despite the relatively small sums currently committed, the leverage effect of current actions is significant and this is set to grow in the future. The imminent setting up of a Strategic Energy Technology Plan, as part of the European Commission on-going activities in the field of energy policy, and the feedback from independent experts in the Advisory Group on Energy and the EURATOM Scientific and Technical Committee all point to following conclusions: EU support for research on advanced nuclear fission

  19. Impact of the Three Mile Island accident on research and development programs

    The influence of the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident, on the evolution of the nuclear safety engineering concepts, are analyzed. An overview of the nuclear safety studies performed before and after the accident is presented. Before the TMI accident, the research programs were mainly centered on dimensional problems involving factors, such as explosions and earthquakes. The TMI accident demonstrated that the fusion of the reactor's core could actually hoppen. It was also realized that the safety of nuclear power plants depended on accurate research programs, also extended to factors beyond dimensional analysis

  20. Radiation protection programme of the Ghana Research Reactor (GHARR-1)

    The Radiation Protection Programme is generally based on a prior risk assessment in which the locations and magnitudes of all radiation hazards are taken into account. This work has shown that the Ghana Research Reactor-1 which is a Miniature Neutron Source Reactor has ensured both technical and administrative protocols for an effective radiation protection programme. The key principle that has aided the technical inherent safety is the defence in depth and the adoption of multiple barriers for prevention of the escape of radioactive materials into the environment. Administrative procedures established include the classification of working areas and access control; local rules and supervision of work; monitoring of individuals and the workplace; work planning and work permits; application of the principle of optimization of protection; removal or reduction in intensity of sources of radiation, health surveillance and training. The MNSR passed various rigorous tests as the required quality assurance and control was adhered to. The control systems are in accordance with the Chinese national standards and guidelines and are compatible with those of IEC, IEEE and IAEA. (author)

  1. Co-ordinated research programme applications of stable isotope tracers in human nutrition research

    The objective of this Co-ordinated Research Programme is to help establish competence in the use of stable isotope techniques, particularly in developing countries. This report summarizes the discussions that took, place during the Second Research Co-ordination Meeting, held in Bangalore in November 1990. Working papers presented by the participants are included as annexes. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Quality Criteria Development within the Fourth Framework Research Programme

    The revised EC patient Directive 97/43/EURATOM introduces a number of new and extremely relevant requirements into the legal framework of radiation protection of persons who undergo medical exposure throughout Europe. Key elements of the most relevant changes involve a more objective assessment of radiological performance. In particular, the establishment of optimisation strategies involving clinical and patient dose audits, as well as quality assurance, will be required. There is no doubt that within this changing framework for radiation protection of the patient, advice and guidance regarding best practice at a European level will play a vital role in the achievement of consistent and harmonised practice. In order to establish a starting point for both the structure and content of advice and guidance on best practice for radiation protection of the patient, the Commission of European Communities has established European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for diagnostic radiographic images for adult and paediatric patients as well as computed tomography. These documents have already been made available throughout Europe in English and translation into a number of European Languages is under way for re-circulation within specific Member States. Whilst this process was continuing a Fourth Framework Research Programme has been under way in the period 1996-2000 to develop and evaluate further the robustness of the Quality Criteria for diagnostic radiographic images for adult patients. An overview is presented of the most relevant findings of the Fourth Framework Research Project with a strong emphasis on operational outcomes relevant to focused multipartner, multinational research programmes of a multidisciplinary nature. Detailed findings of the project will be presented elsewhere in the meeting and through future publications. (author)

  3. Inventory of Dutch National Research on Global Climate Change: Inside and outside the National Research Programme

    This summary of Dutch research on global climate change was compiled from a survey of the major research organisations in the Netherlands. The scope and structure of the survey and this report were based on a request for information from the World Meteorological Organisation for an intergovernmental meeting on the World Climate Programme (WCP) held (from 14 to 16 April 1993). The WMO request emphasized activities related to the WCP and its associated programmes. To extend the usefulness of the exercise, an attempt has been made to broaden the focus to give additional attention to the Intergovernmental Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and the Human Dimensions Programme (HDP). This was the first attempt to inventory the research projects on global climate change underway in the Netherlands - both inside and outside the National Research Programme. Other surveys on Dutch climate-related research have been conducted. The most extensive effort was a cataloging of publications from climate research in the Netherlands from 1981 to 1991, which was conducted by the Netherlands Royal Academy of Sciences (KNAW). That inventory is being updated to include publications through 1992. The database resulting from this exercise will be a useful tool for organisations sponsoring and conducting global climate change research in their efforts to stimulate cooperation and promote coordination among research groups in the Netherlands and abroad. There are plans to update the inventory in the future and to provide the information to participating Dutch organisations as well as research organisations in other countries. An overview of the current research is provided in Volume 1 with a list of projects

  4. Proceedings of the workshop on severe accident research, Japan (SARJ-99)

    Hashimoto, Kazuichiro [ed.

    2000-11-01

    The Workshop on Severe Accident Research, Japan (SARJ-99) was taken place at Hotel Lungwood on November 8-10, 1999, and attended by 156 participants from 12 countries. A total of 46 papers, which covered wide areas of severe accident research both in experiments and analyses, such as fuel/coolant interaction, accident analysis and modeling, in-vessel phenomena, accident management, fission product behavior, research reactors, ex-vessel phenomena, and structural integrity, were presented. The panel discussion titled 'Link of Severe Accident Research Results to Regulation: Current Status and Future Perspective' was successfully conducted, and the wide variety of opinions and views were exchanged among panelists and experts. (J.P.N.)

  5. Proceedings of the workshop on severe accident research, Japan (SARJ-99)

    The Workshop on Severe Accident Research, Japan (SARJ-99) was taken place at Hotel Lungwood on November 8-10, 1999, and attended by 156 participants from 12 countries. A total of 46 papers, which covered wide areas of severe accident research both in experiments and analyses, such as fuel/coolant interaction, accident analysis and modeling, in-vessel phenomena, accident management, fission product behavior, research reactors, ex-vessel phenomena, and structural integrity, were presented. The panel discussion titled 'Link of Severe Accident Research Results to Regulation: Current Status and Future Perspective' was successfully conducted, and the wide variety of opinions and views were exchanged among panelists and experts. (J.P.N.)

  6. Radiation protection research and studies after the Chernobyl accident

    The effects on the environment of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident, which happened in the reactors unit 4, are analyzed. The aim of the study is to show the main fields of research and development to be considered, in order to improve the knowledge on public or local radiation protection. The following aspects of the problem are discussed: the long range atmospheric transfer, the environment monitoring, the problems related to the food chain transfers, the environment recovery and the estimation of the sanitary effects. The Chernobyl disaster confirms: the priority of special plans of action to protect the surrounding population; that the special plans of action must be followed by after-disaster actions, which take into account methods for the environment recovery; that the conventional systematic approach can not be satisfactorily applied to manage such a critical situation, and a new one must be developed. Moreover, the identification of the most exposed (population) groups, far from the nearby affected area, are to be considered

  7. Research programme on radioactive wastes; Forschungsprogramm Radioaktive Abfaelle

    Eckhardt, A. [Eidgenoessische Kommission fuer die Sicherheit der Kernanlagen (KSA), Brugg (Switzerland); Hufschmid, P. [Kommission Nukleare Entsorgung (KNE), Bern (Switzerland); Jordi, S. [Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Berne (Switzerland); Schanne, M. [Institut fuer Angewandte Medienwissenschaft (IAM), Zuercher Hochschule, Winterthur (Switzerland); Vigfusson, J. [Hauptabteilung fuer die Sicherheit der Kernanlagen (HSK), Brugg (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (DETEC) takes a look at work done within the framework of the research programme on radioactive wastes. The paper discusses the development of various projects and the associated organisations involved. Both long-term and short-term topics are examined. The long-term aspects of handling radioactive wastes include organisation and financing as well as the preservation of know-how and concepts for marking the repositories. Communication with the general public on the matter is looked at along with public perception, opinion-making and acceptance. Waste storage concepts are looked at in detail and aspects such as environmental protection, monitoring concepts, retrievability and encasement materials are discussed. Finally, ethical and legal aspects of radioactive waste repositories are examined. The paper is completed with appendixes dealing with planning, co-ordination and the responsibilities involved

  8. CAMS: Computerized Accident Management Support

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project has initiated a new research programme on computerised accident management support, the so-called CAMS project (CAMS = Computerized Accident Management Support). This work will investigate the possibilities for developing systems which provide more extensive support to the control room staff and technical support centre than the existing SPDS (Safety Parameter Display System) type of systems. The CAMS project will utilize available simulator codes and the capabilities of computerized tools to assist the plant staff during the various accident stages including: identification of the accident state, assessment of the future development of the accident, and planning accident mitigation strategies. This research programme aims at establishing a prototype system which can be used for experimental testing of the concept and serve as a tool for training and education in accident management. The CAMS prototype should provide support to the staff when the plant is in a normal state, in a disturbance sate, and in an accident state. Even though better support in an accident state is the main goal of the project, it is felt to be important that the staff is familiar with the use of the system during normal operation, when they utilize the system during transients

  9. Severe accident research activities at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR)

    Wilhelm, Polina; Jobst, Matthias; Schaefer, Frank; Kliem, Soeren [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    In the frame of the nuclear safety research program of the Helmholtz Association HZDR performs fundamental and applied research to assess and to reduce the risks related to the nuclear fuel cycle and the production of electricity in nuclear power plants. One of the research topics focuses on the safety aspects of current and future reactor designs. This includes the development and application of methods for analyses of transients and postulated accidents, covering the whole spectrum from normal operation till severe accident sequences including core degradation. This paper gives an overview of the severe accident research activities at the Reactor Safety Division at the Institute of Resource Ecology.

  10. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  11. The achievements of a Radioecological Environmental Research Programme arising from the collaboration of the EC and the republics of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine

    The European Radiation Research Programme refocused some of its research effort within EU countries to consider the environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident within the third framework period from 1985 to 1989. A gradual improvement in contacts with the Soviet Union occurred from 1990 and allowed the development of research collaboration between EC and Soviet scientists. In response, a programme of Experimental Collaborative Projects (ECP) and Joint Study Projects (JSP) were launched by the EC-DGXII's Radiation Protection Research Action. Within these projects, Western European and Eastern European scientists collaborated on assessing the consequences of the accident, considering remedial actions and acquiring much basic scientific information on the behaviour of radionuclides in the contaminated territories in Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation. The major goal of all these studies was to provide practical and theoretical assistance to the relevant authorities, based on a fundamental approach of understanding the environmental factors which control the different exposure rates to both the urban and rural populations living in the contaminated areas. The scientific results of the radioecological projects have been summarised at the First International Conference on the Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. This Conference was organised by the European Commission and the Belarus, Russian and Ukrainian Ministries on Chernobyl affairs, Emergency Situations and Health. This paper summarises the achievements of the radioecological programme. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. The Norwegian research programme on advanced robotic systems

    Olav Egeland

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian research programme on advanced robot systems has been focused on sensory control of robots for industrial applications and telerobotics for underwater operations. This paper gives an overview of experimental work and ongoing research. An exciting area in sensory control is visual servoing where camera images at video rate are used to grasp moving objects. Also compliant motion in partially unknown environments is a research topic. New robot control systems have been developed to apply sensory control to robotic manipulators at an acceptable sampling rate. In telerobotics the main work has been on the combination of remote control and local sensory loops in the manipulator. Also in this case visual servoing anti force control are important. The generation and updating of a world model used in a graphic display of the worksite using sensory information has been tested in combination with large delay times in the communication channel. The use of visual and acoustic data for the control of remotely operated vehicles and autonomous underwater vehicles is studied for use in robotic systems. Light-weight robot manipulators with redundant degrees of freedom and high performance joints are being designed for mobile robot applications.

  13. An overview of the severe accident research activities within the LACOMERA platform at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe

    The LACOMERA project at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany, is a 4 year action within the 5th Framework Programme of the EU which started in September 2002. Overall objective of the project is to offer research institutions from the EU member countries and associated states access to four large-scale experimental facilities QUENCH, LIVE, DISCO, and COMET. These facilities can be used to investigate core melt scenarios from the beginning of core degradation to melt formation and relocation in the vessel, possible melt dispersion to the reactor cavity, and finally corium concrete interaction and corium coolability in the reactor cavity. The paper summarises the main results obtained in the following experiments performed up to now. QUENCH-L1: Impact of air ingression on core degradation. The test provides unique data for the investigation of air ingress phenomenology in conditions as representative of a spent fuel pool accident as possible; QUENCH-L2: Boil-off of a flooded bundle. The test is of a generic interest for all reactor types, provided a link between the severe accident and design basis areas, and would deliver oxidation and thermal hydraulic data at high temperatures. DISCO-L1: Thermal hydraulic behaviour of the corium melt dispersion neglecting the chemical effects such as hydrogen generation and combustion. COMET-L1: Long-term 2D concrete ablation in a siliceous concrete cavity at intermediate decay heat power level with a top flooding phase after a phase of dry concrete erosion. COMET-L2: Investigation of long-term melt-concrete interaction of metallic corium in a cylindrical siliceous concrete cavity under dry conditions with decay heat simulation of intermediate power during the first test phase, and subsequently at reduced power during the second test phase. (author)

  14. The primal application research of figure assimilation theory in the nuclear accident consequence forecast

    The deepgoing research of figure assimilation theory promotes many subjects' rapid development. This article outlooks the application of figure assimilation technique in the nuclear accident consequence forecast. The nuclear accident consequence forecast is a complicated system which needs rapidity and precision, so it is quiet difficult. but after the insertion of figure assimilation, it pushes on one step about the question. (authors)

  15. [PRIER II. The Emilia-Romagna Research and Innovation Programme].

    Addis, Antonio; Papini, Donato; Bassi, Maria Chiara; Grilli, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    The Emilia-Romagna Programme for Research and Innovation "PRIER" was born in 2005 with the aim of increasing cultural and operational conditions for the development of clinical research, useful both to the Regional Health Service (SSR) and to the private sectors of pharmaceutical and biomedical areas. In this context, the PRIER had from the beginning a double connotation: a space where the SSR can explore issues related to the development of its own research capacity; and a context where new possible ways of relating and comparison with the pharmaceutical and biomedical industry are tested. Over the years the activities of PRIER were defined by: initiatives to strengthen the system of research in SSR; development of tools to monitor activities of the research; production of clinical-organizational recommendations for the governance of innovation. In 2013 a new area of discussion and a common interest have been identified on the subject of clinical registries. In particular, it wanted to build a path of work able to identify all the possible critical and relevant points (points to consider), indispensable, necessary or useful to the construction and use of clinical registries, taking into account the points of view of all actors involved. The course began with defining the rules of the game and continued with workshops that allowed to analyse together the matter. At the end of the second workshop it was decided to make the work carried out visible: first, not to miss the opportunity offered by the past but recent discussion; secondly, to facilitate the discussion both on the issue of registers and to the adopted methodology, which sees the different actors (public and private ones) to reason together in a context for once not influenced by necessities of negotiation and government resources. PMID:26418502

  16. Vessel-related problems in severe accidents, International Research Projects; La problematica de la vasija en los accidentes severos. Proyectos internacionales de investigacion

    Figueras, J. M. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The paper describes those most relevant aspects of research programmes and projects, on the behavior of vessel during severe accidents with partial or total reactor core fusion, performed during the last twenty years or still on-going projects, by countries or international organizations in the nuclear community, presenting the most important technical aspects, in particular the results achieved, as well as the financial and organisational aspects. The paper concludes that, throughout a joint effort of the international nuclear community, in which Spain has been present via private and public organizations, actually exist a reasonable technical and experimental knowledge of the vessel in case of severe accidents, but still there are aspects not fully solved which are the basis for continuing some programmes and for proposal of new ones. (Author)

  17. Open Air Laboratories (OPAL): A community-driven research programme

    Davies, L., E-mail: l.davies@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bell, J.N.B.; Bone, J.; Head, M.; Hill, L. [Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Howard, C. [Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Hobbs, S.J. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Jones, D.T. [Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Power, S.A. [Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Rose, N. [Department of Geography, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Ryder, C.; Seed, L. [Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Stevens, G. [Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Toumi, R.; Voulvoulis, N. [Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); White, P.C.L. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    OPAL is an English national programme that takes scientists into the community to investigate environmental issues. Biological monitoring plays a pivotal role covering topics of: i) soil and earthworms; ii) air, lichens and tar spot on sycamore; iii) water and aquatic invertebrates; iv) biodiversity and hedgerows; v) climate, clouds and thermal comfort. Each survey has been developed by an inter-disciplinary team and tested by voluntary, statutory and community sectors. Data are submitted via the web and instantly mapped. Preliminary results are presented, together with a discussion on data quality and uncertainty. Communities also investigate local pollution issues, ranging from nitrogen deposition on heathlands to traffic emissions on roadside vegetation. Over 200,000 people have participated so far, including over 1000 schools and 1000 voluntary groups. Benefits include a substantial, growing database on biodiversity and habitat condition, much from previously unsampled sites particularly in urban areas, and a more engaged public. - Highlights: > Environmental research conducted jointly by the public and scientists. > Over 200,000 people involved, 8000 sites surveyed, uncertainty minimised. > New insights into urban pollution. > A more engaged and informed society. - Research is enriched where the public and scientists work together.

  18. Research and development with regard to severe accidents in pressurised water reactors: Summary and outlook

    This document reviews the current state of research on severe accidents in France and other countries. It aims to provide an objective vision, and one that's as exhaustive as possible, for this innovative field of research. It will help in identifying R and D requirements and categorising them hierarchically. Obviously, the resulting prioritisation must be completed by a rigorous examination of needs in terms of safety analyses for various risks and physical phenomena, especially in relation to Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessments. PSA-2 should be sufficiently advanced so as not to obscure physical phenomena that, if not properly understood, might result in substantial uncertainty. It should be noted that neither the safety analyses nor PSA-2 are presented in this document. This report describes the physical phenomena liable to occur during a severe accident, in the reactor vessel and the containment. It presents accident sequences and methods for limiting impact. The corresponding scenarios are detailed in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 deals with in-vessel accident progression, examining core degradation (3.1), corium behaviour in the lower head (3.2), vessel rupture (3.3) and high-pressure core meltdown (3.4). Chapter 4 focuses on phenomena liable to induce early containment failure, namely direct containment heating (4.1), hydrogen risk (4.2) and steam explosions (4.3). The phenomenon that could lead to a late containment failure, namely molten core-concrete interaction, is discussed in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 focuses on problems related to in-vessel and ex-vessel corium retention and cooling, namely in-vessel retention by flooding the primary circuit or the reactor pit (6.1), cooling of the corium under water during the corium-concrete interaction (6.2), corium spreading (6.3) and ex-vessel core catchers (6.4). Chapter 7 relates to the release and transport of fission products (FP), addressing the themes of in-vessel FP release (7.1) and ex-vessel FP release (7.3), FP

  19. Research on the management of the wastes from plant accidents

    The accident in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant released large amount of radio-nuclides and contaminated wide areas within and out of the site. The decontamination, storage, treatment and disposal of generated wastes are now under planning. Though the regulations for radioactive wastes discharged from normal operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities have been prepared, it is necessary to make amendments of those regulations to deal with wastes from the severe accidents which may have much different features on nuclides contents, or possibility to accompany hazardous chemical materials. Characteristics, treatment and disposal of wastes from accidents were surveyed by literature and the radionuclide migration from the assumed temporally storage yards of the disaster debris was analyzed for consideration of future regulation. (author)

  20. Accidental knowledge: Using accidents and other project failures to inform research in systems engineering

    Sorenson, Diane C.

    Projects experience cost overruns, late deliveries, quality issues, cancellation, and accidents despite the best efforts of the systems engineering community. There is relatively little research on why systems engineering failures in general happen, but a substantial body of work on accident causation. Here, we investigate whether systems failures in general exhibit the same patterns of causation as accidents. We conducted a review of existing accident models to develop a model that could be applied to all types of project failures. Our model helped us to classify where the factors occur during the system development/system operation phases and which entity was involved in each factor. We analyzed 58 failure case studies. The failure cases span non-accidents, accidents, and dual failures. The sources for each subset had varying depth and scope of investigation. We developed a coding method to compare the factors between failure cases that broke each factor down into an "actor-action-object" structure. We further generalized the actions from the "actor-action-object" strings into control flaws so that we could analyze the failure cases at a high level. We analyzed the control flaws, actions, and actors for each failure case and compared the results for accidents and non-accidents. Of our results that we could not attribute to study biases, we found similarities and differences between project failure causation. We also identified which control flaws, actions, and actors were the most prevalent in the different types of project failures. Of all the actions, "failure to consider factor in system development" contributed most to non-accidents, while "failure to consider step in risk management" contributed the most to accidents. Of all the actors, "company management" contributed the most to non-accidents and accidents.

  1. Research activities on accident sequence precursor study at JAERI

    At JAERI, as part of the research activity on operating experience analysis, we started the Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) study in 1996. Since then, we have been carrying out the ASP analyses of actual events that have the potential of risk significance, the review of the ASP documents published by the USNRC and development of the event tree models for providing a more realistic ASP analyses. The objectives of the study are to obtain the risk significant trends, to characterize risk insights useful for identifying plant vulnerabilities, to feed the lessons learned from the study back to plant operations, and to establish risk indicators for event assessment. Although the ASP analysis could provide useful information on not only the safety significance of individual events but also management of plant operation and risk-informed regulation, its usefulness has not been fully recognized yet in Japan. In order to demonstrate the usefulness and effectiveness of the ASP analysis, we have been carrying out the following activities. 1- In-depth analyses of specific precursor events. The review of the operating experience, including the ASP documents, revealed that some specific events such as steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) might have risk significance and as well, some specific anomalies observed during the events might have contributed to the plant risk. In order to identify the risk significant anomalies observed during the events and to obtain generic insights useful for enhancing the safety of nuclear power plants, we have been carrying out in-depth analyses of specific precursor events. To date, the ASP analyses were performed for ten actual and one potential SGTR events with use of the consistent ASP models. 2- Sophistication of event tree models for ASP analysis. A comparison of the event trees used in the USNRC's ASP Program and those constructed in the PSA studies identified differences in the accident sequences defined. As well, some anomalies observed

  2. The Wind Energy programme - SFOE Research Programme 2000 - 2003; Programm Wind. Konzept BFE-Forschungsprogramm 'Wind' 2000 - 2003

    Horbaty, R.

    2001-07-01

    This document, issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the concept behind the Swiss wind energy programme. The first part of the report discusses the origins and development of the wind energy programme in Switzerland, discussing the importance of wind energy and policy matters associated with its promotion. The experience gained during the previous research programmes is reviewed. The degree to which targets were reached, promotional activities, the central government's own wind energy activities and the results of a programme evaluation are discussed. Lists of projects that have been realised and activities that have been carried out are presented and positive and negative influences on development are noted. A second part is dedicated to the goals of the wind energy programme in terms of target figures for the year 2010 and the strategies chosen to reach these goals, including pilot and demonstration projects (P and D) and promotional activities. Details of the P and D programme including lists of wind-power projects to be supported, the priorities that have been set and information and further education that is to be provided, are given. New activities in the wind power area such as the development of new type of wind turbine especially suited to alpine conditions are discussed. The role of the Swiss Association for Wind Energy 'Suisse Eole' as a network-partner in the wind energy programme is discussed. An appendix provides details of wind energy projects in Switzerland, market partners and customers. The results of a survey made of wind energy activities at Swiss institutes of higher education are presented.

  3. The Community's research and development programme on decommissioning of nuclear installations. Third annual progress report 1987

    This is the third annual progress report of the European Community's programme (1984-88) of research on the decommissioning of nuclear installations. It shows the status of the programme on 31 December 1987. The third progress report describes the objectives, scope and work programme of the 69 research contracts concluded, as well as the progress of work achieved and the results obtained in 1987

  4. Recycling of actinides and fission products, the Dutch RAS research programme

    An ECN, a research programme has been started to contribute to current international research efforts in the field of P and T. The name of this programme is RAS, which is the dutch acronym for recycling of actinides and fission products. This multidisciplinary programme consists of the following components: - Nuclear data ('cross-section libraries') - Reactor physics and scenario studies - Chemical studies ('actinide chemistry') - Technological studies and irradiations. (orig./HP)

  5. The community's research and development programme on decommissioning of nuclear installations. Fourth annual progress report 1988

    This is the fourth annual progress report on the European Community's programme (1984-88) of research on the decommissioning of nuclear installations. It shows the status of the programme at 31 December 1988. The fourth progress report describes the objectives, scope and work programme of the 72 research contracts concluded, as well as the progress of work achieved and the results obtained in 1988

  6. EU research in 'operational safety of existing installations' under the nuclear fission programme 1998-2002

    In this paper, an overview is given of the most important aspects of the research activities organised by the European Union (EU) in the area of reactor safety under the current 5th Euratom Framework Programme 1998-2002 (FP-5). This area is focussing on 'Operational Safety of Existing Installations'. The fundamental safety objective for nuclear power plants (NPPs) consists in protecting the public and the environment from the harmful effects resulting from ionising radiations. Community research with this objective is carried out through both 'indirect actions' (organised by DG Research) and 'direct actions' (carried out by DG Joint Research Centre/JRC). The mid-term achievements of this area were discussed at the symposium FISA-2001 (EC Luxembourg, 12-14 November 2001/750 pages, EUR 20281 EN, OPOCE Luxembourg 2002). This research area is actually part of the FP-5 Key Action NUCLEAR FISSION, which consists of the following four areas: reactor safety, waste management (including partitioning and transmutation), future systems (including high temperature reactors), and radiation protection. More specifically, this paper deals with the strategy, the organisation and the main achievements of the 73 multi-partner projects cosponsored by the European Union as 'indirect actions' (shared-cost and concerted actions). These projects are organised in three clusters, each devoted to one key safety issue. Each cluster is treated in a separate section of this paper, namely: (1) Plant Life Extension and Management (PLEM cluster), (2) Severe Accident Management (SAM cluster), and (3) Evolutionary Safety Concepts (EVOL cluster). The total cost of the 'indirect actions' of this Community research area is approximately Euro 82.5 million, out of which Euro 43 million is contributed by the EU budget. At FISA-2001, only the 'indirect actions' that started before 1 January 2001, were formally presented, i.e. a total of 41 projects - the 32 more recent multi-partner projects were

  7. KYT2010 Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Waste Management 2006-2010. Final Report

    The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Waste Management, KYT2010, was launched in 2006. The research period closed at the end of 2010. Key themes of the research programme include (1) strategic analyses of nuclear waste management, (2) assessment of the safety of final nuclear waste disposal and (3) sociological analyses. The assessment of the safety of final nuclear waste disposal comprises three sectors: technical barriers, bedrock and groundwater, and the release and transport of radionuclides. The roughly 40 or so research projects underway during the research period have primarily been concerned with assessing the safety of nuclear waste management. The State Nuclear Waste Management Fund allocated funding totalling approximately EUR 7 million to the research projects. The following research organisations have participated in the KYT2010 research programme: VTT - the Technical Research Centre of Finland, the Aalto University School of Science and Technology, University of Helsinki Laboratory of Radiochemistry, the Geological Survey of Finland, University of Jyvaeskylae, University of Eastern Finland Kuopio Campus, and Numerola Oy. Work in the research programme has been based on mutual cooperation and division of duties between the research programme steering group, two support groups, a coordinator and the research programmes. The research programme steering group has included representatives of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Tekes - the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation, Fortum Power and Heat Oy, Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Posiva Oy and the Ministry of Employment and the Economy. (orig.)

  8. Introducing, Researching, and Disseminating the Incredible Years Programmes in Wales

    Judy Hutchings

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A case study reviewing the establishment of the evidence-based Incredible Years programme in Wales, describing the rationale for selecting the programme, the outcomes achieved in Wales, and the influence on policy leading to a Wales-wide dissemination strategy. The UK context features a growing trend towards evidence-based anti-violence services and significant increases in funding for early intervention. Factors that contributed to the success of this project includedcareful selection of a programme with evidence, establishing a local evidence base for it, ensuring that information was disseminated to government and service providers, and the need to build in a sustainability plan. The biggest challenge, lack of leader time and resources to deliver the programme effectively,is explored and solutions from Wales, including leader feedback surveys and manager training days are described.

  9. Preliminary results and prospects for research performed by the scientists of Ministry of Health of Ukraine on Chernobyl accident medical aspects

    Results of scientific management of Ministry of Health of Ukraine, as well as scientific researches of 23 scientific research institutes, 11 medical institutes, 6 scientific practical establishment were analyzed to cover Complex ecological research programme on Chernobyl accident outcomes for 1986-1990 (medical aspects). The data about the health of communities, epidemiology, peculiarities of the course, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of inner organs and systems disorders and diseases in the exposed persons, which were obtained on the basis of environment radiologic are reported

  10. Sarnet lecture notes on nuclear reactor severe accident phenomenology

    The 'Severe Accident Phenomenology Short Course' is part of the Excellence Spreading activities of the European Severe Accident Research NETwork of Excellence SARNET (project of the EURATOM 6. Framework programme). It was held at Cadarache, 9-13 January 2006. The course was divided in 14 lectures covering all aspects of severe accident phenomena that occur during a scenario. It also included lectures on PSA-2, Safety Assessment and design measures in new LWR plants for severe accident mitigation (SAM). This book presents the lecture notes of the Severe Accident Phenomenology Short Course and condenses the essential knowledge on severe accident phenomenology in 2008. (authors)

  11. RD and D-Programme 2004. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste, including social science research

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), which is owned by the companies that operate the Swedish nuclear power plants, has been assigned the task of managing and disposing of the spent nuclear fuel from the reactors. The Nuclear Activities Act requires a programme of comprehensive research and development and other measures that are needed to manage and dispose of nuclear waste in a safe manner and to decommission and dismantle the nuclear power plants. SKB is now presenting RD and D-Programme 2004 in fulfilment of this requirement. The programme describes SKB's plans for the period 2005-2010. The period of immediate concern is 2005-2007. The level of detail for the three subsequent years is naturally lower.The programme provides a basis for designing systems for safe management and disposal of the radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants. SKB's plan is to implement deep disposal of the spent fuel in accordance with the KBS-3 method. In the RD and D-Programme we describe our activities and planning for this line of action and the work that is being conducted on alternative methods. Review of the programme can contribute valuable outside viewpoints. The regulatory authorities and the Government can clarify how they look upon different parts of the programme and stipulate guidelines for the future. Municipalities and other stakeholders can, after studying the programme, offer their viewpoints to SKB, the regulatory authorities or the Government.The goal for the period up to the end of 2008 is to be able to submit permit applications for the encapsulation plant and the deep repository. This RD and D-Programme therefore differs from the preceding ones in that it concentrates on questions relating to technology development for these facilities. The programmes for safety assessment and research on the long-term processes that take place in the deep repository are then linked together with the programmes for technology development. Another

  12. RD and D-Programme 2004. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste, including social science research

    SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), which is owned by the companies that operate the Swedish nuclear power plants, has been assigned the task of managing and disposing of the spent nuclear fuel from the reactors. The Nuclear Activities Act requires a programme of comprehensive research and development and other measures that are needed to manage and dispose of nuclear waste in a safe manner and to decommission and dismantle the nuclear power plants. SKB is now presenting RD and D-Programme 2004 in fulfilment of this requirement. The programme describes SKB's plans for the period 2005-2010. The period of immediate concern is 2005-2007. The level of detail for the three subsequent years is naturally lower.The programme provides a basis for designing systems for safe management and disposal of the radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants. SKB's plan is to implement deep disposal of the spent fuel in accordance with the KBS-3 method. In the RD and D-Programme we describe our activities and planning for this line of action and the work that is being conducted on alternative methods. Review of the programme can contribute valuable outside viewpoints. The regulatory authorities and the Government can clarify how they look upon different parts of the programme and stipulate guidelines for the future. Municipalities and other stakeholders can, after studying the programme, offer their viewpoints to SKB, the regulatory authorities or the Government.The goal for the period up to the end of 2008 is to be able to submit permit applications for the encapsulation plant and the deep repository. This RD and D-Programme therefore differs from the preceding ones in that it concentrates on questions relating to technology development for these facilities. The programmes for safety assessment and research on the long-term processes that take place in the deep repository are then linked together with the programmes for technology development. Another new

  13. Impaired verbal communication - research in the post cerebrovascular accident

    Daniel Bruno Resende Chaves; Alice Gabrielle de Souza Costa; Ana Railka de Souza Oliveira; Viviane Martins Silva; Thelma Leite de Araujo; Marcos Venícios de Oliveira Lopes

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common sequelae in people with Cerebrovascular accident, and that affect the quality of life of the patients, is the alteration in communication. The study aimed at investigating the prevalence of the nursing diagnosis Impaired Verbal Communication in patients with stroke in the rehabilitation phase. It is an exploratory cross-sectional study, conducted in two rehabilitation institutions in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. 40 patients were assessed in the period March-April, 2008. Impai...

  14. The NIHR Public Health Research Programme: responding to local authority research needs in the United Kingdom.

    Dorling, Hannah; Cook, Andrew; Ollerhead, Liz; Westmore, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The remit of the National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research (PHR) Programme is to evaluate public health interventions, providing new knowledge on the benefits, costs, acceptability and wider impacts of interventions, set outside of the National Health Service, intended to improve the health of the public and reduce inequalities. This paper illustrates how the PHR Programme is providing new knowledge for public health decision makers, based on the nine key areas for local authority public health action, described by the King's Fund. Many funded PHR projects are evaluating interventions, applied in a range of settings, across the identified key areas for local authority influence. For example, research has been funded on children and young people, and for some of the wider determinants of health, such as housing and travel. Other factors, such as spatial planning, or open and green spaces and leisure, are less represented in the PHR Programme. Further opportunities in research include interventions to improve the health of adolescents, adults in workplaces, and communities. Building evidence for public health interventions at local authority level is important to prioritise and implement effective changes to improve population health. PMID:26652743

  15. RDandD Programme 2010. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste

    2010-09-15

    RDandD Programme 2010 presents SKB's plans for research, development and demonstration during the period 2011-2016. SKB's activities are divided into two main areas: the programme for low- and intermediate-level waste (the LILW Programme) and the Nuclear Fuel Programme. Operation of the existing facilities takes place within the Operational Process. RDandD Programme 2010 consists of five parts: Part I Overall plan of action Part II The LILW Programme Part III The Nuclear Fuel Programme Part IV Research for assessment of long-term safety Part V Social science research RDandD Programme 2007 was mainly focused on development of technology to realize the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The efforts described were aimed at gaining a greater knowledge of long-term safety and compiling technical supporting documentation for applications under the Nuclear Activities Act for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel and under the Environmental Code for the final repository system. Many important results from these efforts are reported in this programme. The integrated account of the results will be presented in applications submitted in early 2011. The regulatory review of RDandD Programme 2007 and its supplement called for clarifications of plans and programmes for the final repository for short-lived radioactive waste, SFR, and the final repository for long-lived waste, SFL. This RDandD Programme describes these plans more clearly

  16. RDandD Programme 2010. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste

    RDandD Programme 2010 presents SKB's plans for research, development and demonstration during the period 2011-2016. SKB's activities are divided into two main areas: the programme for low- and intermediate-level waste (the LILW Programme) and the Nuclear Fuel Programme. Operation of the existing facilities takes place within the Operational Process. RDandD Programme 2010 consists of five parts: Part I Overall plan of action Part II The LILW Programme Part III The Nuclear Fuel Programme Part IV Research for assessment of long-term safety Part V Social science research RDandD Programme 2007 was mainly focused on development of technology to realize the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The efforts described were aimed at gaining a greater knowledge of long-term safety and compiling technical supporting documentation for applications under the Nuclear Activities Act for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel and under the Environmental Code for the final repository system. Many important results from these efforts are reported in this programme. The integrated account of the results will be presented in applications submitted in early 2011. The regulatory review of RDandD Programme 2007 and its supplement called for clarifications of plans and programmes for the final repository for short-lived radioactive waste, SFR, and the final repository for long-lived waste, SFL. This RDandD Programme describes these plans more clearly

  17. Embedding operational research into national disease control programme: lessons from 10 years of experience in Indonesia

    Yodi Mahendradhata

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is growing recognition that operational research (OR should be embedded into national disease control programmes. However, much of the current OR capacity building schemes are still predominantly driven by international agencies with limited integration into national disease control programmes. We demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a more sustainable capacity building effort across the country by establishing an OR group within the national tuberculosis (TB control programme in Indonesia. Key challenges identified include long-term financial support, limited number of scientific publications, and difficulties in documenting impact on programmatic performance. External evaluation has expressed concerns in regard to utilisation of OR in policy making. Efforts to address this concern have been introduced recently and led to indications of increased utilisation of research evidence in policy making by the national TB control programme. Embedding OR in national disease control programmes is key in establishing an evidence-based disease control programme.

  18. Embedding operational research into national disease control programme: lessons from 10 years of experience in Indonesia.

    Mahendradhata, Yodi; Probandari, Ari; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Riono, Pandu; Mustikawati, Dyah; Tiemersma, Edine W; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2014-01-01

    There is growing recognition that operational research (OR) should be embedded into national disease control programmes. However, much of the current OR capacity building schemes are still predominantly driven by international agencies with limited integration into national disease control programmes. We demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a more sustainable capacity building effort across the country by establishing an OR group within the national tuberculosis (TB) control programme in Indonesia. Key challenges identified include long-term financial support, limited number of scientific publications, and difficulties in documenting impact on programmatic performance. External evaluation has expressed concerns in regard to utilisation of OR in policy making. Efforts to address this concern have been introduced recently and led to indications of increased utilisation of research evidence in policy making by the national TB control programme. Embedding OR in national disease control programmes is key in establishing an evidence-based disease control programme. PMID:25361728

  19. The program of international intercomparison of accident dosimetry; Le programme d'intercomparaison internationale de dosimetrie d'accident 10-12 juin 2002

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    The French institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN) has carried out in June 2002 an international intercomparison program for the testing of the physical and biological accident dosimetry techniques. The intercomparison is jointly organized by the IRSN and the OECD-NEA with the sustain of the European commission and the collaboration of the CEA centre of Valduc (France). About 30 countries have participated to this program. Each country has supplied its own dosimeters and biological samples which have been irradiated using the Silene reactor of CEA-Valduc or a {sup 60}Co source. These experiments allow to test the new dosimetric techniques that have been developed since the previous intercomparison program (1993) and to confirm or improve the performances of older techniques. Aside from the intercomparison exercise, this report makes a status of the known radiological accidents and of the effects of high doses of ionizing radiations on human health (symptoms, therapeutics). It explains the phenomenology of criticality accidents, the prevention means, and the history of such accidents up to the Tokai-Mura one in 1999. Finally, the dosimetry of criticality is presented with its physical and biological techniques. (J.S.)

  20. Applicability of Phebus FP results to severe accident safety evaluations and management measures

    The international Phebus FP (Fission Product) programme is the largest research programme in the world investigating core degradation and radioactive product release should a core meltdown accident occur in a light water reactor plant. Three integral experiments have already been performed. The experimental database obtained so far contains a wealth of information to validate the computer codes used for safety and accident management assessment

  1. Co-ordinated research programme on applications of stable isotope tracers in human nutrition research

    This document provides a very brief report on the final Research Co-ordination Meeting of this Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP): the final report on the CRP will be published by the IAEA in the IAEA-TECDOC series. The present document contains a detailed proposal for a new Co-ordinated Research Programme on ''Stable Isotope Tracer Techniques for Studies on Protein-Energy Interactions'', and a brief series of notes on stable isotopic methods for investigating protein and amino-acid metabolism in man. Refs

  2. Criticality accident studies and research performed in the Valduc criticality laboratory, France

    In 1967, the IPSN (Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire - Nuclear Protection and Safety Institute) started studies and research in France on criticality accidents, with the objective of improving knowledge and modelling of accidents in order to limit consequences to the public, the environment and installations. The criticality accident is accompanied by an intense emission of neutronic and gamma radiation and releases of radioactive products in the form of gas and aerosols, generating irradiation and contamination risks. The main objectives of the studies carried out, particularly using the CRAC installation and the SILENE reactor at Valduc (France), were to model the physics of criticality accidents, to estimate the risks of irradiation and radioactive releases, to elaborate an accident detection system and to provide information for intervention plans. This document summarizes the state of knowledge in the various fields mentioned above. The results of experiments carried out in the Valduc criticality laboratory are used internationally as reference data for the qualification of calculation codes and the assessment of the consequences of a criticality accident. The SILENE installation, that reproduces the various conditions encountered during a criticality accident, is also a unique international research tool for studies and training on those matters. (author)

  3. The Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative for public health programmes.

    Ramsay, A; Harries, A D; Zachariah, R; Bissell, K; Hinderaker, S G; Edginton, M; Enarson, D A; Satyanarayana, S; Kumar, A M V; Hoa, N B; Tweya, H; Reid, A J; Van den Bergh, R; Tayler-Smith, K; Manzi, M; Khogali, M; Kizito, W; Ali, E; Delaunois, P; Reeder, J C

    2014-06-21

    In 2009, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Médecins sans Frontières Brussels-Luxembourg (MSF) began developing an outcome-oriented model for operational research training. In January 2013, The Union and MSF joined with the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) at the World Health Organization (WHO) to form an initiative called the Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT). This integrates the training of public health programme staff with the conduct of operational research prioritised by their programme. SORT IT programmes consist of three one-week workshops over 9 months, with clearly-defined milestones and expected output. This paper describes the vision, objectives and structure of SORT IT programmes, including selection criteria for applicants, the research projects that can be undertaken within the time frame, the programme structure and milestones, mentorship, the monitoring and evaluation of the programmes and what happens beyond the programme in terms of further research, publications and the setting up of additional training programmes. There is a growing national and international need for operational research and related capacity building in public health. SORT IT aims to meet this need by advocating for the output-based model of operational research training for public health programme staff described here. It also aims to secure sustainable funding to expand training at a global and national level. Finally, it could act as an observatory to monitor and evaluate operational research in public health. Criteria for prospective partners wishing to join SORT IT have been drawn up. PMID:26399203

  4. Inventory of Dutch National Research on Global Climate Change: Inside and outside the National Research Programme

    This report contains brief descriptions of research projects in the field of global climate change, performed both within and outside the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP). The descriptions result from a survey of the major research institutions in The Netherlands, conducted by two consultancies (Science and Policy Associates, SPA and Holland Consulting Group, HCG) at the request of the NRP. The inventory had to be completed within a relatively brief period; it is thus unavoidable that one or more projects may sometimes contain inaccuracies. Taken as a whole, this report presents a good picture of the Dutch research activities in this area. The scope and structure of this survey and the contents of this report are based on a request for information from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for an intergovernmental meeting on the World Climate Programme (WCP), held on 14-16 April 1993. The WMO request emphasised activities related to the WCP and its associated programmes. The database resulting from this exercise will be a useful tool for organisations which sponsor and conduct research into global climate change in their efforts to stimulate cooperation and to promote coordination between the research groups in The Netherlands and abroad. There are plans to update the inventory in the future and to provide the information to participating organisations in The Netherlands, as well as to research organisations in other countries. An overview of the current research is provided in Volume 1, a list of projects being provided in Annex 3. The projects are presented according to the themes and subthemes which are used in the NRP

  5. Publicly administrated nuclear waste management research programme 1994-1996. General plan for the research programme and research plan for 1994

    The nuclear energy legislation of Finland includes detailed stipulations concerning nuclear waste management. Each producer of nuclear waste is responsible for the safe handling, management and disposal of the waste, and for the financing of these operations. The authorities supervise and control the implementation of the national waste management programme and set the necessary safety and other requirements. The principal goal of the JYT programme is to provide the authorities with information and research results relevant for the safety of nuclear waste management in order to support the various activities of the authorities. The whole field of the research programme is subdivided into the following main topic areas: (1) bedrock structure and stability, rock investigation methods, and characteristics and flow of groundwater, (2) release of radionuclides from a repository and subsequent migration in the bedrock, (3) performance and safety assessment of repositories and other phases of nuclear waste management (4) natural analogue studies, (5) waste management technology and costs and (6) sociopolitical and other societal issues and environmental impact assessment

  6. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for a nuclear power plant Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LB-LOCA) in the context of OECD BEMUSE programme

    The second comparative exercise performed as part of BEMUSE (Best Estimate Methods - Uncertainty and Sensitivity Evaluation) Programme, was devoted to Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) application. The BEMUSE programme has been promoted by the Working Group on Analysis and Management of Accidents (WGAMA) and endorsed by the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI). The programme was divided into two main steps. The first step was to perform an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis related to the LOFT L2-5 test, and the second step was to perform the same analysis for a Nuclear Power Plant Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LB-LOCA). The second step, also known as Phases IV and V, started in May 2006 and was finished in September 2009. Phase IV of BEMUSE Program is connected with previous Phase II, being a necessary step for an uncertainty analysis: the simulation of the reference scenario and sensitivity analysis. The selected plant was Zion 1 NPP, a 4 loop PWR unit. Thirteen participants coming from ten different countries have taken part in the Phase IV of the program. Phase V main objective was to obtain uncertainty bands for the maximum cladding temperature (time trend), upper plenum pressure (time trend), maximum peak cladding temperature (scalar), 1st peak cladding temperature (scalar), 2nd peak cladding temperature (scalar), time of accumulator injection (scalar), time of complete core quenching (scalar). Fourteen groups from twelve organizations and ten countries have participated in BEMUSE Phase V. Both Phases IV and V compared procedures with experience gained in the previous step of the programme. (author)

  7. Survey and evaluation of the external research and development programme 1977-1983 of the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute

    A review of the external research programme of SSI is undertaken. The main research programme is in this report divided into five subprogrammes according to the main programmes of the Institute. This report covers research projects reported 1977-1983. An evaluation of the impact of the R and D programme is included in the report. The external R and D research programme of SSI has had an important impact on the radiation protection work in Sweden. The methods for evaluation of research programmes are also discussed in the report

  8. SAFIR The Finnish research programme on nuclear power plant safety 2003-2006. Interim report

    SAFIR 2003-2006 is the present Finnish public research programme on nuclear power plant safety. The programme is administrated by the steering group that has been nominated by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM). The steering group of SAFIR consists of representatives from Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), Fortum Oyj (Fortum), National Technology Agency of Finland (Tekes), Helsinki University of Technology and Lappeenranta University of Technology. The six key research areas of SAFIR are (1) reactor fuel and core, (2) reactor circuit and structural safety, (3) containment and process safety functions, (4) automation, control room and IT, (5) organisations and safety management and 6) riskinformed safety management. The research programme of the year 2004 involved 23 research projects, whose volume varied from a few person months to several person years. The total volume of the programme in 2004 was 4.9 million euros and 35 person years. The research in the programme is performed primarily by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). Other research units responsible for the projects include Lappeenranta University of Technology, Fortum Nuclear Services Ltd and Helsinki University of Technology. In addition, there are a few minor subcontractors in some projects. The programme management structure involves the steering group, a reference group in each of the six research areas and a number of ad hoc groups in the various research areas. This report gives a summary of the results of the SAFIR programme for the period January 2003 - October 2004. During this period the programme produced 256 publications, four Doctoral, one Licentiate and six Master Thesis. The total volume of the programme in 2003-2004 was approximately 9 M euro and 67 person years. (orig.)

  9. Strategy generation in accident management support

    An increased interest for research in the field of Accident Management can be noted. Several international programmes have been started in order to be able to understand the basic physical and chemical phenomena in accident conditions. A feasibility study has shown that it would be possible to design and develop a computerized support system for plant staff in accident situations. To achieve this goal the Halden Project has initiated a research programme on Computerized Accident Management Support (CAMS project). The aim is to utilize the capabilities of computerized tools to support the plant staff during the various accident stages. The system will include identification of the accident state, assessment of the future development of the accident and planning of accident mitigation strategies. A prototype is developed to support operators and the Technical Support Centre in decision making during serious accident in nuclear power plants. A rule based system has been built to take care of the strategy generation. This system assists plant personnel in planning control proposals and mitigation strategies from normal operation to severe accident conditions. The ideal of a safety objective tree and knowledge from the emergency procedures have been used. Future prediction requires good state identification of the plant status and some knowledge about the history of some critical variables. The information needs to be validated as well. Accurate calculations in simulators and a large database including all important information form the plant will help the strategy planning. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs

  10. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion - Synthesis report 2010

    Since 1978, research on thermonuclear fusion in Switzerland is closely related to the research programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The Swiss projects tackle aspects of plasma physics and fusion technology. Switzerland participates to the construction and operation of the Joint European Torus (JET). The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is being built; the first plasma is expected in 2019. The 'Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas' (CRPP) of the EPFL participates to EURATOM scientific and technological projects in magnetic confinement physics, through an experimental contribution (the Variable Configuration Tokamak, TCV) and theoretical studies. Thanks to the large flexibility of the TCV design and operation modus, plasmas of different shapes can be created and controlled, what is a very useful option to verify numerical simulation results. Besides, the injection of millimetre waves allows directing the injected power according to specific profiles. A configuration of type 'snowflakes' could be created, reducing the power deposition at the edge of the plasma. Theoretical studies on turbulence have improved the plasma stability in the TCV. For the first time in the world, TCV could reach a stable plasma, the plasma current being generated using the so-called 'bootstrap' phenomenon. Besides turbulence, studies were focused on heat and particle transport in tokamaks, on an analysis of the equilibrium and magneto-hydrodynamic stability of tokamaks and stellarators, on the application of radiofrequency waves and on the optimization of new confinement configurations. Experiments in the JET facility confirmed the numerical results of theoretical simulations. The TORPEX facility, which is simpler than TCV, allows high space-temporal resolution measurements for the study of turbulences and plasma threads ('blobs'). At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), research topics include superconductivity and materials. The Fusion

  11. Importance of prototypic-corium experiments for severe accident research

    In case of a severe accident in a nuclear reactor, very complex physical and chemical phenomena would occur. Parallel to the development of mechanistic and scenario codes, experiments are needed to determine key phenomena and coupling, develop and qualify specific models, validate codes. Experiments with prototypic corium are performed to check the results obtained with corium-simulant materials and identify possible differences. In this context CEA has undertaken a large program on severe accidents with prototypic corium. In this paper, we discuss some specificities of the prototypic corium: 1) Spreading: experiments with simulant mixtures and prototypic corium performed in the VULCANO facility showed a behaviour involving gas formation during melt spreading. 2) Corium pool: the presence of miscibility gap in the U-Zr-O ternary system for liquid phases and the high density of uranium oxides affect solidification paths, stratification and/or macro-segregation. 3) Corium concrete interaction: the possible reactions between uranium oxide and concrete oxides are specific in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics. For instance, the limited solubility of uranium in zircon can lead to the formation of the solid solution called ''chernobylite'' (Ux,Zr1-x)SiO4 which is important for the long term behaviour (fission product release, handling,..) of solidified corium. 4) Fuel Coolant Interaction: experiments in the KROTOS facility have shown important differences of behaviour between molten alumina and molten 80%wt UO2 + 20%wt ZrO2, the latter inducing less violent explosions than the former

  12. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  13. Evaluation of the fusion technology and safety programme of the Joint Research Centre (1980-85)

    The Joint Research Centre, Ispra, has been involved in fusion research since 1973. In July 1985 the Commission of European Communities - DG XII, following a policy of systematically evaluating its RandD activities, appointed a panel of external experts to evaluate the fusion technology and safety programme carried out at the Joint Research Centre. This report describes the work of the panel in evaluating the research performed by the JRC within the framework of its 1984-87 programme. The achievements of the previous programme, 1980-83, were also taken into consideration. The different research areas covered in the programme, i.e.: reactor studies, breeding blanket technology, structural materials studies, risk assessment and tritium laboratory studies, are described and a draft proposal for the period 1987-90 presented. The evaluation panel has been asked to assess the following aspects: the scientific and technical achievements of the programme, the contribution of the programme to the development of other Community policies, the role played by the JRC in the European fusion research (including NET) and in international collaborations such as INTOR. From its assessment the evaluation panel has made a series of recommendations for the current programme and for future work

  14. Guidelines for the review of accident management programmes in nuclear power plants. Reference document for the IAEA safety service missions on review of accident management programmes in nuclear power plants

    Similarly as for other IAEA safety services, the objectives of accident management safety service are to assist the Member States in ensuring and enhancing the safety of NPPs. In particular, the objective is to assist at the utility and NPP (i.e. licensee) level in effective plant specific AMP preparation, development and implementation. However, assistance can also be provided to the regulatory body in its reviewing of AMPs. Objectives of the safety service can be summarized as follows: To explain to licensee personnel principles and possible approaches in effective implementation of AMP based on experience world-wide; To give opportunities to experts from the host plant to broaden their experience and knowledge in the field; To perform an objective assessment of the status in various phases of AMP implementation, compared with international experience and practices; To provide the licensee with suggestions and assistance for improvements in various stages of AMP implementation. The objective of the IAEA safety services is to offer two options to respond to individual requirements. These options include missions to review accident analysis needed for accident management and missions to review the whole AMP. Review of accident analysis for accident management (RAAAM): this review is intended to check completeness and quality of accident analysis covering BDBA and severe accidents. The review should be typically performed prior to use of accident analysis for development of AMP. It is considered that 2 experts and 1 IAEA team leader in one-week mission can perform the review. Detailed guidelines for review of analysis are provided in Section 2. Reference is also made to another IAEA Safety Report (Safety Standards Series No. NS-R-1) which is devoted to guidance for accident analysis of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Review of AMP (RAMP): this review of AMP, which is in particular appropriate prior to its implementation, is intended to check its quality, consistency

  15. Development of ultrasonic high temperature system for severe accidents research

    The aims of this study are to find a gap formation between corium melt and the reactor lower head vessel, to verify the principle of the gap formation and to analyze the effect of the gap formation on the thermal behavior of corium melt and the lower plenum. This report aims at suggesting development of a new high temperature measuring system using an ultrasonic method which overcomes the limitations of the present thermocouple method used for severe accident experiments. Also, this report describes the design and manufacturing method of the ultrasonic system. At that time, the sensor element is fabricated to a reflective element using 1mm diameter and 50 mm and 80 mm long tungsten alloy wires. This temperature measuring system is intended to measure up to 2800 deg C

  16. Phebus PF (fission products): major international research programme in nuclear safety; Phebus PF: programme international majeur de recherche en surete nucleaire

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The objective consists in reproducing experimentally at small scale the core meltdown in a PWR type reactor, in order to study the mechanisms of core meltdown, as well as the quantity, the nature and the behaviour of radioactive products released in such a situation. The programme Phebus PF aims to improve the knowledge of these phenomena. This knowledge must allow to better appreciate the procedures and means to prevent and limit the consequences of such accidents. (N.C.)

  17. Thyroid cancer in Belarus after Chernobyl: International thyroid project. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident

    The Chernobyl accident has demonstrated what was always known but perhaps has not been as fully acknowledged as it might, namely that national or other geographical boundaries are no defence against radioactive fallout. Much (some 2.2 millions) of the approximately 10 million population of Belarus have been, and are still being, exposed to the radiation resulting from the accident. The most obvious adverse effect of the radiation is on the condition of the thyroid system in children. Now, only just over eight years after the accident, we are experiencing an increase in childhood thyroid cancer which is particularly marked in those closest to the site of the accident. In young children thyroid cancer is an extremely rare condition and thus although at present the numbers of cases (more than 250 since the accident) is not large in absolute terms it is a sufficiently important development to capture the interest of the international medical and scientific community and to give rise to considerable apprehension as to the future development of the outbreak. Although this increase in thyroid cancer has not been definitively attributed to the Chernobyl accident, and indeed a major aim of this project is to elucidate the cause of the cancer, the fact of the exposure of the population of Belarus to the isotopes of iodine at the time of accident, and what we have learned from the experience in the Marshall Islands following the testing of the first hydrogen bomb on Bikini Atoll lead us to consider the accident as the most likely cause of the increase. Belarus is a relatively small and newly independent country. By any standards the Chernobyl accident was a technological disaster of enormous proportions causing damage to the environment over vast land areas. Necessarily it must be a major concern for us and an issue to be considered in the planning of our future. Its impact on the future health of our nation must be assessed as objectively and dispassionately as possible and

  18. Nuclear techniques for toxic elements in foodstuffs. Report on an IAEA co-ordinated research programme

    The document includes 10 final reports on the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Nuclear Techniques for Toxic Elements in Foodstuffs. A separate abstract was prepared for each report. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. The comparison and coordination of national policies and programmes in the energy research and development sector

    Inventory of programmes and expenditures in the field of energy research and development, which are financed from the public sector funds of the Member States and of the European Communities (1974-1976)

  20. Abstracts of the International seminar 'Experimental possibilities of KTM tokamak and research programme'

    The International seminar 'Experimental possibilities of KTM tokamak and research programme' was held in 10-12 October 2005 in Astana city (Kazakhstan). The seminar was dedicated to problems of KTM tokamak commissioning. The Collection of abstracts comprises 45 papers

  1. WHO/IAEA joint research programme on trace elements in cardiovascular diseases

    After several years of support by WHO and IAEA for the joint research programme on trace elements in cardiovascular diseases, a consultants' meeting was held (1) to examine the present status of the programme with a view to advising on actions necessary for its completion, and (2) to advise on the form, content and timing of a final report. The meeting was attended by the invited experts and other persons. The main work of this research programme is divided, as before, between two projects, (1) on Cd, Cr, Cu, Se, Zn and other elements in relation to ischaemic heart disease, and (2) on Cd, Se and Zn in relation to arterial hypertension

  2. Energy and environment at a crossroads - perspectives from the social studies of the SAMRAM research programme

    Leading abstract. The research programme SAMRAM was carried out by the Research Council of Norway in 1996-2000. The present book contains twelve articles based on the results of the programme. The articles are grouped in three main sections: (1) The energy markets - environmental effects, innovation and consumption, (2) Energy and environmental policy - international relations and national instruments, (3) Instruments of the energy- and environmental policy - motivation and behaviour

  3. Market-based process and product innovation in the food sector: A Danish research programme

    Klaus G. Grunert; Baadsgaard, Allan

    1992-01-01

    This note informs about the Danish MAPP research programme, a collection of 15 research projects aimed at making product and process innovation in the food sector more market-based. The programme, which has an interdisciplinary base, but is geared towards marketing applications, is concerned with the organization of the innovation process, the interaction of consumer and producer criteria in product development, the assessment of long-term developments in the market environment and the role d...

  4. Research Market Gap in Law Enforcement Technology: Lessons from Czech Security Research Funding Programmes

    Luděk Moravec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While security research funding schemes are nothing new to the EU (Horizon 2020 and FP7, or to several Member States, their priorities and procedures are usually decided administratively or shaped by advisory groups of varying membership. Only recently did the EU shift its focus to the role of end users in security research programmes, seeking their input in order to maximise the utility of funded solutions. Such a hint to limited usefulness of some industrial solutions is not exactly inconspicuous. This paper discusses the gap between the stated needs of law enforcement agencies in terms of R&D funding and the grant project applications in the area of law enforcement. It aims to define and describe the gap, and consequently the market opportunities, between the supply and demand sides represented by industry-driven grant project applications and end-user-formulated calls. The study is based on empirical data from two Czech security research funding programmes that have been running since 2010 and should deliver their results by 2015. It seeks to contribute some preliminary observations about the structure of both end user needs and industry capabilities in such a particular area as law enforcement technology.

  5. Accident Analysis for the NIST Research Reactor Before and After Fuel Conversion

    Baek J.; Diamond D.; Cuadra, A.; Hanson, A.L.; Cheng, L-Y.; Brown, N.R.

    2012-09-30

    Postulated accidents have been analyzed for the 20 MW D2O-moderated research reactor (NBSR) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The analysis has been carried out for the present core, which contains high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel and for a proposed equilibrium core with low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The analyses employ state-of-the-art calculational methods. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations were performed with the MCNPX code to determine homogenized fuel compositions in the lower and upper halves of each fuel element and to determine the resulting neutronic properties of the core. The accident analysis employed a model of the primary loop with the RELAP5 code. The model includes the primary pumps, shutdown pumps outlet valves, heat exchanger, fuel elements, and flow channels for both the six inner and twenty-four outer fuel elements. Evaluations were performed for the following accidents: (1) control rod withdrawal startup accident, (2) maximum reactivity insertion accident, (3) loss-of-flow accident resulting from loss of electrical power with an assumption of failure of shutdown cooling pumps, (4) loss-of-flow accident resulting from a primary pump seizure, and (5) loss-of-flow accident resulting from inadvertent throttling of a flow control valve. In addition, natural circulation cooling at low power operation was analyzed. The analysis shows that the conversion will not lead to significant changes in the safety analysis and the calculated minimum critical heat flux ratio and maximum clad temperature assure that there is adequate margin to fuel failure.

  6. Research progress on assessment of reactor vessel integrity under severe accident conditions

    As a representative method of reactor vessel integrity (RVI) under severe accident conditions, In-vessel retention of molten core debris (IVR) is an important severe accident management strategy employed in the AP1000 generation-3 Pressurized Water Reactor. In this paper, research progress on the test and theoretical analysis based on RVI is reviewed. Test facilities and techniques, as well as the modeling are summarized. In addition, tools for numerical simulation for RVI are evaluated. Finally, based on the applications in thermal hydraulic technology for the generation-3 Pressurized Water Reactor in China, the potential research direction of thermal-hydraulics under RVI conditions are discussed. (authors)

  7. Serendipity is no accident, even in plasma research

    After chasing and pushing electrons and ions for four decades, one becomes quite convinced of the role of serendipity in invention and discovery in plasmas. Dictionaries have several definitions, roughly the knack or aptitude for making or stumbling upon interesting or desirable discoveries in a casual manner or by accident. Shapiro says Serendipity is the art of finding something valuable when you are looking for something else. The author presents some experiences that tend to fit this definition. The list is chronologic, starting about 1948. The areas include: Nyquist diagrams for stability of velocity distributions 1948; orthogonal electron streams; plane-wave growth along one resistive-medium, resistive-wall amplifiers, rippled walls 1951; general admittance wall amplifiers 1953; Bessel bi-radial functions 1953; ring-bar vs. cross-wound helices for traveling-wave tubes 1953; virtual cathode oscillations; limiting currents; 6L6 effect explained 1959; thermionic converter and Q-machine instabilities; e-triggers 1960; rf ponderomotive force; plasma sheath modification; focussed electron beam 1959, 1964; forbidden region microwave filter 1964; and cloud-in-cell weighting, to reduce noise 1964, 1966

  8. IAEA activities related to research reactor fuel conversion and spent fuel return programmes

    Full text: The IAEA has been involved for more than twenty years in supporting international nuclear non-proliferation efforts associated with reducing the amount of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in international commerce. IAEA projects and activities have directly supported the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) programme, as well as directly associated efforts to return research reactor fuel to the country of origin where it was originally enriched. IAEA efforts have included the development and maintenance of several data bases with information related to research reactors and research reactor spent fuel inventories that have been essential in planning and managing both RERTR and spent fuel return programmes. Other IAEA regular budget programmes have supported research reactor fuel conversion from HEU to low enriched uranium, and in addressing issues common to many member states with spent fuel management problems and concerns. The paper briefly describes IAEA involvement since the early 1980's in these areas, including regular budget and Technical Co-operation programme activities, and focuses on efforts in the past five years to continue to support and accelerate U.S. and Russian research reactor spent fuel return programmes. It is hoped that an announcement of the extension of the U.S. Acceptance Programme, which is expected in the very near future, will facilitate the life extensions of many productive TRIGA reactors around the world. (author)

  9. SIHTI 2 - Energy and environmental technology. Yearbook 1993 of the research programme. Project reports

    The SIHTI 2 research programme on energy and environmental technology, established by the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry, is concentrating on areas of environmental technology that are vital to Finland or in which Finns can engage in pioneering research. The promotion of product development within the environmental technology industry produces solutions for reducing the emissions of the energy sector. It is also a way of boosting Finland's share of the world market for such technology. The objectives of the programme are to cut down harmful emissions, recycle raw materials, reduce the amount of byproducts and wastes and achieve a greater utilization of wastes. In addition, an objective is to create basic information about the effects of environmental protection technology for the other research programmes financed by the Ministry of Trade and Industry. The development of internationally comparable research, monitoring and measurement methods creates a basis for wide-ranging international cooperation. The programme, to be carried out in 1993 - 1998, is in part a continuation of the previous SIHTI programme. New areas of research are environmental problems connected with energy in the forest and base metal industries as well as the systematic development of life-cycle analyses. This publication is yearbook 1993 of the programme. It contains the project reports of the research and joint development projects and information about the participating institutions

  10. Evaluation of the Radiation Protection Research Programmes (1980-1984 and 1985-1989)

    The commission appointed a panel of six independent experts to evaluate its Radiation Protection Research Programmes (1980-84 and 1985-89). The evaluation was carried out according to the guidelines specified by the Council Resolution on the evaluation of R and D programmes (O.J. C213, 09.08.1983), and further developed by the Commission's Plan of Action on Evaluation (O.J. C2(1), 06.01.1987). The scientific evaluation was carried out separately for each of the six sectors of the programme ant the post-Chernobyl actions. The management and socio-economic evaluation was based on discussions with Commission and national officials, programme contractors and site visits to laboratories in the member states. A questionnaire was used to survey scientists involved in the programme

  11. Nuclear power plant safety research 1999-2002. A proposal for the content and organisation of the new research programme

    The Working Group was appointed by the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Energy to propose a framework scheme and possibly a new organization for the existing nuclear power plant safety research programme for the period 1999 to 2002. While planning the programme, account has been taken of the recent changes in the framework, the opportunity to participate in the research and development-programmes of the European Union in the first place. The principal aim of the national nuclear power plant safety research is to create the necessary conditions to ensure and even enhance the high safety level of the running nuclear power plants in Finland. In addition, the research programme should take care of the national know-how especially for the needs of the safety authorities and it should also maintain the capability for the research and development-needs in the case of new power plant projects. The dissemination of the results obtained in terms of the national research programme and via international cooperation as well as the education and training of the researchers are also part of the programme

  12. A framework for designing a research-based "mathematics counsellor" teacher programme

    Niss, Mogens Allan; Thomas Jankvist, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses one way in which decades of mathematics education research results can inform practice, by offering a framework for designing and implementing an in-service teacher education programme for upper secondary mathematics teachers in Denmark. The programme aims to educate a “task...... force” of so-called “maths counsellors”, i.e., mathematics teachers whose goal it is to help identify students with genuine learning difficulties in mathematics, investigate the nature of these difficulties, and carry out research-based interventions to assist the students in overcoming them. We present...... and discuss the various components of the programme, theoretical as well as practical, and account for how these make up a framework for designing a research-based “maths counsellor” teacher programme...

  13. Channel blockage accident analysis for research reactors with MTR- type fuel elements

    It is the purpose of this study to investigate the feasibility of removing the residual decay heat from core of TR-2 ,which is a pool-type research reactor, after a channel blockage accident event and to identify the principal factors involved in cooling process. To analyze this accident scenery, THEAP-I computer code, which is a single phase transient 3-D structure/1-D flow thermal hydraulics code developed with the aim to contribute mainly to the safety analysis of the open pool research reactors, was modified and used. All of the analysis results figured out the fact that the core melting was inevitable in case of an uninterrupted operation (continuous operation) preceding a channel blockage accident of the TR-2 Reactor. Such a result will even be met if the blockage occurs only in a single fuel element. The results of analysis are expressed in terms of temperature field distribution as a function of time

  14. Overview of LWR severe accident research activities at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

    The research activities in the light water reactor (LWR) severe accidents domain at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) are concentrated on the in- and ex-vessel core melt behavior. The overall objective is to investigate the core melt scenarios from the beginning of core degradation to melt formation and relocation in the vessel, possible melt dispersion to the reactor cavity and to the containment, corium concrete interaction and corium coolability in the reactor cavity, and hydrogen behaviour in reactor systems. The results of the experiments contribute to a better understanding of the core melt sequences and thus improve safety of existing and, in the long-term, of future reactors by severe accident mitigation measures and by safety installations where required. This overview paper describes the experimental facilities used at KIT for severe accident research and gives an overview of the main directions and objectives of the R&D work. (author)

  15. The Community's research and development programme on decommissioning of nuclear installations (1989-1993). Annual progress report 1991

    This is the second annual progress report of the European Community's programme (1989-93) of research on decommissioning of nuclear installations. It shows the status of the programme on 31 December 1991. This second progress report summarizes the objectives, scope and work programme of the 76 research contracts concluded, as well as the progress of work achieved and the results obtained in 1991

  16. Evaluation of the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change. Final Report

    During 2001, the second phase of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NOP2) has been evaluated. In the period 1995-2001 the budget for NOP was 47 million Dutch guilders, which supported over 30 organisations in 100 projects and studies spanning four main themes: (1) dynamics of the climate system and its component parts; (2) vulnerability of natural and societal systems to climate change; (3) societal causes and solutions; (4) integration and assessment. Later in the life of the programme, two themes were added to widen the scope of the programme and add value to existing activities. These covered projects concerned with 'cross-cutting' or 'over-arching' issues and those dealing with 'internationalisation', i.e. projects specifically designed to support various initiatives in the development of international programmes. A further proportion of the research budget was dedicated to direct policy support. The evaluation was primarily intended to: Assess the scientific quality of the work undertaken in the programme and the attainment of scientific and technical goals. Also attention was paid to the relevancy of projects and project outputs to national and international policy formulation (policy relevance); the structure and operation of the programme to see if it promoted coherence and synergy between the constituent parts (synergy); and recommendations concerning the form, content and direction of a new programme in the area (new directions)

  17. Ten years of IAEA cooperation with the Russian research reactor fuel return programme

    Tozser, S.; Adelfang, P.; Bradley, E. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-01-15

    The Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Programme was launched in 2001. Over the duration, the programme successfully completed 43 safe shipments of 1.6 tons of fresh and spent HEU fuel from different countries using Russian fuelled research reactors to the country of origin. The IAEA has been a very active supporter of the RRRFR Programme since its inception. Under the auspices of the RRRFR Programme, the Agency has been ensuring a broad range of technical advisory and organizational support to the HEU fuel repatriation, as well as training and advisory assistance for supporting RR conversion from HEU to LEU. The presentation gives an overview of the RRRFR programme achievements with special consideration of the IAEA contribution. These include an overview of the shipments' history in terms of fresh and spent fuel, as well as a summary of experiences gained during the shipments' preparation and termination. The presentation focuses on technical advisory support given by the IAEA during the programme implementation, captures the consolidated knowledge of the unique international programme and shares the most important lessons learned. (orig.)

  18. How Europe Shapes Academic Research: Insights from Participation in European Union Framework Programmes

    Primeri, Emilia; Reale, Emanuela

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the effects of participating in European Union Framework Programmes (EUFPs) at the level of research units and researchers. We consider EUFPs as policy instruments that contribute to the Europeanisation of academic research and study the changes they produce with respect to: 1) the organisation and activities of Departments,…

  19. Overview and present status of the European Commission research programme

    O'Sullivan, D

    1999-01-01

    By the early 1990s the European Commission agreed that a comprehensive survey of the radiation environment produced by cosmic rays at aviation altitudes should be undertaken and that an extensive programme of experimental and theoretical studies should be supported. By calling on the resources of scientists in the fields of neutron physics, cosmic ray physics and general dosimetry it was felt that a successful investigation could be undertaken using the techniques and expertise of all concerned. By employing a wide range of detectors on several routes, both on subsonic and supersonic aircraft, a detailed set of measurements was obtained over a five- year period. Many of the measurements were made simultaneously by several instruments on the same flights so that intercomparison of results was possible. Detectors were also deployed on high altitude mountains to facilitate extrapolation of data to lower altitudes for verification of theoretical models. Instruments were calibrated in the CERN-CEC reference field ...

  20. The Ademe research programme on atmospheric emissions from composting. Research findings and literature review - final report

    Emissions of gas and particulates (dusts, mineral and organic) linked to composting wastes essentially come from the biodegradation of organic matter by micro-organisms and from the related site management activities, especially material handling (of the raw waste, mixes and compost): movements, turning, sieving and loading. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is, in terms of mass, the main gas produced (along with water vapor) during composting. However, many other gases emitted in small amounts can also have a major impact on the environment and/or health risks. Such is the case for nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) with respect to global warming, and also for ammonia (NH3) with respect to acidification and eutrophication of the local environment, and of a wide range of sulfur-based and volatile organic compounds which can potentially lead to very unpleasant (or offensive) odors and health risks. In the case of emitted dust particles, these can often carry micro-organisms and/or biological compounds with the known health effects of inflammation, allergic reactions and infection. Thus dealing with these emissions and the evaluation of their health and environmental impacts represents key aspects in the long term sustainability of the composting option. Even if the understanding of these emissions remains incomplete, taking into account the wide range of solid wastes treated and of the methods of composting available, efforts have been made these last years to better characterize the substrate and to improve the related measurement methods. ADEME launched in 2006 a research programme specifically addressing this theme in particular, involving many research organizations, technical centres, research consultancies and industrial partners. The work carried out in this framework has enabled an improvement in the knowledge of characterizing emissions, of their sources and controlling factors, of their metrology (whether at the source or within the environment around treatment

  1. Research activities about the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl NPS accident and social activities to assist the sufferers by the accident

    The 12th anniversary is coming soon of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the former USSR on April 26, 1986. Many issues are, however, still unresolved about the radiological impacts on the environment and people due to the Chernobyl accident. This report contains the results of an international collaborative project about the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident, carried out from November 1995 to October 1997 under the research grant of the Toyota foundation. Collaborative works were promoted along with the following 5 sub-themes: 1) General description of research activities in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine concerning the radiological consequences of the accident. 2) Investigation of the current situation of epidemiological studies about Chernobyl in each affected country. 3) Investigation of acute radiation syndrome among inhabitants evacuated soon after the accident from the 30 km zone around the Chernobyl NPS. 4) Overview of social activities to assist the sufferers by the accident in each affected country. 5) Preparation of special reports of interesting studies being carried out in each affected country. The 27 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  2. Fast neutron reactor fuel cycle research programme at the Joint Research Centre

    Full text: Although uranium resources are large and diversified, they are not infinite. Considering the NEA/IAEA Red Book estimated exploitable resources of 15 million tonne uranium, and the current annual consumption rate of about 67000 tonne uranium per year, the resources are sufficient for the next centuries. However, this optimistic view in term of resource utilization might be reversed if one considers the anticipated nuclear expansion. Thus, the deployment of a new generation of reactors (the Generation IV fast neutron reactors, FR) with a closed fuel cycle leading to a better use of natural resources needs to be prepared. Another sustainability aspect concerns the reduction of waste volume and hazards to be achieved by the recycling of all actinides. Three main FR systems are being considered now in the international community, namely those cooled with sodium, helium or lead. Moreover, the molten salt reactor, in its fast neutron version, is also under development and considered for its sustainability potential using the thorium/uranium cycle. A large R and D effort is being undertaken at international level, and in particular in Europe. It is coordinated within the Generation IV International Forum, in which the Joint Research Centre (JRC) represents the EURATOM interests. But JRC also contributes directly, through its multi-annual research programme. The main emphasis in terms of research budget is put on the fuel cycle of the FR designs mentioned above. It includes the development of fabrication processes for oxide, nitride and carbide advanced fuels (which include plutonium and minor actinides), their materials property determination, and irradiation behaviour. Emphasis is also put on the property studies of potential molten salt fuels. Moreover, extensive reprocessing and partitioning (using aqueous and pyro-metallurgy processes) experimental studies are performed on irradiated fuels. The paper will present a global overview of these programmes and of

  3. The generation IV international research programme. The UK contribution

    The UK has been a member of the International Generation-IV Initiative since its inception in 2000. Principal amongst the UK's interest are the retention and development of the skills and capabilities necessary to support the selection, licensing, operation, and waste management associated with the possible future deployment of new nuclear energy systems, in order to retain nuclear power as a future energy option for the UK. There is a long and distinguished history of nuclear energy development in the UK, and organizations such as Nexia Solutions, AMEC-NNC, and Serco Assurance retain many capabilities and facilities which can be deployed in support of the development of Generation-IV technologies. The UK has particularly strong capabilities in the fields of gas-cooled systems and fast reactor technology, and this has influenced the selection of Generation-IV systems of greatest interest to the UK: namely, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR), and the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). Similarly, the county's strengths in fuel and fuel cycle technology and in materials science have shaped the contribution planned for the Feasibility Phase of the GIF programme. Examples are provided of several technology areas in which UK contributions are planned, including: coated particle fuel characterisation, the behaviour of irradiated graphite, an examination of ceramic cladding materials, and the development of molten salt recycle technology. (author)

  4. Research progress and recommendations on reactor pressure vessel integrity under hypothetical core melt down accident

    Background: It is very important to ensure the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel under core melt down accident. The high-temperature creep failure is the main failure mode of the reactor pressure vessel under core melt down accident. Purpose: This paper is to present an overview of research status and progress on high-temperature creep behavior of reactor pressure vessel considering the hypothetical core melt down scenario. Methods: Emphasis is placed on accomplished achievements in creep tests, scale model experiments and numerical simulation, and the domestic newly research productions on high-temperature creep behavior of reactor pressure vessel structure integrity. Conclusions: This paper also discusses the limitations of existing researches and indicates future research directions, such as multi-axis tensile tests, analysis of three-dimensional coupling temperature field, scaled model tests, and so on. (authors)

  5. Seminar on the use of research reactors in fundamental and applied sciences. Programme and abstracts

    The document includes the programme and the abstracts of papers presented at the ''Seminar on the use of research reactors in fundamental and applied sciences'' organized by the Tajoura Nuclear Research Centre in cooperation with the IAEA at Tajoura, Tripoli (Libya) between 16-20 September 1984. The abstracts are grouped in seven sessions: reactor physics (five abstracts), research reactor programmes (three abstracts), solid state physics (two abstracts), nuclear physics (two abstracts), radiochemistry (eleven abstracts), activation analysis (five abstracts), diverse topics (six abstracts). Separate indexing was provided for each abstract

  6. Climate change and Finland. Summary of the Finnish research programme on climate change (SILMU)

    Anthropogenic impacts on the Earth's atmosphere are expected to cause significant global climate changes during the next few decades. These changes will have many consequences both in nature and on human activities. In order to investigate the implications of such changes in Finland, a six-year multidisciplinary national research programme on climate and global change, the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU), was initiated in 1990. The key research areas were: (1) quantification of the greenhouse effect and the magnitude of anticipated climate changes, (2) assessment of the effects of changing climate on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and (3) development of mitigation and adaptation strategies

  7. Integrating research into policy and programmes. Examples from the Jamaican experience.

    Ashley, D E; McCaw-Binns, A

    2008-12-01

    Research into selected health problems across the life cycle are discussed with respect to the application and impact of the findings on policy, programme development and health outcomes. Special emphasis is placed on health research that focussed on the perinatal period, the young child and adolescent, the epidemics of chronic diseases and violence and the linkage between health and tourism. The lessons learnt over more than two decades of practice in the field of public health from conducting research aimed at developing an indigenous evidence base for policies and programmes in Jamaica are summarized. PMID:19580237

  8. Trend report Energy Research Subsidy programme (2005-2008). A report on the most important trends and effects since the start of the Energy Research Subsidy (EOS) programme

    In 2005 the Energy Research Subsidy programme (EOS) was launched in the Netherlands. In four years' time about 500 projects were realized thanks to contributions from EOS. This report provides an overview of the main trends and effects of EOS in the period 2005-2008. One of the main conclusions is that a number of technologies have developed from invention level to market-ready level thanks to the EOS programme. The main trends since the start of EOS are: Increasing confidence of investors in EOS spearheads; increasing activity in EOS spearheads; Spearheads shifting to investment and exploitation schemes; EOS contributes to a solid patent position of Dutch parties; EOS contributes to European research.

  9. The research and development programme CPBR 5.10 Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection in 1988 - 1990

    A few years research programme in the scope of nuclear safety and radiation protection has been completed in the last year. The programme was coordinated by National Inspectorate for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. Different research subjects were carried out by many scientific and research centers. Author is a head of Research and Development Team at the National Inspectorate for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. The article presents the most important principles and results of the programme. (author)

  10. Discussion forum for researchers in nuclear geology. Programme and abstracts

    The Atomic Energy Corporation of SA Ltd (AEC) sponsors research in nuclear geology at several South African universities with a view to delineating target areas for uranium prospecting by mining companies. In order to ensure the efficient co-ordination of this research an annual meeting is held where sponsored researchers and other organizations report on their progress during the year. This ensures valuable cross-pollination of ideas, and an input from the mining industry is gained as to which direction future research should take. The results of the researchers reported on at these meetings is not necessarily complete and the abstracts in this volume should therefore not be regarded as conclusive. In this discussion forum uranium in granites and uranium in sedimentory deposits are covered. The geochemical anomalies of uranium as well as the geohydrology and its application in defining uranium are also discussed

  11. Highlights of the UKAEA Underlying Research Programme: April 1988-March 1989

    Investment in fundamental research is essential to the success of any organisation whose business is the selling of research and development and the services relating to it. The resulting scientific and technical excellence is the hall-mark of a major contract research and development organisation and its main product. Fundamental research in the AEA is co-ordinated through the Underlying Research Programme. The Programme has to keep closely in touch with all the applied projects, in order to identify within these the problems that are hindering progress and might therefore benefit from further investigation. It also has the responsibility for developing new skills and techniques across the AEA. This brochure highlights some of the projects undertaken as part of the Underlying Research Programme. The Programme is organised into fifteen different areas of research, with the research projects not obviously fitting into any of these areas having a separate section to themselves. The text introduces each of these areas in turn, and then describes two or three examples of the sort of work undertaken within it. The areas are radiation effects, fracture studies, chemical effects at surfaces, surface physics and corrosion, fluid mechanics and heat transfer, nuclear studies, neutron beam studies, theoretical sciences, instrumentation, reactor physics and control, fabrication processes, laser isotope separation, nuclear fuel cycle studies, quantum electronics and radiological protection. (author)

  12. Ecological, Social and Economic Evaluation of Transport Scenarios: An Integral Approach. A Phd research programme

    Geurs KT; LAE

    2000-01-01

    This report describes a research programme for the development of a methodology for the integral assessment of ecological, economic and social impacts of transport scenarios. The following research activities are planned: (1) a literature study on theories and conceptual models, explaining the funct

  13. What Can the Work of Habermas Offer Educational Researcher Development Programmes?

    Garland, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although certain aspects of the work of Habermas have had much influence on emancipatory and action research, this article draws on a wider range of his thinking in order to explore how his ideas can inform the content and process of educational researcher development programmes. Habermas's theory of communicative action, his discourse ethics…

  14. Reconciling collaborative action research with existing institutions: insights from Dutch and German climate knowledge programmes

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Buuren, van A.; Knieling, J.; Gottschick, M.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers increasingly aim to set up collaborative research programmes to address the challenges of adaptation to climate change. This does not only apply for technical knowledge, but for governance knowledge also. Both the Netherlands and Germany have set up large scale collabora

  15. Consideration of BORAX-type reactivity accidents applied to research reactors

    Most of the research reactors discussed in this document are pool-type reactors in which the reactor vessel and some of the reactor coolant systems are located in a pool of water. These reactors generally use fuel in plate assemblies formed by a compact layer of uranium (or U3Si2) and aluminium particles, sandwiched between two thin layers of aluminium serving as cladding. The fuel melting process begins at 660 deg. C when the aluminium melts, while the uranium (or U3Si2) particles may remain solid. The accident that occurred in the American SL-1 reactor in 1961, together with tests carried out in the United States as of 1954 in the BORAX-1 reactor and then, in 1962, in the SPERT-1 reactor, showed that a sudden substantial addition of reactivity in this type of reactor could lead to explosive mechanisms caused by degradation, or even fast meltdown, of part of the reactor core. This is what is known as a 'BORAX-type' accident. The aim of this document is first to briefly recall the circumstances of the SL-1 reactor accident, the lessons learned, how this operational feedback has been factored into the design of various research reactors around the world and, second, to describe the approach taken by France with regard to this type of accident and how, led by IRSN, this approach has evolved in the last decade. (authors)

  16. EURATOM research and training programme: towards a new way of developing-teaching science, closer to the end-users

    EURATOM is not isolated in the European Energy policy. Nuclear fission is part of the European energy mix, together with renewable energy sources (Article 194 of Lisbon Treaty, 2007).Research, innovation and education are at the heart of the EURATOM Treaty 1 (Rome, 1957), dedicated to peaceful applications of nuclear fission. One of the main objectives of the EURATOM Treaty is to contribute to the sustainability of nuclear energy by developing and sharing appropriate knowledge, skills and proficiencies in nuclear fission and radiation protection. EURATOM programmes 2 consist in end-user driven projects in selected topics, gathering the best research organisations and structured as follows: -) research and innovation projects which contribute to generating advanced knowledge and scientific understanding of interest to industrial applications, -) education and training projects, including continuous professional development, which contribute to developing skills and proficiencies. Fission technologies can be transmitted to the next generations only within the framework of a responsible strategy regarding waste management and/or recycling of fissile and fertile materials. In this context, EURATOM research and training programmes insist, in particular, on the implementation of geological disposal for spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and/or on Generation-IV developments aiming at efficient resource utilisation and waste minimisation. Safety improvements in Generation-II (e.g. related to long-term operation) and in Generation-III (e.g. related to severe accident management) are also addressed. As regards radiation protection research, the emphasis of EURATOM programmes is on better quantification of risks at low dose and how they vary between individuals (of particular interest in radio-diagnosis and radio-therapy). Special efforts are dedicated to a common nuclear safety and radiation protection culture, based on the highest achievable standards. Also

  17. Publicly administrated nuclear waste management research programme 1994-1996. Final report

    The main objective of the JYT-programme has been to provide the authorities with independent information and research results relevant for the safety of nuclear waste management. The main emphasis in this research programme has been devoted to the final disposal of spent fuel. The whole area of the research programme has been subdivided into following main topic areas: (1) bedrock structure and stability, rock investigation methods and characteristics and flow of ground water, (2) release of radionuclides from a repository and subsequent transport in the bedrock, (3) performance and safety assessment of repositories and other phases of nuclear waste management, (4) natural analogue studies, (5) waste management technology and costs and (6) socio political and other societal issues and environmental impact assessment

  18. Publicly administrated nuclear waste management research programme 1994-1996. Final report

    Vuori, S. [ed.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-09-01

    The main objective of the JYT-programme has been to provide the authorities with independent information and research results relevant for the safety of nuclear waste management. The main emphasis in this research programme has been devoted to the final disposal of spent fuel. The whole area of the research programme has been subdivided into following main topic areas: (1) bedrock structure and stability, rock investigation methods and characteristics and flow of ground water, (2) release of radionuclides from a repository and subsequent transport in the bedrock, (3) performance and safety assessment of repositories and other phases of nuclear waste management, (4) natural analogue studies, (5) waste management technology and costs and (6) socio political and other societal issues and environmental impact assessment.

  19. EDISON - research programme on electric distribution automation 1993-1997. Final report 1997

    Lehtonen, M. [ed.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-08-01

    This report comprises a summary of the results of the five year research programme EDISON on distribution automation in Finnish utilities. The research programme (1993 - 1997) was conducted under the leadership of VTT Energy, in cooperation with universities, distribution companies and the manufacturing industry. The main part of the funding has been from the Technology Development Centre TEKES and from manufacturing companies. The goal of the research programme was to develop a new scheme for a complete distribution automation system, including the network automation, computer systems in the control centre and the customer associated automation functions. In addition, the techniques for demand side management were developed and integrated into the automation scheme. The final aim was to demonstrate the automation functions and systems of the scheme in real distribution systems. The results of nineteen projects are given in this report

  20. EDISON - research programme on electricity distribution automation 1993-1997. Interim report 1996

    Lehtonen, M. [ed.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The report comprises a summary of the results of the first four years of the research programme EDISON on distribution automation in Finnish utilities. The five year research programme (1993-1997) is conducted under the leadership of VTT Energy, in cooperation with universities, distribution companies and the manufacturing industry. The main part of the funding is from the Technology Development Centre TEKES and from manufacturing companies. The goal of the research programme is to develop a new scheme for a complete distribution automation system, including the network automation, computer systems in the control centre and the customer associated automation functions. In addition, the techniques for demand side management are developed and integrated into the automation scheme. The final aim is to demonstrate the automation functions and systems of the scheme in real distribution systems. The results of fifteen projects are now given. These results should be considered intermediate, since most projects will be continued in 1997. (orig.) 43 refs.

  1. EDISON - research programme on electricity distribution automation 1993-1997. Interim report 1995

    Lehtonen, M. [ed.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1996-12-31

    The report comprises a summary of the results of the first three years of the research programme EDISON on distribution automation in Finnish electrical utilities. The five year research programme (1993-1997) is conducted under the leadership of VTT Energy, in cooperation with universities, distribution companies and the manufacturing industry. The main part of funding is from the Technology Development Centre (Tekes) and from manufacturing companies. The goal of the research programme is to develop a new scheme for a complete distribution automation system, including the network automation, computer systems in the control centre and the customer automation functions. In addition, the techniques for demand side management are developed and integrated into the automation scheme. The final aim is to demonstrate the automation functions and systems of the scheme in real distribution systems. The results of thirteen projects are now given. These results should be considered intermediate, since most projects will be continued in 1996. (orig.)

  2. The Nirex safety assessment research programme: annual report for 1985/86

    The report describes progress of the Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme in 1985/86. In addition, some background information is given on the overall programme and on the individual research projects, and likely future work is outlined. Research into the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and intermediate-level waste (ILW) into underground repositories and onto the sea bed is reported. A large part of the programme is concerned with the effectiveness of near-field barriers to water-borne leakage of radionuclides from cementitious repositories. Considerable progress has been made with quantifying the longevity of steel containers and concrete structures, and the effectiveness of chemical constraints in limiting near-field concentrations. A range of techniques for measuring and modelling far-field phenomena has been developed and tested. Some initial studies have been performed to assess the durability of sea disposal packages and the behaviour of polythene in sea water. (author)

  3. The Swedish fusion research programme on magnetic confinement 1978

    A review is given on the activities and plans for research on plasma physics and controlled fusion at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, with descriptions and motivations of the research lines being conducted. These activities include investigations on plasma-neutral gas interaction, development of special principles for plasma stabilization, magnetic confinement schemes being based mainly on poloidal fields, as well as the generation, heating, and diagnostics of plasmas being ''impermeable'' to neutral gas. (author)

  4. Industry-directed training and research programmes: the BMI experience

    De Jongh, Pieter J.; Erasmus, Cornelius M.

    2014-01-01

    Universities are academic institutions with the primary objectives of teaching students a particular academic discipline and for conducting research related to that discipline. Traditionally, very little collaboration existed between universities and industry with respect to training and research in the mathematical sciences. Because of funding pressure, more and more universities are forced to find external sources of income. In this paper, we discuss a framework for designing an...

  5. Advanced energy systems and technologies research in Finland. NEMO-2 Programme Annual Report 1996-1997

    Advanced energy technologies were linked to the national energy research in the beginning of 1988 when energy research was reorganised in Finland. The Ministry of Trade and Industry established several energy research programmes and NEMO was one of them. Major objectives of the programme were to assess the potential of new energy systems for the national energy supply system and to promote industrial activities. Within the NEMO 2 programme for the years 1993-1998, research was focused on a few promising technological solutions. In the beginning of 1995, the national energy research activities were passed on to the Technology Development Centre TEKES. The NEMO 2 programme is directed towards those areas that have particular potential for commercial exploitation or development. Emphasis is placed particularly on solar and wind energy, as well as supporting technologies, such as energy storage and hydrogen technology. Resources have been focused on three specific areas: arctic wind technology, wind turbine components, and the integration of solar energy into applications (including thin film solar cells). In Finland, the growth of the new energy technology industry is concentrated on these areas. The turnover of the Finnish industry has been growing considerably due to the national research activities and support of technology development. The sales have increased more than 10 times compared with the year 1987 and is now over 300 million FIM. The support to industries and their involvement in the program has grown considerably. In this report, the essential research projects of the programme during 1996-1997 are described. The total funding for these projects was about 30 million FIM per year, of which the TEKES's share was about 40 per cent. The programme consists of 10 research projects, some 15 joint development projects, and 9 EU projects. In case the research projects and joint development projects are acting very closely, the description of the project is

  6. Advanced energy systems and technologies research in Finland. NEMO-2 Programme Annual Report 1996-1997

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    Advanced energy technologies were linked to the national energy research in the beginning of 1988 when energy research was reorganised in Finland. The Ministry of Trade and Industry established several energy research programmes and NEMO was one of them. Major objectives of the programme were to assess the potential of new energy systems for the national energy supply system and to promote industrial activities. Within the NEMO 2 programme for the years 1993-1998, research was focused on a few promising technological solutions. In the beginning of 1995, the national energy research activities were passed on to the Technology Development Centre TEKES. The NEMO 2 programme is directed towards those areas that have particular potential for commercial exploitation or development. Emphasis is placed particularly on solar and wind energy, as well as supporting technologies, such as energy storage and hydrogen technology. Resources have been focused on three specific areas: arctic wind technology, wind turbine components, and the integration of solar energy into applications (including thin film solar cells). In Finland, the growth of the new energy technology industry is concentrated on these areas. The turnover of the Finnish industry has been growing considerably due to the national research activities and support of technology development. The sales have increased more than 10 times compared with the year 1987 and is now over 300 million FIM. The support to industries and their involvement in the program has grown considerably. In this report, the essential research projects of the programme during 1996-1997 are described. The total funding for these projects was about 30 million FIM per year, of which the TEKES`s share was about 40 per cent. The programme consists of 10 research projects, some 15 joint development projects, and 9 EU projects. In case the research projects and joint development projects are acting very closely, the description of the project is

  7. Recent advances in the source term area within the SARNET European severe accident research network

    Herranz, L.E., E-mail: luisen.herranz@ciemat.es [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medio Ambientales y Tecnologica, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Haste, T. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Kärkelä, T. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT Espoo (Finland)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Main achievements of source term research in SARNET are given. • Emphasis on the radiologically important iodine and ruthenium fission products. • Conclusions on FP release, transport in the RCS and containment behaviour. • Significance of large-scale integral experiments to validate the analyses used. • A thorough list of the most recent references on source term research results. - Abstract: Source Term has been one of the main research areas addressed within the SARNET network during the 7th EC Framework Programme of EURATOM. The entire source term domain was split into three major areas: oxidising impact on source term, iodine chemistry in the reactor coolant system and containment and data and code assessment. The present paper synthesises the main technical outcome stemming from the SARNET FWP7 project in the area of source term and includes an extensive list of references in which deeper insights on specific issues may be found. Besides, based on the analysis of the current state of the art, an outlook of future source term research is outlined, where major changes in research environment are discussed (i.e., the end of the Phébus FP project; the end of the SARNET projects; and the launch of HORIZON 2020). Most probably research projects will be streamlined towards: release and transport under oxidising conditions, containment chemistry, existing and innovative filtered venting systems and others. These will be in addition to a number of projects that have been completed or are ongoing under different national and international frameworks, like VERDON, CHIP and EPICUR started under the International Source Term Programme (ISTP), the OECD/CSNI programmes BIP, BIP2, STEM, THAI and THAI2, and the French national programme MIRE. The experimental PASSAM project under the 7th EC Framework programme, focused on source term mitigation systems, is highlighted as a good example of a project addressing potential enhancement of safety systems

  8. Recent advances in the source term area within the SARNET European severe accident research network

    Highlights: • Main achievements of source term research in SARNET are given. • Emphasis on the radiologically important iodine and ruthenium fission products. • Conclusions on FP release, transport in the RCS and containment behaviour. • Significance of large-scale integral experiments to validate the analyses used. • A thorough list of the most recent references on source term research results. - Abstract: Source Term has been one of the main research areas addressed within the SARNET network during the 7th EC Framework Programme of EURATOM. The entire source term domain was split into three major areas: oxidising impact on source term, iodine chemistry in the reactor coolant system and containment and data and code assessment. The present paper synthesises the main technical outcome stemming from the SARNET FWP7 project in the area of source term and includes an extensive list of references in which deeper insights on specific issues may be found. Besides, based on the analysis of the current state of the art, an outlook of future source term research is outlined, where major changes in research environment are discussed (i.e., the end of the Phébus FP project; the end of the SARNET projects; and the launch of HORIZON 2020). Most probably research projects will be streamlined towards: release and transport under oxidising conditions, containment chemistry, existing and innovative filtered venting systems and others. These will be in addition to a number of projects that have been completed or are ongoing under different national and international frameworks, like VERDON, CHIP and EPICUR started under the International Source Term Programme (ISTP), the OECD/CSNI programmes BIP, BIP2, STEM, THAI and THAI2, and the French national programme MIRE. The experimental PASSAM project under the 7th EC Framework programme, focused on source term mitigation systems, is highlighted as a good example of a project addressing potential enhancement of safety systems

  9. Evaluation of the high-temperature materials programme of the Joint Research Centre (1980-85)

    This report covers the findings of the external panel of experts set up to evaluate the results of the Community's programme in the field of high-temperature materials (1980-85), carried out at the Petten establishment of the Joint Research Centre. The evaluation covers the quality and relevance of the research, the usefulness of the results and the role played by the JRC in this field at the European level. The report describes and gives comments on the content, structure and management of the five projects constituting the current programme, outlines the methods and procedures used during the evaluation and gives a number of recommendations pertinent to future activities

  10. IAEA co-ordinated research programme on 'assuring structural integrity of reactor pressure vessels'

    This co-ordinated research programme (CRP) is a logical continuation of previous three phases of the programme 'Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels'. This new programme started in 1996 and 25 organisations from 18 countries take part in it. While the previous phases were concentrated mostly on radiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels and effects of different parameters, this new programme is concentrated, in principle, on application of fracture mechanics approach to evaluation of RPV steel damage. The main objective of the CRP is to develop and validate a procedure for fracture toughness testing small specimens applicable for surveillance programmes which could be used internationally. These fracture toughness data will support a more precise evaluation of the condition of nuclear power RPVs in the process of assessment of their structural integrity. For this purpose, a 'master curve' approach has been chosen and is now being validated for unirradiated as well as irradiated conditions. Principal investigation is carried out on the IAEA reference steel' JRQ (of ASTM A 533-B type), additionally, one steel of domestic production should be also included by each participant. Paper describes this programme as well as preliminary results obtained. (author)

  11. Perspectives for food research and European collaboration in the European Research Area and the new Framework Programme.

    Breslin, L

    2001-08-01

    Since 1987, successive framework programmes have contributed to strengthen European food research through the establishment of networks between research institutions, universities and companies from various European countries. In the FAIR programme (1994-1998), 118 research projects comprising nearly 1,000 participants from the European Union and Associated States have been supported in the food area with a European funding of about [symbol: see text] 108 million. Within the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources programme (1998-2002), food research is mostly supported within the key action 'food, nutrition and health' with a budget of [symbol: see text] 290 million. After the first four deadlines, 735 eligible research proposals have already been received. Further to their evaluation by a panel of independent experts, 108 proposals have been funded or selected for funding representing a total contribution of about [symbol: see text] 168 million. Among those, several clusters of projects are now running on important topics such as probiotics, coeliac diseases, mycotoxins, GMO, safety and food for the elderly. In addition, technology stimulation measures are largely benefiting SMEs to foster their innovation potential. In January 2000, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "Towards the European Research Area (ERA)" with the objective to contribute to developing better framework conditions for research in Europe. On 21 February 2001, the Commission adopted proposals to be submitted to the European Parliament and Council for the next framework programme for research and innovation (2002-2006). The new framework programme that is becoming one of the financial instruments of the ERA aims at catalysing the integration of European research by: strengthening of links between the Community research effort and national and regional research policies; concentrating on a limited number of priority fields or research to which activities at the

  12. GSI research and development programme 1983-85

    In this report the research program of the GSI Darmstadt is described. This program concerns heavy ion reactions, atomic collisions with heavy ions, and applications of heavy ion beams in other fields of science. Furthermore the future development of accelerators and detection methods is described. (HSI)

  13. HOW TO USE ACTION RESEARCH IN TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAMMES

    KÖPRÜLÜ, Özlem

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on action research study which was conducted with the third class students of English Language Teaching Department ,which was completed in four weeks.The aim was to introduce action research to teachers-in-preparation and encourage them to use it after their graduation to help them to become reflective teachers..Before this action research began,teachers-in-preparation had been tutoring for five weeks.In the first week of the action research study,in the classroom, students tried to find common teaching problems they had while tutoring and they used data collection techniques such as video-taping and peer observation, and in the second week they shared what they had learned about their problems and what their action plans were.In later weeks they shared the results of their the action plans and how successful their plans were.It was hoped that teachers-in-preparation would become more flexible in their thinking,be more open to new ideas and would learn to develop professional autonomy.

  14. The community's research and development programme on decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Third annual progress report (year 1982)

    This is the third progress report of the European Community's programme (1979-83) of research on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. It covers the year 1982 and follows the 1980 and 1981 reports (EUR 7440, EUR 8343). Since 1982 was a very active year of research under the programme, this report contains a large amount of results. Besides, the work programmes of some additional research contracts, awarded through 1982, are described

  15. Recent severe accident research synthesis of the major outcomes from the SARNET network

    Van Dorsselaere, J.-P., E-mail: jean-pierre.van-dorsselaere@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Auvinen, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre, Espoo (Finland); Beraha, D. [Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Köln (Germany); Chatelard, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Herranz, L.E. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas MedioAmbientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Journeau, C. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Paris (France); Klein-Hessling, W. [Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Köln (Germany); Kljenak, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Miassoedov, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Paci, S. [University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Zeyen, R. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy (JRC/IET), Petten (Netherlands)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • SARNET network of excellence integration mid-2013 in the NUGENIA Association. • Progress of knowledge on corium behaviour, hydrogen explosion and source term. • Further development of ASTEC integral code to capitalize knowledge. • Ranking of next R&D high priority issues accounting for international research. • Dissemination of knowledge through education courses and ERMSAR conferences. - Abstract: The SARNET network (Severe Accident Research NETwork of excellence), co-funded by the European Commission from 2004 to 2013, has allowed to significantly improve the knowledge on severe accidents and to disseminate it through courses and ERMSAR conferences. The major investigated topics, involving more than 250 researchers from 22 countries, were in- and ex-vessel corium/debris coolability, molten-core–concrete-interaction, steam explosion, hydrogen combustion and mitigation in containment, impact of oxidising conditions on source term, and iodine chemistry. The ranking of the high priority issues was updated to account for the results of recent international research and for the impact of Fukushima nuclear accidents in Japan. In addition, the ASTEC integral code was further developed to capitalize the new knowledge. The network has reached self-sustainability by integration in mid-2013 into the NUGENIA Association. The main activities and outcomes of the network are presented.

  16. Recent severe accident research synthesis of the major outcomes from the SARNET network

    Highlights: • SARNET network of excellence integration mid-2013 in the NUGENIA Association. • Progress of knowledge on corium behaviour, hydrogen explosion and source term. • Further development of ASTEC integral code to capitalize knowledge. • Ranking of next R&D high priority issues accounting for international research. • Dissemination of knowledge through education courses and ERMSAR conferences. - Abstract: The SARNET network (Severe Accident Research NETwork of excellence), co-funded by the European Commission from 2004 to 2013, has allowed to significantly improve the knowledge on severe accidents and to disseminate it through courses and ERMSAR conferences. The major investigated topics, involving more than 250 researchers from 22 countries, were in- and ex-vessel corium/debris coolability, molten-core–concrete-interaction, steam explosion, hydrogen combustion and mitigation in containment, impact of oxidising conditions on source term, and iodine chemistry. The ranking of the high priority issues was updated to account for the results of recent international research and for the impact of Fukushima nuclear accidents in Japan. In addition, the ASTEC integral code was further developed to capitalize the new knowledge. The network has reached self-sustainability by integration in mid-2013 into the NUGENIA Association. The main activities and outcomes of the network are presented

  17. Dosimetric support of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) pilot project: main results and problems.

    Likhtarev, I A; Kovgan, L N; Repin, V S; Los', I P; Chumak, V V; Novak, D N; Sobolev, B G; Kairo, I A; Chepurnoy, N I; Perevosnikov, O N; Litvinets, L A

    1996-01-01

    The problem of post-Chernobyl dosimetry is unique in its complexity in the history of radiation medicine and radiation protection. This is because the early experience of mass exposure of people (bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Windscale and South-Ural accidents, exposure of inhabitants of Nevada in the United States of America, the Semipalatinsk area in the former USSR, the Marshall Islands, and the Goiånia accident in Brazil, and others) differed both in the much simpler structure of the irradiation source and in the number and characteristics of exposed persons. It is obvious that post-Chernobyl dosimetry, both as an independent problem, and as a tool for epidemiological studies, requires significant expertise and economic and technical expenditures. Extensive and deep research has been carried out in Ukraine for the past 10 years. This article reviews the main results of these studies. PMID:8896257

  18. Regulatory Research of the PWR Severe Accident. Information Needs and Instrumentation for Hydrogen Control and Management

    Park, Gun Chul; Suh, Kune Y.; Lee, Jin Yong; Lee, Seung Dong [Seoul Nat' l Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    The current research is concerned with generation of basic engineering data needed in the process of developing hydrogen control guidelines as part of accident management strategies for domestic nuclear power plants and formulating pertinent regulatory requirements. Major focus is placed on identification of information needs and instrumentation methods for hydrogen control and management in the primary system and in the containment, development of decision-making trees for hydrogen management and their quantification, the instrument availability under severe accident conditions, critical review of relevant hydrogen generation model and phenomena In relation to hydrogen behavior, we analyzed the severe accident related hydrogen generation in the UCN 3{center_dot}4 PWR with modified hydrogen generation model. On the basis of the hydrogen mixing experiment and related GASFLOW calculation, the necessity of 3-dimensional analysis of the hydrogen mixing was investigated. We examined the hydrogen control models related to the PAR(Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner) and performed MAAP4 calculation in relation to the decision tree to estimate the capability and the role of the PAR during a severe accident.

  19. Regulatory Research of the PWR Severe Accident. Information Needs and Instrumentation for Hydrogen Control and Management

    The current research is concerned with generation of basic engineering data needed in the process of developing hydrogen control guidelines as part of accident management strategies for domestic nuclear power plants and formulating pertinent regulatory requirements. Major focus is placed on identification of information needs and instrumentation methods for hydrogen control and management in the primary system and in the containment, development of decision-making trees for hydrogen management and their quantification, the instrument availability under severe accident conditions, critical review of relevant hydrogen generation model and phenomena In relation to hydrogen behavior, we analyzed the severe accident related hydrogen generation in the UCN 3·4 PWR with modified hydrogen generation model. On the basis of the hydrogen mixing experiment and related GASFLOW calculation, the necessity of 3-dimensional analysis of the hydrogen mixing was investigated. We examined the hydrogen control models related to the PAR(Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner) and performed MAAP4 calculation in relation to the decision tree to estimate the capability and the role of the PAR during a severe accident

  20. Analysis of loss of flow accident at Pakistan research reactor-1

    Bokhari, I.H. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)]. E-mail: ishtiaq@pinstech.org.pk; Mahmood, T. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2005-12-15

    The main objective of the reactor safety is to keep the reactor core in a condition, which does not permit any release of radioactivity into the environment. In order to ensure this, the reactor must have sufficient safety margins during all possible operational conditions (normal as well as accidental). To accomplish this, a study has been carried out, for the analysis of loss of flow accident (LOFA), which is one of the probable scenarios among other possible events such as reactivity-induced-accidents, loss of coolant accident, etc. The study has been carried out for Pakistan research reactor, PARR-1, which was initially converted from HEU to LEU fuel. It is a swimming pool type reactor using MTR type fuel. Presently, a new core is proposed to be assembled containing LEU and some of the used (less burnt) HEU fuel elements. The accident is assumed when the reactor is running at a steady-state power level of 9.8 MW. Computer code PARET and standard correlations were employed to compute various parameters. Results predict nucleate boiling in the core but the temperatures would remain far below the fuel clad melting point.

  1. Analysis of loss of flow accident at Pakistan research reactor-1

    The main objective of the reactor safety is to keep the reactor core in a condition, which does not permit any release of radioactivity into the environment. In order to ensure this, the reactor must have sufficient safety margins during all possible operational conditions (normal as well as accidental). To accomplish this, a study has been carried out, for the analysis of loss of flow accident (LOFA), which is one of the probable scenarios among other possible events such as reactivity-induced-accidents, loss of coolant accident, etc. The study has been carried out for Pakistan research reactor, PARR-1, which was initially converted from HEU to LEU fuel. It is a swimming pool type reactor using MTR type fuel. Presently, a new core is proposed to be assembled containing LEU and some of the used (less burnt) HEU fuel elements. The accident is assumed when the reactor is running at a steady-state power level of 9.8 MW. Computer code PARET and standard correlations were employed to compute various parameters. Results predict nucleate boiling in the core but the temperatures would remain far below the fuel clad melting point

  2. Research on the improvement of nuclear safety -The development of a severe accident analysis code-

    For prevention and mitigation of the containment failure during severe accident, the study is focused on the severe accident phenomena, especially, the ones occurring inside the cavity and is intended to improve existing models and develop analytical tools for the assessment of severe accidents. A correlation equation of the flame velocity of pre mixture gas of H2/air/steam has been suggested and combustion flame characteristic was analyzed using a developed computer code. For the analysis of the expansion phase of vapor explosion, the mechanical model has been developed. The development of a debris entrainment model in a reactor cavity with captured volume has been continued to review and examine the limitation and deficiencies of the existing models. Pre-test calculation was performed to support the severe accident experiment for molten corium concrete interaction study and the crust formation process and heat transfer characteristics of the crust have been carried out. A stress analysis code was developed using finite element method for the reactor vessel lower head failure analysis. Through international program of PHEBUS-FP and participation in the software development, the research on the core degradation process and fission products release and transportation are undergoing. CONTAIN and MELCOR codes were continuously updated under the cooperation with USNRC and French developed computer codes such as ICARE2, ESCADRE, SOPHAEROS were also installed into the SUN workstation. 204 figs, 61 tabs, 87 refs. (Author)

  3. Research on the improvement of nuclear safety -The development of a severe accident analysis code-

    Kim, Heui Dong; Cho, Sung Won; Park, Jong Hwa; Hong, Sung Wan; Yoo, Dong Han; Hwang, Moon Kyoo; Noh, Kee Man; Song, Yong Man [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    For prevention and mitigation of the containment failure during severe accident, the study is focused on the severe accident phenomena, especially, the ones occurring inside the cavity and is intended to improve existing models and develop analytical tools for the assessment of severe accidents. A correlation equation of the flame velocity of pre mixture gas of H{sub 2}/air/steam has been suggested and combustion flame characteristic was analyzed using a developed computer code. For the analysis of the expansion phase of vapor explosion, the mechanical model has been developed. The development of a debris entrainment model in a reactor cavity with captured volume has been continued to review and examine the limitation and deficiencies of the existing models. Pre-test calculation was performed to support the severe accident experiment for molten corium concrete interaction study and the crust formation process and heat transfer characteristics of the crust have been carried out. A stress analysis code was developed using finite element method for the reactor vessel lower head failure analysis. Through international program of PHEBUS-FP and participation in the software development, the research on the core degradation process and fission products release and transportation are undergoing. CONTAIN and MELCOR codes were continuously updated under the cooperation with USNRC and French developed computer codes such as ICARE2, ESCADRE, SOPHAEROS were also installed into the SUN workstation. 204 figs, 61 tabs, 87 refs. (Author).

  4. Co-ordinated research programme on applications of stable isotope tracers in human nutrition research

    This Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) was formally established by the Agency in October 1988, and has since then expanded to encompass 13 participants in 13 countries. Its general objective is to help establish competence in the use of stable isotope techniques, particularly in developing countries, and particularly with reference to applications of 2H, 13C, 15N, and 18O. This report summarizes the discussions that took place during the first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM). Working papers (progress reports) presented by the participants are included as annexes together with a preliminary report on the results of a series of intercomparison exercises involving enriched stable isotope reference materials containing 2H, 13C, 15N and 18O. For the future it was agreed that more work needs to be done to harmonize the analytical techniques being used, and to obtain support for new CRPs relating to human energy expenditure studies in pregnancy, lactation, growth and other conditions, and to studies of nitrogen turnover in relation to malnutrition and liver function. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Civilising globalism: Transnational norm-building networks. A research programme

    Mückenberger, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Decentralised, self-organised cross-border activities are increasingly shaping global policymaking. While state actors have lost ground, policy and economic networks have emerged as key actors, transforming international relations as well as national spheres. Academic discourse is following their activity, often focusing on 'advocacy networks' and on the role of transnational actors within the transformation of the world economy and world polity. In contrast to these research activities, the ...

  6. EMpower: Environmental Masters Programme of Work Experience through Research

    Parry, Susan J.; Jarvis, Kym E.

    2009-08-01

    The EMpower scheme aims to give environmental and earth science masters students who would not necessarily consider employment in the industry exposure to the nuclear sector through research project placements and other activities such as lecture days, visits and networking opportunities. It brings together students, academics, the nuclear industry and environmental agencies through its activities. The initiative is supported by the nuclear regulator, the environment agency and key players in the UK nuclear industry.

  7. Evaluating research efficiency within National R&D Programmes

    Jiménez-Sáez, Fernando; Zabala Iturriagagoitia, Jon Mikel; Zofio, Jose L.; Castro-Martínez, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Relying on efficiency analysis, we evaluate to what extent policy makers have been able to promote the establishment of consolidated and comprehensive research groups to contribute to the implementation of a successful innovation system for the Spanish food technology sector, oriented to the production of knowledge based on an application model. Using data envelopment analysis techniques that allow calculation of a generalized version of the traditional distance function model for productive ...

  8. Korean underground research facility (KURF) and its utilization programme

    Hahn, Pil-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-01

    This report is for developing a research plan for the validation of the Korean disposal system utilizing an underground research facility. During the development of the plan, the schedule of long term R and D program as well as the presumable commercialization time schedule was considered. As the main outputs from the ongoing high-level waste disposal study for 10 years, KAERI will present a Korean reference disposal system as well as the results of the performance safety of the disposal concept. In order to apply the Korean disposal system to the commercial project in the future, in situ validation of the system is a premise. For the validation of the system, the construction of a Korean Underground Research Facility(KURF) is essential. The KURF has the following goals: understanding the inherent underground geological conditions in Korea; verification of the influence of buffer material on the life time of waste canisters and on the groundwater flow; development of the techniques related to the operation of the disposal system; and the validation of performance assessment.

  9. RATU - Nuclear power plant structural safety research programme

    Studies on the structural materials in nuclear power plants create the experimental data and background information necessary for the structural integrity assessments of mechanical components. The research is carried out by developing experimental fracture mechanics methods including statistical analysis methods of materials property data, and by studying material ageing and, in particular, mechanisms of material deterioration due to neutron irradiation, corrosion and water chemistry. Besides material studies, new testing methods and sensors for measurement of loading and water chemistry parameters have been developed. The monitoring data obtained in real power plants has been used to simulate more precisely the real environment during laboratory tests. The research on structural analysis has focused on extending and verifying the analysis capabilities for structural assessments of nuclear power plants. A widely applicable system including various computational fracture assessment methods has been created with which different structural problems can be solved reliably and effectively. Research on reliability assessment of maintenance in nuclear power plants is directed to practical case studies on components and structures of safety importance, and to the development of models for maintenance related decision support. A systematic analysis of motor-operated valve has been performed

  10. The Communities' research and development programme on decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    This is the first progress report of the European Community's programme (1979-1983) of research on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. It shows the status of the programme on 31 December 1980. The programme seeks to promote a number of research and development projects as well as the identification of guiding principles. The projects concern the following subjects: long-term integrity of buildings and systems; decontamination for decommissioning purposes; dismantling techniques; treatment of specific waste materials: steel, concrete and graphite; large transport containers for radioactive was produced in the dismantling of nuclear power plants; estimation of the quantities of radioactive wastes arising from decommissioning of nuclear power plants in the Community; influence of nuclear power plant design features on decommissioning

  11. Food allergy - science and policy needs - The UK Food Standards Agency Research Programme

    Food allergy is a significant health issue in the UK, affecting between 1 and 2% of adults and 5 and 8% of children. The UK Food Standards Agency seeks to ensure the safety of food allergic consumers by providing them with information and guidance on food choices. Since 1995, with the aim of addressing important policy issues and improving the quality of the support and guidance available for food allergic consumers, the Agency (and before that the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food), has had a programme of research dedicated to investigating the causes and mechanisms of food allergy and delivering benefits for UK consumers. In this paper, we outline some of the major scientific challenges that the programme has sought to address. We reflect on how the findings have been used as a basis for the development of sound, evidence-based policy and advice for UK consumers, and the current direction of research being supported by the programme.

  12. Energy research 1998. The programme leaders` status reports; Energie-Forschung 1998. Recherche energetique 1998. Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter. Rapport de synthese des chefs de programme

    Voirol, C. [ed.; Dubal, L. [ed.

    1999-03-01

    This report is a collection of the annual reports written by the 20 energy research programme leaders of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy about their activities in 1998. There is also a report of the Energy Research Coordinator reviewing the progress achieved in 1998. Finally, the organisation of the Swiss energy research is shortly presented, and useful addresses are given

  13. An assessment of the radiological consequences of accidents in research reactors

    This work analyses the radiological consequences of accidents in two types of research reactors: a 5 MWt open pool reactor and a 50 MWt PWR reactor. Two siting cases have been considered: the reactor located near to a large population center and sited in a rural area. The influence of several factors such as source term, meteorological conditions and population distribution have been considered in the present analysis. (author)

  14. The radiation risks of the accident spectrum of the Greek research reactor

    The Greek Research Reactor is a 5MW swimming pool type reactor located within Athens area, a large population center of 3081000 inhabitants. The consequence analysis of the reactor focuses on the risks stemming from reactivity, coolant flow blockage, and loss of coolant accidents. Individual doses are estimated to a distance of 20km from the reactor site. Collective exposure and latent health effects for the inhabitants of the region are also calculated. (author)

  15. Environmental impact of Pakistan Research Reactor-2 following a hypothetical radiological release accident

    The environmental impact of Pakistan Research Reactor-2 (PARR-2) following a hypothetical accident is presented. It is shown that with 100% core meltdown and multiple failures, PARR-2 does not pose any catastrophic consequences. Conservative estimates show that radiation levels in the Low Population Zone (LPZ) adjacent to the PARR-2 building, which in this case is the PINSTECH building, remains below the established limits. (author)

  16. Book Review: Interdisciplinary Archaeological Research Programme Maasvlakte 2

    Innes, J. B.

    2015-10-01

    Archaeological investigation in wetland environments has long been recognised as a specialised aspect of the discipline, where the levels of preservation of organic materials and sediments can be so high that cultural horizons and excavated artefacts can be placed into detailed palaeo-environmental, biological and landscape contexts, in contrast to the more limited information of this kind that is available from dryland archaeological sites. Inevitably, the recovery, integration and understanding of these vital additional data require an interdisciplinary approach and an investment in specialist equipment and scientific analyses if their full potential for reconstructing human occupation and site use within their landscape setting is to be fully realised. The mobilisation and integration of such a team of environmental specialists can require major financial resources, meticulous planning and close co-operation between the various disciplines involved. The most extreme example of wetland archaeology is probably integrated excavation and environmental archaeological research in subtidal locations, but modern development of major coastal infrastructure is increasingly making sites available for study from the early to mid-Holocene or even earlier that have been overwhelmed by sea-level rise and which would otherwise be beyond the reach of archaeological investigation. Such very large scale subtidal interdisciplinary research projects are major, expensive and long-term undertakings and are still rare enough to be publication highlights in the discipline of environmental archaeology. Important recent examples of subtidal work in north-west Europe include Pedersen et al. (1997) and elements of Fischer (1995) in south Scandinavia, and investigations off southern England (Allen and Gardiner, 2000; Momber et al., 2011; Sturt et al., 2014). Research on submerged palaeoenvironments and palaeolandscapes has also seen significant advances (Griffiths et al., 2015), with the

  17. LIEKKI 2 - Combustion and gasification research programme 1993- 1998. Final report

    Hupa, M. [ed.

    1998-12-31

    The six-year Combustion and Gasification Research Programme LIEKKI 2 (1993-1998) was oriented towards research serving the development of energy production technologies based on combustion and gasification. The programme was divided into six research areas: 1. Modelling of the furnace processes (39 projects); 2. Chemistry of gaseous emission components (28); 3. Particle behaviour, ash, aerosols (42); 4. New combustion and gasification technologies (27); 5. Black liquor (33) and 6. Conventional combustion technologies, waste incineration (19). The main aim of the research has been to develop new, more efficient and environmentally friendly techniques. The development of conventional combustion technology has also been an important part of the programme. Another important goal has been to maintain and develop maintain the competence of the research organisations in the combustion area and to intensify their collaboration. Concerning its research contents and its objectives LIEKKI 2, like its forerunner, has not been fuel-specific. The programme has investigated the thermal conversion of oil, gas, black liquor, and coal as well as that of peat, biofuels, and various waste materials, and it has further advanced the know-how concerning the utilisation of these fuels. This approach differs from the usual fuel-specific differentiation, which, for instance, IEA (International Energy Agency) and EU have applied in their research activities. This approach seems in retrospect to have been the right choice. It has been appropriate to stimulate co-operation between parties who would not seek co-operation spontaneously. One example of this is the development of a steelmaking process by a Finnish steel manufacturer under the LIEKKI programme. The programme has also provided synergetic advantages to the development of the recovery boiler processes of the pulp industry. Assessing the impact of the programme is a matter of many facets. The six-year research work and a total

  18. Strategy generator in computerized accident management support system

    An increased interest for research in the field of accident management of nuclear power plants can be noted. Several international programmes have been started in order to be able to understand the basic physical and chemical phenomena in accident conditions. A feasibility study has shown that it would be possible to design and develop a computerized support system for plant staff in accident situations. To achieve this goal the Halden Project has initiated a research programme on Computerized Accident Management Support (CAMS project). The aim is to utilize the capabilities of computerized tools to support the plant staff during the various accident stages. The system will include identification of the accident state, assessment of the future development of the accident and planning of accident mitigation strategies. A prototype is developed to support operators and the Technical Support Centre in decision making during serious accidents in nuclear power plants. A rule based system has been built to take care of the strategy generation. This system assists plant personnel in planning control proposals and mitigation strategies from normal operation to severe accident conditions. The idea of a safety objective tree and knowledge from the emergency procedures have been used. Future prediction requires good state identification of the plant status and some knowledge about the history of some critical variables. The information needs to be validated as well. Accurate calculations in simulators and a large database including all important information from the plant will help the strategy planning. (orig.). (40 refs., 20 figs.)

  19. Review of Security Measures in the 7th Research Framework Programme FP7 2007-2013

    D. Bigo; J. Jeandesboz; M. Martin-Maze; F. Ragazzi

    2014-01-01

    Upon request by the LIBE Committee, this study analyses how the public-private dialogue has been framed and shaped and examines the priorities set up in calls and projects that have received funding from the European Commission under the security theme of the 7th Research Framework Programme (FP7 20

  20. Programme Implementation in Social and Emotional Learning: Basic Issues and Research Findings

    Durlak, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the fundamental importance of achieving quality implementation when assessing the impact of social and emotional learning interventions. Recent findings in implementation science are reviewed that include a definition of implementation, its relation to programme outcomes, current research on the factors that affect…

  1. Interpretation of clinical imaging examinations by radiographers: a programme of research

    Piper, K

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies which have investigated the interpretation of plain skeletal examinations by radiographers have demonstrated encouraging findings, however, the studies have not extended beyond this area of practice and radiographers' diagnostic performance for other more complex investigations has not been established. Comparisons of performance between groups of healthcare practitioners to date, has also been limited. Aim This research programme aimed to investigate ...

  2. The United Kingdom safeguards research and development programme in support of the IAEA

    The history of the UK safeguards research and development programme in support of the IAEA is outlined. Summary is presented of the following works carries out: safeguards for reprocessing plants; safeguards for centrifuge enrichment plants; destructive analytical techniques and reference materials; training courses for IAEA safeguards inspectors; systems studies. 12 refs

  3. Peer Feedback in an Undergraduate Programme: Using Action Research to Overcome Students' Reluctance to Criticise

    McMahon, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Within an undergraduate programme, a four-year, action research project implemented, evaluated and refined a regime of peer assessment focused on generating high-quality peer feedback. Changes in structure and process transformed a system that had initially been characterised by a reluctance to criticise fellow students into one that produced…

  4. Attracting Talented Researchers to Ireland: A review of The European Marie Curie Programme

    Giordani, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to illustrate how researchers in academia and industry in Ireland have successfully secured funding from Europe in the Marie Curie Programme and to highlight the impact this has had in furthering their R&D ambitions.

  5. Lakatos' Scientific Research Programmes as a Framework for Analysing Informal Argumentation about Socio-Scientific Issues

    Chang, Shu-Nu; Chiu, Mei-Hung

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore how Lakatos' scientific research programmes might serve as a theoretical framework for representing and evaluating informal argumentation about socio-scientific issues. Seventy undergraduate science and non-science majors were asked to make written arguments about four socio-scientific issues. Our analysis…

  6. An Action-Research Programme with Secondary Education Teachers on Teaching and Learning Photosynthesis

    Domingos-Grilo, Paula; Reis-Grilo, Carlos; Ruiz, Constantino; Mellado, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    We describe part of an action-research programme in Spain which was based on metacognitive reflection. The participants were four science teachers in a secondary school during the 2004-05 and 2005-06 academic years. During the study, they each analysed their own pupils' alternative ideas on photosynthesis and their teaching methods as recorded in…

  7. APRI-7 Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance. A progress report on research in the field of severe accidents in 2009-2011

    Knowledge of the phenomena that may occur during severe accidents in a nuclear power plant is an important prerequisite for being able to predict the plant behavior, in order to formulate procedures and instructions for incident handling, for contingency planning, and to get good quality at the accident analysis and risk studies. Since the early 80's nuclear power companies and authorities in Sweden has collaborated in research on severe reactor accidents. Cooperation in the beginning was mostly linked to strengthening the protection against environmental impacts after a severe reactor accident, in particular to develop systems for filtered depressurization of the reactor containment. Since the early 90's the cooperation has partially changed and shifted to the phenomenological questions of risk dominance. During the years 2009-2011, cooperation continued in the research-program APRI-7. The aim was to show whether the solutions adopted in the Swedish strategy for accident management provides reasonable protection for the environment. This was done by gaining detailed knowledge of both important phenomena in the hearth melting behavior, and the amount of radioactivity that can be discharged to the surroundings during a severe accident. To achieve this aim, the research program has included a follow-up of international research in severe accidents and evaluation of results, and continued to support research at KTH and Chalmers Univ. of severe accidents. The follow-up of international research has promoted the exchange of knowledge and experience and has provided access to a wealth of information about various phenomena relevant to the events at severe accidents. This was important to obtain a good basis for assessment of abatement measures in the Swedish nuclear reactors. Continuing support to the Royal Inst. of Technology has provided increased knowledge about the ability to cool the molten core of the reactor vessel and the processes associated with cooling the

  8. National Nuclear Power Plant Safety Research 2003-2006. Proposal for the Content and Organisation of a New Research Programme

    A country utilising nuclear energy is presumed to possess a sufficient infrastructure to cover the education and research in this field, besides the operating and supervisory organisations of the plants. The starting point of public nuclear safety research programmes is that they provide the necessary conditions for retaining the knowledge needed for ensuring the continuance of safe and economic use of nuclear power, for development of new know-how and for participation in international cooperation. In fact, the Finnish organisations engaged in research in this sector have been an important resource which the various ministries, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) and the power companies have had at their disposal. The Steering Group to the Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety (FINNUS), which was launched upon the assignment of the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Energy, appointed in spring 2002 a group to plan the contents of the new programme. This report contains a proposal for the general outline of the programme, preliminarily entitled as SAFIR (SAfety of Nuclear Power Plants - Finnish National Research Programme). The plan has been made for the period 2003-2006, but it is based on safety challenges identified for a longer time span as well. The favourable decision-in-principle on a new nuclear power plant unit adopted by Parliament has also been taken into account in the plan. The safety challenges set by the existing plants and the new plant unit, as well as the ensuing research needs do, however, converge to a great extent. The construction of the new power plant unit will increase the need for experts in the field in Finland. At the same time, the retirement of the existing experts is continuing. These factors together will call for more education and training, in which active research activities play a key role. This situation also makes long-term safety research face a great challenge. The general plan aims to define the

  9. CEA's research programmes on future nuclear power systems

    The CEA (Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives) is at the crossroads between sciences and technologies. In collaboration with corporate leaders and academics, it is working to improve the competitiveness of the existing fleet of nuclear facilities (PWR reactors and EPR) and to develop both a fourth generation of nuclear power reactors and technologies for processing spent fuel. Concerning the PWR reactors most of the work focuses on the extension of reactor operating life (till 60 years), a better use of uranium fuel in the reactor core, a better safety standard, a better reliability of fuel assemblies. This work is both theoretical and experimental with the possibility to use irradiation rigs at the OSIRIS reactor. Concerning the EPR most of the work is dedicated to sustain the commissioning and start of the first EPR in France on the Flamanville site. Concerning the fuel cycle, CEA's teams are working to improve every stage of the cycle from uranium extraction to the processing of spent fuels. In the nuclear industry, industrial cycles are very long so it is today's work to prepare the fourth generation of reactors even if the first reactor of the third generation is not yet in operation. CEA's research focuses on 2 types of fast reactors, one is sodium-cooled (with ASTRID prototype) while the other is gas-cooled (with ALLEGRO prototype). (A.C.)

  10. BAO Plate Archive Project: Digitization, Electronic Database and Research Programmes

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Andreasyan, H. R.; Azatyan, N. M.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Gigoyan, K. S.; Gyulzadyan, M. V.; Khachatryan, K. G.; Knyazyan, A. V.; Kostandyan, G. R.; Mikayelyan, G. A.; Nikoghosyan, E. H.; Paronyan, G. M.; Vardanyan, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    The most important part of the astronomical observational heritage are astronomical plate archives created on the basis of numerous observations at many observatories. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) plate archive consists of 37,000 photographic plates and films, obtained at 2.6m telescope, 1m and 0.5m Schmidt type and other smaller telescopes during 1947-1991. In 2002-2005, the famous Markarian Survey (also called First Byurakan Survey, FBS) 1874 plates were digitized and the Digitized FBS (DFBS) was created. New science projects have been conducted based on these low-dispersion spectroscopic material. A large project on the whole BAO Plate Archive digitization, creation of electronic database and its scientific usage was started in 2015. A Science Program Board is created to evaluate the observing material, to investigate new possibilities and to propose new projects based on the combined usage of these observations together with other world databases. The Executing Team consists of 11 astronomers and 2 computer scientists and will use 2 EPSON Perfection V750 Pro scanners for the digitization, as well as Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) database will be used to accommodate all new data. The project will run during 3 years in 2015-2017 and the final result will be an electronic database and online interactive sky map to be used for further research projects, mainly including high proper motion stars, variable objects and Solar System bodies.

  11. A Critique for the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes

    Saeed Naji

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to evaluate of Imre Lakatos' MSRP (Methodology of Scientific Research Programs. Presenting the methodology which is based on Popperian Refutationism, Lakatos intended to overcome Pluralism (, Relativism and Skepticism and distinguishes the best theory (/program in science. The question is that did the lakatos' secondary change in the form and content of MSRP -against some historical facts and criticisms- make some serious deficiencies in his methodology? The answer to this question is positive. One of Lakatos' changes in MSRP is to resort to a new concept of "rationality". Presenting a logical analysis, the paper shows that this change causes MSRP to be unable to distinguish the best program among others. Furthermore he gives a new definition of the term 'methodology'. This definition, in its turn, makes MSRP main task to be inactive.Showing the irreparable harms Lakatos' changes produce in MSRP, the paper shows that these changes not only cannot get rid of the deficiencies therein, but it is also unable to meet lakatos' original purpose for MSRP.

  12. Biomass - Overview of Swiss Research Programme 2003; Biomasse

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2003-07-01

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results obtained in 2003 in various research projects worked on in Switzerland on the subject of biomass. In the biomass combustion area, subjects discussed include system optimisation for automatic firing, combustion particles, low-particle pellet furnaces, design and optimisation of wood-fired storage ovens, efficiency of filtering techniques and methane generation from wood. Also, an accredited testing centre for wood furnaces is mentioned and measurements made on an installation are presented. As far as the fermentation of biogenic wastes is concerned, biogas production from dairy-product wastes is described. Other projects discussed include a study on eco-balances of energy products, certification and marketing of biogas, evaluation of membranes, a measurement campaign for solar sludge-drying, the operation of a percolator installation for the treatment of bio-wastes, the effects of compost on the environment and the fermentation of coffee wastes. Also, statistics on biogas production in 2002 is looked at. Finally, a preliminary study on biofuels is presented.

  13. The MERLIN programme: Pt. 1

    The MERLIN rig at the Northern Research Laboratories, Springfields, was intended to investigate the deformation behaviour of Zircaloy fuel rod cladding under conditions approximating those of a large break Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). In this rig, an assembly of electrically heated fuel rod simulators (6x6 cluster) was subjected to a temperature transient simulating that predicted to occur in a LOCA, including the initiation of bottom reflooding at a suitable stage. The main aim of the MERLIN programme was to investigate the extent of sub-channel blockage produced during clad deformation under conditions of high mechanical restraint, in two phase cooling conditions. The programme was to consist of four test bundles, the final two of which would be used for ballooning experiments in which high sub-channel blockage would be produced by a suitable choice of test conditions. A major part of the programme was to provide validation data for reactor accident codes used in the CEGB clad ballooning safety case for Sizewell B. This report, one of a series which describes the programme in detail, is an overview of the MERLIN programme. It provides background, summarises those reports which discuss the programme in detail and draws attention to those areas where useful information has been obtained. (author)

  14. Ergonomics in a national research and development programme for food technology

    Broberg, Ole; Hansen, Iben Posniak

    1997-01-01

    The research question for the study presented in this paper was: What are the opportunities and barriers for integrating ergonomics aspects into joint projects sponsored by the FOETEK programme? The objectives were (i) to evaluate the outcome of this clause of accounting for ergonomics impacts, and...... (ii) to put forward recommendations for improving the integration of ergonomics into joint projects sponsored by the FOETEK programme. A survey based on a questionnaire was conducted among 57 joint projects. A total of 217 project managers or contact persons received the questionnaire. The response...

  15. Five years' experience with the World Health Organization matched assay reagent programme in research in human reproduction

    The Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction of the World Health Organization has supported a programme for the provision of matched assay reagents for over five years. This study discusses the effect of this programme on between-laboratory comparability and confirms that provision of common materials and protocols aids standardization and is a cost-effective method of enabling laboratories to perform hormone assays. (author)

  16. The Community's research and development programme on decommissioning of nuclear installations. Second annual progress report (year 1986)

    This is the second annual progress report of the European Community's programme (1984-88) of research on the decommissioning of nuclear installations. It shows the status of the programme on 31 December 1986. This second progress report describes the objectives, scope and work programme of the 58 research contracts concluded, as well as the progress of work achieved and the results obtained in 1986

  17. Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Questionnaires from Research Committee of Nuclear Safety

    The Research Committee of Nuclear Safety carried out a research on criticality accident at the JCO plant according to statement of president of the Japan Atomic Energy Society on October 8, 1999, of which results are planned to be summarized by the constitutions shown as follows, for a report on the 'Questionnaires of criticality accident in the Uranium Fuel Processing Plant of the JCO, Inc.': general criticality safety, fuel cycle and the JCO, Inc.; elucidation on progress and fact of accident; cause analysis and problem picking-up; proposals on improvement; and duty of the Society. Among them, on last two items, because of a conclusion to be required for members of the Society at discussions of the Committee, some questionnaires were send to more than 1800 of them on April 5, 2000 with name of chairman of the Committee. As results of the questionnaires contained proposals and opinions on a great numbers of fields, some key-words like words were found on a shape of repeating in most questionnaires. As they were thought to be very important nuclei in these two items, they were further largely classified to use for summarizing proposals and opinions on the questionnaires. This questionnaire had a big characteristic on the duty of the Society in comparison with those in the other organizations. (G.K.)

  18. Presentation of the RESSAC research program (REhabilitation of Soils and Surfaces after an ACcident)

    If, despite all the precautions taken in nuclear power plants, a severe accident were to occur in France involving extensive release of radioactive materials to the environment, existing emergency plans would be implemented enabling urgent decisions to be made with regard to the immediate protection of the population: confinement indoors, evacuation, distribution of stable iodine, etc. But, at a later stage, mean and long term actions would have to be carried out to decontaminate the polluted areas and limit subsequent contamination of the food chain, with a view to enabling the populations concerned to return to normal life. These actions would concern, in decreasing order of priority and using the WHO and IAEA definitions, the near field, closest to the accident site, and the far field, subjected to the direct impact of fallout. They should be aimed at reducing external exposure due to deposition and internal exposure by inhalation of radioactive products re-suspended in the atmosphere and by ingestion of products for human consumption. In the context of IPSN research and development programs on severe accidents, the RESSAC program was defined in 1985 for the purpose of studying methods and means of rehabilitating the near field and controlling problems related to the far field. Elaboration of the program is presently proceeding at the Nuclear Research Center of Cadarache, focussed on the following main topics: assessment of what happens to the radionuclides deposited on the soil and vegetation, determination of priorities and how to intervene, management of the waste produced. (author). 4 refs

  19. Bioenergy Research Programme. Yearbook 1994. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of energy technology programmes of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (in 1995 TEKES, Technology Development Center). The aim of Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling and using of biofuels. The funding for 1994 was nearly 50 million FIM and project numbered 60. The research area of biomass conversion consisted of 8 projects in 1994, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 13 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1994 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion research is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well at wood processing industry as at power plants. The conversion research was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extracts of them into fuel oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and on combustion tests. Other conversion studies dealt with production of fuel-grade ethanol. For utilization of agrobiomass in various forms of energy, a system study is introduced where special attention is how to use rapeseed oil unprocessed in heating boilers and diesel engines. Possibilities to produce agrofibre in investigated at a laboratory study

  20. An assessment of the consequences of a research reactor credible accident release

    An analysis of the consequences of a serious credible accident, a coolant flow blockage accident (CFBA) of the Greek research reactor (GRR) is presented. GRR, a 5 MW swimming pool type reactor, is located within Athens the largest population centre of Greece concentrating 32% of its population. To estimate the source term 31 isotopes are taken into consideration and conservative figures of fission product release are adopted. To estimate the CFBA consequences a CRAC2 consequence model version is used. Doses and individual cancer risk from exposure to the passing radioactive cloud are estimated up to a distance of 20km from the reactor site. Collective exposure and latent health effects due to initial exposure and chronic exposure from inhalation of resuspended radionuclides and exposure to groundshine from contaminated ground are estimated for the total Athens area of 3081000 inhabitants. The results of the analysis suggest that the CFBA consequences are not significant. 10 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  1. Publication rate and PhD enrolment following a medical pre-graduate research programme

    Skovgaard, Marlene; Okkels, Niels; Christensen, Mette Krogh;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the 1990s, the publication and PhD recruitment rates following the Danish pre-graduate research programme (PGRP) in medicine were 54% and 33%, respectively. Updated estimates are unknown. METHODS: All medical students enrolled in the PGRP at the Faculty of Medicine, Aarhus...... PGRP compared to female medical students (28% versus 19%; p < 0.01). Within three and a half years from PGRP initiation, 13% of the research students had enrolled in a PhD programme at Health, and 52% had published ≥ 1 paper with ≥ 1 supervisor. The research student was the first author on 43% of the...... University (Health), Denmark, during 2003-2012 were included (n = 687). The PGRP files were merged with PhD students' files at Health. A systematic literature search was completed for research students who had enrolled during the 2006-2009 period (n = 227). The factors investigated were student age, sex...

  2. RATU Nuclear power plant structural safety research programme 1990-1994. Final report

    The major part of nuclear energy research in Finland has been organized as five-year nationally coordinated research programmes. The research programme on the Nuclear Power Plant Structural Safety was carried out during the period from 1990 to 1994. The total volume was about 76 person-years and the expenditure about 49 million FIM. Studies on the structural materials in nuclear power plants created the experimental data and background information necessary for the structural integrity assessments of mechanical components. The research was carried out by developing experimental fracture mechanics methods including statistical analysis methods of material property data, and by studying material ageing and, in particular, mechanisms of material deterioration due to neutron irradiation, corrosion and water chemistry. Besides material studies, new testing methods and sensors for the measurement of loading and water chemistry parameters have been developed

  3. The United Kingdom Research Programme and its implications for policy, now and in the future

    The paper briefly describes past and present research on acid rain in the UK and priorities for future research. Research began on an ad hoc basis following concerns that UK air pollution was affecting Scandinavia and the need for an integrated multi-disciplinery approach was soon realized. The UK Air Quality Research Programme is increasingly using the concepts of critical loads/levels assessments to identify areas of acidification sensitivity to target future research. Priorities for future work include the effects of air pollution on mature trees in the field and the interaction between air pollution and other biotic and abiotic stresses. 5 figs

  4. CONCERT-'European Joint Programme for the Integration at Radiation Protection Research'

    In 2009 the High Level Expert Group (HLEG) on low dose research recommended the development of a scientific platform for low dose radiation research. The foundation of MELODI (Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative) occurred in 2010. In 2015 a new project on radiation protection research was established: CONCERT (European Joint Programme for the Integration at Radiation Protection Research). The aim is the coordination of the already existing scientific platforms MELODI (radiation effects and interactions), ALLIANCE (radioecology), NERIS (nuclear and radiological emergency protection) and EURADOS (radiation dosimetry). With CONCERT an efficient use of this infrastructure for research cooperation and transparency is intended.

  5. Co-ordinated research programme on nuclear techniques for toxic elements in foodstuffs

    This Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) was started by the Agency in 1985, within the framework of the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology in the Asia and Pacific Region (RCA). Its main purpose has been to obtain comparative data on existing elemental concentrations of potentially toxic elements in foodstuffs in various Asian countries. The elements to be studied include the potentially most toxic trace elements (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Se) as well as others of relevance to national monitoring programmes, such as Br, Cr, Cu, Fe, I, Mn, Sb, Tl, and Zn. An important supplementary purpose of the programme is to help establish analytical expertise for work of this kind in the individual countries. Scientists from several RCA Member States have participated in it, namely from Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, Thailand, and also from institutes in several countries outside the region, i.e., Argentina, Brazil, Jamaica and The Netherlands. This report summarizes the discussions that took place during the third and final Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) for the programme from 20-24 November 1989, in Jakarta, Indonesia. This document includes the progress reports presented by the participants as well as discussions and conclusions drawn from the meeting

  6. A plan to cope with accidents at the research establishment of the Australian Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, NSW

    This plan details command, coordination and support responses of Commonwealth and NSW Government in the event of an accident with off-site consequences at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. 7 tabs., map

  7. Eco-efficient construction and building materials research under the EU Framework Programme Horizon 2020

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco

    2014-01-01

    With an overall budget of around 70,000 million € for the next seven years (2014–2020) the EU Framework Programme for research and Innovation-Horizon 2020 constitutes the most important financial instrument for research and innovation in the world. Sustainable development is of paramount significance for Horizon 2020 through climate action and resource efficiency, which will represent at least 60% of the overall budget. This sustainability focus could have a strong impact on the f...

  8. A competency based educational programme for research nurses: an Italian experience

    Liptrott, S; Orlando, L.; Clerici, M.; Cocquio, A.; Martinelli, G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: the EU Directive states the requirement of staff working in trials to be qualified by education, training and experience [14]. This includes the research nurse; however, in the transition from ward nurse to research nurse, new and highly developed skills and knowledge are required in order to work effectively. Methods: an educational programme was developed, which included a review of current knowledge and baseline practice, development of competencies related to the role of resea...

  9. Development of theory-based health messages: three-phase programme of formative research

    Epton, Tracey; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter; Webb, Thomas; Snowsill, F Alexandra; Sheeran, Paschal

    2014-01-01

    Online health behaviour interventions have great potential but their effectiveness may be hindered by a lack of formative and theoretical work. This paper describes the process of formative research to develop theoretically and empirically based health messages that are culturally relevant and can be used in an online intervention to promote healthy lifestyle behaviours among new university students. Drawing on the Theory of Planned Behaviour, a three-phase programme of formative research was...

  10. Review of national research programmes on the microbiology of radioactive waste disposal

    Published results on the microbial effects of relevance to radioactive waste disposal are reviewed. The subjects covered by each of the various national programmes are considered in turn and the important themes that emerge from these are summarised. Finally the relevance of this microbiological research to the Nirex Safety case is discussed in brief. All references to research papers that deal with microbial aspects of radioactive waste disposal are listed and the key publications identified. (author)

  11. Consideration of BORAX-type reactivity accidents applied to research reactors; Prise en compte des accidents de type 'BORAX' pour les reacteurs de recherche

    Couturier, Jean; Meignen, Renaud; Bourgois, Thierry; Biaut, Guillaume; Mireau, Jean-Pierre [Direction de la surete des reacteurs, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN, 31, avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Natta, Marc [Direction de la strategie, du developpement et des partenariats, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN, 31, avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2011-08-08

    Most of the research reactors discussed in this document are pool-type reactors in which the reactor vessel and some of the reactor coolant systems are located in a pool of water. These reactors generally use fuel in plate assemblies formed by a compact layer of uranium (or U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) and aluminium particles, sandwiched between two thin layers of aluminium serving as cladding. The fuel melting process begins at 660 deg. C when the aluminium melts, while the uranium (or U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) particles may remain solid. The accident that occurred in the American SL-1 reactor in 1961, together with tests carried out in the United States as of 1954 in the BORAX-1 reactor and then, in 1962, in the SPERT-1 reactor, showed that a sudden substantial addition of reactivity in this type of reactor could lead to explosive mechanisms caused by degradation, or even fast meltdown, of part of the reactor core. This is what is known as a 'BORAX-type' accident. The aim of this document is first to briefly recall the circumstances of the SL-1 reactor accident, the lessons learned, how this operational feedback has been factored into the design of various research reactors around the world and, second, to describe the approach taken by France with regard to this type of accident and how, led by IRSN, this approach has evolved in the last decade. (authors)

  12. Protection of human research participants: accreditation of programmes in the Indian context.

    Bhosale, Neelambari; Nigar, Shagoofa; Das, Soma; Divate, Uma; Divate, Pathik

    2014-01-01

    The recent negative media reports on the status of participants in clinical trials in India, together with the concerns expressed by the regulatory bodies, have raised questions regarding India's credibility in the conduct of clinical research. Even though the regulations require the registration of trials with the Clinical Trial Registry-India and despite the recently mandated registration of ethics committees (ECs) with the Drugs Controller General of India, the lack of governmental audit and accreditation procedures and bodies has resulted in inadequate protection of human participants in clinical research. Institutions and research sites would benefit by implementing a human research protection programme, which would safeguard the rights, safety and wellbeing of participants in clinical trials, in addition to improving the processes and procedures for the conduct of the trial. The Jehangir Clinical Development Centre, Pune has received accreditation from the Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programme (AAHRPP). A unique feature of the AAHRPP is the integrative nature of the programme, wherein the sponsors of the trial, investigators, EC members and institution work towards the common goal of protecting research participants. Here, we discuss the improvement needed in the quality standards of institutions for them to be able to meet the requirements of the AAHRPP. We also suggest the need for a governmental accreditation body, which will be required for the future promotion of and improvement in the standards for clinical practice in India. PMID:24509113

  13. Systems behaviour and operational aspects of safety, research programme in 1990-1994

    Studies in the field of safe operational margins of nuclear fuel and reactor core concentrate on fuel high burn-up behaviour, VVER fuel experiments, and reactor core behaviour in complex reactivity transients such as 3-D phenomena and ATWS events. Assessment of complex transient and accident situations provides up-to-date methods to evaluate the whole spectrum of transients and accidents relevant for licensing, plant-specific PSA and accident management. PACTEL is a new facility (scaled 1:305) for the Loviisa reactors) for thermal hydraulic studies. Advanced computer codes from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's severe accident research program are implemented, modified as needed and applied to level-2 PSAs and improvement of accident management procedures. Fire simulation methods are tested using data from experiments in the German HDR facility. A nuclear plant analyzer for efficient safety analyses is being developed using the new APROS process simulation environment. New technology in nuclear power plant automation is particularly relevant for future plants but new technology is also applied at the present plants, particularly in case of life extension. Distributed digital automation systems will be assessed and validated. Computerized operator support systems are studied in cooperation with the OECD Halden Project. PRA/PSA methods are increasingly useful in management of nuclear power plant safety and performance. Prototype of a comprehensive plant safety information system is developed by combining living PSA, plant status monitoring and safety indicators into a kind of 'dynamic PSA'. The use of PSA methods during new plant design is also studied

  14. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 2: REDAC, the radioecological database after the Chernobyl accident

    Goals: to built a database for integrating the results of programme 'Radioecology' of the French-German Initiative: Ecological portrait, initial contamination, wastes management, soil-plants and animals transfer, transfer by runoff and in the aquatic environment, countermeasures in urban and natural and agricultural environments. Specific methodology: original 'Project Solutions Framework': Information system developed as a soft integrated portal, Geo-information system: all spatial data geo-coded. DB structure: Publications: all classical informations, original data; Products: storage of open publications of the Project; Processes: management of the Project and Sub-projects; Services: information and software objects, help; Basics: information on system and organizational development. - Soft integration: cartography system: Map from 'Ecological portrait' integrated with thematic databases, Loaded in a special category (by IS Geo Internet Map Server); Cartographical functions: navigation, scaling, extracting, layer management, Databases arrangement independent of map system architecture. - Soft integration: portlets and DDB: Portlets = mini-applications for business functions and processes, made of web parts; Digital Dashboards (DDB) Portlets + web parts DDB sites = collections of DDB, adjustable by users. - General conclusions: REDAC, powerful and useful radioecological tool: All elements easily accessible through the original tool, ProSF, developed by IS Geo; Relations constructed between the documents (files, databases, documentation, reports,...); All elements structured by a meta-information; Mechanisms of search; Global radioecological glossary; Spatial data geo-coded; Processes, tools and methodology suitable for similar projects; Data useful for scientific studies, modelling, operational purposes, communication with mass media. - Outlook: Addition of functionality, support and maintenance Strong integration: Thematic integration = merging of all DB in an

  15. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 2: REDAC, the radioecological database after the Chernobyl accident

    Deville-Cavelin, G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Environment and Emergency Operations Div. - Dept. for the Study of Radionuclide Behaviour in Ecosystems, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Biesold, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Braunschweig (Germany); Chabanyuk, V. [Chornobyl Center (CC), Kiev regoin (Ukraine)

    2006-07-01

    Goals: to built a database for integrating the results of programme 'Radioecology' of the French-German Initiative: Ecological portrait, initial contamination, wastes management, soil-plants and animals transfer, transfer by runoff and in the aquatic environment, countermeasures in urban and natural and agricultural environments. Specific methodology: original 'Project Solutions Framework': Information system developed as a soft integrated portal, Geo-information system: all spatial data geo-coded. DB structure: Publications: all classical informations, original data; Products: storage of open publications of the Project; Processes: management of the Project and Sub-projects; Services: information and software objects, help; Basics: information on system and organizational development. - Soft integration: cartography system: Map from 'Ecological portrait' integrated with thematic databases, Loaded in a special category (by IS Geo Internet Map Server); Cartographical functions: navigation, scaling, extracting, layer management, Databases arrangement independent of map system architecture. - Soft integration: portlets and DDB: Portlets = mini-applications for business functions and processes, made of web parts; Digital Dashboards (DDB) Portlets + web parts DDB sites = collections of DDB, adjustable by users. - General conclusions: REDAC, powerful and useful radioecological tool: All elements easily accessible through the original tool, ProSF, developed by IS Geo; Relations constructed between the documents (files, databases, documentation, reports,...); All elements structured by a meta-information; Mechanisms of search; Global radioecological glossary; Spatial data geo-coded; Processes, tools and methodology suitable for similar projects; Data useful for scientific studies, modelling, operational purposes, communication with mass media. - Outlook: Addition of functionality, support and maintenance Strong integration: Thematic

  16. Knowledge management systems in support of an induction programme: An action research approach

    Murali Raman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Higher education institutions are in the knowledge business since they are involved in knowledge creation, dissemination and learning. However, not many higher education institutions get the most benefit out of managing their knowledge. Most of these institutions are so busy delivering knowledge that they fail to capture the best practices in their knowledge delivery. The induction programme for new lecturers is therefore very important to improve the quality of teaching. In teaching, lecturers might be the subject matter experts but could lack knowledge related to teaching, such as theories of teaching and learning, classroom organization and management, development of curriculum and course content, and professionalism. This paper examines if knowledge management systems (KMS can support the induction programmes for new lecturers in an academic setting at the Bina Nusantara University in Indonesia. Action research is used as the underlying methodology. Specifically, a 5-step canonical action research was used to conduct the study. Our findings post intervention suggests that most lecturers understand the importance of the induction programme and the lecturers have positive attitudes towards the implementation of KMS to support the induction programme.

  17. RATU2 - The Finnish research programme on the structural integrity of nuclear power plants. Synthesis of achievements 1995-1998

    The symposium summarises the scientific and technical achievements within the Finnish Research programme on the structural integrity of nuclear power plants (RATU2). The programme began in 1995 and will be accomplished at the end of 1998. The annual volume of this programme represented approximately 6 % of the total nuclear energy R and D in Finland. The research programme was mainly publicly funded and supplied impartial expertise for the regulation of nuclear energy. It also played an important role in the education of new experts, technology transfer and the international exchange of scientific results. (orig.)

  18. Post-accident heat removal research: A state of the art review

    For a realistic assessment of the consequence of extremely unlikely reactor accidents resulting in core degradation or core meltdown key questions are how to remove the decay heat from the reactor system and how to retain the radioactive core debris within the containment. Usually, this complex of questions is referred to as Post-Accident Heat Removal (PAHR). In this article the research work on PAHR performed by various institutions during the last decade has been reviewed. The main results have been summarized under the chapter headings ''Accident Scenarios,'' - ''Core Debris Accommodation Concepts,'' and ''PAHR Topics.'' Particular emphasis has been placed on the presentation of the following problems: characteristics and coolability of solid core debris in the vector vessel, heat removal from molten pools of core material, and core-melt interaction with structural materials. Some unresolved or insufficiently answered questions relating to special ''PAHR Topics'' have been mentioned or discussed at the end of the particular Chapter. Problem areas of major uncertainty have been identified and listed at the end of the review article. They include the following subjects: formation of debris beds and bed characteristics, post dryout behaviour of particle beds, long-term availability and proper location of heat sinks, creep rupture of structures under high thermal loads. (orig.)

  19. Bioenergy research programme results on the harvesting of energy wood; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelman tuloksia energiapuun korjuusta

    Ryynaenen, S.

    1999-07-01

    The six-year-long Bioenergy Research Programme, which ended at the end of 1998 has been assessed to have been among the best energy-technology programmes carried out concurrently under the auspices of TEKES. The concrete results obtained have for their part contributed to the powerful increase in the use of fuelwood and small-diameter trees (logging residues) on logging sites in Finland. The competitiveness of energy wood improved greatly thanks to the technology developed in the course of the programme and the concurrent changes in taxation implemented. The expenditures goal of the research programme as regards the large-scale production of chipped small-diameter trees (logging residues) was set at FIM 45 per MWh. This can be achieved when using the harvesting methods developed in connection with the research programme for logging- residue chips involving truck-, logging-strip- or landing-based chipping and short forest-haulage distances in relatively easy harvesting conditions. The development objective as regards small-scale production of fuelwood was to reduce production costs by 20 % of what they were in 1992. This was the assignment given to the TTS-Institute and machine manufacturers. The objective was achieved in the production of a chopped firewood and longwood chips. The savings in costs were achieved by mechanising the felling of longwood using new harvester heads and by using feeder-equipped chopping machines to do the chopping. The objective in the forest haulage of logging residues was achieved by using trailers developed at the TTS-Institute. (orig.)

  20. The Canadian research programme into the long-term management of uranium mine tailings

    Canada has embarked upon a three-year intense research programme intended to develop technology that will lead to the safe long-term disposal of uranium mine and mill tailings. Currently there are well in excess of 100x106 tonnes of uranium tailings on the surface in Canada, an amount that is expected to triple by the end of the century. Recommendations were made to government authorities for a three-pronged research programme that would contribute to a sounder basis for future decisions on requirements for the long-term safe abandonment of uranium tailings. The proposed research programme consists of three interactive parts: (1) Modelling the pathways of radionuclides from the uranium tailings through the environment to man, the objective of which would be to provide a forecasting tool for predicting the long-term behaviour and dispersion of contaminants within and beyond the tailings management area. (2) Measurement of the physical and chemical parameters of interest in the production and control of radioactive wastes, the objective of which would be to provide basic data needed for model building and verification and to establish a national uranium waste management data base. (3) The study of disposal technologies for use in the management of abandoned uranium tailings, the objective of which would be to identify economically feasible methods for closing out tailings areas, which will result in acceptably low adverse effects on the future environment. As part of the programme, it is proposed to conduct detailed measurements on three representative tailings sites, where 1000 holes will be drilled on each site for each of the three years to collect data. A National Tailings Program Office will be established, which will consist of a Directorate and supporting staff to conduct the programme, which is expected to cost in excess of 18 million dollars over the three years

  1. The CRACK programme: a scientific alliance for bridging healthcare research and public health policies in Italy

    Giovanni Corrao

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare utilisation databases, and other secondary data sources, have been used with growing frequency to assess health outcomes and healthcare interventions worldwide. Their increased popularity as a research tool is due to their timely availability, the large patient populations covered, low cost, and applicability for studying real-world clinical practice. Despite the need to measure Italian National Health Service performance both at regional and national levels, the wealth of good quality electronic data and the high standards of scientific research in this field, healthcare research and public health policies seem to progress along orthogonal dimensions in Italy. The main barriers to the development of evidence-based public health include the lack of understanding of evidence-based methodologies by policy makers, and of involvement of researchers in the policy process. The CRACK programme was launched by some academics from the Lombardy Region. By extensively using electronically stored data, epidemiologists, biostatisticians, pharmacologists and clinicians applied methods and evidence to several issues of healthcare research. The CRACK programme was based on their intention to remove barriers that thwart the process of bridging methods and findings from scientific journals to public health practice. This paper briefly describes aim, articulation and management of the CRACK programme, and discusses why it might find articulated application in Italy.

  2. Source term evaluation for the upgraded LEU Pakistan Research Reactor-1 under severe accidents

    Research highlights: → Evaluation of source term was done for an upgraded LEU based PARR-I system with a Matlab based computer program having ORIGEN2 code as subroutine for core inventory calculations. → Various accident scenarios, with instantaneous release of radioactivity to containment, have been considered including the startup, fuel loading, and loss-of-coolant accidents. → The source term and containment retention factor values show a rapid increase followed by an approach towards saturation values as the exhaust rates are increased. → The isotope-dependency of the containment retention factor indicates strong sensitivity for 85Kr, 137Xe, 138Xe and 138Cs towards exhaust rate values. - Abstract: Evaluation of source term has been carried out for the upgraded LEU PARR-I system taken as a typical material test reactor (MTR). The modeling and simulation of release of radioactivity has been carried out by developing a Matlab based computer program which uses the ORIGEN2 code for core inventory calculations. For post 180 full-power days continuous operation, various accident scenarios, with instantaneous release of radioactivity to containment, have been considered including the startup, fuel loading, and loss-of-coolant accidents. For noble gases, iodine and for aerosols, the release rate studies have been carried out for the normal, emergency and for the isolation states of containment. The values of source term as well as that of containment retention factor show rapid increase followed by an approach towards saturation values as the exhaust rate values are increased. The isotope-dependency of the containment retention factor has been studied and the results indicate strong sensitivity for 85Kr, 137Xe, 138Xe and 138Cs towards exhaust rate values.

  3. Source term evaluation for the upgraded LEU Pakistan Research Reactor-1 under severe accidents

    Ullah, Sana [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Awan, Saeed Ehsan [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Mirza, Nasir M., E-mail: nasirmm@yahoo.co [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Mirza, Sikander M. [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Evaluation of source term was done for an upgraded LEU based PARR-I system with a Matlab based computer program having ORIGEN2 code as subroutine for core inventory calculations. {yields} Various accident scenarios, with instantaneous release of radioactivity to containment, have been considered including the startup, fuel loading, and loss-of-coolant accidents. {yields} The source term and containment retention factor values show a rapid increase followed by an approach towards saturation values as the exhaust rates are increased. {yields} The isotope-dependency of the containment retention factor indicates strong sensitivity for {sup 85}Kr, {sup 137}Xe, {sup 138}Xe and {sup 138}Cs towards exhaust rate values. - Abstract: Evaluation of source term has been carried out for the upgraded LEU PARR-I system taken as a typical material test reactor (MTR). The modeling and simulation of release of radioactivity has been carried out by developing a Matlab based computer program which uses the ORIGEN2 code for core inventory calculations. For post 180 full-power days continuous operation, various accident scenarios, with instantaneous release of radioactivity to containment, have been considered including the startup, fuel loading, and loss-of-coolant accidents. For noble gases, iodine and for aerosols, the release rate studies have been carried out for the normal, emergency and for the isolation states of containment. The values of source term as well as that of containment retention factor show rapid increase followed by an approach towards saturation values as the exhaust rate values are increased. The isotope-dependency of the containment retention factor has been studied and the results indicate strong sensitivity for {sup 85}Kr, {sup 137}Xe, {sup 138}Xe and {sup 138}Cs towards exhaust rate values.

  4. Introduction of the IAEA/BEFAST-II co-ordinated research programme: research subjects, participating organizations, schedule

    Extended spent fuel storage is an important activity for all countries with nuclear programmes because fuel after its discharge from the reactor is required to be stored before reprocessing or final disposal. The storage period is highly dependent upon the individual national strategies to complete the nuclear fuel cycle. The results and experience gained in the co-ordinated research programme ''BEFAST'' (Behaviour of Spent Fuel Assemblies During Extended Storage), which was performed from 1981 to 1986 under the auspices of the IAEA, were so important for the participating countries that the IAEA already in September 1986 initiated this new follow-up programme ''BEFAST-II'' (Behaviour of Spent Fuel and Storage Facility Components During Long-Term Storage). Together 16 organizations from 13 countries (Argentina, Canada, Finland, Germany, F.R., GDR, Hungary, Italy, Republic of Korea, Japan, Sweden, UK, USA and USSR) joined the programme. The research activities going on in each participating country can be grouped under three major topics: (A) long-term behaviour, (B) surveillance, and (C) facilities and operation, which also form the basis of the BEFAST-II final report ''Research, Development and Practice for the Extended Storage of Spent Fuel''. The BEFAST-II CRP will be carried out during the years 1987-1991, so that the final report could be completed by the end of 1991. The first Co-ordinated Research Meeting will be held in April 1988 in Budapest, Hungary. Two other CRP meetings are tentatively planned to be held in September 1989 and March 1991. The working procedures of the BEFAST-II CRP will be agreed upon during the Budapest meeting. The general goal of the programme is to provide a forum for free information exchange on spent fuel matters between specialists in member countries. (author). 2 refs, 2 tabs

  5. RDandD Programme 2010. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste

    The RD and D programme 2010 gives an account of SKB's plans for research, development and demonstration during the period 2011-2016. SKB's activities are divided into two main areas - the programme for Low and Intermediate Level Waste (the Loma program) and the Nuclear Fuel Program. The RD and D Programme 2010 consists of five parts: Part I: Overall Plan, Part II: Loma program, Part III: Nuclear Fuel Program, Part IV: Research on analysis of long-term safety, Part V: Social Science Research. The 2007 RD and D programme was focused primarily on technology development to realize the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The actions described were aimed at increasing awareness of long-term safety and to obtain technical data for application under the Nuclear Activities Act for the final repository for spent fuel and under the Environmental Code of the repository system. Many important results from these efforts are reported in this program. An overall account of the results will be given in the Licensing application in early 2011. The authorities' review of RD and D programme in 2007 and completion of the program called for clarification of plans and programs for the final repository for short-lived radioactive waste, SFR, and the final repository for waste, SFL. This RD and D program describes these plans in a more detailed way

  6. RDandD Programme 2007. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste

    2007-09-15

    The programme describes in general terms the planned measures and the facilities that are needed for the task, with a focus on the plans for the period 2008-2013. The period of immediate concern is 2008-2010. The level of detail for the three subsequent years is naturally lower. The programme provides a basis for designing systems to manage and dispose of the radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants. SKB intends to dispose of the spent nuclear fuel in accordance with the KBS-3 method. In the RDandD Programme we describe our activities and the planning for it. We also deal with societal research and other methods for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The planning for low- and intermediate-level waste, as well as for the societal research, is presented in separate parts. The upcoming review of the programme can contribute valuable outside viewpoints. The regulatory authorities and the Government can clarify how they view different parts of the activity. Municipalities and other stakeholders can, after studying the programme, offer their viewpoints to SKB, the regulatory authorities or the Government. The most important milestone during the coming three-year period is to submit applications under the Nuclear Activities Act for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel and under the Environmental Code for the final repository system. RDandD programme 2007 therefore focuses on the technology development that is needed to realize the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site investigations in Forsmark and Laxemar will be concluded in 2007. The work of compiling the applications for the final repository is under way. In contrast to the immediately preceding programmes, RDandD Programme 2007 therefore also contains a summary of the site investigation phase and a look ahead at the steps that remain before the final repository can be put into operation. RDandD Programme 2007 consists of six parts: Part I SKB's plan of action; Part II Final repository for

  7. RDandD Programme 2007. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste

    The programme describes in general terms the planned measures and the facilities that are needed for the task, with a focus on the plans for the period 2008-2013. The period of immediate concern is 2008-2010. The level of detail for the three subsequent years is naturally lower. The programme provides a basis for designing systems to manage and dispose of the radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants. SKB intends to dispose of the spent nuclear fuel in accordance with the KBS-3 method. In the RDandD Programme we describe our activities and the planning for it. We also deal with societal research and other methods for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The planning for low- and intermediate-level waste, as well as for the societal research, is presented in separate parts. The upcoming review of the programme can contribute valuable outside viewpoints. The regulatory authorities and the Government can clarify how they view different parts of the activity. Municipalities and other stakeholders can, after studying the programme, offer their viewpoints to SKB, the regulatory authorities or the Government. The most important milestone during the coming three-year period is to submit applications under the Nuclear Activities Act for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel and under the Environmental Code for the final repository system. RDandD programme 2007 therefore focuses on the technology development that is needed to realize the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site investigations in Forsmark and Laxemar will be concluded in 2007. The work of compiling the applications for the final repository is under way. In contrast to the immediately preceding programmes, RDandD Programme 2007 therefore also contains a summary of the site investigation phase and a look ahead at the steps that remain before the final repository can be put into operation. RDandD Programme 2007 consists of six parts: Part I SKB's plan of action; Part II Final repository for spent

  8. Safety of nuclear fuels. New Cabri - water loop IPSN / OECD international research programme

    A reactivity accident could occur in the case of fuel element accidental ejection. It would induce a quick increase of the neutrons flow in the reactor core, and then to the rupture of pins close to the ejected rod and to the dispersion of the fuel they contain. This phenomenon could lead to give off energy by interaction between the fuel and the primary circuit water. The Cabri research reactor was used to study this case of accident, but this reactor is equipped with a sodium loop; in order to get more representative thermohydraulic conditions for the PWR type reactors, the sodium loop must be replaced by a water loop. Update relative to new radiation protection conditions against the seismic and fire risks is also planned. (N.C.)

  9. Cleaner heat from wood. TULISIJA research programme for wood firing technology 1997-1999

    There are 1.3 million wood-burning fireplaces in Finnish homes. The interest in using fireplaces for heating of dwellings has recently been growing strongly. Some 5.6 million cubic meters of firewood is burned in domestic stoves and fireplaces annually. This corresponds to a total of 7.5 terawatthours of energy and amounts to 13 % of all energy used for heating in Finland. The aim of the TULISIJA research programme for wood firing technology (1997-1999) is to assist manufacturers in their efforts to develop the most emission-free, yet efficient, wood firing equipment in the world. Detailed objectives of the TULISIJA programme are: (1) To produce modelling capabilities for the evaluation of different fireplace designs. Capabilities are produced for utilising computer simulation for investigation of the emissions of small-size fireplaces. (2) To establish a measuring place for fireplaces, where manufacturers' equipment designs can be reliably tested according to different standards is to be built, through which the Finnish manufacturers may obtain approvals for their products for different market areas. (3) To enhance co-operation between manufacturers and research institutions. Within the programme, the expertise of researchers in universities and other research institutes is made available to manufacturers - and vice versa. Equally important is the utilisation of international co-operation and making new connections

  10. Comprehensive Research on Speed and Traffic Accidents%车速与交通事故综合研究

    黎毅

    2012-01-01

    With increasing concerns of people for traffic safety issues, safety techniques and relevant researches on road traffic developed quickly. This paper analyzes influences of speed on traffic accident rate and severity of accidents and establishes correlativity between speed and traffic accident rate and severity of accidents. Research finds that the more the speed deviates, the higher the accident rate; and the more the speed changes before and after collision accidents, the severer the accidents. Therefore the speed remarkably influences traffic safety.%随着人们对交通安全问题日益关注,道路交通安全技术和相关研究也得以快速发展.分析车速对交通事故率及事故严重程度的影响,建立车速与交通事故率和事故严重程度2者之间的相关关系.研究发现,车速偏差越大,事故率越高;事故冲撞前后车速变化越大,事故越严重.由此可知,车速对交通安全有显著影响.

  11. Research of severe accidents results of water-cooled power reactors on COTELS project

    In the Institute of Atomic Energy there have been created experimental facilities for researches of the results of some stages of severe accidents. In the scope of Kazakhstan - Japan project COTELS, at the facilities there were conducted 4 groups of experiments on the study of the core materials (corium) melt interaction with construction materials, water and concrete. There are described experimental facilities and main outcomes of conducted experiments. The important result of these experiments is confirmation of conditions at which the suppression of steam explosion and MCCI process ceasing are possible. (author)

  12. Effects on the surrounding population of postulated major accidents at the AAEC Research Establishment

    The consequences of accidents in specific facilities at the Research Establishment are examined in terms of possible exposure of persons living around Lucas Heights to release airborne radioactive and toxic materials. In the case of radioactive materials, both individual and population doses are estimated, the latter over a range of meteorological conditions. Using currently available data on the risk of development of adverse effects in irradiated populations further estimates are made of the possible number of cases of such effects in the local population. 43 refs., 14 tabs., 3 figs

  13. Research and development programme in the DEBENE-area for fast breeder material development

    Since 1964 a joint programme for the development of cladding and core structural materials for Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR) has been underway at the Research Centres in Belgium, Germany and Netherlands and with their industrial partners. Different organizations have contributed to this development in the DEBENE-area [Deutschland (FRG), Belgium, Netherlands], namely the Research Centres: Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe and CEN-SCK, Mol, and the industrial partners and Belgonucleaire, Brussel, and Interatom, Bensberg. At the starting point of this development several concepts for FBR's existed, steam cooled, gas cooled, and liquid sodium cooled versions. This was the reason for a relatively broad testing and development programme which took into account the following: (1) commercial austenitic stainless steels with high mechanical strength, (2) commercial nickel-based alloys especially for the purpose of steam cooled FBR's, (3) the development of a series of vanadium-based alloys, and (4) the introduction of dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloys

  14. The Community's research and development programme on radioactive waste management and storage

    This is the first annual progress report of the European Community's 1985-89 programme of research on radioactive waste management and disposal, carried out by public organizations and private firms in the Community under cost-sharing contracts with the Commission of the European Communities. The 1985-89 programme is aiming at perfecting and demonstrating a system for managing the radioactive waste produced by the nuclear industry, ensuring at the various stages the best possible protection of man and the environment. This first report describes the work to be carried out under the research contracts already concluded before end of 1986 as well as the initial work performed and the first results obtained. For each contract, paragraph C ''Progress of work and obtained results'' was prepared by the contractor under the responsibility of the project leader

  15. Evaluation of the Community's research programme ''Nuclear measurements and reference materials'' (1980-1985)

    A panel has evaluated the research programme ''Nuclear measurements and reference materials'' performed by JRC-Geel, CBNM (Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements) during the period 1980-85. Furthermore the panel has considered more general topics such as major facilities, staff and collaboration between JRC-Geel, CBNM and other organizations. Finally, the panel has discussed the future direction of the programme. The panel expressed its satisfaction with the scientific and technical quality of the work and recommended that JRC-Geel, CBNM should continue to play an important role in Europe in the fields of nuclear measurements and nuclear reference materials. The panel also recommended that the underlying research be strengthened and that the nuclear experience and expertise of JRC-Geel, CBNM be utilized for non-nuclear applications

  16. [Horizon 2020, new EU Framework programme for research and innovation, 2014-2020].

    Kinkorová, Judita

    2014-01-01

    Horizon 2020 is a financial instrument implementing the Innovation Union, a Europe 2020 flagship initiative aimed at securing Europes global competitiveness. Running from 2014 to 2020 with a budget of just over € 80 billion, the EUs new programme for research and innovation is part of the drive to create new growth and jobs in Europe. Societal challenge Health, demographic change and wellbeing is an important part of Horizon 2020. PMID:25370773

  17. Overview on recent results of the VTT's research programme on assuring nuclear power plant structural safety

    An overview of the Finnish national research programme on the Nuclear Power Plant Structural Safety, being carried out from 1990 to 1994, is presented. The focus of this paper is on recent results in the areas of experimental and computational fracture mechanics, material deterioration due to neutron irradiation, corrosion and water chemistry, nondestructive testing methods and procedures, and verification of structural integrity assessment methods by large scale component tests. (author). 21 refs, 21 figs, 2 tabs

  18. The Community's research and development programme on decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    The programme, adopted by the Council of the European Communities, seeks to promote a number of research and development projects as well as the identification of guiding principles. The projects concern the following subjects: long-term integrity of buildings and systems; decontaminations for decommissioning purposes; dismantling techniques; treatment of specific waste materials (steel, concrete and graphite); large transport containers for radioactive waste arising from decommissioning of nuclear power plants in the Community; and influence of nuclear power plant design features on decommissioning

  19. Research Capacity Strengthening in Low and Middle Income Countries - An Evaluation of the WHO/TDR Career Development Fellowship Programme.

    Käser, Michael; Maure, Christine; Halpaap, Beatrice M M; Vahedi, Mahnaz; Yamaka, Sara; Launois, Pascal; Casamitjana, Núria

    2016-05-01

    Between August 2012 and April 2013 the Career Development Fellowship programme of the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (World Health Organization) underwent an external evaluation to assess its past performance and determine recommendations for future programme development and continuous performance improvement. The programme provides a year-long training experience for qualified researchers from low and middle income countries at pharmaceutical companies or product development partnerships. Independent evaluators from the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute and the Barcelona Institute for Global Health used a results-based methodology to review the programme. Data were gathered through document review, surveys, and interviews with a range of programme participants. The final evaluation report found the Career Development Fellowship to be relevant to organizers' and programme objectives, efficient in its operations, and effective in its training scheme, which was found to address needs and gaps for both fellows and their home institutions. Evaluators found that the programme has the potential for impact and sustainability beyond the programme period, especially with the successful reintegration of fellows into their home institutions, through which newly-developed skills can be shared at the institutional level. Recommendations included the development of a scheme to support the re-integration of fellows into their home institutions post-fellowship and to seek partnerships to facilitate the scaling-up of the programme. The impact of the Professional Membership Scheme, an online professional development tool launched through the programme, beyond the scope of the Career Development Fellowship programme itself to other applications, has been identified as a positive unintended outcome. The results of this evaluation may be of interest for other efforts in the field of research capacity strengthening in LMICs or, generally, to

  20. Experiments and Research Programmes. Revisiting Vitalism/Non-Vitalism Debate in Early Twentieth Century

    Bijoy MUKHERJEE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Debates in the philosophy of science typically take place around issues such as realism and theory change. Recently, the debate has been reformulated to bring in the role of experiments in the context of theory change. As regards realism, Ian Hacking’s contribution has been to introduce ‘intervention’ as the basis of realism. He also proposed, following Imre Lakatos, to replace the issue of truth with progress and rationality. In this context we examine the case of the vitalism — reductionism debate in biology inspired by the works of Indian physicist-turned-biologist Jagadish Chandra Bose (1858–1937, in the early twentieth century. Both camps had their characteristic hardcores. Vitalists led by John S. Burdon-Sanderson and Augustus D. Waller accepted religious metaphysics to support their research programme, which ultimately degenerated. Bose worked more with the ideals of science such as Occam’s razor, large-scale systematization of phenomena and novel prediction. I argue that his religious metaphysics, instead of acting as a protective shield, helped him to consolidate his position and allowed further problem shift resulting in a research programme that involved consciousness too. His research programme remains relevant even today.

  1. Status of the French research programme for actinides and fission products partitioning and transmutation

    The paper focus on separation and transmutation research and development programme and main results over these ten last years. The massive research programme on enhanced separation, conducted by CEA and supported by broad international cooperation, has recently achieved some vital progress. Based on real solutions derived from the La Hague process, the CEA demonstrated the lab-scale feasibility of extracting minor actinides and some fission products (I, Cs and Tc) using an hydrometallurgical process that can be extrapolated on the industrial scale. The CEA also conducted programmes proving the technical feasibility of the elimination of minor actinides and fission products by transmutation: fabrication of specific targets and fuels for transmutation tests in the HFR and Phenix reactors, neutronics and technology studies for ADS developments in order to support the MEGAPIE, TRADE and MYRRHA experiments and the future 100 MW international ADS demonstrator. Scenarios studies aimed at stabilizing the inventory with long-lived radionuclides, plutonium, minor actinides and certain long-lived fission products in different nuclear power plant parks and to verify the feasibility at the level of the cycle facilities and fuels involved in those scenarios. Three French Research Groups CEA-CNRS carry out partitioning (PRACTIS) and transmutation (NOMADE and GEDEON) more basic studies. (author)

  2. Presentation of the ressac research program (rehabilitation of soils and surfaces after an accident)

    If, despite all the precautions taken in nuclear power plants, a severe accident was to occur in France involving extensive release of radioactive materials to the environment, existing emergency plans would be implemented enabling urgent decisions to be made with regard to the immediate protection of the population: confinement indoors, evacuation, distribution of stable iodine, etc. But, at a later stage, mean and long term actions would have to be carried out to decontaminate the polluted areas and limit subsequent contamination of the food chain, with a view to enabling the populations concerned to return to normal life. These actions would concern, in decreasing order of priority and using the WHO and IAEA definitions, the near field, closest to the accident site, and the far field, subjected to the direct impact of fallout. They should be aimed at reducing external exposure due to deposition and internal exposure by inhalation of radioactive products re-suspended in the atmosphere and by ingestion of products for human consumption. In the context of IPSN (Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety) research and development programs on severe accidents, the RESSAC program was defined in 1985 for the purpose of studying methods and means of rehabilitating the near field and controlling problems related to the far field. Elaboration of the program is presently proceeding at the Nuclear Research Center of CADARACHE, focussed on the following main topics: assessment of what happens to the radionuclides deposited on the soil and vegetation, determination of priorities and how to intervene, management of the waste produced

  3. Co-ordinated research programme on the application of the sterile insect technique for tsetse eradication or control

    This paper gives a review of the co-ordinated research programmes on tsetse flies, and a summary of the results of the fourth programme, entitled Development of Methodologies for the Application of the Sterile Insect Technique for Tsetse Eradication and Control (1984-1988)

  4. Review of current Severe Accident Management (SAM) approaches for Nuclear Power Plants in Europe

    HERMSMEYER Stephan; Iglesias, R.; Herranz, L; REER B.; SONNENKALB M; NOWACK H.; Stefanova, A.; Raimond, E.; CHATELARD P.; FOUCHER Laurent; BARNAK M.; MATEJOVIC P; PASCAL GHISLAIN; VELA GARCIA MONICA; SANGIORGI MARCO

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima accidents highlighted that both the in-depth understanding of such sequences and the development or improvement of adequate Severe Accident Management (SAM) measures are essential in order to further increase the safety of the nuclear power plants operated in Europe. To support this effort, the CESAM (Code for European Severe Accident Management) R&D project, coordinated by GRS, started in April 2013 for 4 years in the 7th EC Framework Programme of research and development of th...

  5. RD and D Programme 98. Treatment and final disposal of nuclear waste. Programme for research, development and demonstration of encapsulation and geological disposal

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    RD and D-Programme 98 is intended to provide an overview of SKBs activities and plans. The detailed research programme is presented in a separate background report. In parallel with RDD-Programme 98, SKB is publishing a number of reports that provide a more thorough background and a more detailed account, particularly on those issues that the Government mentioned in its decision regarding RD and D-Programme 95. The programme is divided into two parts: Background and Execution. The background part begins with a chapter on the basic premises. It deals with general principles, laws and the properties of the waste. The facilities that exist today for dealing with the nuclear waste are also described in the introductory chapter. The two following chapters have to do with the choice between different methods for disposing of nuclear waste and with the KBS-3 method, which SKB has chosen as its main alternative. These two chapters provide a broader account of both the KBS-3 method and different alternative methods than previous RD and D-programmes. The background part concludes with a chapter about the long-term safety of the deep repository. The second part, Execution, begins with an overview of SKBs strategy and the main features of the programme, both for the next few years and further in the future. The plans for siting, technology and safety assessment are then presented in greater detail. This is followed by an overview of our plans for supportive research and development, including continued R and D on other methods than the KBS-3 method. The programme concludes with a chapter on decommissioning of nuclear facilities. An important part of the ongoing and planned work is consultation on environmental impact assessments. A first draft of the contents of future environmental impact statements is therefore provided. By attaching it to RD and D-Programme 98, SKB wishes to give all reviewing bodies an opportunity to offer their viewpoints at an early stage on what future

  6. RD and D Programme 98. Treatment and final disposal of nuclear waste. Programme for research, development and demonstration of encapsulation and geological disposal

    RD and D-Programme 98 is intended to provide an overview of SKBs activities and plans. The detailed research programme is presented in a separate background report. In parallel with RDD-Programme 98, SKB is publishing a number of reports that provide a more thorough background and a more detailed account, particularly on those issues that the Government mentioned in its decision regarding RD and D-Programme 95. The programme is divided into two parts: Background and Execution. The background part begins with a chapter on the basic premises. It deals with general principles, laws and the properties of the waste. The facilities that exist today for dealing with the nuclear waste are also described in the introductory chapter. The two following chapters have to do with the choice between different methods for disposing of nuclear waste and with the KBS-3 method, which SKB has chosen as its main alternative. These two chapters provide a broader account of both the KBS-3 method and different alternative methods than previous RD and D-programmes. The background part concludes with a chapter about the long-term safety of the deep repository. The second part, Execution, begins with an overview of SKBs strategy and the main features of the programme, both for the next few years and further in the future. The plans for siting, technology and safety assessment are then presented in greater detail. This is followed by an overview of our plans for supportive research and development, including continued R and D on other methods than the KBS-3 method. The programme concludes with a chapter on decommissioning of nuclear facilities. An important part of the ongoing and planned work is consultation on environmental impact assessments. A first draft of the contents of future environmental impact statements is therefore provided. By attaching it to RD and D-Programme 98, SKB wishes to give all reviewing bodies an opportunity to offer their viewpoints at an early stage on what future

  7. Research in the field of energy: the priorities of framework programme V and the main trends of the new framework programme

    The features and priorities of the 5th European Framework Programme are discussed. The first action include quality of life and management of living resources; user friendly information society; competitive and sustainable growth and energy, environment and sustainable development (environment, energy and nuclear energy). The key actions are as follows: for environment - sustainable management and quality of water, global change, climate and biodiversity, sustainable marine ecosystems; for energy - cleaner energy systems, including renewable, economic efficient energy; for nuclear energy - controlled thermonuclear fusion, nuclear fission. The priorities of strategic importance to the EU are management of greenhouse gases emissions and climate change; exploiting of the potential of new ICTs in energy RTD including e-science issues; socio-economic research related to energy technologies and their impact; international co-operation, co-ordination with MS research programmes and EU wide research networks; pre-normative research of interest at EU level

  8. Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX) — A component of the Indian Climate Research Programme (ICRP)

    D R Sikka; P Sanjeeva Rao

    2000-06-01

    The Indian Climate Research Programme (ICRP) focuses on the study of climate variability and its impact on agriculture. To address the role of the Bay of Bengal in monsoon variability, a process study was organised during July-August 1999, deploying research ships, buoys, INSAT, coastal radar and conventional observational systems to collect information about the coupled ocean-atmosphere system over the warm waters of the Bay of Bengal. The paper gives the background of the ICRP and the organisation and implementation of the Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX) in its field phase.

  9. US Research Programme to Support Advanced Reactors and Fuel Cycle Options

    Nuclear energy is an essential element of the United States of America’s clean energy portfolio. The US Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy is addressing the challenges to the expansion of civilian nuclear energy through a science based research and development (R&D) programme. This paper describes our research in the areas of advanced reactor technology and fuel cycle options, and our engagements with key stakeholders including international partners, private industry, the regulator and the university community. (author)

  10. Eu-funded nuclear research on plant life management in the 4. and 5. framework programme

    In this paper an overview will be given of the European Union EURATOM research in the field of plant life management and ageing of structural components. The results obtained so far in the projects executed under the 5. framework programme (FP-5/1999-2002) will be presented and discussed in detail. The objectives of the 5. framework programme, which is end-user driven, are: 1) to develop a common basis for the continued safe operation and prolonging the safe operational life-spans of existing nuclear installations; 2) to develop better methods for their inspection, maintenance and management (both in terms of performance and occupational exposure). The following three sections were proposed under this heading of the work programme: Integrity of equipment and structures, on-line monitoring, inspection and maintenance, and organisation and management of safety. Besides the traditional technological challenges, socio-economic concerns are also taken on board, such as public acceptance and cost of the nuclear option as well as plant simplification and man-technology-organisation interaction. An additional challenge for the EU consists of the enlargements process towards Central and Eastern European Countries in the coming years. Therefore FP5 pays attention also to plant safety assessments of VVER reactors and to the spreading of the new safety culture in these candidate countries in co-operation with similar activities run at the Commission especially under the programmes of Tacis/Phare and of the Joint Research Centre (JRC). In the area of plant life management so far 18 projects have been selected for funding by the European Commission. Most of them are costs shared actions, which means that the European Commission on the one hand and the project partners on the other hand provide each 50 % of the necessary funding. The total contract value of the selected projects is about 18 million euros. (authors)

  11. The researches of I.P.S.N. in criticality from the risk prevention to the accident study

    The researches made by I.P.S.N. in the field of prevention of the criticality risk turn on: the development and the qualification of calculation tools; the expertise in technical help of the I.P.S.N. units in charge of safety evaluations of facilities and transport of fissile matter; studies of criticality to the demand of operators and facilities managers; researches in order to extend the knowledge in matter of criticality. The second part of this report concerns the study of criticality accidents themselves. The objectives of these studies is to bring elements and knowledge relative to the criticality excursions and their consequences on the personnel and environment. The knowledge of these accidents is necessary to deepen the evaluation of the installations safety, to optimize the detection and to prepare an intervention. A table gives the criticality accidents from 1945 to 1999 in the world with, the date, the exposure, the total number of fission, the accident historic, the characteristics of the fissile matter and a summary of the accident. The last part relates the Tokai MURA criticality accident. (N.C.)

  12. Campfire-2000: Comprehensive Accident Management Program Featuring Innovative Research and Engineering for the Year 2000 and Beyond

    The CAMPFIRE-2000 accident management program is being developed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute symphonizing the proven state-of-the-art technologies and newly proposed innovative research and engineering. The ultimate goal of the program is to resolve the plant-specific accident management issues utilizing a coherent, consistent, pragmatic, methodical approach. The program focuses on the preventive measures to maintain reactor core geometry and the mitigative measures to secure containment integrity, should a severe accident take place in a nuclear power plant. CAMPFIRE-2000 consists of strategy assessment methods, guidance and procedures, instrumentation and information, calculational aids and tools, human and organization factors, handbook of accident management, and technical expert system. In particular, the one most immediate issue involves the simulation of the rather rapid cooling of the core debris and the reactor vessel lower head of be Three Mile Island Unit 2 nuclear plant as has recently been identified from post-accident metallurgical testing of the sample specimens. As a top-notch companion experiment for CAMPFIRE-2000, a large-scale, real-material, high pressure system test SONATA-IV is proposed as a multi-lateral, multi-disciplinary project calling for international collaboration to investigate the potentially inherent, naturally-occurring in-vessel cooling mechanism from the very relevant severe accident management perspective

  13. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Production of wood fuels; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Puupolttoaineen tuotantotekniikka

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Center TEKES. The aim of the Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The main goal of the wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m{sup 3}). During the year 1995 There were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About ten projects was carried out to promote the wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were firewood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. The new machine gives a new logistic solution resulting in high productivity and reasonable operating costs. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 m{sup 3} of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved

  14. Research on Promising Cladding Materials for Accident Tolerant Fuels at KIT

    Research on nuclear materials has a long tradition at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and its precursors, the Research Centre Karlsruhe and Nuclear Research Centre Karlsruhe. Examples of the common research fields are the study of material processes occurring during loss of coolant and severe accidents and the development of materials for GEN- IV reactors. These experiences have inspirited the application of the existing knowledge to develop and test candidate materials for so called accident tolerant fuel (ATF) claddings. Silicon carbide, alumina-forming modified layers and ternary carbides coatings (e.g. MAX-phases) on zirconium alloys are some of the considered solutions for this novel cladding systems which should be able to sustain very high temperature, beyond designs basis. At KIT different solutions are nowadays under investigation. An approach called GESA method, consists of Al-containing layers deposition followed by intense pulsed electron beam processing. This method can be used to manufacture alumina-forming modified layers. Moreover, different deposition methods are currently under evaluation for ternary carbides coatings (V-, Zr-Based). Other major topics of these studies are the investigation of the high temperature oxidation and quench behaviour of silicon carbide (SiC) as monolith and composite cladding tubes. Despite the studies already performed on these materials, assessments are still required concerning the joining feasibility and the behaviour in case of severe accident scenarios (beyond design basis conditions). Hence, steam oxidation studies along with quench tests at temperature between 1600°C and 2000°C have been performed. This work is aimed at implementing bundle experiments in the QUENCH facility, already available at KIT. The joining of SiC based components for assembling complex structures is a scientific and engineering challenge since conventional welding processes cannot be applied due to their non-wetting nature

  15. Environmental research programme. Ecological research. Annual report 1994. Urban-industrial landscapes, forests, agricultural landscapes, river and lake landscapes, terrestrial ecosystem research, environmental pollution and health

    In the annual report 1994 of the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology, the points of emphasis of the ecological research programme and their financing are discussed. The individual projects in the following subject areas are described in detail: urban-industrial landscapes, forests, agricultural landscapes, river and lake landscapes, other ecosystems and landscapes, terrestrial ecosystem research, environmental pollution and human health and cross-sectional activities in ecological research. (vhe)

  16. Compendium of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's research projects related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor power station in the USSR on April 26, 1986, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) initiated a number of research projects as follows: (1) selected sites in both the Deposition and Surface Air networks were alerted and their sampling protocols adjusted to accommodate the anticipated arrival times and activity concentrations of the Chernobyl debris; (2) a number of cooperative programs involving field work, sampling, analysis and data interpretation were set up with institutions and scientists in other countries; (3) EML's Regional Baseline Station at Chester, NJ, as well as the roof of the Laboratory in New York City, provided bases for sampling and measurements to study the radionuclide concentrations, radiation levels, physical characteristics and potential biological implications of the Chernobyl fallout on the northeastern United States; and (4) the resulting fallout from the Chernobyl accident provided an 'experiment of opportunity' in that it enabled us to study fresh fission product deposition using collection systems resurrected from the 1950's and 1960's for comparison with current state-of-the-art methodology. The 13 reports of this volume have been entered separately into the data base

  17. Compendium of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's research projects related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    Volchok, H L; Chieco, N [comps.

    1986-10-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor power station in the USSR on April 26, 1986, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) initiated a number of research projects as follows: (1) selected sites in both the Deposition and Surface Air networks were alerted and their sampling protocols adjusted to accommodate the anticipated arrival times and activity concentrations of the Chernobyl debris; (2) a number of cooperative programs involving field work, sampling, analysis and data interpretation were set up with institutions and scientists in other countries; (3) EML's Regional Baseline Station at Chester, NJ, as well as the roof of the Laboratory in New York City, provided bases for sampling and measurements to study the radionuclide concentrations, radiation levels, physical characteristics and potential biological implications of the Chernobyl fallout on the northeastern United States; and (4) the resulting fallout from the Chernobyl accident provided an 'experiment of opportunity' in that it enabled us to study fresh fission product deposition using collection systems resurrected from the 1950's and 1960's for comparison with current state-of-the-art methodology. The 13 reports of this volume have been entered separately into the data base.

  18. Assessment Of Source Term And Radiological Consequences For Design Basis Accident And Beyond Design Basis Accident Of The Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    The paper presents results of the assessment of source terms and radiological consequences for the Design Basis Accident (DBA) and Beyond Design Basis Accident (BDBA) of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor. The dropping of one fuel assembly during fuel handling operation leading to the failure of fuel cladding and the release of fission products into the environment was selected as a DBA for the analysis. For the BDBA, the introduction of a step positive reactivity due to the falling of a heavy block from the rotating bridge crane in the reactor hall onto a part of the platform where are disposed the control rod drives is postulated. The result of the radiological consequence analyses shows that doses to members of the public are below annual dose limit for both DBA and BDBA events. However, doses from exposure to operating staff and experimenters working inside the reactor hall are predicted to be very high in case of BDBA and therefore the protective actions should be taken when the accident occurs. (author)

  19. Bioenergy research programme. Yearbook 1996. Production of wood fuels; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma. Vuosikirja 1996. Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka

    Nikku, P. [ed.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels, new equipment and methods for production, handling and utilisation of biofuels. The total funding for 1996 was 27.3 million FIM and the number of projects 63. The number of projects concerning wood fuels production was 36. The main goals of the research are to develop new production methods for wood fuels in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels (100 km distance). The second goal is to decrease the small scale production costs by 20 % as compared with the 1992 technology level. Also, new harvesting technology and new work methods will be developed for forest owners and small-entrepreneurs in the course of the programme. Results of the projects carried out in 1996 in this programme are presented in this publication. The integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to wood products industry and wood fuel for energy production, have been chosen the main research areas because they seem to be most promising. Most of the projects are focused in the wood fuel production from first thinnings and from final fellings. The projects broadly covered the research area focusing from material flows, productivity studies, basic wood properties to several case studies. The follow up project of Evaluation-drum chipper was completed with good fuel quality and productivity results. Also the large Forest Energy Project of Central Finland was completed. The project was a significant technology transfer and information dissemination project. (orig.)

  20. A scientometric evaluation of the Chagas disease implementation research programme of the PAHO and TDR.

    Ana Laura Carbajal-de-la-Fuente

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR is an independent global programme of scientific collaboration cosponsored by the United Nations Children's Fund, the United Nations Development Program, the World Bank, and the World Health Organization. TDR's strategy is based on stewardship for research on infectious diseases of poverty, empowerment of endemic countries, research on neglected priority needs, and the promotion of scientific collaboration influencing global efforts to combat major tropical diseases. In 2001, in view of the achievements obtained in the reduction of transmission of Chagas disease through the Southern Cone Initiative and the improvement in Chagas disease control activities in some countries of the Andean and the Central American Initiatives, TDR transferred the Chagas Disease Implementation Research Programme (CIRP to the Communicable Diseases Unit of the Pan American Health Organization (CD/PAHO. This paper presents a scientometric evaluation of the 73 projects from 18 Latin American and European countries that were granted by CIRP/PAHO/TDR between 1997 and 2007. We analyzed all final reports of the funded projects and scientific publications, technical reports, and human resource training activities derived from them. Results about the number of projects funded, countries and institutions involved, gender analysis, number of published papers in indexed scientific journals, main topics funded, patents inscribed, and triatomine species studied are presented and discussed. The results indicate that CIRP/PAHO/TDR initiative has contributed significantly, over the 1997-2007 period, to Chagas disease knowledge as well as to the individual and institutional-building capacity.

  1. Programme of research and development on plutonium recycling in light-water reactors; indirect nuclear action

    This report is a summary of the results obtained during the five-year programme 'Plutonium recycle in LWRs' (1975-79) which has been made possible after the completion of the synthesis studies on 'Control and Safety' and on the 'Environmental impact'. The work performed during the programme is reported; the contracts concluded and their main results and conclusions are summarized. The activity was devoted to studies of general interest and to R and D in order to improve the scientific and technical knowledge of plutonium recycling. General studies included an assessment of the environmental impact of plutonium recycling in the EC as well as research aimed at reducing this impact. Improvements were achieved on neutron-physics parameters of the actinides, on neutron computer codes for plutonium-fuelled LWRs, on control and safety and on the in-pile behaviour of mixed-oxide fuels. The conclusions state that, while fostering a fruitful exchange of information in the Community, the programme has contributed to demonstrating the feasibility of plutonium recycling in LWRs

  2. Co-ordinated research programme on nuclear techniques for toxic elements in foodstuffs

    The purpose of this Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) is to obtain comparative data on the existing elemental concentrations of potentially toxic elements in foodstuffs in various countries. This study is also intended to provide information on the dietary intakes of toxic elements as a means to detect potential health hazards to the population groups concerned. This study has important economic implications since trade in foodstuffs is dependent on compliance with regulations pertaining to maximum permissible concentrations. An important supplementary purpose of the programme is to help establish analytical expertise for work of this kind in individual countries, allowing such laboratories to offer analytical quality control services. The programme has centred its objective on the determination of important toxic elements such as As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb and Se, in addition to Cu, Sb and Zn, which are also potentially toxic but are generally of minor importance from the point of view of public health. The matrices of interest are foodstuffs which comprise together more than 50% of the average daily intake. Drinking water is also of high importance and should be analysed as well. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Dismantling and rehabilitation programme of nuclear and radioactive facilities at the Spanish Research Centre (CIEMAT)

    Ciemat was gradually proceeding to the decommissioning of its more than 60 historical facilities. At present, a general decommissioning programme has been established that includes, to a different extent, all radioactive and nuclear facilities and their areas of influence, particularly those related to the front-end and back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, hot cells and three experimental reactors. The purpose of the programme is to manage a model of a research centre integrating, on one side, a set of radioactive and conventional facilities and laboratories, and, on the other, a small area temporarily classified as a nuclear facility dedicated to the radioactive wastes management and providing an interim storage for materials under safeguards. The largest part of the radioactive wastes produced will be sent to El Cabril, a near surface disposal facility for low and intermediate level wastes, and the rest will be temporarily stored at Ciemat. This paper presents the main features of the programme and the lessons learned in its execution so far. (author)

  4. Development of theory-based health messages: three-phase programme of formative research.

    Epton, Tracy; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter; Webb, Thomas; Snowsill, F Alexandra; Sheeran, Paschal

    2015-09-01

    Online health behaviour interventions have great potential but their effectiveness may be hindered by a lack of formative and theoretical work. This paper describes the process of formative research to develop theoretically and empirically based health messages that are culturally relevant and can be used in an online intervention to promote healthy lifestyle behaviours among new university students. Drawing on the Theory of Planned Behaviour, a three-phase programme of formative research was conducted with prospective and current undergraduate students to identify (i) modal salient beliefs (the most commonly held beliefs) about fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, binge drinking and smoking, (ii) which beliefs predicted intentions/behaviour and (iii) reasons underlying each of the beliefs that could be targeted in health messages. Phase 1, conducted with 96 pre-university college students, elicited 56 beliefs about the behaviours. Phase 2, conducted with 3026 incoming university students, identified 32 of these beliefs that predicted intentions/behaviour. Phase 3, conducted with 627 current university students, elicited 102 reasons underlying the 32 beliefs to be used to construct health messages to bolster or challenge these beliefs. The three-phase programme of formative research provides researchers with an example of how to develop health messages with a strong theoretical- and empirical base for use in health behaviour change interventions. PMID:24504361

  5. A study of the National Physical Laboratory microdosimetry research programme in collaboration with the University of Leeds

    A study of the present programme of work carried out by the National Physical Laboratory and the University of Leeds, has been carried out. The study is based on the use of the tissue-equivalent proportional counter in microdosimetic techniques in radiation protection for monoenergetic neutrons or reference radionuclide neutron sources. This report comments on the programme as a whole and provides recommendations for future research work, taking into account the research programmes carried out at other institutions. It also attempts to summarise the present state of knowledge and experience associated with the application of this technique to radiation fields met in routine radiation protection. (author)

  6. Compilation of anatomical, physiological and metabolic characteristics for a Reference Asian Man. Volume 2: Country reports. Results of a co-ordinated research programme 1988-1993

    The coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Compilation of Anatomical, Physiological and Metabolic Characteristics for a Reference Asian Man has been conducted as a programme of the IAEA Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) for Asia and the Pacific. The CRP was conducted to provide data for radiation protection purposes that is relevant to the biokinetic and dosimetric characteristics of the ethnic populations in the Asian region The radiological protection decisions that had to be made in the RCA member States following the Chernobyl accident were a significant motivation for establishing the CRP. Funding for the RCM by the Government of Japan is gratefully acknowledged. The IAEA wishes to thank S. Kobayashi for his efforts in support of the CRP. The IAEA extends its appreciation to the Japanese National Institute of Radiological Sciences for acting as the technical secretariat to co-ordinate the work of data compilation. Specifically, the IAEA acknowledges the contributions of H. Kawamura, G. Tanaka and T. Koyanagi. Appreciation is also extended to the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan, the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India, and the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences for the valuable contribution they made to the CRP as hosts for the RCMS. The IAEA officers responsible for this publication were A. Moiseev and R.V. Griffith of the Division of Radiation and Waste Safety. This publication is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 contains a summary of the data and conclusions from the project and Volume 2 the reports from participating countries

  7. A European collaboration research programme to study and test large scale base isolated structures

    The improvement of the technology of innovative anti-seismic mechanisms, as those for base isolation and energy dissipation, needs of testing capability for large scale models of structures integrated with these mechanisms. These kind experimental tests are of primary importance for the validation of design rules and the setting up of an advanced earthquake engineering for civil constructions of relevant interest. The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission offers the European Laboratory for Structural Assessment located at Ispra - Italy, as a focal point for an international european collaboration research programme to test large scale models of structure making use of innovative anti-seismic mechanisms. A collaboration contract, opened to other future contributions, has been signed with the national italian working group on seismic isolation (Gruppo di Lavoro sull's Isolamento Sismico GLIS) which includes the national research centre ENEA, the national electricity board ENEL, the industrial research centre ISMES and producer of isolators ALGA. (author). 3 figs

  8. National Plan for Research - Development and Innovation, CERES Programme. Annual Scientific Session

    The CERES Programme is a research program organized in the frame of Institut of Atomic Physics, Bucharest, Romania. The annual scientific session held in Bucharest on December 2-3, 2002 covered the following 9 sections (projects): Mathematics (2); Physics (85); Chemistry (14); Engineering (2); Earth Sciences (13); Life Sciences (8); Economics and Social Studies (4); Culture (4); Works received after the deadline. The most numerous contributions within the INIS scope addressed subjects from the fields: theoretical and experimental nuclear physics, seismic survey and prognoses, high energy physics and quantum field theory, physical properties of materials, nuclear spectroscopic instrumentation, nuclear methods in isotopic analysis. The contributors presented their results obtained under research contracts supported by the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research in the period October 15, 2001 - October 15, 2002. Many of the reported research works were done in collaborations with international organizations or institutes from abroad

  9. Severe accident phenomena

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  10. Synergy between nuclear research, innovation and education: the EURATOM approach to NKM and application in community RTD framework programmes

    Full text: In this keynote paper, the following questions are addressed: 1) What are the innovation challenges in energy technologies, in particular, in nuclear fission, that the European industry and research organisations are faced with ? in the short (today), medium (2015) and long term (2040) ? 2) What kind of response do the EURATOM research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDDD) programmes offer as solution to the above challenges ? and what has been achieved so far, using the Community instruments ? In the general debate about innovation in energy technologies in the EU-27, there are two types of challenges: 1) scientific and technological (S/T) challenges related to research and technological development: the main instrument provided by the EU is the research Framework Programme (FP) 2) economic and political (E/P) challenges related to engineering demonstration and industrial deployment: the main instruments provided by the EU are economic and regulatory incentives. To facilitate the industrial deployment of modern energy infrastructures in Europe, the stakeholders (in particular, the systems suppliers and the energy providers) are looking for their national governments, together with the EU, to play a triple role: 1) initiator of ambitious research and development programmes: e.g. to orient public funding to visionary research programmes (basic and applied) on well targeted issues with potential breakthroughs and to cosponsor large infrastructures of common interest to be shared for research and training 2) financial investor: e.g. to support and facilitate investments for demonstration and deployment, especially during the transition period between two technological steps (in particular, when going from the current traditional economy to the future 'clean, clever and competitive' economy) 3) regulator to ensure that the citizens' interests are defended and that the industrial competition is fair (level playing field at international level): e

  11. Regulatory research of the PWR severe accident information needs and instrumentation availability for hydrogen control and management

    Park, Jae-Hong; Park, Gun-Chul; Suh, Kune Y.; Kang, Yun-Moon; Lee, Un-Jang; Oh, Se-Chul; Lee, Jin-Yong [Seoul Nationl Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    During the current research period, we have set forth the methodology for identification of a severe accident, developed a framework for hydrogen management decision trees, and analyzed the literature on hydrogen management and experimental data for hydrogen bum. Specifically, we have summarized me results for information needs in a severe accident obtained in the U.S. and other countries, and applied the methodology to the reference plant YGN 3 and 4 as part of severe accident management. We have also examined the existing instruments in terms of their availability and survivability during a severe accident, and identified additionally needed information needs and instruments. We have identified dominant accident sequences for me reference plant YGN 3 and 4 to construct decision trees, and extracted available data from the IPE study of the plant. Based upon the data we have performed preliminary study on the decision tree and decision node. Last, we have examined various mechanisms for hydrogen generation and reIevant experimental data to predict me amount of hydrogen generation and governing factors in me process. We have also reviewed the hydrogen generation related models in the severe accident analysis.

  12. Regulatory research of the PWR severe accident information needs and instrumentation availability for hydrogen control and management

    During the current research period, we have set forth the methodology for identification of a severe accident, developed a framework for hydrogen management decision trees, and analyzed the literature on hydrogen management and experimental data for hydrogen bum. Specifically, we have summarized me results for information needs in a severe accident obtained in the U.S. and other countries, and applied the methodology to the reference plant YGN 3 and 4 as part of severe accident management. We have also examined the existing instruments in terms of their availability and survivability during a severe accident, and identified additionally needed information needs and instruments. We have identified dominant accident sequences for me reference plant YGN 3 and 4 to construct decision trees, and extracted available data from the IPE study of the plant. Based upon the data we have performed preliminary study on the decision tree and decision node. Last, we have examined various mechanisms for hydrogen generation and reIevant experimental data to predict me amount of hydrogen generation and governing factors in me process. We have also reviewed the hydrogen generation related models in the severe accident analysis

  13. Evaluation of the medical student research programme in Norwegian medical schools. A survey of students and supervisors

    Tømmerås Karin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Medical Student Research Programme is a national education and grant scheme for medical students who wish to carry out research in parallel with their studies. The purpose of the programme is to increase recruitment of people with a standard medical degree to medical research. The Research Programme was established in 2002 and underwent a thorough evaluation during the spring of 2007. The evaluation should investigate if the programme had fulfilled its objectives of increased recruitment to medical research, in addition to the students' and supervisors' satisfaction of the programme, and unwanted differences between the universities. Methods Data was collected from students, supervisors and administrative staff via web-based questionnaires. Information about admission, implementation, results achieved and satisfaction was analysed and compared between the four Norwegian medical schools. In addition, the position of the scheme in relation to the national Quality Reform of Higher Education was analysed. Results At the end of 2006, the Medical Student Research Programme had recruited 265 medical students to research. These consisted of 214 active students, 35 who had completed their studies and only 17 who had dropped out. Both students and supervisors were generally very satisfied with the scheme, including the curriculum, the results achieved and the administrative service. The majority of students wanted to continue their research towards a PhD and, of those who had completed the Medical Student Research Programme, practically all had published one or several scientific papers. The survey showed only small differences between the four medical schools, despite their choice of somewhat different solutions in terms of administration and organisation. The Medical Student Research Programme satisfies the majority of the demands of the Quality Reform, however as an integrated research programme aimed at a PhD it presupposes

  14. YKAe Research programme on nuclear power plant systems behaviour and operational aspects of safety 1990-1994, Final report

    The research programme on Nuclear Power Plant Systems Behaviour and Operational Aspects of Safety was carried out between 1990 and 1994. In the field of Safe operational margins of nuclear fuel and reactor core, an up-to-date steady-state fuel performance model was validated for higher burn-ups and well-characterized VVER fuel experiments were carried out. A comprehensive reactor analysis code system was extended and validated for complex 3-D phenomena, such as ATWS and boron dilution transients. Advanced hydraulics methods were added to the dynamics codes. Experiments were carried out with PACTEL, the most comprehensive thermal-hydraulic test facility for VVER-440-type reactors worldwide. For example, a series of natural circulation tests were provided for the first VVER-related international standard problem of the OECD/NEA. Advanced foreign computer codes for severe accidents were evaluated and modified for the needs of Finnish power plants. Specific progress was made in modelling the reflooding of an overheated core and in the structural analysis of a pressure vessel under corium load, as well as in experimental and theoretical studies of aerosol and hydrogen behaviour. Fire modelling was improved by implementing advanced calculation methods and by validating them against our own experiments and international test data. Techniques in living probabilistic safety assessment and risk decision-making were refined in pilot applications for continuous monitoring, follow-up and management of risks of an operating power plant. In the area of human reliability and organizational performance, factors important for the continuous development of the competence of control room operator teams and plant maintenance staff were identified. (237 refs., 75 figs., 13 tabs.)

  15. Computer code for the analyses of reactivity initiated accident of heavy water moderated and cooled research reactor 'EUREKA-2D'

    Codes, such as EUREKA and EUREKA-2 have been developed to analyze the reactivity initiated accident for light water reactor. These codes could not be applied directly for the analyses of heavy water moderated and cooled research reactor which are different from light water reactor not only on operation condition but also on reactor kinetic constants. EUREKA-2D which is modified EUREKA-2 is a code for the analyses of reactivity initiated accident of heavy water research reactors. Following items are modified: 1) reactor kinetic constants. 2) thermodynamic properties of coolant. 3) heat transfer equations. The feature of EUREKA-2D and an example of analysis are described in this report. (author)

  16. Euratom research on future systems in the Fifth and Sixth Framework Programmes

    Full text: As one of the energy sources of the European Union (EU), nuclear power had an important role in the debate launched by the Green Paper 'Towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply', which was presented in 2000 by the European Commission. Nuclear energy will remain open to those Member States, which consider it to be an option. The European Commission is supporting research on the potential of innovative concepts for safer exploitation of nuclear fission, as a possible contribution to meeting European energy needs in the decades ahead. This support helps maintaining the EU leading position in the field of civil nuclear technology and retaining the necessary expertise. The fifth framework programme (FP5) (1998 - 2002) of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) has two specific programmes on nuclear energy, one for indirect research and training actions managed by the Research Directorate General and the other for direct actions performed by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. The indirect actions cover research co-sponsored and managed by the DG Research, but carried out by external public and private organisations as multi-partner projects. The direct actions cover research carried out directly by the Joint Research Centre. The specific programme, 'Research and training programme in the field of nuclear energy', includes research on controlled thermonuclear fusion, nuclear fission, and radiological sciences. The research activities for the indirect actions on nuclear fission and radiological sciences during FP5 cover four areas: (i) operational safety of existing installations; (ii) safety of the fuel cycle (waste and spent fuel management and disposal, partitioning and transmutation and decommissioning of nuclear installations); (iii) safety and efficiency of future systems, and (iv) radiation protection and radiological sciences. The objective of 'safety and efficiency of future systems' is to investigate and

  17. Radiation protection research and training programme 1990-91 Catalogue of contracts

    This catalogue contains summaries of contacts included in the 1990-91 radiation protection research and training programme, which is divided into three sectors: (a) human exposure to radiation and radioactivity: (i) measurement of radiation dose and its interpretation, (ii) transfer and behaviour of radionuclides in the environment; (b) consequences of radiation exposure to man; their assessment, prevention and treatment: (i) stochastic effects of radiation, (ii) non-stochastic effects of radiation, (iii) radiation effects on the developing organism; (c) risks and management of radiation exposure: (i) assessment of human exposure and risks, (ii) optimization and management of radiation protection

  18. Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health' (EGH). Working draft

    to that outcome, in particular, focusing on new studies which have appeared since the UNSCEAR 2000 report. This is followed by the assessment made by the various expert panels at their meetings, as described above. Within this assessment, each topic, e.g., epidemiology, biology, etc., is divided into a consensus, i.e., conclusions that the experts feel can reasonably be made at this time, followed by a section on gaps in knowledge, where important gaps are identified. Finally, a series of recommendations regarding future scientific research are provided within each discipline. Section 6 is devoted to a description of the various health systems operating in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine and is followed by recommendations that the expert group thought to be most appropriate in these areas. The objectives of this report are 1) to provide the scientific and lay community with an assessment of the current status of information regarding health consequences of the Chernobyl accident and 2) to provide appropriate authorities and agencies with a series of detailed recommendations for future directions both in research and with respect to the health systems operating in the three countries that have been most severely affected by the world's worst nuclear accident

  19. Main achievements in minor actinides partitioning in the frame of the european new part research programme

    One of the main concerns related to the disposal in deep geological repository of the conditioned nuclear wastes generated after reprocessing of spent fuels is related to the presence within these wastes of long lived radionuclides (LLRNs), and particularly those of the so-called minor actinides, neptunium, americium (Am) and curium (Cm). Within its 4. Framework programme (FWP), covering the period 1996-1999, the European Union supported several research contracts in order to define processes for the Partitioning of the LLRNs from the wastes in view of their subsequent Transmutation (P-T scenario) or Conditioning (P-C scenario). NEWPART was one of these contract aiming to define solvent extraction processes for Am and Cm partitioning. The main achievements obtained in the course of this research are highlighted in this article. The research carried out within the NEWPART programme was highly successful: several DIAMEX and SANEX processes were developed and successfully tested in hot conditions for the partitioning of Am and Cm. About fifty papers were published in International Journals and Proceedings of International Conferences. The European collaboration in this field will be pursued within the 52. FWP of the European Union during the period 1999-2002. (authors)

  20. Research plan on programmable automation systems in nuclear power plants (OHA) in 1995-1998

    The main purpose of nuclear energy research is to ensure the safety and continued development of Finnish nuclear power plants - a task which places high demands on expertise needed to support the work of public authorities and power companies. A factor necessarily influencing the orientation of the research is the Parliament's decision of late 1993 against further nuclear capacity in the country. Therefore the main emphasis of research shall be directed towards the ensuring the safety of existing plants and the continuous development of their safety along the progress of the science and technology. Anyhow, the preparedness for constructing new plants shall also be preserved. The utilization of programmable digital automation technology for the safety critical functions is the most significant change in the new plants, but also in existing plants this technology will be used for replacing and complementing the ageing automation systems. The safety evaluation of programmable digital systems can not be based on methods applied to conventional analog systems but new evaluation methods and tools must be developed for the assessing of their acceptability. (5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.)

  1. Co-ordinated research programme on operator support systems in nuclear power plants. Working material

    In September 1991 the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Operator Support Systems (OSSs) in Nuclear Power Plants'' was approved in the framework of the Project ''Man-Machine Interface Studies''. The main objective of the programme is to provide guidance and technology transfer in the development and implementation of OSSs. This includes the experience with man-machine interfaces and closely related issues such as control and instrumentation, the use of computers, and operator qualification. The first Co-ordinated Research Meeting held in Vienna, 13-16 October 1992, prepared a summary report which defined the tasks and the responsibilities of the CRP participants. A time schedule and future actions were also agreed upon at this meeting. The second meeting was held in Budapest, Hungary, from 5 to 8 October 1993 and was sponsored by the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute. The meeting reviewed the progress of the tasks defined by the first meeting, considered reports on national activities in the subject area, and agreed on time schedule and future actions. The present volume contains: (1) report prepared by the CRP meeting, (2) reports presented by the national delegates, and (3) CRP background and working plan. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Status of the INL high-temperature electrolysis research programme - experimental and modelling

    This paper provides a status update on the high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) research and development programme at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), with an overview of recent large-scale system modelling results and the status of the experimental programme. System analysis results have been obtained using the commercial code UniSim, augmented with a custom high-temperature electrolyser module. The process flow diagrams for the system simulations include an advanced nuclear reactor as a source of high-temperature process heat, a power cycle and a coupled steam electrolysis loop. Several reactor types and power cycles have been considered, over a range of reactor coolant outlet temperatures. In terms of experimental research, the INL has recently completed an Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) HTE test at the 15 kW level. The initial hydrogen production rate for the ILS test was in excess of 5000 litres per hour. Details of the ILS design and operation will be presented. Current small-scale experimental research is focused on improving the degradation characteristics of the electrolysis cells and stacks. Small-scale testing ranges from single cells to multiple-cell stacks. The INL is currently in the process of testing several state-of-the-art anode-supported cells and is working to broaden its relationship with industry in order to improve the long-term performance of the cells. (authors)

  3. Partitioning and transmutation research in the EURATOM fifth and sixth framework programmes

    Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) of long-lived radionuclides in nuclear waste is one of the most notable research areas of the EURATOM Fifth (1998-2002) as well as the sixth (2002-2006) framework programmes (FP). The objective of research work in this area is to provide a basis for evaluating the practicability, on an industrial scale, of P and T for reducing the amount of long lived radionuclides to be disposed of thus easing the waste management problem. In FP5, there are 13 projects in the area of P and T with a total budget of about euros 69 M of which the EU contribution is about euros 28 M. A network ADOPT co-ordinates the activities of the accelerator-driven system (ADS) design project with those of the four clusters, one on chemical separation PARTITION and three on transmutation, Basic studies (BASTRA), Technological studies (TESTRA) and Fuel studies (FEUTRA). Each of these clusters is formed by 3-4 projects, which are briefly described. A sketch of the proposed P and T research work programme of FP6 is also given where one of the spot-lights is on the nuclear waste management. International co-operation in the area of P and T with non-EU countries including the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is also outlined. (author)

  4. HIV and gender-based violence: welcome policies and programmes, but is the research keeping up?

    Gruskin, Sofia; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Moore, Chelsea L; Steiner, Riley J; Dworkin, Shari L

    2014-11-01

    The global HIV policy arena has seen a surge of interest in gender-related dimensions of vulnerability to HIV and violence. UNAIDS and other prominent actors have named gender-based violence a key priority, and there seems to be genuine understanding and commitment to addressing gender inequalities as they impact key populations in the AIDS response. In the quest for evidence-informed interventions, there is usually a strong connection between the research conducted and the policies and programmes that follow. Regarding gender, HIV and violence, is this the case? This discussion paper asks whether the relevant peer-reviewed literature is suitably representative of all affected populations--including heterosexual men, transgender men and women, women who have sex with women, and men who have sex with men--as well as whether the literature sufficiently considers gender norms and dynamics in how research is framed. Conclusions about violence in the context of heterosexual relationships, and with specific attention to heterosexual women, should not be presented as insights about gender-based violence more generally, with little attention to gender dynamics. Research framed by a more comprehensive understanding of what is meant by gender-based violence as it relates to all of the diverse populations affected by HIV would potentially guide policies and programmes more effectively. PMID:25555774

  5. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Results from the IPHECA pilot projects and related national programmes. Summary report from WHO 1995

    The main conclusions drawn from the investigations are that the Chernobyl accident caused psychosocial problems due to poor information just after the accident, and stresses and traumas inter alia due to forced relocation. A marked increase of thyroid cancer among children has been demonstrated. However, no significant increase in the frequency of leukemia has been observed., 2 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Waste management research abstracts no. 22. Information on radioactive waste programmes in progress

    The research abstracts contained in this issue have been collected during recent months and cover the period between January 1992 - February 1994 (through July 1994 for abstracts from the United States). The abstracts reflect research currently in progress in the field of radioactive waste management: environmental impacts, site selection, decontamination and decommissioning, environmental restoration and legal aspects of radioactive waste management. Though the information contained in this publication covers a wide range of programmes in many countries, the WMRA should not be interpreted as providing a complete survey of on-going research and IAEA Member States. For the first time, the abstracts published in document are only in English language. In addition, the abstracts received for this issue have been assigned INIS subject category codes and thesaurus terms to facilitate searches and also to fully utilize established sets of technical categories and terms

  7. Atmospheric dispersion modeling and radiological safety analysis for a hypothetical accident of Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1)

    Highlights: • An atmospheric dispersion model for a hypothetical accident of Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) was developed. • Radiological safety analysis after the postulated accident was also carried out. • The MCNPX and HotSpot codes were used to achieve the objectives of our study. • All the values of effective dose obtained following the accident were far below the regulatory limits. - Abstract: Atmospheric dispersion modeling and radiological safety analysis were performed for a postulated accident scenario of the generic Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) core. The source term was generated from an inventory of peak radioisotope activities released by using the isotope generation code MCNPX. The health physics code, HotSpot, was used to perform the atmospheric transport modeling which was then applied to calculate the total effective dose and how it would be distributed to human organs as a function of distance downwind. All accident scenarios were selected from the GHARR-1 Safety Analysis Report (SAR), assuming that the activities were released to the atmosphere after a design basis accident. The adopted methodology was the use of predominant site-specific meteorological data and dispersion modeling theories to analyze the incident of a hypothetical release to the environment of some selected radionuclides from the site and evaluate to what extent such a release may have radiological effects on the public. The results indicate that all the values of Effective dose obtained, with the maximum of 2.62 × 10−2 mSv at 110 m from the reactor, were far below the regulatory limits, making the use of the reactor safe, even in the event of severe accident scenario

  8. Overview of EU research activities in transmutation and innovative reactor systems within the Euratom framework programmes

    European Community (EC) (currently 27 Member States) shared-cost research has been organised in Framework Programmes (FP) of durations of 4 - 5 years since 1984. The 6th European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) Framework Programme (2002 - 06) and the current 7th FP (2007 - 11) have been allocated a fission research budget respectively of 209 and 287 Million Euro from the EC. There are 10 projects (total budget 70 M Euro, EC contribution 38 M Euro) in all aspects of transmutation ranging from road-mapping exercise to large integrated projects on accelerator driven systems, lead-cooled fast critical systems for waste transmutation, technology, fuel, accelerator facilities for nuclear data etc. In Innovative Reactor concepts, there are about half-a-dozen projects (total budget 30 M Euro, EC contribution 16 M Euro) including High Temperature Reactors, Gas-cooled Fast reactors, road-mapping exercise on sodium fast reactors etc. The main research and training activities in FP7 are: management of radioactive waste, reactor systems, radiation protection, infrastructures, human resources and mobility and training. In the two call for proposals (2007 and 2008) in FP7, 8 projects have been accepted in transmutation and innovative reactor concepts (total budget 53 M Euro, EC contribution 32 M Euro). These research projects cover activities ranging from materials, fuels, treatment of irradiated graphite waste, European sodium fast reactor to the establishment of a Central Design Team of a fast-spectrum transmutation device in Europe. The third call for proposals is underway requesting proposals on nuclear data, thermal hydraulics, gas and lead-cooled fast reactor systems with a total EC budget of 20 M Euro. International collaboration is an important element of the EU research policy. This overview paper will present elements of the strategy of EURATOM research and training in waste management including accelerator driven transmutation systems and Innovative reactor concepts

  9. Research in progress: Medical Research Council United Kingdom Refractory Asthma Stratification Programme (RASP-UK).

    Heaney, Liam G; Djukanovic, Ratko; Woodcock, Ashley; Walker, Samantha; Matthews, John G; Pavord, Ian D; Bradding, Peter; Niven, Robert; Brightling, Chris E; Chaudhuri, Rekha; Arron, Joseph R; Choy, David F; Cowan, Douglas; Mansur, Adel; Menzies-Gow, Andrew; Adcock, Ian; Chung, Kian F; Corrigan, Chris; Coyle, Peter; Harrison, Timothy; Johnston, Sebastian; Howarth, Peter; Lordan, James; Sabroe, Ian; Bigler, Jeannette; Smith, Dirk; Catley, Matthew; May, Richard; Pierre, Lisa; Stevenson, Chris; Crater, Glenn; Keane, Frank; Costello, Richard W; Hudson, Val; Supple, David; Hardman, Tim

    2016-02-01

    The UK Refractory Asthma Stratification Programme (RASP-UK) will explore novel biomarker stratification strategies in severe asthma to improve clinical management and accelerate development of new therapies. Prior asthma mechanistic studies have not stratified on inflammatory phenotype and the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms in asthma without Type 2 cytokine inflammation is limited. RASP-UK will objectively assess adherence to corticosteroids (CS) and examine a novel composite biomarker strategy to optimise CS dose; this will also address what proportion of patients with severe asthma have persistent symptoms without eosinophilic airways inflammation after progressive CS withdrawal. There will be interactive partnership with the pharmaceutical industry to facilitate access to stratified populations for novel therapeutic studies. PMID:26205878

  10. British Library Dataset Programme: Supporting Research in the Library of the 21st Century

    J. Max Wilkinson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Advances in computational science and its application are reshaping the social landscape and the practice of research. Researchers are increasingly exploiting technology for collaborative, experimental and observational research in all disciplines. Digital data and datasets are the fuel that drives these trends; increasingly datasets are being recognised as a national asset that requires preservation, attribution and access in much the same way as text-based communication. The British Library is in a unique position to enhance UK and international research by extending its presence from the physical collection to the digital dataset domain. To meet this challenge and be a responsible steward of the scholarly record, the Library has defined a programme of activity to support the datasets that underlie modern research and promote them as a national asset. We are designing a mixed model of activity where specific service-level projects with clear goals will provide support for collaborative work aimed at revealing and clarifying requirements related to datasets. For example, there is a clear community need for stable, scalable and agreed data citation mechanisms. In response the British Library became a founding member of DataCite, the International Data Citation Initiative which, as a member of the International DOI foundation, assigns Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs to datasets. We are leveraging the services built for DataCite to actively partner with a number of UK data centres and data publishers to add value to their collections and facilitate the rejoining to the scholarly record by linking the published record with the datasets that underlie it. We are also implementing a similar strategy to promote dataset discovery services through the Library's catalogues and streamlining access to national external collections. The British Library datasets programme will guide activities across the Library and provide a focus for stakeholder

  11. EU-funded malaria research under the 6th and 7th Framework Programmes for research and technological development.

    Holtel, Andreas; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Penas-Jimenez, Inmaculada

    2011-01-01

    While malaria research has traditionally been strong in Europe, targeted and sustained support for cooperative malaria research at EU level, namely through the EU's 6th and 7th Framework Programmes for research and technological development, FP6 (2002-2006) and FP7 (2007-2013), has boosted both impact and visibility of European malaria research. Most of the European malaria research community is now organized under a number of comprehensive and complementary research networks and projects, assembled around four key areas: (1) fundamental research on the malaria parasite and the disease, (2) development of new malaria drugs, (3) research and development of a malaria vaccine, and (4) research to control the malaria-transmitting mosquito vector. Considerable efforts were undertaken to ensure adequate participation of research groups from disease-endemic countries, in particular from Africa, with the long-term aim to strengthen cooperative links and research capacities in these countries. The concept of organizing European research through major strategic projects to form a "European Research Area" (ERA) was originally developed in the preparation of FP6, and ERA formation has now turned into a major EU policy objective explicitly inscribed into the Lisbon Treaty. EU-funded malaria research may serve as a showcase to demonstrate how ERA formation can successfully be implemented in a given area of science when several surrounding parameters converge to support implementation of this strategic concept: timely coincidence of political stimuli, responsive programming, a clearly defined--and well confined--area of research, and the readiness of the targeted research community who is well familiar with transnational cooperation at EU level. Major EU-funded malaria projects have evolved into thematic and organizational platforms that can collaborate with other global players. Europe may thus contribute more, and better, to addressing the global research agenda for malaria

  12. A RESEARCH ON WORKING CONDITIONS AND OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS AT THE FOREST HARVESTING ACTIVITIES

    MENEMENCİOĞLU, Kayhan

    2009-01-01

    This study was condcuted to have some information about the occupational accident ratio and some habits of forest harvesting workers, and the reasons of the accidents. The data obtained from a total of 250 forest workers responded to a self-administered questionnaire working at the harvesting practises at Directorates of Forest Enterprises Adana, Oltu, Ilgaz, Pazar and Sındırgı were discussed. According to findings; 47 % of forestry workers had at least an occupational accident and the cause...

  13. Research on problems in nuclear accident emergency rescue for nuclear power submarine

    This paper presents a description of nuclearpowered submarine accident types and an analysis of accident emergency rescue characteristics, including a special number of problems associated with emergencyrescue, such as emergency situation and emergency planning zone, technical rescue resources and task, protection against compound radiation inside and outside port plume zone, on-sea nuclear rescue equipment and technical assurance capacity, and other problesms related to in-accident nuclear submarine disposal. (authors)

  14. Management strategies to utilize salt affected soils. Isotopic and conventional research methods. Results of a co-ordinated research programme

    This document summarizes the results of a co-ordinated research programme on ''The Use of Nuclear Techniques for Improvement of Crop Production in Salt-affected Soils''. It aims at providing scientists experimental evidence of demonstrating technical feasibility of biological amelioration of salt affected soils as an alternative option of using expensive chemical amendments in soil reclamation complementing engineering structures of farm drainage systems or option of leaving the saline areas as barren lands in spite of the fact that arable agricultural lands have exhausted. 68 refs, 26 figs, 32 tabs

  15. IAEA co-ordinated research programme on operator support systems in nuclear power plants

    Various operator support systems (OSSs) for nuclear power plants are already operational or under development in the Member States. OSSs are based on intelligent data processing and in addition to plant operation, they are becoming more important also for safety. A key feature of OSSs is their availability to structure data to increase its relevance to a given situation. This can improve the user's ability to identify plant function, systems and component state and to identify faults and diagnose them. OSSs can also assist the user to plan and implement corrective actions to improve NPP availability and safety. In September 1991, the IAEA Committee for Contractual Scientific Services approved the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Operator Support Systems in Nuclear Power Plants'' in the framework of the Project ''Man-Machine Interface Studies''. The main objective of the programme is to provide guidance and technology transfer in the development and implementation of OSSs, including the experience with man-machine interface and closely related issues such as control and instrumentation, the use of computers and operator qualification. The paper describes a scientific background of the CRP, working plan and results of the first Co-ordinated Research Meeting, held in Vienna from 13 to 16 October 1992. (author). 3 refs

  16. Equipping students to contribute to development through a geohazards education and research programme (Ladakh, India)

    Gill, Joel; Tostevin, Rosalie

    2014-05-01

    Here we present a geohazards education and engagement project in the Indian region of Ladakh, used as an opportunity to train geoscience students in a number of important ethical, cultural and professional considerations. Located in the Indian Himalaya, Ladakh is home to historically-disadvantaged and endangered indigenous groups. It is also an area of extreme topography, climate and vulnerability, with a growing tourist industry. This combination of factors makes it an important region to improve geohazards understanding and observe the complex interactions between nature, society, and culture. Specific aims of this project are to (i) support community education through an interactive natural hazards programme (delivered in conjunction with a range of partners), training school-aged students from multiple socio-economic backgrounds; and (ii) increase the effectiveness of disaster risk reduction programmes, through research into the perception of natural hazards and environmental change. At all stages of this work, we are seeking to engage young geoscientists, helping them to better understand the skills and knowledge-base required to make a long-term, effective contribution to interdisciplinary research and professional practice. Through presenting an overview of this project and associated opportunities, we seek to emphasise the importance of developing practical opportunities for students to consider aspects of geoethics, social responsibility and cross-cultural understanding.

  17. RATU2. The Finnish research programme on the structural integrity of nuclear power plants. Interim report 1995 - April 1997

    Solin, J.; Sarkimo, M.; Asikainen, M. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Materials and Structural Integrity] [eds.

    1997-06-01

    The projects within the Finnish public funded research programme on the structural integrity of nuclear power plants (RATU2) are briefly introduced and the scientific and technical results obtained during the first two years, 1995-April 1997, are summarised in this report. The RATU2 programme was started in 1995 and will be continued until 1998. In 1996 this programme represented 6 % of the nuclear energy R and D in Finland. The research programme is mainly publicly funded and supplies impartial expertise for the regulation of nuclear energy. It also plays an important role in the education of new experts, technology transfer and international exchange of scientific results. The programme is organised into five research projects on the following topics: Material degradation in the reactor environment, Reliability of nondestructive inspections of nuclear power plants, Structural analyses for nuclear power plant components, Maintenance strategies and dependability, and Fire safety. The ageing of the structures and components in the Finnish nuclear power plants is one of the main issues to be considered when safety and economic operation of the plants is evaluated. At the same time, ways are being sought to extend the lifetime of components. The first half of the RATU2 research programme has already brought significant scientific findings and useful applications for ensuring the reliability of NPP components. New technology has been transferred to domestic use through active participation to international co-operation. On the other hand, international acceptance of the results has provided valuable feedback and benchmarking. (orig.). 112 refs.

  18. RATU2. The Finnish research programme on the structural integrity of nuclear power plants. Interim report 1995 - April 1997

    The projects within the Finnish public funded research programme on the structural integrity of nuclear power plants (RATU2) are briefly introduced and the scientific and technical results obtained during the first two years, 1995-April 1997, are summarised in this report. The RATU2 programme was started in 1995 and will be continued until 1998. In 1996 this programme represented 6 % of the nuclear energy R and D in Finland. The research programme is mainly publicly funded and supplies impartial expertise for the regulation of nuclear energy. It also plays an important role in the education of new experts, technology transfer and international exchange of scientific results. The programme is organised into five research projects on the following topics: Material degradation in the reactor environment, Reliability of nondestructive inspections of nuclear power plants, Structural analyses for nuclear power plant components, Maintenance strategies and dependability, and Fire safety. The ageing of the structures and components in the Finnish nuclear power plants is one of the main issues to be considered when safety and economic operation of the plants is evaluated. At the same time, ways are being sought to extend the lifetime of components. The first half of the RATU2 research programme has already brought significant scientific findings and useful applications for ensuring the reliability of NPP components. New technology has been transferred to domestic use through active participation to international co-operation. On the other hand, international acceptance of the results has provided valuable feedback and benchmarking. (orig.)

  19. Programme of integration of social aspects in nuclear research and technology development of SCK-CEN (PISA)

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN started in 2000 the structured programme PISA with support of young researchers in social sciences from different disciplines and universities. These researchers joined technical teams within SCK-CEN. The research performed in the context of the PISA programme was organised in the following domains: (1) sustainability and nuclear development; (2) transgenerational ethics and group think in nuclear waste management; (3)legal aspects and liability and (4) risk management. The status and main achievements in 2003 are summarised

  20. Experience from the Inspection of Licensees' Outage Activities, Including Fire Protection Programmes, Event Response Inspections, and the Impact of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident on Inspection Programmes. Workshop Proceedings, Chattanooga, Tennessee, United States, 7-10 April 2014

    The main purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum of exchange of information on the regulatory inspection activities. Participants had the opportunity to meet with their counterparts from other countries and organisations to discuss current and future issues on the selected topics. They developed conclusions regarding these issues and hopefully, identified methods to help improve their own inspection programmes. The NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) believes that an essential factor in ensuring the safety of nuclear installations is the continuing exchange and analysis of technical information and data. To facilitate this exchange the Committee has established working groups and groups of experts in specialised topics. The Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP) was formed in 1990 with the mandate '..to concentrate on the conduct of inspections and how the effectiveness of inspections could be evaluated..'. The WGIP facilitates the exchange of information and experience related to regulatory safety inspections between CNRA member countries. These proceedings cover the 12. International Workshop held by WGIP on regulatory inspection activities. This workshop, which is the twelfth in a series, along with many other activities performed by the Working Group, is directed towards this goal. The consensus from participants at previous workshops, noted that the value of meeting with people from other inspection organisations was one of the most important achievements. The focus of this workshop was on experience gained from regulatory inspection activities in three areas: - Inspection of Outage Activities Including Fire Protection Programmes. - Event Response Inspections. - The Impact of Inspection Programmes of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Accident. The main objectives of the WGIP workshops are to enable inspectors to meet with inspectors from other organisations, to exchange information regarding regulatory inspection

  1. The 30 kW research reactor facility in Ghana: Past, present and future programmes

    The Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) is a small, simple, reliable and safe reactor design and constructed by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). GHARR-1 adopts the pool-tank structure and employs highly enriched uranium as fuel, light water as moderator and coolant, metal beryllium as reflectors. The reactor is cooled by natural convention. The rated maximum thermal power of GHARR-1 is 30 kW; the corresponding neutron flux is 1.0x1012 cm-2s-1. The refueling mode of the reactor is to totally change the old core with a new one, the lifetime being more than ten years. Since the commencement of operation of the low-flux miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR) in 1995, a significant number of research and development in the field of neutron activation analysis have taken place. During its 12 years of operation, after the first criticality, the reactor has been used as a neutron source for research, teaching and training to support several graduate and post graduate careers for students from universities in Ghana and the West African sub-region. Owing to the stable flux of the reactor and rapid proliferation in utilization, several analytical techniques have been developed. As a national neutron source reactor facility, Ghana's MNSR also known as GHARR-1 is now successfully utilized in various areas of neutron activation analysis (NAA), teaching, research and training. The GHARR-1 application in neutron activation analysis included: (i) Food analysis; (ii) Heavy metals determination in environmental samples; (iii) Determination of major, minor and trace elements in geological samples; (iv) And mineral prospecting among others. The educational programmes in place at the center are teaching and learning in nuclear engineering, nuclear physics, nuclear and radiochemistry and other related fields. The paper will focus on the past and current status of GHARR-1 with respect to utilization and management and future programmes to enhance its uses in the fields of teaching

  2. The translation research in a dental setting (TRiaDS programme protocol

    McKee Lorna

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that the translation of knowledge into clinical practice is a slow and haphazard process. This is no less true for dental healthcare than other types of healthcare. One common policy strategy to help promote knowledge translation is the production of clinical guidance, but it has been demonstrated that the simple publication of guidance is unlikely to optimise practice. Additional knowledge translation interventions have been shown to be effective, but effectiveness varies and much of this variation is unexplained. The need for researchers to move beyond single studies to develop a generalisable, theory based, knowledge translation framework has been identified. For dentistry in Scotland, the production of clinical guidance is the responsibility of the Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Programme (SDCEP. TRiaDS (Translation Research in a Dental Setting is a multidisciplinary research collaboration, embedded within the SDCEP guidance development process, which aims to establish a practical evaluative framework for the translation of guidance and to conduct and evaluate a programme of integrated, multi-disciplinary research to enhance the science of knowledge translation. Methods Set in General Dental Practice the TRiaDS programmatic evaluation employs a standardised process using optimal methods and theory. For each SDCEP guidance document a diagnostic analysis is undertaken alongside the guidance development process. Information is gathered about current dental care activities. Key recommendations and their required behaviours are identified and prioritised. Stakeholder questionnaires and interviews are used to identify and elicit salient beliefs regarding potential barriers and enablers towards the key recommendations and behaviours. Where possible routinely collected data are used to measure compliance with the guidance and to inform decisions about whether a knowledge translation intervention is

  3. Model description and evaluation of model performance, scenario S. Multiple pathways assessment of the IAEA/CEC co-ordinated research programme on validation of environmental model predictions (VAMP)

    A modelling approach was used to predict doses from a large area deposition of 137Cs over southern and central Finland. The assumed deposition profile and quantity were both similar to those resulting from the Chernobyl accident. In the study, doses via terrestrial and aquatic environments have been analyzed. Additionally, the intermediate results of the study, such as concentrations in various foodstuffs and the resulting body burdents, were presented. The contributions of ingestion, inhalation and external doses to the total dose were estimated in the study. The considered deposition scenario formed a modelling exercise in the IAEA coordinated research programme on Validation of Environmental Model Predictions, the VAMP project. (21 refs.)

  4. Approach for Establishment of an Ageing Management Programme for Thai Research Reactor-1/Modification 1 (TRR- 1/M1)

    Thai Research Reactor-1/Mod. 1 is a TRIGA Mark III reactor and has been in operation for more than 30 years. As the reactor has become older, ageing issues have been more prominent. Therefore, the ageing management programme of TRR-1/M1 is being systematically formulated to manage ageing issues. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the approach being taken for the establishment of the TRR-1/M1 programme. Essentially, the approach is based on the new IAEA Safety Guide SSG-10 Ageing Management for Research Reactors, which was published in 2010. The key to success for the approach is to develop the ageing management programme and then integrate it into the current quality assurance programme. The formulation of the ageing management programme takes into account both major ageing categories, i.e. physical ageing and non-physical ageing. The physical ageing management begins by screening the SSCs for ageing management review. The SSCs in the SR-A class (SSCs performing safety functions) and the SR-B class (SSCs not performing safety functions but safety relevant) are evaluated whether to be included in the ageing review routine. The ageing mechanisms of these SSCs are then thoroughly studied to better understand the ageing degradation processes. The examples of ageing mechanisms of these SSCs are fatigue, corrosion and erosion, stress corrosion cracking and irradiation effects. Due to the wide variety of disciplines involved in the evaluation, external experts in each specific field are sought for consultation. The results from the study are to be reviewed for improvement of practices used in operation, maintenance, inspection and testing. The programme will also identify the measures to be taken for detection, monitoring and analysis of ageing degradation trends. The measures will be formulated and included in the routine inspection, maintenance and testing programme. The current conditions of the SSCs are to be factored into the programme. In addition, mitigating

  5. Co-ordinated research programme on insect disinfestation of food and agricultural products by irradiation

    This review briefly summarizes the papers presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting on insect disinfestation of food and agricultural products by irradiation. The conclusions of the Co-ordinated Research Programme were that: (1) In practical application, radiation dosages must be derived after considering many factors, including, principally, the cost and whether lethal or sterilizing dosages are required. (2) Where packages are used, they can be designed to resist post-radiation infestation. (3) Packages and packaging materials can lend themselves to post-irradiation treatments such as controlled temperature and fumigation. (4) Where feasible, mild heating can be used in conjunction with irradiation to increase the effectiveness while decreasing the radiation dosages. 12 refs

  6. Defense in depth against the hydrogen risk - A European research programme

    The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) is promoting study and research on the hydrogen risk in water-cooled nuclear plants. This activity, known as the 'Hydrogen' project, is involving many organisations from several European countries. To coordinate such a multi-partner contract means ensuring that the project is dealt with consistently by following some general safety principles and a homogeneous view of the various aspects of the problem. This paper presents the coordinator's opinion on a strategy to assess hydrogen risks, to investigate and understand the related phenomena and to provide mitigative measures. Research and study can thus be harmonized into a single consistent programme and suggestions for future activities can be made in a logical framework. (author) 8 refs. 2 tabs

  7. Impact of Health Research Capacity Strengthening in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: The Case of WHO/TDR Programmes

    Happiness Minja; Christian Nsanzabana; Christine Maure; Axel Hoffmann; Susan Rumisha; Olumide Ogundahunsi; Fabio Zicker; Marcel Tanner; Pascal Launois

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Measuring the impact of capacity strengthening support is a priority for the international development community. Several frameworks exist for monitoring and evaluating funding results and modalities. Based on its long history of support, we report on the impact of individual and institutional capacity strengthening programmes conducted by the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and on the factors that influenced the...

  8. Safety, technical and economic objectives of the electric power research institute's advanced light water reactor programme

    In the early 1980s, the Electric Power Research Institute entered into a programme to develop the safety, technical, operational and economic objectives of the next generation of LWRs. The programme benefited from the support and participation of US and international utilities, the United States Department of Energy, US reactor vendors and architect-engineering firms. This programme provided a foundation for the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee's comprehensive initiative for revitalizing nuclear power in the USA, as set forth in its 'Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Power Plants', published in November 1990 and updated annually each November. This Strategic Plan contains 14 'building blocks', each of which is considered essential to constructing a new nuclear plants. Building from the perspective that the Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) should reflect lessons learned from the design, construction and operation of existing nuclear power plants, utilities were surveyed to help identify the cornerstone principles of what was subsequently called the 'ALWR Utility Requirements Document' (URD). The paper provides a review of the objectives underlying these principles, and the design targets that derive from this. Some examples are provided of how these targets are being met in the design of the four ALWR plants currently undergoing United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing certification under United States Code of Federal Regulations 10CFR52. Some areas requiring further investigation are also described. The paper concludes by discussing key challenges to the URD targets and process, in particular with respect to regulatory and economic considerations, and provides brief highlights of steps being taken to respond to these challenges. (author). 2 tabs

  9. Research programme 'Active Solar Energy Use - Solar Heating and Heat Storage'. Activities and projects 2003

    In this report by the research, development and demonstration (RD+D) programme coordinators the objectives, activities and main results in the area of solar heating and heat storage in Switzerland are presented for 2003. In a stagnating market environment the strategy of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy mainly consists in improving the quality and durability of solar collectors and materials, optimizing combisystems for space heating and domestic hot water preparation, searching for storage systems with a higher energy storage density than in the case of sensible heat storage in water, developing coloured solar collectors for more architectonic freedom, and finalizing a seasonal heat storage project for 100 dwellings to demonstrate the feasibility of solar fractions larger than 50% in apartment houses. Support was granted to the Swiss Testing Facility SPF in Rapperswil as in previous years; SPF was the first European testing institute to perform solar collector labeling according to the new rules of the 'Solar Keymark', introduced in cooperation with the European Committee for Standardization CEN. Several 2003 projects were conducted within the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency IEA. Computerized simulation tools were improved. With the aim of jointly producing high-temperature heat and electric power a solar installation including a concentrating collector and a thermodynamic machine based on a Rankine cycle is still being developed. Seasonal underground heat storage was studied in detail by means of a validated computer simulation programme. Design guidelines were obtained for such a storage used in the summer time for cooling and in the winter time for space heating via a heat pump: depending on the ratio 'summer cooling / winter heating', cooling requires a cooling machine, or direct cooling without such a machine is possible. The report ends up with the list of all supported RD+D projects

  10. Research study on typical feature of the media coverage on nuclear accidents in the national newspapers in Japan

    This study focuses on survey of the characteristics of the media coverage on three well-known nuclear accidents. From a quantitative standpoint of the media reporting, it was revealed that the amount of the articles in the surveyed national newspapers tend to increase soon after accidents happen. Plus, as a qualitative research the author interviewed three leader writers, who suggested that the Japanese nuclear industry should prepare to distribute information more timely and sufficiently. They also answered the PR staff needs to contact journalists regularly in order to recognize their awareness and earn their trust. (author)

  11. Safety Re-evaluation of Kyoto University Research Reactor by reflecting the Accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Nakajima, K.; Yamamoto, T. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) is a light-water moderated tank-type reactor operated at rated thermal power of 5MW. After the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, we have settled a 40-ton water tank near the reactor room, and prepared a mobile fire pump and a mobile power generator as additional safety measures for beyond design basis accidents (BDBAs). We also have conducted the safety re-evaluation of KUR, and confirmed that the integrity of KUR fuels could be kept against the BDBA with the use of the additional safety measures when the several restrictions were imposed on the reactor operation.

  12. An assessment of the consequences of the Greek Research Reactor's design basis accident: sensitivity to the meteorological record

    The sensitivity of the Greek Research Reactor's design basis accident consequences to the meteorological record, as far as Athens population is concerned, is assessed in this report. Meteorological data of six years of the National Observatory of Athens are analyzed and utilized in the accident consequence calculation model by using weather categories. The results of the present analysis indicate that the meteorological record does not have a significant impact on predicted consequences, which in turn indicates that the utilization of a substitute meteorological record from a nearby meteorological station instead of the reactor's site record could be acceptable for performing consequence analyses. (author)

  13. Annual Report 2003. Research programme 'Electricity' of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy

    Brueniger, R.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the work done in 2003 in the various research areas covered by the Swiss Electricity Research programme. Work done in the programme's five main areas - electricity transport and storage, high-temperature superconductivity, energy and information technologies, drives and electric motors, and appliances is reviewed. In the electricity transport and storage area an agreement with the Swiss Association of Electricity Producers (VSE) on the transfer of findings was made and the focus of work was set on decentralised systems. Also, the use of compressed-air storage systems was looked at and the AC corrosion of pipelines was examined. Swiss participation in an IEA Implementing Agreement for a Co-operative Programme for Assessing the Impact of High-Temperature Superconductivity on the Electric Power Sector is mentioned, as is the market potential of superconductive current limiters. A total of 8 institutions and industries are involved in theoretical or practical research in the area of high-temperature superconductors. Information and communications technologies are reviewed, including work on energy-efficient EDP server management. Work in other areas summarised includes lighting and uninterruptible power-supplies and work on the energy consumption of process control units. In the electrical drives area, work is summarised in various areas ranging from an industry agreement on the energy-efficiency of motors through to the optimisation of compressed-air systems and energy-efficient gearless drives. Efficient hotel minibars, the energy-efficiency potential in the area of water dispensers and the energy-efficiency potential of hot beverage dispensers used in the area of staff catering and the standby consumption of household appliances are just a few of the topics dealt with. Co-operation with Swiss institutions and international organisations such as the IEA is reviewed. Implementation work in the

  14. Video-recorded accidents conflicts and road user behaviour: A step forward in traffic safety research

    Horst, A.R.A. van der

    2013-01-01

    TNO conducted long-term video observations to collect data on the pre-crash phase of real accidents (what exactly happened just before the collision?). The video recordings of collisions were used to evaluate and validate the safety value of in-depth accident analyses, road scene analyses, and behav

  15. Research and development efforts in the implementation of nuclear power programme in Indonesia

    Research and development efforts in the implementation of nuclear power programme in Indonesia are presented. According to Indonesia Law, the National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) is an official body which is reponsible for all aspects of nuclear development. In implementing the nuclear power, BATAN together with the State Electricity Corporation (PLN) have pioneered the introduction of nuclear power plant in Indonesia by carrying out various activities, studies, seminars, workshops and report writings. A nuclear power planning study was carried out jointly with the International Atomic Energy Agency. The feasibility studies were also carried out by NIRA, an Italian consultant firm in cooperation with BATAN and PLN. To improve research and development, BATAN has established 5 research nuclear centres which function as centres of basic and applied research, isotope and radiation application, standardization and calibration and uranium exploration. Nowadays BATAN is constructing a sophisticated and multidisciplinary complex at Serpong near Jakarta. It is hoped that the participation of the national industry can be synchronized to the construction of the first nuclear power in Indonesia. To endorse the movement towards the industrial and technological future, the National Centre for Research, Science and Technology (known as PUSPITEK) has been established. There will be 12 different laboratories providing facilities for research and development of all aspects of technology. For training manpower, BATAN has established the Education and Training Centre (PUSDIKLAT). BATAN has also collaborated with universities, such as Gadjahmada University in Yogyakarta, in establishing Nuclear Engineering Division in the School of Engineering. 6 refs, 3 figs

  16. Health research 2000. Programme of the Federal German Government. Overview of projects '94

    The health research programme of the Federal German Government has existed since 1978. Its implementation has been reported on at regular intervals by project status reports. The last report appeared in 1991. This research promotion pursues the following aims: to enhance preventive health care, to elucidate the causes of diseases and find effective treatments, to develop further an efficient, financially acceptable health care system. The book has three main parts, in accordance with the three main research areas: Intersectorial reseach, health care and preventive health care, fighting of diseases. Within these three sectors, the main research activities carried out in 1994 are described. Each research activity is introduced with a brief text on its aims and state of progress; this is followed by a description of the projects carried out. The projects that were on-going in 1994 are outlined in concise form; finalized projects within each main research activity are shown in tabulated form with their most important characteristics. The annex contains some bibliographic items and addresses. (orig./VHE)

  17. The WWER fuel element safety research under the design and heavy accident imitation on the 'PARAMETR' stand

    Analysis of fuel element behavior in the course of the design and heavy accidents is the component of reactor facility safety prevention. Many tasks of fuel element behavior research may be solved with the help of thermophysical stands. One of such stands implemented in 1991 was thermophysical stand 'PARAMETER'.Several experiments on model assemblies chiefly imitating both heavy accident and design basic accident have already been conducted in 'PARAMETER' stand. There were obtained data about fuel claddings seal failure and deformation condition. In particular it was defined that seal failure of all fuel claddings occurs on stage of fuel element warming, in temperature range (770-900) degree celsius and almost does not depend on inner pressure level

  18. The main results of fulfilment in 1996 of the scientific part of the State programme of the Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences (1996-2000)

    In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1996 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes; development of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; development of effective methods of preventive maintenance and treatment of diseases of both mother and child in conditions of influence of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences; study of genetic consequences caused by the Chernobyl accident and development of effectual measures of their prevention; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological

  19. HRD initiatives to realize the Mission Programmes of Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research

    IGCAR has developed the expertise and built comprehensive facilities to realize the mission programme of the Centre. The efforts would lead to achieving the world leadership and meet the expectation and aspiration of the nation for ensuring energy security. Taking into consideration the enhanced role FBRs are likely to play in contributing to the nuclear power component of the nation, there is a need to augment skilled manpower for the critical assignments to take up challenges in the design of plant, development of equipment and processes. Thus human resource development has been one of the areas of emphasis in the management philosophy of the Centre. Initiating the Training School programme at Kalpakkam, identifying research scholars to take up the problems in interface areas for achieving breakthroughs, attracting young people and empowering them has been the 'mantra' adopted at the Centre. Multilevel mentoring process has been built in and mentoring the young talent has been our priority. In this paper, we discuss our approach to overall human resource development at our Centre

  20. Isotope studies on plant productivity. Results of a co-ordinated research programme

    In order to explore this approach, a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Use of Isotope Studies for Increasing and Stabilizing Plant Productivity in Low Phosphate and Semi-arid and Sub-humid Soils of the Tropics and Sub-tropics was initiated in October 1989 and complete in October 1994. Almost half of the work carried out under this programme concentrated on water use efficiency and the rest on phosphate use efficiency. Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia focused on wheat; Nigeria and Sierra Leone on cowpea; Kenya, Sudan and the United Republic of Tanzania on nitrogen fixing trees such as Prosopis, Acacia and Gliricidia; and Viet Nam on rice. Experiments conducted in the field showed that there is a wealth of genetic diversity among the genotypes/provenances of crop and tree species in their capacity for uptake and use of phosphorus and water from soils limited in resources. Several elite genotypes/provenances were identified which are highly efficient in water or phosphate use. In a few cases, the high water use efficiency (or the high phosphorus use efficiency) feature was seen in the same genotype where the grain yield was also high. Morphological parameters responsible for making some genotypes superior in their capacity to use phosphorus or water have also been investigated. It is our hope that the findings reported in this publication will help agricultural scientists in the Member States, particularly in Africa, in their quest of finding solutions to problems of food security. Refs, figs, tabs