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Sample records for accident proneness

  1. The measurement of accident-proneness

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the measurement of accident-proneness. Accidents seem easy to observe, however accident-proneness is difficult to measure. In this paper I first define the concept of accident-proneness, and I develop an instrument to measure it. The research is mainly executed within chemical

  2. Accident proneness, does it exist? A review and meta-analysis

    Visser, Ellen; Pijl, Ysbrand J.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Neeleman, Jan; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Accident related health problems have been suggested to cluster within persons. This phenomenon became known as accident proneness and has been a subject of many discussions. This study provides an overview of accident proneness. Therefore, 79 articles with empirical data on accident rates were iden

  3. Accident proneness, does it exist? A review and meta-analysis

    Visser, Ellen; Pijl, Ysbrand J.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Neeleman, Jan; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2007-01-01

    Accident related health problems have been suggested to cluster within persons. This phenomenon became known as accident proneness and has been a subject of many discussions. This study provides an overview of accident proneness. Therefore, 79 articles with empirical data on accident rates were identified from databases Embase, Medline, and Psychinfo. First, definitions of accidents varied highly, but most studies focused on accidents resulting in injuries requiring medical attention. Second,...

  4. Psychological performance of accident-prone automobile drivers in China: a case-control study.

    Jin, H Q; Araki, S; Wu, X K; Zhang, Y W; Yokoyama, K

    1991-03-01

    To evaluate the role of neurobehavioural factors in the aetiology of recurrent automobile accidents, we administered the Revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), and choice and simple reaction time tests to 31 accident-prone automobile drivers. These drivers who had caused three or more traffic accidents during the years 1980-1984, were selected from records of 2723 traffic accidents registered by Hefei Traffic Police Department during the years 1980-1984. The same tests were administered to an equal number of sex- and age-matched control drivers who had no reported involvement in automobile accidents. None of the subjects had suffered from any neuropsychiatric illness or head injury. Comparisons between the two groups indicated that for accident-prone drivers scores on picture completion and block design subtests of the WAIS-R were significantly lowered (p less than 0.05); scores for neurosis extrovert behaviour and psychosis (EPQ) were significantly higher (p less than 0.05); and the number of errors in the choice reaction time test was significantly higher (p less than 0.01). It is suggested that accident-prone drivers have lower psychological performance, poorer judgement and a higher tendency than safe drivers to be neurotic, extrovert and psychotic. PMID:2066226

  5. Identification of traffic accident risk-prone areas under low-light conditions

    Ivan, K.; I. HAIDU; J. BENEDEK; S. M. Ciobanu

    2015-01-01

    Besides other non-behavioural factors, low-light conditions significantly influence the frequency of traffic accidents in an urban environment. This paper intends to identify the impact of low-light conditions on traffic accidents in the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The dependence degree between light and the number of traffic accidents was analysed using the Pearson correlation, and the relation between the spatial distribution of traffic accidents and the light conditio...

  6. Identification of traffic accident risk-prone areas under low lighting conditions

    K. Ivan; I. HAIDU; J. BENEDEK; Ciobanu, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Besides other non-behavioural factors, the low lighting conditions significantly influence the frequency of the traffic accidents in the urban environment. This paper intends to identify the impact of low lighting conditions on the traffic accidents in the city of Cluj-Napoca. The dependence degree between lighting and the number of traffic accidents was analyzed by the Pearson's correlation and the relation between the spatial distributio...

  7. Identification of traffic accident risk-prone areas under low-light conditions

    Ivan, K.; Haidu, I.; Benedek, J.; Ciobanu, S. M.

    2015-09-01

    Besides other non-behavioural factors, low-light conditions significantly influence the frequency of traffic accidents in an urban environment. This paper intends to identify the impact of low-light conditions on traffic accidents in the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The dependence degree between light and the number of traffic accidents was analysed using the Pearson correlation, and the relation between the spatial distribution of traffic accidents and the light conditions was determined by the frequency ratio model. The vulnerable areas within the city were identified based on the calculation of the injury rate for the 0.5 km2 areas uniformly distributed within the study area. The results show a strong linear correlation between the low-light conditions and the number of traffic accidents in terms of three seasonal variations and a high probability of traffic accident occurrence under the above-mentioned conditions at the city entrances/exits, which represent vulnerable areas within the study area. Knowing the linear dependence and the spatial relation between the low light and the number of traffic accidents, as well as the consequences induced by their occurrence, enabled us to identify the areas of high traffic accident risk in Cluj-Napoca.

  8. Application of hyperbolic tangent function for accident prone location identification%双曲正切函数在事故黑点鉴别中的应用

    杨轸

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the ability of the accident prone location identification, the hyperbolic tangent y = a +b × tanh(cx + cd) is proposed as a substitute fitting function of the double exponential function y = a xe^bx + c x e^dx for fitting scatter diagram of accident cumulative frequency. The comparative analysis of the two fitting functions was conducted by simulation analysis and actual data confirmation. The results indica- ted that the hyperbolic tangent function has higher correlation coefficient in curve fitting, higher detection rate in accident prone location identification, more stable results and better adaptability for the cumulative traffic volume. More significant finding is proposed that the accident number, which decided by cumulative traffic volume in certain accident rate, has very important influence on misdetection rate of accident prone location i- dentification. The hyperbolic tangent can be used for fitting scatter diagram of accident cumulative frequency instead of the double exponential function, and the suggested number of average accident per kilometer should not less than 4 to control the misdetection ratio to about 20%.%为改善双指数函数Y=o×e^bx+c×e^dx在累计频率曲线拟合和事故黑点鉴别时存在的问题,提出用双曲正切函数Y=a+b×tanh(伽+cd))作为替代,以提高黑点鉴别效果.通过仿真和实际数据验证对2种拟合算法进行对比分析.结果表明:累计频率曲线采用双曲正切函数进行拟合,其拟合效果好,事故黑点鉴别检出率较高,黑点鉴别的结果比较稳定,对不同事故统计年限的事故黑点鉴别有很好的适应性.此外,一定事故率水平下由累计交通量决定的事故次数对事故黑点的误检率有非常重要的影响.双曲正切函数可替代双指数函数进行事故黑点鉴别,同时为将误检率控制在20%左右,建议待鉴别道路的平均

  9. 煤矿井下作业工人工作倦怠与事故倾向性研究%The Research of Job Burnout with Accident Proneness among Coal Mine Workers

    孙林辉; 章艺蒙; 崔凯; 袁晓芳

    2016-01-01

    研究煤矿井下作业工人工作倦怠与事故倾向性的关系,并探讨年龄、工龄、工种对工作倦怠的影响程度。采用工作倦怠量表( MBI)和艾森克量表中选取的N维度题目对1015名煤矿井下作业工人事故倾向性与工作倦怠进行调查和统计分析。通过对980个有效数据进行分析显示:①煤矿工人工作倦怠及其3个分量与事故倾向性均呈正相关,其中情绪衰竭和玩世不恭与事故倾向性的相关性较成就感低落明显高;②年龄介于20~50岁的煤矿工人随着年龄的增长工作倦怠数值逐渐增高,最大值出现在40~50岁;③工龄介于1~5年、10~20年的工人工作倦怠较其他工龄段职工高;④在主要的3个工种:采掘、辅助、机通运,工作倦怠数值较高的为辅助和机通运,反而一般认为最容易发生事故的采掘工,其工作倦怠数值却最低。煤矿井下作业工人事故倾向性与工作倦怠有关,情绪衰竭和玩世不恭2个方面表现尤为突出。因此,在煤矿安全管理中应重视职工的工作倦怠问题,对其中工作倦怠水平高的人员应做好重点监管,并及时进行心理疏导。%Objective Put the coal mine workers as the object research the relationship between the accident proneness and the job burnout. And discuss the degree of the age,length of service,department affect of job burnout Methods Questionnaire survey was conducted on 1015 coal mine workers,use job burnout inventory( MBI)and Eysenck scale of N dimension of subject. Results Analysis of 980 valid data,The results showed:①The three components of the mine worker burnout and o-verall score was a positive correlation with the accident proneness,where the emotional exhaustion,cynicism and accident proneness was significantly higher than reduced personal accomp;②Mine workers 20~50 years of age located between acci-dent grows gragually increased tendency value age;③Seniority between 1

  10. Analysis of Psychological Factors and Susceptibility Genes of Drivers′Accident Proneness%驾驶员产生事故倾向性的心理因素及易感基因分析

    王晓敏; 杨莉; 黄开勇; 苏华斌

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究驾驶员产生事故倾向性的心理因素及易感基因。方法采用病例对照研究方法,选取5年内发生3次(以上)责任事故的驾驶员46例为病例组(均为男性),另选择同期未发生交通事故的同性别、年龄、驾龄、驾驶车型等均衡可比的驾驶员46例为对照组。采用A型行为量表(TABP)和艾森克个性问卷(EPQ)量表进行心理评定;采用限制性片段长度多态性分析( PCR-RFLP )技术对候选基因5-羟色胺转运体基因启动子区(5-HTTLPR)进行基因型及等位基因检测。结果病例组驾驶员A型行为、精神质( P)和情绪性( N)因子得分均高于对照组(P均<0.05),而掩饰性(L)因子得分低于对照组(P<0.05);驾驶员的年龄与外向性(E)评分呈正相关关系(P<0.01);驾龄与E、P、N及A型行为评分均呈正相关关系(P均<0.05),而与L因子呈负相关关系(P<0.05)。病例组与对照组间5-HTTLPR基因的基因型构成及等位基因频率分布差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);经单因素及多因素logistic回归分析显示,精神质是驾驶员事故倾向性的危险因素(P<0.01),5-HTTLPR基因型及等位基因与驾驶员事故倾向性有关( P<0.05)。结论驾驶员A型行为、个性特征及5-HTTLPR基因与其事故倾向性有关;精神质是驾驶员事故倾向性的危险因素。%Objective To explore the psychological factors and susceptibility genes of the drivers ′accident proneness .Methods A case-control study was performed by using type-A behavior questionnaire ( TABP) and Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ) scale.Forty-six male drivers who had 3 accidents or more in 5 years were in the case group ,and another 46 male drivers who had not accident in 5 years with similar age ,driver′s experience and vehicle type as the drivers in the case group were in the control group .The

  11. Shame proneness, guilt proneness and psychopathology

    Fatma Gül Cirhinlioğlu; Gülden Güvenç

    2011-01-01

    In this work some definitions concerning shame and guilt and also some similarities and differences between these two concepts are dwelled on. The role of shame and guilt within psychopathology and some empirical researches on the relationship between psychopathology and shame/guilt are presented. Another point is the relationship between gender and the proneness to shame and guilt.It is generally argued that shame and guilt are originated from the negative emotions as a reaction to personal ...

  12. Communication and industrial accidents

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the concept of role distance, which emphasizes the organizational characteristics. The general hypothesis is that communication failures are a main cause of role distance and accident-proneness within orga...

  13. Shame proneness, guilt proneness and psychopathology

    Fatma Gül Cirhinlioğlu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work some definitions concerning shame and guilt and also some similarities and differences between these two concepts are dwelled on. The role of shame and guilt within psychopathology and some empirical researches on the relationship between psychopathology and shame/guilt are presented. Another point is the relationship between gender and the proneness to shame and guilt.It is generally argued that shame and guilt are originated from the negative emotions as a reaction to personal failures and transgressions. Despite of some similarities between shame and guilt, augmenting theoretical and empirical literature on the subject have underlined some considerable differences between these two emotional experiences. Majority of the researches asserted that these two emotions can be distinguished from each other according to the fact that individual focuses on whether his/her own behaviour or his/her self in the process of self evaluation. Shame experience is related to the self as a focus of direct evaluation. The focus in guilt is rather on the behaviour” itself which is either conducted or not. Although shame and guilt are functional for individual and social life, undoubtly they may also lead some serious social and emotional problems if they are experienced in a intense and chronic way. The most comprehensive discussion of shame and guilt in psychopathology can be found in analytically oriented theories. These theories, however, vary considerably in their emphasis on shame and guilt. Earlier psychoanalytic perspective mainly focused on the psychopathological implications of guilt. More recently the shame has been the key concept in psychodynamic consideration of psychopathology. Because of the difficulties in measuring shame and guilt, empirical researches on the relationship between psychopathology and shame and guilt are far behind of theoretical approaches on the subject. It is explored that in the researches in which the measuring

  14. Error-prone signalling.

    Johnstone, R A; Grafen, A

    1992-06-22

    The handicap principle of Zahavi is potentially of great importance to the study of biological communication. Existing models of the handicap principle, however, make the unrealistic assumption that communication is error free. It seems possible, therefore, that Zahavi's arguments do not apply to real signalling systems, in which some degree of error is inevitable. Here, we present a general evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) model of the handicap principle which incorporates perceptual error. We show that, for a wide range of error functions, error-prone signalling systems must be honest at equilibrium. Perceptual error is thus unlikely to threaten the validity of the handicap principle. Our model represents a step towards greater realism, and also opens up new possibilities for biological signalling theory. Concurrent displays, direct perception of quality, and the evolution of 'amplifiers' and 'attenuators' are all probable features of real signalling systems, yet handicap models based on the assumption of error-free communication cannot accommodate these possibilities. PMID:1354361

  15. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  16. Brachial plexopathy after prone positioning

    Goettler, Claudia E; Pryor, John P; Reilly, Patrick M

    2002-01-01

    Two cases of brachial plexus injury after prone position in the intensive care unit are described. Mechanisms of brachial plexus injury are described, as are methods for prevention of this unusual complication.

  17. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  18. Fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Koch-Henriksen, Nils;

    2006-01-01

    -1996. The end of follow-up was 1 January 1999. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for various types of fatal accidents. A total of 76 persons (48 men and 28 women) died from accidents, whereas the expected number of fatalities from such causes was 55.7 (31.4 men and 24.3 women). Thus, the...... particularly high for deaths from burns (SMR = 8.90) and suffocation (SMR = 5.57). We conclude that persons with MS are more prone to fatal accidents than the general population. The excess risk is due not to traffic accidents but to burns and suffocation....

  19. Vegetation fire proneness in Europe

    Pereira, Mário; Aranha, José; Amraoui, Malik

    2015-04-01

    Fire selectivity has been studied for vegetation classes in terms of fire frequency and fire size in a few European regions. This analysis is often performed along with other landscape variables such as topography, distance to roads and towns. These studies aims to assess the landscape sensitivity to forest fires in peri-urban areas and land cover changes, to define landscape management guidelines and policies based on the relationships between landscape and fires in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the objectives of this study includes the: (i) analysis of the spatial and temporal variability statistics within Europe; and, (ii) the identification and characterization of the vegetated land cover classes affected by fires; and, (iii) to propose a fire proneness index. The datasets used in the present study comprises: Corine Land Cover (CLC) maps for 2000 and 2006 (CLC2000, CLC2006) and burned area (BA) perimeters, from 2000 to 2013 in Europe, provided by the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS). The CLC is a part of the European Commission programme to COoRdinate INformation on the Environment (Corine) and it provides consistent, reliable and comparable information on land cover across Europe. Both the CLC and EFFIS datasets were combined using geostatistics and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques to access the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of shrubs and forest affected by fires. Obtained results confirms the usefulness and efficiency of the land cover classification scheme and fire proneness index which allows to quantify and to compare the propensity of vegetation classes and countries to fire. As expected, differences between northern and southern Europe are notorious in what concern to land cover distribution, fire incidence and fire proneness of vegetation cover classes. This work was supported by national funds by FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project PEst-OE/AGR/UI4033/2014 and by

  20. Prone positioning: is it safe and effective?

    Dirkes, Susan; Dickinson, Sharon; Havey, Renee; O'brien, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Prone positioning has been used as a treatment option for patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) since the early 1970s. Prone position and extended prone position ventilation have been shown to increase end-expiratory lung volume, alveolar recruitment, and oxygenation in patients with severe hypoxemic and acute respiratory failure. Prone positioning is not a benign procedure, and there are potential risks (complications) that can occur to both the patient and the health care worker. Notable complications that can arise include: unplanned extubation, lines pulled, tubes kinked, and back and other injuries to personnel. Prone positioning is a viable, inexpensive therapy for the treatment of severe ARDS. This maneuver consistently improves systemic oxygenation in 70% to 80% of patients with ARDS. With the utilization of a standardized protocol and a trained and dedicated critical care staff, prone positioning can be performed safely. PMID:22157493

  1. Accident Occurrence and Functional Health Patterns. A Pilot Study of Relationships in a Graduate Population.

    Vries, Jan; CURTIS, ELIZABETH; SHEERIN, FINTAN

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: This pilot study sought to examine the relationship between functional health patterns and accident proneness. METHODS: A quantitative-descriptive design was employed assessing accident proneness by collecting data on the occurrence of accidents among a sample of university graduates, and examining this in relation to biographical data and information collated using the Functional Health Pattern Assessment Screening Tool (FHPAST). Data were analyzed using descriptive and i...

  2. Nuclear accidents

    On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

  3. Radiation accidents

    Radiation accidents may be viewed as unusual exposure event which provide possible high exposure to a few people and, in the case of nuclear plants events, low exposure to large population. A number of radiation accidents have occurred over the past 50 years, involving radiation machines, radioactive materials and uncontrolled nuclear reactors. These accidents have resulted in number of people have been exposed to a range of internal and external radiation doses and those involving radioactive materials have involved multiple routs of exposure. Some of the more important accidents involving significant radiation doses or releases of radioactive materials, including any known health effects involves in it. An analysis of the common characteristics of accidents is useful resolving overarching issues, as has been done following nuclear power, industrial radiography and medical accidents. Success in avoiding accidents and responding when they do occur requires planning in order to have adequately trained and prepared health physics organization; well defined and developed instrument program; close cooperation among radiation protection experts, local and state authorities. Focus is given to the successful avoidance of accidents and response in the events they do occur. Palomares, spain in late 1960, Goiania, Brazil in 1987, Thule, Greenland in 1968, Rocky flats, Colorado in 1957 and 1969, Three mile island, Pennsylvania in 1979, Chernobyl Ukraine in april 1986, Kyshtym, former Soviet Union in 1957, Windscale, UK in Oct. 1957 Tomsk, Russian Federation in 1993, and many others are the important examples of major radiation accidents. (author)

  4. Cyclone hazard proneness of districts of India

    M Mohapatra

    2015-04-01

    Hazards associated with tropical cyclones (TCs) are long-duration rotatory high velocity winds, very heavy rain, and storm tide. India has a coastline of about 7516 km of which 5400 km is along the mainland. The entire coast is affected by cyclones with varying frequency and intensity. Thus classification of TC hazard proneness of the coastal districts is very essential for planning and preparedness aspects of management of TCs. So, an attempt has been made to classify TC hazard proneness of districts by adopting a hazard criteria based on frequency and intensity of cyclone, wind strength, probable maximum precipitation, and probable maximum storm surge. Ninety-six districts including 72 districts touching the coast and 24 districts not touching the coast, but lying within 100 km from the coast have been classified based on their proneness. Out of 96 districts, 12 are very highly prone, 41 are highly prone, 30 are moderately prone, and the remaining 13 districts are less prone. This classification of coastal districts based on hazard may be considered for all the required purposes including coastal zone management and planning. However, the vulnerability of the place has not been taken into consideration. Therefore, composite cyclone risk of a district, which is the product of hazard and vulnerability, needs to be assessed separately through a detailed study.

  5. Shame-proneness in attempted suicide patients

    Wiklander Maria; Samuelsson Mats; Jokinen Jussi; Nilsonne Åsa; Wilczek Alexander; Rylander Gunnar; Åsberg Marie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background It has been suggested that shame may be an important feature in suicidal behaviors. The disposition to react with shame, “shame-proneness”, has previously not been investigated in groups of attempted suicide patients. We examined shame-proneness in two groups of attempted suicide patients, one group of non-suicidal patients and one group of healthy controls. We hypothesized that the attempted suicide patients would be more shame-prone than non-suicidal patients and healthy...

  6. The Violence Proneness Scale of the DUSI-R Predicts Adverse Outcomes Associated with Substance Abuse

    Kirisci, Levent; Tarter, Ralph; Reynolds, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    Accuracy of the Violence Proneness Scale (VPS) of the Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI-R)1 was evaluated in 328 boys for predicting use of illegal drugs, DUI, selling drugs, sexually transmitted disease, car accident while under acute effects of drugs/alcohol, trading drugs for sex, injuries from a fight, and traumatic head injury. Boys were prospectively tracked from age 16 to 19 at which time these outcomes were documented in the interim period. The results demonstrated that the VPS score...

  7. Accident Statistics

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  8. Ethnic and gender differences in boredom proneness

    Gibson, G.S.; Morales,

    1996-02-01

    Although boredom may exhibit many shared elements, culturally specific attitudes have also been found to exist. The present paper investigated boredom proneness among African-American college students. Data from 120 participants on the Boredom Proneness (BP) Scale was analyzed and compared to cross-cultural participants. African-American females scored significantly higher than African-American males. Scores were presented from two other studies to show a comparative look at boredom proneness in five other ethnic groups. African-American females are the only female ethnic group to score higher on the BP Scale than their male counterparts. Additionally, overall African-Americans, were found to have higher BP scores than their Western counterparts.

  9. Predicting sales promotion contest proneness and participation

    Reid, Mike; Thompson, Peter; Mavondo, Felix;

    There is growing interest by Consumer Packaged Goods manufacturers in using tnonprice sales promotions, including competitions and sweepstakes and in better understanding consumers’ engagement with and reaction to these forms of sales promotion (Kalra and Shi, 2010). A contest or sweepstake is a...... promotional delivery mechanisms including the internet. Despite growing use of such promotions by manufacturers and retailers there is still limited knowledge of the factors that cause a consumer to be prone to such offers (Prendergast, Poon, Tsang, and Fan, 2008)....

  10. Land cover fire proneness in Europe

    Mario Gonzalez Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This study aims to identify and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of vegetation that are most affected by forest fires in Europe. The characterization of the fuels is an important issue of the fire regime in each specific ecosystem while, on the other hand, fire is an important disturbance for global vegetation dynamics.Area of study: Southern European countries: Portugal, Spain, France, Italy and Greece.Material and Methods: Corine Land Cover maps for 2000 and 2006 (CLC2000, CLC2006 and burned area (BA perimeters, from 2000 to 2013 in Europe are combined to access the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of vegetation that are most affected by wild fires using descriptive statistics and Geographical Information System (GIS techniques.Main results: The spatial and temporal distribution of BA perimeters, vegetation and burnt vegetation by wild fires was performed and different statistics were obtained for Mediterranean and entire Europe, confirming the usefulness of the proposed land cover system. A fire proneness index is proposed to assess the fire selectivity of land cover classes. The index allowed to quantify and to compare the propensity of vegetation classes and countries to fire.Research highlights: The usefulness and efficiency of the land cover classification scheme and fire proneness index. The differences between northern Europe and southern Europe and among the Mediterranean region in what concerns to vegetation cover, fire incidence, area burnt in land cover classes and fire proneness between classes for the different countries.Keywords: Fire proneness; Mixed forests; Land cover/land use; Fire regime; Europe; GIS; Corine land cover. 

  11. Are Chinese Individuals prone to Money Illusion?

    Mees, Heleen; Franses, Philip Hans

    2011-01-01

    We replicate the landmark study of Shafir, Diamond and Tversky (1997) to examine whether individuals in China are prone to money illusion. We find that money illusion is prevalent in China as well. Respondents in the Chinese sample are often somewhat more likely to base decisions on the real monetary value of economic transactions compared to respondents in the U.S. sample. If asked explicitly to evaluate a transaction in terms of happiness or satisfaction, instead of economic terms, money il...

  12. Tchernobyl accident

    First, R.M.B.K type reactors are described. Then, safety problems are dealt with reactor control, behavior during transients, normal loss of power and behavior of the reactor in case of leak. A possible scenario of the accident of Tchernobyl is proposed: events before the explosion, possible initiators, possible scenario and events subsequent to the core meltdown (corium-concrete interaction, interaction with the groundwater table). An estimation of the source term is proposed first from the installation characteristics and the supposed scenario of the accident, and from the measurements in Europe; radiological consequences are also estimated. Radioactivity measurements (Europe, Scandinavia, Western Europe, France) are given in tables (meteorological maps and fallouts in Europe). Finally, a description of the site is given

  13. Class hierarchy method to find Change-Proneness

    Malan V.Gaikwad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Finding Proneness of software is necessary to identify fault prone and change prone classes at earlier stages of development, so that those classes can be given special attention. Also to improves the quality and reliability of the software. For corrective and adaptive maintenance we require to make changes during the software evolution.As such changes cluster around number of key components in software, it is important to analyze the frequency of changes in individual classes and also to identify and show related changes in multiple classes. Early detection of fault prone and change prone classes can enables the developers and experts to spend their valuable time and resources on these areas of software. Prediction of change-prone and fault prone classes of a software is an active topic in the area of software engineering. Such prediction can be used to predict changes to different classes of a system from one release of software to the next release. Identifying the change-prone and fault prone classes in advance can helps to focus attention on these classes.In this paper we are focusing on finding dependency of software that can be chieved by estimating the proneness of Object Oriented Software. Two main types of proneness are associated with OO software. Fault Proneness and Change Proneness.

  14. Accident: Reminder

    2003-01-01

    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  15. Estimation of radon prone areas through binary classification, part 2: radon prone geologies

    A radon prone geology is one for which the probability is increased that in a house built on it, elevated indoor Rn concentration will be encountered, or that its Rn potential will be increased. Labelling geological units as Rn prone or not can be an important support in deciding whether a geographical or administrative region in which that geological unit occurs, should be called Rn prone area, possibly in absence of other predictors. In this article a method is proposed which, given a set of geological classes, sorts the classes into Rn prone and non-Rn prone classes depending on a classification criterion which one can choose according the purpose. The method is computationally simple and is demonstrated on the example of Germany. - Highlights: • A method is presented for assembling geological classes into “Rn prone” and “non-Rn prone” geologies. • The method is based on bivariate classification by the ROC technique. • Criteria which define whether a geology belongs to either group can be derived from a threshold of any continuous Rn related quantity

  16. Transportation accidents

    Predicting the possible consequences of transportation accidents provides a severe challenge to an analyst who must make a judgment of the likely consequences of a release event at an unpredictable time and place. Since it is impractical to try to obtain detailed knowledge of the meteorology and terrain for every potential accident location on a route or to obtain accurate descriptions of population distributions or sensitive property to be protected (data which are more likely to be more readily available when one deals with fixed-site problems), he is constrained to make conservative assumptions in response to a demanding public audience. These conservative assumptions are frequently offset by very small source terms (relative to a fixed site) created when a transport vehicle is involved in an accident. For radioactive materials, which are the principal interest of the authors, only the most elementary models have been used for assessing the consequences of release of these materials in the transportation setting. Risk analysis and environmental impact statements frequently have used the Pasquill-Gifford/gaussian techniques for releases of short duration, which are both simple and easy to apply and require a minimum amount of detailed information. However, after deciding to use such a model, the problem of selecting what specific parameters to use in specific transportation situations still presents itself. Additional complications arise because source terms are not well characterized, release rates can be variable over short and long time periods, and mechanisms by which source aerosols become entrained in air are not always obvious. Some approaches that have been used to address these problems will be reviewed with emphasis on guidelines to avoid the Worst-Case Scenario Syndrome

  17. Action simulation in hallucination-prone adolescents

    Tarik eDahoun

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and empirical accounts suggest that impairments in self-other discrimination processes are likely to promote the expression of hallucinations. However, our understanding of such processes during adolescence is still at an early stage. The present study thus aims 1 to delineate the neural correlates sustaining mental simulation of actions involving self-performed actions (first-person perspective; 1PP and other-performed actions (third-person perspective; 3PP during adolescence 2 to identify atypical activation patterns during 1PP/3PP mental simulation of actions in hallucination-prone adolescents 3 to examine whether differential risk for schizophrenia (clinical vs genetic is also associated with differential impairments in the 1PP/3PP mental simulation of actions during adolescence. Twenty-two typically developing controls (Control group; 6 females, twelve hallucination-prone adolescents (AH group; 7 females and thirteen adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS group; 4 females were included in the study. During the fMRI task, subjects were presented with a cue (self-other priming cues indicating to perform the task using either a first person perspective (you-1PP or a third person perspective (friend-3PP and then they were asked to mentally simulate actions based on the type of cue. Our results indicated that atypical patterns of cerebral activation, particularly in the key areas of self-other distinction, were found in both groups at risk for auditory hallucinations (AH and 22q11.2DS. More precisely, adolescents in the AH and 22q11.2DS groups presented decreased activations in the parieto-occipital region BA19 during 3PP. This study characterizes the neural correlates of mental imagery for actions during adolescence, and suggests that a differential risk for hallucination-proneness (clinical vs. genetic is associated to similar patterns of atypical activations in key areas sustaining self-other discrimination

  18. Production of prone-to-aggregate proteins.

    Lebendiker, Mario; Danieli, Tsafi

    2014-01-21

    Expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli (E. coli) remains the most popular and cost-effective method for producing proteins in basic research and for pharmaceutical applications. Despite accumulating experience and methodologies developed over the years, production of recombinant proteins prone to aggregate in E. coli-based systems poses a major challenge in most research applications. The challenge of manufacturing these proteins for pharmaceutical applications is even greater. This review will discuss effective methods to reduce and even prevent the formation of aggregates in the course of recombinant protein production. We will focus on important steps along the production path, which include cloning, expression, purification, concentration, and storage. PMID:24211444

  19. A Study of The Relationship Between The Components of The Five-Factor Model of Personality and The Occurrence of Occupational Accidents in Industry Workers

    Ehsanollah Habibi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Accidents are among the most important problems of both the developed and the developing countries. Individual factors and personality traits are the primary causes of human errors and contribute to accidents. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between the components of the five-factor model of personality and the occurrence of occupational accidents in industrial workers. The independent T-test indicated that there is a meaningful relationship between the personality traits and accident proneness. In the two groups of industry workers injured in occupational accidents and industry workers without any occupational accidents, there is a significant relationship between personality traits, neuroticism (p=0.001, openness to experience (p=0.001, extraversion (p=0.024 and conscientiousness (p=0.021. Nonetheless, concerning the personality trait of agreeableness (p = 0.09, the group of workers with accidents did not differ significantly from the workers without any accidents. The results showed that there is a direct and significant relationship between accident proneness and the personality traits of neuroticism and openness to experience. Furthermore, there is a meaningful but inverse correlation between accident proneness and the personality traits of extraversion and conscientiousness, while there was no relationship between accident proneness and the personality trait of agreeableness.

  20. Criticality Accident

    At a meeting of electric utility presidents in October, 1999, the Federation Power Companies (FEPCO) officially decided to establish a Japanese version of WANO, following the JCO criticality accident. The Japanese WANO is expected to be launched by the end of the year: initially, with some 30 private sector companies concerned with nuclear fuel. It is said that the private sector had to make efforts to ensure that safety was the most important value in management policy throughout the industry, and that comprehensive inspections would be implemented. In anything related to nuclear energy, sufficient safety checks are required even for the most seemingly trivial matters. Therefore, the All-Japan Council of Local Governments with Atomic Power Stations has already proposed to the Japanese government that it should enact the special law for nuclear emergency, providing that the unified responsibility for nuclear disaster prevention should be shifted to the national government, since the nuclear disaster was quite special from the viewpoint of its safety regulation and technical aspects. (G.K.)

  1. Persistence on airline accidents.

    L. A. GIL-ALANA; Barros, C.P. (Carlos P.); J.R. Faria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses airline accidents data from 1927-2006. The fractional integration methodology is adopted. It is shown that airline accidents are persistent and (fractionally) cointegrated with airline traffic. Thus, there exists an equilibrium relation between air accidents and airline traffic, with the effect of the shocks to that relationship disappearing in the long run. Policy implications are derived for countering accidents events.

  2. Persistence in Airline Accidents

    Carlos Pestana Barros; João Ricardo Faria; Luis A. Gil-Alana

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses airline accident data from 1927-2006, through fractional integration. It is shown that airline accidents are persistent and (fractionally) cointegrated with airline traffic. There exists a negative relation between air accidents and airline traffic, with the effect of the shocks to that relationship disappearing in the long run. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events.

  3. Stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats

    曾进胜; 贷如训; 苏镇培

    2000-01-01

    Purpose To summarized the methods for establishment, characteristics of vascular lesions in brain and heart and thc application of stroke-pronc renovascular hypertensive rats (RHRSP). Background Spontaneously hypcrtensivc rats (STR) and subtypes of SH R, especially stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) are considered as most important animal models at present for the studies of hypertension and its complications in heart and brain, evcn SHRSP arc considered as thc unique animal model in which prcvention of stroke can be studied cxperimentally Howcver, the applications of SHR and SHRSP are limited because of the effects of genetic deficits and thc difficulties with breeding Theretore, most of the researches on experimental stroke have been performed on the animal models with normotcnsion and normal structure of cerebral vessels. In fact, there are great differences in structure of cerebrovesscls, autoregulation of cerebral blood flow and extent of lesions in brain tissue, even the reaction to the medication after ischemia between the animals with extcnsive arteriosclerosis and with normal cerebral blood vessels. Obviously, thc relevancc of experimental stroke on normal animals to the stroke on cerebral arteriosclerotic patients clinically remains dubious. Data sources and methods Most published original articles about RHRSP in our laboratory were reviewed Results After the renal arteries were constricted bilaterally with ring-shape silver clips, the stroke-prone rcnovascular hypertensive rats were established. Hypertension was produced in all RHRSP(100%).The peak of blood pressure in RHRSP reached 29.1 ±3.0kPa. The lesions of cerebral arteries and arterioles and the damage of cerebral capillary structure by hypertension were observed in the RHRSP. The incidence of spontaneous stroke was 56.4% with in 40 weeks after the renal artery constriction. Left ventricular hypertrophy and small coronary arterial lesions in myocardium were discovered in all

  4. Severe accident phenomena

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  5. Syndromes of Ketosis-Prone Diabetes Mellitus

    Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Nalini, Ramaswami; Hampe, Christiane S.; Maldonado, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) is a widespread, emerging, heterogeneous syndrome characterized by patients who present with diabetic ketoacidosis or unprovoked ketosis but do not necessarily have the typical phenotype of autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Multiple, severe forms of β-cell dysfunction appear to underlie the pathophysiology of KPD. Until recently, the syndrome has lacked an accurate, clinically relevant and etiologically useful classification scheme. We have utilized a large, longitudinally followed, heterogeneous, multiethnic cohort of KPD patients to identify four clinically and pathophysiologically distinct subgroups that are separable by the presence or absence of β-cell autoimmunity and the presence or absence of β-cell functional reserve. The resulting “Aβ” classification system of KPD has proven to be highly accurate and predictive of such clinically important outcomes as glycemic control and insulin dependence, as well as an aid to biochemical and molecular investigations into novel causes of β-cell dysfunction. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge in regard to the natural history, pathophysiology, and treatment of the subgroups of KPD, with an emphasis on recent advances in understanding their immunological and genetic bases. PMID:18292467

  6. Evening types are prone to depression.

    Merikanto, Ilona; Lahti, Tuuli; Kronholm, Erkki; Peltonen, Markku; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Salomaa, Veikko; Partonen, Timo

    2013-06-01

    Certain preferences for the timing of daily activities (chronotype) may predispose an individual to sleep problems and mood disorders. In this study, we have examined the link between chronotypes and depression. Participants (N = 6071) were recruited from a random sample of the general population aged 25 to 74 yrs living in defined geographical areas, as part of the National FINRISK Study in 2007 in Finland. Chronotype assessment was based on six items from the original Horne-Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Depression was assessed with four self-reported items, including two probes for a diagnosis of a major depressive episode, diagnosed or treated depression, and use of antidepressants. We also analyzed correlations between chronotype and several health indicators, such as systolic and diastolic blood pressures, resting heart rate, weight, and waist circumference. The odds ratios for a range of indicators of depression were higher for evening types (2.7- to 4.1-fold) and intermediate types (1.5- to 1.9-fold) than for morning types. Our results suggest that individuals having a preference for evening hours to carry out their daily activities are prone to depression. PMID:23688117

  7. Parent Proneness to Shame and the Use of Psychological Control

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Freeman, Wendy S.; Clara, Ian P.; Elgar, Frank J.; Walling, Bobbi R.; Mak, Leanne

    2007-01-01

    We examined the link between parent proneness to shame and two forms of psychological control, overprotection and critical/rejecting behavior, in parents of preschoolers. Because shame is self-condemning, proneness to shame affects intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning. We hypothesized that parents' emotion-regulatory responses to shame…

  8. Application of Bayesian techniques for the identification of accident-prone road sections

    Thomas Edison Guerrero-Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de técnicas bayesianas para la identificación de tramos de carretera propensos a accidentes ha llegado a ser muy import ante en los últimos años. El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en id entificar los tramos de carretera propensos a accidentes en el municipio de Ocaña (Colombia, utilizando el método bayesiano (BM; el enfoq ue de modelación desarrollado consistió en la conformación de u na base de datos de accidentes ocurridos entre los años 2007 (enero y 2013 (agosto y la aplicación de la metodología en 15 tramos de carreteras urbanas. Los análisis finales muestran que el BM es una herrami enta poderosa y rápida de fácil implementación, que proporciona resultados en los que se identificaron 4 tramos de carretera propensos a l os accidentes o peligrosos y los clasificó por orden de peligro , el establecimiento de un ranking de peligro proporciona un orden d e prioridades para las inversiones y la aplicación de políticas preventivas y / o correctivas que maximicen los beneficios asociados con la seguridad vial.

  9. Application of bayesian techniques for the identification of accident-prone road sections

    Thomas Edison Guerrero-Barbosa; Gloria Estefany Amarís-Castro

    2014-01-01

    El uso de técnicas bayesianas para la identificación de tramos de carretera propensos a accidentes ha llegado a ser muy import ante en los últimos años. El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en id entificar los tramos de carretera propensos a accidentes en el municipio de Ocaña (Colombia), utilizando el método bayesiano (BM); el enfoq ue de modelación desarrollado consistió en la conformación de u na base de datos de accidentes ocurridos entre los años 2007 (enero) y 2013 (agosto) y la ...

  10. Determination of radon prone areas by optimized binary classification

    Geogenic radon prone areas are regions in which for natural reasons elevated indoor radon concentrations must be expected. Their identification is part of radon mitigation policies in many countries, as radon is acknowledged a major indoor air pollutant, being the second cause of lung cancer after smoking. Defining and estimating radon prone areas is therefore of high practical interest. In this paper a method is presented which uses the geogenic radon potential as predictor and thresholds of indoor radon concentration for defining radon prone areas, from which thresholds for the geogenic radon potential are deduced which decide whether a location is flagged radon prone or not, in the absence of actual indoor observations. The overall results are different maps of radon prone areas, derived from the geogenic radon map, and depending (1) on the criterion which defines what a radon prone area is; and (2) on the choice of score whose maximization defines the optimal classifier. Such map is not the result of a transfer model (geogenic to indoor radon), but of the optimization of a classification rule. The method is computationally simple but has its caveats and statistical traps, some of which are also addressed. - Highlights: • A classification-based method for estimating radon prone areas. • Geogenic radon potential as predictor. • Optimization of ROC graphs

  11. SEVERE ACCIDENT MANAGEMENT TRAINING

    The purpose of this paper is (a) to define the International Atomic Energy Agency's role in the area of severe accident management training, (b) to briefly describe the status of representative severe accident analysis tools designed to support development and validation of accident management guidelines, and more recently, simulate the accident with sufficient accuracy to support the training of technical support and reactor operator staff, and (c) provide an overview of representative design-specific accident management guidelines and training. Since accident management and the development of accident management validation and training software is a rapidly evolving area, this paper is also intended to evolve as accident management guidelines and training programs are developed to meet different reactor design requirements and individual national requirements

  12. Traffic Congestion and Accidents

    Schrage, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Obstructions caused by accidents can trigger or exacerbate traffic congestion. This paper derives the efficient traffic pattern for a rush hour with congestion and accidents and the corresponding road toll. Compared to the model without accidents, where the toll equals external costs imposed on drivers using the road at the same time, a new insight arises: An optimal toll also internalizes the expected increase in future congestion costs. Since accidents affect more drivers if traffic volumes...

  13. Managing flood prone ecosystem for rice production in Bihar plains

    A large area of the eastern region especially Bihar (0.5 million hectare) faces flood submergence and/or drought every year which creates an unfavorable environment for crop production. In this ecosystem only flood prone rice is grown whose cultivation is entirely different than normal rice crop. Managing the flood prone ecosystem for rice production needs to evaluate the reasons and a comprehensive appropriate technology through research efforts for better rice production under such harsh ecology. An attempt was made to develop a suitable agronomic package for rice cultivation during and after flooding in flood prone plains of Bihar. (author)

  14. Psychology of nuclear accidents

    Tysoe, M.

    1983-03-31

    Incidents involving nuclear weapons are described, as well as the accident to the Three Mile Island-2 reactor. Methods of assessment of risks are discussed, with particular reference to subjective judgements and the possible role of human error in civil nuclear accidents. Accidents or misunderstandings in communication or human actions which might lead to nuclear war are also discussed.

  15. The Violence Proneness Scale of the DUSI-R predicts adverse outcomes associated with substance abuse.

    Kirisci, Levent; Tarter, Ralph; Reynolds, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    Accuracy of the Violence Proneness Scale (VPS) of the Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI-R) was evaluated in 328 boys for predicting use of illegal drugs, DUI, selling drugs, sexually transmitted disease, car accident while under acute effects of drugs/alcohol, trading drugs for sex, injuries from a fight, and traumatic head injury. Boys were prospectively tracked from age 16 to 19 at which time these outcomes were documented in the interim period. The results demonstrated that the VPS score is a significant predictor of all outcomes. Prediction accuracy ranged between 62%-83%. These findings suggest that the VPS may be useful for identifying youths who are at high risk for using illicit drugs and commonly associated adverse outcomes. PMID:19283571

  16. Lonely, Isolated People May Be Prone to Heart Disease, Stroke

    ... Isolated People May Be Prone to Heart Disease, Stroke Study found social isolation raised the risk by ... face a higher risk of heart disease and stroke, researchers report. Social isolation raised that risk by ...

  17. The neutral stimuli detection deficits in delusion-prone individuals

    Prochwicz, Katarzyna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the delusion-prone individuals tend to select relevant information among distractors in order to examine whether the occurrence of overt delusions could be preceded by specific features of attention functioning.Methods. Individuals with high and low susceptibility to delusions completed the experimental task relying on the search for the specified signal hidden among distractors.Results. The delusion-prone individuals did not select emotionally neutral signal more effectively than the non delusion-prone ones. What is more, they made more ‘false-alarm’ mistakes than the control group, especially at the later stage of the task related to the increased fatigue level.Conclusion. The delusion-proneness is not related to the excessive information selection ability.

  18. Empathy, Guilt Proneness, and Gender: Relative Contributions to Prosocial Behaviour.

    Torstveit, Linda; Sütterlin, Stefan; Lugo, Ricardo Gregorio

    2016-05-01

    Guilt is a moral emotion that is often looked upon as a negative trait. However, studies show that some individuals are more predisposed to think, feel and act in a more ethical manner because of a lower threshold to experience guilt. Some theories of helping behaviour emphasize the evolutionary mechanisms, while other theories stress the importance of social variables. This study investigated whether guilt proneness as a dispositional trait can be associated with prosocial behaviour. Five hundred sixty-nine participants reported in an online survey their own levels of guilt proneness, frequency of prosocial behaviour, and related cognitions such as empathy. This study is among the first to demonstrate how guilt proneness combined with empathy can explain additional variance in prosocial behaviour. The findings also indicate gender differences in the precursors of prosocial behaviour, suggesting women are more influenced by the effects of guilt proneness on prosocial behaviour than men. PMID:27298635

  19. Empathy, Guilt Proneness, and Gender: Relative Contributions to Prosocial Behaviour

    Linda Torstveit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Guilt is a moral emotion that is often looked upon as a negative trait. However, studies show that some individuals are more predisposed to think, feel and act in a more ethical manner because of a lower threshold to experience guilt. Some theories of helping behaviour emphasize the evolutionary mechanisms, while other theories stress the importance of social variables. This study investigated whether guilt proneness as a dispositional trait can be associated with prosocial behaviour. Five hundred sixty-nine participants reported in an online survey their own levels of guilt proneness, frequency of prosocial behaviour, and related cognitions such as empathy. This study is among the first to demonstrate how guilt proneness combined with empathy can explain additional variance in prosocial behaviour. The findings also indicate gender differences in the precursors of prosocial behaviour, suggesting women are more influenced by the effects of guilt proneness on prosocial behaviour than men.

  20. Supervisor's accident investigation handbook

    This pamphlet was prepared by the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EH and S) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to provide LBL supervisors with a handy reference to LBL's accident investigation program. The publication supplements the Accident and Emergencies section of LBL's Regulations and Procedures Manual, Pub. 201. The present guide discusses only accidents that are to be investigated by the supervisor. These accidents are classified as Type C by the Department of Energy (DOE) and include most occupational injuries and illnesses, government motor-vehicle accidents, and property damages of less than $50,000

  1. Lumbar Lordosis of Spinal Stenosis Patients during Intraoperative Prone Positioning

    Lee, Su-Keon; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Song, Kyung-Sub; Park, Byung-Moon; Lim, Sang-Youn; Jang, Geun; Lee, Beom-Seok; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effect of spondylolisthesis on lumbar lordosis on the OSI (Jackson; Orthopaedic Systems Inc.) frame. Restoration of lumbar lordosis is important for maintaining sagittal balance. Physiologic lumbar lordosis has to be gained by intraoperative prone positioning with a hip extension and posterior instrumentation technique. There are some debates about changing lumbar lordosis on the OSI frame after an intraoperative prone position. We evaluated the effect of spondyloli...

  2. The neutral stimuli detection deficits in delusion-prone individuals

    Prochwicz, Katarzyna; Różycka, Jagoda

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the delusion-prone individuals tend to select relevant information among distractors in order to examine whether the occurrence of overt delusions could be preceded by specific features of attention functioning.Methods. Individuals with high and low susceptibility to delusions completed the experimental task relying on the search for the specified signal hidden among distractors.Results. The delusion-prone individuals did not select emotion...

  3. Emotion Recognition and Psychosis-Proneness: Neural and Behavioral Perspectives

    Germine, Laura Thi

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in social cognition and emotion processing, but it is not known how these deficits relate to other domains of neurocognition and whether they might contribute to psychosis development. The current dissertation approaches this question by looking at the relationship between psychosis proneness and face emotion recognition ability, a core domain of social-emotional processing. Psychosis proneness was inferred by the presence of psychosis-like character...

  4. Framework for accident management

    Accident management is an essential element of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Integration Plan for the closure of severe accident issues. This element will consolidate the results from other key elements; such as the Individual Plant Examination (IPE), the Containment Performance Improvement, and the Severe Accident Research Programs, in a form that can be used to enhance the safety programs for nuclear power plants. The NRC is currently conducting an Accident Management Program that is intended to aid in defining the scope and attributes of an accident management program for nuclear power plants. The accident management plan will ensure that a plant specific program is developed and implemented to promote the most effective use of available utility resources (people and hardware) to prevent and mitigate severe accidents. Hardware changes or other plant modifications to reduce the frequency of severe accidents are not a central aim of this program. To accomplish the outlined objectives, the NRC has developed an accident management framework that is comprised of five elements: (1) accident management strategies, (2) training, (3) guidance and computational aids, (4) instrumentation, and (5) delineation of decision making responsibilities. A process for the development of an accident management program has been identified using these NRC framework elements

  5. The role of a prone setup in breast radiation therapy

    Nelly eHuppert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Most patients undergoing breast conservation therapy (BCT receive radiotherapy in the supine position. Historically, prone breast irradiation has been advocated for women with large pendulous breasts in order to decrease acute and late toxicities. With the advent of CT planning, the prone technique has become both feasible and reproducible. It was shown to be advantageous not only for women with larger breasts but in most patients since it consistently reduces, if not eliminates, the inclusion of heart and lung within the field. The prone setup has been accepted as the best localizing position for both MRI and stereotactic biopsy, but its adoption has been delayed in radiotherapy. New technological advances including image-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT have made possible the exploration of accelerated fractionation schemes with a concomitant boost to the tumor bed in the prone position, along with better imaging and verification of reproducibility of patient setup. This review describes some of the available techniques for prone breast radiotherapy and the available experience in their application. The NYU prone breast radiotherapy approach is discussed, including a summary of the results from several prospective trials.

  6. Development and validation of the Adolescent Shame-Proneness Scale.

    Simonds, Laura M; John, Mary; Fife-Schaw, Chris; Willis, Susie; Taylor, Helen; Hand, Heidi; Rahim, Masuma; Winstanley, Harriet; Winton, Holly

    2016-05-01

    Like other self-conscious emotions, shame takes on particular significance during late childhood and adolescence because of a developing capacity for self-reflection, self-other comparisons, and sensitivity to the views of others. Shame is a potentially important variable in adolescent well-being given its established associations with depression, reduced feelings of self-worth, and problematic anger. Three studies are reported that describe the development and validation of the Adolescent Shame-Proneness Scale (ASPS), a novel semi-idiographic measure of shame-proneness. The ASPS is a 19-item measure assessing 3 components of shame-proneness-negative self-evaluation, externalization, and emotional discomfort. Taken together, the studies support the reliability and validity of the ASPS as a semi-idiographic measure of shame-proneness in adolescents aged 11 to 18 years. ASPS scores correlate as expected with scores on existing measure of shame-proneness and with measures of anger, negative affect, and self-esteem. More important, the data suggest that ASPS scores are related to, but distinct from, guilt. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of the ASPS factor structure (RMSEA = .08, SRMR = .05, CFI = .97, NNFI = .97). The ASPS represents a unique contribution to existing options for measuring shame-proneness in research and clinical contexts. Further work is required to assess the ASPS' temporal stability and its viability and psychometric properties in more culturally diverse samples. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26302099

  7. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Framework for accident management

    A program is being conducted to establish those attributes of a severe accident management plan which are necessary to assure effective response to all credible severe accidents and to develop guidance for their incorporation in a plant's Accident Management Plan. This program is one part of the Accident Management Research Program being conducted by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The approach used in establishing attributes and developing guidance includes three steps. In the first step the general attributes of an accident management plan were identified based on: (1) the objectives established for the NRC accident management program, (2) the elements of an accident management framework identified by the NRC, and (3) a review of the processes used in developing the currently used approach for classifying and analyzing accidents. For the second step, a process was defined that uses the general attributes identified from the first step to develop an accident management plan. The third step applied the process defined in the second step at a nuclear power plant to refine and develop it into a benchmark accident management plan. Step one is completed, step two is underway and step three has not yet begun

  9. The Chernobyl accident consequences

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  10. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  11. Nuclear accidents and epidemiology

    A consultation on epidemiology related to the Chernobyl accident was held in Copenhagen in May 1987 as a basis for concerted action. This was followed by a joint IAEA/WHO workshop in Vienna, which reviewed appropriate methodologies for possible long-term effects of radiation following nuclear accidents. The reports of these two meetings are included in this volume, and cover the subjects: 1) Epidemiology related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident. 2) Appropriate methodologies for studying possible long-term effects of radiation on individuals exposed in a nuclear accident. Figs and tabs

  12. Analysis of Intra-Urban Traffic Accidents Using Spatiotemporal Visualization Techniques

    Soltani Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accidents (RTAs rank in the top ten causes of the global burden of disease and injury, and Iran has one of the highest road traffic mortality rates in the world. This paper presents a spatiotemporal analysis of intra-urban traffic accidents data in metropolitan Shiraz, Iran during the period 2011-2012. It is tried to identify the accident prone zones and sensitive hours using Geographic Information Systems (GIS-based spatio-temporal visualization techniques. The analysis aimed at the identification of high-rate accident locations and safety deficient area using Kernel Estimation Density (KED method. The investigation indicates that the majority of occurrences of traffic accidents were on the main roads, which play a meta-region functional role and act as a linkage between main destinations with high trip generation rate. According to the temporal distribution of car crashes, the peak of traffic accidents incident is simultaneous with the traffic congestion peak hours on arterial roads. The accident-prone locations are mostly located in districts with higher speed and traffic volume, therefore, they should be considered as the priority investigation locations to safety promotion programs.

  13. Estimating likelihood of future crashes for crash-prone drivers

    Subasish Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available At-fault crash-prone drivers are usually considered as the high risk group for possible future incidents or crashes. In Louisiana, 34% of crashes are repeatedly committed by the at-fault crash-prone drivers who represent only 5% of the total licensed drivers in the state. This research has conducted an exploratory data analysis based on the driver faultiness and proneness. The objective of this study is to develop a crash prediction model to estimate the likelihood of future crashes for the at-fault drivers. The logistic regression method is used by employing eight years' traffic crash data (2004–2011 in Louisiana. Crash predictors such as the driver's crash involvement, crash and road characteristics, human factors, collision type, and environmental factors are considered in the model. The at-fault and not-at-fault status of the crashes are used as the response variable. The developed model has identified a few important variables, and is used to correctly classify at-fault crashes up to 62.40% with a specificity of 77.25%. This model can identify as many as 62.40% of the crash incidence of at-fault drivers in the upcoming year. Traffic agencies can use the model for monitoring the performance of an at-fault crash-prone drivers and making roadway improvements meant to reduce crash proneness. From the findings, it is recommended that crash-prone drivers should be targeted for special safety programs regularly through education and regulations.

  14. [Continuously alternating prone and supine positioning in acute lung failure].

    Walz, M; Muhr, G

    1992-11-01

    Acute respiratory failure is still one the main problems in surgical intensive care. Unknown pathophysiological mechanisms permit only symptomatic therapy. Today ventilatory strategies by using PEEP und IRV are established to improve gas exchange and FRC by recruiting collapsed alveoli, decreasing intrapulmonary shunting and returning V/Q matching to normal. Furthermore different studies have shown the effects of supine and lateral decubitus posture in patients with acute respiratory failure. There are only rare reports on using the prone position, which doesn't require two-lung ventilation in difference to lateral position. We have studied 16 patients with acute respiratory failure by using continuous changing between prone and supine position under mechanical ventilation. All were male, aged 41.3 years in the middle and showed an average "Injury Severity Score" of 30 (13-50). 15 were trauma patients with blunt chest trauma in 11 cases. We have used prone position on threatening or manifest ARDS. In all patients we observed an increment of PaO2 during prone position on to 48 mmHg so that FiO2 could be reduced on an average of 0.2 within the first 48 h since changing patient's position. Posture changing depends on blood gas analysis, specifically on decreasing PaO2 after previous increment. Patients remained in prone and supine position at a mean of 6.3 (4.5-20) h and posture changing was proceeded over a period of 15.4 (7-32) days. No problems recording to blood pressure or mechanical ventilation appeared during prone position. 11 of 16 patients survived (68.8%), 5 died of cardiac (2) and multi organic failure (3) in connection with sepsis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1458988

  15. Criticality accident in Argentina

    A recent criticality type accident, ocurred in Argetina, is commented. Considerations about the nature of the facility where this accident took place, its genesis, type of operation carried out on the day of the event, and the medical aspects involved are done. (Author)

  16. Chernobyl accident and Danmark

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  17. Radiation accidents in hospitals

    Some of the radiation accidents that have occurred in Indian hospitals and causes that led to them are reviewed. Proper organization of radiation safety minimizes such accidents. It has been pointed out that there must be technical competence and mental preparedness to tackle emergencies when they do infrequently occur. (M.G.B.)

  18. Communication and industrial accidents

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the conc

  19. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  20. Accidents with orphan sources

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has specifically defined statutory functions relating to the development of standards of safety and the provision for their application. It also has responsibilities placed on it by virtue of a number of Conventions, two of which are relevant to nuclear accidents or radiological emergencies - the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. An overview of the way in which these functions are being applied to prevent and respond to radiological accidents, particularly those involving orphan sources, is described in this paper. Summaries of a number of such accidents and of the Agency's Action Plan relating to the safety and security of radiation sources are given. (orig.)

  1. China's coal mine accident statistics analysis and one million tons mortality prediction

    Qiao Tong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the general rule of coal mine accidents in China in recent years, the data of coal mine accident in 2011-2015 is analyzed. The mathematical statistics method is used to analyze the occurrence year, type, season and area of the accident. The results of analysis shows that the coal mine accident has been reduced year by year, and the frequency of gas explosion is the highest. The frequency and the number of deaths in the second quarter of the year are the highest; Guizhou province, Hunan province, Yunnan province and Heilongjiang province are the accident prone provinces. GM (1, 1 dynamic prediction model is used to model and forecast the future million tons mortality in China. The forecast results show that the coal mine's million tons mortality rate of China showed a decreasing trend. The forecast results are scientific and reliable, and it is of great significance to the safety management of coal mine.

  2. Accident report 1975/76

    The statistics previously published on the development of accidents were completed. It is the purpose of this accident report: 1) to present a survey of the development of the number of accidents (no radiation accidents) for the years 1960 - 1976, 2) to break down the accidents by different characteristics in order to be able to recognize the preventive measures to be taken so as to avoid further accidents, 3) to report about accidents experienced and to indicate activities performed with respect to accident prevention and health protection. (orig.)

  3. Absorption, fantasy proneness, and the false fame effect

    Horselenberg, Robert; Merckelbach, Harald; Wessel, Ineke; Verhoeven, Charlotte; Zeles, Gwenny

    2006-01-01

    Participants tend to claim that nonfamous names refer to well-known people when they have previously been required to read these nonfamous names. This false fame effect originates from source monitoring errors. In two studies, we explored whether high levels of absorption or fantasy proneness are re

  4. Prone position craniotomy in pregnancy without fetal heart rate monitoring.

    Jacob, Jean; Alexander, Ashish; Philip, Shoba; Thomas, Anoop

    2016-09-01

    A pregnant patient in second trimester scheduled for posterior fossa craniotomy in prone position is a challenge for the anesthesiologist. Things to consider are physiological changes during pregnancy, non-obstetric surgery in pregnant patients, neuroanesthetic principles, effects of prone positioning, and need for fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring. We have described the anesthetic management of this case and discussed intra-operative FHR monitoring including controversies about its role, indications, and various options available as per fetal gestational age. In our case we attempted intermittent intra-operative FHR monitoring to optimize maternal positioning and fetal oxygenation even though the fetus was pre-viable. However the attempt was abandoned due to practical difficulties with prone positioning. Patient made good neurological recovery following the procedure and delivered a healthy term baby 4 months later. Decisions regarding fetal monitoring should be individualized based on viability of the fetus and feasibility of emergency cesarean delivery. Good communication between a multidisciplinary team involving neurosurgeon, anesthesiologist, obstetrician, and neonatologist is important for a successful outcome for mother and fetus. We conclude that prone position neurosurgery can safely be carried out in a pregnant patient with pre-viable fetus without FHR monitoring. PMID:27555144

  5. Infrastructure in Conflict-Prone and Fragile Environments

    Ali, Rubaba; Barra, A. Federico; Berg, Claudia N.; Damania, Richard; John D. Nash; Russ, Jason

    2015-01-01

    In conflict-prone situations, access to markets is necessary to restore economic growth and generate the preconditions for peace and reconstruction. Hence, the rehabilitation of damaged transport infrastructure has emerged as an overarching investment priority among donors and governments. This paper brings together two distinct strands of literature on the effects of conflict on welfare a...

  6. Setup accuracy for prone and supine whole breast irradiation

    To evaluate cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) based setup accuracy and margins for prone and supine whole breast irradiation (WBI). Setup accuracy was evaluated on 3559 CBCT scans of 242 patients treated with WBI and uncertainty margins were calculated using the van Herk formula. Uni- and multivariate analysis on individual margins was performed for age, body mass index (BMI) and cup size. The population-based margin in vertical (VE), lateral (LA) and longitudinal (LO) directions was 10.4/9.4/9.4 mm for the 103 supine and 10.5/22.4/13.7 mm for the 139 prone treated patients, being significantly (p < 0.01) different for the LA and LO directions. Multivariate analysis identified a significant (p < 0.05) correlation between BMI and the LO margin in supine position and the VE/LA margin in prone position. In this series, setup accuracy is significantly worse in prone compared to supine position for the LA and LO directions. However, without proper image-guidance, uncertainty margins of about 1 cm are also necessary for supine WBI. For patients with a higher BMI, larger margins are required. (orig.)

  7. Analyzing the Change-Proneness of APIs and web APIs

    Romano, D.

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the Change-Proneness of APIs and web APIs APIs and web APIs are used to expose existing business logic and, hence, to ease the reuse of functionalities across multiple software systems. Software systems can use the business logic of legacy systems by binding their APIs and web APIs. With t

  8. An isobar-surfaces approach to multidimensional outlier-proneness.

    Barme-Delcroix, Marie-Francoise; Gather, Ursula

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to define and investigate outlier-proneness for multivariate distributions. This is done by using a concept of ordering multivariate data based on isobar-surfaces, which yields an utmost analogy of the results to the univariate case.

  9. Database on aircraft accidents

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating

  10. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  11. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. PMID:20618386

  12. Management of severe accidents

    The definition and the multidimensionality aspects of accident management have been reviewed. The suggested elements in the development of a programme for severe accident management have been identified and discussed. The strategies concentrate on the two tiered approaches. Operative management utilizes the plant's equipment and operators capabilities. The recovery managment concevtrates on preserving the containment, or delaying its failure, inhibiting the release, and on strategies once there has been a release. The inspiration for this paper was an excellent overview report on perspectives on managing severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants and extending plant operating procedures into the severe accident regime; and by the most recent publication of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) considering the question of risk reduction and source term reduction through accident prevention, management and mitigation. The latter document concludes that 'active development of accident management measures by plant personnel can lead to very large reductions in source terms and risk', and goes further in considering and formulating the key issue: 'The most fruitful path to follow in reducing risk even further is through the planning of accident management.' (author)

  13. Accidents, risks and consequences

    Although the accident at Chernobyl can be considered as the worst accident in the world, it could have been worse. Other far worse situations are considered, such as a nuclear weapon hitting a nuclear reactor. Indeed the accident at Chernobyl is compared to a nuclear weapon. The consequences of Chernobyl in terms of radiation levels are discussed. Although it is believed that a similar accident could not occur in the United Kingdom, that possibility is considered. It is suggested that emergency plans should be made for just such an eventuality. Even if Chernobyl could not happen in the UK, the effects of accidents are international. The way in which nuclear reactor accidents happen is explored, taking the 1957 Windscale fire, Three Mile Island and Chernobyl as examples. Reactor designs and accident scenarios are considered. The different reactor designs are listed. As well as the Chernobyl RBMK design it is suggested that the light water reactors also have undesirable features from the point of view of safety. (U.K.)

  14. A comparative analysis of accident risks in fossil, hydro, and nuclear energy chains

    Burgherr, P.; Hirschberg, S. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    This study presents a comparative assessment of severe accident risks in the energy sector, based on the historical experience of fossil (coal, oil, natural gas, and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)) and hydro chains contained in the comprehensive Energy-related Severe Accident Database (ENSAD), as well as Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for the nuclear chain. Full energy chains were considered because accidents can take place at every stage of the chain. Comparative analyses for the years 1969-2000 included a total of 1870 severe ({>=} 5 fatalities) accidents, amounting to 81,258 fatalities. Although 79.1% of all accidents and 88.9% of associated fatalities occurred in less developed, non-OECD countries, industrialized OECD countries dominated insured losses (78.0%), reflecting their substantially higher insurance density and stricter safety regulations. Aggregated indicators and frequency-consequence (F-N) curves showed that energy-related accident risks in non-OECD countries are distinctly higher than in OECD countries. Hydropower in non-OECD countries and upstream stages within fossil energy chains are most accident-prone. Expected fatality rates are lowest for Western hydropower and nuclear power plants; however, the maximum credible consequences can be very large. Total economic damages due to severe accidents are substantial, but small when compared with natural disasters. Similarly, external costs associated with severe accidents are generally much smaller than monetized damages caused by air pollution.

  15. Traffic dynamics around weaving section influenced by accident: Cellular automata approach

    Kong, Lin-Peng; Li, Xin-Gang; Lam, William H. K.

    2015-07-01

    The weaving section, as a typical bottleneck, is one source of vehicle conflicts and an accident-prone area. Traffic accident will block lanes and the road capacity will be reduced. Several models have been established to study the dynamics around traffic bottlenecks. However, little attention has been paid to study the complex traffic dynamics influenced by the combined effects of bottleneck and accident. This paper presents a cellular automaton model to characterize accident-induced traffic behavior around the weaving section. Some effective control measures are proposed and verified for traffic management under accident condition. The total flux as a function of inflow rates, the phase diagrams, the spatial-temporal diagrams, and the density and velocity profiles are presented to analyze the impact of accident. It was shown that the proposed control measures for weaving traffic can improve the capacity of weaving section under both normal and accident conditions; the accidents occurring on median lane in the weaving section are more inclined to cause traffic jam and reduce road capacity; the capacity of weaving section will be greatly reduced when the accident happens downstream the weaving section.

  16. Severe accidents due to windsurfing in the Aegean Sea.

    Kalogeromitros, A; Tsangaris, H; Bilalis, D; Karabinis, A

    2002-06-01

    Windsurfing is a popular sport and has recently become an Olympic event. As an open-air water activity that requires the participant to be in perfect physical condition, windsurfers may be prone to accidents when certain basic rules or procedures are violated. The current study monitored severe injuries due to windsurfing over a period of 12 months in the Aegean Sea in Greece. Our study revealed 22 cases of severe accidents due to windsurfing, with a wide range of injuries including head injuries, spinal cord injuries, and severe fractures of the extremities. Prolonged hospitalization, severe disability and two deaths occurred as consequences of these accidents. The study examined the characteristics of these patients and the possible risk factors and conditions associated with the accidents. We also focused on the most common types of injuries and reviewed the mechanisms that may provoke them. Water sports and particularly windsurfing represent a major challenge for the emergency medical system, especially in the Aegean Sea. Hundreds of islands, kilometres of isolated coasts, millions of tourists, an extended summer period and rapidly changing weather create conditions that constantly test the efficacy of the emergency services. The development of an appropriate infrastructure and maximum control of the risk factors causing these accidents could reduce the morbidity and mortality that, unfortunately but rather predictably, accompany this popular summer activity. PMID:12131638

  17. Soviet submarine accidents

    Although the Soviet Union has more submarines than the NATO navies combined, and the technological superiority of western submarines is diminishing, there is evidence that there are more accidents with Soviet submarines than with western submarine fleets. Whether this is due to inadequate crews or lower standards of maintenance and overhaul procedures is discussed. In particular, it is suggested that since the introduction of nuclear powered submarines, the Soviet submarine safety record has deteriorated. Information on Soviet submarine accidents is difficult to come by, but a list of some 23 accidents, mostly in nuclear submarines, between 1966 and 1986, has been compiled. The approximate date, class or type of submarine, the nature and location of the accident, the casualties and damage and the source of information are tabulated. (U.K.)

  18. Accident resistant transport container

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  19. Talking about accidents

    It is argued that the public's emotional fear of the hypothetical, very unlikely, gigantic nuclear accident is partly caused by the nuclear industry's incorrect use of language within its own professional discussions. Improved terminology is suggested. (U.K.)

  20. Boating Accident Statistics

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  1. FATAL ACCIDENT REPORTING SYSTEM (FARS)

    The Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) database consist of three relational tables, containing data on automobile accidents on public U.S. roads that resulted in the death of one or more people within 30 days of the accident. Truck and trailer accidents are also included.

  2. The Chernobyl accident

    In connection with the Chernobyl accident the report gives a description of the technical features of importance to the accident, the course of events, and the estimated health hazards in the local environment. Dissimilarities in western and Sovjet reactor safety philosophy are dealt with, as well as conceivable concequences in relation to technology and research in western nuclear power programmes. Results of activity level measurements of air and foodstuff, made in Norway by Institute for Energy Technology, are given

  3. Accident and emergency management

    There is an increasing potential for severe accidents as the industrial development tends towards large, centralised production units. In several industries this has led to the formation of large organisations which are prepared for accidents fighting and for emergency management. The functioning of these organisations critically depends upon efficient decision making and exchange of information. This project is aimed at securing and possibly improving the functionality and efficiency of the accident and emergency management by verifying, demonstrating, and validating the possible use of advanced information technology in the organisations mentioned above. With the nuclear industry in focus the project consists of five main activities: 1) The study and detailed analysis of accident and emergency scenarios based on records from incidents and rills in nuclear installations. 2) Development of a conceptual understanding of accident and emergency management with emphasis on distributed decision making, information flow, and control structure sthat are involved. 3) Development of a general experimental methodology for evaluating the effects of different kinds of decision aids and forms of organisation for emergency management systems with distributed decision making. 4) Development and test of a prototype system for a limited part of an accident and emergency organisation to demonstrate the potential use of computer and communication systems, data-base and knowledge base technology, and applications of expert systems and methods used in artificial intelligence. 5) Production of guidelines for the introduction of advanced information technology in the organisations based on evaluation and validation of the prototype system. (author)

  4. Accident management information needs

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Historical aspects of radiation accidents

    Radiation accidents are extremely rare events; however, the last two years have witnessed the largest radiation accidents in both the eastern and western hemispheres. It is the purpose of this chapter to review how radiation accidents are categorized, examine the temporal changes in frequency and severity, give illustrative examples of several types of radiation accidents, and finally, to describe the various registries for radiation accidents

  6. Cyclical Fluctuations in Workplace Accidents

    Boone, J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    This Paper presents a theory and an empirical investigation on cyclical fluctuations in workplace accidents. The theory is based on the idea that reporting an accident dents the reputation of a worker and raises the probability that he is fired. Therefore a country with a high or an increasing unemployment rate has a low (reported) workplace accident rate. The empirical investigation concerns workplace accidents in OECD countries. The analysis confirms that workplace accident rates are invers...

  7. Effect of prone sleeping on circulatory control in infants

    Chong, A; N. Murphy; MATTHEWS, T

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The mechanism of death in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains unclear. Progressive bradycardia is the pre-eminent terminal event, suggesting that circulatory failure might be a crucial factor. Vasomotor tone regulates the circulatory system by controlling blood volume distribution while maintaining venous return and blood pressure.
AIM—To examine whether prone sleeping, the most consistently identified risk factor for SIDS, has a measurable influence on...

  8. Development of Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth

    Dongil Kim; Yunhee Lee; Juyoung Lee; JeeEun Karin Nam; Yeoju Chung

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS) based on the existing internet and cellular phone addiction scales. For the development of this scale, 29 items (1.5 times the final number of items) were initially selected as preliminary items, based on the previous studies on internet/phone addiction as well as the clinical experience of involved experts. The preliminary scale was administered to a nationally representative sample of 795 students in elementary, middle, and ...

  9. The current status of the coronary prone behaviour pattern.

    JOHNSTON, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    Despite over 30 years of increasingly vigorous research it is still not possible to claim with acceptable certainty that there is an identifiable pattern of coronary prone behaviour nor to say with any confidence that the idea is misguided. The scientific process that leads from initial tentative findings through generation of a hypothesis, to rigorous and cumulative tests of that hypothesis has not happened. Instead there has been a rather erratic series of positive and negative studies, and...

  10. Complications associated with prone positioning in elective spinal surgery

    DePasse, J. Mason; Mark A Palumbo; Haque, Maahir; Eberson, Craig P.; Alan H Daniels

    2015-01-01

    Complications associated with prone surgical positioning during elective spine surgery have the potential to cause serious patient morbidity. Although many of these complications remain uncommon, the range of possible morbidities is wide and includes multiple organ systems. Perioperative visual loss (POVL) is a well described, but uncommon complication that may occur due to ischemia to the optic nerve, retina, or cerebral cortex. Closed-angle glaucoma and amaurosis have been reported as addit...

  11. Analyzing the Change-Proneness of APIs and web APIs

    Romano, D.

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the Change-Proneness of APIs and web APIs APIs and web APIs are used to expose existing business logic and, hence, to ease the reuse of functionalities across multiple software systems. Software systems can use the business logic of legacy systems by binding their APIs and web APIs. With the emergence of a new programming paradigm called service-oriented, APIs are exposed as web APIs hiding the technologies used to implement legacy systems. As a consequence, web APIs establish contr...

  12. The patient sleeping on prone position: Case report

    Öztürk, Önder; Has, Mehmet; Kıztanır, Sefa; Akkaya, Ahmet; SAYGIN, Mustafa; GONCA, Taner; Khayri, Ulugh Bik

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) try to improve their impaired pulmonary functions by their own maneuvers and the most popular maneuvers are prone position and pursed-lip breathing. However the prognosis get worse by apnea even in different body positions, when COPD and the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are seen together. Also the different body positions used in pulmonary rehablition and surgery can cause serious changes in pulmonary fu...

  13. Empathy, Guilt Proneness, and Gender: Relative Contributions to Prosocial Behaviour

    Linda Torstveit; Stefan Sütterlin; Ricardo Gregorio Lugo

    2016-01-01

    Guilt is a moral emotion that is often looked upon as a negative trait. However, studies show that some individuals are more predisposed to think, feel and act in a more ethical manner because of a lower threshold to experience guilt. Some theories of helping behaviour emphasize the evolutionary mechanisms, while other theories stress the importance of social variables. This study investigated whether guilt proneness as a dispositional trait can be associated with prosocial behaviour. Five hu...

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study of Proneness to Anger

    Mick, Eric; Mcgough, James,; Deutsch, Curtis K.; Jean A. Frazier; Kennedy, David; Goldberg, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Community samples suggest that approximately 1 in 20 children and adults exhibit clinically significant anger, hostility, and aggression. Individuals with dysregulated emotional control have a greater lifetime burden of psychiatric morbidity, severe impairment in role functioning, and premature mortality due to cardiovascular disease. Methods With publically available data secured from dbGaP, we conducted a genome-wide association study of proneness to anger using the Spielberger S...

  15. Sulphamethoxazole prophylaxis in the otitis-prone child.

    Schwartz, R H; Puglise, J; Rodriguez, W J

    1982-01-01

    A bedtime dose of sulphamethoxazole was effective in preventing ear infections in otitis-prone young children. Thirty-three such children were studied by means of a random, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol. Nine (27%) of 33 children treated with sulphamethoxazole experienced 10 episodes of acute suppurative otitis media or otitis media with effusion while 19 (58%) of 33 children given a placebo experienced 27 episodes of acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion. N...

  16. Heart dose reduction by prone deep inspiration breath hold in left-sided breast irradiation

    Background and purpose: Cardiac disease has been related to heart dose after left-sided breast radiotherapy. This trial evaluates the heart sparing ability and feasibility of deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) in the prone position for left-sided whole breast irradiation (WBI). Materials and methods: Twelve patients underwent CT-simulation in supine shallow breathing (SB), supine DIBH, prone SB and prone DIBH. A validation cohort of 38 patients received prone SB and prone DIBH CT-scans; the last 30 patients were accepted for prone DIBH treatment. WBI was planned with a prescription dose of 40.05 Gy. Results: DIBH was able to reduce (p < 0.001) heart dose in both positions, with results for prone DIBH at least as favorable as for supine DIBH. Mean heart dose was lowered from 2.2 Gy for prone SB to 1.3 Gy for prone DIBH (p < 0.001), while preserving the lung sparing ability of prone positioning. Moreover prone DIBH nearly consistently reduced mean heart dose to less then 2 Gy, regardless of breast volume. All patients were able to perform the simulation procedure, 28/30 patients were treated with prone DIBH. Conclusions: This trial demonstrates the ability and feasibility of prone DIBH to acquire optimal heart and lung sparing for left-sided WBI

  17. [Psychogenesis of accidents].

    Giannattasio, E; Nencini, R; Nicolosi, N

    1988-01-01

    After having carried out a historical review of industrial psychology with specific attention to the evolution of the concept of causality in accidents, the Authors formulate their work hypothesis from that research which take into highest consideration the executives' attitudes in the genesis of the accidents. As dogmatism appears to be one of the most negative of executives' attitudes, the Authors administered Rockeach's Scale to 130 intermediate executives from 6 industries in Latium and observed the frequency index for accidents and the morbidity index (absenteeism) of the 2149 workhand. The Authors assumed that to high degree of dogmatism on the executives' side should correspond o a higher level of accidents and absenteeism among the staff. The data processing revealed that, due to the type of machinery employed, three of the industries examined should be considered as High Risk Industrie (HRI), while the remaining three could be considered as Low Risk Industries (LRI): in fact, due to the different working conditions, a significant lower number of accidents occurred in last the three. A statistically significant correlation between the executives' dogmatism and the number of accidents among their workhand in the HRI has been noticed, while this has not been observed in the LRI. This confirms, as had already been pointed out by Gemelli in 1944, that some "objective conditions" are requested so that the accident may actually take place. On the other hand the morbidity index has not shown any difference related to the different kind of industries (HRI, LRI): in both cases statistically significant correlations were obtained between the executives' dogmatism and the staff's absenteeism. absenteeism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3154344

  18. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  19. Accidents in nuclear ships

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10-3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  20. Scoping accident(s) for emergency planning

    At the request of the Conference of State Radiation Control Program Director's (CRCPD), in November 1976 the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission formed a joint Task Force with representatives of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to answer a number of questions posed by the States regarding emergency planning. This Task Force held monthly meetings through November 1977. In December 1977 a draft report was prepared for limited distribution for review and comment by selected State and local organizations. The NRC/EPA Task Force deliberations centered on the CRCPD request for '... a determination of the most severe accident basis for which radiological emergency response plans should be developed by offsite agencies...' in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. Federal Interagency guidance to the States in this regard has been that the scoping accident should be the most serious conservatively analyzed accident considered for siting purposes, as exemplified in the Commission's Regulations at 10 CFR Part 100 and the NRC staffs Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4, and as presented in license applicant's Safety Analysis Reports and the USNRC Staffs Safety Evaluation Reports. The draft report of the Task Force amplifies on this recommendation: to present a clearer picture of its import and introduces the concept of protective action zones (PAZs) within which detailed emergency plans should be developed; one zone for the plume exposure pathway and a second, larger zone for contamination pathways. The time dependence of potential releases and atmospheric transport, and important radionuclide groups of possible import are also discussed in the draft Task Force report. A status report regarding this effort, as of June 1978, will be presented. (author)

  1. Regional ventilation, pulmonary perfusion and gas exchange in supine and prone positions

    Mure, Margareta

    1999-01-01

    The rationale for treating patients with acute lung injury in the prone position springs from a number of observations. Clinical reports have documented improved oxygenation when patients are turned prone. Regional vascular conductance is higher in dorsal lung regions regardless of posture. Lung perfusion in dogs is similarly distributed in prone and supine positions. Ventilation to perfusion matching is better in the prone than supine position. These observations provided t...

  2. Important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident

    After the Fukushima accident several investigation committees issued reports with lessons learned from the accident in Japan. Among those lessons, several recommendations have been made on severe accident research. Similar to the EURSAFE efforts under EU Program, review of specific severe accident research items was started before Fukushima accident in working group of Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) in terms of significance of consequences, uncertainties of phenomena and maturity of assessment methodology. Re-investigation has been started since the Fukushima accident. Additional effects of Fukushima accident, such as core degradation behaviors, sea water injection, containment failure/leakage and re-criticality have been covered. The review results are categorized in ten major fields; core degradation behavior, core melt coolability/retention in containment vessel, function of containment vessel, source term, hydrogen behavior, fuel-coolant interaction, molten core concrete interaction, direct containment heating, recriticality and instrumentation in severe accident conditions. Based on these activities and also author's personal view, the present paper describes the perspective of important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident. Those are specifically investigation of damaged core and components, advanced severe accident analysis capabilities and associated experimental investigations, development of reliable passive cooling system for core/containment, analysis of hydrogen behavior and investigation of hydrogen measures, enhancement of removal function of radioactive materials of containment venting, advanced instrumentation for the diagnosis of severe accident and assessment of advanced containment design which excludes long-term evacuation in any severe accident situations. (author)

  3. Radiation accidents and dosimetry

    On September 2nd 1982 one of the employees of the gamma-irradiation facility at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway entered the irradiation cell with a 65.7 kCi *sp60*Co- source in unshielded position. The victim received an unknown radiation dose and died after 13 days. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy, the radiation dose in this accident was subsequently determined based on the production of longlived free radicals in nitroglycerol tablets borne by the operator during the accident. He used nitroglycerol for heart problems and free radical are easily formed and trapped in sugar which is the main component of the tablets. Calibration experiments were carried out and the dose given to the tablets during the accident was determined to 37.2 +- 0.5 Gy. The general use of free radicals for dose determinations is discussed. (Auth.)

  4. Helicopter accident survivability.

    Vyrnwy-Jones, P; Thornton, R

    1984-10-01

    Army Air Corps accident and fatality rates have now reached levels which compare favourably with data from other civilian and military sources. This improvement is the result of enhanced helicopter design and parallel progress in aircrew training. The introduction of new generations of turbine powered rotor craft has largely eliminated mechanical failure as the cause of accident. As a result 75% of Army Air Corps accidents are due to pilot error. This contribution is likely to increase in the future as the pilot's task is made more difficult by the incumberance of personal equipment. Methods whereby occupant protection and aircraft crashworthiness can be improved are reviewed and it is concluded that it would make sound economic sense to implement some of these well proven design features. PMID:6527344

  5. Information at radiation accidents

    This study was undertaken in order to plan an information strategy for possible future accidents involving radioactivity. Six health visitors and six farmers working in the districts of Norway which received the largest amounts of fallout from the Chernobyl accident, were interviewed. The questions were intended to give an indication of their knowledge about radioactivity and radiation, as well as their needs for information in case of a future accident. The results indicate a relatively low educational background in radiation physics and risk estimation. On the other hand the two groups showed a remarkable skill and interest in doing their own evaluation on the background of information that was linked to their daily life. It is suggested that planning of information in this field is done in close cooperation with the potential users of the information

  6. Big nuclear accidents

    Much of the debate on the safety of nuclear power focuses on the large number of fatalities that could, in theory, be caused by extremely unlikely but imaginable reactor accidents. This, along with the nuclear industry's inappropriate use of vocabulary during public debate, has given the general public a distorted impression of the safety of nuclear power. The way in which the probability and consequences of big nuclear accidents have been presented in the past is reviewed and recommendations for the future are made including the presentation of the long-term consequences of such accidents in terms of 'reduction in life expectancy', 'increased chance of fatal cancer' and the equivalent pattern of compulsory cigarette smoking. (author)

  7. The management of accidents

    R. B. Ward

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This author’s experiences in investigating well over a hundred accident occurrences has led to questioning how such events can be managed - - - while immediately recognising that the idea of managing accidents is an oxymoron, we don’t want to manage them, we don’t want not to manage them, what we desire is not to have to manage not-them, that is, manage matters so they don’t happen and then we don’t have to manage the consequences.Design/methodology/approach: The research will begin by defining some common classes of accidents in manufacturing industry, with examples taken from cases investigated, and by working backwards (too late, of course show how those involved could have managed these sample events so they didn’t happen, finishing with the question whether any of that can be applied to other situations.Findings: As shown that the management actions needed to prevent accidents are control of design and application of technology, and control and integration of people.Research limitations/implications: This paper has shown in some of the examples provided, management actions have been know to lead to accidents being committed by others, lower in the organization.Originality/value: Today’s management activities involve, generally, the use of technology in many forms, varying from simple tools (such as knives to the use of heavy equipment, electric power, and explosives. Against these we commit, in control of those items, the comparatively frail human mind and body, which, again generally, does succeed in controlling these resources, with (another generality by appropriate management. However, sometimes the control slips and an accident occurs.

  8. Mortal radiological accident

    After defining the concept of 'Radiological accident', statistical data from Radiation Emergency Assistance Center of ORNL (United States of America) are given about the deaths caused by acute irradiation between 1944 and April 24, 1986 -ie, the day before Chernobyl nuclear accident- as well as on the number of deaths caused by the latter. Next the different clinical stages of the Acute Irradiation Syndrome (AIS) as well as its possible treatment are described, and finally the different physical, clinical and biological characteristics linked to the AIS and to its diagnosis and prognosis are discussed. (M.E.L.)

  9. The TMI-2 accident

    A critical study about the technical and man-related facts in order to establish what is considered the worst commercial nuclear power accident until 1986. Radiological consequences and stress to the public are considered in contrast to antinuclear groups. This descriptive and technical study has the purpose to document written and oral opinions obtained abroad and then explain to the public in an easy language terminology. Preliminary study describing safety related systems fails and the accident itself with minute to minute description, conduct to the consequences and then, to learned lessons

  10. Optimal control in a failure prone manufacturing system

    Xie, Xiaolan

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the optimal control in a failure prone manufacturing system. A discrete-time model is used. A single commodity is produced and there is a constant demand. The optimal control policy minimizes the long run average cost incurred by holding inventory and by failing to meet the demand. We show that the optimal control policy in any finite horizon problem is characterized by a critical number, which we call the ideal inventory level (or hedging point). The system should not pr...

  11. Prone Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Results

    Osa, Etin-Osa O.; DeWyngaert, Keith [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Roses, Daniel [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Speyer, James [Department of Medical Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Guth, Amber; Axelrod, Deborah [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Fenton Kerimian, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Goldberg, Judith D. [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Formenti, Silvia C., E-mail: Silvia.formenti@nyumc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a technique of prone breast radiation therapy delivered by a regimen of accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concurrent boost to the tumor bed. Methods and Materials: Between 2003 and 2006, 404 patients with stage I-II breast cancer were prospectively enrolled into 2 consecutive protocols, institutional trials 03-30 and 05-181, that used the same regimen of 40.5 Gy/15 fractions delivered to the index breast over 3 weeks, with a concomitant daily boost to the tumor bed of 0.5 Gy (total dose 48 Gy). All patients were treated after segmental mastectomy and had negative margins and nodal assessment. Patients were set up prone: only if lung or heart volumes were in the field was a supine setup attempted and chosen if found to better spare these organs. Results: Ninety-two percent of patients were treated prone, 8% supine. Seventy-two percent had stage I, 28% stage II invasive breast cancer. In-field lung volume ranged from 0 to 228.27 cm{sup 3}, mean 19.65 cm{sup 3}. In-field heart volume for left breast cancer patients ranged from 0 to 21.24 cm{sup 3}, mean 1.59 cm{sup 3}. There was no heart in the field for right breast cancer patients. At a median follow-up of 5 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence of isolated ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence was 0.82% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65%-1.04%). The 5-year cumulative incidence of regional recurrence was 0.53% (95% CI 0.41%-0.69%), and the 5-year overall cumulative death rate was 1.28% (95% CI 0.48%-3.38%). Eighty-two percent (95% CI 77%-85%) of patients judged their final cosmetic result as excellent/good. Conclusions: Prone accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concomitant boost results in excellent local control and optimal sparing of heart and lung, with good cosmesis. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 1005, a phase 3, multi-institutional, randomized trial is ongoing and is evaluating the equivalence of a similar dose and

  12. Mutagenesis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: absence of error-prone repair

    Campbell, L.A.; Yasbin, R.E.

    1984-10-01

    The lethal and mutagenic effects of various mutagens on Neisseria gonorrhoeae were investigated. Lethality studies demonstrated that N. gonorrhoeae was relatively sensitive to ethyl methanesulfonate, UV light, and methyl methanesulfonate. Although N. gonorrhoeae was readily mutated by ethyl methanesulfonate and N-methyl-n'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine for the three genetic markers assayed, no increase in the mutation frequency was observed for any of the selective markers after UV irradiation of methyl methanesulfonate treatment. These results suggest than N. gonorrhoeae lacks an error-prone repair mechanism.

  13. Boredom proneness and emotion regulation predict emotional eating.

    Crockett, Amanda C; Myhre, Samantha K; Rokke, Paul D

    2015-05-01

    Emotional eating is considered a risk factor for eating disorders and an important contributor to obesity and its associated health problems. It has been suggested that boredom may be an important contributor to overeating, but has received relatively little attention. A sample of 552 college students was surveyed. Linear regression analyses found that proneness to boredom and difficulties in emotion regulation simultaneously predicted inappropriate eating behavior, including eating in response to boredom, other negative emotions, and external cues. The unique contributions of these variables to emotional eating were discussed. These findings help to further identify which individuals could be at risk for emotional eating and potentially for unhealthy weight gain. PMID:25903253

  14. Setup accuracy for prone and supine whole breast irradiation

    Mulliez, Thomas; Vercauteren, Tom; Greveling, Annick van; Speleers, Bruno; Neve, Wilfried de; Veldeman, Liv [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent (Belgium); Gulyban, Akos [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent (Belgium); University Hospital Liege, Department of Radiotherapy, Liege (Belgium)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) based setup accuracy and margins for prone and supine whole breast irradiation (WBI). Setup accuracy was evaluated on 3559 CBCT scans of 242 patients treated with WBI and uncertainty margins were calculated using the van Herk formula. Uni- and multivariate analysis on individual margins was performed for age, body mass index (BMI) and cup size. The population-based margin in vertical (VE), lateral (LA) and longitudinal (LO) directions was 10.4/9.4/9.4 mm for the 103 supine and 10.5/22.4/13.7 mm for the 139 prone treated patients, being significantly (p < 0.01) different for the LA and LO directions. Multivariate analysis identified a significant (p < 0.05) correlation between BMI and the LO margin in supine position and the VE/LA margin in prone position. In this series, setup accuracy is significantly worse in prone compared to supine position for the LA and LO directions. However, without proper image-guidance, uncertainty margins of about 1 cm are also necessary for supine WBI. For patients with a higher BMI, larger margins are required. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Arbeit war es, die interfraktionelle Repositionierungsgenauigkeit in Bauchlage (BL) versus Rueckenlage (RL) bei Ganzbrustbestrahlung (GBB) mittels Cone-Beam-CT (CBCT) zu bestimmen, um die notwendigen PTV-Sicherheitsabstaende zu definieren. Die Repositionierungsgenauigkeit wurde basierend an 3559 CBCT-Scans von 242 mit GBB behandelten Patienten ausgewertet. Die PTV-Sicherheitsabstaende wurden unter Verwendung der ''van-Herk''-Formel berechnet. Uni- und multivariable Analysen wurden fuer Sicherheitsabstaende in jede Richtung auf Basis von Alter, Body-Mass-Index (BMI) und Koerbchengroesse durchgefuehrt. Die basierend auf den taeglichen CBCT-Verschiebungen berechneten PTV-Sicherheitsabstaende betrugen in anteroposteriorer (AP), lateraler (LT oder links-rechts) und kraniokaudaler (CC) Richtung 10,4/9,4/9,4 mm fuer die RL (103 Patienten) und

  15. Boredom proneness: its relationship to psychological- and physical-health symptoms.

    Sommers, J; Vodanovich, S J

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between boredom proneness and health-symptom reporting was examined. Undergraduate students (N = 200) completed the Boredom Proneness Scale and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. A multiple analysis of covariance indicated that individuals with high boredom-proneness total scores reported significantly higher ratings on all five subscales of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (Obsessive-Compulsive, Somatization, Anxiety, Interpersonal Sensitivity, and Depression). The results suggest that boredom proneness may be an important element to consider when assessing symptom reporting. Implications for determining the effects of boredom proneness on psychological- and physical-health symptoms. as well as the application in clinical settings, are discussed. PMID:10661377

  16. Description of the accident

    The TMI-2 accident occurred in March 1979. The accident started with a simple and fairly common steam power plant failure--loss of feedwater to the steam generators. Because of a combination of design, training, regulatory policies, mechanical failures and human error, the accident progressed to the point where it eventually produced the worst known core damage in large nuclear power reactors. Core temperatures locally reached UO2 fuel liquefaction (metallic solution with Zr) and even fuel melt (3800-51000F). Extensive fission product release and Zircaloy cladding oxidation and embrittlement occurred. At least the upper 1/2 of the core fractured and crumbled upon quenching. The lower central portion of the core apparently had a delayed heatup and then portions of it collapsed into the reactor vessel lower head. The lower outer portion of the core may be relatively undamaged. Outside of the core boundary, only those steel components directly above and adjacent to the core (≤1 foot) are known to have suffered significant damage (localized oxidation and melting). Other portions of the primary system outside of the reactor vessel apparently had little chance of damage or even notable overheating. The demonstrated coolability of the severely damaged TMI-2 core, once adequate water injection began, was one of the most substantial and important results of the TMI-2 accident

  17. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP)

  18. Fifteen years after accident

    This book is devoted to 15th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. Four problems have been reflected in the book: contamination of territories of Western Europe, Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation by cesium-137; plutonium, americium and other actinides on territory of Belarus; problems of radioactive wastes management of Chernobyl origin; influence of various factors on oncology morbidity in the Republic of Belarus

  19. Measures against nuclear accidents

    A select committee appointed by the Norwegian Ministry of Social Affairs put forward proposals concerning measures for the improvement of radiation protection preparedness in Norway. On the basis on an assessment of the potential radiation accident threat, the report examines the process of response, and identifies the organizational and management factors that influence that process

  20. Lessons learned from accidents investigations

    Accidents from three main practices: medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the described accidents are approached by subjects covering: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  1. Road Traffic Accidents in Kazakhstan

    Alma Aubakirova; Alibek Kossumov; Nurbek Igissinov

    2013-01-01

    Background: The article provides the analysis of death rates in road traffic accidents in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2010 and explores the use of sanitary aviation. Methods: Data of fatalities caused by road traffic accidents were collected and analysed. Descriptive and analytical methods of epidemiology and biomedical statistics were applied. Results: Totaly 27,003 people died as a result of road traffic accidents in this period. The death rate for the total population due to road traffic accid...

  2. Lessons learned from accident investigations

    Accidents in three main practices - medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators - are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned from them. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the accidents described are approached bearing in mind: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  3. The Chernobyl accident

    The accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the most severe in the nuclear industry. The accident caused the rapid death of 31 power plant employees and firemen, mainly from acute radiation exposures and burns, and brought about the evacuation of 116,000 people within a few weeks. In addition, about half a million workers and four million members of the public have been exposed, to some extent, to radiation doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident. A large number of radiation measurements have been made since the accident in order to reconstruct the doses received by the most exposed populations. On the basis of currently available information, it appears that: (1) average doses received by clean-up workers from external irradiation decreased with time, being about 300 mGy for the persons who worked in the first three months after the accident, about 170 mGy for the remainder of 1986, 130 mGy in 1987, 30 mGy in 1988, and 15 mGy in 1989; (2) the evacuees received, before evacuation, effective doses averaging 11 mSv for the population of Pripyat, and 18 mSv for the remainder of the population of the 30 km zone, with maximum effective doses ranging up to 380 mSv; and (3) among the populations living in contaminated areas, the highest doses were those delivered to the thyroids of children. Thyroid doses derived from thyroid measurements among Belarussian and Ukrainian children indicate median thyroid doses of about 300 mGy, and more than 1% of the children with thyroid doses in excess of 5000 mGy. A description is provided of the epidemiological studies that the National Cancer Institute has, since 1990, at the request of the Department of Energy, endeavoured to undertake, in cooperation with Belarus and Ukraine, on two possible health effects resulting from the Chernobyl accident: (1, thyroid cancer in children living in contaminated areas during the first few weeks following the accident, and (2) leukaemia among workers involved in clean

  4. The psychology of nuclear accidents

    Incidents involving nuclear weapons are described, as well as the accident to the Three Mile Island-2 reactor. Methods of assessment of risks are discussed, with particular reference to subjective judgements and the possible role of human error in civil nuclear accidents. Accidents or misunderstandings in communication or human actions which might lead to nuclear war are also discussed. (U.K.)

  5. Posição prona Prone position

    Kelly Cristina de Albuquerque Paiva

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A posição prona é uma manobra utilizada para combater a hipoxemia nos pacientes com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. Apesar de hoje ser considerada um modo eficaz de melhorar a oxigenação, os mecanismos fisiológicos que levam à melhora da função respiratória ainda não estão completamente esclarecidos. O objetivo principal desta revisão é discutir os aspectos fisiológicos e clínicos da posição prona na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo.The prone position is a maneuver used to combat hypoxemia in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Despite the fact that this is currently considered an efficient way to improve oxygenation, the physiological mechanisms that bring about improvements in respiratory function are not yet fully understood. The aim of this review is to discuss the physiological and clinical aspects of the prone position in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  6. Identifying Fine Aggregates Prone to Polishing in PCC Pavements

    Fowler, David W; Rached, Marc M.

    2012-01-01

    Surface polishing in portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements leads to higher incidences of skid-related accidents on highways. This type of failure is often associated with the usage of softer fine aggregate such as limestone sands. To identify polish resistance aggregates, state agencies like TxDOT have adopted tests such as the acid insoluble residue test (AIR). Since calcium carbonate is soluble in acid, no carbonate sand passes the AIR test which has a minimum limit of 60% in Texas. This...

  7. Radiological accidents balance in medicine

    This work deals with the radiological accidents in medicine. In medicine, the radiation accidents on medical personnel and patients can be the result of over dosage and bad focusing of radiotherapy sealed sources. Sometimes, the accidents, if they are unknown during a time enough for the source to be spread and to expose a lot of persons (in the case of source dismantling for instance) can take considerable dimensions. Others accidents can come from bad handling of linear accelerators and from radionuclide kinetics in some therapies. Some examples of accidents are given. (O.L.). 11 refs

  8. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be...... initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... identified during a total of 31 140 years at sea. Among these, 209 accidents resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. The mean risk of having an occupational accident was 6.4/100 years at sea and the risk of an accident causing a permanent disability of 5% or more was 0.67/100 years...

  9. Nuclear ship accidents

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  10. Chernobyl reactor accident

    On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described

  11. The ultimate nuclear accident

    The estimated energy equivalent of Chernobyl explosion was the 1/150 th of the explosive energy equivalent of atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima; while the devastation that could be caused by the world's stock pile of nuclear weapons, could be equivalent to 160 millions of Chernobyl-like incidents. As known, the number of nuclear weapons is over 50,000 and 2000 nuclear weapons are sufficient to destroy the world. The Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been blamed on human factors but also the human element, particularly in the form of psychological stresses on those operating the nuclear weapons, could accidentally bring the world to a nuclear catastrophe. This opinion is encouraged by the London's Sunday Times magazine which gave a graphic description of life inside a nuclear submarine. So, to speak of nuclear reactor accidents and not of nuclear weapons is false security. (author)

  12. Reactor accidents in perspective

    In each of the three major reactor accidents which have led to significant releases to the environment, and discussed in outline in this note, the reactor has been essentially destroyed - certainly Windscale and Chernobyl reactors will never operate and the cleanup operation for Three Mile Island is currently estimated to have cost in excess of US Pound 500 000 000. In each of the accidents there has not been any fatality off site in the short term and any long-term health detriment is unlikely to be seen in comparison with the natural cancer incidence rate. At Chernobyl, early fatalities did occur amongst those concerned with fighting the incident on site and late effects are to be expected. The assumption of a linear non-threshold risk, and hence no level of zero risk is the main problem in communication with the public, and the author calls for simplification of the presentation of the concepts of radiological protection. (U.K.)

  13. Ship accident studies

    This paper summarizes ship accident studies performed by George G. Sharp, Inc. for the U.S. Maritime Administration in connection with the Nuclear Ship Project. Casualties studied include fires/explosions, groundings and collisions for which a method for calculating probability on a specific route was developed jointly with the Babcock and Wilcox Co. Casualty data source was the Liverpool's Underwriters Association Casualty Returns

  14. The Chernobylsk reactor accident

    The construction, the safety philosophy, the major reactor physical parameters of RBMK-1000 type reactor units and the detailed description of the Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident, its causes and conclusions, the efforts to reduce the consequences on the reactor site and in the surroundings are discussed based on different types of Soviet documents including the report presented to the IAEA by the Soviet Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986. (V.N.)

  15. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

  16. Indoor radon concentration in some earthquake prone areas of Haryana

    The problem of radon is an important global problem and the radon and its progeny are a major source of natural radiation exposure and contribute to more than 50% of the dose equivalent received by general population from all sources of radiation, both naturally occurring and man-made. In view of the above fact, the measurement of radon concentration levels in dwellings is of fundamental importance from health and hygiene point of view. Keeping this in view, alpha active pollutant (radon, thoron and their progeny) concentration inside the dwellings in earthquake prone districts of Haryana was measured using LR-115, Type II Plastic track detectors. Radon concentration and inhalation dose rates to the inhabitants in this area have been calculated. Results of various measurements on the radon and its progeny concentration, annual exposure and annual inhalation dose received by the workers have been reported. The calculated values of potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC), radon levels (EEC), annual exposure and annual inhalation dose in the dwellings of earthquake prone districts of Haryana varied from 2.76 mWL to 13.41 mWL with an average of 5.60 ± 0.76 mWL, 25.5 Bq m-3 to 124 Bq m-3 with an average of 51.78 ± 7.04 Bq m-3, 0.11 WLM to 0.56 WLM with an average of 0.23 ± 0.03 WLM and 0.44 mSv to 2.13 mSv with an average of 0.88 ± 0.12 mSv respectively. The radon concentrations were found to be higher in these areas as compared to the studies carried out earlier in other parts of the state. (author)

  17. Single night postoperative prone posturing in idiopathic macular hole surgery.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the role of postoperative prone posturing for a single night in the outcome of trans pars plana vitrectomy (TPPV) with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peel and 20% perfluoroethane (C2F6) internal tamponade for idiopathic macular hole. Methods. This prospective trial enrolled 14 eyes in 14 consecutive patients with idiopathic macular hole. All eyes underwent TPPV with vision blue assisted ILM peeling with and without phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) for macular hole. Intraocular gas tamponade (20% C2F6) was used in all cases with postoperative face-down posturing overnight and without specific posturing afterwards. LogMAR visual acuity, appearance by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and ocular coherence tomography (OCT) scans were compared preoperatively and postoperatively to assess outcome. Results. Among 14 eyes recruited, all eyes were phakic; 50% of patients underwent concurrent phacoemulsification with IOL. The macular holes were categorized preoperatively by OCT appearance, 4 (28.57%) were stage 2, 7 (50%) were stage 3, and 3 (21.43%) were stage 4. Mean macular hole size was 0.35 disk diameters. Symptoms of macular hole had been present for an average of 6.5 months. All holes (100%) were closed 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Mean visual acuity (logMAR) was improved to 0.61 at 3 months and was stable at 6 months after the surgery. None of the eyes had worse vision postoperatively. Conclusions. Vitrectomy with ILM peeling and 20% C2F6 gas with a brief postoperative 1 night prone posturing regimen is a reasonable approach to achieve anatomic closure in idiopathic macular hole. Concurrent cataract extraction did not alter outcomes and was not associated with any additional complications.

  18. Accident Monitoring Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    In the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the instrumentation provided for accident monitoring proved to be ineffective for a combination of reasons. The accident has highlighted the need to re-examine criteria for accident monitoring instrumentation. This publication covers all relevant aspects of accident monitoring in NPPs. The critical issues discussed reflect the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident, involve accident management and accident monitoring strategies for nuclear power plants, selection of plant parameters for monitoring plant status, establishment of performance, design, qualification, display, and quality assurance criteria for designated accident monitoring instrumentation, and design and implementation considerations. Technology needs and techniques for accident monitoring instrumentation are also addressed

  19. Accidents and human factors

    When the TMI accident occurred it was 4 a.m., an hour when the error potential of the operators would have been very high. The frequency of car and train accidents in Japan is also highest between 4 a.m. and 6 a.m. The error potential may be classified into five phases corresponding to the electroencephalogramic pattern (EEG). At phase 0, when the delta wave appears, a person is unconscious and in deep sleep; at phase I, when the theta wave appears, he is very tired, sleepy and subnormal; at phase II, when the alpha wave appears, he is normal, relaxed and passive; at phase III, when the beta wave appears, he is normal, clear-minded and active; at phase IV, when the strong beta or epileptic wave appears, he is hypernormal, excited and incapable of normal judgement. Should an accident occur at phase II, the brain condition may jump to phase IV. At this phase the error or accident potential is maximum. The response of the human brain to different types of noises and signals may vary somewhat for different individuals and for different groups of people. Therefore, the possibility that such differences in brain functions may influence the mental structure would be worthy of consideration in human factors and in the design of man-machine systems. Human reliability and performance would be affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it would be important to develop a theory by which both non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measure is considered a special case of fuzzy measure. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. To minimize human error and the possibility of accidents, new safety systems should not only back up man and make up for his

  20. Radiation accident/disaster

    Described are the course of medical measures following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) Accident after the quake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) and the future task for radiation accident/disaster. By the first hydrogen explosion in FNPP (Mar. 12), evacuation of residents within 20 km zone was instructed, and the primary base for measures of nuclear disaster (Off-site Center) 5 km afar from FNPP had to work as a front base because of damage of communicating ways, of saving of injured persons and of elevation of dose. On Mar. 13, the medical arrangement council consisting from stuff of Fukushima Medical University (FMU), National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Safety Research Association and Prefectural officers was setup in residents' hall of Fukushima City, and worked for correspondence to persons injured or exposed, where communication about radiation and between related organizations was still poor. The Off-site Center's head section moved to Prefectural Office on Mar. 15 as headquarters. Early in the period, all residents evacuated from the 20 km zone, and in-hospital patients and nursed elderly were transported with vehicles, >50 persons of whom reportedly died mainly by their base diseases. The nation system of medicare for emergent exposure had consisted from the network of the primary to third facilities; there were 5 facilities in the Prefecture, 3 of which were localized at 4-9 km distance from FNPP and closed early after the Accident; and the secondary facility of FMU became responsible to all exposed persons. There was no death of workers of FNPP. Medical stuff also measured the ambient dose at various places near FNPP, having had risk of exposure. At the Accident, the important system of command, control and communication was found fragile and measures hereafter should be planned on assumption of the worst scenario of complete damage of the infrastructure and communication. It is desirable for Disaster Medical Assistance Team which

  1. Systematic register of nuclear accidents

    The Systematic Register of Nuclear Accidents is a consolidation of important accidents occurred in the world during the period 1945-1984. Important accidents can be defined as those involving high radiation doses, which require the exposed individuals to undergo medical treatment. The organization and structuring of this register rests on the necessity for the availability of a database specifically oriented to researchers interested in studying the different nuclear accidents reported. Approximately 150 accidents in that period are presented in a summary form; these accidents had been described or reported in the scientific literature or made known through informal communications of Brazilian and foreign institutions and researchers. This register can be of interest particularly to all professionals who either directly of indirectly work in the area of nuclear or radioactive installations safety. In order to facilitate analysis by the researcher, that casuistic system was divided into 3 groups: criticality accidents (table I), fall-out on Marshall Islands (table II) and external irradiation accidents (table III). It is also included an overview of accidents in that period, indicating the total number of victims, fatal cases, and number of survivors. The author offers to the reader an extensive bibliography on the accidents described. (Author)

  2. Comparative risk assessment of severe accidents in the energy sector

    Comparative assessment of accident risks in the energy sector is a key aspect in a comprehensive evaluation of sustainability and energy security concerns. Safety performance of energy systems can have important implications on the environmental, economic and social dimensions of sustainability as well as availability, acceptability and accessibility aspects of energy security. Therefore, this study provides a broad comparison of energy technologies based on the objective expression of accident risks for complete energy chains. For fossil chains and hydropower the extensive historical experience available in PSI's Energy-related Severe Accident Database (ENSAD) is used, whereas for nuclear a simplified probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is applied, and evaluations of new renewables are based on a combination of available data, modeling, and expert judgment. Generally, OECD and EU 27 countries perform better than non-OECD. Fatality rates are lowest for Western hydropower and nuclear as well as for new renewables. In contrast, maximum consequences can be by far highest for nuclear and hydro, intermediate for fossil, and very small for new renewables, which are less prone to severe accidents. Centralized, low-carbon technology options could generally contribute to achieve large reductions in CO2-emissions; however, the principal challenge for both fossil with Carbon Capture and Storage and nuclear is public acceptance. Although, external costs of severe accidents are significantly smaller than those caused by air pollution, accidents can have disastrous and long-term impacts. Overall, no technology performs best or worst in all respects, thus tradeoffs and priorities are needed to balance the conflicting objectives such as energy security, sustainability and risk aversion to support rationale decision making. - Highlights: • Accident risks are compared across a broad range of energy technologies. • Analysis of historical experience was based on the

  3. Severe accident analysis methodology in support of accident management

    The author addresses the implementation at BELGATOM of a generic severe accident analysis methodology, which is intended to support strategic decisions and to provide quantitative information in support of severe accident management. The analysis methodology is based on a combination of severe accident code calculations, generic phenomenological information (experimental evidence from various test facilities regarding issues beyond present code capabilities) and detailed plant-specific technical information

  4. Effect of Prone Position on Regional Shunt, Aeration, and Perfusion in Experimental Acute Lung Injury

    Richter, Torsten; Bellani, Giacomo; Harris, R. Scott; Melo, Marcos F. Vidal; Winkler, Tilo; Venegas, Jose G.; Musch, Guido

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: The prone position is used to improve gas exchange in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the regional mechanism by which the prone position improves gas exchange in acutely injured lungs is still incompletely defined. Methods: We used positron emission tomography imaging of [13N]nitrogen to assess the regional distribution of pulmonary shunt, aeration, perfusion, and ventilation in seven surfactant-depleted sheep in supine and prone positions. Results: In t...

  5. Hip rotation range of motion in sitting and prone positions in healthy Japanese adults

    Han, Heonsoo; Kubo, Akira; Kurosawa, Kazuo; Maruichi, Shizuka; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to elucidate the difference in hip external and internal rotation ranges of motion (ROM) between the prone and sitting positions. [Subjects] The subjects included 151 students. [Methods] Hip rotational ROM was measured with the subjects in the prone and sitting positions. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze ipsilateral hip rotation ROM in the prone and sitting positions in males and females. The total ipsilateral hip r...

  6. Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl

    The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author)

  7. Procrastination and suicide proneness: A moderated-mediation model for cognitive schemas and gender.

    Klibert, Jeffrey; LeLeux-LaBarge, Kayla; Tarantino, Nicholas; Yancey, Thresa; Lamis, Dorian A

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect paths between procrastination and suicide proneness while considering gender differences. Participants included 547 undergraduates from a southeastern university. Procrastination was positively related to suicide proneness for both genders, although this relation was stronger for women. Moderated-mediation analyses with bootstrapping highlighted insufficient self-control schemas as a mediator in the relation between procrastination and suicide proneness. However, indirect pathways did not vary by gender. Results represent an extension of the Procrastination-Health Model by highlighting the contribution of cognitive factors in explaining the relation between procrastination and suicide proneness. PMID:26766597

  8. Accident management insights from IPE's

    In response to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Generic Letter 88-20, each utility in the U.S.A. has undertaken a probabilistic severe accident study of each plant. This paper provides a high level summary of the generic PWR accident management insights that have been obtained from the IPE reports. More importantly, the paper details some of the limitations of the IPE studies with respect to accident management. The IPE studies and the methodology used was designed to provide a best estimate of the potential for a severe accident and/or for severe consequences from a core damage accident. The accepted methodology employs a number of assumptions to make the objective attainable with a reasonable expenditure of resources. However, some of the assumptions represent limitations with respect to developing an accident management program based solely on the IPE and its results. (author)

  9. Accident management insights after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, that took place on 11 March 2011, initiated a significant number of activities at the national and international levels to reassess the safety of existing NPPs, evaluate the sufficiency of technical means and administrative measures available for emergency response, and develop recommendations for increasing the robustness of NPPs to withstand extreme external events and beyond design basis accidents. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is working closely with its member and partner countries to examine the causes of the accident and to identify lessons learnt with a view to the appropriate follow-up actions to be taken by the nuclear safety community. Accident management is a priority area of work for the NEA to address lessons being learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP following the recommendations of Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), and Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). Considering the importance of these issues, the CNRA authorised the formation of a task group on accident management (TGAM) in June 2012 to review the regulatory framework for accident management following the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The task group was requested to assess the NEA member countries needs and challenges in light of the accident from a regulatory point of view. The general objectives of the TGAM review were to consider: - enhancements of on-site accident management procedures and guidelines based on lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident; - decision-making and guiding principles in emergency situations; - guidance for instrumentation, equipment and supplies for addressing long-term aspects of accident management; - guidance and implementation when taking extreme measures for accident management. The report is built on the existing bases for capabilities to respond to design basis

  10. Accident management approach in Armenia

    In this lecture the accident management approach in Armenian NPP (ANPP) Unit 2 is described. List of BDBAs had been developed by OKB Gydropress in 1994. 13 accident sequences were included in this list. The relevant analyses had been performed in VNIIAES and the 'Guidelines on operator actions for beyond design basis accident (BDBA) management at ANPP Unit 2' had been prepared. These instructions are discussed

  11. Chernobyl reactor accident

    Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

  12. Accident prevention programme

    This study by the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission was made within the context of the application by undertakings of the principles of accident and disease prevention previously adopted by the said Commission. It puts forward recommendations for the effective and gradual implementation of a programme of action on occupational health and safety in the various departments of an undertaking and in the undertaking as a whole. The methods proposed in this study are likely to be of interest to all undertakings in the metallurgical industry and other industrial sectors

  13. Serious accident in Peru

    A peruvian man, victim of an important accidental irradiation arrived on the Saturday twenty ninth of may 1999 to the centre of treatment of serious burns at the Percy military hospital (Clamart -France). The accident spent on the twentieth of February 1999, on the site of a hydroelectric power plant, in construction at 300 km at the East of Lima. The victim has picked up an industrial source of iridium devoted to gamma-graphy operations and put it in his back pocket; of trousers. The workman has serious radiation burns. (N.C.)

  14. The accident of Chernobyl

    RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

  15. Psychological response of accident

    The psychological status of rescuers of consequences of Chernobyl[s accidents, having planned stationary examination and treatment of common somatic diseases, has been examined. THe age of men represented the study group was 35-54 years old. The results of medical-psychological examination showed the development in rescuers of common dysadaptation and stress state, characterized by depressive-hypochondriac state with high anxiety. The course of psychotherapeutic activities made possible to improve essentionally the psychological status of the patients. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. Reactor accident in Chernobyl

    The bibliography contains 1568 descriptions of papers devoted to Chernobylsk accident and recorded in ''INIS Atomindex'' to 30 June 1990. The descriptions were taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and are presented in accordance with volumes of this journal (chronology of recording). Therefore all descriptions have numbers showing first the number of volume and then the number of record. The bibliography has at the end the detailed subject index consisting of 465 main headings and a lot of qualifiers. Some of them are descriptors taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and some are key words taken from natural language. The index is in English as descriptions in the bibliography. (author)

  17. CAMS: Computerized Accident Management Support

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project has initiated a new research programme on computerised accident management support, the so-called CAMS project (CAMS = Computerized Accident Management Support). This work will investigate the possibilities for developing systems which provide more extensive support to the control room staff and technical support centre than the existing SPDS (Safety Parameter Display System) type of systems. The CAMS project will utilize available simulator codes and the capabilities of computerized tools to assist the plant staff during the various accident stages including: identification of the accident state, assessment of the future development of the accident, and planning accident mitigation strategies. This research programme aims at establishing a prototype system which can be used for experimental testing of the concept and serve as a tool for training and education in accident management. The CAMS prototype should provide support to the staff when the plant is in a normal state, in a disturbance sate, and in an accident state. Even though better support in an accident state is the main goal of the project, it is felt to be important that the staff is familiar with the use of the system during normal operation, when they utilize the system during transients

  18. Iodine releases from reactor accidents

    The airborne releases of iodine from water reactor accidents are small fractions of the available iodine and occur only slowly. However, in reactor accidents in which water is absent, the release of iodine to the environment can be large and rapid. These differences in release fraction and rate are related to the chemical states attained by iodine under the accident conditions. It is clear that neither rapid issue of blocking KI nor rapid evacuation of the surrounding population is required to protect the public from the radioiodine released in the event of a major water reactor accident

  19. Guidance on accidents involving radioactivity

    This annex contains advice to Health Authorities on their response to accidents involving radioactivity. The guidance is in six parts:-(1) planning the response required to nuclear accidents overseas, (2) planning the response required to UK nuclear accidents a) emergency plans for nuclear installations b) nuclear powered satellites, (3) the handling of casualties contaminated with radioactive substances, (4) background information for dealing with queries from the public in the event of an accident, (5) the national arrangements for incident involving radioactivity (NAIR), (6) administrative arrangements. (author)

  20. A prone technique for treatment of the breast, supraclavicular and axillary nodes

    Radiation therapy to women with large pendulous breasts presents dosimetric challenges when the whole breast (WB) and supraclavicular and axillary (SCF + AX) nodes need to be encompassed. The aim of this case study was to demonstrate the feasibility of planning and treating a pendulous breasted patient in the prone position. Computerised tomography (CT) images were acquired of the patient in both the prone and supine positions. A Perspex plate was added to the CDR Systems Inc. (Calgary, Canada) prone breastboard to minimize SCF + AX contour variations. Dosimetry was performed on both CT scans and the resultant treatment plans were evaluated for conformity, homogeneity, dose to the lung and maximum doses to the spinal cord (SC) and irradiated volume. The daily set-up in the prone position was monitored for stability and reproducibility. The patient completed her treatment course in the prone position. Minimal daily interventions were required to ensure the position was reproduced. Grade 3 skin toxicity was recorded in the SCF + AX region where the Perspex plate was added to the prone positioning device. There was minimal difference in dosimetry between prone and supine plans in the SCF + AX region. The prone WB plan showed improved homogeneity (prone 0.15; supine 0.22) and conformity (prone 0.90; supine 0.77). A simple addition to the breastboard has enabled a pendulous breasted woman with SC + AX involvement to be treated in the prone position. Set-up of this technique is achievable on a daily basis with minimal impact on workflow. It is a feasible alternative to supine treatment for this patient group.

  1. Radiation accident grips Goiania

    On 13 September two young scavengers in Goiania, Brazil, removed a stainless steel cylinder from a cancer therapy machine in an abandoned clinic, touching off a radiation accident second only to Chernobyl in its severity. On 18 September they sold the cylinder, the size of a 1-gallon paint can, to a scrap dealer for $25. At the junk yard an employee dismantled the cylinder and pried open the platinum capsule inside to reveal a glowing blue salt-like substance - 1400 curies of cesium-137. Fascinated by the luminescent powder, several people took it home with them. Some children reportedly rubbed in on their bodies like carnival glitter - an eerie image of how wrong things can go when vigilance over radioactive materials lapses. In all, 244 people in Goiania, a city of 1 million in central Brazil, were contaminated. The eventual toll, in terms of cancer or genetic defects, cannot yet be estimated. Parts of the city are cordoned off as radiation teams continue washing down buildings and scooping up radioactive soil. The government is also grappling with the political fallout from the accident

  2. Serious reactor accidents reconsidered

    The chance is determined for damage of the reactor core and that sequel events will cause excursion of radioactive materials into the environment. The gravity of such an accident is expressed by the source term. It appears that the chance for such an accident varies with the source term. In general it is valid that how larger the source term how smaller the chance is for it and vice versa. The chance for excursion is related to two complexes of events: serious damage (meltdown) of the reactor core, and the escape of the liberated radionuclides into the environment. The results are an order of magnitude consideration of the relation between the extent of the source term and the chance for it. From the spectrum of possible source terms three representative ones have been chosen: a large, a medium and a relative small source term. This choice is in accordance with international considerations. The hearth of this study is the estimation of the chance for occurrence of the three chosen source terms for new light-water reactors. refs.; figs.; tabs

  3. Development of Korean Smartphone addiction proneness scale for youth.

    Kim, Dongil; Lee, Yunhee; Lee, Juyoung; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Chung, Yeoju

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS) based on the existing internet and cellular phone addiction scales. For the development of this scale, 29 items (1.5 times the final number of items) were initially selected as preliminary items, based on the previous studies on internet/phone addiction as well as the clinical experience of involved experts. The preliminary scale was administered to a nationally representative sample of 795 students in elementary, middle, and high schools across South Korea. Then, final 15 items were selected according to the reliability test results. The final scale consisted of four subdomains: (1) disturbance of adaptive functions, (2) virtual life orientation, (3) withdrawal, and (4) tolerance. The final scale indicated a high reliability with Cronbach's α of .880. Support for the scale's criterion validity has been demonstrated by its relationship to the internet addiction scale, KS-II (r  =  .49). For the analysis of construct validity, we tested the Structural Equation Model. The results showed the four-factor structure to be valid (NFI  =  .943, TLI  =  .902, CFI  =  .902, RMSEA  =  .034). Smartphone addiction is gaining a greater spotlight as possibly a new form of addiction along with internet addiction. The SAPS appears to be a reliable and valid diagnostic scale for screening adolescents who may be at risk of smartphone addiction. Further implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:24848006

  4. Characterization of an alcohol addiction-prone phenotype in mice.

    Radwanska, Kasia; Kaczmarek, Leszek

    2012-05-01

    Human studies indicate that high impulsivity, novelty seeking and anxiety predispose individuals to alcohol abuse. Unclear, however, is whether the same phenotypes can be observed in laboratory animals prone to uncontrolled alcohol drinking. To characterize a novelty-seeking trait, anxiety, impulsivity, compulsivity and the motivation for natural rewards in mice, numerous tests were performed in the automated IntelliCage learning system. The same mice then had extended access to alcohol for 70 days, followed by the evaluation of addiction-like behaviors, including (1) the motivation for alcohol in a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement; (2) persistent and compulsive alcohol seeking and taking during signaled 'no alcohol' periods and (3) when subjected to punishment; and (4) the intensity of relapse after alcohol withdrawal. Our data suggest that high levels of anxiety-related traits (i.e. low novelty seeking, low resistance to punishment and a high level of compulsive behaviors) and high impulsivity predict addiction-like alcohol drinking in mice. Future studies are, however, warranted to create a valid model of alcohol addiction in mice in the IntelliCage system. PMID:22017485

  5. Multidisciplinary approach to converting power chair into motorized prone cart.

    Brose, Steven W; Wali, Eisha

    2014-01-01

    Pressure ulcers remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in veterans with neurologic impairment. Management of pressure ulcers typically involves pressure relief over skin regions containing wounds, but this can lead to loss of mobility and independence when the wounds are located in regions that receive pressure from sitting. An innovative, low-cost, multidisciplinary effort was undertaken to maximize quality of life in a veteran with a thoracic-4 level complete spinal cord injury and a stage 4 ischial wound. The person's power wheelchair was converted into a motorized prone cart, allowing navigation of the Department of Veterans Affairs spinal cord injury hospital ward and improved socialization while relieving pressure on the wound. Physical and occupational therapy assisted with the reconfiguration of the power chair and verified safe transfers into the chair and driving of the device. Psychology verified positive psychosocial benefit, while nursing and physician services verified an absence of unwanted pain or skin injury resulting from use of the device. Further investigation of ways to apply this technique is warranted to improve the quality of life of persons with pressure ulcers. PMID:25786192

  6. Multidisciplinary approach to converting power chair into motorized prone cart

    Steven W. Brose, DO

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcers remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in veterans with neurologic impairment. Management of pressure ulcers typically involves pressure relief over skin regions containing wounds, but this can lead to loss of mobility and independence when the wounds are located in regions that receive pressure from sitting. An innovative, low-cost, multidisciplinary effort was undertaken to maximize quality of life in a veteran with a thoracic-4 level complete spinal cord injury and a stage 4 ischial wound. The person's power wheelchair was converted into a motorized prone cart, allowing navigation of the Department of Veterans Affairs spinal cord injury hospital ward and improving socialization while relieving pressure on the wound. Physical and occupational therapy assisted with the reconfiguration of the power chair and verified safe transfers into the chair and driving of the device. Psychology verified positive psychosocial benefit, while nursing and physician services verified an absence of unwanted pain or skin injury resulting from use of the device. Further investigation of ways to apply this technique is warranted to improve the quality of life of persons with pressure ulcers.

  7. Development of Korean Smartphone addiction proneness scale for youth.

    Dongil Kim

    Full Text Available This study developed a Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS based on the existing internet and cellular phone addiction scales. For the development of this scale, 29 items (1.5 times the final number of items were initially selected as preliminary items, based on the previous studies on internet/phone addiction as well as the clinical experience of involved experts. The preliminary scale was administered to a nationally representative sample of 795 students in elementary, middle, and high schools across South Korea. Then, final 15 items were selected according to the reliability test results. The final scale consisted of four subdomains: (1 disturbance of adaptive functions, (2 virtual life orientation, (3 withdrawal, and (4 tolerance. The final scale indicated a high reliability with Cronbach's α of .880. Support for the scale's criterion validity has been demonstrated by its relationship to the internet addiction scale, KS-II (r  =  .49. For the analysis of construct validity, we tested the Structural Equation Model. The results showed the four-factor structure to be valid (NFI  =  .943, TLI  =  .902, CFI  =  .902, RMSEA  =  .034. Smartphone addiction is gaining a greater spotlight as possibly a new form of addiction along with internet addiction. The SAPS appears to be a reliable and valid diagnostic scale for screening adolescents who may be at risk of smartphone addiction. Further implications and limitations are discussed.

  8. Genome-wide association study of proneness to anger.

    Eric Mick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Community samples suggest that approximately 1 in 20 children and adults exhibit clinically significant anger, hostility, and aggression. Individuals with dysregulated emotional control have a greater lifetime burden of psychiatric morbidity, severe impairment in role functioning, and premature mortality due to cardiovascular disease. METHODS: With publically available data secured from dbGaP, we conducted a genome-wide association study of proneness to anger using the Spielberger State-Trait Anger Scale in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study (n = 8,747. RESULTS: Subjects were, on average, 54 (range 45-64 years old at baseline enrollment, 47% (n = 4,117 were male, and all were of European descent by self-report. The mean Angry Temperament and Angry Reaction scores were 5.8 ± 1.8 and 7.6 ± 2.2. We observed a nominally significant finding (p = 2.9E-08, λ = 1.027 - corrected pgc = 2.2E-07, λ = 1.0015 on chromosome 6q21 in the gene coding for the non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase, Fyn. CONCLUSIONS: Fyn interacts with NDMA receptors and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3-gated channels to regulate calcium influx and intracellular release in the post-synaptic density. These results suggest that signaling pathways regulating intracellular calcium homeostasis, which are relevant to memory, learning, and neuronal survival, may in part underlie the expression of Angry Temperament.

  9. [Medicolegal and compensation scientific approach to automobile accident].

    Yamanouchi, Haruo

    2002-09-01

    Multiple injuries are frequently observed over the whole body of traffic victims in medico-legal autopsy cases. The assessment of a traffic casualty must include not only the victim but also the vehicle and the circumstances of the accident. Only consideration of all available data permits a better assessment of the mechanism of the crash and causation of injuries. J. M. Thevenet drove the first car carried from France to Japan on February 6, 1898. On October 28th, 1905, the first death by a road traffic accident occurred in Osaka. We performed a retrospective analysis of 279 traffic fatalities examined by medico-legal autopsy in Niigata that occurred over a twenty-two-year period from 1980 to 2001. All persons who had an ICD-10 code were grouped by 153 pedestrians, 43 pedal cyclists, 20 motorcycle riders, 45 car occupants, 11 occupants of pick-up trucks or vans, 4 occupants of heavy transport vehicles and 3 others. The average of ISS (injury scale score) is 40.7 in pedestrians, 26.7 in pedal cyclists, 32.4 in motorcycle riders, 25.1 in car occupants, 16.5 in occupants of pick-up trucks or vans, 24.0 in heavy transport vehicles and 69.0 in others. Rib fractures were observed in 170 cases (60.9%) and the frequency of other injuries was shown in Table 2. Criminal Punishment for drivers involved in 261 traffic accidents amounted to 35 sentences of imprisonment (13.4%), 46 suspension of execution of sentence (17.6%) and 60 sentence of fine (23.0%). Forty prone pedestrians run over by cars showed high ethanol levels in their blood. It was necessary to identify the driver of a vehicle in twelve car accidents and simulation with a computer is very useful. The average of ISS was 34.0 in ten drivers and 22.0 in fourteen fellow passengers. Four sudden natural deaths of drivers at the wheel, eight cases of death immediately after and from one day to five months after road traffic accidents, nine suicides and one intentional accident are excluded from traffic death. Both a

  10. Suicide Proneness in College Students: Relationships with Gender, Procrastination, and Achievement Motivation

    Klibert, Jeffrey; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Luna, Amy; Robichaux, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between 2 academic dispositions (i.e., procrastination and achievement motivation) and 2 indices of suicidal proneness in college women and men. The degree these 2 academic dispositions could predict unique variance in suicide proneness scores, above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem was…

  11. Carbohydrate intake improves cognitive performance of stress-prone individuals under controllable laboratory stress

    Markus, C.R.; Panhuysen, G.; Jonkman, L.M.; Bachman, M.

    1999-01-01

    Cognitive performance has been found to decline after exposure to stress, particularly in stress-prone subjects. The present study investigated whether a carbohydrate-rich, protein-poor (CR/PP) diet, which may enhance cerebral serotonin function in stress-prone subjects due to increases in the avail

  12. Clinical characteristics and heterogeneity in patients with ketosis-prone diabetes

    谭惠文

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics,peripheral insulin sensitivity,andβ-cell function in patients with ketosis-prone diabetes(KPD).Methods Thirty-one patients with newly diagnosed ketosis-prone diabetes were admitted to West China Hospital from January2004 to December 2009.They were divided into 2 groups according to

  13. The Chernobyl accident. Appendix B

    In appendix B, the models introduced in chapter 6 are applied to the study of the Chernobyl accident. This event is very important in the teaching of nuclear engineering, and I have included in this Appendix a relatively detailed description of the accident. However, the analysis is limited to the physics of the relevant phenomena. (author)

  14. Expert software for accident identification

    Each type of an accident in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) causes immediately after the start of the accident variations of physical parameters that are typical for that type of the accident thus enabling its identification. Examples of these parameter are: decrease of reactor coolant system pressure, increase of radiation level in the containment, increase of pressure in the containment. An expert software enabling a fast preliminary identification of the type of the accident in Krsko NPP has been developed. As input data selected typical parameters from Emergency Response Data System (ERDS) of the Krsko NPP are used. Based on these parameters the expert software identifies the type of the accident and also provides the user with appropriate references (past analyses and other documentation of such an accident). The expert software is to be used as a support tool by an expert team that forms in case of an emergency at Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) with the task to determine the cause of the accident, its most probable scenario and the source term. The expert software should provide initial identification of the event, while the final one is still to be made after appropriate assessment of the event by the expert group considering possibility of non-typical events, multiple causes, initial conditions, influences of operators' actions etc. The expert software can be also used as an educational/training tool and even as a simple database of available accident analyses. (author)

  15. Health Problems in Radiation Accidents

    The authors define a radiation accident as a situation which has led or could have led to the unexpected irradiation of persons or contamination of the environment over and above the levels accepted as safe. Several categories of accidents are distinguished as a function of the consequences to be expected. The suggested system of classifying accidents makes it possible to plan post-accident measures within a single system of 'concentric circles', taking into account at the same time whether it will be possible to carry out the post-accident measures unaided or whether it will be necessary to bring in additional manpower and resources from outside. The authors consider the possibility of countering the effects of accidents as a function of their nature, with reference to the biological, economic and psychological aspects. They evaluate the part played by the health service in planning and carrying out accident prevention measures, and consider the function of radiological units attached to epidemiological health stations ; these units are essentially centres providing for precautionary measures to avert accidents and action to counter their effects. (author)

  16. Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena

    This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

  17. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  18. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    Frid, W.; Højerup, C.F.; Lindholm, I.;

    2001-01-01

    Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies, the ...

  19. Preventing accidents at intake towers

    Villegas, F. (INTEGRAL S.A., Medellin, CO (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Strong air blow-outs occurring in the intake tower of Guatape Hydroelectric Power Plant in Colombia have caused two serious accidents recently. The causes of the accidents were investigated and recommendations are made here to prevent future repetitions of these dangerous events. (UK)

  20. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    Hansen, H; Nielsen, D; Frydenberg, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be initiated.

  1. Probability of spent fuel transportation accidents

    McClure, J. D.

    1981-07-01

    The transported volume of spent fuel, incident/accident experience and accident environment probabilities were reviewed in order to provide an estimate of spent fuel accident probabilities. In particular, the accident review assessed the accident experience for large casks of the type that could transport spent (irradiated) nuclear fuel. This review determined that since 1971, the beginning of official US Department of Transportation record keeping for accidents/incidents, there has been one spent fuel transportation accident. This information, coupled with estimated annual shipping volumes for spent fuel, indicated an estimated annual probability of a spent fuel transport accident of 5 x 10/sup -7/ spent fuel accidents per mile. This is consistent with ordinary truck accident rates. A comparison of accident environments and regulatory test environments suggests that the probability of truck accidents exceeding regulatory test for impact is approximately 10/sup -9//mile.

  2. Rumination, reflection, intrusive thoughts, and hallucination-proneness: towards a new model.

    Jones, Simon R; Fernyhough, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Although rumination has been proposed to play an important role in the creation of hallucinations, direct empirical tests of this proposal have not yet been performed. Employing a distinction between ruminative and reflective self-consciousness, we set out to test a new model of the relations among rumination, reflection, intrusive thoughts, thought suppression, social anxiety, and hallucination-proneness. This model proposed that rumination would be related to hallucination-proneness through the mediating variable of intrusive thoughts, but that reflection would not be related to hallucination-proneness. The model was tested in a student population (N=296) using path analyses. A modified version of the model was found to be a good fit to the data, once a direct path from reflection to hallucination-proneness had been added. As hypothesized, rumination was related to hallucination-proneness only indirectly, through the mediating variable of intrusive thoughts. Implications for interventions and future directions for research are considered. PMID:19013552

  3. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...... occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA...... method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents...

  4. Severe accidents, a US approach

    The attitude of the American nuclear industry and the regulatory authorities in the United States toward severe accidents has often seemed ambivalent. It was common a few years ago to assume the position that severe accidents should not be included in the design basis of the plant. This view was associated with the concept of the maximum credible accident. A severe accident that would lead to a large release of fission products from the reactor core was simply regarded as having so low a likelihood as not to be credible. That does not mean that it had a zero probability of occurring. Because of the way the plant was designed, built, and operated, severe accidents were regarded as having a low enough probability that no further special measures were necessary regarding them. (author)

  5. Severe accident management. Prevention and Mitigation

    Effective planning for the management of severe accidents at nuclear power plants can produce both a reduction in the frequency of such accidents as well as the ability to mitigate their consequences if and when they should occur. This report provides an overview of accident management activities in OECD countries. It also presents the conclusions of a group of international experts regarding the development of accident management methods, the integration of accident management planning into reactor operations, and the benefits of accident management

  6. Accidents, probabilities and consequences

    Following brief discussion of the safety of wind-driven power plants and solar power plants, some aspects of the safety of fast breeder and thermonuclear power plants are presented. It is pointed out that no safety evaluation of breeders comparable to the Rasmussen investigation has been carried out and that discussion of the safety aspects of thermonuclear power is only just begun. Finally, as an illustration of the varying interpretations of risk and safety analyses, four examples are given of predicted probabilities and consequences in Copenhagen of the maximum credible accident at the Barsebaeck plant, under the most unfavourable meterological conditions. These are made by the Environment Commission, Risoe Research Establishment, REO (a pro-nuclear group) and OOA (an anti-nuclear group), and vary by a factor of over 1000. (JIW)

  7. A Comprehensive Review of Prone Position in ARDS.

    Kallet, Richard H

    2015-11-01

    Prone position (PP) has been used since the 1970s to treat severe hypoxemia in patients with ARDS because of its effectiveness at improving gas exchange. Compared with the supine position (SP), placing patients in PP effects a more even tidal volume distribution, in part, by reversing the vertical pleural pressure gradient, which becomes more negative in the dorsal regions. PP also improves resting lung volume in the dorsocaudal regions by reducing the superimposed pressure of both the heart and the abdomen. In contrast, pulmonary perfusion remains preferentially distributed to the dorsal lung regions, thus improving overall alveolar ventilation/perfusion relationships. Moreover, the larger tissue mass suspended from a wider dorsal chest wall effects a more homogeneous distribution of pleural pressures throughout the lung that reduces abnormal strain and stress development. This is believed to ameliorate the severity or development of ventilator-induced lung injury and may partly explain why PP reduces mortality in severe ARDS. Over 40 years of clinical trials have consistently reported improved oxygenation in approximately 70% of subjects with ARDS. Early initiation of PP is more likely to improve oxygenation than initiation during the subacute phase. Maximal oxygenation improvement occurs over a wide time frame ranging from several hours to several days. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials suggest that PP provides a survival advantage only in patients with relatively severe ARDS (PaO2 /FIO2 10-12 h/session). Combining adjunctive therapies (high PEEP, recruitment maneuvers, and inhaled vasodilators) with PP has an additive effect in improving oxygenation and may be particularly helpful in stabilizing gas exchange in very severe ARDS. PMID:26493592

  8. The Fukushima accident

    The accident happened on March 11, 2011 in the nuclear reactors at the Fukushima plant, Japan, is described. The reactors of the Fukushima plant have been power reactors. The electrical energy is produced by use of the heat released in the fission. Nuclear reactors were affected after of the power outage as a result of the earthquake and the tsunami, and this has kept in operation the refrigeration systems. The japanese reactors have been fission reactors and have used uranium 235 or plutonium 239 as fissionable material. The nuclear reactions of fission are explained. The control of the nuclear reactions at Fukushima was complicated by the decreased of the neutrons absorption and has produced more reactions, generating great amounts of heat. The steam contaminated with the products of fission is produced by to cool the reactor with water. The fissionable material released is dragged until the atmosphere. Radioactive contamination at sites near the reactor was covered in a zone of exclusion with a radius of 30 km. The effects of radioactive contamination in the zone of exclusion are mentioned. The radioactive material from Japan has traveled with the wind in direction toward the north pole. The radioactive cloud has continued until to reach the north Africa and south of Europe. The cloud has approximated to Costa Rica, but the activity of the material found has been less of 0,01 Bq/m3. The Centro de Investigacion en Ciencias Atomicas, Nucleares y Moleculares (Cicanum) has initiated the collection of soil samples, water and earth products to detect part of the radioactive material from the cloud. The Cicanum has had modern equipments to quantify the specific concentrations of radioactive isotope, alpha emitters, beta and gamma, in food, water and milk. The Cicanum has maintained the radiological surveillance of foods after the Chernobyl accident

  9. Congestion by accident? Traffic and accidents in England

    Pasidis, Ilias-Nikiforos

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is the estimation of the effect of accidents on traffic congestion and vice versa. In order to do this, I use ?big data? of highway traffic and accidents in England for the period 2007-2013. The data exhibit some remarkably stable cyclical pattern of highway traffic which is used as a research setting that enables the identification of the causal effect of accidents on traffic congestion and vice versa. The estimation draws on panel data methods that have previously bee...

  10. Risk-based Analysis of Construction Accidents in Iran During 2007-2011-Meta Analyze Study

    AMIRI, Mehran; ARDESHIR, Abdollah; FAZEL ZARANDI, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of occupational accidents and frequency and severity of work related accidents in the construction industry among Iranian insured workers during the years 20072011. Methods The Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO) accident database containing 21,864 cases between the years 2007-2011 was applied in this study. In the next step, Total Accident Rate (TRA), Total Severity Index (TSI), and Risk Factor (RF) were defined. The core of this work is devoted to analyzing the data from different perspectives such as age of workers, occupation and construction phase, day of the week, time of the day, seasonal analysis, regional considerations, type of accident, and body parts affected. Results Workers between 15-19 years old (TAR=13.4%) are almost six times more exposed to risk of accident than the average of all ages (TAR=2.51%). Laborers and structural workers (TAR=66.6%) and those working at heights (TAR=47.2%) experience more accidents than other groups of workers. Moreover, older workers over 65 years old (TSI=1.97%> average TSI=1.60%), work supervisors (TSI=12.20% >average TSI=9.09%), and night shift workers (TSI=1.89% >average TSI=1.47%) are more prone to severe accidents. Conclusion It is recommended that laborers, young workers, weekend and night shift workers be supervised more carefully in the workplace. Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should be compulsory in working environments, and special attention should be undertaken to people working outdoors and at heights. It is also suggested that policymakers pay more attention to the improvement of safety conditions in deprived and cold western regions. PMID:26005662

  11. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning

    Research highlights: → Lightning impact caused relevant industrial accidents. → Atmospheric storage tanks are the equipment item more susceptible to lightning damage. → Specific damage and release modes may be identified for lightning damage. Specific event trees should be adopted for the identification of post-release final scenarios characterizing lightning-induced major accidents. - Abstract: Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents.

  12. International aspects of nuclear accidents

    The accident at Chernobyl revealed that there were shortcomings and gaps in the existing international mechanisms and brought home to governments the need for stronger measures to provide better protection against the risks of severe accidents. The main thrust of international co-operation with regard to nuclear safety issues is aimed at achieving a uniformly high level of safety in nuclear power plants through continuous exchanges of research findings and feedback from reactor operating experience. The second type of problem posed in the event of an accident resulting in radioactive contamination of several countries relates to the obligation to notify details of the circumstances and nature of the accident speedily so that the countries affected can take appropriate protective measures and, if necessary, organize mutual assistance. Giving the public accurate information is also an important aspect of managing an emergency situation arising from a severe accident. Finally, the confusion resulting from the unwarranted variety of protective measures implemented after the Chernobyl accident has highlighted the need for international harmonization of the principles and scientific criteria applicable to the protection of the public in the event of an accident and for a more consistent approach to emergency plans. The international conventions on third party liability in the nuclear energy sector (Paris/Brussels Conventions and the Vienna Convention) provide for compensation for damage caused by nuclear accidents in accordance with the rules and jurisdiction that they lay down. These provisions impose obligations on the operator responsible for an accident, and the State where the nuclear facility is located, towards the victims of damage caused in another country

  13. Regional ventilation-perfusion distribution is more uniform in the prone position

    Mure, M.; Domino, K. B.; Lindahl, S. G.; Hlastala, M. P.; Altemeier, W. A.; Glenny, R. W.

    2000-01-01

    The arterial blood PO(2) is increased in the prone position in animals and humans because of an improvement in ventilation (VA) and perfusion (Q) matching. However, the mechanism of improved VA/Q is unknown. This experiment measured regional VA/Q heterogeneity and the correlation between VA and Q in supine and prone positions in pigs. Eight ketamine-diazepam-anesthetized, mechanically ventilated pigs were studied in supine and prone positions in random order. Regional VA and Q were measured using fluorescent-labeled aerosols and radioactive-labeled microspheres, respectively. The lungs were dried at total lung capacity and cubed into 603-967 small ( approximately 1.7-cm(3)) pieces. In the prone position the homogeneity of the ventilation distribution increased (P = 0.030) and the correlation between VA and Q increased (correlation coefficient = 0.72 +/- 0.08 and 0.82 +/- 0.06 in supine and prone positions, respectively, P = 0.03). The homogeneity of the VA/Q distribution increased in the prone position (P = 0.028). We conclude that the improvement in VA/Q matching in the prone position is secondary to increased homogeneity of the VA distribution and increased correlation of regional VA and Q.

  14. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  15. Teaching of severe accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants of Tokyo Electric Power

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and accompanied tsunami brought about the severe accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. For 'No more Fukushima', twelve teaching of the accident was pointed out as follows: 1) natural disasters and external events shall be taken into consideration, 2) severe accident shall be included into safety regulation, 3) all possibility of hydrogen explosion shall be excluded, 4) diversity of safety important component and equipment shall be added with sufficient period of outage, 5) siting of multiple units at the same site shall be avoided at quake-prone country like Japan, 6) accident response environment for operators shall be improved, 7) accident convergence termination system shall be established so as to concentrate technical experience and knowledge, 8) off-site center shall be improved, 9) resident evacuation, consumption limit of food, radiation exposure and soil contamination limit shall be decided openly, 10) nuclear regulation and prevention of disaster shall be conducted by unitary organization to gain public trust, 11) fostering of safety culture among relevant enterprises shall be more encouraged and 12) nuclear industry shall develop reactor such as with no core meltdown or no evacuation and environmental contamination even if reactor core would be meltdown. (T. Tanaka)

  16. Accident response in France

    French PWR power plant design relies basically on a deterministic approach. A probabilistic approach was introduced in France in the early seventies to define safety provisions against external impacts. In 1977 an overall safety objective was issued by the safety authority in terms of an upper probability limit for having unacceptable consequences. Additional measures were taken (the ''H'' operating procedures) to complement the automatic systems normally provided by the initial design, so as to safisfy the safety objective. The TMI-2 accident enhanced the interest in confused situations in which possible multiple equipment failure and/or unappropriate previous actions of the operators impede the implementation of any of the existing event-oriented procedures. In such situations, the objective becomes to avoid core-melt by any means available: this is the goal of the Ul symptom-oriented procedure. Whenever a core-melt occurs, the radioactive releases into the environment must be compatible with the feasibility of the off-site emergency plans; that means that for some hypothetical, but still conceivable scenarios, provisions have to be made to delay and limit the consequences of the loss of the containment: the U2, U4 and U5 ultimate procedures have been elaborated for that purpose. For the case of an emergency, a nationwide organization has been set up to provide the plant operator with a redundant technical expertise, to help him save his plant or mitigate the radiological consequences of a core-melt

  17. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  18. Preparedness against nuclear power accidents

    This booklet contains information about the organization against nuclear power accidents, which exist in the four Swedish counties with nuclear power plants. It is aimed at classes 7-9 of the Swedish schools. (L.E.)

  19. The management of radioactive waste from accidents

    Two accident case histories are reviewed - the Three Mile Island (TMI-2) reactor accident in 1979 and the Seveso accident in 1976. The status of the decontamination and radioactive waste management operations at TMI-2 as at 1986 is presented. 1986 estimates of reactor accident and recovery costs are given. 12 refs., 8 tabs

  20. 29 CFR 1960.29 - Accident investigation.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accident investigation. 1960.29 Section 1960.29 Labor... MATTERS Inspection and Abatement § 1960.29 Accident investigation. (a) While all accidents should be investigated, including accidents involving property damage only, the extent of such investigation shall...

  1. 49 CFR 195.54 - Accident reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 195.54 Section 195.54... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.54 Accident reports. (a) Each operator that experiences an accident that is required to be reported under § 195.50 shall as soon...

  2. 49 CFR 801.32 - Accident reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 801.32 Section 801.32... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Accident Investigation Records § 801.32 Accident reports. (a) The NTSB....S. civil transportation accidents, in accordance with 49 U.S.C. 1131(e). (b) These reports may...

  3. 49 CFR 230.22 - Accident reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 230.22 Section 230.22... Requirements § 230.22 Accident reports. In the case of an accident due to failure, from any cause, of a steam... persons, the railroad on whose line the accident occurred shall immediately make a telephone report of...

  4. 49 CFR 845.40 - Accident report.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident report. 845.40 Section 845.40... RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRANSPORTATION; ACCIDENT/INCIDENT HEARINGS AND REPORTS Board Reports § 845.40 Accident report. (a) The Board will issue a detailed narrative accident report in connection with...

  5. Nuclear laws and radiologic accidents

    Some aspects of the nuclear activities in Brazil, specially concerning the Goiania s accident are demonstrated using concepts from environmental and nuclear law. Nuclear and environmental competence, the impossibility of the states of making regional laws, as the lack of regulation about the nuclear waste, are discussed. The situation of Goiania when the accident happened, the present situation of the victims and the nuclear waste provisionally stored in Abadia de Goias is reported

  6. Iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents

    These proceedings of the Joint WHO/CEC workshop on iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents are presented under the following headings: normal thyroid function and the response to iodine, theoretical basis for stable iodine prophylaxis, risks and benefits of stable iodine prophylaxis, indications for the use of stable iodine, recommendations and rationale for the use of stable iodine prophylaxis in event of future accidents. (UK)

  7. Nuclear accident countermeasures: iodine prophylaxis

    In January 1989 the Department of Health convened a working group to consider and advise on the indications for the use of stable iodine, in the United Kingdom, in the event of nuclear accident. In formulating its advice the working group was to consider the International Guidelines for Iodine Prophylaxis following Nuclear Accidents, drawn by the World Health Organisation, and their applicability to the UK. This report summarises the findings of the working group and gives its conclusions and recommendations. (author)

  8. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH

  9. JAERI's activities in JCO accident

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was actively involved in a variety of technical supports and cooperative activities, such as advice on terminating the criticality condition, contamination checks of the residents and consultation services for the residents, as emergency response actions to the criticality accident at the uranium processing facility operated by the JCO Co. Ltd., which occurred on September 30, 1999. These activities were carried out in collaborative ways by the JAERI staff from the Tokai Research Establishment, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Oarai Research Establishment, and Headquarter Office in Tokyo. As well, the JAERI was engaged in the post-accident activities such as identification of accident causes, analyses of the criticality accident, and dose assessment of exposed residents, to support the Headquarter for Accident Countermeasures of the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Accident Investigation Committee and the Health Control Committee of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC). This report compiles the activities, that the JAERI has conducted to date, including the discussions on measures for terminating the criticality condition, evaluation of the fission number, radiation monitoring in the environment, dose assessment, analyses of criticality dynamics. (author)

  10. The vver severe accident management

    The basic approach to the VVER safety management is based on the defence-in-depth principle the main idea of which is the multiplicity of physical barriers on the way of dangerous propagation on the one hand and the diversity of measures to protect each of them on the other hand. The main events of severe accident with loss of core cooling at NPP with WWER can be represented as a sequence of NPP states, in which each subsequent state is more severe than the previous one. The following sequence of states of the accident progression is supposed to be realistic and the most probable: -) loss of efficient core cooling; -) core melting, relocation of the molten core to the lower head and molten pool formation, -) reactor vessel damage, and -) containment damage and fission products release. The objectives of accident management at the design basis stage, the determining factors and appropriate determining parameters of processes are formulated in this paper. The same approach is used for the estimation of processes parameters at beyond design basis accident progression. The accident management goals and the determining factors and parameters are also listed in that case which is characterized by the loss of integrity of the fuel cladding. The accident management goal at the stage of core melt relocation implies the need for an efficient core-catcher

  11. CARNSORE: Hypothetical reactor accident study

    Two types of design-basis accident and a series of hypothetical core-melt accidents to a 600 MWe reactor are described and their consequences assessed. The PLUCON 2 model was used to calculate the consequences which are presented in terms of individual and collective doses, as well as early and late health consequences. The site proposed for the nucelar power station is Carnsore Point, County Wexford, south-east Ireland. The release fractions for the accidents described are those given in WASH-1400. The analyses are based on the resident population as given in the 1979 census and on 20 years of data from the meteorological stations at Rosslare Harbour, 8.5 km north of the site. The consequences of one of the hypothetical core-melt accidents are described in detail in a meteorological parametric study. Likewise the consequences of the worst conceivable combination of situations are described. Finally, the release fraction in one accident is varied and the consequences of a proposed, more probable ''Class 9 accident'' are presented. (author)

  12. Radiological accidents: education for prevention and confrontation

    The purpose of this work is to train and inform on radiological accidents as a preventive measure to improve the people life quality. Radiological accidents are part of the events of technological origin which are composed of nuclear and radiological accidents. As a notable figure is determined that there have been 423 radiological accidents from 1944 to 2005 and among the causes prevail industrial accidents, by irradiations, medical accidents and of laboratories, among others. Latin American countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Peru are some where most accidents have occurred by radioactivity. The radiological accidents can have sociological, environmental, economic, social and political consequences. In addition, there are scenarios of potential nuclear accidents and in them the potential human consequences. Also, the importance of the organization and planning in a nuclear emergency is highlighted. Finally, the experience that Cuba has lived on the subject of radiological accidents is described

  13. Scientific research can be prone to bubbles too – neuroscience risks being the next one

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    2014-01-01

    Science, like any other field that attracts investment, is prone to bubbles. Overly optimistic investments in scientific fields, research methods and technologies generate episodes comparable to those experienced by financial markets prior to crashing. Assessing the toxic intellectual debt that...

  14. Modeling interactions betweenspotted owl and barred owl populations in fire-prone forests

    Background / Question / Methods Efforts to conserve northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the eastern Cascades of Washington must merge the challenges of providing sufficient structurally complex forest habitat in a fire-prone landscape with the limitations impos...

  15. Car Crash Risk May Nearly Double in People Prone to Fainting

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157512.html Car Crash Risk May Nearly Double in People Prone to ... as likely as others to get into a car crash, a new study finds. The researchers say the ...

  16. [Respiratory care with prone position for diffuse atelectasis in critically ill patients].

    Shichinohe, Y; Ujike, Y; Kurihara, M; Yamamoto, S; Oota, K; Tsukamoto, M; Imaizumi, H; Kaneko, M

    1991-01-01

    Diffuse atelectasis often occurs in the dorsal region of the lung of critically ill patients under long term mechanical ventilation. Conventional physical therapies (ex. PEEP, Sigh) have little effect on diffuse dorsal atelectasis. We provided respiratory care with prone position for 7 patients with severe respiratory distress (Two patients were treated twice). Improvement of their Respiratory Indexes (RI, mean 2.97) was obtained in the prone position for 6-163 (mean 35.8) hours. Ventilation efficiency also improved. Static lung compliance didn't change. It was assumed that the prone position was the factor responsible for the improvement of pulmonary V/Q ratio, the change of movement pattern of the diaphragm, and the ease of postural drainage of sputum. There were no complications. We conclude that prone position respiratory care has high utility for critically ill patients with diffuse dorsal atelectasis. PMID:2024073

  17. [Prone position: effect on gas exchange and functional capacity for exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension].

    Bastidas-L, Andrea Carolina; Colina-Chourio, José A; Guevara, Jesnel M; Nunez, Alexis

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate gas exchange and cardiopulmonary functional behavior in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) before, during and after the change to a prone position. Thirty patients with PH and alterations in gas exchange were included in the study. Gas exchange measurements were performed in four stages: at the baseline supine position and after 30, 120 and 240 minutes in prone position. Also, the patients were evaluated by the six minutes walking test (6MWT) after 30 days in prone position during night's sleep. After four hours in prone position, all patients showed an increase of PaO2 and arterial saturation of oxygen (SaO2), with a decrease of intrapulmonary shunts, improving the gas exchange and therefore the physiological demand imposed by exercise in patients with PH. PMID:25920183

  18. Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees

    Hakobyan, Aram P.

    In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a

  19. "I'd only let you down": Guilt proneness and the avoidance of harmful interdependence.

    Wiltermuth, Scott S; Cohen, Taya R

    2014-11-01

    Five studies demonstrated that highly guilt-prone people may avoid forming interdependent partnerships with others whom they perceive to be more competent than themselves, as benefitting a partner less than the partner benefits one's self could trigger feelings of guilt. Highly guilt-prone people who lacked expertise in a domain were less willing than were those low in guilt proneness who lacked expertise in that domain to create outcome-interdependent relationships with people who possessed domain-specific expertise. These highly guilt-prone people were more likely than others both to opt to be paid on their performance alone (Studies 1, 3, 4, and 5) and to opt to be paid on the basis of the average of their performance and that of others whose competence was more similar to their own (Studies 2 and 5). Guilt proneness did not predict people's willingness to form outcome-interdependent relationships with potential partners who lacked domain-specific expertise (Studies 4 and 5). It also did not predict people's willingness to form relationships when poor individual performance would not negatively affect partner outcomes (Study 4). Guilt proneness therefore predicts whether, and with whom, people develop interdependent relationships. The findings also demonstrate that highly guilt-prone people sacrifice financial gain out of concern about how their actions would influence others' welfare. As such, the findings demonstrate a novel way in which guilt proneness limits free-riding and therefore reduces the incidence of potentially unethical behavior. Lastly, the findings demonstrate that people who lack competence may not always seek out competence in others when choosing partners. PMID:25133718

  20. Prone versus supine position for adjuvant breast radiotherapy: a prospective study in patients with pendulous breasts

    To analyze dosimetric parameters of patients receiving adjuvant breast radiotherapy (RT) in the prone versus supine position. Forty-one out of 55 patients with pendulous breasts and candidates for adjuvant RT were enrolled in the study after informed consent. They underwent computed tomography (CT)-simulation in both prone and supine position. Target and non target volumes were outlined on CT images. Prescribed dose was 50 Gy delivered by two tangential photon fields followed by 10 Gy electron boost. Target coverage and dose homogeneity to clinical target volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) were assessed by V95, V105 and V107 and dose to lung, heart and left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) by V5, V10, V20, and mean and maximum dose. Data were analyzed by Student’s t-test. CTV and PTV coverage was significantly better in supine than in prone position. Lung V5, V10, and V20 were significantly lower in prone than in supine position. Heart V5, V10, V20, and LAD mean and maximum dose, in the 17 patients with left breast tumor, were lower in prone than in supine position, but without statistical significance. Based on treatment planning data and on treatment feasibility, 29/41 patients (70.7%) were treated in prone position. Acute and late toxicities of patients treated in prone and in supine position were not statistically different. Prone position is a favorable alternative for irradiation of mammary gland in patients with pendulous breasts and in our series was adopted in 71% of the cases

  1. Genetic and environmental influences on the relationship between flow proneness, locus of control and behavioral inhibition

    Mosing, Miriam A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; David Cesarini; Magnus Johannesson; Patrik K. E. Magnusson; Jeanne Nakamura; Guy Madison; Fredrik Ullén

    2012-01-01

    Flow is a psychological state of high but subjectively effortless attention that typically occurs during active performance of challenging tasks and is accompanied by a sense of automaticity, high control, low self-awareness, and enjoyment. Flow proneness is associated with traits and behaviors related to low neuroticism such as emotional stability, conscientiousness, active coping, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Little is known about the genetic architecture of flow proneness, behavioral...

  2. Cross-Cultural Differences and Similarities in Proneness to Shame: An Adaptationist and Ecological Approach

    SZNYCER, DANIEL; Takemura, Kosuke; Delton, Andrew W.; Sato, Kosuke; Robertson, Theresa; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2012-01-01

    People vary in how easily they feel ashamed, that is, in their shame proneness. According to the information threat theory of shame, variation in shame proneness should, in part, be regulated by features of a person’s social ecology. On this view, shame is an emotion program that evolved to mitigate the likelihood or costs of reputation-damaging information spreading to others. In social environments where there are fewer possibilities to form new relationships (i.e., low relational mobility)...

  3. Accident Tolerant Fuel Analysis

    Curtis Smith; Heather Chichester; Jesse Johns; Melissa Teague; Michael Tonks; Robert Youngblood

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional “accident-tolerant” (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  4. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather [Idaho National Laboratory; Johns, Jesse [Texas A& M University; Teague, Melissa [Idaho National Laboratory; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant

  5. Prone positioning improves distribution of pulmonary perfusion: noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging study in healthy humans

    Suzuki, Hisashi [Tsukuba University Hospital, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tsukuba (Japan); Sato, Yukio [Jichi Medical School, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kawachi, Tochigi (Japan); Shindo, Masashi [Tsukuba University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tsukuba (Japan); Yoshioka, Hiroshi [University of Tsukuba, Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba (Japan); Mizutani, Taro [University of Tsukuba, Department of Anesthesiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba (Japan); Onizuka, Masataka; Sakakibara, Yuzuru [University of Tsukuba, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2008-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of prone positioning on pulmonary perfusion using flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR), a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging technique that requires no contrast medium. Seven healthy volunteers were studied in the supine and prone positions under three respiratory conditions: normal breathing of room air, unassisted breathing of 45% O{sub 2}, and controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) with positive end-expiratory pressure. Signal intensities (SIs) were obtained from ventral, middle, and dorsal regions on sagittal lung images and dependent/nondependent SI ratios were calculated to evaluate pulmonary perfusion distribution. In the supine position, SIs increased significantly from the ventral to dorsal region under all three respiratory conditions and prone positioning inverted the perfusion distribution under all conditions. Right lung SI ratios were 2.34 {+-} 0.29, 2.74 {+-} 0.66, and 2.42 {+-} 0.73 in the supine position and 1.68 {+-} 0.48, 1.78 {+-} 0.36, and 1.92 {+-} 0.21 in prone for room air, 45% O{sub 2}, and CMV, respectively. The difference between supine and prone positions was statistically significant. The left lung showed a similar pattern and the difference was significant only under CMV. No difference was observed between the different respiratory conditions in both lungs. This study demonstrated that the distribution of pulmonary perfusion was more uniform in prone than in the supine position. (orig.)

  6. Efficacy of prone position in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients: A pathophysiology-based review.

    Koulouras, Vasilios; Papathanakos, Georgios; Papathanasiou, Athanasios; Nakos, Georgios

    2016-05-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a syndrome with heterogeneous underlying pathological processes. It represents a common clinical problem in intensive care unit patients and it is characterized by high mortality. The mainstay of treatment for ARDS is lung protective ventilation with low tidal volumes and positive end-expiratory pressure sufficient for alveolar recruitment. Prone positioning is a supplementary strategy available in managing patients with ARDS. It was first described 40 years ago and it proves to be in alignment with two major ARDS pathophysiological lung models; the "sponge lung" - and the "shape matching" -model. Current evidence strongly supports that prone positioning has beneficial effects on gas exchange, respiratory mechanics, lung protection and hemodynamics as it redistributes transpulmonary pressure, stress and strain throughout the lung and unloads the right ventricle. The factors that individually influence the time course of alveolar recruitment and the improvement in oxygenation during prone positioning have not been well characterized. Although patients' response to prone positioning is quite variable and hard to predict, large randomized trials and recent meta-analyses show that prone position in conjunction with a lung-protective strategy, when performed early and in sufficient duration, may improve survival in patients with ARDS. This pathophysiology-based review and recent clinical evidence strongly support the use of prone positioning in the early management of severe ARDS systematically and not as a rescue maneuver or a last-ditch effort. PMID:27152255

  7. The effect of prone positioning with surgical bolsters on liver blood flow in healthy volunteers.

    Chikhani, M; Evans, D L; Blatcher, A W; Jackson, A P; Guha, I N; Aithal, G P; Moppett, I K

    2016-05-01

    This study sought to identify changes in hepatic flood flow and cardiac output during prone positioning on surgical bolsters in awake volunteers, and was prompted by a local incident of significant hepatic dysfunction following surgery in the prone position. Cardiac output was determined using the non-invasive Peñáz technique, and plasma disappearance rate of indocyanine green (ICG-PDR) was measured as a surrogate maker for hepatic blood flow along with serum hepatic enzyme assays. Measurements were made after one hour in supine, prone and returned supine positions. Ten volunteers completed the study. There were significant changes in the disappearance rate of indocyanine green, which decreased this from mean (SD) 31.1 (9.70) supine to 19.6 (4.37)%.min prone, respectively (p = 0.02), increasing on return to the supine position to 24.6 (5.54)%.min (p = 0.019). Cardiac output was also significantly reduced when changing from the supine to the prone position, from mean (SD) 4.7 (1.0 to 3.5 (1.1) (l.min(-1) ), respectively (p = 0.002). We demonstrated an acute and reversible change in both hepatocellular function and cardiac output associated with the prone position. PMID:26948476

  8. Prone positioning improves distribution of pulmonary perfusion: noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging study in healthy humans

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of prone positioning on pulmonary perfusion using flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR), a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging technique that requires no contrast medium. Seven healthy volunteers were studied in the supine and prone positions under three respiratory conditions: normal breathing of room air, unassisted breathing of 45% O2, and controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) with positive end-expiratory pressure. Signal intensities (SIs) were obtained from ventral, middle, and dorsal regions on sagittal lung images and dependent/nondependent SI ratios were calculated to evaluate pulmonary perfusion distribution. In the supine position, SIs increased significantly from the ventral to dorsal region under all three respiratory conditions and prone positioning inverted the perfusion distribution under all conditions. Right lung SI ratios were 2.34 ± 0.29, 2.74 ± 0.66, and 2.42 ± 0.73 in the supine position and 1.68 ± 0.48, 1.78 ± 0.36, and 1.92 ± 0.21 in prone for room air, 45% O2, and CMV, respectively. The difference between supine and prone positions was statistically significant. The left lung showed a similar pattern and the difference was significant only under CMV. No difference was observed between the different respiratory conditions in both lungs. This study demonstrated that the distribution of pulmonary perfusion was more uniform in prone than in the supine position. (orig.)

  9. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs

  10. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    Sims, C S

    1989-09-01

    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry. PMID:2777549