WorldWideScience

Sample records for accident locations

  1. Locations of criticality alarms and nuclear accident dosimeters at Hanford

    1992-08-01

    Hanford facilities that contain fissionable materials capable of achieving critical mass are monitored with nuclear accident dosimeters (NADS) in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.11, Chapter XI, Section 4.c. (DOE 1988). The US Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office (RL) has assigned the responsibility for maintaining and evaluating the Hanford NAD system to the Instrumentation and External Dosimetry (I ED) Section of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL's) Health Physics Department. This manual provides a description of the Hanford NAD, criteria and instructions for proper NAD placement, and the locations of these dosimeters onsite.

  2. Locations of criticality alarms and nuclear accident dosimeters at Hanford

    Hanford facilities that contain fissionable materials capable of achieving critical mass are monitored with nuclear accident dosimeters (NADS) in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.11, Chapter XI, Section 4.c. (DOE 1988). The US Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office (RL) has assigned the responsibility for maintaining and evaluating the Hanford NAD system to the Instrumentation and External Dosimetry (I ampersand ED) Section of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL's) Health Physics Department. This manual provides a description of the Hanford NAD, criteria and instructions for proper NAD placement, and the locations of these dosimeters onsite

  3. Accident Locations, MDTA Accidents, Accidents on MDTA locations, Accidents on I 95, US 50, I 695, Accident on John F Kennedy Highway, Nice Bridge, Bay Bridge locations, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland Transportation Authority.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Accident Locations dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2011. It is described as...

  4. Verification of criticality accident alarm system detector locations for the X-326 process cell floor

    Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) detectors on the cell floor of the X-326 process building at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) are located at a height of 5 m above the cell floor. It has been suggested that this height be lowered to I m to alleviate accelerated system failures caused by the elevated temperatures at 5 m and to reduce the frequency of injury to maintenance personnel lifting the approximately 90-lb units into position. Work has been performed which analyzed the effect of relocating the CAAS detectors on the process floors of the X-333 and X-330 buildings from their current height to a height of 1 m1. This earlier work was based on criticality accidents occurring in low enriched material (5% 235U) and was limited to the X-333 and X-330 buildings and the low enriched areas of X-326. It did not consider the residual higher enriched material in the X-326 building. This report analyzes the effect on criticality alarm coverage of lowering the CAAS detectors. This analysis is based on criticality accidents resulting from higher enriched material which may be present as ''hold-up'' in the process equipment within the X-326 building. The criticality accident alarm detectors at the PORTS facility are set to alarm at a neutron absorbed dose rate of 5 mrad/hr. The calculated absorbed dose rates presented in this report show that the detectors examined that produce an alarm for the given criticality event at their current height will also produce an alarm if located at a height of 1 meter. Therefore, lowering the detectors will not result in a loss of coverage within the building

  5. Locations of criticality alarms and nuclear accident dosimeters at Hanford. Revision 1

    1992-08-01

    Hanford facilities that contain fissionable materials capable of achieving critical mass are monitored with nuclear accident dosimeters (NADS) in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.11, Chapter XI, Section 4.c. (DOE 1988). The US Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office (RL) has assigned the responsibility for maintaining and evaluating the Hanford NAD system to the Instrumentation and External Dosimetry (I&ED) Section of Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL`s) Health Physics Department. This manual provides a description of the Hanford NAD, criteria and instructions for proper NAD placement, and the locations of these dosimeters onsite.

  6. Accident Locations, Centerlines with address ranges, Published in 2014, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Pierce County Wisconsin.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Accident Locations dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2014. It is described as...

  7. Most likely vessel lower head failure location during severe accident conditions

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a lower vessel head research program to investigate plausible modes of reactor vessel failure to determine: (a) which modes have the greatest likelihood of occurrence during a severe accident and (b) the range of core debris and accident conditions that lead to these failures. All major types of US light water reactor vessels are being considered, and both high- and low-pressure conditions are being addressed for each reactor type. The research program includes analytical and finite element calculations. In addition, high temperature creep and tensile data for predicting vessel structural response were obtained. Calculational results used to predict which failure location is more likely in a particular reactor design during a severe accident are described within this paper. Detailed analyses are being performed to investigate the relative likelihood of a BWR penetration and vessel to fail during a wide range of severe accident conditions. The analyses include applying a numerical model to obtain the penetration and vessel thermal response and applying an analytical model to investigate the relative likelihood of tube rupture and global vessel failure. Sensitivity studies considered the impact of assumptions related to debris composition, debris porosity, corium decay heat, vessel coolant mass, heat removal from the vessel, melt relocation time, and melt relocation distance on vessel and penetration response. In addition, analytically developed failure maps, which were developed in terms of dimensionless groups, are applied to extrapolate numerically-obtained results to geometries and materials occurring in PWR penetration/vessel configurations and a wide range of debris conditions

  8. Sensitivity of Savannah River Plant loss of coolant accident power limit to break size and location

    Savannah River Plant reactors are low-pressure, heavy-water reactors with six external process water loops that drive the coolant into an upper plenum and then downward through the assemblies. Assembly loss-of-coolant accident power limits are currently set in these reactors to prevent Ledinegg flow instability (FI) in any assembly flow channel. This might occur due to the power-flow mismatch during the first 2 s of the transient, i.e., the flow drops faster than the power. This study determined the sensitivity of the power limit to the postulated break area and location. The transient reactor analysis code (TRAC) was used to compute steady-state and transient system flows and pressures. The FLOWTRAN code, which employs one-dimensional hydraulics and two- or three-dimensional heat transfer, used the driving pressures generated by TRAC to compute assembly thermal-hydraulic conditions. The FLOWTRAN also iterates on assembly power to determine the minimum assembly power for which the onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) is predicted. Experimental data were then used to convert from ONB to FI. The ONB criterion was recently replaced with an onset-of-significant-voiding criterion since it is a more accurate predictor of flow instability

  9. The social background of the JCO accident and the real location of its responsibility

    The background of the occurrence of the JCO criticality accident seems to be in the defect of the safeguard inspection. According to the guideline of the safeguard inspection for uranium processing plants, the countermeasures to the criticality accident are not necessary as far as the plant is designed not to reach the critical condition. The guideline is ruled to be applied to the facility for the processing of uranium whose enrichment is below 5%. This means that the safeguard inspection for the Uranium Conversion Building (UCB) of JCO is the matter to be made according to the basic safeguard guideline that demands the countermeasures to the criticality accident because the 18% enriched uranium was processed in UCB. As for the reprocessing of the nuclear fuel that underwent the criticality, it was done without examining a legal basis fully. (author)

  10. Accident Locations, Currently this layer is maintained by our County Sheriff Department & done with a desktop GIS program., Published in 2013, Not Applicable scale, Chippewa County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Accident Locations dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2013. It is described as 'Currently...

  11. Possible Methods to Estimate Core Location in a Beyond-Design-Basis Accident at a GE BWR with a Mark I Containment Stucture

    It is difficult to track to the location of a melted core in a GE BWR with Mark I containment during a beyond-design-basis accident. The Cooper Nuclear Station provided a baseline of normal material distributions and shielding configurations for the GE BWR with Mark I containment. Starting with source terms for a design-basis accident, methods and remote observation points were investigated to allow tracking of a melted core during a beyond-design-basis accident. The design of the GE BWR with Mark-I containment highlights an amazing poverty of expectations regarding a common mode failure of all reactor core cooling systems resulting in a beyond-design-basis accident from the simple loss of electric power. This design is shown in Figure 1. The station blackout accident scenario has been consistently identified as the leading contributor to calculated probabilities for core damage. While NRC-approved models and calculations provide guidance for indirect methods to assess core damage during a beyond-design-basis loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), there appears to be no established method to track the location of the core directly should the LOCA include a degree of fuel melt. We came to the conclusion that - starting with detailed calculations which estimate the release and movement of gaseous and soluble fission products from the fuel - selected dose readings in specific rooms of the reactor building should allow the location of the core to be verified.

  12. Locating causes of accidents in the social organisation of building workers and some wider implications: An approach from Cultural Theory

    This paper overviews and re-interprets accident causation in the British Building and Construction Industry (BCI), chosen because its accident rate is high. The paper, a preliminary report of ongoing work, suggests why incidences vary widely between different sites and workgroups. Explanation appears to lie not in variant technical complexity but variant social organisation. Four archetypal forms of organisation are identified derived from Cultural Theory via social anthropology that avoid personality explanations, and focus on micro social organisation. Different kinds of micro social organisation are known to differentially influence attitudes to authority and risk-taking, views of time, filtering of information and deviance. This approach focuses on the social side of socio-technical systems when most commentators over-emphasise the technical and it is also appropriate to more technologically complex industries. The paper concludes with a plea to collect accident statistics with emphasis on micro social components and offers a method - LISTORG - to order the social dimensions involved. (author)

  13. A comparison of two criticality accident alarm system detector locations for the X-700 building at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Final report

    A previous analysis of the X-700 Building Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) showed that some of the building may not adequately be covered by the one building CAAS detector in its current location. This report compares the results of that analysis with a new analysis where the detector is in a different location. The new detector location (outside of the storage area in the center of the building--near column B-7) showed coverage for all points previously analyzed. The new centralized detector location reduces the distance and shielding between the source points and the detector. This explains the difference in the level of response when compared to the original (actual) detector location in the new annex west of the building

  14. Application of hyperbolic tangent function for accident prone location identification%双曲正切函数在事故黑点鉴别中的应用

    杨轸

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the ability of the accident prone location identification, the hyperbolic tangent y = a +b × tanh(cx + cd) is proposed as a substitute fitting function of the double exponential function y = a xe^bx + c x e^dx for fitting scatter diagram of accident cumulative frequency. The comparative analysis of the two fitting functions was conducted by simulation analysis and actual data confirmation. The results indica- ted that the hyperbolic tangent function has higher correlation coefficient in curve fitting, higher detection rate in accident prone location identification, more stable results and better adaptability for the cumulative traffic volume. More significant finding is proposed that the accident number, which decided by cumulative traffic volume in certain accident rate, has very important influence on misdetection rate of accident prone location i- dentification. The hyperbolic tangent can be used for fitting scatter diagram of accident cumulative frequency instead of the double exponential function, and the suggested number of average accident per kilometer should not less than 4 to control the misdetection ratio to about 20%.%为改善双指数函数Y=o×e^bx+c×e^dx在累计频率曲线拟合和事故黑点鉴别时存在的问题,提出用双曲正切函数Y=a+b×tanh(伽+cd))作为替代,以提高黑点鉴别效果.通过仿真和实际数据验证对2种拟合算法进行对比分析.结果表明:累计频率曲线采用双曲正切函数进行拟合,其拟合效果好,事故黑点鉴别检出率较高,黑点鉴别的结果比较稳定,对不同事故统计年限的事故黑点鉴别有很好的适应性.此外,一定事故率水平下由累计交通量决定的事故次数对事故黑点的误检率有非常重要的影响.双曲正切函数可替代双指数函数进行事故黑点鉴别,同时为将误检率控制在20%左右,建议待鉴别道路的平均

  15. State and rationalization of public nutrition in enterprises located in zones suffered from accident in Chernobyl atomic power station

    Hegienic analysis of organisation and public nutrition state in big industrial enterprises located in district polluted by radionuclides was made. Special prophylactic rations for correction of nutritional deficiency were developed

  16. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  17. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Location, Location, Location!

    Ramsdell, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Of prime importance in real estate, location is also a key element in the appeal of romances. Popular geographic settings and historical periods sell, unpopular ones do not--not always with a logical explanation, as the author discovered when she conducted a survey on this topic last year. (Why, for example, are the French Revolution and the…

  19. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  20. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures known to us, the various road locations are treated as isolated spots. With small accident figures it is difficult to detect such places in the known procedures. An alternative procedure starts from...

  1. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures

  2. Characteristics of initial deposition and behavior of radiocesium in forest ecosystems of different locations and species affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Komatsu, Masabumi; Kaneko, Shinji; Ohashi, Shinta; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Shigeto; Saito, Satoshi; Kiyono, Yoshiyuki; Tonosaki, Mario; Miura, Satoru; Akama, Akio; Kajimoto, Takuya; Takahashi, Masamichi

    2016-09-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, information about stand-level spatial patterns of radiocesium initially deposited in the surrounding forests was essential for predicting the future dynamics of radiocesium and suggesting a management plan for contaminated forests. In the first summer (approximately 6 months after the accident), we separately estimated the amounts of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs; Bq m(-2)) in the major components (trees, organic layers, and soils) in forests of three sites with different contamination levels. For a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) forest studied at each of the three sites, the radiocesium concentration greatly differed among the components, with the needle and organic layer having the highest concentrations. For these cedar forests, the proportion of the (137)Cs stock in the aboveground tree biomass varied from 22% to 44% of the total (137)Cs stock; it was 44% in highly contaminated sites (7.0 × 10(5) Bq m(-2)) but reduced to 22% in less contaminated sites (1.1 × 10(4) Bq m(-2)). In the intermediate contaminated site (5.0-5.8 × 10(4) Bq m(-2)), 34% of radiocesium was observed in the aboveground tree biomass of the Japanese cedar stand. However, this proportion was considerably smaller (18-19%) in the nearby mixed forests of the Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) and deciduous broad-leaved trees. Non-negligible amounts of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in both the sapwood and heartwood of all the studied tree species. This finding suggested that the uptake or translocation of radiocesium had already started within 6 months after the accident. The belowground compartments were mostly present in the organic layer and the uppermost (0-5 cm deep) mineral soil layer at all the study sites. We discussed the initial transfer process of radiocesium deposited in the forest and inferred that the type of initial deposition (i.e., dry versus wet radiocesium deposition), the amount of

  3. ASSESSMENT OF THE AVERAGE ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSES FOR THE INHABITANTS OF THE SETTLEMENTS LOCATED IN THE TERRITORIES CONTAMINATED DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    N. G. Vlasova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalogue of the average annual effective exposure doses of the inhabitants of the territories contaminated due to the Chernobul accident had been developed according to the method of the assessment of the average annual effective exposure doses of the settlements inhabitants. The cost-efficacy of the use of the average annual effective dose assessment method was 250 000 USD for the current 5 years. Average annual effective dose exceeded 1 mSv/year for 191 Belarus settlements from 2613. About 50 000 persons are living in these settlements.

  4. Transportation accidents

    Predicting the possible consequences of transportation accidents provides a severe challenge to an analyst who must make a judgment of the likely consequences of a release event at an unpredictable time and place. Since it is impractical to try to obtain detailed knowledge of the meteorology and terrain for every potential accident location on a route or to obtain accurate descriptions of population distributions or sensitive property to be protected (data which are more likely to be more readily available when one deals with fixed-site problems), he is constrained to make conservative assumptions in response to a demanding public audience. These conservative assumptions are frequently offset by very small source terms (relative to a fixed site) created when a transport vehicle is involved in an accident. For radioactive materials, which are the principal interest of the authors, only the most elementary models have been used for assessing the consequences of release of these materials in the transportation setting. Risk analysis and environmental impact statements frequently have used the Pasquill-Gifford/gaussian techniques for releases of short duration, which are both simple and easy to apply and require a minimum amount of detailed information. However, after deciding to use such a model, the problem of selecting what specific parameters to use in specific transportation situations still presents itself. Additional complications arise because source terms are not well characterized, release rates can be variable over short and long time periods, and mechanisms by which source aerosols become entrained in air are not always obvious. Some approaches that have been used to address these problems will be reviewed with emphasis on guidelines to avoid the Worst-Case Scenario Syndrome

  5. Soviet submarine accidents

    Although the Soviet Union has more submarines than the NATO navies combined, and the technological superiority of western submarines is diminishing, there is evidence that there are more accidents with Soviet submarines than with western submarine fleets. Whether this is due to inadequate crews or lower standards of maintenance and overhaul procedures is discussed. In particular, it is suggested that since the introduction of nuclear powered submarines, the Soviet submarine safety record has deteriorated. Information on Soviet submarine accidents is difficult to come by, but a list of some 23 accidents, mostly in nuclear submarines, between 1966 and 1986, has been compiled. The approximate date, class or type of submarine, the nature and location of the accident, the casualties and damage and the source of information are tabulated. (U.K.)

  6. Power Network Lightning Accident Quick Inquiry with the Lightning Location System%利用雷电定位系统进行电网雷击故障快速查询

    聂智平; 赵文光; 张萍; 文银平; 陈维江

    2008-01-01

    At present, lightning is one of the 10 natural disasters, and it is also the top environmental factor of power interrup- tion. It often causes huge losses to the electric system. The Wuhan High Voltage Institute of the State Grid Corporation of China and Huazhong University of Science and Technology have been researching and developing lightning location systems (LLSs) since the late 1980s. In the mid-1990s, a lightning detection network was created in 29 provinces and cities in China. It is primarily applied to rapidly find lightning accidents, which greatly reduces power interruption. Also, it ensures high effi- ciency and safe operation of the electricity system. Remarkable benefit is achieved. China's LLS went through an "orientation positioning - time difference positioning - integrated positioning" development process. The positioning precision, detection efficiency, degree of automation, practicability and applied range are improved. Also, a lightning information system plan of the national network has been implemented, which services the whole society.

  7. Modelling of the transfer of CS-137 from air to crops, milk, beef and human body following the Chernobyl accident, in a location in Central Bohemia. Test of the model PRYMA T1

    This work was made in the frame of the research programme on validation of models for the transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial, urban and aquatic environments. The acronym of this programme is VAMP (Validation of Model Predictions) and is coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC). The scenario was named CB and was presented by the Multiple Pathway Working group. The scenario description was at the beginning a blind test, that is without knowing the location or the measured concentrations and doses. The input information included data of contamination in Cs-137 from the Chernobyl accident in Central Europe, in air and soils and more description of the scenario (data about crops, cattele, demography, human diet, etc.). The aim of the exercise was the contrast between model results and between observed data and model predictions. In this work the results obtained by the CIEMAT-IMA group of modelers are shown and discussed

  8. Nuclear accidents

    On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

  9. Radiation accidents

    Radiation accidents may be viewed as unusual exposure event which provide possible high exposure to a few people and, in the case of nuclear plants events, low exposure to large population. A number of radiation accidents have occurred over the past 50 years, involving radiation machines, radioactive materials and uncontrolled nuclear reactors. These accidents have resulted in number of people have been exposed to a range of internal and external radiation doses and those involving radioactive materials have involved multiple routs of exposure. Some of the more important accidents involving significant radiation doses or releases of radioactive materials, including any known health effects involves in it. An analysis of the common characteristics of accidents is useful resolving overarching issues, as has been done following nuclear power, industrial radiography and medical accidents. Success in avoiding accidents and responding when they do occur requires planning in order to have adequately trained and prepared health physics organization; well defined and developed instrument program; close cooperation among radiation protection experts, local and state authorities. Focus is given to the successful avoidance of accidents and response in the events they do occur. Palomares, spain in late 1960, Goiania, Brazil in 1987, Thule, Greenland in 1968, Rocky flats, Colorado in 1957 and 1969, Three mile island, Pennsylvania in 1979, Chernobyl Ukraine in april 1986, Kyshtym, former Soviet Union in 1957, Windscale, UK in Oct. 1957 Tomsk, Russian Federation in 1993, and many others are the important examples of major radiation accidents. (author)

  10. Time, location and weather dependence of radiation of Cs-origin in Fukushima prefecture due to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    The data on air dose rates of Cs-origin acquired at 155 points in central and eastern Fukushima prefecture by the central and local governments during the period of June 10th through December 5th (the summer and the fall) in 2011 are analyzed to investigate their temporal as well as locational variations. The average air dose rate in the region had declined at a remarkably swift pace with the half-life of 1.4 years, showing the importance of weathering effects. The average reduction rate was twice as large as that due to radioactive decay of Cs. Owing to the strong weathering effects, the reduction rate tends to sensitively depend on the season; the average reduction rate in the summer was twice as large as that in the fall. Several locations with extreme behaviors were introduced and analyzed. It is also found that extensive areas in Fukushima were still being weakly contaminated. The possible sources of this secondary contamination may include forests, farmlands and roads from where radio-aerosols were resuspended and transported presumably via wind, rainwater etc. As the wind effects are extensive, and sensitive to geographical features, detailed work will be needed to predict future dose rates with reasonable precision. (author)

  11. Accident Statistics

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  12. Modelling of the transfer of Cs-137 from air to crops, milk, beef and human body following the Chernobyl accident in a location in Central Bohemia. Test of the model PRYMA T1

    Carrasco, E.; Garcia-Olivares, A.; Suanez, A.; Robles, B.; Simon, I.; Cancio, D.

    1994-07-01

    This work was made in the frame of the research programme on validation od models for the transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial, urban and aquatic environments. the acronym of this programme is VAMP (Validation of Model Predictions) and is co-ordinated by the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA) and the Commission of the european Communities (CEC). The scenario was named CB and Was presented by the Multiple Pathway Working group. the scenario description was at the beginning a blind test, that is without knowing the location or the measured concentrations and doses. the input information included data of contamination in Cs-137 from the Chernobyl accident in Central Europe, in air and soils and ore, description of the scenario (data about crops, cattle, demography, human diet, etc.). the aim of the exercise was the contrast between model results and between observed data and model predictions. In this work the results obtained by the CIEMAT-IMA group of modelers are shown and discussed. (Author) 24 refs.

  13. Tchernobyl accident

    First, R.M.B.K type reactors are described. Then, safety problems are dealt with reactor control, behavior during transients, normal loss of power and behavior of the reactor in case of leak. A possible scenario of the accident of Tchernobyl is proposed: events before the explosion, possible initiators, possible scenario and events subsequent to the core meltdown (corium-concrete interaction, interaction with the groundwater table). An estimation of the source term is proposed first from the installation characteristics and the supposed scenario of the accident, and from the measurements in Europe; radiological consequences are also estimated. Radioactivity measurements (Europe, Scandinavia, Western Europe, France) are given in tables (meteorological maps and fallouts in Europe). Finally, a description of the site is given

  14. Accident: Reminder

    2003-01-01

    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  15. International aspects of nuclear accidents

    The accident at Chernobyl revealed that there were shortcomings and gaps in the existing international mechanisms and brought home to governments the need for stronger measures to provide better protection against the risks of severe accidents. The main thrust of international co-operation with regard to nuclear safety issues is aimed at achieving a uniformly high level of safety in nuclear power plants through continuous exchanges of research findings and feedback from reactor operating experience. The second type of problem posed in the event of an accident resulting in radioactive contamination of several countries relates to the obligation to notify details of the circumstances and nature of the accident speedily so that the countries affected can take appropriate protective measures and, if necessary, organize mutual assistance. Giving the public accurate information is also an important aspect of managing an emergency situation arising from a severe accident. Finally, the confusion resulting from the unwarranted variety of protective measures implemented after the Chernobyl accident has highlighted the need for international harmonization of the principles and scientific criteria applicable to the protection of the public in the event of an accident and for a more consistent approach to emergency plans. The international conventions on third party liability in the nuclear energy sector (Paris/Brussels Conventions and the Vienna Convention) provide for compensation for damage caused by nuclear accidents in accordance with the rules and jurisdiction that they lay down. These provisions impose obligations on the operator responsible for an accident, and the State where the nuclear facility is located, towards the victims of damage caused in another country

  16. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

  17. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs

  18. Temporal Statistic of Traffic Accidents in Turkey

    Erdogan, S.; Yalcin, M.; Yilmaz, M.; Korkmaz Takim, A.

    2015-10-01

    Traffic accidents form clusters in terms of geographic space and over time which themselves exhibit distinct spatial and temporal patterns. There is an imperative need to understand how, where and when traffic accidents occur in order to develop appropriate accident reduction strategies. An improved understanding of the location, time and reasons for traffic accidents makes a significant contribution to preventing them. Traffic accident occurrences have been extensively studied from different spatial and temporal points of view using a variety of methodological approaches. In literature, less research has been dedicated to the temporal patterns of traffic accidents. In this paper, the numbers of traffic accidents are normalized according to the traffic volume and the distribution and fluctuation of these accidents is examined in terms of Islamic time intervals. The daily activities and worship of Muslims are arranged according to these time intervals that are spaced fairly throughout the day according to the position of the sun. The Islamic time intervals are never been used before to identify the critical hour for traffic accidents in the world. The results show that the sunrise is the critical time that acts as a threshold in the rate of traffic accidents throughout Turkey in Islamic time intervals.

  19. Criticality Accident

    At a meeting of electric utility presidents in October, 1999, the Federation Power Companies (FEPCO) officially decided to establish a Japanese version of WANO, following the JCO criticality accident. The Japanese WANO is expected to be launched by the end of the year: initially, with some 30 private sector companies concerned with nuclear fuel. It is said that the private sector had to make efforts to ensure that safety was the most important value in management policy throughout the industry, and that comprehensive inspections would be implemented. In anything related to nuclear energy, sufficient safety checks are required even for the most seemingly trivial matters. Therefore, the All-Japan Council of Local Governments with Atomic Power Stations has already proposed to the Japanese government that it should enact the special law for nuclear emergency, providing that the unified responsibility for nuclear disaster prevention should be shifted to the national government, since the nuclear disaster was quite special from the viewpoint of its safety regulation and technical aspects. (G.K.)

  20. Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees

    Hakobyan, Aram P.

    In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a

  1. Persistence on airline accidents.

    L. A. GIL-ALANA; Barros, C.P. (Carlos P.); J.R. Faria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses airline accidents data from 1927-2006. The fractional integration methodology is adopted. It is shown that airline accidents are persistent and (fractionally) cointegrated with airline traffic. Thus, there exists an equilibrium relation between air accidents and airline traffic, with the effect of the shocks to that relationship disappearing in the long run. Policy implications are derived for countering accidents events.

  2. Persistence in Airline Accidents

    Carlos Pestana Barros; João Ricardo Faria; Luis A. Gil-Alana

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses airline accident data from 1927-2006, through fractional integration. It is shown that airline accidents are persistent and (fractionally) cointegrated with airline traffic. There exists a negative relation between air accidents and airline traffic, with the effect of the shocks to that relationship disappearing in the long run. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events.

  3. Severe accident phenomena

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  4. Chernobyl reactor accident

    Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

  5. BY USING BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY AUTOMATIC VEHICLE ACCIDENT DETECTION & LOCALIZATION OF AUTOMOBILE

    Nitin Thakre; Nitin Raut; Shyam Dubey; Abdulla Shaikh

    2014-01-01

    Traffic accidents are one of the leading causes of fatalities in the world. An important indicator of survival rates after an accident is the time between the accident and when emergency medical personnel are dispatched to the location. Eliminating the time between when an accident occurs and when first responders are dispatched to the location decreases mortality rates by 6%. We propose an Android based application that location of the vehicle through an positive detectio...

  6. Collective Location

    Jayet, Hubert

    1997-01-01

    We analyse location of a group whose members differ in their preference ordering among sites while collective action calls for a common location. The possible locations are Pareto-efficient and individually rational outcomes of a cooperative game with strategic combinations defined by the members' locations. Only members located on the same site engage in collective action. The solutions' set of this game is determined and the example of a small firm whose members leave in different places il...

  7. Investigation of Qom Rural Area Water Network Accident in 2010 and Minimization Approaches of Accident Frequencies

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study : Accidents in water networks can lead to increase the uncounted water, costs of repair, maintenance, restoration and enter water contaminants to water network. The aim of this study is to survey the accidents of Qom rural water network and choose the right approaches to reduce the number of accidents. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, four sector of Qom province (Markazi, Dastjerd, Kahak and Qahan, were assessed over a period of 8 months (July – January 2010. This study was conducted through questionnaire of Ministry of Energy. Results: The total number of accidents was 763. The highest number of accidents in the four sectors was related to Markazi sector with 228 accidents. According to the time of the accident, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to September (19.7% and November (6.8%, respectively. According to the location of the accident on network, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to distribution network (64% and connections (17.5% and transmission pipe (18.34%, respectively. According to the type of the accident, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to breaking (47.8% and gasket failure (1.2%, respectively. Considering with the pipes’ material, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to polyethylene pipes (93% and steel and cast iron pipes (0.5%, 0.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Due to the high break rate of Polyethylene pipes, it is recommended to be placed in priority of leak detection and rehabilitation.   .

  8. SEVERE ACCIDENT MANAGEMENT TRAINING

    The purpose of this paper is (a) to define the International Atomic Energy Agency's role in the area of severe accident management training, (b) to briefly describe the status of representative severe accident analysis tools designed to support development and validation of accident management guidelines, and more recently, simulate the accident with sufficient accuracy to support the training of technical support and reactor operator staff, and (c) provide an overview of representative design-specific accident management guidelines and training. Since accident management and the development of accident management validation and training software is a rapidly evolving area, this paper is also intended to evolve as accident management guidelines and training programs are developed to meet different reactor design requirements and individual national requirements

  9. Traffic Congestion and Accidents

    Schrage, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Obstructions caused by accidents can trigger or exacerbate traffic congestion. This paper derives the efficient traffic pattern for a rush hour with congestion and accidents and the corresponding road toll. Compared to the model without accidents, where the toll equals external costs imposed on drivers using the road at the same time, a new insight arises: An optimal toll also internalizes the expected increase in future congestion costs. Since accidents affect more drivers if traffic volumes...

  10. Psychology of nuclear accidents

    Tysoe, M.

    1983-03-31

    Incidents involving nuclear weapons are described, as well as the accident to the Three Mile Island-2 reactor. Methods of assessment of risks are discussed, with particular reference to subjective judgements and the possible role of human error in civil nuclear accidents. Accidents or misunderstandings in communication or human actions which might lead to nuclear war are also discussed.

  11. The estimation of 137Cs and 90Sr location in the biomass of the macrophytes from the Yenisei river (Krasnoyarsky region, Russia) and Glubokoe lake (Chernobyl accident exclusion zone, Ukraine)

    The distribution of cesium and strontium as well as their chemical analogs potassium and calcium in the biomass of aquatic plants collected in zone of radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River and in Glubokoe Lake, in Chernobyl accident exclusion zone, was investigated with chemical fractionation technique. Despite of the essential difference in activity concentration in the biomass of the plants from the two water bodies, the distribution of 137Cs among the biomass fractions was similar. 90Sr was recorded in the biomass in more mobile form, than 137 Cs. The distribution of cesium in the biomass of plants essentially differed from the distribution of it's chemical analog, potassium. The distribution of elements - analogs, 90S and Ca, in the biomass of the plants was similar. More than half of cesium concentration in the samples of plants from the Yenisei River was associated with particles of seston, bound to the surface of the plants. The results obtained should be considered while interpret the data of radioecological monitoring and modeling of the migration of radionuclides in the water bodies.

  12. Supervisor's accident investigation handbook

    This pamphlet was prepared by the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EH and S) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to provide LBL supervisors with a handy reference to LBL's accident investigation program. The publication supplements the Accident and Emergencies section of LBL's Regulations and Procedures Manual, Pub. 201. The present guide discusses only accidents that are to be investigated by the supervisor. These accidents are classified as Type C by the Department of Energy (DOE) and include most occupational injuries and illnesses, government motor-vehicle accidents, and property damages of less than $50,000

  13. Framework for accident management

    Accident management is an essential element of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Integration Plan for the closure of severe accident issues. This element will consolidate the results from other key elements; such as the Individual Plant Examination (IPE), the Containment Performance Improvement, and the Severe Accident Research Programs, in a form that can be used to enhance the safety programs for nuclear power plants. The NRC is currently conducting an Accident Management Program that is intended to aid in defining the scope and attributes of an accident management program for nuclear power plants. The accident management plan will ensure that a plant specific program is developed and implemented to promote the most effective use of available utility resources (people and hardware) to prevent and mitigate severe accidents. Hardware changes or other plant modifications to reduce the frequency of severe accidents are not a central aim of this program. To accomplish the outlined objectives, the NRC has developed an accident management framework that is comprised of five elements: (1) accident management strategies, (2) training, (3) guidance and computational aids, (4) instrumentation, and (5) delineation of decision making responsibilities. A process for the development of an accident management program has been identified using these NRC framework elements

  14. Library Locations

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh locations including address, coordinates, phone number, square footage, and standard operating hours.

  15. Wireless Reporting System for Accident Detection at Higher Speeds u

    Peddi Anudeep

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed is one of the basic reasons for vehicle accident. Many lives could have been saved if emergency service could get accident information and reach in time. Nowadays, GPS has become an integral part of a vehicle system. This paper proposes to utilize the capability of a GPS receiver to monitor speed of a vehicle and detect accident basing on monitored speed and send accident location to an Alert Service Center. The GPS will monitor speed of a vehicle and compare with the previous speed in every second through a Microcontroller Unit. Whenever the speed will be below the specified speed, it will assume that an accident has occurred. The system will then send the accident location acquired from the GPS along with the time and the speed by utilizing the GSM network. This will help to reach the rescue service in time and save the valuable human life.

  16. Framework for accident management

    A program is being conducted to establish those attributes of a severe accident management plan which are necessary to assure effective response to all credible severe accidents and to develop guidance for their incorporation in a plant's Accident Management Plan. This program is one part of the Accident Management Research Program being conducted by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The approach used in establishing attributes and developing guidance includes three steps. In the first step the general attributes of an accident management plan were identified based on: (1) the objectives established for the NRC accident management program, (2) the elements of an accident management framework identified by the NRC, and (3) a review of the processes used in developing the currently used approach for classifying and analyzing accidents. For the second step, a process was defined that uses the general attributes identified from the first step to develop an accident management plan. The third step applied the process defined in the second step at a nuclear power plant to refine and develop it into a benchmark accident management plan. Step one is completed, step two is underway and step three has not yet begun

  17. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  18. The Chernobyl accident consequences

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  19. Communication and industrial accidents

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the concept of role distance, which emphasizes the organizational characteristics. The general hypothesis is that communication failures are a main cause of role distance and accident-proneness within orga...

  20. Nuclear accidents and epidemiology

    A consultation on epidemiology related to the Chernobyl accident was held in Copenhagen in May 1987 as a basis for concerted action. This was followed by a joint IAEA/WHO workshop in Vienna, which reviewed appropriate methodologies for possible long-term effects of radiation following nuclear accidents. The reports of these two meetings are included in this volume, and cover the subjects: 1) Epidemiology related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident. 2) Appropriate methodologies for studying possible long-term effects of radiation on individuals exposed in a nuclear accident. Figs and tabs

  1. Criticality accident in Argentina

    A recent criticality type accident, ocurred in Argetina, is commented. Considerations about the nature of the facility where this accident took place, its genesis, type of operation carried out on the day of the event, and the medical aspects involved are done. (Author)

  2. Chernobyl accident and Danmark

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  3. Radiation accidents in hospitals

    Some of the radiation accidents that have occurred in Indian hospitals and causes that led to them are reviewed. Proper organization of radiation safety minimizes such accidents. It has been pointed out that there must be technical competence and mental preparedness to tackle emergencies when they do infrequently occur. (M.G.B.)

  4. Communication and industrial accidents

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the conc

  5. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  6. Wireless Reporting System for Accident Detection at Higher Speeds u

    Peddi Anudeep; K. Hari Bab

    2014-01-01

    Speed is one of the basic reasons for vehicle accident. Many lives could have been saved if emergency service could get accident information and reach in time. Nowadays, GPS has become an integral part of a vehicle system. This paper proposes to utilize the capability of a GPS receiver to monitor speed of a vehicle and detect accident basing on monitored speed and send accident location to an Alert Service Center. The GPS will monitor speed of a vehicle and compare with the pr...

  7. Installation for accident localization at a nuclear power plant

    The installation for accident localization at a nuclear power plant with multiloop structure of the first circuit is described. The installation represents a pressurized shell inside which the reactor with the first circuit equipment are located. The whole volume under the shell is divided into autonomous boxes for one or several circulation loops. In case of accident as capacity for condensate discharge not the whole volume under pressurized shell is used, but only one of the autonomous boxes. This circumstance decreases the accident effect zone and expenditures related to the liquidation of accident consequences

  8. Accidents with orphan sources

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has specifically defined statutory functions relating to the development of standards of safety and the provision for their application. It also has responsibilities placed on it by virtue of a number of Conventions, two of which are relevant to nuclear accidents or radiological emergencies - the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. An overview of the way in which these functions are being applied to prevent and respond to radiological accidents, particularly those involving orphan sources, is described in this paper. Summaries of a number of such accidents and of the Agency's Action Plan relating to the safety and security of radiation sources are given. (orig.)

  9. The Why and How of Nuclear Accident Dosimetry

    The objective of an effective nuclear accident dosimetry programme is to ensure that a means is provided for estimating the gamma neutron dose from a nuclear accident. In this connection, the limitation of the film badge is discussed, in addition to certain accident experiences which demonstrate the need for an effective accident dosimetry programme at facilities having a potential for nuclear accidents. Certain basic parameters should be considered in the development of an effective nuclear accident dosimetry programme. These are (a) a method for screening personnel involved in nuclear accidents, (b) a fixed system (primary unit) capable of determining first collision dose within some established degree of accuracy at its point of location, (c) the need for ''secondary units'', and (d) the need for a device worn by personnel which would afford spectrum and flux information to assist in dose extrapolation from the fixed unit to the location of man. The neutron component of the system should permit flux and spectral information in order to arrive at appropriate quality factors in the dose estimation. Accuracies should be established based upon the current state of the art. The gamma -ray component of the system should permit measuring gamma radiation within the biological area of interest, i. e. from 10 to 103r. Consideration for the number, placement and ease of recovery of accident units are indeed an integral part of an effective system of accident dosimetry. These considerations should enable reasonable data collection across the entire fission spectrum. (author)

  10. Accident report 1975/76

    The statistics previously published on the development of accidents were completed. It is the purpose of this accident report: 1) to present a survey of the development of the number of accidents (no radiation accidents) for the years 1960 - 1976, 2) to break down the accidents by different characteristics in order to be able to recognize the preventive measures to be taken so as to avoid further accidents, 3) to report about accidents experienced and to indicate activities performed with respect to accident prevention and health protection. (orig.)

  11. Database on aircraft accidents

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating

  12. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. PMID:20618386

  13. Management of severe accidents

    The definition and the multidimensionality aspects of accident management have been reviewed. The suggested elements in the development of a programme for severe accident management have been identified and discussed. The strategies concentrate on the two tiered approaches. Operative management utilizes the plant's equipment and operators capabilities. The recovery managment concevtrates on preserving the containment, or delaying its failure, inhibiting the release, and on strategies once there has been a release. The inspiration for this paper was an excellent overview report on perspectives on managing severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants and extending plant operating procedures into the severe accident regime; and by the most recent publication of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) considering the question of risk reduction and source term reduction through accident prevention, management and mitigation. The latter document concludes that 'active development of accident management measures by plant personnel can lead to very large reductions in source terms and risk', and goes further in considering and formulating the key issue: 'The most fruitful path to follow in reducing risk even further is through the planning of accident management.' (author)

  14. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  15. Accidents, risks and consequences

    Although the accident at Chernobyl can be considered as the worst accident in the world, it could have been worse. Other far worse situations are considered, such as a nuclear weapon hitting a nuclear reactor. Indeed the accident at Chernobyl is compared to a nuclear weapon. The consequences of Chernobyl in terms of radiation levels are discussed. Although it is believed that a similar accident could not occur in the United Kingdom, that possibility is considered. It is suggested that emergency plans should be made for just such an eventuality. Even if Chernobyl could not happen in the UK, the effects of accidents are international. The way in which nuclear reactor accidents happen is explored, taking the 1957 Windscale fire, Three Mile Island and Chernobyl as examples. Reactor designs and accident scenarios are considered. The different reactor designs are listed. As well as the Chernobyl RBMK design it is suggested that the light water reactors also have undesirable features from the point of view of safety. (U.K.)

  16. Accident progression event tree analysis for postulated severe accidents at N Reactor

    A Level II/III probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been performed for N Reactor, a Department of Energy (DOE) production reactor located on the Hanford reservation in Washington. The accident progression analysis documented in this report determines how core damage accidents identified in the Level I PRA progress from fuel damage to confinement response and potential releases the environment. The objectives of the study are to generate accident progression data for the Level II/III PRA source term model and to identify changes that could improve plant response under accident conditions. The scope of the analysis is comprehensive, excluding only sabotage and operator errors of commission. State-of-the-art methodology is employed based largely on the methods developed by Sandia for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in support of the NUREG-1150 study. The accident progression model allows complex interactions and dependencies between systems to be explicitly considered. Latin Hypecube sampling was used to assess the phenomenological and systemic uncertainties associated with the primary and confinement system responses to the core damage accident. The results of the analysis show that the N Reactor confinement concept provides significant radiological protection for most of the accident progression pathways studied

  17. Medical response and management of radiation accidents

    An overview is provided of educational programs and principles essential to the appropriate medical management of radiation accident victims. Such an education program will provide details of the physical properties of radiation, of the sources of radiation exposure, of radiation protection standards and of biological radiation effects. The medical management of individuals involved in radiation accidents is discussed. Such management includes emergency medical stabilization, locating and quantitating the level and degree of internal and/or external contamination, wound decontamination, medical surveillance and the evaluation and treatment of local radiation injuries

  18. Accident resistant transport container

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  19. Boating Accident Statistics

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  20. Talking about accidents

    It is argued that the public's emotional fear of the hypothetical, very unlikely, gigantic nuclear accident is partly caused by the nuclear industry's incorrect use of language within its own professional discussions. Improved terminology is suggested. (U.K.)

  1. FATAL ACCIDENT REPORTING SYSTEM (FARS)

    The Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) database consist of three relational tables, containing data on automobile accidents on public U.S. roads that resulted in the death of one or more people within 30 days of the accident. Truck and trailer accidents are also included.

  2. The Chernobyl accident

    In connection with the Chernobyl accident the report gives a description of the technical features of importance to the accident, the course of events, and the estimated health hazards in the local environment. Dissimilarities in western and Sovjet reactor safety philosophy are dealt with, as well as conceivable concequences in relation to technology and research in western nuclear power programmes. Results of activity level measurements of air and foodstuff, made in Norway by Institute for Energy Technology, are given

  3. Accident and emergency management

    There is an increasing potential for severe accidents as the industrial development tends towards large, centralised production units. In several industries this has led to the formation of large organisations which are prepared for accidents fighting and for emergency management. The functioning of these organisations critically depends upon efficient decision making and exchange of information. This project is aimed at securing and possibly improving the functionality and efficiency of the accident and emergency management by verifying, demonstrating, and validating the possible use of advanced information technology in the organisations mentioned above. With the nuclear industry in focus the project consists of five main activities: 1) The study and detailed analysis of accident and emergency scenarios based on records from incidents and rills in nuclear installations. 2) Development of a conceptual understanding of accident and emergency management with emphasis on distributed decision making, information flow, and control structure sthat are involved. 3) Development of a general experimental methodology for evaluating the effects of different kinds of decision aids and forms of organisation for emergency management systems with distributed decision making. 4) Development and test of a prototype system for a limited part of an accident and emergency organisation to demonstrate the potential use of computer and communication systems, data-base and knowledge base technology, and applications of expert systems and methods used in artificial intelligence. 5) Production of guidelines for the introduction of advanced information technology in the organisations based on evaluation and validation of the prototype system. (author)

  4. Accident management information needs

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Historical aspects of radiation accidents

    Radiation accidents are extremely rare events; however, the last two years have witnessed the largest radiation accidents in both the eastern and western hemispheres. It is the purpose of this chapter to review how radiation accidents are categorized, examine the temporal changes in frequency and severity, give illustrative examples of several types of radiation accidents, and finally, to describe the various registries for radiation accidents

  6. Cyclical Fluctuations in Workplace Accidents

    Boone, J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    This Paper presents a theory and an empirical investigation on cyclical fluctuations in workplace accidents. The theory is based on the idea that reporting an accident dents the reputation of a worker and raises the probability that he is fired. Therefore a country with a high or an increasing unemployment rate has a low (reported) workplace accident rate. The empirical investigation concerns workplace accidents in OECD countries. The analysis confirms that workplace accident rates are invers...

  7. Development of Database for Accident Analysis in Indian Mines

    Tripathy, Debi Prasad; Guru Raghavendra Reddy, K.

    2015-08-01

    Mining is a hazardous industry and high accident rates associated with underground mining is a cause of deep concern. Technological developments notwithstanding, rate of fatal accidents and reportable incidents have not shown corresponding levels of decline. This paper argues that adoption of appropriate safety standards by both mine management and the government may result in appreciable reduction in accident frequency. This can be achieved by using the technology in improving the working conditions, sensitising workers and managers about causes and prevention of accidents. Inputs required for a detailed analysis of an accident include information on location, time, type, cost of accident, victim, nature of injury, personal and environmental factors etc. Such information can be generated from data available in the standard coded accident report form. This paper presents a web based application for accident analysis in Indian mines during 2001-2013. An accident database (SafeStat) prototype based on Intranet of the TCP/IP agreement, as developed by the authors, is also discussed.

  8. Reactivity accident of nuclear submarine near Vladivostok

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union and consequently the termination of the Cold War and the disarmament agreements, many nuclear warheads are in a queue for dismantling. As a result, substantial number of nuclear submarines equipped with ballistic missiles will be also withdrawn from service. However, Russian nuclear submarines have suffered from reactivity accidents five times. In the paper, a reactivity accident on a nuclear submarine that happened at Chazhma Bay located between Vladivostok and Nakhodka on August 10, 1985, has been described. In addition, the characteristics of submarine nuclear reactors, procedures of refueling, and the possibility of a similar accident are given. Further, the radiological risk to Japan and neighboring countries has been assessed by using an atmospheric pollutant transport code, WSPEEDI, developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The radiological risk has been evaluated for the Chazhma Bay accident and for a hypothetical reactivity accident of a retired submarine during defueling, assuming winter meteorological conditions. The analyses have shown that the radioactive material might be transported in the atmosphere to Japan in one to several days and might contaminate wide areas of Japan. Under the assumptions taken in the paper, however, the radiological dose to population in the area might be not significant. (author)

  9. [Psychogenesis of accidents].

    Giannattasio, E; Nencini, R; Nicolosi, N

    1988-01-01

    After having carried out a historical review of industrial psychology with specific attention to the evolution of the concept of causality in accidents, the Authors formulate their work hypothesis from that research which take into highest consideration the executives' attitudes in the genesis of the accidents. As dogmatism appears to be one of the most negative of executives' attitudes, the Authors administered Rockeach's Scale to 130 intermediate executives from 6 industries in Latium and observed the frequency index for accidents and the morbidity index (absenteeism) of the 2149 workhand. The Authors assumed that to high degree of dogmatism on the executives' side should correspond o a higher level of accidents and absenteeism among the staff. The data processing revealed that, due to the type of machinery employed, three of the industries examined should be considered as High Risk Industrie (HRI), while the remaining three could be considered as Low Risk Industries (LRI): in fact, due to the different working conditions, a significant lower number of accidents occurred in last the three. A statistically significant correlation between the executives' dogmatism and the number of accidents among their workhand in the HRI has been noticed, while this has not been observed in the LRI. This confirms, as had already been pointed out by Gemelli in 1944, that some "objective conditions" are requested so that the accident may actually take place. On the other hand the morbidity index has not shown any difference related to the different kind of industries (HRI, LRI): in both cases statistically significant correlations were obtained between the executives' dogmatism and the staff's absenteeism. absenteeism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3154344

  10. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  11. Accidents in nuclear ships

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10-3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  12. Scoping accident(s) for emergency planning

    At the request of the Conference of State Radiation Control Program Director's (CRCPD), in November 1976 the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission formed a joint Task Force with representatives of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to answer a number of questions posed by the States regarding emergency planning. This Task Force held monthly meetings through November 1977. In December 1977 a draft report was prepared for limited distribution for review and comment by selected State and local organizations. The NRC/EPA Task Force deliberations centered on the CRCPD request for '... a determination of the most severe accident basis for which radiological emergency response plans should be developed by offsite agencies...' in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. Federal Interagency guidance to the States in this regard has been that the scoping accident should be the most serious conservatively analyzed accident considered for siting purposes, as exemplified in the Commission's Regulations at 10 CFR Part 100 and the NRC staffs Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4, and as presented in license applicant's Safety Analysis Reports and the USNRC Staffs Safety Evaluation Reports. The draft report of the Task Force amplifies on this recommendation: to present a clearer picture of its import and introduces the concept of protective action zones (PAZs) within which detailed emergency plans should be developed; one zone for the plume exposure pathway and a second, larger zone for contamination pathways. The time dependence of potential releases and atmospheric transport, and important radionuclide groups of possible import are also discussed in the draft Task Force report. A status report regarding this effort, as of June 1978, will be presented. (author)

  13. Important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident

    After the Fukushima accident several investigation committees issued reports with lessons learned from the accident in Japan. Among those lessons, several recommendations have been made on severe accident research. Similar to the EURSAFE efforts under EU Program, review of specific severe accident research items was started before Fukushima accident in working group of Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) in terms of significance of consequences, uncertainties of phenomena and maturity of assessment methodology. Re-investigation has been started since the Fukushima accident. Additional effects of Fukushima accident, such as core degradation behaviors, sea water injection, containment failure/leakage and re-criticality have been covered. The review results are categorized in ten major fields; core degradation behavior, core melt coolability/retention in containment vessel, function of containment vessel, source term, hydrogen behavior, fuel-coolant interaction, molten core concrete interaction, direct containment heating, recriticality and instrumentation in severe accident conditions. Based on these activities and also author's personal view, the present paper describes the perspective of important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident. Those are specifically investigation of damaged core and components, advanced severe accident analysis capabilities and associated experimental investigations, development of reliable passive cooling system for core/containment, analysis of hydrogen behavior and investigation of hydrogen measures, enhancement of removal function of radioactive materials of containment venting, advanced instrumentation for the diagnosis of severe accident and assessment of advanced containment design which excludes long-term evacuation in any severe accident situations. (author)

  14. Modeling accident frequency in Denmark for improving road safety

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Kaplan, Sigal;

    Traffic accidents result in huge costs to society in terms of death, injury, lost productivity, and property damage. The main objective of the current study is the development of an accident frequency model that predicts the expected number of accidents on a given road segment, provided the...... infrastructure characteristics and the traffic conditions of the road. The model can be used to point out high risk road segments and support road authorities in planning interventions for the improvement of road safety on Danish roads. The number of accidents on a road link was modeled using a count model after...... concerning police recorded accidents, link characteristics of the road network, traffic volumes from the national transport models are merged to estimate the model. Spatial correlation between road sections is taken into account for correcting for unobserved correlation between contiguous locations....

  15. Helicopter accident survivability.

    Vyrnwy-Jones, P; Thornton, R

    1984-10-01

    Army Air Corps accident and fatality rates have now reached levels which compare favourably with data from other civilian and military sources. This improvement is the result of enhanced helicopter design and parallel progress in aircrew training. The introduction of new generations of turbine powered rotor craft has largely eliminated mechanical failure as the cause of accident. As a result 75% of Army Air Corps accidents are due to pilot error. This contribution is likely to increase in the future as the pilot's task is made more difficult by the incumberance of personal equipment. Methods whereby occupant protection and aircraft crashworthiness can be improved are reviewed and it is concluded that it would make sound economic sense to implement some of these well proven design features. PMID:6527344

  16. Information at radiation accidents

    This study was undertaken in order to plan an information strategy for possible future accidents involving radioactivity. Six health visitors and six farmers working in the districts of Norway which received the largest amounts of fallout from the Chernobyl accident, were interviewed. The questions were intended to give an indication of their knowledge about radioactivity and radiation, as well as their needs for information in case of a future accident. The results indicate a relatively low educational background in radiation physics and risk estimation. On the other hand the two groups showed a remarkable skill and interest in doing their own evaluation on the background of information that was linked to their daily life. It is suggested that planning of information in this field is done in close cooperation with the potential users of the information

  17. Radiation accidents and dosimetry

    On September 2nd 1982 one of the employees of the gamma-irradiation facility at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway entered the irradiation cell with a 65.7 kCi *sp60*Co- source in unshielded position. The victim received an unknown radiation dose and died after 13 days. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy, the radiation dose in this accident was subsequently determined based on the production of longlived free radicals in nitroglycerol tablets borne by the operator during the accident. He used nitroglycerol for heart problems and free radical are easily formed and trapped in sugar which is the main component of the tablets. Calibration experiments were carried out and the dose given to the tablets during the accident was determined to 37.2 +- 0.5 Gy. The general use of free radicals for dose determinations is discussed. (Auth.)

  18. Big nuclear accidents

    Much of the debate on the safety of nuclear power focuses on the large number of fatalities that could, in theory, be caused by extremely unlikely but imaginable reactor accidents. This, along with the nuclear industry's inappropriate use of vocabulary during public debate, has given the general public a distorted impression of the safety of nuclear power. The way in which the probability and consequences of big nuclear accidents have been presented in the past is reviewed and recommendations for the future are made including the presentation of the long-term consequences of such accidents in terms of 'reduction in life expectancy', 'increased chance of fatal cancer' and the equivalent pattern of compulsory cigarette smoking. (author)

  19. The management of accidents

    R. B. Ward

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This author’s experiences in investigating well over a hundred accident occurrences has led to questioning how such events can be managed - - - while immediately recognising that the idea of managing accidents is an oxymoron, we don’t want to manage them, we don’t want not to manage them, what we desire is not to have to manage not-them, that is, manage matters so they don’t happen and then we don’t have to manage the consequences.Design/methodology/approach: The research will begin by defining some common classes of accidents in manufacturing industry, with examples taken from cases investigated, and by working backwards (too late, of course show how those involved could have managed these sample events so they didn’t happen, finishing with the question whether any of that can be applied to other situations.Findings: As shown that the management actions needed to prevent accidents are control of design and application of technology, and control and integration of people.Research limitations/implications: This paper has shown in some of the examples provided, management actions have been know to lead to accidents being committed by others, lower in the organization.Originality/value: Today’s management activities involve, generally, the use of technology in many forms, varying from simple tools (such as knives to the use of heavy equipment, electric power, and explosives. Against these we commit, in control of those items, the comparatively frail human mind and body, which, again generally, does succeed in controlling these resources, with (another generality by appropriate management. However, sometimes the control slips and an accident occurs.

  20. Mortal radiological accident

    After defining the concept of 'Radiological accident', statistical data from Radiation Emergency Assistance Center of ORNL (United States of America) are given about the deaths caused by acute irradiation between 1944 and April 24, 1986 -ie, the day before Chernobyl nuclear accident- as well as on the number of deaths caused by the latter. Next the different clinical stages of the Acute Irradiation Syndrome (AIS) as well as its possible treatment are described, and finally the different physical, clinical and biological characteristics linked to the AIS and to its diagnosis and prognosis are discussed. (M.E.L.)

  1. The TMI-2 accident

    A critical study about the technical and man-related facts in order to establish what is considered the worst commercial nuclear power accident until 1986. Radiological consequences and stress to the public are considered in contrast to antinuclear groups. This descriptive and technical study has the purpose to document written and oral opinions obtained abroad and then explain to the public in an easy language terminology. Preliminary study describing safety related systems fails and the accident itself with minute to minute description, conduct to the consequences and then, to learned lessons

  2. Preliminary report about nuclear accident of Chernobylsk reactor

    The preliminary report of nuclear accident at Chernobyl, in URSS is presented. The Chernobyl site is located geographically and the RBMK type reactors - initials of russian words which mean high power pressure tube reactors are described. The conditions of reactor operation in beginning of accident, the events which lead to reactor destruction, the means to finish the fire, the measurements adopted by Russian in the accident location, the estimative of radioactive wastes, the meteorological conditions during the accident, the victims and medical assistence, the sanitary aspects and consequences for population, the evaluation of radiation doses received at small and medium distance and the estimative of reffered doses by population attained are presented. The official communication of Russian Minister Council and the declaration of IAEA general manager during a collective interview in Moscou are annexed. (M.C.K.)

  3. Description of the accident

    The TMI-2 accident occurred in March 1979. The accident started with a simple and fairly common steam power plant failure--loss of feedwater to the steam generators. Because of a combination of design, training, regulatory policies, mechanical failures and human error, the accident progressed to the point where it eventually produced the worst known core damage in large nuclear power reactors. Core temperatures locally reached UO2 fuel liquefaction (metallic solution with Zr) and even fuel melt (3800-51000F). Extensive fission product release and Zircaloy cladding oxidation and embrittlement occurred. At least the upper 1/2 of the core fractured and crumbled upon quenching. The lower central portion of the core apparently had a delayed heatup and then portions of it collapsed into the reactor vessel lower head. The lower outer portion of the core may be relatively undamaged. Outside of the core boundary, only those steel components directly above and adjacent to the core (≤1 foot) are known to have suffered significant damage (localized oxidation and melting). Other portions of the primary system outside of the reactor vessel apparently had little chance of damage or even notable overheating. The demonstrated coolability of the severely damaged TMI-2 core, once adequate water injection began, was one of the most substantial and important results of the TMI-2 accident

  4. Fifteen years after accident

    This book is devoted to 15th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. Four problems have been reflected in the book: contamination of territories of Western Europe, Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation by cesium-137; plutonium, americium and other actinides on territory of Belarus; problems of radioactive wastes management of Chernobyl origin; influence of various factors on oncology morbidity in the Republic of Belarus

  5. Measures against nuclear accidents

    A select committee appointed by the Norwegian Ministry of Social Affairs put forward proposals concerning measures for the improvement of radiation protection preparedness in Norway. On the basis on an assessment of the potential radiation accident threat, the report examines the process of response, and identifies the organizational and management factors that influence that process

  6. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP)

  7. Lessons learned from accident investigations

    Accidents in three main practices - medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators - are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned from them. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the accidents described are approached bearing in mind: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  8. Lessons learned from accidents investigations

    Accidents from three main practices: medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the described accidents are approached by subjects covering: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  9. Road Traffic Accidents in Kazakhstan

    Alma Aubakirova; Alibek Kossumov; Nurbek Igissinov

    2013-01-01

    Background: The article provides the analysis of death rates in road traffic accidents in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2010 and explores the use of sanitary aviation. Methods: Data of fatalities caused by road traffic accidents were collected and analysed. Descriptive and analytical methods of epidemiology and biomedical statistics were applied. Results: Totaly 27,003 people died as a result of road traffic accidents in this period. The death rate for the total population due to road traffic accid...

  10. The Chernobyl accident

    The accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the most severe in the nuclear industry. The accident caused the rapid death of 31 power plant employees and firemen, mainly from acute radiation exposures and burns, and brought about the evacuation of 116,000 people within a few weeks. In addition, about half a million workers and four million members of the public have been exposed, to some extent, to radiation doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident. A large number of radiation measurements have been made since the accident in order to reconstruct the doses received by the most exposed populations. On the basis of currently available information, it appears that: (1) average doses received by clean-up workers from external irradiation decreased with time, being about 300 mGy for the persons who worked in the first three months after the accident, about 170 mGy for the remainder of 1986, 130 mGy in 1987, 30 mGy in 1988, and 15 mGy in 1989; (2) the evacuees received, before evacuation, effective doses averaging 11 mSv for the population of Pripyat, and 18 mSv for the remainder of the population of the 30 km zone, with maximum effective doses ranging up to 380 mSv; and (3) among the populations living in contaminated areas, the highest doses were those delivered to the thyroids of children. Thyroid doses derived from thyroid measurements among Belarussian and Ukrainian children indicate median thyroid doses of about 300 mGy, and more than 1% of the children with thyroid doses in excess of 5000 mGy. A description is provided of the epidemiological studies that the National Cancer Institute has, since 1990, at the request of the Department of Energy, endeavoured to undertake, in cooperation with Belarus and Ukraine, on two possible health effects resulting from the Chernobyl accident: (1, thyroid cancer in children living in contaminated areas during the first few weeks following the accident, and (2) leukaemia among workers involved in clean

  11. WIRELESS ACCIDENT INFORMATION SYSTEM USING GSM AND GPS

    R.RATHINAKUMAR

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses about designing a Smart Display and Control [SDC] which will monitor the zone and maintains the specified speed in the zone levels, which runs on an embedded system. This system includes three modules; automatic speed control module, accident detection and information sending module and security enabling module. Automatic speed control module includes RF transmitter placed in specific location and RF receiver in the vehicle. Accident detection module includes GSM and GPS ...

  12. Marine Accidents in Northern Nigeria: Causes, Prevention and Management

    Lawal Bello Dogarawa

    2012-01-01

    Boat mishaps tend to be increasing in Nigeria in spite of all regulatory measures which have been taken to prevent and control marine accidents. Boat mishaps could occur anywhere water transportation takes place. However, there is a general impression that water transportation takes place only in the riverine areas located in Southern Nigeria but, this paper reports about marine accident cases in Northern Nigeria. It evaluates the safety measures put in place by operators and other institutio...

  13. The psychology of nuclear accidents

    Incidents involving nuclear weapons are described, as well as the accident to the Three Mile Island-2 reactor. Methods of assessment of risks are discussed, with particular reference to subjective judgements and the possible role of human error in civil nuclear accidents. Accidents or misunderstandings in communication or human actions which might lead to nuclear war are also discussed. (U.K.)

  14. Radiological accidents balance in medicine

    This work deals with the radiological accidents in medicine. In medicine, the radiation accidents on medical personnel and patients can be the result of over dosage and bad focusing of radiotherapy sealed sources. Sometimes, the accidents, if they are unknown during a time enough for the source to be spread and to expose a lot of persons (in the case of source dismantling for instance) can take considerable dimensions. Others accidents can come from bad handling of linear accelerators and from radionuclide kinetics in some therapies. Some examples of accidents are given. (O.L.). 11 refs

  15. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be...... initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... identified during a total of 31 140 years at sea. Among these, 209 accidents resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. The mean risk of having an occupational accident was 6.4/100 years at sea and the risk of an accident causing a permanent disability of 5% or more was 0.67/100 years...

  16. Chernobyl reactor accident

    On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described

  17. The ultimate nuclear accident

    The estimated energy equivalent of Chernobyl explosion was the 1/150 th of the explosive energy equivalent of atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima; while the devastation that could be caused by the world's stock pile of nuclear weapons, could be equivalent to 160 millions of Chernobyl-like incidents. As known, the number of nuclear weapons is over 50,000 and 2000 nuclear weapons are sufficient to destroy the world. The Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been blamed on human factors but also the human element, particularly in the form of psychological stresses on those operating the nuclear weapons, could accidentally bring the world to a nuclear catastrophe. This opinion is encouraged by the London's Sunday Times magazine which gave a graphic description of life inside a nuclear submarine. So, to speak of nuclear reactor accidents and not of nuclear weapons is false security. (author)

  18. Nuclear ship accidents

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  19. Reactor accidents in perspective

    In each of the three major reactor accidents which have led to significant releases to the environment, and discussed in outline in this note, the reactor has been essentially destroyed - certainly Windscale and Chernobyl reactors will never operate and the cleanup operation for Three Mile Island is currently estimated to have cost in excess of US Pound 500 000 000. In each of the accidents there has not been any fatality off site in the short term and any long-term health detriment is unlikely to be seen in comparison with the natural cancer incidence rate. At Chernobyl, early fatalities did occur amongst those concerned with fighting the incident on site and late effects are to be expected. The assumption of a linear non-threshold risk, and hence no level of zero risk is the main problem in communication with the public, and the author calls for simplification of the presentation of the concepts of radiological protection. (U.K.)

  20. The Chernobylsk reactor accident

    The construction, the safety philosophy, the major reactor physical parameters of RBMK-1000 type reactor units and the detailed description of the Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident, its causes and conclusions, the efforts to reduce the consequences on the reactor site and in the surroundings are discussed based on different types of Soviet documents including the report presented to the IAEA by the Soviet Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986. (V.N.)

  1. Ship accident studies

    This paper summarizes ship accident studies performed by George G. Sharp, Inc. for the U.S. Maritime Administration in connection with the Nuclear Ship Project. Casualties studied include fires/explosions, groundings and collisions for which a method for calculating probability on a specific route was developed jointly with the Babcock and Wilcox Co. Casualty data source was the Liverpool's Underwriters Association Casualty Returns

  2. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

  3. Accident Monitoring Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    In the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the instrumentation provided for accident monitoring proved to be ineffective for a combination of reasons. The accident has highlighted the need to re-examine criteria for accident monitoring instrumentation. This publication covers all relevant aspects of accident monitoring in NPPs. The critical issues discussed reflect the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident, involve accident management and accident monitoring strategies for nuclear power plants, selection of plant parameters for monitoring plant status, establishment of performance, design, qualification, display, and quality assurance criteria for designated accident monitoring instrumentation, and design and implementation considerations. Technology needs and techniques for accident monitoring instrumentation are also addressed

  4. Modelling of the transfer of CS-137 from air to crops, milk, beef and human body following the Chernobyl accident, in a location in Central Bohemia. Test of the model PRYMA T1; Modelizacion de la transferencia de CS-137 desde el aire a las cosechas, la leche, la carne de vacuno y el cuerpo humano producido por el accidente de Chernobyl, en una localizacion en la Bohemia Central. Test del modelo PRYMA T1

    Carrasco, E.; Garcia-Olivares, A.; Suaez, A.; Robles, B. Simon, I.; Cancio, D.

    1994-07-01

    This work was made in the frame of the research programme on validation of models for the transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial, urban and aquatic environments. The acronym of this programme is VAMP (Validation of Model Predictions) and is coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC). The scenario was named CB and was presented by the Multiple Pathway Working group. The scenario description was at the beginning a blind test, that is without knowing the location or the measured concentrations and doses. The input information included data of contamination in Cs-137 from the Chernobyl accident in Central Europe, in air and soils and more description of the scenario (data about crops, cattele, demography, human diet, etc.). The aim of the exercise was the contrast between model results and between observed data and model predictions. In this work the results obtained by the CIEMAT-IMA group of modelers are shown and discussed.

  5. Accidents and human factors

    When the TMI accident occurred it was 4 a.m., an hour when the error potential of the operators would have been very high. The frequency of car and train accidents in Japan is also highest between 4 a.m. and 6 a.m. The error potential may be classified into five phases corresponding to the electroencephalogramic pattern (EEG). At phase 0, when the delta wave appears, a person is unconscious and in deep sleep; at phase I, when the theta wave appears, he is very tired, sleepy and subnormal; at phase II, when the alpha wave appears, he is normal, relaxed and passive; at phase III, when the beta wave appears, he is normal, clear-minded and active; at phase IV, when the strong beta or epileptic wave appears, he is hypernormal, excited and incapable of normal judgement. Should an accident occur at phase II, the brain condition may jump to phase IV. At this phase the error or accident potential is maximum. The response of the human brain to different types of noises and signals may vary somewhat for different individuals and for different groups of people. Therefore, the possibility that such differences in brain functions may influence the mental structure would be worthy of consideration in human factors and in the design of man-machine systems. Human reliability and performance would be affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it would be important to develop a theory by which both non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measure is considered a special case of fuzzy measure. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. To minimize human error and the possibility of accidents, new safety systems should not only back up man and make up for his

  6. Radiation accident/disaster

    Described are the course of medical measures following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) Accident after the quake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) and the future task for radiation accident/disaster. By the first hydrogen explosion in FNPP (Mar. 12), evacuation of residents within 20 km zone was instructed, and the primary base for measures of nuclear disaster (Off-site Center) 5 km afar from FNPP had to work as a front base because of damage of communicating ways, of saving of injured persons and of elevation of dose. On Mar. 13, the medical arrangement council consisting from stuff of Fukushima Medical University (FMU), National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Safety Research Association and Prefectural officers was setup in residents' hall of Fukushima City, and worked for correspondence to persons injured or exposed, where communication about radiation and between related organizations was still poor. The Off-site Center's head section moved to Prefectural Office on Mar. 15 as headquarters. Early in the period, all residents evacuated from the 20 km zone, and in-hospital patients and nursed elderly were transported with vehicles, >50 persons of whom reportedly died mainly by their base diseases. The nation system of medicare for emergent exposure had consisted from the network of the primary to third facilities; there were 5 facilities in the Prefecture, 3 of which were localized at 4-9 km distance from FNPP and closed early after the Accident; and the secondary facility of FMU became responsible to all exposed persons. There was no death of workers of FNPP. Medical stuff also measured the ambient dose at various places near FNPP, having had risk of exposure. At the Accident, the important system of command, control and communication was found fragile and measures hereafter should be planned on assumption of the worst scenario of complete damage of the infrastructure and communication. It is desirable for Disaster Medical Assistance Team which

  7. Severe accident aerosol research in Finland

    The retention of fission products in the steam generator tubing and in the secondary side is poorly understood at the moment. Most experimental programs have concentrated on the initial stages of deposition. Much less attention has been paid to the situations when deposition-resuspension-revaporisation are important as the deposit layers are getting thicker. The understanding of fission product deposition in realistic steam generator conditions is needed to design efficient accident management procedures. For example if there is large deposition already in the ruptured pipe(s), the accident management procedure is different from the case where most deposition would occur in the secondary side. This is considered very important because steam generator tube rupture sequences are included in the risk dominant sequences. Aerosol deposition has been studied widely in laboratory scale. However, most of the studies have concentrated on situations where the deposit layer is thin and do not significantly affect the process. In severe accident applications the most important deposition studies have been LACE, STORM, TUBA, TRANSAT and AIDA programmes. None of these tests considered steam generator conditions. Thus we can say that there is basic knowledge on aerosol deposition and removal from gas streams in water pools, but it can not be applied directly to steam generator tube rupture cases. At the moment the effectiveness of such accident management procedures as secondary side flooding can not be verified as there is no experimental data and the models in severe accident codes are poor or non-existing. As a results of this work we will get data on deposition in the tubing, in the break location and in the secondary side. Experiments will be performed in horizontal steam generators (VVER reactors). (orig.)

  8. Modeling of pipe break accident in a district heating system using RELAP5 computer code

    Reliability of a district heat supply system is a very important factor. However, accidents are inevitable and they occur due to various reasons, therefore it is necessary to have possibility to evaluate the consequences of possible accidents. This paper demonstrated the capabilities of developed district heating network model (for RELAP5 code) to analyze dynamic processes taking place in the network. A pipe break in a water supply line accident scenario in Kaunas city (Lithuania) heating network is presented in this paper. The results of this case study were used to demonstrate a possibility of the break location identification by pressure decrease propagation in the network. -- Highlights: ► Nuclear reactor accident analysis code RELAP5 was applied for accident analysis in a district heating network. ► Pipe break accident scenario in Kaunas city (Lithuania) district heating network has been analyzed. ► An innovative method of pipe break location identification by pressure-time data is proposed.

  9. Including Accident Information in Automatic Bicycle Route Planning for Urban Areas

    Alex D. Singleton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 2005 and 2007 there were 9071 traffic accidents involving bicycles within London and this paper demonstrates the utility of Geographic Information Systems as a tool for analysing and visualising these occurrences. Through linkage of these spatial locations to a street network dataset it was possible to create a variety of intelligence about the types of street infrastructure where accidents predominantly occur. Additionally, a network routing algorithm was adapted to account for the frequency of accidents within a series of proposed journeys. This pilot routing application compared the quickest route with an accident avoidance weighted route between a series of origins and destinations. The results demonstrated that the routes avoiding areas of high accident volume did not increase journey length significantly; however they did provide a “safer” route based on empirical evidence over the volume of accident locations.

  10. Systematic register of nuclear accidents

    The Systematic Register of Nuclear Accidents is a consolidation of important accidents occurred in the world during the period 1945-1984. Important accidents can be defined as those involving high radiation doses, which require the exposed individuals to undergo medical treatment. The organization and structuring of this register rests on the necessity for the availability of a database specifically oriented to researchers interested in studying the different nuclear accidents reported. Approximately 150 accidents in that period are presented in a summary form; these accidents had been described or reported in the scientific literature or made known through informal communications of Brazilian and foreign institutions and researchers. This register can be of interest particularly to all professionals who either directly of indirectly work in the area of nuclear or radioactive installations safety. In order to facilitate analysis by the researcher, that casuistic system was divided into 3 groups: criticality accidents (table I), fall-out on Marshall Islands (table II) and external irradiation accidents (table III). It is also included an overview of accidents in that period, indicating the total number of victims, fatal cases, and number of survivors. The author offers to the reader an extensive bibliography on the accidents described. (Author)

  11. Severe accident analysis methodology in support of accident management

    The author addresses the implementation at BELGATOM of a generic severe accident analysis methodology, which is intended to support strategic decisions and to provide quantitative information in support of severe accident management. The analysis methodology is based on a combination of severe accident code calculations, generic phenomenological information (experimental evidence from various test facilities regarding issues beyond present code capabilities) and detailed plant-specific technical information

  12. Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl

    The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author)

  13. Lessons Learned from the Radiological Accident In Mayapuri, New Delhi

    In the past, there were several reported incidents and accidents throughout the world due to inadvertent radiation exposure causing serious radiation injuries to members of the public due to the presence of radioactive sources in the public domain and scrap yards. In April 2010, for the first time in India, a radiation accident occurred due to the dismantling of a gamma cell, housing 60Co radioactive source pencils, by the workers in a scrap shop located in the Mayapuri area of New Delhi. This resulted in high radiation exposures to seven people, of whom one succumbed to radiation sickness. Officers from the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) and personnel from national emergency response agencies were involved at various stages of source recovery operations. It was revealed that the accident due to a ‘legacy’ source originated from a university. Several actions have been initiated by the AERB to prevent such accidents in future and lessons learned by stakeholders. (author)

  14. Accident management insights from IPE's

    In response to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Generic Letter 88-20, each utility in the U.S.A. has undertaken a probabilistic severe accident study of each plant. This paper provides a high level summary of the generic PWR accident management insights that have been obtained from the IPE reports. More importantly, the paper details some of the limitations of the IPE studies with respect to accident management. The IPE studies and the methodology used was designed to provide a best estimate of the potential for a severe accident and/or for severe consequences from a core damage accident. The accepted methodology employs a number of assumptions to make the objective attainable with a reasonable expenditure of resources. However, some of the assumptions represent limitations with respect to developing an accident management program based solely on the IPE and its results. (author)

  15. Accident management insights after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, that took place on 11 March 2011, initiated a significant number of activities at the national and international levels to reassess the safety of existing NPPs, evaluate the sufficiency of technical means and administrative measures available for emergency response, and develop recommendations for increasing the robustness of NPPs to withstand extreme external events and beyond design basis accidents. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is working closely with its member and partner countries to examine the causes of the accident and to identify lessons learnt with a view to the appropriate follow-up actions to be taken by the nuclear safety community. Accident management is a priority area of work for the NEA to address lessons being learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP following the recommendations of Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), and Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). Considering the importance of these issues, the CNRA authorised the formation of a task group on accident management (TGAM) in June 2012 to review the regulatory framework for accident management following the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The task group was requested to assess the NEA member countries needs and challenges in light of the accident from a regulatory point of view. The general objectives of the TGAM review were to consider: - enhancements of on-site accident management procedures and guidelines based on lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident; - decision-making and guiding principles in emergency situations; - guidance for instrumentation, equipment and supplies for addressing long-term aspects of accident management; - guidance and implementation when taking extreme measures for accident management. The report is built on the existing bases for capabilities to respond to design basis

  16. Accident management approach in Armenia

    In this lecture the accident management approach in Armenian NPP (ANPP) Unit 2 is described. List of BDBAs had been developed by OKB Gydropress in 1994. 13 accident sequences were included in this list. The relevant analyses had been performed in VNIIAES and the 'Guidelines on operator actions for beyond design basis accident (BDBA) management at ANPP Unit 2' had been prepared. These instructions are discussed

  17. Serious accident in Peru

    A peruvian man, victim of an important accidental irradiation arrived on the Saturday twenty ninth of may 1999 to the centre of treatment of serious burns at the Percy military hospital (Clamart -France). The accident spent on the twentieth of February 1999, on the site of a hydroelectric power plant, in construction at 300 km at the East of Lima. The victim has picked up an industrial source of iridium devoted to gamma-graphy operations and put it in his back pocket; of trousers. The workman has serious radiation burns. (N.C.)

  18. The accident of Chernobyl

    RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

  19. Accident prevention programme

    This study by the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission was made within the context of the application by undertakings of the principles of accident and disease prevention previously adopted by the said Commission. It puts forward recommendations for the effective and gradual implementation of a programme of action on occupational health and safety in the various departments of an undertaking and in the undertaking as a whole. The methods proposed in this study are likely to be of interest to all undertakings in the metallurgical industry and other industrial sectors

  20. Psychological response of accident

    The psychological status of rescuers of consequences of Chernobyl[s accidents, having planned stationary examination and treatment of common somatic diseases, has been examined. THe age of men represented the study group was 35-54 years old. The results of medical-psychological examination showed the development in rescuers of common dysadaptation and stress state, characterized by depressive-hypochondriac state with high anxiety. The course of psychotherapeutic activities made possible to improve essentionally the psychological status of the patients. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. Reactor accident in Chernobyl

    The bibliography contains 1568 descriptions of papers devoted to Chernobylsk accident and recorded in ''INIS Atomindex'' to 30 June 1990. The descriptions were taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and are presented in accordance with volumes of this journal (chronology of recording). Therefore all descriptions have numbers showing first the number of volume and then the number of record. The bibliography has at the end the detailed subject index consisting of 465 main headings and a lot of qualifiers. Some of them are descriptors taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and some are key words taken from natural language. The index is in English as descriptions in the bibliography. (author)

  2. CAMS: Computerized Accident Management Support

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project has initiated a new research programme on computerised accident management support, the so-called CAMS project (CAMS = Computerized Accident Management Support). This work will investigate the possibilities for developing systems which provide more extensive support to the control room staff and technical support centre than the existing SPDS (Safety Parameter Display System) type of systems. The CAMS project will utilize available simulator codes and the capabilities of computerized tools to assist the plant staff during the various accident stages including: identification of the accident state, assessment of the future development of the accident, and planning accident mitigation strategies. This research programme aims at establishing a prototype system which can be used for experimental testing of the concept and serve as a tool for training and education in accident management. The CAMS prototype should provide support to the staff when the plant is in a normal state, in a disturbance sate, and in an accident state. Even though better support in an accident state is the main goal of the project, it is felt to be important that the staff is familiar with the use of the system during normal operation, when they utilize the system during transients

  3. Iodine releases from reactor accidents

    The airborne releases of iodine from water reactor accidents are small fractions of the available iodine and occur only slowly. However, in reactor accidents in which water is absent, the release of iodine to the environment can be large and rapid. These differences in release fraction and rate are related to the chemical states attained by iodine under the accident conditions. It is clear that neither rapid issue of blocking KI nor rapid evacuation of the surrounding population is required to protect the public from the radioiodine released in the event of a major water reactor accident

  4. Guidance on accidents involving radioactivity

    This annex contains advice to Health Authorities on their response to accidents involving radioactivity. The guidance is in six parts:-(1) planning the response required to nuclear accidents overseas, (2) planning the response required to UK nuclear accidents a) emergency plans for nuclear installations b) nuclear powered satellites, (3) the handling of casualties contaminated with radioactive substances, (4) background information for dealing with queries from the public in the event of an accident, (5) the national arrangements for incident involving radioactivity (NAIR), (6) administrative arrangements. (author)

  5. Detection and analysis of black spots with even small accident figures. Contribution to the Seminar on Short-term and Area-wide Evaluation of Safety Measures, Amsterdam, April 19-21, 1982, p. 75-84.

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    In order to detect accident black spots we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures known to us, the various road locations are treated as isolated spots. With small accident figu

  6. Radiation accident grips Goiania

    On 13 September two young scavengers in Goiania, Brazil, removed a stainless steel cylinder from a cancer therapy machine in an abandoned clinic, touching off a radiation accident second only to Chernobyl in its severity. On 18 September they sold the cylinder, the size of a 1-gallon paint can, to a scrap dealer for $25. At the junk yard an employee dismantled the cylinder and pried open the platinum capsule inside to reveal a glowing blue salt-like substance - 1400 curies of cesium-137. Fascinated by the luminescent powder, several people took it home with them. Some children reportedly rubbed in on their bodies like carnival glitter - an eerie image of how wrong things can go when vigilance over radioactive materials lapses. In all, 244 people in Goiania, a city of 1 million in central Brazil, were contaminated. The eventual toll, in terms of cancer or genetic defects, cannot yet be estimated. Parts of the city are cordoned off as radiation teams continue washing down buildings and scooping up radioactive soil. The government is also grappling with the political fallout from the accident

  7. Serious reactor accidents reconsidered

    The chance is determined for damage of the reactor core and that sequel events will cause excursion of radioactive materials into the environment. The gravity of such an accident is expressed by the source term. It appears that the chance for such an accident varies with the source term. In general it is valid that how larger the source term how smaller the chance is for it and vice versa. The chance for excursion is related to two complexes of events: serious damage (meltdown) of the reactor core, and the escape of the liberated radionuclides into the environment. The results are an order of magnitude consideration of the relation between the extent of the source term and the chance for it. From the spectrum of possible source terms three representative ones have been chosen: a large, a medium and a relative small source term. This choice is in accordance with international considerations. The hearth of this study is the estimation of the chance for occurrence of the three chosen source terms for new light-water reactors. refs.; figs.; tabs

  8. Pressure Transducer Locations

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Files are located here, defining the locations of the pressure transducers on the HIRENASD model. These locations also correspond to the locations that analysts...

  9. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program rapid accident assessment

    Chester, C.V.

    1990-08-01

    This report develops a scheme for the rapid assessment of a release of toxic chemicals resulting from an accident in one of the most chemical weapon demilitarization plants or storage areas. The system uses such inputs as chemical and pressure sensors monitoring the plant and reports of accidents radioed to the Emergency Operations Center by work parties or monitoring personnel. A size of release can be estimated from previous calculations done in the risk analysis, from back calculation from an open-air chemical sensor measurement, or from an estimated percentage of the inventory of agent at the location of the release. Potential consequences of the estimated release are calculated from real-time meteorological data, surrounding population data, and properties of the agent. In addition to the estimated casualties, area coverage and no-death contours vs time would be calculated. Accidents are assigned to one of four categories: community emergencies, which are involve a threat to off-site personnel; on-post emergencies, which involve a threat only to on-site personnel; advisory, which involves a potential for threat to on-site personnel; and chemical occurrence, which can produce an abnormal operating condition for the plant but no immediate threat to on-site personnel. 9 refs., 20 tabs.

  10. Expert software for accident identification

    Each type of an accident in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) causes immediately after the start of the accident variations of physical parameters that are typical for that type of the accident thus enabling its identification. Examples of these parameter are: decrease of reactor coolant system pressure, increase of radiation level in the containment, increase of pressure in the containment. An expert software enabling a fast preliminary identification of the type of the accident in Krsko NPP has been developed. As input data selected typical parameters from Emergency Response Data System (ERDS) of the Krsko NPP are used. Based on these parameters the expert software identifies the type of the accident and also provides the user with appropriate references (past analyses and other documentation of such an accident). The expert software is to be used as a support tool by an expert team that forms in case of an emergency at Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) with the task to determine the cause of the accident, its most probable scenario and the source term. The expert software should provide initial identification of the event, while the final one is still to be made after appropriate assessment of the event by the expert group considering possibility of non-typical events, multiple causes, initial conditions, influences of operators' actions etc. The expert software can be also used as an educational/training tool and even as a simple database of available accident analyses. (author)

  11. Health Problems in Radiation Accidents

    The authors define a radiation accident as a situation which has led or could have led to the unexpected irradiation of persons or contamination of the environment over and above the levels accepted as safe. Several categories of accidents are distinguished as a function of the consequences to be expected. The suggested system of classifying accidents makes it possible to plan post-accident measures within a single system of 'concentric circles', taking into account at the same time whether it will be possible to carry out the post-accident measures unaided or whether it will be necessary to bring in additional manpower and resources from outside. The authors consider the possibility of countering the effects of accidents as a function of their nature, with reference to the biological, economic and psychological aspects. They evaluate the part played by the health service in planning and carrying out accident prevention measures, and consider the function of radiological units attached to epidemiological health stations ; these units are essentially centres providing for precautionary measures to avert accidents and action to counter their effects. (author)

  12. Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena

    This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

  13. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  14. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    Frid, W.; Højerup, C.F.; Lindholm, I.;

    2001-01-01

    Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies, the ...

  15. The Chernobyl accident. Appendix B

    In appendix B, the models introduced in chapter 6 are applied to the study of the Chernobyl accident. This event is very important in the teaching of nuclear engineering, and I have included in this Appendix a relatively detailed description of the accident. However, the analysis is limited to the physics of the relevant phenomena. (author)

  16. Preventing accidents at intake towers

    Villegas, F. (INTEGRAL S.A., Medellin, CO (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Strong air blow-outs occurring in the intake tower of Guatape Hydroelectric Power Plant in Colombia have caused two serious accidents recently. The causes of the accidents were investigated and recommendations are made here to prevent future repetitions of these dangerous events. (UK)

  17. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    Hansen, H; Nielsen, D; Frydenberg, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be initiated.

  18. Probability of spent fuel transportation accidents

    McClure, J. D.

    1981-07-01

    The transported volume of spent fuel, incident/accident experience and accident environment probabilities were reviewed in order to provide an estimate of spent fuel accident probabilities. In particular, the accident review assessed the accident experience for large casks of the type that could transport spent (irradiated) nuclear fuel. This review determined that since 1971, the beginning of official US Department of Transportation record keeping for accidents/incidents, there has been one spent fuel transportation accident. This information, coupled with estimated annual shipping volumes for spent fuel, indicated an estimated annual probability of a spent fuel transport accident of 5 x 10/sup -7/ spent fuel accidents per mile. This is consistent with ordinary truck accident rates. A comparison of accident environments and regulatory test environments suggests that the probability of truck accidents exceeding regulatory test for impact is approximately 10/sup -9//mile.

  19. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...... occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA...... method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents...

  20. Severe accidents, a US approach

    The attitude of the American nuclear industry and the regulatory authorities in the United States toward severe accidents has often seemed ambivalent. It was common a few years ago to assume the position that severe accidents should not be included in the design basis of the plant. This view was associated with the concept of the maximum credible accident. A severe accident that would lead to a large release of fission products from the reactor core was simply regarded as having so low a likelihood as not to be credible. That does not mean that it had a zero probability of occurring. Because of the way the plant was designed, built, and operated, severe accidents were regarded as having a low enough probability that no further special measures were necessary regarding them. (author)

  1. A Location Privacy Aware Friend Locator

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Thomsen, Jeppe Rishede; Saltenis, Simonas;

    2009-01-01

    A location-based service called friend-locator notifies a user if the user is geographically close to any of the user’s friends. Services of this kind are getting increasingly popular due to the penetration of GPS in mobile phones, but existing commercial friend-locator services require users to...... trade their location privacy for quality of service, limiting the attractiveness of the services. The challenge is to develop a communication-efficient solution such that (i) it detects proximity between a user and the user’s friends, (ii) any other party is not allowed to infer the location of the user...

  2. Severe accident management. Prevention and Mitigation

    Effective planning for the management of severe accidents at nuclear power plants can produce both a reduction in the frequency of such accidents as well as the ability to mitigate their consequences if and when they should occur. This report provides an overview of accident management activities in OECD countries. It also presents the conclusions of a group of international experts regarding the development of accident management methods, the integration of accident management planning into reactor operations, and the benefits of accident management

  3. Accidents, probabilities and consequences

    Following brief discussion of the safety of wind-driven power plants and solar power plants, some aspects of the safety of fast breeder and thermonuclear power plants are presented. It is pointed out that no safety evaluation of breeders comparable to the Rasmussen investigation has been carried out and that discussion of the safety aspects of thermonuclear power is only just begun. Finally, as an illustration of the varying interpretations of risk and safety analyses, four examples are given of predicted probabilities and consequences in Copenhagen of the maximum credible accident at the Barsebaeck plant, under the most unfavourable meterological conditions. These are made by the Environment Commission, Risoe Research Establishment, REO (a pro-nuclear group) and OOA (an anti-nuclear group), and vary by a factor of over 1000. (JIW)

  4. The Fukushima accident

    The accident happened on March 11, 2011 in the nuclear reactors at the Fukushima plant, Japan, is described. The reactors of the Fukushima plant have been power reactors. The electrical energy is produced by use of the heat released in the fission. Nuclear reactors were affected after of the power outage as a result of the earthquake and the tsunami, and this has kept in operation the refrigeration systems. The japanese reactors have been fission reactors and have used uranium 235 or plutonium 239 as fissionable material. The nuclear reactions of fission are explained. The control of the nuclear reactions at Fukushima was complicated by the decreased of the neutrons absorption and has produced more reactions, generating great amounts of heat. The steam contaminated with the products of fission is produced by to cool the reactor with water. The fissionable material released is dragged until the atmosphere. Radioactive contamination at sites near the reactor was covered in a zone of exclusion with a radius of 30 km. The effects of radioactive contamination in the zone of exclusion are mentioned. The radioactive material from Japan has traveled with the wind in direction toward the north pole. The radioactive cloud has continued until to reach the north Africa and south of Europe. The cloud has approximated to Costa Rica, but the activity of the material found has been less of 0,01 Bq/m3. The Centro de Investigacion en Ciencias Atomicas, Nucleares y Moleculares (Cicanum) has initiated the collection of soil samples, water and earth products to detect part of the radioactive material from the cloud. The Cicanum has had modern equipments to quantify the specific concentrations of radioactive isotope, alpha emitters, beta and gamma, in food, water and milk. The Cicanum has maintained the radiological surveillance of foods after the Chernobyl accident

  5. Congestion by accident? Traffic and accidents in England

    Pasidis, Ilias-Nikiforos

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is the estimation of the effect of accidents on traffic congestion and vice versa. In order to do this, I use ?big data? of highway traffic and accidents in England for the period 2007-2013. The data exhibit some remarkably stable cyclical pattern of highway traffic which is used as a research setting that enables the identification of the causal effect of accidents on traffic congestion and vice versa. The estimation draws on panel data methods that have previously bee...

  6. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning

    Research highlights: → Lightning impact caused relevant industrial accidents. → Atmospheric storage tanks are the equipment item more susceptible to lightning damage. → Specific damage and release modes may be identified for lightning damage. Specific event trees should be adopted for the identification of post-release final scenarios characterizing lightning-induced major accidents. - Abstract: Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents.

  7. Location, Location, Location! A Classroom Demonstration of the Hotelling Model

    Lisa R. Anderson; Beth A. Freeborn; Jessica Holmes; Mark Jeffreys; Dan Lass; Jack Soper

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines a classroom experiment that complements the standard theoretical discussion of Hotelling's (1929) spatial competition model. The exercise provides students with a deeper understanding of the intuition behind competitive clustering, resolving the Bertrand paradox, and product positioning. Students act as street vendors operating within a “linear city.” Each student chooses a location, taking into account the locations of competitors and the transportation costs of customers...

  8. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  9. Analysis of Intra-Urban Traffic Accidents Using Spatiotemporal Visualization Techniques

    Soltani Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accidents (RTAs rank in the top ten causes of the global burden of disease and injury, and Iran has one of the highest road traffic mortality rates in the world. This paper presents a spatiotemporal analysis of intra-urban traffic accidents data in metropolitan Shiraz, Iran during the period 2011-2012. It is tried to identify the accident prone zones and sensitive hours using Geographic Information Systems (GIS-based spatio-temporal visualization techniques. The analysis aimed at the identification of high-rate accident locations and safety deficient area using Kernel Estimation Density (KED method. The investigation indicates that the majority of occurrences of traffic accidents were on the main roads, which play a meta-region functional role and act as a linkage between main destinations with high trip generation rate. According to the temporal distribution of car crashes, the peak of traffic accidents incident is simultaneous with the traffic congestion peak hours on arterial roads. The accident-prone locations are mostly located in districts with higher speed and traffic volume, therefore, they should be considered as the priority investigation locations to safety promotion programs.

  10. Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident

    Full text: The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a painful memory in the lives of the hundreds of thousands of people who were most affected by the accident. In addition to the emergency rescue workers who died, thousands of children contracted thyroid cancer, and thousands of other individuals will eventually die of other cancers caused by the release of radiation. Vast areas of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres were contaminated by environmental fallout. Hundreds of thousands of people were evacuated from these affected areas - forced to leave behind their homes, possessions, and livelihoods - and resettled elsewhere, in a traumatic outcome that has had long-lasting psychological and social impacts. The commemoration of the Chernobyl tragedy is taking place in many forums this month - in Minsk, in Kiev and in other locations. At the IAEA, it might be said that we have been responding to the accident and its consequences for twenty years, in a number of ways: first, through a variety of programmes designed to help mitigate the environmental and health consequences of the accident; second, by analyzing the lessons of what went wrong to allow such an accident to occur at all; and third, by working to prevent any such accident from occurring in the future. Building a strong and effective global nuclear safety regime is a central objective of our work. This requires effective international cooperation. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core, and discharged its contents in a cloud of radionuclides, made painfully clear that the safety risks associated with nuclear and radiological activities extend beyond national borders. International cooperation on nuclear safety matters - sharing information, setting clear safety standards, assisting with safety upgrades, and reviewing operational performance - has therefore become a hallmark of IAEA activity, particularly at a time when we are witnessing an expansion of

  11. Accident response in France

    French PWR power plant design relies basically on a deterministic approach. A probabilistic approach was introduced in France in the early seventies to define safety provisions against external impacts. In 1977 an overall safety objective was issued by the safety authority in terms of an upper probability limit for having unacceptable consequences. Additional measures were taken (the ''H'' operating procedures) to complement the automatic systems normally provided by the initial design, so as to safisfy the safety objective. The TMI-2 accident enhanced the interest in confused situations in which possible multiple equipment failure and/or unappropriate previous actions of the operators impede the implementation of any of the existing event-oriented procedures. In such situations, the objective becomes to avoid core-melt by any means available: this is the goal of the Ul symptom-oriented procedure. Whenever a core-melt occurs, the radioactive releases into the environment must be compatible with the feasibility of the off-site emergency plans; that means that for some hypothetical, but still conceivable scenarios, provisions have to be made to delay and limit the consequences of the loss of the containment: the U2, U4 and U5 ultimate procedures have been elaborated for that purpose. For the case of an emergency, a nationwide organization has been set up to provide the plant operator with a redundant technical expertise, to help him save his plant or mitigate the radiological consequences of a core-melt

  12. Preparedness against nuclear power accidents

    This booklet contains information about the organization against nuclear power accidents, which exist in the four Swedish counties with nuclear power plants. It is aimed at classes 7-9 of the Swedish schools. (L.E.)

  13. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  14. The management of radioactive waste from accidents

    Two accident case histories are reviewed - the Three Mile Island (TMI-2) reactor accident in 1979 and the Seveso accident in 1976. The status of the decontamination and radioactive waste management operations at TMI-2 as at 1986 is presented. 1986 estimates of reactor accident and recovery costs are given. 12 refs., 8 tabs

  15. 29 CFR 1960.29 - Accident investigation.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accident investigation. 1960.29 Section 1960.29 Labor... MATTERS Inspection and Abatement § 1960.29 Accident investigation. (a) While all accidents should be investigated, including accidents involving property damage only, the extent of such investigation shall...

  16. 49 CFR 195.54 - Accident reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 195.54 Section 195.54... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.54 Accident reports. (a) Each operator that experiences an accident that is required to be reported under § 195.50 shall as soon...

  17. 49 CFR 801.32 - Accident reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 801.32 Section 801.32... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Accident Investigation Records § 801.32 Accident reports. (a) The NTSB....S. civil transportation accidents, in accordance with 49 U.S.C. 1131(e). (b) These reports may...

  18. The measurement of accident-proneness

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the measurement of accident-proneness. Accidents seem easy to observe, however accident-proneness is difficult to measure. In this paper I first define the concept of accident-proneness, and I develop an instrument to measure it. The research is mainly executed within chemical

  19. 49 CFR 230.22 - Accident reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 230.22 Section 230.22... Requirements § 230.22 Accident reports. In the case of an accident due to failure, from any cause, of a steam... persons, the railroad on whose line the accident occurred shall immediately make a telephone report of...

  20. 49 CFR 845.40 - Accident report.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident report. 845.40 Section 845.40... RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRANSPORTATION; ACCIDENT/INCIDENT HEARINGS AND REPORTS Board Reports § 845.40 Accident report. (a) The Board will issue a detailed narrative accident report in connection with...

  1. Nuclear laws and radiologic accidents

    Some aspects of the nuclear activities in Brazil, specially concerning the Goiania s accident are demonstrated using concepts from environmental and nuclear law. Nuclear and environmental competence, the impossibility of the states of making regional laws, as the lack of regulation about the nuclear waste, are discussed. The situation of Goiania when the accident happened, the present situation of the victims and the nuclear waste provisionally stored in Abadia de Goias is reported

  2. Iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents

    These proceedings of the Joint WHO/CEC workshop on iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents are presented under the following headings: normal thyroid function and the response to iodine, theoretical basis for stable iodine prophylaxis, risks and benefits of stable iodine prophylaxis, indications for the use of stable iodine, recommendations and rationale for the use of stable iodine prophylaxis in event of future accidents. (UK)

  3. Nuclear accident countermeasures: iodine prophylaxis

    In January 1989 the Department of Health convened a working group to consider and advise on the indications for the use of stable iodine, in the United Kingdom, in the event of nuclear accident. In formulating its advice the working group was to consider the International Guidelines for Iodine Prophylaxis following Nuclear Accidents, drawn by the World Health Organisation, and their applicability to the UK. This report summarises the findings of the working group and gives its conclusions and recommendations. (author)

  4. Identification of Hazardous Road Locations on the basis of Floating Car Data

    Agerholm, Niels; Lahrmann, Harry

    2012-01-01

    A central aspect of road safety work relies on identification of hazardous road locations (HRL). However, the said identification is based on police-reported accidents, which show massive underreporting. Thus, in Denmark, only 14% of the serious injury accidents were reported in 2007, and the pro...

  5. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH

  6. CARNSORE: Hypothetical reactor accident study

    Two types of design-basis accident and a series of hypothetical core-melt accidents to a 600 MWe reactor are described and their consequences assessed. The PLUCON 2 model was used to calculate the consequences which are presented in terms of individual and collective doses, as well as early and late health consequences. The site proposed for the nucelar power station is Carnsore Point, County Wexford, south-east Ireland. The release fractions for the accidents described are those given in WASH-1400. The analyses are based on the resident population as given in the 1979 census and on 20 years of data from the meteorological stations at Rosslare Harbour, 8.5 km north of the site. The consequences of one of the hypothetical core-melt accidents are described in detail in a meteorological parametric study. Likewise the consequences of the worst conceivable combination of situations are described. Finally, the release fraction in one accident is varied and the consequences of a proposed, more probable ''Class 9 accident'' are presented. (author)

  7. The vver severe accident management

    The basic approach to the VVER safety management is based on the defence-in-depth principle the main idea of which is the multiplicity of physical barriers on the way of dangerous propagation on the one hand and the diversity of measures to protect each of them on the other hand. The main events of severe accident with loss of core cooling at NPP with WWER can be represented as a sequence of NPP states, in which each subsequent state is more severe than the previous one. The following sequence of states of the accident progression is supposed to be realistic and the most probable: -) loss of efficient core cooling; -) core melting, relocation of the molten core to the lower head and molten pool formation, -) reactor vessel damage, and -) containment damage and fission products release. The objectives of accident management at the design basis stage, the determining factors and appropriate determining parameters of processes are formulated in this paper. The same approach is used for the estimation of processes parameters at beyond design basis accident progression. The accident management goals and the determining factors and parameters are also listed in that case which is characterized by the loss of integrity of the fuel cladding. The accident management goal at the stage of core melt relocation implies the need for an efficient core-catcher

  8. JAERI's activities in JCO accident

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was actively involved in a variety of technical supports and cooperative activities, such as advice on terminating the criticality condition, contamination checks of the residents and consultation services for the residents, as emergency response actions to the criticality accident at the uranium processing facility operated by the JCO Co. Ltd., which occurred on September 30, 1999. These activities were carried out in collaborative ways by the JAERI staff from the Tokai Research Establishment, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Oarai Research Establishment, and Headquarter Office in Tokyo. As well, the JAERI was engaged in the post-accident activities such as identification of accident causes, analyses of the criticality accident, and dose assessment of exposed residents, to support the Headquarter for Accident Countermeasures of the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Accident Investigation Committee and the Health Control Committee of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC). This report compiles the activities, that the JAERI has conducted to date, including the discussions on measures for terminating the criticality condition, evaluation of the fission number, radiation monitoring in the environment, dose assessment, analyses of criticality dynamics. (author)

  9. Radiological accidents: education for prevention and confrontation

    The purpose of this work is to train and inform on radiological accidents as a preventive measure to improve the people life quality. Radiological accidents are part of the events of technological origin which are composed of nuclear and radiological accidents. As a notable figure is determined that there have been 423 radiological accidents from 1944 to 2005 and among the causes prevail industrial accidents, by irradiations, medical accidents and of laboratories, among others. Latin American countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Peru are some where most accidents have occurred by radioactivity. The radiological accidents can have sociological, environmental, economic, social and political consequences. In addition, there are scenarios of potential nuclear accidents and in them the potential human consequences. Also, the importance of the organization and planning in a nuclear emergency is highlighted. Finally, the experience that Cuba has lived on the subject of radiological accidents is described

  10. Location, Location, Location: Development of Spatiotemporal Sequence Learning in Infancy

    Kirkham, Natasha Z.; Slemmer, Jonathan A.; Richardson, Daniel C.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated infants' sensitivity to spatiotemporal structure. In Experiment 1, circles appeared in a statistically defined spatial pattern. At test 11-month-olds, but not 8-month-olds, looked longer at a novel spatial sequence. Experiment 2 presented different color/shape stimuli, but only the location sequence was violated during test;…

  11. Accident Tolerant Fuel Analysis

    Curtis Smith; Heather Chichester; Jesse Johns; Melissa Teague; Michael Tonks; Robert Youngblood

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional “accident-tolerant” (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  12. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather [Idaho National Laboratory; Johns, Jesse [Texas A& M University; Teague, Melissa [Idaho National Laboratory; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant

  13. Planning and modalities of intervention in case of transportation accidents

    An accident occurring during the transportation of radioactive materials may entail various consequences for the population and the environment. Intervention handling in case of an accident may involve a previsional aspect of assessment of the possible consequences and an operational phase of application of conservation measures. Following a transportation accident it is very important to quickly localize the place of the accident and to make a rapid assessment of the probable consequences. This is the role of the intervention teams. First of all, they should be able to arrive as quickly as possible on the spot and to limit the consequences, so the intervention teams should be located in centers not too far away from the frequented itineraries and have a perimeter or operating radius well defined. Second, they should dispose of adequate equipment as remote handling equipment for hostile environment if required. Terrestrial transportation (rail and road) represent the major part of radioactive transportations. The consequences of an accident have been quickly evaluated in the case of spent fuels transportation. It shall be noticed that some provisions of the international regulations may be interpreted in a more or less restrictive manner and that results in various evaluations of the risk. In the case of an accident occurring during sea transportation, it seems that the accidental conditions should be different and sometimes more severe than those usually considered for the testing and certification of the casks. It is the case for the duration of a fire and temperature attained during a fire. Thus the intervention may be more difficult and necessitate more important means and international coordination. Borderline accidents will need previous concertation between potential concerned countries and coordination of emergency places

  14. Underground location of nuclear power stations

    In Japan where the population is dense and the land is narrow, the conventional location of nuclear power stations on the ground will become very difficult sooner or later. At this time, it is very important to establish the new location method such as underground location, Quaternary ground location and offshore location as the method of expanding the location for nuclear power stations from the viewpoint of the long term demand and supply of electric power. As for underground location, the technology of constructing an underground cavity has been already fostered basically by the construction of large scale cavities for underground pumping-up power stations in the last 20 years. In France, Norway and Sweden, there are the examples of the construction of underground nuclear power stations. In this way, the opportunity of the underground location and construction of nuclear power stations seems to be sufficiently heightened, and the basic research has been carried out also in the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry. In this paper, as to underground nuclear power stations as one of the forms of utilizing underground space, the concept, the advantage in aseismatic capability, the safety at the time of a supposed accident, and the economical efficiency are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  15. Analyzing the severity of accidents on the German Autobahn.

    Manner, Hans; Wünsch-Ziegler, Laura

    2013-08-01

    We study the severity of accidents on the German Autobahn in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia using data for the years 2009 until 2011. We use a multinomial logit model to identify statistically relevant factors explaining the severity of the most severe injury, which is classified into the four classes fatal, severe injury, light injury and property damage. Furthermore, to account for unobserved heterogeneity we use a random parameter model. We study the effect of a number of factors including traffic information, road conditions, type of accidents, speed limits, presence of intelligent traffic control systems, age and gender of the driver and location of the accident. Our findings are in line with studies in different settings and indicate that accidents during daylight and at interchanges or construction sites are less severe in general. Accidents caused by the collision with roadside objects, involving pedestrians and motorcycles, or caused by bad sight conditions tend to be more severe. We discuss the measures of the 2011 German traffic safety programm in the light of our results. PMID:23628941

  16. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive 131I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of 131I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 106 person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 107 person-rem (2 x 105 Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs

  17. URBAN TRAFFIC ACCIDENT ANALYSIS BY USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Meltem SAPLIOĞLU

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, traffic accidents that cause more social and economic losses than that of natural disasters,have become a national problem in Turkey. To solve this problem and to reduce the casualties, road safety programs are tried to be developed. It is necessary to develop the most effective measures with low investment cost due to limited budgets allocated to such road safety programs. The most important program is to determine dangerous locations of traffic accidents and to improve these sections from the road safety view point. New Technologies are driving a cycle of continuous improvement that causes rapid changes in the traffic engineering and any engineering services within it. It is obvious that this developed services will be the potential for forward-thinking engineering studies to take a more influence role. In this study, Geographic Information System (GIS was used to identify the hazardous locations of traffic accidents in Isparta. Isparta city map was digitized by using Arcinfo 7.21. Traffic accident reports occurred between 1998-2002 were obtained from Directory of Isparta Traffic Region and had been used to form the database. Topology was set up by using Crash Diagrams and Geographic Position Reference Systems. Tables are formed according to the obtained results and interpreted.

  18. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    Sims, C S

    1989-09-01

    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry. PMID:2777549

  19. The radiological accident in Gilan

    The use of radioactive materials continues to offer a wide range of benefits throughout the world in medicine, research and industry. Precautions are, however, necessary in order to protect people from the detrimental effects of the radiation. Where the amount of radioactive material is substantial, e.g. with sources used in radiotherapy or industrial radiography, extreme care is necessary to prevent accidents that may have severe consequences for the individuals affected. Nevertheless, in spite of all precautions, accidents with radiation sources continue to occur. As part of its activities dealing with the safety of radiation sources, the IAEA follows up severe accidents in order to provide an account of their circumstances and medical aspects from which those organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources may learn. On 24 July 1996 a serious accident occurred at the Gilan combined cycle fossil fuel power plant in the Islamic Republic of Iran, when a worker who was moving thermal insulation materials around the plant noticed a shiny, pencil sized metal object lying in a trench and put it in his pocket. He was unaware that the metal object was an unshielded 185 GBq 192Ir source used for industrial radiography. This report compiles information about the medical and other aspects of the accident. As a result of exposure to the iridium source, the worker suffered from severe haematopoietic syndrome (bone marrow depression) and an unusually extended localized radiation injury requiring plastic surgery

  20. The radiological accident in Cochabamba

    In April 2002 an accident involving an industrial radiography source containing 192Ir occurred in Cochabamba, Bolivia, some 400 km from the capital, La Paz. A faulty radiography source container had been sent back to the headquarters of the company concerned in La Paz together with other equipment as cargo on a passenger bus. This gave rise to a potential for serious exposure for the bus passengers as well as for the company employees who were using and transporting the source. The Government of Bolivia requested the assistance of the IAEA under the terms of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. The IAEA in response assembled and sent to Bolivia a team composed of senior radiation safety experts and radiation pathology experts from Brazil, the United Kingdom and the IAEA to investigate the accident. The IAEA is grateful to the Government of Bolivia for the opportunity to report on this accident in order to disseminate the valuable lessons learned and help prevent similar accidents in the future

  1. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...... of accidents in normally Danish winter seasons are remarkable alike the amount of salt used in praxis in the winter 2011/2012. • 2.7 ton NaCl/km when using brine spread with nozzles • 5 ton NaCl/km when using pre wetted salt. • 5.7 ton NaCl/km when using kombi spreaders The explanation is that spreading...... of brine with nozzles is precision spreading, while spreading of salt with rotation plate are very imprecise; you can measure 80% residual salt when using brine and only 40% when using pre wetted salt. Of course the result would be worse if dry (solid) salt were used on dry roads. A winter route in Denmark...

  2. [Venomous animal accidents in childhood

    Oliveira, J S; Campos, J A; Costa, D M

    1999-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: To highlight the importance of venomous animal accidents in childhood. The conducts are based on the proposals of the Ministério da Saúde do Brasil [Ministry of Health of Brazil] to standardize medical care in this kind of accident. This article shows the importance of early clinical diagnosis and assistance.METHODS: Review of international and national literature that includes original articles, official standards and books.RESULTS: Pediatricians may always feel insecure when they have to attend children who had venomous animal accidents because this kind of pathology is not very common. This article tries to offer easy guidelines and describes the main steps to be followed. Besides, peculiar or unusual aspects of these accidents are to be found in the literature referred to in the end of this article. Venomous animal accidents are always more severe in children, therefore resulting in higher mortality and sequelae. We assert that the early antivenom sera is extremely helpful.CONCLUSIONS: The systematization of the assistance may guarantee that the essential steps are followed thus making the assistance itself more effective. This is the purpose of the guidelines presented in this article. PMID:14685472

  3. Radioactive materials transport accident analysis

    Over the last 25 years, one of the major issues raised regarding radioactive material transportation has been the risk of severe accidents. While numerous studies have shown that traffic fatalities dominate the risk, modeling the risk of severe accidents has remained one of the most difficult analysis problems. This paper will show how models that were developed for nuclear spent fuel transport accident analysis can be adopted to obtain estimates of release fractions for other types of radioactive material such as vitrified highlevel radioactive waste. The paper will also show how some experimental results from fire experiments involving low level waste packaging can be used in modeling transport accident analysis with this waste form. The results of the analysis enable an analyst to clearly show the differences in the release fractions as a function of accident severity. The paper will also show that by placing the data in a database such as ACCESS trademark, it is possible to obtain risk measures for transporting the waste forms along proposed routes from the generator site to potential final disposal sites

  4. Speciation of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol after the Chernobyl accident

    The aim of this analysis was to verify the hypothesis that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in the fallout after the accident could depend on the transport conditions, including the distance of a sampling location from Chernobyl. From the results it is obvious that the prevailing form in all samples taken in the period of direct contamination was water-soluble radiocesium. It can be concluded from the presented results that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol and fallout after the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl as well as particulate size distribution can depend on the distance or the conditions of transport from a contamination source to a sampling location. The influence of the conditions of radiocesium transport could result in observed differences in the 137Cs penetration into soil profile in different locations and also in the found dependence on the resuspension factor for 137Cs on the level of its fallout in the period of NPP accident for different locations in Europe. (J.K.) 1 tab

  5. The TMI-2 accident evaluation program

    The accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor, now 10 years old, remains as the United States' worst commercial nuclear reactor accident. Although the consequences of the accident were restricted primarily to the plant itself, the potential consequences of the accident, should it have progressed further, are large enough to warrant close scrutiny of all aspects of the event. TMI-2 accident research is being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to provide the basis for more accurate calculations of source terms for postulated severe accidents. Research objectives supporting this goal include developing a comprehensive and consistent understanding of the mechanisms that controlled the progression of core damage and subsequent fission product behavior during the TMI-2 accident, and applying that understanding to the resolution of important severe accident safety issues. Developing a best-estimate scenario of the core melt progression during the accident is the focal point of the research and involves analytical work to interpret and integrate: (1) data recorded during the accident from plant instrumentation, (2) the post-accident state of the core, (3) results of the examination of material from the damaged core, and (4) related severe-accident research results. This paper summarizes the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Program that is being conducted for the USDOE and briefly describes the important results that have been achieved. The Program is divided into four parts: Sample Acquisition and Plant Examination, Accident Scenario, Standard Problem Exercise, and Information and Industry Coordination

  6. Several accidents about ERHRS of CEFR

    An analysis of about several unusual accidents about Emergency Residual Heat Removal System (ERHRS) of China Experiment Fast Reactor (CEFR) is presented. CEFR is a pool-type sodium-cooled fast reactor. The ERHRS of this reactor is designed in passive principle, which enhances the interior reliability of CEFR. It consists of two sets of independent channels. Each channel is comprised of decay heat exchanger (DHX), intermediate circuit, sodium-air heat exchanger (AHX) and related auxiliary system. Both DHX are located in the hot pool of the main vessel directly, which is used to cool the hot sodium. The whole set of ERHRS is completely passive except the ventilation valves of AHX. But, as a very important set of engineered safety features which is the final way to remove the heat from the reactor core, it is necessary to pay attention to all of the possibilities that may reduce this ability. Several accidents are analyzed including when the ventilation valves couldn't be opened, when only one set of ERHRS could work and so on. The calculation results show that the ERHRS can keep the reactor in a safety status. Even though it is, experiments are still necessary in the view of engineering. (author)

  7. Law Enforcement Locations

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  8. Cable-fault locator

    Cason, R. L.; Mcstay, J. J.; Heymann, A. P., Sr.

    1979-01-01

    Inexpensive system automatically indicates location of short-circuited section of power cable. Monitor does not require that cable be disconnected from its power source or that test signals be applied. Instead, ground-current sensors are installed in manholes or at other selected locations along cable run. When fault occurs, sensors transmit information about fault location to control center. Repair crew can be sent to location and cable can be returned to service with minimum of downtime.

  9. Emergency drinking water treatment during source water pollution accidents in China: origin analysis, framework and technologies.

    Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Chen, Chao; Lin, Peng-Fei; Hou, Ai-Xin; Niu, Zhang-Bin; Wang, Jun

    2011-01-01

    China has suffered frequent source water contamination accidents in the past decade, which has resulted in severe consequences to the water supply of millions of residents. The origins of typical cases of contamination are discussed in this paper as well as the emergency response to these accidents. In general, excessive pursuit of rapid industrialization and the unreasonable location of factories are responsible for the increasing frequency of accidental pollution events. Moreover, insufficient attention to environmental protection and rudimentary emergency response capability has exacerbated the consequences of such accidents. These environmental accidents triggered or accelerated the promulgation of stricter environmental protection policy and the shift from economic development mode to a more sustainable direction, which should be regarded as the turning point of environmental protection in China. To guarantee water security, China is trying to establish a rapid and effective emergency response framework, build up the capability of early accident detection, and develop efficient technologies to remove contaminants from water. PMID:21133359

  10. Study of vehicle accident reconstruction based on the information of the tire marks

    2007-01-01

    The tire mark is the important legacy in formation left at the accident scene. Based on the vehicle collision dynamics model, this study provided an optimized algorithm with vehicle final location and other related information for the tire marks. When the tire marks simulation results fit the real one well. The state of vehicle can be understood as the real state in the accident. Based on above. The vehicle velocity and direction are decided. According to the velocity and direction of the vehicle, the complete accident process can be simulated. With the help of the Pc-Crash software. The method has been applied in typical collision accident cases analysis. The reconstruction results will provide the scientific and numerical References for vehicle collision accidents analyzing and appraising.

  11. Nuclear law and radiological accidents

    Nuclear activities in Brazil, and particularly the radiological accident of Goiania, are examined in the light of the environmental and nuclear laws of Brazil and the issue of responsibility. The absence of legislation covering radioactive wastes as well as the restrictions on Brazilian States to issue regulations covering nuclear activities are reviewed. The radiological accident and its consequences, including the protection and compensation of the victims, the responsibility of the shareholders of the Instituto Goiano de Radioterapia, operator of the radioactive source, the provisional storage and the final disposal at Abadia de Goias of the radioactive waste generated by the accident are reviewed. Finally, nuclear responsibility, the inapplicability of the Law 6453/77 which deals with nuclear damages, and the state liability regime are analysed in accordance with the principles of the Brazilian Federal Constitution. (author)

  12. Fukushima accident study using MELCOR

    Randall O Gauntt

    2013-01-01

    The accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station stunned the world as the sequences played out over severals days and videos of hydrogen explosions were televised as they took place.The accidents all resulted in severe damage to the reactor cores and releases of radioactivity to the environment despite heroic measures had taken by the operating personnel.The following paper provides some background into the development of these accidents and their root causes,chief among them,the prolonged station blackout conditions that isolated the reactors from their ultimate heat sink — the ocean.The interpretations given in this paper are summarized from a recently completed report funded by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE).

  13. Air cleaning in accident situations

    The Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) through its subsidiaries the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) established in 1979 a Group of Experts or Air Cleaning in Accident Situations. This group met seven times to establish a draft report based on its Terms of Reference which were to: 1) review the performance of off-gas cleaning systems in accident conditions; 2) collect information about operating experience with these systems; 3) seek to establish common principles for the design of off-gas systems; 4) review methods used in the different countries for testing filters from the standpoint of accident conditions; and 5) suggest specific mechanisms for improving cooperation, with regard, for example, to filter testing. The conclusions and recommendations of the Group are summarized

  14. Nuclear accidents - Liabilities and guarantees

    The 1992 Symposium on Nuclear Accidents - Liabilities and guarantees, organized by the OECD NUCLEAR Energy Agency in collaboration with the international Atomic Energy Agency, discussed the nuclear third party liability regime established by the Paris and Vienna Conventions, its advantages and shortcomings, and assessed the teachings of the Chernobyl accident in the context of that regime. The topics included the geographical scope of the Conventions, the definition of nuclear damage, in particular environmental damage, insurance cover and capacity, supplementary compensation by means of a collective contribution from the nuclear industry or governments, and finally, the international liability of States in case of a nuclear accident. This proceeding contains 26 papers which have been selected

  15. Severe accident simulation at Olkiuoto

    Tirkkonen, H.; Saarenpaeae, T. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), Olkiluoto (Finland); Cliff Po, L.C. [Micro-Simulation Technology, Montville, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A personal computer-based simulator was developed for the Olkiluoto nuclear plant in Finland for training in severe accident management. The generic software PCTRAN was expanded to model the plant-specific features of the ABB Atom designed BWR including its containment over-pressure protection and filtered vent systems. Scenarios including core heat-up, hydrogen generation, core melt and vessel penetration were developed in this work. Radiation leakage paths and dose rate distribution are presented graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an 486 DX2-66, PCTRAN-TVO achieves a speed about 15 times faster than real-time. A convenient and user-friendly graphic interface allows full interactive control. In this paper a review of the component models and verification runs are presented.

  16. Severe accident management guidelines tool

    Severe Accident is addressed by means of a great number of documents such as guidelines, calculation aids and diagnostic trees. The response methodology often requires the use of several documents at the same time while Technical Support Centre members need to assess the appropriate set of equipment within the adequate mitigation strategies. In order to facilitate the response, TECNATOM has developed SAMG TOOL, initially named GGAS TOOL, which is an easy to use computer program that clearly improves and accelerates the severe accident management. The software is designed with powerful features that allow the users to focus on the decision-making process. Consequently, SAMG TOOL significantly improves the severe accident training, ensuring a better response under a real situation. The software is already installed in several Spanish Nuclear Power Plants and trainees claim that the methodology can be followed easier with it, especially because guidelines, calculation aids, equipment information and strategies availability can be accessed immediately (authors)

  17. Internal Accident Report on EDH

    SC Department

    2006-01-01

    The A2 Safety Code requires that, the Internal Accident Report form must be filled in by the person concerned or any witness to ensure that all the relevant services are informed. Please note that an electronic version of this form has been elaborated in collaboration with SC-IE, HR-OPS-OP and IT-AIS. Whenever possible, the electronic form shall be used. The relative icon is available on the EDH Desktop, Other tasks page, under the Safety heading, or directly here: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Accident/. If you have any questions, please contact the SC Secretariat, tel. 75097 Please notice that the Internal Accident Report is an integral part of the Safety Code A2 and does not replace the HS50.

  18. Location, Location, Location: Where Do Location-Based Services Fit into Your Institution's Social Media Mix?

    Nekritz, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Foursquare is a location-based social networking service that allows users to share their location with friends. Some college administrators have been thinking about whether and how to take the leap into location-based services, which are also known as geosocial networking services. These platforms, which often incorporate gaming elements like…

  19. Hindsight Bias in Cause Analysis of Accident

    Atsuo Murata; Yasunari Matsushita

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that hindsight becomes an obstacle to the objective investigation of an accident, and that the proper countermeasures for the prevention of such an accident is impossible if we view the accident with hindsight. Therefore, it is important for organizational managers to prevent hindsight from occurring so that hindsight does not hinder objective and proper measures to be taken and this does not lead to a serious accident. In this study, a basic phenomenon potentially related to accidents, that is, hindsight was taken up, and an attempt was made to explore the phenomenon in order to get basically insights into the prevention of accidents caused by such a cognitive bias.

  20. Road Traffic Accidents in Kazakhstan

    Alma Aubakirova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The article provides the analysis of death rates in road traffic accidents in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2010 and explores the use of sanitary aviation.Methods: Data of fatalities caused by road traffic accidents were collected and analysed. Descriptive and analytical methods of epidemiology and biomedical statistics were applied.Results: Totaly 27,003 people died as a result of road traffic accidents in this period. The death rate for the total population due to road traffic accidents was 25.0±2.10/0000. The death rate for men was (38.3±3.20/0000, which was higher (P<0.05 than that for women (12.6±1.10/0000. High death rates in the entire male population were identified among men of 30-39 years old, whereas the highest rates for women were attributed to the groups of 50-59 years old and 70-79 years old. In time dynamics, death rates tended to decrease: the total population (Тdec=−2.4%, men (Тdec=−2.3% and women (Тdec=−1.4%. When researching territorial relevance, the rates were established as low (to 18.30/0000, average (between18.3 and24.00/0000 and high (from 24.00/0000 and above. Thus, the regions with high rates included Akmola region (24.30/0000, Mangistau region (25.90/0000, Zhambyl region (27.30/0000, Almaty region (29.30/0000 and South Kazakhstan region (32.40/0000.Conclusion: The identified epidemiological characteristics of the population deaths rates from road traffic accidents should be used in integrated and targeted interventions to enhance prevention of injuries in accidents.

  1. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    In 2001, we summarized the circumstances surrounding termination of the JCO criticality accident based on testimony in the Mito District Court on December 17, 2001. JCO was the company for uranium fuels production in Japan. That document was assembled based on actual testimony in the belief that a description of the work involved in termination of the accident would be useful in some way for preventing nuclear disasters in the future. The description focuses on the witness' own behavior, and what he saw and heard, and thus is written from the perspective of action by one individual. This was done simply because it was easier for the witness to write down his memories as he remembers them. Description of the activities of other organizations and people is provided only as necessary, to ensure that consistency in the descriptive approach is not lost. The essentials of this report were rewritten as a third-person objective description in the summary of the report by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). Since then, comments have been received from sources such as former members of the Nuclear Safety Commission (Dr. Kenji Sumita and Dr. Akira Kanagawa), concerned parties from the former Science and Technology Agency, and reports from the JCO Criticality Accident Investigation Committee of the AESJ, and thus this report was rewritten to correct incorrect information, and add material where that was felt to be necessary. This year is the tenth year of the JCO criticality accident. To mark this occasion we have decided to translate the record of what occurred at the accident site into English so that more people can draw lessons from this accident. This report is an English version of JAEA-Technology 2009-073. (author)

  2. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    The techniques currently used in off-site consequence modelling are applied to the Chernobyl accident. Firstly, the time dependent spread of radioactive material across the European continent is considered, followed by a preliminary assessment of the dosimetric impact (in terms of collective and mean individual doses) on the various countries of Eastern and Western Europe. The consequences of the accident in the USSR are also discussed. Finally, the likely implications of the Chernobyl event on research in the field of environmental consequence assessment are outlined. (author)

  3. Severe accident source term reassessment

    This paper summarizes the status of the reassessment of severe reactor accident source terms, which are defined as the quantity, type, and timing of fission product releases from such accidents. Concentration is on the major results and conclusions of analyses with modern methods for both pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs), and the special case of containment bypass. Some distinctions are drawn between analyses for PWRs and BWRs. In general, the more the matter is examined, the consequences, or probability of serious consequences, seem to be less. (author)

  4. The nature of reactor accidents

    Reactor accidents are events which result in the release of radioactive material from a nuclear power plant due to the failure of one or more critical components of that plant. The failures, depending on their number and type, can result in releases whose consequences range from negligible to catastrophic. By way of examples, this paper describes four specific accidents which cover this range of consequence: failure of a reactor control system, loss of coolant, loss of coolant with impaired containment, and reactor core meltdown. For each a possible sequence of events and an estimate of the expected frequency are presented

  5. Civil liability concerning nuclear accidents

    France and the USA wish to cooperate in order to promote an international regime of civil liability in order to give a fair compensation to victims of nuclear accidents as it is recommended by IAEA. On the other hand the European Commission has launched a consultation to see the necessity or not to harmonize all the civil liability regimes valid throughout Europe. According to the Commission the potential victims of nuclear accidents would not receive equal treatment at the European scale in terms of insurance cover and compensation which might distort competition in the nuclear sector. (A.C.)

  6. Smartphones as locative media

    Frith, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone adoption has surpassed 50% of the population in more than 15 countries, and there are now more than one million mobile applications people can download to their phones. Many of these applications take advantage of smartphones as locative media, which is what allows smartphones to be located in physical space. Applications that take advantage of people's location are called location-based services, and they are the focus of this book. Smartphones as locative media raise important questions about how we understand the complicated relationship between the Internet and physical space

  7. Noise Source Location Optimization

    Ed O’Keefe

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a method to determine locations of noise sources that minimize modal coupling in complex acoustic volumes. Using the acoustic source scattering capabilities of the boundary element method, predictions are made of mode shape and pressure levels due to various source locations. Combining knowledge of the pressure field with a multivariable function minimization technique, the source location generating minimum pressure levels can be determined. The analysis also allows for an objective comparison of “best/worst” locations. The technique was implemented on a personal computer for the U.S. Space Station, predicting 5–10 dB noise reduction using optimum source locations.

  8. Three Mile Island accident. Local reactions

    Local reactions to the Three Mile Island are presented as well as newspaper articles covering this accident. In addition, this document presents a plan to set forth procedures and guidelines to be utilized by authorized emergency personnel in Middletown, Royalton, Londonderry Township, and Lower Swatara Township located in Pennsylvania, United States. The plan will provide for the orderly and efficient handling of area residents during time of serious incidents emanating from Three Mile Island facility. Emergency personnel in each community should be familiar with portions of the plan that pertain to the other near-by communities. The cooperation of all parties concerned will insure that a maximum effort is being made to help protect the public against injuries and v/ill in some cases keep any damages to communities to a minimum

  9. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    On 11 March 2011, the fourth largest earthquake in recorded history triggered a large tsunami, which will probably be remembered from the dramatic live pictures in a country, which is possibly the most tsunami-prepared in the world. The earthquake and tsunami caused a major nuclear power plant (NPP) accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi, owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The accident was likely more severe than the 1979 Three Mile Island and less severe than the Chernobyl 1986 accidents. Yet, after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had hit the Madras Atomic Power Station there had been renewed interest in the resilience of NPPs to tsunamis. The 11 March 2011 tsunami hit the Onagawa, Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, and Tokai Dai-ni NPPs, all located approximately in a 230km stretch along the east coast of Honshu. The Onagawa NPP was the closest to the source and was hit by an approximately height of 13m tsunami, of the same height as the one that hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi. Even though the Onagawa site also subsided by 1m, the tsunami did not reach to the main critical facilities. As the International Atomic Energy Agency put it, the Onagawa NPP survived the event "remarkably undamaged." At Fukushima Dai-ichi, the three reactors in operation were shut down due to strong ground shaking. The earthquake damaged all offsite electric transmission facilities. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) provided back up power and started cooling down the reactors. However, the tsunami flooded the facilities damaging 12 of its 13 EDGs and caused a blackout. Among the consequences were hydrogen explosions that released radioactive material in the environment. It is unfortunately clear that TEPCO and Japan's principal regulator Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) had failed in providing a professional hazard analysis for the plant, even though their last assessment had taken place only months before the accident. The main reasons are the following. One

  10. Ignalina accident localisation system response to maximum design basis accident

    In this paper the study of the accident localisation system (ALS) of the Ignalina nuclear power plant (NPP) with RBMK-1500 reactors (large-power channel-type water-cooled graphite-moderated reactor) with regard to a maximum design basis accident (MDBA) is presented. The MDBA for Ignalina NPP constitutes a guillotine rupture of the maximum diameter pipe. The thermal-hydraulic and structural analyses were performed using the RELAP5, CONTAIN and ALGOR codes. The coolant mass and energy discharge source terms to the accident compartment were established using the RELAP5 code. This was then used as a source term for the long-term accident thermal-hydraulic analysis of ALS compartments employing the CONTAIN code. Results obtained by the CONTAIN calculations establish a basis for the structural analysis. A finite-element method has been used for ALS structural analysis using the ALGOR code, the results of which show that the structures of the ALS would not be breached by the pressure attained in the event of an MDBA. (author)

  11. A New Method for Identifying Hazardous Road Locations Using GPS and Accelerometer

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Andersen, Camilla Sloth; Agerholm, Niels

    Identification of hazardous road locations is of key importance to traffic safety and has traditionally relied on accident statistics. Due to a declining quality of statistics on accidents in many countries, a need exist for new methods to identify hazardous road locations. This article presents a...... tested and validated through a case study of Aalborg city, where HRLs identified on the basis of accident statistics are compared to the HCLs identified with the new method on a dataset of more than 36.531 hours of driving tracked with accelerometer and GPS, containing 131 million GPS and 1.1 billion...

  12. Characterization of radioactive particles from the Palomares accident

    As a consequence of the nuclear accident that took place in Palomares (Almeria, Spain) more than 40 years ago, actinides contamination is present in the area nowadays. Previous investigations performed with soil samples collected in different locations of Palomares indicate that the contamination in the area is highly inhomogeneous, suggesting the existence of radioactive particles, thus hindering the evaluation of the radiological situation. This work presents the methodology used for the location of the radioactive particles in the field and their isolation in the laboratory for further speciation and characterization studies. Colour pictures, electron microscopy images and EDX analyses show that most of the studied particles present a granular appearance with a variable grain size and a high fragmentation tendency, being plutonium and uranium the most abundant nuclear elements. Radiochemical determinations and activity isotopic ratios prove that the nuclear material is aged weapon grade plutonium arising from the Palomares accident

  13. Adjoint-based sensitivity analysis for reactor accident codes

    This paper summarizes a recently completed study that identified and investigated the difficulties and limitations of applying first-order adjoint sensitivity methods to reactor accident codes. The work extends earlier adjoint sensitivity formulations and applications to consider problem/model discontinuities in a general fashion, provide for response (R) formulations required by reactor safety applications, and provide a scheme for accurately handling extremely time-sensitive reactor accident responses. The scheme involves partitioning (dividing) the model into submodels (with spearate defining equations and initial conditions) at the location of discontinuity. Successful partitioning moves the problem dependence on the discontinuity location from the whole model system equations to the initial conditions of the second submodel

  14. Radiological dose assessment for bounding accident scenarios at the Critical Experiment Facility, TA-18, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    A computer modeling code, CRIT8, was written to allow prediction of the radiological doses to workers and members of the public resulting from these postulated maximum-effect accidents. The code accounts for the relationships of the initial parent radionuclide inventory at the time of the accident to the growth of radioactive daughter products, and considers the atmospheric conditions at time of release. The code then calculates a dose at chosen receptor locations for the sum of radionuclides produced as a result of the accident. Both criticality and non-criticality accidents are examined

  15. Arthropods of Medical Importance in Brazil: Retrospective Epidemiological Information about Accidents Involving these Animals

    Danon Clemes Cardoso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The epidemiological information about arthropods bites/sting in Criciúma region no was reported. The aim of this Research was to draw the epidemiologic profile of accidents with arthropods in Criciúma region. Approach: The information regarding accidents with arthropods from 1994-2006 was prospectively collected from SINAN (System of Injury Notification Information files of the 21a Municipal Health Secretary of Criciúma region. Was calculated the frequency for each variable studied and incidence coefficient for period of study. Results: Results were recorded 1821 notifications of accidents with arthropods in region studied. The numbers of occurrence increased along of the years studied. The arthropod that most result in accidents was the spider with 1,126 (75.9% cases followed by Honeybees and others Arthropods with 149 (10.0% cases, Caterpillars including Lonomia genus and others genera (54/3.7% and scorpions with the least number of accidents with 6 (0.4% cases. The incidence of accidents every thousand inhabitants had a significant increase starting in the year of 2000. The majority of accidents occurred in the warmest months, increasing in the spring and summer seasons. Was recorded more than twice of accidents with arthropods in Urban area than in rural areas. The Chi-square test revealed that the frequency of accidents between locations and type of arthropods is different. Likewise, the number the victims and activity type in moment of the bite/sting had been a differ behavior between arthropods type. However, the number of accidents involving victims of male and female gender is equal. Conclusion: Epidemiological studies of this type in the extreme south of Santa Catarina are scarce. Only few studies have reported the patterns of occurrence and incidence of accidents with poisonous animals. These and other studies are of great importance for implementation of measures mitigation programs and education for

  16. Large-Scale Containment Cooler Performance Experiments under Accident Conditions

    Kapulla, Ralf; Mignot, Guillaume; Paladino, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics codes are increasingly used to simulate containment conditions after various transient accident scenarios. This paper presents validation experiments, conducted in the frame of the OECD/SETH-2 project. These experiments address the combined effects of mass sources and heat sinks related to gas mixing and hydrogen transport within containment compartments. A wall jet interacts with an operating containment cooler located in the middle (M-configuration) and the top ...

  17. Mitigating Accidents In Oil And Gas Production Facilities

    Johnsen, Stig

    Integrated operations are increasingly used in oil and gas production facilities to improve yields, reduce costs and maximize profits. They leverage information and communications technology (ICT) to facilitate collaboration between experts at widely dispersed locations. This paper discusses the safety and security consequences of implementing integrated operations for oil and gas production. It examines the increased accident risk arising from the tight coupling of complex ICT and SCADA systems, and proposes technological, organizational and human factors based strategies for mitigating the risk.

  18. Overview of SAMPSON code development for LWR severe accident analysis

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has developed a severe accident analysis code 'SAMPSON'. SAMPSON's distinguishing features include inter-connected hierarchical modules and mechanistic models covering a wide spectrum of scenarios ranging from normal operation to hypothetical severe accident events. Each module included in the SAMPSON also runs independently for analysis of specific phenomena assigned. The OECD International Standard Problems (ISP-45 and 46) were solved by the SAMPSON for code verifications. The analysis results showed fairly good agreement with the test results. Then, severe accident phenomena in typical PWR and BWR plants were analyzed. The PWR analysis result showed 56 hours as the containment vessel failure timing, which was 9 hours later than one calculated by MELCOR code. The BWR analysis result showed no containment vessel failure during whole accident events, whereas the MELCOR result showed 10.8 hours. These differences were mainly due to consideration of heat release from the containment vessel wall to atmosphere in the SAMPSON code. Another PWR analysis with water injection as an accident management was performed. The analysis result showed that earlier water injection before the time when the fuel surface temperature reached 1,750 K was effective to prevent further core melt. Since fuel surface and fluid temperatures had spatial distribution, a careful consideration shall be required to determine the suitable location for temperature measurement as an index for the pump restart for water injection. The SAMPSON code was applied to the accident analysis of the Hamaoka-1 BWR plant, where the pipe ruptured due to hydrogen detonation. The SAMPSON had initially been developed to run on a parallel computer. Considering remarkable progress of computer hardware performance, as another version of the SAMPSON code, it has recently been modified so as to run on a single processor. The improvements of physical models, numerical

  19. Industrial accidents in nuclear power plants

    In 12 nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany with a total of 3678 employees, 25 notifiable company personnel accidents and 46 notifiable outside personnel accidents were reported for an 18-month period. (orig./HP)

  20. Road Accident Trends in Africa and Europe

    Jørgensen, N O

    1997-01-01

    The paper decribes trends and suggests prediction models for accident risks in African and European countries......The paper decribes trends and suggests prediction models for accident risks in African and European countries...

  1. 49 CFR 229.17 - Accident reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 225. ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 229.17 Section 229.17..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS General § 229.17 Accident reports. (a)...

  2. How to reduce the number of accidents

    2012-01-01

    Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. HSE Unit

  3. Lessons of the radiological accident in Goiania

    On the basis of the lessons teamed from the radiological accident of Goiania, actions are described which a nuclear regulatory body should undertake while responding to an accident of this nature. (author)

  4. Risk analysis of emergent water pollution accidents based on a Bayesian Network.

    Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To guarantee the security of water quality in water transfer channels, especially in open channels, analysis of potential emergent pollution sources in the water transfer process is critical. It is also indispensable for forewarnings and protection from emergent pollution accidents. Bridges above open channels with large amounts of truck traffic are the main locations where emergent accidents could occur. A Bayesian Network model, which consists of six root nodes and three middle layer nodes, was developed in this paper, and was employed to identify the possibility of potential pollution risk. Dianbei Bridge is reviewed as a typical bridge on an open channel of the Middle Route of the South to North Water Transfer Project where emergent traffic accidents could occur. Risk of water pollutions caused by leakage of pollutants into water is focused in this study. The risk for potential traffic accidents at the Dianbei Bridge implies a risk for water pollution in the canal. Based on survey data, statistical analysis, and domain specialist knowledge, a Bayesian Network model was established. The human factor of emergent accidents has been considered in this model. Additionally, this model has been employed to describe the probability of accidents and the risk level. The sensitive reasons for pollution accidents have been deduced. The case has also been simulated that sensitive factors are in a state of most likely to lead to accidents. PMID:26433361

  5. Prevention of the causes and consequences of a criticality accident - measures adopted in France

    The question of safety in regard to criticality accident risks has two aspects: prevention of the cause and limitation of the consequences. These two aspects are closely connected. The effort devoted to prevention of the causes depends on the seriousness of the possible human psychologic and economic consequences of the accident. The criticality accidents which have occurred in the nuclear industry, though few in number, do reveal the imperfect nature of the techniques adopted to prevent the causes, and also constitute the only available realistic basis for evaluating the consequences and developing measures to limit them. The authors give a analysis of the known causes and consequences of past criticality accidents and on this basis make a number of comments concerning: the validity of traditional safety criteria, the probability of accidents for different types of operations, characteristic accidents which can serve as models, and the extent of possible radiological consequences. The measures adopted in France to limit the consequences of a possible criticality accident under the headings: location, design and lay-out of the installations, accident detection, and dosimetry for the exposed personnel, are briefly described after a short account of the criteria used in deciding on them. (author)

  6. New technology for accident prevention

    Byne, P. [Shiftwork Solutions, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This power point presentation examined the effects of fatigue in the workplace and presented 3 technologies designed to prevent or monitor fatigue. The relationship between mental fatigue, circadian rhythms and cognitive performance was explored. Details of vigilance related degradations in the workplace were presented, as well as data on fatigue-related accidents and a time-line of meter-reading errors. It was noted that the direct cause of the Exxon Valdez disaster was sleep deprivation. Fatigue related accidents during the Gulf War were reviewed. The effects of fatigue on workplace performance include impaired logical reasoning and decision-making; impaired vigilance and attention; slowed mental operations; loss of situational awareness; slowed reaction time; and short cuts and lapses in optional or self-paced behaviours. New technologies to prevent fatigue-related accidents include (1) the driver fatigue monitor, an infra-red camera and computer that tracks a driver's slow eye-lid closures to prevent fatigue related accidents; (2) a fatigue avoidance scheduling tool (FAST) which collects actigraphs of sleep activity; and (3) SAFTE, a sleep, activity, fatigue and effectiveness model. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Traffic accident with radioactive material

    A traffic accident with a package with radioactive contents of the category 'III-YELLOW' remaining undamaged, caused complete confusion among the responsible rescue services. All forces active until professional fire-brigades arrived showed a deficit of tactical radiation protection behaviour. Even a medical unit with an equipped emergency task force in situ and radiation protection equipment did not feel responsible. (DG)

  8. Accident consequence assessment code development

    This paper describes the new computer code system, OSCAAR developed for off-site consequence assessment of a potential nuclear accident. OSCAAR consists of several modules which have modeling capabilities in atmospheric transport, foodchain transport, dosimetry, emergency response and radiological health effects. The major modules of the consequence assessment code are described, highlighting the validation and verification of the models. (author)

  9. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

  10. Standby after the Chernobyl accident

    The report is an investigation concerning strandby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The final report is divided into two parts: 'I: Facts' and 'II: Analyzes'. 'Facts': The Swedish model for information: radio, press. Basic knowledge about ionizing radiation in the society. Resources for information. Need for information. Message forms for information. Announcements from the authorities in TV, radio, press, meeting, advertisements. Statements concerning the reactor accident and its consequences in Swedish mass media. How did the public recieve the information? 'Analyzis': Information responsibilities and policies. SSI information activities concerning radiologic accidents, conditions, methods and resources. Ditto for SKI, Swedish National Food Administration and the National Board of Agriculture. Appendix I: Information from authorities in the press three weeks after the Chernobyl accident: The material and the methods. The acute phase, the adoptation phase, the extension of the persective. What is said about the authorities in connection with Chernobyl? Appendix II: The fallout from Chernobyl, the authorities and the media coverage: The nationwide, regional and local coverage from radio and television. Ditto from the press. Topic and problem areas in reporting. Instructions from the authorities in media. Contribution in the media from people representing the authorities. Fallout in a chronologic perspective. (L.F.)

  11. Calculating nuclear accident probabilities from empirical frequencies

    Ha-Duong, Minh; Journé, V.

    2014-01-01

    International audience Since there is no authoritative, comprehensive and public historical record of nuclear power plant accidents, we reconstructed a nuclear accident data set from peer-reviewed and other literature. We found that, in a sample of five random years, the worldwide historical frequency of a nuclear major accident, defined as an INES level 7 event, is 14 %. The probability of at least one nuclear accident rated at level ≥4 on the INES scale is 67 %. These numbers are subject...

  12. Trismus: An unusual presentation following road accident

    Thakur Jagdeep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trismus due to trauma usually follows road accidents leading to massive faciomaxillary injury. In the literature there is no report of a foreign body causing trismus following a road accident, this rare case is an exception. We present a case of isolated presentation of trismus following a road accident. This case report stresses on the thorough evaluation of patients presenting with trismus following a road accident.

  13. Secure Location Verification

    Becker, Georg T.; Lo, Sherman C.; De Lorenzo, David S.; Enge, Per K.; Paar, Christof

    2010-01-01

    The use of location based services has increased significantly over the last few years. However, location information is only sparsely used as a security mechanism. One of the reasons for this is the lack of location verification techniques with global coverage. Recently, a new method for authenticating signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems(GNSS) such as GPS or Galileo has been proposed. In this paper, we analyze the security of this signal authentication mechanism and show how it ...

  14. Generic Network Location Service

    Laban Mwansa; Jan Janeček

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the Generic Network Location Service based on the Chord implementation utilizing data structures called distributed hash tables (DHT) or structured overlay networks, which are used to build scalable self-managing distributed systems. The provided algorithms guarantee resilience in the presence of dynamism: they guarantee consistent lookup results in the presence of nodes failing and leaving. Generic Network Location Service provides a Location Service system based on DHT te...

  15. Smart Location Database - Download

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census...

  16. Dis-locative arts

    Pinder, David

    2013-01-01

    Questions about what it means to locate and be located are being significantly reconfigured through the digitalization of urban life and space, and as computer processing becomes embedded or ‘pervasive’ in urban environments. With position becoming increasingly automatically monitored and tracked...... on efforts by artists working within the realm of locative media to appropriate, reframe and repurpose GPS so as to question aspects of positioning technologies as well as their targeting of locations and their subjects. Attention centres on how these practices are embedded within a context of urban...

  17. Reversible micromachining locator

    Salzer, L.J.; Foreman, L.R.

    1999-08-31

    This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved. 7 figs.

  18. Smart Location Database - Service

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census...

  19. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause...

  20. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention....

  1. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  2. Use of accelerations connected to GPS data to identify hazardous road locations

    Agerholm, Niels; Andersen, Camilla Sloth; Reinau, Kristian Hegner

    Hazardous road locations (HRL) are traditionally identified on the basis of reported accidents. However, the number of reported accidents is low and the dark figure is high. Hence identification of HRLs in traditional way is associated with uncertainty. Also, it is retrospective, i.e. the accidents...... have to occur before road safety enhancements can be made. The objective has been to build a predictive model for identification of HRL on the basis of Floating Car Data (FCD) associated with acceleration data. Strong decelerations are often involved in road accidents. From conflict studies it is known...... from three months of driving by 380 cars, which is equivalent to a distance of 1.9 million km. This indicates that concentrations of decelerations are located where there are high traffic volumes, but not that the design and furniture of the road on the location can explain an HRL. This also indicates...

  3. Computerised severe accident management aids

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project in Norway is running two development projects in the area of computerised accident management in cooperation with the Swedish nuclear plant Forsmark unit 2. Also other nuclear organisations in the Nordic countries take part in the projects. The SAS II system is installed at Forsmark and is now being validated against the plant compact simulator and is later to be installed in the plant control room. It is designed to follow all defined critical safety functions in the same manner as is done in the functionally oriented Emergency Operating Procedures. The shift supervisor thus uses SAS II as a complementary information system after a plant disturbance . The plant operators still use the ordinary instrumentation and the event oriented procedures. This gives to a high extent both redundancy and diversity in information channels and in procedures. Further, a new system is under discussion which goes a step further in accident management than SAS II. It is called the Computerised Accident Management Support (CAMS) system. The objective is to make a computerised tool that can assist both the control room crew and the technical support centre in accident mitigation, especially in the early stages of an accident where the integrity of the core still can be maintained if proper counteractions to the accident sequence are taken. In CAMS another approach is taken than in SAS II by putting the process parameters in focus. A more elaborate signal validation is proposed. The validated signals are input to models that calculates mass and energy balances of the primary system. Among parameters calculated are residual heat. Experiences from these two approaches to computerised accident management support are presented and discussed. In summary: The original project proposal aimed particularly for operator and TSC support during severe accidents. In the CAMS design proposal we have, however, promoted the SMABRE code which is not designed for such

  4. Occupational accidents in Turkey and providing and development of safety culture in preventing occupational accidents

    Dursun, Salih

    2011-01-01

    Occupational accidents cause socially and economically significant loss both in developed and developing countries. According to ILO each year, 2.2 million people lost their lives in the occupational accident. In Turkey, over 1600 people die in these accidents every year. In this case, an important part of occupational accidents like 95% based on “human”, requires more people-oriented approaches towards the prevention of accidents. In this context, to provide and develop the safety culture, w...

  5. Use of PSA and severe accident assessment results for the accident management

    The objectives for this study are to investigate the basic principle or methodology which is applicable to accident management, by using the results of PSA and severe accident research, and also facilitate the preparation of accidents management program in the future. This study was performed as follows: derivation of measures for core damage prevention, derivation of measures for accident mitigation, application of computerized tool to assess severe accident management

  6. Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    On the evening of April 20, 2010, a well control event allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in explosions and fire on the rig. Eleven people lost their lives, and 17 others were injured. The fire, which was fed by hydrocarbons from the well, continued for 36 hours until the rig sank. Hydrocarbons continued to flow from the reservoir through the wellbore and the blowout preventer (BOP) for 87 days, causing a spill of national significance. BP Exploration and Production Inc. was the lease operator of Mississippi Canyon Block 252, which contains the Macondo well. BP formed an investigation team that was charged with gathering the facts surrounding the accident, analyzing available information to identify possible causes and making recommendations to enable prevention of similar accidents in the future. The BP investigation team began its work immediately in the aftermath of the accident, working independently from other BP spill response activities and organizations. The ability to gather information was limited by a scarcity of physical evidence and restricted access to potentially relevant witnesses. The team had access to partial real-time data from the rig, documents from various aspects of the Macondo well's development and construction, witness interviews and testimony from public hearings. The team used the information that was made available by other companies, including Transocean, Halliburton and Cameron. Over the course of the investigation, the team involved over 50 internal and external specialists from a variety of fields: safety, operations, subsea, drilling, well control, cementing, well flow dynamic modeling, BOP systems and process hazard analysis. This report presents an analysis of the events leading up to the accident, eight key findings related to the causal chain of events and recommendations to enable the prevention of a similar accident. The investigation team worked

  7. Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report

    On the evening of April 20, 2010, a well control event allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in explosions and fire on the rig. Eleven people lost their lives, and 17 others were injured. The fire, which was fed by hydrocarbons from the well, continued for 36 hours until the rig sank. Hydrocarbons continued to flow from the reservoir through the wellbore and the blowout preventer (BOP) for 87 days, causing a spill of national significance. BP Exploration and Production Inc. was the lease operator of Mississippi Canyon Block 252, which contains the Macondo well. BP formed an investigation team that was charged with gathering the facts surrounding the accident, analyzing available information to identify possible causes and making recommendations to enable prevention of similar accidents in the future. The BP investigation team began its work immediately in the aftermath of the accident, working independently from other BP spill response activities and organizations. The ability to gather information was limited by a scarcity of physical evidence and restricted access to potentially relevant witnesses. The team had access to partial real-time data from the rig, documents from various aspects of the Macondo well's development and construction, witness interviews and testimony from public hearings. The team used the information that was made available by other companies, including Transocean, Halliburton and Cameron. Over the course of the investigation, the team involved over 50 internal and external specialists from a variety of fields: safety, operations, subsea, drilling, well control, cementing, well flow dynamic modeling, BOP systems and process hazard analysis. This report presents an analysis of the events leading up to the accident, eight key findings related to the causal chain of events and recommendations to enable the prevention of a similar accident. The investigation team worked separately

  8. Reversible micromachining locator

    Salzer, Leander J.; Foreman, Larry R.

    2002-01-01

    A locator with a part support is used to hold a part onto the kinematic mount of a tooling machine so that the part can be held in or replaced in exactly the same position relative to the cutting tool for machining different surfaces of the part or for performing different machining operations on the same or different surfaces of the part. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls placed at equidistant positions around the planar surface of the locator and the kinematic mount has a plurality of magnets which alternate with grooves which accommodate the portions of the steel balls projecting from the locator. The part support holds the part to be machined securely in place in the locator. The locator can be easily detached from the kinematic mount, turned over, and replaced onto the same kinematic mount or another kinematic mount on another tooling machine without removing the part to be machined from the locator so that there is no need to touch or reposition the part within the locator, thereby assuring exact replication of the position of the part in relation to the cutting tool on the tooling machine for each machining operation on the part.

  9. Lost in Location

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2009-01-01

    illustrate an alternative location-performative paradigm: Meredith Warner's Lost/Found knitting series and Etter and Schecht's Melodious Walkabout. In both examples, the artist's hand becomes the intermediary between alien and location. Thus, by exploring how wayfinding can be a poetically situated...

  10. Accident Emergency Response And Routing Software (AERARS using Genetic Algorithm

    Naveen Ramachandran,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available AERARS is a response and routing software for accident emergency requirement. A method has been proposed in this project for using a genetic algorithm to find the shortest route between a source and adestination. It make use of genetic algorithms ability to search the opt solution from the population helping to solve spatially addressed problem. The numbers of accident spots are plotted in ArcGISenvironment and ten major accident spots are identified. The software package is designed with closest facility estimation and shortest route generation along with other basic software facilities in Visual Basic environment. Genetic algorithm provided a great optimality to the solutions. The closest facility tool helps to estimate the nearest hospital, ambulance, police station and fire station. The shortest route estimation tool generates shortest path between a locations to the hospital or ambulance spot. The various risk zonesare assessed and more safety measures can be taken to reduce the frequency of accident. The software efficiency can be further increased by incorporating GPS and satellite technology.

  11. Evaluation of severe accident risks, Peach Bottom, Unit 2: Appendices

    In support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) assessment of the risk from severe accidents at commercial nuclear power plants in the US reported in NUREG-1150, the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SARRP) has completed a revised calculation of the risk to the general public from severe accidents at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 2. This power plant, located in southeastern Pennsylvania, is operated by the Philadelphia Electric Company. The emphasis in this risk analysis was not on determining a ''so-called'' point estimate of risk. Rather, it was to determine the distribution of risk, and to discover the uncertainties that account for the breadth of this distribution. Off-site risk initiated by events both internal and external to the power station were assessed. This document provides Appendices A through E which include the following topics respectively: accident progression event tree; supporting information for the source term analysis; supporting information for the consequence analysis; risk results; and sampling information. 6 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Development and validation of Maanshan severe accident management guidelines

    Maanshan is a Westinghouse pressurized water reactor Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) located in south Taiwan. The Severe Accident Management Guideline (SAMG) of Maanshan NPP is developed based on the Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG) SAMG. The Maanshan SAMG is developed at the end of 2002. MAAP4 code is used as tool to validate the SAMG strategies. The development process and characteristics of Maanshan SAMG is described. A Station BlackOut (SBO) accident for Maanshan NPP which occurred in March 2001 is cited as a reference case for SAMG validation. A SBO accident is simulated first. The severe accident progression is simulated and the entry condition of SAMG is described. Mitigation actions are then applied to demonstrate the effect of SAMG. A RCS depressurization, RCS injection, and containment hydrogen reduction strategies are used to restore the system to a stable condition as power is recovered. Hot leg creep rupture is occurs during the mitigation action that is not considered in WOG SAMG. The effect of the RCS depressurization, RCS injection, and containment hydrogen reduction strategies are analyzed with MAAP4 code

  13. Development of TRAIN for accident management

    Severe accident management can be defined as the use of existing and alternative resources, systems, and actions to prevent or mitigate a core-melt accident in nuclear power plants. TRAIN (Training pRogram for AMP In NPP), developed for training control room staff and the technical group, is introduced in this paper. The TRAIN composes of phenomenological knowledge base (KB), accident sequence KB and accident management procedures with AM strategy control diagrams and information needs. This TRAIN might contribute to training them by obtaining phenomenological knowledge of severe accidents, understanding plant vulnerabilities, and solving problems under high stress. (author)

  14. Cost per severe accident as an index for severe accident consequence assessment and its applications

    The Fukushima Accident emphasizes the need to integrate the assessments of health effects, economic impacts, social impacts and environmental impacts, in order to perform a comprehensive consequence assessment of severe accidents in nuclear power plants. “Cost per severe accident” is introduced as an index for that purpose. The calculation methodology, including the consequence analysis using level 3 probabilistic risk assessment code OSCAAR and the calculation method of the cost per severe accident, is proposed. This methodology was applied to a virtual 1,100 MWe boiling water reactor. The breakdown of the cost per severe accident was provided. The radiation effect cost, the relocation cost and the decontamination cost were the three largest components. Sensitivity analyses were carried out, and parameters sensitive to cost per severe accident were specified. The cost per severe accident was compared with the amount of source terms, to demonstrate the performance of the cost per severe accident as an index to evaluate severe accident consequences. The ways to use the cost per severe accident for optimization of radiation protection countermeasures and for estimation of the effects of accident management strategies are discussed as its applications. - Highlights: • Cost per severe accident is used for severe accident consequence assessment. • Assessments of health, economic, social and environmental impacts are included. • Radiation effect, relocation and decontamination costs are important cost components. • Cost per severe accident can be used to optimize radiation protection measures. • Effects of accident management can be estimated using the cost per severe accident

  15. Frequency of road accidents in prishtina in the period 2007-2010

    Basri Lenjani; Salih Krasniqi; Njiazi Gashi; Ilaz Bunjaku; Thaxhedin Zaimi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the predictors of fatal road traffic accidents following the war during the year 1999. Methods: The period January 2007-December 2010 has been considered for this research. The used criterion for this research was the distribution of vehicle accidents on a yearly basis, injuries based on systems, vehicle drivers based on their sex, age, causes, accident location, road type, accident type and presence of driving permit. Results: The injured in traffic accidents who have sought emergency medical assistance in the Emergency Center from January 2008 until December 2010. In the period January to December 2007 was 44 111, from which 2 235 or 5.06% were the injured in the road traffic accidents. In the period January to December 2008 the total number of sick, injured and poisoned persons who have sought emergency medical assistance in the Emergency Center was 43 610, with a total number of 2 148 or 5.00% injured in the road traffic accidents. In the period January to December 2009 the total number of sick, injured and poisoned persons who have sought emergency medical assistance in the Emergency Center was 44 228, and the total number of injured in the road traffic accidents was 2 774, or 6.27%. In the period January to December 2010 the total number of sick, injured and poisoned who have sought emergency medical assistance in the Emergency Center was 41 614, and injured from road traffic accidents were 2 384, or 5.72%. Conclusions: Young age, high speed, and alcohol are predictors of fatal road traffic accidents in Pristine district.

  16. Emergency department radiation accident protocol.

    Leonard, R B; Ricks, R C

    1980-09-01

    Every emergency department faces the potential problem of handling one or more victims of a radiation accident. While emergency departments near nuclear power plants or isotope production laboratories probably have a detailed protocol for such emergencies, a similar protocol is needed for the emergency department that may have to handle an isolated event, such as a vehicular accident that spills radioactive material and contaminates passengers or bystanders. This communication attempts to answer that need, presenting a step-by-step protocol for decontamination of a radiation victim, the rationale on which each step is based, a list of needed supplies, and a short summary of decorporation procedures that should be started in the emergency department. PMID:7425419

  17. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1987-01-01

    A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC......); 59% above 0.08%. In all cases where a pillion passenger was killed, the operator of the motorcycle had a BAC greater than 0.08%. Of the killed counterparts 2 were non-intoxicated, 2 had a BAC greater than 0.08%, and 4 were not tested. The results advocate that the law should restrict alcohol...... consumption by pillion passengers as well as by the motorcycle operator. Suggestions made to extend the data base needed for developing appropriate alcohol countermeasures by collecting sociodemographic data on drivers killed or seriously injured should be supported....

  18. Psychological factors of radiation accidents

    With reference to world, internal and personal experience, an attempt is made to reveal psychological mechanisms determining the attitude of a person to ionizing radiation using for this purpose the conceptions of mental stress and psychological adaptation. On the example of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, in the light of the above conceptions, the paper describes psychic reactions of the personnel of the nuclear power plant and other groups of people to the heavy radiation accident. For improvement of the activity for liquidation of the accident after-effects it is suggested to use the system of psychophysiological support of the rescue units, including psychophysiological training and support, as well as functional rehabilitation of specialists. 11 refs

  19. Accident Simulation: Design and Results

    Idasiak, Vincent; David, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    International audience The French legislation regulates the functioning of factories that may be dangerous towards their environment. This legislation imposes the creation of an Internal Operation Plan (P.O.I.) on the plant managers. Those plans describe the proceedings that have to be implemented in case of an accident. Within a framework involving our laboratory and a gas company we have designed a software to create, maintain and execute P.O.I.s . In this paper, in addition to the softw...

  20. Transport accident emergency response plan

    To comply with the IAEA recommendations for the implementation of an Emergency Response Plan as described in Safety Series 87, Transnucleaire, a company deeply involved in the road and rail transports of the fuel cycle, masters means of Emergency Response in the event of a transport accident. This paper aims at analyzing the solutions adopted for the implementation of an Emergency Response Plan and the development of a technical support and adapted means for the recovery of heavy packagings. (authors)

  1. Standards for reactor accident cases

    The Committee on Standards for reactor accident cases in the Netherlands published its recommendations to the Minister of Health. Maximum permissible quantities of radiation and radionuclide intake are presented for adults and children as well as pregnant women. Exposure limit standards for the whole body as well as specific organs and other parts are given. Also considered is the contamination of cattle and cows' milk. The standards are compared with those of the ICRP and the English Medical Research Council

  2. Radiation accident in Viet Nam

    In November 1992 a Vietnamese research physicist was working with a microtron accelerator when he received a radiation overexposure that required the subsequent amputation of his right hand. A team from the International Atomic Energy Agency visited Hanoi in March 1993 to carry out an investigation. It was concluded that the accident occurred primarily due to a lack of safety systems although the lack of both written procedures and training in basic radiation safety were also major contributors. (author)

  3. Accident/Mishap Investigation System

    Keller, Richard; Wolfe, Shawn; Gawdiak, Yuri; Carvalho, Robert; Panontin, Tina; Williams, James; Sturken, Ian

    2007-01-01

    InvestigationOrganizer (IO) is a Web-based collaborative information system that integrates the generic functionality of a database, a document repository, a semantic hypermedia browser, and a rule-based inference system with specialized modeling and visualization functionality to support accident/mishap investigation teams. This accessible, online structure is designed to support investigators by allowing them to make explicit, shared, and meaningful links among evidence, causal models, findings, and recommendations.

  4. The reactor accident of Chernobyl

    The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.)

  5. The Chernobyl accident ten years later

    On April 26, 1986 at 1:23 AM a fire and explosion occurred at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Complex, located in the Ukraine, that resulted in the destruction of the reactor core and most of the building in which it was housed. Several environmental impacts resulting from the accident will be discussed in this paper, which will include the effects on plant and wild life, radioactive waste generated and stored or disposed of, effects of evacuations relating to residents within the subsequently established 10km and 30km control zones, impacts of the emergency containment structure (sarcophagus), and potential effects on world opinion and future development of nuclear power. As an immediate result of the fire, 31 people died (2 from the fire ampersand smoke, and 29 from excessive radiation); 237 cases of acute radiation sickness occurred; the total fatalities based upon induced chronic diseases as a result of the accident is unknown: more than 100,000 people were evacuated from within the subsequently established 30 km control zone; in excess of 50 million curies of radionuclides that included finely dispersed nuclear fuel, fragments of graphite, concrete and other building materials were released from the reactor into the environment; an estimated one million cubic meters of radioactive waste were generated (LLW, ILW, HLW); more than 5000 tons of materials (sand, boron, dolomite, cement, and lead) were used to put the fire out by helicopter; shutdown of the adjacent power plants were performed; and other environmental impacts occurred. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit No 4 is an RBMK-1000. It initiated operations in 1983, it was a 1000 MWe with a power output of 3200 MW(th), the reactor core contained 190 MT of fuel, with 1659 assemblies (plus 211 control rods), the average burnup rate was 10.3 MWd/kg, and the reactor operated on a continuous basis with maintenance and fuel reload performed during operations

  6. Thyroid blocking after nuclear accidents

    Following the Chernobyl accident a marked increase in thyroid cancer incidence among the children in Belarus, the Ukraine and Russia has been detected, strongly suggesting a causal relationship to the large amounts of radioactive iodine isotopes in the resulting fallout. Taking into account the Chernobyl experience the German Committee on Radiation Protection decided to reduce the intervention levels on the basis of the 1989 WHO recommendations and adopted a new concept concerning thyroid blocking in response to nuclear power plant accidents. Experimental animal studies and theoretical considerations show that thyroid blocking with potassium iodide (KI) in a dose of about 1.4 mg per kg body weight is most effective in reducing irradiation to the thyroid from the intake of radioiodine nuclides, provided KI is given within 2 hours after exposure. According to the new concept, persons over 45 years of age should not take iodine tablets because the drug could cause a greater health risk due to prevalent functional thyroid autonomy in this age group than the radioactive iodine averted by KI. On the basis of accident analysis and the new philosophy suitable distribution strategies and logistics are proposed and discussed. (orig.)

  7. Chernobyl accident. Exposures and effects

    The Chernobyl accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986 happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance. The operators, in violation of safety regulations, had switched off important control systems and allowed the reactor to reach unstable, low-power conditions. A sudden power surge caused a steam explosion that ruptured the reactor vessel and allowed further violent fuel-steam interactions that destroyed the reactor and the reactor building. The Chernobyl accident was the most serious to have ever occurred in the nuclear power industry. The accident caused the early death of 30 power plant employees and fire fighters and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by several million people. Radionuclides released from the reactor that caused exposure of individuals were mainly iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Iodine-131 has a short radioactive half-life (8 days), but it can be transferred relatively rapidly through milk and leafy vegetables to humans. Iodine becomes localized in the thyroid gland. For reasons of intake of these foods, size of thyroid gland and metabolism, the thyroid doses are usually greater to infants and children than to adults. The isotopes of caesium have relatively long half-lives (caesium-134: 2 years; caesium-137: 30 years). These radionuclides cause long-term exposures through the ingestion pathway and from external exposure to these radionuclides deposited on the ground. In addition to radiation exposure, the accident caused long-term changes in the lives of people living in the contaminated regions, since measures intended to limit radiation doses included resettlements, changes in food supplies, and restrictions in activities of individuals and families. These changes were accompanied by major economic, social and political changes in the affected countries resulting

  8. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Galstyan I.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS, developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

  9. Leukaemia incidents after Chernobyl accident

    Romania and especially its Eastern territory were among the most heavily affected area after Chernobyl accident. The objective of our study was to investigate whether or not the nuclear accident determined an increased number of leukaemia cases. The specific rates of leukaemia incidents by age group were calculated in 588167 children aged 0-6 years in April 1986 and 99917 children which have been exposed 'in utero'. The rates of 1989-1994 period were compared with the rates of 1980-1985 period. The incidence rates were lower in the exposed group than that in controls for children under 1 year (20.52/105 inh vs 23.11/105 inh), 1-3 years (13.26/105 inh vs 16.11/105 inh) and 4-6 years (9.58/105 inh vs 10.58/105 inh). The cohort of 'in utero' exposed children presented a leukaemia incidences insignificantly higher than that before the accident (23.10/105 inh vs 15.93/105 inh)

  10. Accident analysis and DOE criteria

    In analyzing the radiological consequences of major accidents at DOE facilities one finds that many facilities fall so far below the limits of DOE Order 6430 that compliance is easily demonstrated by simple analysis. For those cases where the amount of radioactive material and the dispersive energy available are enough for accident consequences to approach the limits, the models and assumptions used become critical. In some cases the models themselves are the difference between meeting the criteria or not meeting them. Further, in one case, we found that not only did the selection of models determine compliance but the selection of applicable criteria from different chapters of Order 6430 also made the difference. DOE has recognized the problem of different criteria in different chapters applying to one facility, and has proceeded to make changes for the sake of consistency. We have proposed to outline the specific steps needed in an accident analysis and suggest appropriate models, parameters, and assumptions. As a result we feed DOE siting and design criteria will be more fairly and consistently applied

  11. Allegheny County Dam Locations

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the point locations of dams in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  12. Healthcare Facility Locations

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MAP:http://tinyurl.com/HealthcareFacilityLocationsMap The California Department of Public Health (CDPH), Center for Health Care Quality, Licensing and Certification...

  13. Global Volcano Locations Database

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication....

  14. Uranium Location Database

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A GIS compiled locational database in Microsoft Access of ~15,000 mines with uranium occurrence or production, primarily in the western United States. The metadata...

  15. Eldercare Locator Database

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Eldercare Locator is a searchable database that allows a user to search via zip code or city/ state for agencies at the State and local levels that provide...

  16. Location and logistics

    Alumura, Sibel A.; Karab, Bahar Y.; Melo, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Facility location decisions play a critical role in designing logistics networks. This article provides some guidelines on how location decisions and logistics functions can be integrated into a single mathematical model to optimize the configuration of a logistics network. This will be illustrated by two generic models, one supporting the design of a forward logistics network and the other addressing the specific requirements of a reverse logistics network. Several special cases and extensio...

  17. Advances in indoor Location

    Barceló, F.; Evennou, F.; De Nardis, L.; Tomé, P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the research activities carried out within the scope of the Liaison project. Most of the work has been performed on WiFi location. WiFi is nowadays widely deployed in buildings such as hotels, hospitals, airports, train stations, public buildings, etc. Using this infrastructure to locate terminals connected to the wireless LAN is expected to have a low cost. Methods presented in this paper include fingerprinting and tracking through particle filter constrained on a Voronoi...

  18. Severe accidents at nuclear power plants. Their risk assessment and accident management

    This document is to explain the severe accident issues. Severe Accidents are defined as accidents which are far beyond the design basis and result in severe damage of the core. Accidents at Three Mild Island in USA and at Chernobyl in former Soviet Union are examples of severe accidents. The causes and progressions of the accidents as well as the actions taken are described. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is a method to estimate the risk of severe accidents at nuclear reactors. The methodology for PSA is briefly described and current status on its application to safety related issues is introduced. The acceptability of the risks which inherently accompany every technology is then discussed. Finally, provision of accident management in Japan is introduced, including the description of accident management measures proposed for BWRs and PWRs. (author)

  19. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B4C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding rate

  20. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Hoejerup, F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Puska, E.K. [VTT Energy, Helsinki (Finland); Nilsson, Lars [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Sjoevall, H. [Teoliisuuden Voima Oy (Finland)

    1999-11-01

    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B{sub 4}C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding

  1. An Examination of Aviation Accidents Associated with Turbulence, Wind Shear and Thunderstorm

    Evans, Joni K.

    2013-01-01

    The focal point of the study reported here was the definition and examination of turbulence, wind shear and thunderstorm in relation to aviation accidents. NASA project management desired this information regarding distinct subgroups of atmospheric hazards, in order to better focus their research portfolio. A seven category expansion of Kaplan's turbulence categories was developed, which included wake turbulence, mountain wave turbulence, clear air turbulence, cloud turbulence, convective turbulence, thunderstorm without mention of turbulence, and low altitude wind shear, microburst or turbulence (with no mention of thunderstorms).More than 800 accidents from flights based in the United States during 1987-2008 were selected from a National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database. Accidents were selected for inclusion in this study if turbulence, thunderstorm, wind shear or microburst was considered either a cause or a factor in the accident report, and each accident was assigned to only one hazard category. This report summarizes the differences between the categories in terms of factors such as flight operations category, aircraft engine type, the accident's geographic location and time of year, degree of injury to aircraft occupants, aircraft damage, age and certification of the pilot and the phase of flight at the time of the accident.

  2. Analysis of Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China: Characteristics and Lessons for Risk Management

    Yao, Hong; Zhang, Tongzhu; Liu, Bo; Lu, Feng; Fang, Shurong; You, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Understanding historical accidents is important for accident prevention and risk mitigation; however, there are no public databases of pollution accidents in China, and no detailed information regarding such incidents is readily available. Thus, 653 representative cases of surface water pollution accidents in China were identified and described as a function of time, location, materials involved, origin, and causes. The severity and other features of the accidents, frequency and quantities of chemicals involved, frequency and number of people poisoned, frequency and number of people affected, frequency and time for which pollution lasted, and frequency and length of pollution zone were effectively used to value and estimate the accumulated probabilities. The probabilities of occurrences of various types based on origin and causes were also summarized based on these observations. The following conclusions can be drawn from these analyses: (1) There was a high proportion of accidents involving multi-district boundary regions and drinking water crises, indicating that more attention should be paid to environmental risk prevention and the mitigation of such incidents. (2) A high proportion of accidents originated from small-sized chemical plants, indicating that these types of enterprises should be considered during policy making. (3) The most common cause (49.8 % of the total) was intentional acts (illegal discharge); accordingly, efforts to increase environmental consciousness in China should be enhanced.

  3. Safety criteria and guidelines for MSR accident analysis

    Accident analysis for Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) has been investigated at ORNL for MSRE in 1960s. Since then, safety criteria or guidelines have not been defined for MSR accident analysis. Regarding the safety criteria, the authors showed one proposal in this paper. In order to establish guidelines for MSR accident analysis, we have to investigate all possible accidents. In this paper, the authors describe the philosophy for accident analysis, and show 40 possible accidents. They are at first classified as external cause accidents and internal cause accidents. Since the former ones are generic accidents, we investigate only the latter ones, and categorize them to 4 types, such as power excursion accident, flow decrease accident, fuel-salt leak accident, and other accidents mostly specific to MSR. Each accident is described briefly, with some numerical results by the authors. (author)

  4. Radiation Accident Experience: Causes and Lessons Learned

    Since inception of the nuclear energy program in the United States of America, the Atomic. Energy Commission (USAEC) has maintained an extensive system for the reporting and review of radiation accidents in USAEC federal and licensing activities. Accidents required to be reported fall-into two main categories: (1) Accidents causing or threatening to cause radiation exposure to industrial workers or to the general public; (2) Accidents causing damage to or shutdown of facilities, or damage to public property. While many of the reported accidents carry with them the potential for exposure of persons to radioactivity, the cases reported, in this analysis are limited to those where certain prescribed levels of exposure have been exceeded or where significant uptake by the critical organ has occurred. This paper presents detailed analyses of the accident experience encountered in USAEC programs over the past nine years, including: (1) A breakdown of the types of work activities in the nuclear industry under which radiation accidents have occurred; (2) Characterization of the causes of such accidents as related to the types of work activities; (3) Lessons to be learned both in avoiding such accidents and in emergency planning, should such accidents occur. (author)

  5. Strategy generation in accident management support

    An increased interest for research in the field of Accident Management can be noted. Several international programmes have been started in order to be able to understand the basic physical and chemical phenomena in accident conditions. A feasibility study has shown that it would be possible to design and develop a computerized support system for plant staff in accident situations. To achieve this goal the Halden Project has initiated a research programme on Computerized Accident Management Support (CAMS project). The aim is to utilize the capabilities of computerized tools to support the plant staff during the various accident stages. The system will include identification of the accident state, assessment of the future development of the accident and planning of accident mitigation strategies. A prototype is developed to support operators and the Technical Support Centre in decision making during serious accident in nuclear power plants. A rule based system has been built to take care of the strategy generation. This system assists plant personnel in planning control proposals and mitigation strategies from normal operation to severe accident conditions. The ideal of a safety objective tree and knowledge from the emergency procedures have been used. Future prediction requires good state identification of the plant status and some knowledge about the history of some critical variables. The information needs to be validated as well. Accurate calculations in simulators and a large database including all important information form the plant will help the strategy planning. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs

  6. The severe accident research program at KIT

    The understanding of the plant behaviour under beyond design basis accidents as well as the interaction of the operators with the plant is the most important prerequisite to develop proper strategies to both control the accident progression and to minimize the radiological risk that may derive from operating nuclear power plants. In view of the Fukushima accident, a review of many issues important to safety e.g. severe accident analysis methodologies and assumptions, emergency operational procedures, severe accident management procedures (SAM), decision lines of the emergency team, etc. is needed to draw conclusions in order to avoid a repetition of Fukushima-like accidents.In addition, situations like the ‘black control room’ need to be reconsidered and a re-evaluation of the necessary instrumentation for hypothetical severe accident situations is urgently needed. If the real plant state during core meltdown accidents is unknown, no effective measures can be initiated by the emergency team in order to assure the integrity of the safety barriers and hence the release of radioactive material to the environment. The work performed in this area is integrated in the European Networks such as SARNET (Severe Accident Research Network) for the severe accidents, and for emergency management in the NERIS-TP. In future all the activities will be included in the NUGENIA platform. A brief overview of the KIT activities together with the experimental test facilities is given

  7. Risk and protection factors in fatal accidents.

    Dupont, Emmanuelle; Martensen, Heike; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2010-03-01

    This paper aims at addressing the interest and appropriateness of performing accident severity analyses that are limited to fatal accident data. Two methodological issues are specifically discussed, namely the accident-size factors (the number of vehicles in the accident and their level of occupancy) and the comparability of the baseline risk. It is argued that - although these two issues are generally at play in accident severity analyses - their effects on, e.g., the estimation of survival probability, are exacerbated if the analysis is limited to fatal accident data. As a solution, it is recommended to control for these effects by (1) including accident-size indicators in the model, (2) focusing on different sub-groups of road-users while specifying the type of opponent in the model, so as to ensure that comparable baseline risks are worked with. These recommendations are applied in order to investigate risk and protection factors of car occupants involved in fatal accidents using data from a recently set up European Fatal Accident Investigation database (Reed and Morris, 2009). The results confirm that the estimated survival probability is affected by accident-size factors and by type of opponent. The car occupants' survival chances are negatively associated with their own age and that of their vehicle. The survival chances are also lower when seatbelt is not used. Front damage, as compared to other damaged car areas, appears to be associated with increased survival probability, but mostly in the case in which the accident opponent was another car. The interest of further investigating accident-size factors and opponent effects in fatal accidents is discussed. PMID:20159090

  8. Specific features of RBMK severe accidents progression and approach to the accident management

    Fundamental construction features of the LWGR facilities (absence of common external containment shell, disintegrated circulation circuit and multichannel reactor core, positive vapor reactivity coefficient, high mass of thermally capacious graphite moderator) predetermining development of assumed heavy non-projected accidents and handling them are treated. Rating the categories of the reactor core damages for non-projected accidents and accident types producing specific grope of damages is given. Passing standard non-projected accidents, possible methods of attack accident consequences, as well as methods of calculated analysis of non-projected accidents are demonstrated

  9. WIRELESS ACCIDENT INFORMATION SYSTEM USING GSM AND GPS

    R.RATHINAKUMAR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses about designing a Smart Display and Control [SDC] which will monitor the zone and maintains the specified speed in the zone levels, which runs on an embedded system. This system includes three modules; automatic speed control module, accident detection and information sending module and security enabling module. Automatic speed control module includes RF transmitter placed in specific location and RF receiver in the vehicle. Accident detection module includes GSM and GPS technology. Security enabling module includes sensory units which ensures the condition of seat belt and the driver. This module includes alcohol sensor and eye sensor. The smart display and control is composed of two separate units: Zone status Transmitter unit and Receiver (speed Display and Control Unit.

  10. Automatic Accident Detection and Ambulance Rescue with Intelligent Traffic Light System

    S.IYYAPPAN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the road accidents in modern urban areas are increased to uncertain level. The loss of human life due to accident is to be avoided. Traffic congestion and tidal flow are major facts that cause delay to ambulance. To bar loss of human life due to accidents we introduce a scheme called ITLS (Intelligent Traffic Light system. The main theme behind this scheme is to provide a smooth flow for the emergency vehicles like ambulance to reach the hospitals in time and thus minimizing the delay caused by traffic congestion. The idea behind this scheme is to implement ITLS which would control mechanically the traffic lights in the path of the ambulance. The ambulance is controlled by the control unit which furnishes adequate route to the ambulance and also controls the traffic light according to the ambulance location and thus reaching the hospital safely. The controller identifies the location of the accident spot through the sensor systems in the vehicle which determined the accident and thus the controller walks through the ambulance to the spot. This scheme is fully automated, thus it finds the accident spot, controls the traffic lights, helping to reach the hospital in time.

  11. Absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    The monitoring of absorbed dose rate in air has been carried out continually at various locations in metropolitan Tokyo after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. While the data obtained before the accident are needed to more accurately assess the effects of radionuclide contamination from the accident, detailed data for metropolitan Tokyo obtained before the accident have not been reported. A car-borne survey of the absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was carried out during August to September 2003. The average absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was 49±6 nGy h-1. The absorbed dose rate in air in western Tokyo was higher compared with that in central Tokyo. Here, if the absorbed dose rate indoors in Tokyo is equivalent to that outdoors, the annual effective dose would be calculated as 0.32 mSv y-1. (authors)

  12. Integrating geographical information and augmented reality techniques for mobile escape guidelines on nuclear accident sites

    During nuclear accidents, when radioactive materials spread into the environment, the people in the affected areas should evacuate immediately. However, few information systems are available regarding escape guidelines for nuclear accidents. Therefore, this study constructs escape guidelines on mobile phones. This application is called Mobile Escape Guidelines (MEG) and adopts two techniques. One technique is the geographical information that offers multiple representations; the other is the augmented reality that provides semi-realistic information services. When this study tested the mobile escape guidelines, the results showed that this application was capable of identifying the correct locations of users, showing the escape routes, filtering geographical layers, and rapidly generating the relief reports. Users could evacuate from nuclear accident sites easily, even without relief personnel, since using slim devices to access the mobile escape guidelines is convenient. Overall, this study is a useful reference for a nuclear accident emergency response.

  13. Investigation of the different scenarios occurring in a PWR in case of a TMLB accident

    Severe accidents in light water reactors fall into one of two main categories, depending on whether or not core meltdown is accompanied by a pressure buildup in the primary system. The way in which the accident develops is, in fact, largely conditioned by this pressure aspect: temperature distribution in the core and primary system resulting from natural convection gas streams; fuel clad failure mode, etc... One major effect of pressure buildup on the accident scenario is primary system failure under the combined actions of pressure and temperature. The purpose of the present paper is to present, after a detailed thermalhydraulic study, an analysis of the timing and location of the system failures in case of a TMLB accident on CPY french type reactor

  14. Traffic Analysis and Road Accidents: A Case Study of Hyderabad using GIS

    Globalization has impacted many developing countries across the world. India is one such country, which benefited the most. Increased, economic activity raised the consumption levels of the people across the country. This created scope for increase in travel and transportation. The increase in the vehicles since last 10 years has put lot of pressure on the existing roads and ultimately resulting in road accidents. It is estimated that since 2001 there is an increase of 202 percent of two wheeler and 286 percent of four wheeler vehicles with no road expansion. Motor vehicle crashes are a common cause of death, disability and demand for emergency medical care. Globally, more than 1 million people die each year from traffic crashes and about 20-50 million are injured or permanently disabled. There has been increasing trend in road accidents in Hyderabad over a few years. GIS helps in locating the accident hotspots and also in analyzing the trend of road accidents in Hyderabad

  15. Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control (HIRARC Accidents at Power Plant

    Ahmad Asmalia Che

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Power plant had a reputation of being one of the most hazardous workplace environments. Workers in the power plant face many safety risks due to the nature of the job. Although power plants are safer nowadays since the industry has urged the employer to improve their employees’ safety, the employees still stumble upon many hazards thus accidents at workplace. The aim of the present study is to investigate work related accidents at power plants based on HIRARC (Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control process. The data were collected at two coal-fired power plant located in Malaysia. The finding of the study identified hazards and assess risk relate to accidents occurred at the power plants. The finding of the study suggested the possible control measures and corrective actions to reduce or eliminate the risk that can be used by power plant in preventing accidents from occurred

  16. Location-based Scheduling

    Andersson, Niclas; Christensen, Knud

    the predominant scheduling method since it was introduced in the late 1950s. Over the years, CPM has proven to be a very powerful technique for planning, scheduling and controlling projects, which among other things is indicated by the development of a large number of CPM-based software applications available...... on the market. However, CPM is primarily an activity based method that takes the activity as the unit of focus and there is criticism raised, specifically in the case of construction projects, on the method for deficient management of construction work and continuous flow of resources. To seek solutions...... to the identified limitations of the CPM method, an alternative planning and scheduling methodology that includes locations is tested. Location-based Scheduling (LBS) implies a shift in focus, from primarily the activities to the flow of work through the various locations of the project, i.e. the building. LBS uses...

  17. Cable fault locator research

    Cole, C. A.; Honey, S. K.; Petro, J. P.; Phillips, A. C.

    1982-07-01

    Cable fault location and the construction of four field test units are discussed. Swept frequency sounding of mine cables with RF signals was the technique most thoroughly investigated. The swept frequency technique is supplemented with a form of moving target indication to provide a method for locating the position of a technician along a cable and relative to a suspected fault. Separate, more limited investigations involved high voltage time domain reflectometry and acoustical probing of mine cables. Particular areas of research included microprocessor-based control of the swept frequency system, a microprocessor based fast Fourier transform for spectral analysis, and RF synthesizers.

  18. Location and daily mobility

    Engebretsen, Øystein

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the interaction of location and daily mobility in cities. According to previous research the length of daily travel and the amount of car use in cities are influenced by urban density and residential location, thus focusing on urban sprawl as one of the main challenges for sustainable urban planning. However, during the last 10-15 years it has been more popular to settle in the inner city areas of Norwegian cities. This re-urbanisation has resulted in a sta...

  19. RFI emitter location techniques

    Rao, B. L. J.

    1973-01-01

    The possibility is discussed of using Doppler techniques for determining the location of ground based emitters causing radio frequency interference with low orbiting satellites. An error analysis indicates that it is possible to find the emitter location within an error range of 2 n.mi. The parameters which determine the required satellite receiver characteristic are discussed briefly along with the non-real time signal processing which may by used in obtaining the Doppler curve. Finally, the required characteristics of the satellite antenna are analyzed.

  20. Worst case reactor accidents: a paradox

    The preliminary results from the application of improved source term methodology indicate a diversity of results for plants of different design, and for different accident sequences postulated for the same plant. While significant reductions from previous estimates are calculated with the new methodology for some accident scenarios, the same methodology predicts release magnitudes of minor difference from those produced with earlier methods for other accident sequences and plants. This divergence of calculated results precludes the adoption of a worst case as a meaningful characterization of severe accident consequences. This situation reinforces the need to consider the consequences of severe accidents only in light of their probability, even in those applications outside the traditional risk assessment process, and may necessitate re-consideration of a probability threshold for extremely low probability events. A practical approach to such a threshold value is discussed, based on NRC's experience with severe accident considerations in environmental impact statements

  1. Public health response to the nuclear accident

    The Act on Special Measures Concerning Nuclear Emergency Preparedness was established in 2000 as a specific act within the broader Disaster Control Measures and Reactor Regulation Act which was written in response to the JCO Criticality Accident of 1999. However, this regulatory system did not address all aspects of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. This was especially evident with public health issues. For example, radioactive screening, prophylactic use of potassium iodide, support for vulnerable people, and management of contaminated dead bodies were all requested immediately after the occurrence of the nuclear power plant accident but were not included in these regulatory acts. Recently, the regulatory system for nuclear accidents has been revised in response to this reactor accident. Herein we review the revised plan for nuclear reactor accidents in the context of public health. (author)

  2. Accident scenario diagnostics with neural networks

    Nuclear power plants are very complex systems. The diagnoses of transients or accident conditions is very difficult because a large amount of information, which is often noisy, or intermittent, or even incomplete, need to be processed in real time. To demonstrate their potential application to nuclear power plants, neural networks axe used to monitor the accident scenarios simulated by the training simulator of TVA's Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant. A self-organization network is used to compress original data to reduce the total number of training patterns. Different accident scenarios are closely related to different key parameters which distinguish one accident scenario from another. Therefore, the accident scenarios can be monitored by a set of small size neural networks, called modular networks, each one of which monitors only one assigned accident scenario, to obtain fast training and recall. Sensitivity analysis is applied to select proper input variables for modular networks

  3. Barriers to learning from incidents and accidents

    Dechy, N.; Dien, Y.; Drupsteen, L.; Felicio, A.; Cunha, C; Roed-Larsen, S.; Marsden, E.; Tulonen, T.; Stoop, J.; Strucic, M.; Vetere Arellano, A.L.; Vorm, J.K.J. van der; Benner, L.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides an overview of knowledge concerning barriers to learning from incidents and accidents. It focuses on learning from accident investigations, public inquiries and operational experience feedback, in industrial sectors that are exposed to major accident hazards. The document discusses learning at organizational, cross-organizational and societal levels (impact on regulations and standards). From an operational standpoint, the document aims to help practitioners to identify...

  4. Social disparities and correlates of domestic accidents.

    Baumann, Michèle; Spitz, E.; Ravaud, J.; Guillemin, F.; Chau, N

    2009-01-01

    Domestic accidents are a public health problem. This study assessed the disparities between socioeconomic positions and the confounding role of gender, age, education, living alone, income, poor health, obesity, current tobacco use, alcohol abuse, fatigue/sleep disorders, and physical, sensorial and cognitive disabilities. Methods: 6,198 people aged ≥15, randomly selected in north-eastern France completed a post-mailed questionnaire including domestic accident(s) during the last two years. Th...

  5. Psychiatric consequences of road traffic accidents.

    Mayou, R; Bryant, B.; Duthie, R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the psychiatric consequences of being a road traffic accident victim. DESIGN--Follow up study of road accident victims for up to one year. SETTING--Emergency department of the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford. SUBJECTS--188 consecutive road accident victims aged 18-70 with multiple injuries (motorcycle or car) or whiplash neck injury, who had not been unconscious for more than 15 minutes, and who lived in the catchment area. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Present state examinat...

  6. Transportation accident scenarios for commercial spent fuel

    A spectrum of high severity, low probability, transportation accident scenarios involving commercial spent fuel is presented together with mechanisms, pathways and quantities of material that might be released from spent fuel to the environment. These scenarios are based on conclusions from a workshop, conducted in May 1980 to discuss transportation accident scenarios, in which a group of experts reviewed and critiqued available literature relating to spent fuel behavior and cask response in accidents

  7. Accidents with biological material in workers

    Cleonice Andréa Alves Cavalcante; Elisângela Franco de Oliveira Cavalcante; Maria Lúcia Azevedo Ferreira de Macêdo; Eliane Cavalcante dos Santos; Soraya Maria de Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to describe the accidents with biological material occurred among workers of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, between 2007 and 2009. Secondary data were collected in the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System by exporting data to Excel using Tabwin. Among the types of occupational accidents reported in the state, the biological accidents (no. = 1,170) accounted for 58.3% with a predominance of cases among nurses (48.6%). The percutaneous exposure was the most frequent ...

  8. Transportation accident scenarios for commercial spent fuel

    Wilmot, E L

    1981-02-01

    A spectrum of high severity, low probability, transportation accident scenarios involving commercial spent fuel is presented together with mechanisms, pathways and quantities of material that might be released from spent fuel to the environment. These scenarios are based on conclusions from a workshop, conducted in May 1980 to discuss transportation accident scenarios, in which a group of experts reviewed and critiqued available literature relating to spent fuel behavior and cask response in accidents.

  9. Synergy effect in accident simulation

    Accidental breaking of PWR coolant canalization would entail water vaporization into confinement enclosure. Equipments would be simultaneously subjected to temperature and pressure increase, chemical spray, and radiation action of reactor core products. Some equipments have to work after accident in order to stop reactor running and blow out water calories. Usually, in France, accident simulation tests are carried out sequentialy: irradiation followed by thermodynamical and chemical tests. Equipments working is essentially due to those polymer materials behaviour. Is the polymers behaviour the same when they are either subjected to sequential test, or an accident (simultaneous action of irradiation and thermodynamical and chemical sequence). In order to answer to this question, nine polymer materials were subjected to simultaneous and sequential test in CESAR cell. Experiments were carried out in CESAR device with thermodynamical chocks and a temperature and pressure decrease profil in presence or without irradiation. So, the test is either simultaneous or sequential. Mechanical properties change are determined for the following polymeric materials. Two polyamide-imide varnishes used in motors and coils; one epoxydic resin, glass fiber charged (electrical insulating); polyphenylene sulfide, glass fiber charged, the Ryton R4 (electrical insulating); three elastomeric materials: Hypalon, fire proof by bromine or by alumina EPDM (cables jacket); VAMAC which is a polyethylene methyl polymethacrylate copolymer; then a silicon thermoset material glass fiber charged (electrical insulating). After test, usually, mechanical and electrical properties change of polymer materials show sequential experiment is more severe than simultaneous test however, Hypalon does not follow this law. For this polymer simultaneous test appears more severe than sequential experiment

  10. Location-based games

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    In this dissertation, it is explored which prerequisites are necessary in location-based games (LBGs) to make meaningful the meeting between players and spatiality with an emphasis on physical locations. Throughout the dissertation, it has been shown that LBGs affect players’ perception of and be......In this dissertation, it is explored which prerequisites are necessary in location-based games (LBGs) to make meaningful the meeting between players and spatiality with an emphasis on physical locations. Throughout the dissertation, it has been shown that LBGs affect players’ perception...... experiences of being in the world and the creation of meaning. The theory on motivation defines what motivation consists of and how it relates to our actions. This theory has been combined with theories concerning play and play culture, digital media, (digital) games, (optimal) experiences, landscape...... architecture, everyday practices (related to walking in the city), and the existing theories on LBGs as well as pervasive games. The methodological approach incorporates design-based research. It combines and aims at improving design, research, and practice concurrently. A design of an LBG – Visions of Sara...

  11. Nuclear-powered submarine accidents

    Most of nuclear-powered ships are military ships and submarines represent 95% of the total. Most of the propulsion reactors used are of PWR type. This paper gives the principal technical characteristics of PWR ship propulsion reactors and the differences with their civil homologues. The principal accidents that occurred on US and Russian nuclear-powered submarines are also listed and the possible effects of a shipwreck on the reactor behaviour are evaluated with their environmental impact. (J.S.). 1 tab., 1 photo

  12. Elements to diminish radioactive accidents

    In this work it is presented an application of the cause-effect diagram method or Ichikawa method identifying the elements that allow to diminish accidents when the radioactive materials are transported. It is considered the transport of hazardous materials which include radioactive materials in the period: December 1996 until March 1997. Among the identified elements by this method it is possible to mention: the road type, the radioactive source protection, the grade driver responsibility and the preparation that the OEP has in the radioactive material management. It is showed the differences found between the country inner roads and the Mexico City area. (Author)

  13. Guidance on accidents involving radioactivity

    This booklet sets out United Kingdom government policy on the management of the effects of radioactivity accidents by the Health Service. Monitoring of persons affected will be undertaken by hospital staff in order to assess damage levels for the whole population as well as treat individuals, while general practitioners will disseminate information from the Department of Health. The National Response Plan is set out, covering incidents connected with the use or transport of radioactive substances, and emergency plans for incidents in civil nuclear installations. (UK)

  14. The radiological accident in Goiania

    The report is based on a meeting held in Brazil, 19-27 July 1988. It describes how the accident occurred, examines how it was managed and how its consequences were contained, and sets out observations and recommendations based upon lessons learned. Many people received large doses of radiation, due to both external and internal exposure. Four of the casualties ultimately died and 28 people suffered radiation burns. Residences and public places were contaminated. The decontamination necessitated the demolition of seven residences and various other buildings, and the removal of the topsoil from large areas. In total 3,500 m3 of radioactive waste was generated. Refs, figs, tabs and photographs

  15. The Tokay-Mura accident

    On the 30. september 1999 occurred a criticality accident in the fuel fabrication plant of Tokai-Mura in Japan. 49 persons were irradiated but we present the case of the most seriously injured three workers. The radiation doses that would have been received by the three operators near the incriminated container have been evaluated to 17, 10 and 3 Grays. For the operators situated at five meters from the container and that has received three Grays, the first peak of criticality has been estimated at 2.1017 fissions. The number of fissions posterior to the first peak has been estimated between 4.1017 and 5.1018. In the three cases, the dose received by the organism has been attributed for about 40% to the neutrons and 60% to gamma radiations. The first operator presented an initial intense phase of acute irradiation syndrome. He received a graft of hematopoietic cells given by a sister of him on the sixth day, he was still alive 29 days later during the visit of the Commission, but he was in a coma and died shortly afterwards. The second victim has been equally reached by an acute irradiation syndrome, accompanied by a severe myeloid depression. At the ninth day, he received a blood graft coming from umbilical cord. He recovered a part of his own marrow, platelets excepted. He suffers from intense pains. A survival chance exists. The third victim was in an adjoining room, at about five meters far from the accident. He has been reached, but in a lower extent, by the acute irradiation syndrome and a low myeloid depression, that has decreased after a growth factors treatment. The prognosis is optimist in his case. The fact that patients have survived for the first time such a long time has revealed a very particular pathology of neutrons-gamma mixed irradiation, with an appearance of new medical problems due to the multiple failure of organs. To notice, the week before the accident, stood at Paris the 6. International conference devoted to the control of criticality

  16. Interventions after serious reactor accidents

    Manifold and promising approaches to active measures to be taken during accidents were studied hypothetically at the HTR which already has outstanding inherent safety properties in respect of afterheat removal. Based on incident scenarios prepared for hypothetical air inleakage incidents, in particular into the core of the HTR module reactor, many and various peripheral conditions for intervention possibilities could be studied. In addition, intervention possibilities appropriate for the respective incidents were examined as to their feasibility and consequences to be expected after their application. From these studies suggestions were derived for verifying experiments. (orig./HP) With 66 refs., 24 tabs., 79 figs

  17. Probabilistic accident sequence recovery analysis

    Recovery analysis is a method that considers alternative strategies for preventing accidents in nuclear power plants during probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Consideration of possible recovery actions in PRAs has been controversial, and there seems to be a widely held belief among PRA practitioners, utility staff, plant operators, and regulators that the results of recovery analysis should be skeptically viewed. This paper provides a framework for discussing recovery strategies, thus lending credibility to the process and enhancing regulatory acceptance of PRA results and conclusions. (author)

  18. Design basis accident calculation problems

    Sudden failures of the primary circuit is the design basis accident of pressurized water reactors, being liable to affect the other two barriers separating the fission products from the environment. The calculation of the thermohydraulic behavior of the core and primary circuit is at present based, for the CEA, on the RELAP 4 code. However a second-generation code, POSEIDON, is being developed by the CEA, EDF and FRAMATOME to obtain a better description of the physical phenomena and a better estimate of safety margins. Other difficult problems arise in connection with the calculation of structural stresses and the behavior of the vessel during decompression

  19. Industrial Safety and Accidents Prevention

    Accident Hazards, dangers, losses and risk are what we would to like to eliminate, minimize or avoid in industry. Modern industries have created many opportunities for these against which man's primitive instincts offer no protection. In today's complex industrial environment safety has become major preoccupation, especially after the realization that there is a clear economic incentive to do so. Industrial hazards may cause by human error or by physical or mechanical malfunction, it is very often possible to eliminate the worst consequences of human error by engineering modification. But the modification also needs checking very thoroughly to ensue that it has not introduced some new and unsuspected hazard. (author)

  20. The cost of nuclear accidents in France

    IRSN has produced estimates for costs of possible nuclear accidents on French PWRs. This paper outlines the strong differences between severe accidents, which feature a core melt but more or less controlled radioactive releases, and major accidents implying massive releases. In the first case, crisis managers would be faced with a mainly 'economic' accident, the larger part of costs being borne in a diffused fashion by the economy at large (image costs and impacts on electricity production). In the second case, authorities would be faced with the challenges of a full-scale radiological crisis involving sizeable areas of contaminated territories and large numbers of radiological refugees. (author)

  1. Monitoring severe accidents using AI techniques

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011, there has been increasing concern regarding severe accidents in nuclear facilities. Severe accident scenarios are difficult for operators to monitor and identify. Therefore, accurate prediction of a severe accident is important in order to manage it appropriately in the unfavorable conditions. In this study, artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as support vector classification (SVC), probabilistic neural network (PNN), group method of data handling (GMDH), and fuzzy neural network (FNN), were used to monitor the major transient scenarios of a severe accident caused by three different initiating events, the hot-leg loss of coolant accident (LOCA), the cold-leg LOCA, and the steam generator tube rupture in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The SVC and PNN models were used for the event classification. The GMDH and FNN models were employed to accurately predict the important timing representing severe accident scenarios. In addition, in order to verify the proposed algorithm, data from a number of numerical simulations were required in order to train the AI techniques due to the shortage of real LOCA data. The data was acquired by performing simulations using the MAAP4 code. The prediction accuracy of the three types of initiating events was sufficiently high to predict severe accident scenarios. Therefore, the AI techniques can be applied successfully in the identification and monitoring of severe accident scenarios in real PWRs.

  2. SAMSON: Severe Accident Management System Online Network

    SAMSON, Severe Accident Management System Online Network, is a computational tool used in the event of a nuclear power plant accident by accident managers in the Technical Support Centers (TSC) and Emergency Offsite Facilities (EOF). SAMSON examines over 150 status points monitored by nuclear power plant process computers during a severe accident and makes predictions about when core damage, support plate failure, and reactor vessel failure will occur. These predictions are based on the current state of the plant assuming that all safety equipment not already operating will fail. The status points analyzed include radiation levels, flow rates, pressure levels, temperatures and water levels. SAMSON uses an expert system as well as neural networks trained with the back propagation learning algorithm to make predictions. Previous training on data from accident analysis code allows SAMSON to associate different states in the plant with different times to critical failures. The accidents currently recognized by SAMSON include steam generator tube ruptures (SGTR), with breaks ranging from one tube to eights tubes, and loss of coolant accidents (LOCA), with breaks ranging from 0.001 square feet in size to breaks 3.0 square feet. SAMSON contains several neural networks for each accident type and break size, and chooses the correct network after accident classification by in expert system. SAMSON also provides information concerning the status of plant sensors and recovery strategies

  3. Medical experience: Chernobyl and other accidents

    A radiation accident can be defined as an involuntary relevant exposure of man to ionising radiation or radioactive material. Provided one of the ensuing criteria is met with at least one person involved in an excursion of ionising radiation and or radioactive material, the respective incident can be considered a radiation accident in accordance with ICRP, NCRP (US), and WHO: ≥0.25 Sv total body irradiation with lesions of the rapidly dividing tissues; ≥6 Sv cutaneous and local irradiation; ≥0.4 Sv local irradiation of other organ systems through external sources; incorporation equal to or in excess of more than half of the maximum permissible organ burden; and medical accidents meeting one of the above criteria. Several actions have been taken to categorise radiation accidents in order to learn from previous accidents in terms of both managerial and medical experience. For this presentation three approaches will be discussed concerning their relevance to the individual treatment and risk management. This will be obtained by applying three classification schemes to all known radiation accidents: 1. classification with respect to the accident mechanism, 2. classification concerning the radiation injury, and 3. classification concerning the extent of the accident. In a fourth chapter the efficacy of bone marrow transplantation will briefly be commented on based on the accumulated experience of about 400 radiation accidents world-wide. (author)

  4. Systematics of Reconstructed Process Facility Criticality Accidents

    Pruvost, N.L.; McLaughlin, T.P.; Monahan, S.P.

    1999-09-19

    The systematics of the characteristics of twenty-one criticality accidents occurring in nuclear processing facilities of the Russian Federation, the United States, and the United Kingdom are examined. By systematics the authors mean the degree of consistency or agreement between the factual parameters reported for the accidents and the experimentally known conditions for criticality. The twenty-one reported process criticality accidents are not sufficiently well described to justify attempting detailed neutronic modeling. However, results of classic hand calculations confirm the credibility of the reported accident conditions.

  5. Fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Koch-Henriksen, Nils;

    2006-01-01

    -1996. The end of follow-up was 1 January 1999. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for various types of fatal accidents. A total of 76 persons (48 men and 28 women) died from accidents, whereas the expected number of fatalities from such causes was 55.7 (31.4 men and 24.3 women). Thus, the...... particularly high for deaths from burns (SMR = 8.90) and suffocation (SMR = 5.57). We conclude that persons with MS are more prone to fatal accidents than the general population. The excess risk is due not to traffic accidents but to burns and suffocation....

  6. Review of specific radiological accident considerations

    Specific points of guidance provided in the forthcoming document A Guide to Radiological Accident Considerations for Siting and Design of Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities are discussed. Of these, the following are considered of particular interest to analysts of hypothetical accidents: onsite dose limits; population dose, public health effects, and environmental contamination as accident consequences which should be addressed; risk analysis; natural phenomena as accident initiators; recommended dose models; multiple organ equivalent dose; and recommended methods and parameters for source terms and release amount calculations. Comments are being invited on this document, which is undergoing rewrite after the first stage of peer review

  7. Accident selection methodology for TA-55 FSAR

    In the past, the selection of representative accidents for refined analysis from the numerous scenarios identified in hazards analyses (HAs) has involved significant judgment and has been difficult to defend. As part of upgrading the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the TA-55 plutonium facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, an accident selection process was developed that is mostly mechanical and reproducible in nature and fulfills the requirements of the Department of Energy (DOE) Standard 3009 and DOE Order 5480.23. Among the objectives specified by this guidance are the requirements that accident screening (1) consider accidents during normal and abnormal operating conditions, (2) consider both design basis and beyond design basis accidents, (3) characterize accidents by category (operational, natural phenomena, etc.) and by type (spill, explosion, fire, etc.), and (4) identify accidents that bound all foreseeable accident types. The accident selection process described here in the context of the TA-55 FSAR is applicable to all types of DOE facilities

  8. Genetic effects of the Chernobyl accident

    Genetic radiation effects resulted from the Chernobyl accident were considered for the population of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Techniques of the assessment of genetic risk of exposure of a man was discussed. Results of cytogenetic examination of the population were presented as well as health state of pregnants and newborns following the Chernobyl accident. Elevated level of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of peripheric blood in participants of the Chernobyl accident response and in population of contaminated zones. This fact testifies on the real genetic injury in cells due to accident. Growth of intrauterine losses in pregnancy, congenital anomalies, hereditary diseases in descendants of exposed parents. 17 figs

  9. Development of severe accident training support system

    In order for appropriate decision-making during plant operation and management, the professional knowledge, expert's opinion, and previous experiences as well as information for current status are utilized. The operation support systems such as training simulators have been developed to assist these decision-making process, and most of them cover from normal operation to emergency operation because of the very low frequency of severe accident and of uncertaintics included in severe accident phenomena and scenarios. However, the architectures for severe accident management are being established based on severe accident management guidelines in some developed countries. Recentrly, in Korea, as teh severe accident management guideline was developed, the basis for establishing severe accident management architecture is prepared and this leads to the development of tool for systematic education and training for personnel related to severe accident management. The severe accident taining support system thus is developed to assist decision-making during execution of severe accident management guidelines by providing plant status information, prefessional knowledge for phenomena and scenarios, expected behavior for strategy execution, and so on

  10. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

  11. Chernobylsk NPP accident and its medical effects

    Medical effects of the Chernobyl accident for various groups of people engaged in liquidation of the accident aftereffects and residents of the regions affected are assessed. Specific medical and social recommendations for each of the five groups of patients are made. Special attention is paid to the health of children who were exposed to external radiation in combination with intake of iodine isotopes. Extremely unfavourable influence of the mass media on the health of people involved in the Chernobyl accident is painted out. The necessity of adequate rehabilitation measures for various categories of patients involved in a large-scale accident is emphasized

  12. Mapping patterns and characteristics of fatal road accidents in Israel

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    without a priori assumptions about the expected outcome of the study. Kohonen neural networks reveal five accident patterns: (i) single-vehicle accidents of young drivers; (ii) multiple-vehicle accidents between young drivers; (iii) accidents involving either motorcycles or bicycles; (iv) accidents where...

  13. 41 CFR 101-39.407 - Accident records.

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Accident records. 101-39...-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.4-Accidents and Claims § 101-39.407 Accident records. If GSA's records of vehicle accidents indicate that a particular activity has had an unusually high accident...

  14. 22 CFR 102.17 - Reports on accident.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports on accident. 102.17 Section 102.17... Accidents Abroad Foreign Aircraft Accidents Involving United States Persons Or Property § 102.17 Reports on accident. When an accident occurs to a foreign aircraft in the district of a Foreign Service post...

  15. Simulation of severe accident in reactor core for training and accident management

    An Advanced Real-time Severe Accident Simulation (ARTSAS) train reactor operators and accident management teams for scenarios simulating severe accidents in nuclear reactors. The code has been integrated with the real-time tools and the RAINBO graphic package to provide training and analysis tools on workstations as well as on full-scope simulators. (orig.) (4 refs., 1 fig.)

  16. CANDU safety under severe accidents

    The characteristics of the CANDU reactor relevant to severe accidents are set first by the inherent properties of the design, and second by the Canadian safety/licensing approach. The pressure-tube concept allows the separate, low-pressure, heavy-water moderator to act as a backup heat sink even if there is no water in the fuel channels. Should this also fail, the calandria shell itself can contain the debris, with heat being transferred to the water-filled shield tank around the core. Should the severe core damage sequence progress further, the shield tank and the concrete reactor vault significantly delay the challenge to containment. Furthermore, should core melt lead to containment overpressure, the containment behaviour is such that leaks through the concrete containment wall reduce the possibility of catastrophic structural failure. The Canadian licensing philosophy requires that each accident, together with failure of each safety system in turn, be assessed (and specified dose limits met) as part of the design and licensing basis. In response, designers have provided CANDUs with two independent dedicated shutdown systems, and the likelihood of Anticipated Transients Without Scram is negligible. Probabilistic safety assessment studies have been performed on operating CANDU plants, and on the 4 x 880 MW(e) Darlington station now under construction; furthermore a scoping risk assessment has been done for a CANDU 600 plant. They indicate that the summed severe core damage frequency is of the order of 5 x 10-6/year. 95 refs, 3 tabs

  17. CANDU safety under severe accidents

    The characteristics of the CANDU reactor relevant to severe accidents are set first by the inherent properties of the design, and second by the Canadian safety/licensing approach. Probabilistic safety assessment studies have been performed on operating CANDU plants, and on the 4 x 880 MW(e) Darlington station now under construction; furthermore a scoping risk assessment has been done for a CANDU 600 plant. They indicate that the summed severe core damage frequency is of the order of 5 x 10-6/year. CANDU nuclear plant designers and owner/operators share information and operational experience nationally and internationally through the CANDU Owners' Group (COG). The research program generally emphasizes the unique aspects of the CANDU concept, such as heat removal through the moderator, but it has also contributed significantly to areas generic to most power reactors such as hydrogen combustion, containment failure modes, fission product chemistry, and high temperature fuel behaviour. Abnormal plant operating procedures are aimed at first using event-specific emergency operating procedures, in cases where the event can be diagnosed. If this is not possible, generic procedures are followed to control Critical Safety Parameters and manage the accident. Similarly, the on-site contingency plans include a generic plan covering overall plant response strategy, and a specific plan covering each category of contingency

  18. Correspondence model of occupational accidents

    Juan C. Conte

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a new generalized model for the diagnosis and prediction of accidents among the Spanish workforce. Based on observational data of the accident rate in all Spanish companies over eleven years (7,519,732 accidents, we classified them in a new risk-injury contingency table (19×19. Through correspondence analysis, we obtained a structure composed of three axes whose combination identifies three separate risk and injury groups, which we used as a general Spanish pattern. The most likely or frequent relationships between the risk and injuries identified in the pattern facilitated the decision-making process in companies at an early stage of risk assessment. Each risk-injury group has its own characteristics, which are understandable within the phenomenological framework of the accident. The main advantages of this model are its potential application to any other country and the feasibility of contrasting different country results. One limiting factor, however, is the need to set a common classification framework for risks and injuries to enhance comparison, a framework that does not exist today. The model aims to manage work-related accidents automatically at any level.Apresentamos aqui um modelo generalizado para o diagnóstico e predição de acidentes na classe de trabalhadores da Espanha. Baseados em dados sobre a frequência de acidentes em todas as companhias da Espanha em 11 anos (7.519.732 acidentes, nós os classificamos em uma nova tabela de contingência risco-injúria (19×19. Através de uma análise por correspondência obtivemos uma estrutura composta por 3 eixos cuja combinação identifica 3 grupos separados de risco e injúria, que nós usamos como um perfil geral na Espanha. As mais prováveis ou frequentes relações entre risco e injúrias identificadas nesse perfil facilitaram o processo de decisão nas companhias em um estágio inicial de apreciação do risco. Cada grupo de risco-injúria tem suas próprias caracter

  19. Location Intelligence Solutions

    Location Intelligence (LI) means using the spatial dimension of information as a key to support business processes. This spatial dimension has to be defined by geographic coordinates. Storing these spatial objects in a database allows for attaching a 'meaning' to them, like 'current position', 'border', 'building' or 'room'. Now the coordinates represent real-world objects, which can be relevant for the measurement, documentation, control or optimization of (parameters of) business processes aiming at different business objectives. But LI can only be applied, if the locations can be determined with an accuracy (in space and time) appropriate for the business process in consideration. Therefore the first step in any development of a LI solution is the analysis of the business process itself regarding its requirements for spatial and time resolution and accuracy. The next step is the detailed analysis of the surrounding conditions of the process: Does the process happen indoor and/or outdoor? Are there moving objects? If yes, how fast are they? How does the relevant environment look like? Is technical infrastructure available? Is the process restricted by regulations? As a result, a proper Location Detection Technology (LDT) has to be chosen in order to get reliable and accurate positions of the relevant objects. At the highly challenging conditions of the business processes IAEA inspectors are working with, the chosen LDTs have to deliver reliable positioning on ''room-level'' accuracy, even if there is no location enabling infrastructure in place, the objects (people) mostly are indoors and have to work under strong regulations. The presentation will give insights into innovative LI solutions based on technologies of different LDT providers. Pros and cons of combinations of different LDT (like multi- GNSS, IMU, camera, and human interaction based positioning) will be discussed from the

  20. Severe Accident Research Program plan update

    In August 1989, the staff published NUREG-1365, ''Revised Severe Accident Research Program Plan.'' Since 1989, significant progress has been made in severe accident research to warrant an update to NUREG-1365. The staff has prepared this SARP Plan Update to: (1) Identify those issues that have been closed or are near completion, (2) Describe the progress in our understanding of important severe accident phenomena, (3) Define the long-term research that is directed at improving our understanding of severe accident phenomena and developing improved methods for assessing core melt progression, direct containment heating, and fuel-coolant interactions, and (4) Reflect the growing emphasis in two additional areas--advanced light water reactors, and support for the assessment of criteria for containment performance during severe accidents. The report describes recent major accomplishments in understanding the underlying phenomena that can occur during a severe accident. These include Mark I liner failure, severe accident scaling methodology, source term issues, core-concrete interactions, hydrogen transport and combustion, TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project, and direct containment heating. The report also describes the major planned activities under the SARP over the next several years. These activities will focus on two phenomenological issues (core melt progression, and fuel-coolant interactions and debris coolability) that have significant uncertainties that impact our understanding and ability to predict severe accident phenomena and their effect on containment performance SARP will also focus on severe accident code development, assessment and validation. As the staff completes the research on severe accident issues that relate to current generation reactors, continued research will focus on efforts to independently evaluate the capability of new advanced light water reactor designs to withstand severe accidents

  1. Locating the stranger rapist.

    Davies, A; Dale, A

    1996-04-01

    As part of a larger project evaluating aspects of offender profiling, an initial study was undertaken of the geographic aspects of approximately 300 sexual offences carried out by 79 stranger rapists. The objective was to focus further research on the topic into potentially useful channels, but information thought to be of immediate use to investigating officers was also produced. It was ascertained that at least one-fifth of the sample of stranger rapists were itinerant to a greater or lesser extent. Analysis of the cases where both the offender's address and the location where he approached the victim were known, indicated that the majority of attacks (75 per cent) were initiated within five miles of the offenders' homes. The apparent reasons for victims being approached unusually far away included targeting of locations where numbers of suitable victims were available; raping during relatively sophisticated property offences; 'prowling' or 'hunting' over large areas by subjects who spent considerable amounts of time so doing; access to transport; and familiarity with widely dispersed neighbourhoods, often due to the offender having lived in two or more locations. As a result of this work, future research on the geography of rape will be directed towards those aspects of the offences which have been identified as relevant to the distance between an offender's base and the site where he approached his victim. PMID:8999277

  2. Accident Analysis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Polycube Stabilization Process

    The Polycube Stabilization Project involves low temperature oxidation, without combustion, of polystyrene cubes using the production muffle furnaces in Glovebox HC-21C located in the Remote Mechanical ''C'' (RMC) Line in Room 230A in the 234-52 Facility. Polycubes are polystyrene cubes containing various concentrations of plutonium and uranium oxides. Hundreds of these cubes were manufactured for criticality experiments, and currently exist as unstabilized storage forms at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This project is designed to stabilize and prepare the polycube material for stable storage using a process very similar to the earlier processing of sludges in these furnaces. The significant difference is the quantity of hydrogenous material present, and the need to place additional controls on the heating rate of the material. This calculation note documents the analyses of the Representative Accidents identified in Section 2.4.4 of Hazards Analysis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Polycube Stabilization Process, HNF-7278 (HNF 2000). These two accidents, ''Deflagration in Glovebox HC-21C due to Loss of Power'' and ''Seismic Failure of Glovebox HC-21C'', will be further assessed in this accident analysis

  3. Cold Vacuum Drying facility design basis accident analysis documentation

    CROWE, R.D.

    2000-08-08

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR. The calculations in this document address the design basis accidents (DBAs) selected for analysis in HNF-3553, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report'', Annex B, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' The objective is to determine the quantity of radioactive particulate available for release at any point during processing at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and to use that quantity to determine the amount of radioactive material released during the DBAs. The radioactive material released is used to determine dose consequences to receptors at four locations, and the dose consequences are compared with the appropriate evaluation guidelines and release limits to ascertain the need for preventive and mitigative controls.

  4. Cold Vacuum Drying facility design basis accident analysis documentation

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR. The calculations in this document address the design basis accidents (DBAs) selected for analysis in HNF-3553, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report'', Annex B, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' The objective is to determine the quantity of radioactive particulate available for release at any point during processing at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and to use that quantity to determine the amount of radioactive material released during the DBAs. The radioactive material released is used to determine dose consequences to receptors at four locations, and the dose consequences are compared with the appropriate evaluation guidelines and release limits to ascertain the need for preventive and mitigative controls

  5. Techniques and Tools of NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    McDanels, Steve J.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia accident investigation was a fusion of many disciplines into a single effort. From the recovery and reconstruction of the debris, Figure 1, to the analysis, both destructive and nondestructive, of chemical and metallurgical samples, Figure 2, a multitude of analytical techniques and tools were employed. Destructive and non-destructive testing were utilized in tandem to determine if a breach in the left wing of the Orbiter had occurred, and if so, the path of the resultant high temperature plasma flow. Nondestructive analysis included topometric scanning, laser mapping, and real-time radiography. These techniques were useful in constructing a three dimensional virtual representation of the reconstruction project, specifically the left wing leading edge reinforced carbon/carbon heat protectant panels. Similarly, they were beneficial in determining where sampling should be performed on the debris. Analytic testing included such techniques as Energy Dispersive Electron Microprobe Analysis (EMPA), Electron Spectroscopy Chemical Analysis (ESCA), and X-Ray dot mapping; these techniques related the characteristics of intermetallics deposited on the leading edge of the left wing adjacent to the location of a suspected plasma breach during reentry. The methods and results of the various analyses, along with their implications into the accident, are discussed, along with the findings and recommendations of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board. Likewise, NASA's Return To Flight efforts are highlighted.

  6. Accident prediction model for public highway-rail grade crossings.

    Lu, Pan; Tolliver, Denver

    2016-05-01

    Considerable research has focused on roadway accident frequency analysis, but relatively little research has examined safety evaluation at highway-rail grade crossings. Highway-rail grade crossings are critical spatial locations of utmost importance for transportation safety because traffic crashes at highway-rail grade crossings are often catastrophic with serious consequences. The Poisson regression model has been employed to analyze vehicle accident frequency as a good starting point for many years. The most commonly applied variations of Poisson including negative binomial, and zero-inflated Poisson. These models are used to deal with common crash data issues such as over-dispersion (sample variance is larger than the sample mean) and preponderance of zeros (low sample mean and small sample size). On rare occasions traffic crash data have been shown to be under-dispersed (sample variance is smaller than the sample mean) and traditional distributions such as Poisson or negative binomial cannot handle under-dispersion well. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare various alternate highway-rail grade crossing accident frequency models that can handle the under-dispersion issue. The contributions of the paper are two-fold: (1) application of probability models to deal with under-dispersion issues and (2) obtain insights regarding to vehicle crashes at public highway-rail grade crossings. PMID:26922288

  7. Source term modelling in case of nuclear accidents

    The relative isotopic composition of the nuclides released during a nuclear accidents depends strongly on the implied mechanisms in the failure of fuel elements, safety barriers and accident dynamics. Also, the released fraction depends on the volatility degree and the temperature attaint in the reactor core and the fuel elements during the accident, respectively. At regime operation temperature, when the fuel sheaths are failed the noble gases (Xe and Kr isotopes), the extremely volatile and volatile fission products (I isotopes and Cs, Te and Ru, respectively) are released into the reactor primary circuit. As the temperature increases, other isotopes are released too. Two tables are given presenting a classification of the isotopes in groups of boiling and melting point temperatures, respectively. From the radiologic point of view, evaluation of the impact of the contaminant radioactive release requires consideration of several factors, namely: - activity, half-life, chemical form, biological hazard, geometrical size of the radioactive aerosols, etc. The activity of each isotope at the reactor stack or at the external walls of the reactor building is called source term. The isotopic and combined activity in a point of the environment located at a given distance from the source is evaluated by means of dispersion models starting from the source term. An expression of the activity of a given isotope in terms of its reactor core inventory and the parameters of the safety barriers is presented

  8. An accident involving transport of radioactive materials, Canada 1994 March

    AECL-Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) located at Chalk River, Ontario, routinely ships radioisotopes in bulk to Nordion International Inc. in Kanata, Ontario. On 1994 March 22, an AECL vehicle carrying three packages containing radioisotopes collided with a tractor trailer carrying steel, approximately 15 km east of the Chalk River Laboratories. The AECL-CRL emergency response plan was activated. A series of post-accident meetings were held to evaluate the effectiveness of the plan and to address any identified deficiencies. AECL-CRL is continuing to work towards addressing the identified deficiencies. (author). 2 figs

  9. Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-05-15

    The conventional PSA techniques cannot adequately evaluate all events. The conventional PSA models usually focus on single internal events such as DBAs, the external hazards such as fire, seismic. However, the Fukushima accident of Japan in 2011 reveals that very rare event is necessary to be considered in the PSA model to prevent the radioactive release to environment caused by poor treatment based on lack of the information, and to improve the emergency operation procedure. Especially, the results from PSA can be used to decision making for regulators. Moreover, designers can consider the weakness of plant safety based on the quantified results and understand accident sequence based on human actions and system availability. This study is for PSA modeling of combined accidents including total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident. The TLOFW accident is a representative accident involving the failure of cooling through secondary side. If the amount of heat transfer is not enough due to the failure of secondary side, the heat will be accumulated to the primary side by continuous core decay heat. Transients with loss of feedwater include total loss of feedwater accident, loss of condenser vacuum accident, and closure of all MSIVs. When residual heat removal by the secondary side is terminated, the safety injection into the RCS with direct primary depressurization would provide alternative heat removal. This operation is called feed and bleed (F and B) operation. Combined accidents including TLOFW accident are very rare event and partially considered in conventional PSA model. Since the necessity of F and B operation is related to plant conditions, the PSA modeling for combined accidents including TLOFW accident is necessary to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities.The PSA is significant to assess the risk of NPPs, and to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities. Even though the combined accident is very rare event, the consequence of combined

  10. Radiological accidents balance in medicine; Bilan des accidents radiologiques en medecine

    Nenot, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    This work deals with the radiological accidents in medicine. In medicine, the radiation accidents on medical personnel and patients can be the result of over dosage and bad focusing of radiotherapy sealed sources. Sometimes, the accidents, if they are unknown during a time enough for the source to be spread and to expose a lot of persons (in the case of source dismantling for instance) can take considerable dimensions. Others accidents can come from bad handling of linear accelerators and from radionuclide kinetics in some therapies. Some examples of accidents are given. (O.L.). 11 refs.

  11. Medical consequences of a nuclear plant accident

    The report gives background information concerning radiation and the biological medical effects and damages caused by radiation. The report also discusses nuclear power plant accidents and efforts from the medical service in the case of a nuclear power plant accident. (L.F.)

  12. Occupational blood exposure accidents in the Netherlands.

    Wijk, P.T.L. van; Schneeberger, P.M.; Heimeriks, K.; Boland, G.J.; Karagiannis, I.; Geraedts, J.; Ruijs, W.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To make proper evaluation of prevention policies possible, data on the incidence and associated medical costs of occupational blood exposure accidents in the Netherlands are needed. METHODS: Descriptive analysis of blood exposure accidents and risk estimates for occupational groups. Cost

  13. Light-water reactor accident classification

    The evolution of existing classifications and definitions of light-water reactor accidents is considered. Licensing practice and licensing trends are examined with respect to terms of art such as Class 8 and Class 9 accidents. Interim definitions, consistent with current licensing practice and the regulations, are proposed for these terms of art

  14. Chernobyl NPP accident. Overcoming experience. Acquired lessons

    This book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of accident on the Chernobyl NPP unit 4. History of construction, causes of the accident and its consequences, actions for its mitigation are described. Modern situation with Chernobyl NPP decommissioning and transferring of 'Ukryttya' shelter into ecologically safe system are mentioned. The future of Chernobyl site and exclusion zone was discussed

  15. Radiological accident 'The Citadel' medical aspects

    The work exposes the medical actions carried out in the mitigation of the consequences of the accident and its main results. In a facility of storage of radioactive waste in Caracas, Venezuela, it was happened a radiological accident. This event caused radioactive contamination of the environment, as well as the irradiation and radioactive contamination of at least 10 people involved in the fact, in its majority children. Cuban institutions participated in response to the accident. Among the decisions adopted by the team of combined work Cuban-Venezuelan, we find the one of transferring affected people to Cuba, for their dosimetric and medical evaluation. Being designed a work strategy to develop the investigations to people affected by the radiological accident, in correspondence with the circumstances, magnitude and consequences of the accident. The obtained main results are: 100% presented affectations in its health, not associate directly to the accident, although the accident influenced in its psychological state. In 3 of studied people they were detected radioactive contamination with Cesium -137 with dose among 2.01 X 10-4 Sv up to 2.78 X 10-4 Sv. This accident demonstrated the necessity to have technical capacities to face these events and the importance of the international solidarity. (author)

  16. Light-water reactor accident classification

    Washburn, B.W.

    1980-02-01

    The evolution of existing classifications and definitions of light-water reactor accidents is considered. Licensing practice and licensing trends are examined with respect to terms of art such as Class 8 and Class 9 accidents. Interim definitions, consistent with current licensing practice and the regulations, are proposed for these terms of art.

  17. Multiple Myeloma in Post Nuclear Accident Crisis

    Wiwanitkit, Somsri; Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2012-01-01

    The problem of 2011 nuclear accident crisis draws attention of physicians and medical scientists around the world. The cancer induction is an important adverse effect of exposure to radionuclide. In this specific article, the multiple myeloma, an important hematological cancer, in the post nuclear accident crisis will be discussed.

  18. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36.513 Section 36.513 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  19. 76 FR 55079 - Recreational Vessel Accident Reporting

    2011-09-06

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... SECURITY Coast Guard Recreational Vessel Accident Reporting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... to improve the recreational boating accident reporting process. NBSAC recommended that the...

  20. 49 CFR 659.33 - Accident notification.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident notification. 659.33 Section 659.33 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION... Agency § 659.33 Accident notification. (a) The oversight agency must require the rail transit agency...

  1. Structural and containment response to LMFBR accidents

    The adequacy of the containment of fast reactors has been traditionally evaluated by analyzing the response of the containment to a spectrum of core disruptive accidents. The current approach in the U.S. is to consider fast reactor response to accidents in terms of four lines of assurance (LOAs). Thus, LOA-1 is to prevent accidents, LOA-2 is to limit core damage, LOA-3 is to control accident progression and LOA-4 is to attenuate radiological consequences. Thus, the programs on the adequacy of containment response fall into LOA-3. Significant programs to evaluate the response of the containment to core disruptive accidents and, thereby, to assure control of accident progression are in progress. These include evaluating the mechanical response of the primary system to core disruptive accidents and evaluating the thermal response of the reactor structures to core melting, including the effects this causes on the secondary containment. The analysis of structural response employs calculated pressure-volume-time loading functions. The results of the analyses establish the response of the containment to the prescribed loadings. The analysis of thermal response requires an assessment of the distribution and state of the fuel, fission products and activated materials from accident initiation to final disposition in a stable configuration

  2. The screening approach for review of accident management programmes

    In this lecture the screening approach for review of accident management programmes are presented. It contains objective trees for accident management: logic structure of the approach; objectives and safety functions for accident management; safety principles

  3. Post-Traumatic Stress After a Traffic Accident

    ... Stress Disorder | Post-traumatic Stress After a Traffic Accident Each year more than 6 million traffic accidents occur in the United States. If you've been in an accident, you might have experienced many different feelings at ...

  4. Medical consequences of radiation accidents

    Since 1945, more than 1.8 x 1021 Bq of artificial radionuclides have been released into the atmosphere. Approximately 2.04 x 1018B, i.e. approx. 0.11%, are the result of accidents at nuclear industrial facilities. This percentage is causing increased interest among researchers. This is due to the fact that in the wake of accidental release radionuclides become distributed unevenly across the Earth's surface, and the associated exposures, fluctuating from background level to several grays, an induce both stochastic and deterministic effects in the irradiated population. A comparative analysis of the medical consequences of the twentieth century's most serious nuclear events, namely the authorized dumping of high level radioactive waste into the river Techa in 1950, the explosion of a storage tank containing long lived radioactive waste in the Southern Urals in 1957, the fire at Sellafield in 1957 and the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986, has shown that when timely countermeasures are taken, the worst immediate and delayed medical consequences of an accident can be avoided. The consequences that have since been ascertained are a brief rise in the mortality rate during the first five years, with a dose in excess of 500 mSv; an increase in the incidence of leukaemia, with an absolute risk of up to 1.1. x 10-4 man·years/Gy; and increased mortality among children with external radiation doses of up to 1000 mSv, and internal doses of 99-190 mSv on the bone surfaces of neonates or 170-600 mSv on the bone surfaces of the mother. There is reliable evidence that, with external gamma radiation doses in excess of 520 mSv, the mortality rate for all malignant tumorous increases by 45-58% compared with the control level. There is also a significant increase in thyroid cancer frequency four to ten years after the incorporation of iodine isotopes by children aged up to 7 years, including an accumulation period in the womb. (author). 12 refs, 7 tabs

  5. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  6. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M andO 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  7. Severe accidents in Nuclear Power Plants

    For the assessment of the safety of nuclear power plants it is of great importance the analyses of severe accidents since they allow to estimate the possible failure models of the containment, and also permit knowing the magnitude and composition of the radioactive material that would be released to the environment in case of an accident upon population and the environment. This paper presents in general terms the basic principles for conducting the analysis of severe accidents, the fundamental sources in the generation of radionuclides and aerosols, the transportation and deposition processes, and also makes reference to de main codes used in the modulation of severe accidents. The final part of the paper contents information on how severe accidents are dialed with the regulatory point view in different countries

  8. Methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions. An accident modification function is a mathematical function describing systematic variation in the effects of road safety measures. The paper describes ten guidelines. An example is given of how to use...... the guidelines. The importance of exploratory analysis and an iterative approach in developing accident modification functions is stressed. The example shows that strict compliance with all the guidelines may be difficult, but represents a level of stringency that should be strived for. Currently the...... main limitations in developing accident modification functions are the small number of good evaluation studies and the often huge variation in estimates of effect. It is therefore still not possible to develop accident modification functions for very many road safety measures. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All...

  9. General Aspects of the JCO Criticality Accident

    A criticality accident occurred on September 30, 1999, at a uranium processing plant of JCO Company in Tokaimura. Delayed criticality continued for approximately 20 hours after the first few prompt critical peaks. Two employees subsequently died. Nearby residents were evacuated or told to remain indoors. This accident was at Level 4 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. A table of radiation exposures resulting from the accident is given. Besides dealing with health physics, the investigation committee's final report covered technical observations and the nature of the accident. The direct causes of the accident were found to be violation of rules and technical specifications and deviation from licensing conditions; some of these were permitted by the company itself, and fatal mistakes were made by employees on the job without consulting with authorized persons. Many recommendations to revise government regulations on licensing of nuclear fuel handling were discussed in the report

  10. Sonar Locator Systems

    1985-01-01

    An underwater locator device called a Pinger is attached to an airplane's flight recorder for recovery in case of a crash. Burnett Electronics Pinger Model 512 resulted from a Burnett Electronics Laboratory, Inc./Langley Research Center contract for development of a search system for underwater mines. The Pinger's battery-powered transmitter is activated when immersed in water, and sends multidirectional signals for up to 500 hours. When a surface receiver picks up the signal, a diver can retrieve the pinger and the attached airplane flight recorder. Other pingers are used to track whales, mark underwater discoveries and assist oil drilling vessels.

  11. The LHCb Vertex Locator

    Eklund, L

    2004-01-01

    LHCb is an experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), dedicated to the study of b-hadron physics. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is a sub-detector which reconstructs primary and secondary vertices, which is of importance for the processes under study. It is a silicon micro-strip detector operated in a harsh radiation environment with demands of high read-out speed and the use of minimal material. In this paper, the LHCb VELO is introduced and the technology choices of the detector are motivated. We report on the present status of the project and one possible upgrade technology is presented.

  12. Immigrants' location preferences

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment and...... lack of a local immigrant population by migrating to large municipalities. Lack of local fellow countrymen, however, increases the exit rate to medium-sized as well as large municipalities. This finding is likely to be a result of the dispersal policy. Finally, refugees react strongly to assignment to...

  13. General minisum circle location

    Körner, Mark; Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    In our paper we approximate a set of given points by a general circle. More precisely, we consider the problem of locating and scaling the unit ball of some given norm k1 with respect to xed points on the plane such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the xed points is...... minimized, where the distance is measured by a norm k2. We present results for the general case. In the case that k1 and k2 are both block norms, we are able to identify a nite dominating set in R3 for the problem, which can be obtained as the intersection of cones....

  14. Review of Severe Accident Phenomena in LWR and Related Severe Accident Analysis Codes

    Muhammad Hashim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, importance of severe accident provision is highlighted in view of Fukushima Daiichi accident. Then, extensive review of the past researches on severe accident phenomena in LWR is presented within this study. Various complexes, physicochemical and radiological phenomena take place during various stages of the severe accidents of Light Water Reactor (LWR plants. The review deals with progression of the severe accidents phenomena by dividing into core degradation phenomena in reactor vessel and post core melt phenomena in the containment. The development of various computer codes to analyze these severe accidents phenomena is also summarized in the review. Lastly, the need of international activity is stressed to assemble various severe accidents related knowledge systematically from research organs and compile them on the open knowledge base via the internet to be available worldwide.

  15. Research of severe accident induced by small LOCA and accident mitigation

    Fangjiashan nuclear power plant is modeled, by using MAAP4 code. Base on this model, the small LOCA accident is calculated, which will cause the worst consequence. The response of the plant and relevant severe accident phenomena are obtained. The phenomena of DCH (direct containment heat) happened during the accident, containment failure and release of the fission production are analyzed. Then, according to the related severe accident management and characteristic of this accident, the strategy of mitigating the accident consequence is studied and calculated. The result indicated that the mitigation action is very efficient. Therefore, a feasible strategy of mitigating the severe accident consequence is provided for the three-loop plant like Fangjiashan in China. (authors)

  16. Nuclear accidents and thyroid - a stitch in time saves nine!

    The thyroid is a hormone secreting gland located superficially in the neck anterior to the trachea and below the thyroid cartilage. The normal adult gland weighs 15-20 g. Thyroid needs iodine to produce hormones that regulate body's energy and metabolism. It absorbs available iodine from the bloodstream. It cannot distinguish between stable iodine and radioactive iodine. In the event of nuclear accident huge amount of radioactive iodine (Iodine-131) will be released in the atmosphere. This will contaminate soil, plants, vegetables, water bodies etc. People residing in the vicinity will get radioactive iodine by inhalation and consuming contaminated food, water and milk. This radioactive iodine will saturate the thyroid gland. In neonates, infants and young children the thyroid gland is one of the most radiosensitive parts of the body. When thyroid cells absorb too much radioactive iodine, it can cause thyroid cancer over several years after the exposure. Neonates, infants and young children are at highest risk of developing thyroid cancer at a later stage in life. Incidence of thyroid cancer goes up in the native population after the nuclear reactor accident. Most of the thyroid cancers are papillary carcinomas and usually amenable to treatment with 10 year survival rate. It is believed that post nuclear accident carcinomas are more aggressive as compared to the usual papillary ca. Thyroid gland is at greatest risk from radioactive iodine and potassium iodide can protect the gland, if given as per the recommended dose schedule. The Chernobyl reactor accident and events around that time have proven beyond doubt that potassium iodide protects the gland. Thus, its proper use in rescue workers and survivors could effectively protect thyroid gland and prevent thyroid cancer. (author)

  17. European expert network for the reduction of uncertainties in severe accident safety issues (EURSAFE)

    EURSAFE thematic network was a concerted action in the sixth framework programme of the European Commission. It established a large consensus among the main actors in nuclear safety on the severe accident issues where large uncertainties still subsist. The conclusions were derived from a first-of-kind phenomena identification and ranking tables (PIRT) on all aspects of severe accident also realised in the frame of the project. Starting from a list of all severe accident phenomena containing approximately 1000 entries and established by the twenty partner organisations, 106 phenomena were retained eventually as both important for safety and still lacking sufficient knowledge. Ultimately, 21 research areas for addressing these phenomena regrouped according to their similarities were identified. A networking structure for implementing and executing the necessary research was proposed, which promotes integration and harmonisation of the different national programmes. A severe accident database structure was proposed to ensure preservation of experimental data and enhanced communication for data exchange and use for severe accident codes assessment. The final product, named EURSAFE, is a website network, http://asa2.jrc.it/eursafe, connecting nodes located at partner sites. As the result of an action involving R and D governmental institutions, regulatory bodies, nuclear industry, utilities and universities from six EU Member States (Finland, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, UK) plus JRC, three European third countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Switzerland), and USA, EURSAFE represents a significant step towards harmonisation and credibility of the approaches, and resolution of the remaining severe accident issues

  18. Numerical Reconstruction and Injury Biomechanism in a Car-Pedestrian Crash Accident

    ZOU Dong-hua; LI Zheng-dong; SHAO Yu; FENG Hao; CHEN Jian-guo; LIU Ning-guo; HUANG Ping; CHEN Yi-jiu

    2012-01-01

    Objective To reconstruct a car-pedestrian crash accident using numerical simulation technology and explore the injury biomechanism as forensic evidence for injury identification.Methods An integration of multi-body dynamic,finite elcment (FE),and classical method was applied to a car-pedestrian crash accident.The location of the collision and the details of the traffic accident were determined by vehicle trace verification and autopsy.The accident reconstruction was performed by coupling the three-dimensional car behavior from PC-CRASH with a MADYMO dummy model.The collision FE models of head and leg,developed from CT scans of human remains,were loaded with calculated dummy collision parameters.The data of the impact biomechanical responses were extracted in terms of von Mises stress,relative displacement,strain and stress fringes.Results The accident reconstruction results were identical with the examined ones and the biomechanism of head and leg injuries,illustrated through the FE methods,were consistent with the classical injury theories.Conclusion The numerical simulation technology is proved to be effective in identifying traffic accidents and exploring of injury biomechanism.

  19. Evaluation of accidents indicators as ergonomic intervention proposition in a chicken slaughterhouse

    Fabiano Takeda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The slaughterhouse industry makes Brazil a major producer and exporter of meat. In this perspective, this industry keeps in constant pursuit of competitiveness, and the activities within this sector are intensified to achieve greater productivity which results in occupational diseases and injury hazards. In order to propose measures that can contribute to the reduction of occupational accidents in poultry slaughterhouse, this research aims to evaluate and propose demands of ergonomic interventions based on accident numbers that occurred in the years 2012, 2013 and 2014 in a poultry slaughterhouse located in the region of São José – SC. The study is a field research with documental analysis and with the use of the inductive method. The data were evaluated quantitatively using spreadsheet and graphics. The results show that the total of 161 accidents assessed, the accidents with cuts were those with the highest number of cases. The causative agent that generated most accidents was the use of knives and the most affected part of the body was the upper limbs. The results show that the slaughterhouse presents demands of ergonomic interventions to adapt working conditions with a focus on reducing workplace accidents.

  20. ARGX-87: Accident Response Group Exercise, 1987: A Broken Arrow mini exercise

    A Broken Arrow mini exercise dubbed ''Accident Response Group Exercise - 1987'' (ARGX-87) was conducted on June 1, 1987 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNLL). The exercise started at 0445 PDT with a call from the Department of Energy (DOE) - EOC in Washington, DC, to the Albuquerque Operations (AL - ) - EOC. AL, in turn, called the Laboratory off-hour emergency number (Fire Dispatcher), who called the Laboratory Emergency Duty Officer (LEDO). The LEDO then contacted the Accident Response Group (ARG) Senior Scientific Advisor. Calls were placed to assemble appropriate members of the ARG in the ALERT Center. No phone number for SNLL was available at the Albuquerque Operations EOC, so a controller injected a message to SNLL to get them involved in the exercise. The messages received at the Laboratory identified the Air Force line item weapon system involved in the accident and the accident location. As people arrived at the ALERT Center they began discussing the details of the accident. They also started working the deployment logistics and other issues. Travel arrangements for the HOT SPOT equipment and ARG personnel were made for immediate deployment to the accident site in North Dakota. The exercise was terminated at 0840 as planned. While certain procedural deficiencies were noted, the exercise was considered a valuable learning experience. The results and observations from this experience will be used to refine the operating procedures and the training program

  1. National registration of accidents in Iceland.

    Olafsson, O; Axelsson, J

    1992-01-01

    Community based registration of accidents has been employed in Iceland from 1987. A form developed in the emergency ward at the city Hospital of Reykjavik has been used for the registration. The following issues have been registered: the type and the seriousness of the injury, treatment, place of accident and time of accident. Health centres in Iceland have been computerized from 1976. At the time being about half of the health centres participate in the registration with the information included in the form as the source. Every health center has its well defined district. The accidents among the inhabitants in each district is registered, while accidents among other people, e.g. tourists, is registered separately. At this moment 183,000 out of a total number of 259,000 inhabitants are covered by the registration, i.e. 71% of the population. In 1989 the frequency of accidents was 198 per 100,000 inhabitants. 26% of the accidents occurred at home, 11% at work, 9% during physical activity, 6% was traffic accidents, whereas the same proportion occurred at school. This registration system has been created as a result of annual conferences on accidents arranged by the Director General of public health since 1984. Representatives for the following parties have been invited; medical doctors working in hospitals and health centres, clinical nurses, physiotherapists, the National Insurance Service, other insurance companies, rescue and ambulance personal, fire departments, the Automobile Association, the communication Council. Local communities members of the parliament, voluntary organizations, e.g. Red Cross, the Sea Rescue Service and the Aviation Board. This activity has stimulated measures aiming at preventing accidents in several local communities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1285816

  2. Accident analysis in research reactors

    With the sustained development in computer technology, the possibilities of code capabilities have been enlarged substantially. Consequently, advanced safety evaluations and design optimizations that were not possible few years ago can now be performed. The challenge today is to revisit the safety features of the existing nuclear plants and particularly research reactors in order to verify that the safety requirements are still met and - when necessary - to introduce some amendments not only to meet the new requirements but also to introduce new equipment from recent development of new technologies. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an overview of the accident analysis technology applied to the research reactor, with emphasis given to the capabilities of computational tools. (author)

  3. FFTF containment of hypothetical accidents

    The FFTF facility was evaluated for the consequences of an HCDA followed by failure of in-vessel post-accident heat removal, reactor vessel melt-through, and release of core debris and sodium coolant to the reactor cavity. Two cases are presented based on parameters considered to represent upper limits for rates of chemical and thermal attack of the reactor cavity concrete containment structure. The reactor containment building temperature, pressure, and leak rate histories were computed with the CACECO code which provided input into the HAA-3C code for prediction of aerosol behavior, and to the COMRADEX-H code for prediction of radioactivity dispersion. The resultant 30-day doses at the site boundary were judged to be acceptable considering the conservatism in the analysis and the low probability of the event

  4. The Effect of External Vessel Cooling for a 2 inch LOCA Severe Accident Scenario at SMART with MIDAS/SMR

    KAERI is developing a new concept of reactor that all the main components such as the steam generator, the coolant pumps and the pressurizer are located inside the reactor vessel. This feature may prevent the large size of LOCA. However it is necessary to estimate the hypothetical severe accidents progression for improving the degree of safety and identifying the unknown weakness of the system against an accident. To simulate a hypothetical severe accident for the SMART, we adopt the MIDAS/SMR code which was developed by KAERI

  5. The Effect of External Vessel Cooling for a 2 inch LOCA Severe Accident Scenario at SMART with MIDAS/SMR

    Park, Jong Hwa; Kim, Dong Ha; Chung, Young Jong; Park, Sun Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seong Won [KORTIC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    KAERI is developing a new concept of reactor that all the main components such as the steam generator, the coolant pumps and the pressurizer are located inside the reactor vessel. This feature may prevent the large size of LOCA. However it is necessary to estimate the hypothetical severe accidents progression for improving the degree of safety and identifying the unknown weakness of the system against an accident. To simulate a hypothetical severe accident for the SMART, we adopt the MIDAS/SMR code which was developed by KAERI

  6. Indoor Location Technologies

    Goswami, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on the special challenges posed by accurately pinpointing a location indoors, this volume reflects the distance we have come in the handful of decades since the germination of GPS technology. Not only can we locate a signal to within a meter’s accuracy, but we now have this technology in the most basic mobile phone. Tracing recent practical developments in positioning technology and in the market it supplies, the author examines the contributions of the varied research—in silicon, signal and image processing, radio communications and software—to a fast-evolving field. The book looks forward to a time when, in addition to directing your road journey, positioning systems can peer indoors and guide you to an available photocopier in your office building. Featuring standalone chapters each dealing with a specific aspect of the subject, including treatments of systems such as Zebra, Awarepoint, Aeroscout, IEEE 802.11, etc. This study has all the detail needed to get up to speed on a key modern techn...

  7. Thyroid diseases after Chernobyl accident

    Radioactive iodine is released at every atomic-bomb testings and nuclear plants accidents and radioactive iodine is taken up by thyroid glands (internal radiation). In addition to the internal radiation, radioactive fallout causes the external radiation and thyroid glands are known to be sensitive to the external radiation. Furthermore, patients with radiation-induced thyroid disease can survive for a long time regardless of the treatment. The survey of thyroid diseases, therefore, is very sensitive and reliable ways to investigate the effects of radiation caused by atomic bomb explosion, testing and various types of nuclear plants' accidents. Our group from Nagasaki University was asked to investigate the thyroid diseases and jointed to the Sasakawa Project. In order to investigate the effects of radiation on thyroid disease, it is essential 1) to make a correct diagnosis in each subject, 2) to calculate a correct radiation dose in each subject and finally, 3) to find out the correlation between the radiation dose and thyroid diseases including age-, sex- and area-matched controls. We have established 5 centers (1 in Russia, 2 in Belarus, 2 in Ukraine) and supplied the most valuable ultrasonography instruments, commercial kits for the determination of serum free T4 and TSH level and for the autoantibodies, instrument for urinary iodine measurements, syringers, tubes, refrigerators, etc. We visit each center often and asked people at centers to come to Japan for training. Protocol of investigation is essentially the same as that in Nagasaki, and we are planning to investigate more than 50,000 children within 5 years. We are hoping to show a definite conclusion in the near future. Recent articles are also discussed. (author)

  8. The Fukushima accident was preventable.

    Synolakis, Costas; Kânoğlu, Utku

    2015-10-28

    The 11 March 2011 tsunami was probably the fourth largest in the past 100 years and killed over 15 000 people. The magnitude of the design tsunami triggering earthquake affecting this region of Japan had been grossly underestimated, and the tsunami hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP), causing the third most severe accident in an NPP ever. Interestingly, while the Onagawa NPP was also hit by a tsunami of approximately the same height as Dai-ichi, it survived the event 'remarkably undamaged'. We explain what has been referred to as the cascade of engineering and regulatory failures that led to the Fukushima disaster. One, insufficient attention had been given to evidence of large tsunamis inundating the region earlier, to Japanese research suggestive that large earthquakes could occur anywhere along a subduction zone, and to new research on mega-thrusts since Boxing Day 2004. Two, there were unexplainably different design conditions for NPPs at close distances from each other. Three, the hazard analysis to calculate the maximum probable tsunami at Dai-ichi appeared to have had methodological mistakes, which almost nobody experienced in tsunami engineering would have made. Four, there were substantial inadequacies in the Japan nuclear regulatory structure. The Fukushima accident was preventable, if international best practices and standards had been followed, if there had been international reviews, and had common sense prevailed in the interpretation of pre-existing geological and hydrodynamic findings. Formal standards are needed for evaluating the tsunami vulnerability of NPPs, for specific training of engineers and scientists who perform tsunami computations for emergency preparedness or critical facilities, as well as for regulators who review safety studies. PMID:26392611

  9. Chernobyl reactor accident: medical management

    Chernobyl reactor accident on 26th April, 1986 is by far the worst radiation accident in the history of the nuclear industry. Nearly 500 plant personnel and rescue workers received doses varying from 1-16 Gy. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was seen only in the plant personnel. 499 individuals were screened for ARS symptoms like nausea, vomitting, diarrhoea and fever. Complete blood examination was done which showed initial granulocytosis followed by granulocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Cytogenetic examinations were confirmatory in classifying the patients on the basis of the doses received. Two hundred and thirty seven cases of ARS were hospitalised in the first 24-36 hrs. No member of general public suffered from ARS. There were two immediate deaths and subsequently 28 died in hospital and one of the cases died due to myocardial infarction, making a total of 31 deaths. The majority of fatal cases had whole body doses of about 6 Gy, besides extensive skin burns. Two cases of radiation burns had thermal burns also. Treatment of ARS consisted of isolation, barrier nursing, replacement therapy with fluid electrolytes, platelets and RBC transfusions and antibiotic therapy for bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Bone marrow transplantations were given to 13 cases out of which 11 died due to various causes. Radiation burns due to beta, gamma radiations were seen in 56 cases and treated with dressings, surgical excision, skin grafting and amputation. Oropharangeal syndrome, producing extensive mucous in the oropharynx, was first seen in Chernobyl. The patients were treated with saline wash of the mouth. The patients who had radioactive contamination due to radioactive iodine were given stable iodine, following wash with soap, water and monitored. Fourteen survivors died subsequently due to other causes. Late health effects seen so far include excess of thyroid cancer in the children and psychological disorders due to stress. No excess leukemia has been reported so

  10. Nuclear accident and medical staff

    Described is the commentary concerning normative action of medical staff at radiation emergency and actual actions taken/to be taken for the Nuclear Power Plant Accident (NPPA) in Fukushima. The normative medical staff's action at radiation emergency is essentially based on rules defined by such international authorities as United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Basic Safety Standard (BSS) and by network in IAEA, World Health Organization (WHO) and so on. The rules stand on past atomic events like those in Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Three Mile Isl., Chernobyl, and in Japanese Tokai JCO accident. The action above is required as a medical teamwork over specialized doctors. At Fukushima NPPA, medicare flowed from the on-site first-aid station (doctors for industry and labors), then the base for patient transfer (doctors of Japanese Association of Acute Medicine and Tokyo Electric Power Comp.), to the primary hospital for acute exposure (Iwaki Kyoritsu Hos.), from which patients were further transported to the secondary (contamination detected or severe trauma, Fukushima Medical Univ.) and/or tertiary facilities (serious contamination or acute radiation injury, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) and Hiroshima Univ.). The flow was built up by the previous lead of national official guidance and by urgent spontaneous network among medical facilities; exempli gratia (e.g.), Fukushima Medical Univ. rapidly specialized in coping with the radiation medicare by partial discontinuance of daily clinical practice. Specialists of acute radiation medicare are generally rare, for which measures for it are more desirable along with health risk communication in facilities concerned. The professional function and endowment required for medical staff at emergency are concluded to be their guts and devotion as well as medical

  11. Working group on public health preparedness for nuclear accidents in the near field, Badhoevedorp, Netherlands, 11-14 October 1988

    This report summarizes the conclusions and recommendations of a working group on the planning of measures to safeguard public health in the event of a nuclear accident. Treatment of irradiated and contaminated people was discussed, and countermeasures such as evacuation or sheltering and iodine prophylaxis were considered. The importance of public information was stressed, and it was recommended that public health authorities develop programmes to select ways of educating and preparing communities located close to the site of a potential nuclear accident

  12. A Multiple Criteria Decision-Making Approach for Prioritizing Accident Hotspots in the Absence of Crash Data

    Pirdavani, Ali; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert

    2010-01-01

    In an efficient transportation system, traffic safety is an important issue and it is influenced by many factors. In a country like Iran, until now safety improvements are mainly concentrated on road engineering activities, without much attention for vehicle technology or driving behaviour. One important aspect of road safety engineering activities is the so-called treatment of hotspots or dangerous accident locations. Until recently, accident hotspots were identified and remedied by the esxp...

  13. Multiple Criteria Decision-Making Approach for Prioritizing Accident Hot Spots in Developing Countries in the Absence of Crash Data

    Pirdavani, Ali; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert

    2010-01-01

    In an efficient transportation system, traffic safety is an important issue and it is influenced by many factors. In a country like Iran, until now safety improvements are mainly concentrated on road engineering activities, without much attention for vehicle technology or driving behavior. One important aspect of road safety engineering activities is the so-called treatment of hotspots or dangerous accident locations. Until recently, accident hotspots were identified and remedied by the exper...

  14. Radiological impact to the population of the three major accidents happened in the civil nuclear industry

    The greatest fear of the population before a nuclear accident, is the radiological impact to the health of people, due to the exposure to the liberated radioactive material during the accident, this fear is generally exaggerated or not well managed by the media. The best estimate in the received doses and their possible effects is carried out based on the information obtained during a certain time after the accident event. This work contains a summary of the information in the topic that at the present time has presented institutions as: the World Health Organization (Who), the United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the World Nuclear Association, among others. The considered accidents are: first, the Unit-2 of the nuclear power plant of the Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania, USA occurred 28 March of 1979, in the Reactor TMI-2, type PWR of 900 M We; the second accident was 26 April of 1986, in the Unit-4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl, in Ukraine, the involved reactor was type BRMK, of 1000 M We moderated by graphite and cooled with light water, the power plant is located to 100 Km to the northwest of Kiev; 25 years later occurred the third accident in the nuclear power plant of Fukushima Dai-ichi, in Japan, affecting at four of the six reactors of the power plant. A brief description of the accident is presented in each case, including the magnitude of the provoked liberations of radioactive material, the estimate doses of the population and the affected workers are presented, as well as the possible consequences of these doses on the health. The objective of this diffusion work is to give knowledge to the nuclear and radiological community of the available information on the topic, in order to be located in the appropriate professional context. (author)

  15. Occupational accidents in artisanal mining in Katanga, D.R.C.

    Myriam Elenge

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study focuses on accidents in artisanal mining, to support policies improving miners' employability. Materials and Methods: Based on a questionnaire administered in November 2009 to a sample of 180 miners from the artisanal mining of LUPOTO, in the Province of Katanga, we explored significant trends between the accidents and their consequences and behavioral or sociological variables. Results: During the 12 months preceding the study, 392 accidents occurred, affecting 72.2% of miners. Tools handling represents 51.5%, of the accidents' causes, followed by handling heavy loads (32.9%. Factors such as age, seniority or apprenticeship did not generate significant differences. Contusions were the most common injuries (50.2%, followed by wounds (44.4%. These injuries were located in upper limbs (50.5% and in lower limbs (29.3%. 80.5% of miners were cared for by their colleagues and 50% of them could not work for more than 3 days. Physical sequelae were reported by 19% of the injured miners. Discussion: Many surveys related to accidents in the area of artisanal mining report such high frequency. The unsuitability of tools to jobs to be done is usually raised as one of the major causes of accidents. The lack of differentiation of the tasks carried out in relation to age is another factor explaining the lack of protective effect of seniority as it minimizes the contribution of experience in the worker's safety. The apprenticeship reported is inadequate; it is rather a learning by doing than anything else. That is why it lacks protective effect. Low income combined with precariousness of artisanal mining are likely to explain the low level of work stoppages. Conclusion: Tools improvement associated with adequate training seem to be the basis of accident prevention. Availability of suitable medical care should improve artisanal miners' recovery after accidents.

  16. Spatial Analysis of Oil Spills from Marine Accidents in Greek Waters

    2014-01-01

    Greek marine spatial area is located in the Mediterranean Sea with semi-enclosed characteristics. Thus the maritime traffic is undoubtfully significant for political and economic reasons, arousing particular interest unceasingly, because of its specific geographical location, the increasing improvements of freight services and port infrastructure and, the upcoming regional drillings. Marine incidents and accidents that often happen, vary from rather insignificant to serious ones, affecting bo...

  17. The Design of the Scene of the Accident Alarm System Based on ARM and GPS

    Shaik.abdul.mubeena

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This system designs a wireless communication method using GSM to transmit data to the preset of treatment centers whenever an accident occurs. The vehicle is equipped with a GSM and a GPS module. The treatment center process the data received from the GSM module of the vehicle and identifies the location of the vehicle. The GPS module helps in tracking the location and state of the vehicle

  18. Understanding accident investigators : a study of the required skills and behaviours for effective UK inspectors of accidents

    Flaherty, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    In the UK, accidents associated with maritime, aviation and rail transport are conducted by the Inspectors of Accidents at the Marine, Air and Rail Accident Investigation Branches. A review of current academic literature provides little insight into the qualities and attributes essential for the role of accident investigator. A wealth of material exists about accidents themselves but as yet, a study into the profile of the accident investigator has not been conducted. This research soug...

  19. Equity and location

    Nuclear waste disposal sites are among those energy facilities which are considered public ''bads'' and which are related to equity issues in terms of their direct and indirect impact on a locale, the distributional effect the site has on the relative quality of life, and the process of decision making, including the opportunity for participation. These issues are reviewed, and the conclusion reached that decisions to site noxious facilities will depend on how advantages are to be distributed and how decision makers respond to locational concerns. Recommendations based on experience suggest that equity of outcome is more important than that of process, but that the constituency of each facility should have a role in the decision making process. Other recommendations include a national data bank, coordination of siting, and training for policymakers. 28 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  20. Demographics and remote locations

    Coppus, G. [Dynawise Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Within the next decade, the number of people leaving the workforce will exceed the number of new entrants. The demand for workers is expected to increase in Alberta due to oil sands industry growth. Sixty-four per cent of all responding federal, provincial, and municipal government organizations have reported shortages in their work environments, and almost 8 in 10 organizations predict they will continue to be understaffed in the next 3 to 5 years. Tightness in the general labour market will have an impact on employers in remote locations, and planning is essential to avoid the creation of a mercenary culture and a reliance on compensation. Challenges found in remote locations include high turnover rates among recent hires; critical gaps in service length; aggressive retirement; and the fact that the local population is often seen as unqualified for many industrial jobs. This Power Point presentation suggested that although decisions to join or quit a company are often based on considerations such as the organizational environment and amount of compensation, the relationship between employees and management is the most important attribute in many career decisions. Rigorous quantitative analysis of current demographics combined with forecasting analysis may help to forestall recruitment difficulties for many companies. Productivity analyses, and the effects of work overload on absenteeism, attrition and quality of workmanship must also be examined. Many companies are now focusing on retention and development strategies on mid-career staff to address depletion, as well as redesigning procedures to operate with less skilled staff. It was concluded that extra efforts are now being made to attract non-traditional employees, and non-traditional employment models are being considered by some companies. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. Drivers of accident preparedness and safety: evidence from the RMP Rule

    This paper provides an overview of recent results derived from the accident history data collected under 112(r) of the Clean Air Act Amendments (the Risk Management Program (RMP) Rule) covering the period 1994-2000, together with a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of the RMP Rule as a form of Management System Regulation. These were undertaken at the University of Pennsylvania by a multi-disciplinary team of economists, statisticians and epidemiologists with the support of the US Environmental Protection Agency and its Office of Emergency Prevention, Preparedness and Response (OEPPR, formerly CEPPO). Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires that chemical facilities in the US that had on premises more than specified quantities of toxic or flammable chemicals file a 5-year history of accidents. The initial data reported under the RMP Rule covered roughly the period from mid-1994 through mid-2000, and provided details on economic, environmental and acute health affects resulting from accidents at some 15,000 US chemical facilities for this period. This paper reviews research based on this data. The research is in the form of a retrospective cohort study that considers the statistical associations between accident frequency and accident severity at covered facilities (the outcome variables of interest) and a number of facility characteristics (the available predictor variables provided by the RMP Rule), the latter including such facility characteristics as size, hazardousness, financial characteristics of parent company-owners of the facility, regulatory programs in force at the facility, and host community characteristics for the surrounding county in which the facility was located, as captured in the 1990 Census. Among the findings reviewed are: (1) positive associations with (a measure of) facility hazardousness and accident, injury and economic costs of accidents; (2) positive (resp., negative) associations between accident

  2. Development of integrated accident management assessment technology

    This project aims to develop critical technologies for accident management through securing evaluation frameworks and supporting tools, in order to enhance capabilities coping with severe accidents. For the research goal, firstly under the viewpoint of accident prevention, on-line risk monitoring system and the analysis framework for human error have been developed. Secondly, the training/supporting systems including the training simulator and the off-site risk evaluation system have been developed to enhance capabilities coping with severe accidents. Four kinds of research results have been obtained from this project. Firstly, the framework and taxonomy for human error analysis has been developed for accident management. As the second, the supporting system for accident managements has been developed. Using data that are obtained through the evaluation of off-site risk for Younggwang site, the risk database as well as the methodology for optimizing emergency responses has been constructed. As the third, a training support system, SAMAT, has been developed, which can be used as a training simulator for severe accident management. Finally, on-line risk monitoring system, DynaRM, has been developed for Ulchin 3 and 4 unit

  3. Monitoring Severe Accidents Using AI Techniques

    It is very difficult for nuclear power plant operators to monitor and identify the major severe accident scenarios following an initiating event by staring at temporal trends of important parameters. The objective of this study is to develop and verify the monitoring for severe accidents using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques such as support vector classification (SVC), probabilistic neural network (PNN), group method of data handling (GMDH) and fuzzy neural network (FNN). The SVC and PNN are used for event classification among the severe accidents. Also, GMDH and FNN are used to monitor for severe accidents. The inputs to AI techniques are initial time-integrated values obtained by integrating measurement signals during a short time interval after reactor scram. In this study, 3 types of initiating events such as the hot-leg LOCA, the cold-leg LOCA and SGTR are considered and it is verified how well the proposed scenario identification algorithm using the GMDH and FNN models identifies the timings when the reactor core will be uncovered, when CET will exceed 1200 .deg. F and when the reactor vessel will fail. In cases that an initiating event develops into a severe accident, the proposed algorithm showed accurate classification of initiating events. Also, it well predicted timings for important occurrences during severe accident progression scenarios, which is very helpful for operators to perform severe accident management

  4. Upper respiratory tract illnesses and accidents.

    Smith, A P; Harvey, I; Richmond, P; Peters, T J; Thomas, M; Brockman, P

    1994-07-01

    Anecdotal accounts suggest that colds and influenza may increase human error. This view is supported by laboratory studies of the effects of upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTIs) on performance efficiency, which have shown that both experimentally induced and naturally occurring URTIs reduce aspects of performance efficiency. The present research examined the relationship between accidents and URTIs by studying 923 patients attending an Accident and Emergency department at a time of year when upper respiratory tract viruses were circulating. The results revealed no significant associations between URTIs and workplace accidents, and, similarly, no significant associations emerged when all accidents were compared with other attenders. The only effect which was close to statistical significance was a protective effect of influenza against workplace accidents, which could be explained in terms of a person with influenza or who has recently had influenza being less likely to work and therefore less likely to be at risk of experiencing a workplace accident. Further research must examine this topic with different methodologies, such as selecting controls from fellow workers of the index case, and these studies will provide us with a clearer view as to whether or not there is an association between URTIs and workplace accidents. PMID:7919298

  5. On the application of near accident data to risk analysis of major accidents

    Major accidents are low frequency high consequence events which are not well supported by conventional statistical methods due to data scarcity. In the absence or shortage of major accident direct data, the use of partially related data of near accidentsaccident precursor data – has drawn much attention. In the present work, a methodology has been proposed based on hierarchical Bayesian analysis and accident precursor data to risk analysis of major accidents. While hierarchical Bayesian analysis facilitates incorporation of generic data into the analysis, the dependency and interaction between accident and near accident data can be encoded via a multinomial likelihood function. We applied the proposed methodology to risk analysis of offshore blowouts and demonstrated its outperformance compared to conventional approaches. - Highlights: • Probabilistic risk analysis is applied to model major accidents. • Two-stage Bayesian updating is used to generate informative distributions. • Accident precursor data are used to develop likelihood function. • A multinomial likelihood function is introduced to model dependencies among data

  6. Dutch National Plan combat nuclear accidents

    This document presents the Dutch National Plan combat nuclear accidents (NPK). Ch. 2 discusses some important starting points which are determining for the framework and the performance of the NPK, in particular the accident typology which underlies the plan. Also the new accident-classification system for the Dutch nuclear power plants, the standardization for the measures to be taken and the staging around nuclear power plants are pursued. In ch. 3 the legal framework of the combat nuclear accidents is described. In particular the Nuclear-power law, the Accident law and the Municipality law are pursued. Also the role of province and municipality are described. Ch. 4 deals with the role of the owner/licensee of the object where the accident occurs, in the combat of accident. In ch. 5 the structure of the nuclear-accident combat at national level is outlined, subdivided in alarm phase, combat phase and the winding-up phase. In ch.'s 6-12 these phases are elaborated more in detail. In ch.'s 10-13 the measures to be taken in nuclear accidents, are described. These measures are distinguished with regard to: protection of the population and medical aspects, water economy, drinking-water supply, agriculture and food supply. Ch. 14 describes the responsibility of the burgomaster. Ch.'s 15 and 16 present an overview of the personnel, material, procedural and juridical modifications and supplements of existing structures which are necessary with regard to the new and modified parts of the structure. Ch. 17 indicates how by means of the appropriate education and exercise it can be achieved that all personnel, services and institutes concerned possess the knowledge and experience necessary for the activities from the NKP to be executed as has been described. Ch. 18 contains a survey of activities to be performed and a proposal how these can be realized. (H.W.). figs.; tabs

  7. Planning for the Handling of Radiation Accidents

    The developing atomic energy programmes and the widespread use of radiation sources in medicine, agriculture, industry and research have had admirable safety records. Throughout the world the number of known accidents in which persons have been exposed to harmful am ounts of ionizing radiation is relatively small, and only a few deaths have occurred. Meticulous precautions are being taken to maintain this good record in all work with radiation sources and to keep the exposure of persons as low as practicable. In spite of all the precautions that are taken, accidents may occur and they may be accompanied by the injury or death of persons and damage to property. It is only prudent to take those steps that are practicable to prevent accidents and to plan in advance the emergency action that would limit the injuries and damage caused by those accidents that do occur. Emergency plans should be sufficiently broad to cover unforeseen or very improbable accidents as well as those that are considered credible. Some accidents may involve only the workers in an establishment, those working directly with the source and possibly their colleagues. Other accidents may have consequences, notably in the form of radioactive contamination of the environment, that affect the general public, possibly far from the site of the accident. The preparation of plans for dealing with radiation accidents is therefore obligatory both for the various authorities that are responsible for protecting the health and the food and water supplies of the public, and for the operator of an installation containing radiation sources.

  8. Accidents in radiotherapy: Lack of quality assurance?

    About 150 radiological accidents, involving more than 3000 patients with adverse effects, 15 patient's fatalities and about 5000 staff and public exposures have been collected and analysed. Out of 67 analysed accidents in external beam therapy 22% has been caused by wrong calculation of the exposure time or monitor units, 13% by inadequate review of patient's chart, 12% by mistakes in the anatomical area to be treated. The remaining 35% can be attributed to 17 different causes. The most common mistakes in brachytherapy were wrong activities of sources used for treatment (20%), inadequate procedures for placement of sources applicators (14%), mistakes in calculating the treatment time (12%), etc. The direct and contributing causes of radiological accidents have been deduced from each event, when it was possible and categorized into 9 categories: mistakes in procedures (30%), professional mistakes (17%), communication mistakes (15%), lack of training (8.5%), interpretation mistakes (7%), lack of supervision (6%), mistakes in judgement (6%), hardware failures (5%), software and other mistakes (5.5%). Three types of direct and contributing causes responsible for almost 62% of all accidents are directly connected to the quality assurance of treatment. The lessons learnt from the accidents are related to frequencies of direct and contributing factors and show that most of the accident are caused by lack, non-application of quality assurance (QA) procedures or by underestimating of QA procedures. The international system for collection of accidents and dissemination of lessons learnt from the different accidents, proposed by IAEA, can contribute to better practice in many radiotherapy departments. Most of the accidents could have been avoided, had a comprehensive QA programme been established and properly applied in all radiotherapy departments, whatever the size. (author)

  9. Thyroid carcinomas induced by Chernobyl nuclear accident

    The Chernobyl nuclear station accident is the unprecedented catastrophic accident in human nuclear industry with a large of quantity of radioactive nucleons resulting in contamination in many countries of the northern Hemisphere. After almost 20 years studying, it is approved that Belarus is the most serious affected country by the accident. Especially thyroid carcinomas in the people exposed to radioactive fall-out is considered to be the only one late radiation effect. RET gene in the happening of thyroid carcinomas is being paid close attention at present

  10. Containment severe accident management - selected strategies

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) organized in June 1994, in collaboration with the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI), a Specialist Meeting on Selected Containment Severe Accident Management Strategies, to discuss their feasibility, effectiveness, benefits and drawbacks, and long-term impact. The meeting focused on water reactors, mainly on existing systems. The technical content covered topics such as general aspects of accident management strategies in OECD Member countries, hydrogen management techniques and other containment accident management strategies, surveillance and protection of the containment function. The main conclusions of the meeting are summarized in the paper. (author)

  11. Development of criticality accident analysis code AGNES

    A one-point kinetics code, AGNES2, has been developed for the evaluation of the criticality accident of nuclear solution fuel system. The code has been evaluated through the simulation of TRACY experiments and used for the study of the condition of the JCO criticality accident. A code, AGNES-P, for the criticality accident of nuclear powder system has been developed based on AGNES2. It is expected that these codes be useful for the evaluation of criticality safety for fuel reprocessing and fabrication plants. (author)

  12. Compilation of accident statistics in PSE

    The objective of the investigations on transportation carried out within the framework of the 'Project - Studies on Safety in Waste Management (PSE II)' is the determination of the risk of accidents in the transportation of radioactive materials by rail. The fault tree analysis is used for the determination of risks in the transportation system. This method offers a possibility for the determination of frequency and consequences of accidents which could lead to an unintended release of radionuclides. The study presented compiles all data obtained from the accident statistics of the Federal German Railways. (orig./RB)

  13. Accident prevention in a contextual approach

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang

    2003-01-01

    Many recommendations on how to establish an accident prevention program do exist. The aim of many agencies is to promote the implementation of these recommendations in enterprises. The discussion has mainly focused on incentives either in the form of an effective enforcement of the law or as a...... such a contextual approach is shortly described and demonstrated in relation to a Danish case on accident prevention. It is concluded that the approach presently offers a post-ante, descriptive analytical understanding, and it is argued that it can be developed to a frame of reference for planning...... actions and programs on accident prevention....

  14. Fault locator of an allyl chloride plant

    Savković-Stevanović Jelenka B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Process safety analysis, which includes qualitative fault event identification, the relative frequency and event probability functions, as well as consequence analysis, was performed on an allye chloride plant. An event tree for fault diagnosis and cognitive reliability analysis, as well as a troubleshooting system, were developed. Fuzzy inductive reasoning illustrated the advantages compared to crisp inductive reasoning. A qualitative model forecast the future behavior of the system in the case of accident detection and then compared it with the actual measured data. A cognitive model including qualitative and quantitative information by fuzzy logic of the incident scenario was derived as a fault locator for an ally! chloride plant. The obtained results showed the successful application of cognitive dispersion modeling to process safety analysis. A fuzzy inductive reasoner illustrated good performance to discriminate between different types of malfunctions. This fault locator allowed risk analysis and the construction of a fault tolerant system. This study is the first report in the literature showing the cognitive reliability analysis method.

  15. Risk assessment of aircraft accidents anywhere near an airport

    This work analyzes the more suitable areas to build new facilities, taking into account the conditions imposed by an airport located nearby. Initially, it describes the major characteristics of the airport. Then, the restrictions imposed to ensure the normal operation of the aircraft are analyzed. Following, there is a summary of the evolution of studies of aircraft accidents at nuclear facilities. In the second part, three models of aircraft crash probabilities are presented, all of them developed in the U.S.A, each with an increasing level of complexity in modeling the likelihood of accidents. The first model is the 'STD-3014' Department of Energy (DOE), the second is the 'ACRAM'(Aircraft Crash Risk Assessment Methodology) prepared by the 'Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory'(LLNL) and finally the more advanced 'ACRP-3', produced by the 'Transportation Research Board'. The results obtained with the three models establish that the risks imposed on the airport vicinity, remain low due to the improvement and innovation in the aircraft's safety, reducing the risk margin for the location of new nuclear facilities near an airport. (author)

  16. Ophidic accident and twin pregnancy

    Saavedra-Orozco Héctor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: around of 3000 types of snakes are known, from which just 15% arevenomous. Depending of the environmental, geographical and socio-demographiccharacteristics, there are significant differences in the incidence of cases of ophidicaccidents. Colombia reports 6 by each 100.000 habitants, 2.300 cases/year, with amortality of 5.6%. In a pregnant woman it is a rare event, between 1.4% and 4%, andit usually complicates seriously to the mother and to the product of the gestation. Theprevious thing will depend of the opportunity with which the suitable management isfulfilled and of the severity of the poisoning. Nowadays it isn´t clear the security of theantiophidic serum for the product, it has been related with miscarriage in early stagesof pregnancy and fetal death at the end of the pregnancy. Nevertheless, its appropriateadministration is the unique effective measure to avoid serious consequences andmaternal death.Clinical case: patient of 16 years old, G2 C1, with diagnosis of diamniotic dichorionic twinpregnancy of 36 weeks and ophidic accident of bothropic type of 16 hours of evolution.Right inferior limb with pain, edema grade III, blush, heat, formation of flictenas andecchymosis in its distal third. Laboratory tests indicate prolongation of the clotting time,elevated transaminases and elevated creatinine. It is considered the presence of severepoisoning and management with antiophidic serum is initiated. The pregnancy is finishedby cesarean as a result of maternal renal and hepatic dysfunction, and postoperativecare in UCI. The products are born with severe respiratory depression; they are carriedto neonatal intensive care unit with good evolution and hospital expenditure to thefive days. Next day to the cesarean, the patient presents compartment syndrome,for which fasciotomy is fulfilled. When the patient gets adequate recovery, it is donea cutaneous hanging tatter and after 27 days of hospitalization one gives exit withadequate

  17. Location constrained resource interconnection

    This presentation discussed issues related to wind integration from the perspective of the California Independent System Operator (ISO). Issues related to transmission, reliability, and forecasting were reviewed. Renewable energy sources currently used by the ISO were listed, and details of a new transmission financing plan designed to address the location constraints of renewable energy sources and provide for new transmission infrastructure was presented. The financing mechanism will be financed by participating transmission owners through revenue requirements. New transmission interconnections will include network facilities and generator tie-lines. Tariff revisions have also been implemented to recover the costs of new facilities and generators. The new transmission project will permit wholesale transmission access to areas where there are significant energy resources that are not transportable. A rate impact cap of 15 per cent will be imposed on transmission owners to mitigate short-term costs to ratepayers. The presentation also outlined energy resource area designation plans, renewable energy forecasts, and new wind technologies. Ramping issues were also discussed. It was concluded that the ISO expects to ensure that 20 per cent of its energy will be derived from renewable energy sources. tabs., figs

  18. On location at CERN

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    CERN continues to be a very popular candidate for film locations at the moment. Not only has it inspired a German author and a film-maker interested in the more exotic interpretations of the science being worked on at the Organization, but even the recent puppet animation film by the legendary Muppets featured some CERN scenes.   Dr Bunsen Honeydew (far left) and his friends at ATLAS. Beaker, Bunsen's assistant, has just been sucked up the vacuum tube top left... Image courtesy Walt Disney Studios. In “The Muppet Movie”, released in November 2011 in North America and world-wide in January and February this year, Kermit is reuniting his friends who have ended up in some far-flung places since they last worked together 10 years ago. CERN caught the imagination of the film-makers as the perfect place for the Muppet scientists, Dr. Honeydew Bunsen and his hapless assistant Beaker. After a brief scene filmed in front of a backdrop of the ATLAS detector, the rest of the ...

  19. Advanced evacuation model managed through fuzzy logic during an accident in LNG terminal

    Evacuation of people located inside the enclosed area of an LNG terminal is a complex problem, especially considering that accidents involving LNG are potentially very hazardous. In order to create an evacuation model managed through fuzzy logic, extensive influence must be generated from safety analyses. A very important moment in the optimal functioning of an evacuation model is the creation of a database which incorporates all input indicators. The output result is the creation of a safety evacuation route which is active at the moment of the accident. (Author)

  20. Estimating the Influence of Accident Related Factors on Motorcycle Fatal Accidents using Logistic Regression (Case Study: Denpasar-Bali

    Wedagama D.M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Denpasar the capital of Bali Province, motorcycle accident contributes to about 80% of total road accidents. Out of those motorcycle accidents, 32% are fatal accidents. This study investigates the influence of accident related factors on motorcycle fatal accidents in the city of Denpasar during period 2006-2008 using a logistic regression model. The study found that the fatality of collision with pedestrians and right angle accidents were respectively about 0.44 and 0.40 times lower than collision with other vehicles and accidents due to other factors. In contrast, the odds that a motorcycle accident will be fatal due to collision with heavy and light vehicles were 1.67 times more likely than with other motorcycles. Collision with pedestrians, right angle accidents, and heavy and light vehicles were respectively accounted for 31%, 29%, and 63% of motorcycle fatal accidents.

  1. Radiation accidents and defence of population

    Full text: Development of nuclear physics, the fundamental and the applied researches in the field of radioactive insured wide possibility for application of radionuclides and ionizing radiation source in the different fields of national economy. Application of radionuclides in chemical, metallurgical, food industry, in agriculture and etc. Fields provide a large economic profit. It's hard to apprise significance of ionizing radiation source using in medicine for diagnostics and treatment of different disease. Nuclear power engineering and nuclear industry are developing intensively. At same time nuclear power, ionizing radiation sources incur potential treat for surroundings and health of population. As even that stage of protective measure development: there is no possibility of that happening of radiation accidents. A radiation accident qualifies as loss of ionizing radiation sources direction, which provoked by disrepair equipment, natural calamity or other causes which could bring to unplanned irradiation of population or radioactive pollution of surroundings. At present some following typical cases connected with radiation accident have been chosen: Contentious using or keeping of ionizing radiation source with breach of established requires; Loss, theft of ionizing radiation sources or radiation plants, instruments; Leaving the sources of ionizing radiation in the holes; Refusal radiation technic exploited in industry, medicine, SRI and etc; Disrepair in nuclear transport means of conveyance; Crashes and accidents at NPP and at other enterprises of nuclear industry. The radiation accidents according to character, degree and scales have been divided into two groups: Radiation accidents not connected with NPP; Accidents in the nuclear engineering and industry; The radiation accidents not connected with NPP according their consequence divide into 5 groups; accidents which do not come to irradiation of personal, persons from population (more PN-permissible norm

  2. Demography and ecology of nuclear power plant location

    To select and licence a NPP site, as well as, once built, to run it, both demography and ecology of the geographical zone are crucial factors to take into account. On the other side the location and running of a NPP is a major factor in the economic and social development of NPP site surroundings. Meanwhile the population distribution around the NPP site has a determining role on intervention and rehabilitation plans. Risk and danger studies should be done for initial situation as well as during NPP running. The character of radioactive risks and the importance of possible consequences of a hypothetical nuclear accident which could affect a big Nuclear Power Plant request a special attention to population distribution around the plant site and surroundings. Therefore safety studies to locate and licence a site should refer to demography and ecology. Available data examination will permit to locate NPP in less-populated and ecologically not-concerning zones. On-site investigation should identify the population groups to watch for in order to estimate the results of a normal evaluation. The inquires will give reference primary data before NPP construction starts. Also they evaluate the possibility of short term population retain on location in case of an accident. (authors)

  3. Two serious accidents at the A-1 NPP. Analysis of the accidents the A-1 NPP

    In this presentation author describes the nuclear reactor A-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia). Author analyzes two reactor accidents which took off at this reactor. The first accident proceeded on January 5, 1976 during exchange of fuel elements when coolant - carbon dioxide - escaped. The second serious accident became on February 22, 1977 again during exchange of spent fuel elements. At this accident moderator - heavy water penetrated into the primary circuit of the reactor. Heavy water was subsequently removed from the reservoirs into the reserve tank in order not to leak out into the primary circuit. Inserting fuel element was melted. This accident was evaluated as grade 4 on seven-grade the international INES scale. A crash course and course parameters of the both accidents are analyzed.

  4. Accident evolution and barrier function and accident evolution management modeling of nuclear power plant incidents

    Every analysis of an accident or an incident is founded on a more or less explicit model of what an accident is. On a general level, the current approach models an incident or accident in a nuclear power plant as a failure to maintain a stable state with all variables within their ranges of stability. There are two main sets of subsystems in continuous interaction making up the analyzed system, namely the human-organizational and the technical subsystems. Several different but related approaches can be chosen to model an accident. However, two important difficulties accompany such modeling: the high level of system complexity and the very infrequent occurrence of accidents. The current approach acknowledges these problems and focuses on modeling reported incidents/accidents or scenarios selected in probabilistic risk assessment analyses to be of critical importance for the safety of a plant

  5. Application of PCTRAN-3/U to studying accident management during PWR severe accident

    In order to improve the safety of nuclear power plant, operator action should be taken into account during a severe accident. While it takes a long time to simulate the plant transient behavior under a severe accident in comparison with the design based accident, a transient simulator should have both high speed calculation capability and interactive functions to model the operating procedures. PCTRAN has been developing to be a simple simulator by using a personal computer to simulate plant behavior under an accident condition. While currently available means usually take relatively long time to simulate plant behavior, using a current high-powered personal computer (PC), PCTRAN-3/U code is designed to operate at a speed significantly faster than real-time. The author describes some results of PCTRAN application in studying the efficiency of accident management for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) during an severe accident

  6. An Application of CICCT Accident Categories to Aviation Accidents in 1988-2004

    Evans, Joni K.

    2007-01-01

    Interventions or technologies developed to improve aviation safety often focus on specific causes or accident categories. Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of those interventions is dependent upon mapping the historical aviation accidents into those same accident categories. To that end, the United States civil aviation accidents occurring between 1988 and 2004 (n=26,117) were assigned accident categories based upon the taxonomy developed by the CAST/ICAO Common Taxonomy Team (CICTT). Results are presented separately for four main categories of flight rules: Part 121 (large commercial air carriers), Scheduled Part 135 (commuter airlines), Non-Scheduled Part 135 (on-demand air taxi) and Part 91 (general aviation). Injuries and aircraft damage are summarized by year and by accident category.

  7. Modeling accidents for prioritizing prevention

    The Workgroup Occupational Risk Model (WORM) project in the Netherlands is developing a comprehensive set of scenarios to cover the full range of occupational accidents. The objective is to support companies in their risk analysis and prioritization of prevention. This paper describes how the modeling has developed through projects in the chemical industry, to this one in general industry and how this is planned to develop further in the future to model risk prevention in air transport. The core modeling technique is based on the bowtie, with addition of more explicit modeling of the barriers needed for risk control, the tasks needed to ensure provision, use, monitoring and maintenance of the barriers, and the management resources and tasks required to ensure that these barrier life cycle tasks are carried out effectively. The modeling is moving from a static notion of barriers which can fail, to seeing risk control dynamically as (fallible) means for staying within a safe envelope. The paper shows how concepts develop slowly over a series of projects as a core team works continuously together. It concludes with some results of the WORM project and some indications of how the modeling is raising fundamental questions about the conceptualization of system safety, which need future resolution

  8. Accident Management Issues within the ARTIST Project

    An experimental project to be performed in the ARTIST (AeRosol Trapping In a Steam generaTor ) facility is planned at the Paul Scherrer Institut to address aerosol retention in the various parts of the steam generator (SG) following a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) event. The project will study phenomena at the separate effect and integral levels, and also address accident management (AM) issues. Seven distinct phases are foreseen: 1) Aerosol retention in the tube under dry secondary side conditions, 2) Aerosol retention in the near field close to break under dry conditions, 3) Aerosol retention in the bundle far field under dry conditions, 4) Aerosol retention in the separator and dryer under dry conditions, 5) Aerosol retention in the bundle section under wet conditions, 6) Droplet retention in separator and dryer sections and 7) Integral tests to examine overall retention. The prescribed values of the controlling parameters (aerosol size, aerosol type, gas flow velocity, residence time, etc) cover the range expected in severe accident scenarios. The ARTIST facility is well suited to study phenomena relating to AM. Refilling of the SG might be adopted as an AM measure during an accident in which the SG has dried out. For instance, water injection will establish a pool where the incoming aerosols can be scrubbed to various degrees depending on the aerosol characteristics, water depth and subcooling and steam content in the carrier gas flow. Aerosols are expected to be removed mainly through inertial impaction and diffusiophoresis (condensation) in the vicinity of the break. Away from the break, the remaining gas breaks up in smaller bubbles which rise in the pool, and periodically squirt out through the narrow constrictions of the support plates. In this latter phase, aerosol removal is mainly due to inertial mechanisms. There are many questions that need to be resolved before deciding on the efficacy of flooding the secondary side of a dry SG. These include

  9. Investigation of Qom Rural Area Water Network Accident in 2010 and Minimization Approaches of Accident Frequencies

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian; Ahmad Reza Yari; Mohsen Ansari; Shahram Nazari; Mohamad Saberi Bidgoli; Gharib Majidi

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims of the Study : Accidents in water networks can lead to increase the uncounted water, costs of repair, maintenance, restoration and enter water contaminants to water network. The aim of this study is to survey the accidents of Qom rural water network and choose the right approaches to reduce the number of accidents. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, four sector of Qom province (Markazi, Dastjerd, Kahak and Qahan), were assessed over a period of 8 mon...

  10. The Chernobyl accident consequences; Consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  11. The influence of accident measures on accident scenarios for VVER-1000-Type reactors

    For VVER-1000-type reactors severe accident scenarios and possible mitigation strategies are investigated. The Station blackout sequence is chosen as reference case. At first a comparison between the cases with and without working spray systems is discussed. Afterwards the results of a parametric study investigating the influence of different water volumes on the course of the accident are presented. It can be shown that most of these accident mitigation measures will maintain the containment integrity and reduce the source term. (author)

  12. Organizational aspects of three accidents : how common organizational factors contributed to the occurrence of the accidents

    Hansen, Kathe-Mari Solberg

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, two serious accidents and one major incident in the offshore drilling industry have been studied and compared. The main objective of this study was to seek out common organizational factors that contributed to these accidents. The findings clearly demonstrated that commonalities exist. Essentially, five factors represent recurring elements in these accidents: management, communication, competence, procedures, and compliance. How the regulatory regimes were organized also contr...

  13. Thoracoabdominal teratoma: Rare location

    Cvijanović Radovan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Teratomas are tumours derived from pluripotent germ cells. They appear most frequently on ovaries. However, other locations are also possible: testicles, retroperitoneum, stomach, neck, and bottom of the mouth cavity. It is not very common to find teratomas in two different body cavities. Case report. A 51-year-old patient visited her doctor complaining of an intensive pain which suddenly appeared in her low back. The computed tomography scan of the abdomen was performed, which revealed cystic formation, 12.5 x 18 cm in size, with remarkable capsule visualization. It had paraaortic, subdiaphragmatic, retropancreatic and suprarenal left localisation with signs of compression and pancreatic dislocation. The cystic formation had a septated appearance filled with clear fluid in all its parts except at the bottom, where it was dense. The intra-operative finding was left retroperitoneal mass placed above the left kidney, dislocating surrounding structures and their infiltration could not be excluded for sure. A tumour mass passed through the diaphragmatic hiatus and continued in the left thoracic space. The cyst was only drained and the fenestration was performed. Three months later, the second operation was performed-splenectomy, left suprarenaladenectomy, left nephrectomy, aortic deliberalisation, the left diaphragmatic crus was opened and tumour mass was completely removed from the thoracic space. The histological examination showed mature teratoma with morphological characterisations of the skin, so the definite diagnosis was dermoid cyst. Conclusion. The patient presented with thoracoabdominal teratoma. Although without malignant transformation, the teratoma required splenectomy, supraadrenalectomy and nefrectomy due to its position and size.

  14. Fault location on power networks

    Saha, Murari Mohan

    2009-01-01

    Fault Location on Power Lines enables readers to pinpoint the location of a fault on power lines following a disturbance. The nine chapters are organised according to the design of different locators. The authors do not simply refer the reader to manufacturers' documentation, but instead have compiled detailed information to allow for in-depth comparison. Fault Location on Power Lines describes basic algorithms used in fault locators, focusing on fault location on overhead transmission lines, but also covering fault location in distribution networks. An application of artificial intelligence i

  15. Accident on the gas transfer system

    An accident has happened on the Vivitron gas transfer system on the 7 th August 1991. This report presents the context, facts and inquiries, analyses the reasons and explains also how the repairing has been effected

  16. A review of severe accident assessment

    One of the most difficult problems on evaluation of external costs on nuclear power generation is value on a severe accident risk. Once forming a severe accident, its effect is very important and extends to a wide range, to give a lot of damages. It is a main area of study on externality of energy to compare various risks by means of price conversion at unit kWh. Here was outlined on research examples on main severe accident risks before then. A common fact on estimation cost such research examples is to limit it to direct cost (mainly to health damage) at accident phenomenon. As an actual problem, it is very difficult to substantially quantify such parameters because of basically belonging to social psychology. It is due to no finding out decisive evaluation method on this problem to be adopted conventional EED (Expert Expected Damages) approach in the ExternE Phase III, either. (G.K.)

  17. National emergency plan for nuclear accidents

    The national emergency plan for nuclear accidents is a plan of action designed to provide a response to accidents involving the release or potential release of radioactive substances into the environment, which could give rise to radiation exposure to the public. The plan outlines the measures which are in place to assess and mitigate the effects of nuclear accidents which might pose a radiological hazard in ireland. It shows how accident management will operate, how technical information and monitoring data will be collected, how public information will be provided and what measures may be taken for the protection of the public in the short and long term. The plan can be integrated with the Department of Defence arrangements for wartime emergencies

  18. Deterministic analyses of severe accident issues

    Severe accidents in light water reactors involve complex physical phenomena. In the past there has been a heavy reliance on simple assumptions regarding physical phenomena alongside of probability methods to evaluate risks associated with severe accidents. Recently GE has developed realistic methodologies that permit deterministic evaluations of severe accident progression and of some of the associated phenomena in the case of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). These deterministic analyses indicate that with appropriate system modifications, and operator actions, core damage can be prevented in most cases. Furthermore, in cases where core-melt is postulated, containment failure can either be prevented or significantly delayed to allow sufficient time for recovery actions to mitigate severe accidents

  19. Emergency Response to Radioactive Material Transport Accidents

    Although transport regulations issued by IAEA is providing a high degree of safety during transport opertions,transport accidents involving packages containing radioactive material have occurred and will occur at any time. Whenever a transport accident involving radioactive material accurs, and many will pose no radiation safety problems, emergency respnose actioms are meeded to ensure that radiation safety is maintained. In case of transport accident that result in a significant relesae of radioactive material , loss of shielding or loss of criticality control , that consequences should be controlled or mitigated by proper emergency response actions safety guide, Emergency Response Plamming and Prepardness for transport accidents involving radioactive material, was published by IAEA. This guide reflected all requirememts of IAEA, regulations for safe transport of radioactive material this guide provide guidance to the publicauthorites and other interested organziation who are responsible for establishing such emergency arrangements

  20. Medical Planning and Care in Radiation Accidents

    As part of a broad effort intended to mitigate the consequences of radiation accidents, the United States Atomic Energy Commission has developed a program to train physicians and to orient hospital staffs in the treatment of accident victims. Seminars have been conducted to date for approximately 120 physicians on medical planning and care in radiation accidents. This paper presents the scope and specific topics covered in the seminars, together with an analysis of. experience gained during development and presentation of the seminars. More recently the program has been expanded to encompass orientation of hospital administrators and other para-medical personnel on the handling and admittance of victims of radiation accidents. The latter problem is the subject of a new color film premiered at the Symposium. (author)

  1. Legal intervention against medical accidents in Japan

    Hideo Yasunaga

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hideo YasunagaDepartment of Health Management and Policy, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The number of civil lawsuits in Japan concerning medical accidents has been increasing gradually. Emotional reports in the media about medical accidents have amplified people’s distrust of physicians. Since 2002, the police have been more actively involved, and the number of criminal prosecutions against physicians as a result of medical accidents has increased. Fear of litigation and arrest has demoralized physicians. Communication of the risks associated with various medical practices is considered vital if physician–patient relationships are to be improved. Moreover, there needs to be a reconsideration of legal interventions into medical affairs.Keywords: physician–patient relationship, medical accidents, civil lawsuits, criminal lawsuits

  2. Containment leakage during severe accident conditions

    An alternate to the THRESHOLD model used in most severe accident risk assessments has been investigated. One reference plant for each of six containment types has been studied to determine the magnitude of containment leakage that would result from the pressures and temperatures associated with severe accident conditions. Containment penetrations having the greatest potential for early containment leakage are identified. The studies indicate that containment leakage through penetrations prior to reaching containment threshold pressures (currently reported containment shell failure pressures) should be considered in severe accident risk assessments. Failure of non-metallic seals for containment penetrations can be a significant source of containment leakage under severe accident pressure and temperature conditions. Although studies of containment types are useful in identifying sources of containment leakage, final conclusions may need to be plant specific. Recommendations concerning future studies to better develop the use of continuous leakage models are provided. 9 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  3. Safety analysis of surface haulage accidents

    Randolph, R.F.; Boldt, C.M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Research on improving haulage truck safety, started by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, is being continued by its successors. This paper reports the orientation of the renewed research efforts, beginning with an update on accident data analysis, the role of multiple causes in these accidents, and the search for practical methods for addressing the most important causes. Fatal haulage accidents most often involve loss of control or collisions caused by a variety of factors. Lost-time injuries most often involve sprains or strains to the back or multiple body areas, which can often be attributed to rough roads and the shocks of loading and unloading. Research to reduce these accidents includes improved warning systems, shock isolation for drivers, encouraging seatbelt usage, and general improvements to system and task design.

  4. 30 years learning from radiological accidents

    The summary of the radiological accidents from 1957 to 1997 occurred in Mexico is showed, including the analysis in terms of practice, and consequences. The study tries to establish the radiological knowledge of the people involved in the accident, their attitude to the safety, and retrospective review to the light of 30 years after. Nevertheless, due to the technological developments made to the equipment allow the use in a safe manner, so that the accident number has diminished in a important in a important quantity respect to the reported period, combined to the increased the radiological culture learned by the operation personnel in addition of qualification and awareness in this matter, at present is little probable that the mentioned accidents repeat now days with the same radiological affectations as those happened in the past. (author)

  5. Iodine release characteristic in reactor accidents

    The author describes the chemical behavior for the iodine release from the fuel element in nuclear reactor accidents, partition coefficient in the water and air and the release characteristic in time. The research of the iodine release was suggested

  6. More Children Accidently Poisoned by 'Essential Oils'

    ... fullstory_158837.html More Children Accidently Poisoned by 'Essential Oils' Tennessee poison center reports doubling of dangerous exposures ... HealthDay News) -- Children are increasingly at risk from essential oils that are often used in natural remedies, a ...

  7. Internal dose assessment in radiation accidents

    Although numerous models have been developed for occupational and medical internal dosimetry, they may not be applicable to an accident situation. Published dose coefficients relate effective dose to intake, but if acute deterministic effects are possible, effective dose is not a useful parameter. Consequently, dose rates to the organs of interest need to be computed from first principles. Standard bioassay methods may be used to assess body contents, but, again, the standard models for bioassay interpretation may not be applicable because of the circumstances of the accident and the prompt initiation of decorporation therapy. Examples of modifications to the standard methodologies include adjustment of biological half-times under therapy, such as in the Goiania accident, and the same effect, complicated by continued input from contaminated wounds, in the Hanford 241Am accident. (author)

  8. Accident risks in the energy sector

    This article discusses the accident rate of natural gas installations, which are quoted by the author to be lowest of all fossil fuels. The statistics on accidents and their consequences are looked at for the whole natural gas supply chain. The results of a study commissioned by the Swiss Gas and Water Professionals Association (SVGW) are presented and discussed. Statistics for the European Union and Eastern Europe are looked at and analysed. The study's methodological basis is described and the criteria used for the definition of an accident considered to be 'serious' are listed. The results of comparisons made of various energy chains are presented and discussed. Graphics are presented of frequency of occurrence and seriousness of damage for various forms of energy as well as for maximum possible consequences of accidents. Specific analyses for the natural gas chain are presented

  9. Fast detections of the accident. Radiological consequences

    This paper shows how the contamination due to the accident of Chernobylsk has been discovered in Sweden. The Swedish national Institute of radio-protection describes in detail the measurements done, and the decisions of radioprotection which have been taken

  10. Review of models applicable to accident aerosols

    Estimations of potential airborne-particle releases are essential in safety assessments of nuclear-fuel facilities. This report is a review of aerosol behavior models that have potential applications for predicting aerosol characteristics in compartments containing accident-generated aerosol sources. Such characterization of the accident-generated aerosols is a necessary step toward estimating their eventual release in any accident scenario. Existing aerosol models can predict the size distribution, concentration, and composition of aerosols as they are acted on by ventilation, diffusion, gravity, coagulation, and other phenomena. Models developed in the fields of fluid mechanics, indoor air pollution, and nuclear-reactor accidents are reviewed with this nuclear fuel facility application in mind. The various capabilities of modeling aerosol behavior are tabulated and discussed, and recommendations are made for applying the models to problems of differing complexity

  11. 46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5 Shipping... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  12. 46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5 Shipping... Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use of the...

  13. 46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  14. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304... Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material to... nuclear accident is possible, shall provide nuclear accident dosimetry for those individuals. (b)...

  15. Modeling secondary accidents identified by traffic shock waves.

    Junhua, Wang; Boya, Liu; Lanfang, Zhang; Ragland, David R

    2016-02-01

    The high potential for occurrence and the negative consequences of secondary accidents make them an issue of great concern affecting freeway safety. Using accident records from a three-year period together with California interstate freeway loop data, a dynamic method for more accurate classification based on the traffic shock wave detecting method was used to identify secondary accidents. Spatio-temporal gaps between the primary and secondary accident were proven be fit via a mixture of Weibull and normal distribution. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate major factors contributing to secondary accident occurrence. Traffic shock wave speed and volume at the occurrence of a primary accident were explicitly considered in the model, as a secondary accident is defined as an accident that occurs within the spatio-temporal impact scope of the primary accident. Results show that the shock waves originating in the wake of a primary accident have a more significant impact on the likelihood of a secondary accident occurrence than the effects of traffic volume. Primary accidents with long durations can significantly increase the possibility of secondary accidents. Unsafe speed and weather are other factors contributing to secondary crash occurrence. It is strongly suggested that when police or rescue personnel arrive at the scene of an accident, they should not suddenly block, decrease, or unblock the traffic flow, but instead endeavor to control traffic in a smooth and controlled manner. Also it is important to reduce accident processing time to reduce the risk of secondary accident. PMID:26687540

  16. Light water reactor severe accident seminar. Seminar presentation manual

    The topics covered in this manual on LWR severe accidents were: Evolution of Source Term Definition and Analysis, Current Position on Severe Accident Phenomena, Current Position on Fission Product Behavior, Overview of Software Models Used in Severe Accident Analysis, Overview of Plant Specific Source Terms and Their Impact on Risk, Current Applications of Severe Accident Analysis, and Future plans

  17. Assessment of accident risks in the CRBRP. Volume 2. Appendices

    None

    1977-03-01

    Appendices to Volume I include core-related accident-sequence definition, CRBRP risk-assessment sequence-probability determinations, failure-probability data, accident scenario evaluation, radioactive material release analysis, ex-core accident analysis, safety philosophy and design features, calculation of reactor accident consequences, sensitivity study, and risk from fires.

  18. Bus accident severity and passenger injury: evidence from Denmark

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    principle of sustainable transit and advance the vision “every accident is one too many”. Methods Bus accident data were retrieved from the national accident database for the period 2002–2011. A generalized ordered logit model allows analyzing bus accident severity and a logistic regression enables...

  19. 48 CFR 852.236-87 - Accident prevention.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 852... Accident prevention. As prescribed in 836.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (SEP 1993....236-13, Accident Prevention. However, only the Contracting Officer may issue an order to stop all...

  20. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident means— (a) Any casualty or accident involving any vessel other than a public vessel that— (1) Occurs...

  1. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

  2. 14 CFR 415.41 - Accident investigation plan.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accident investigation plan. 415.41 Section... Launch Range § 415.41 Accident investigation plan. An applicant must file an accident investigation plan... reporting and responding to launch accidents, launch incidents, or other mishaps, as defined by § 401.5...

  3. 33 CFR 173.55 - Report of casualty or accident.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Report of casualty or accident... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY VESSEL NUMBERING AND CASUALTY AND ACCIDENT REPORTING Casualty and Accident Reporting § 173.55 Report of casualty or accident. (a) The operator of a vessel shall submit the casualty...

  4. 33 CFR 401.81 - Reporting an accident.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting an accident. 401.81... an accident. (a) Where a vessel on the Seaway is involved in an accident or a dangerous occurrence, the master of the vessel shall report the accident or occurrence, pursuant to the requirements of...

  5. 49 CFR 382.209 - Use following an accident.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use following an accident. 382.209 Section 382.209... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.209 Use following an accident. No driver required to take a post-accident alcohol test under § 382.303 shall use alcohol for eight hours following the accident,...

  6. 36 CFR 1004.4 - Report of motor vehicle accident.

    2010-07-01

    ... accident. 1004.4 Section 1004.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.4 Report of motor vehicle accident. (a) The operator of a motor vehicle involved in an accident resulting in property damage, personal injury or death shall report the accident to the...

  7. 49 CFR 655.44 - Post-accident testing.

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Administration rule 49 CFR 389.303(a)(1) or (b)(1). (ii) The employer shall also drug and alcohol... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Post-accident testing. 655.44 Section 655.44... of Testing § 655.44 Post-accident testing. (a) Accidents. (1) Fatal accidents. (i) As soon...

  8. Oranges and Peaches: Understanding Communication Accidents in the Reference Interview.

    Dewdney, Patricia; Michell, Gillian

    1996-01-01

    Librarians often have communication "accidents" with reference questions as initially presented. This article presents linguistic analysis of query categories, including: simple failures of hearing, accidents involving pronunciation or homophones, accidents where users repeat earlier misinterpretations to librarians, and accidents where users…

  9. Learning lessons from Natech accidents - the eNATECH accident database

    Krausmann, Elisabeth; Girgin, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    When natural hazards impact industrial facilities that house or process hazardous materials, fires, explosions and toxic releases can occur. This type of accident is commonly referred to as Natech accident. In order to prevent the recurrence of accidents or to better mitigate their consequences, lessons-learned type studies using available accident data are usually carried out. Through post-accident analysis, conclusions can be drawn on the most common damage and failure modes and hazmat release paths, particularly vulnerable storage and process equipment, and the hazardous materials most commonly involved in these types of accidents. These analyses also lend themselves to identifying technical and organisational risk-reduction measures that require improvement or are missing. Industrial accident databases are commonly used for retrieving sets of Natech accident case histories for further analysis. These databases contain accident data from the open literature, government authorities or in-company sources. The quality of reported information is not uniform and exhibits different levels of detail and accuracy. This is due to the difficulty of finding qualified information sources, especially in situations where accident reporting by the industry or by authorities is not compulsory, e.g. when spill quantities are below the reporting threshold. Data collection has then to rely on voluntary record keeping often by non-experts. The level of detail is particularly non-uniform for Natech accident data depending on whether the consequences of the Natech event were major or minor, and whether comprehensive information was available for reporting. In addition to the reporting bias towards high-consequence events, industrial accident databases frequently lack information on the severity of the triggering natural hazard, as well as on failure modes that led to the hazmat release. This makes it difficult to reconstruct the dynamics of the accident and renders the development of

  10. Assessing economic consequences of radiation accidents

    This project reviewed the literature on the economic consequences of accidents to determine the availability of assessment methods and data and their applicability to the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system before closure; determined needs for expansion, revision, or adaptation of methods and data for modeling economic consequences of accidents of the scale projected for the disposal system; and gathered data that might be useful for the needed revisions. 8 refs., 1 tab

  11. Conclusions on severe accident research priorities

    Highlights: • Estimation of research priorities related to severe accident phenomena. • Consideration of new topics, partly linked to the severe accidents at Fukushima. • Consideration of results of recent projects, e.g. SARNET, ASAMPSA2, OECD projects. - Abstract: The objectives of the SARNET network of excellence are to define and work on common research programs in the field of severe accidents in Gen. II–III nuclear power plants and to further develop common tools and methodologies for safety assessment in this area. In order to ensure that the research conducted on severe accidents is efficient and well-focused, it is necessary to periodically evaluate and rank the priorities of research. This was done at the end of 2008 by the Severe Accident Research Priority (SARP) group at the end of the SARNET project of the 6th Framework Programme of European Commission (FP6). This group has updated this work in the FP7 SARNET2 project by accounting for the recent experimental results, the remaining safety issues as e.g. highlighted by Level 2 PSA national studies and the results of the recent ASAMPSA2 FP7 project. These evaluation activities were conducted in close relation with the work performed under the auspices of international organizations like OECD or IAEA. The Fukushima-Daiichi severe accidents, which occurred while SARNET2 was running, had some effects on the prioritization and definition of new research topics. Although significant progress has been gained and simulation models (e.g. the ASTEC integral code, jointly developed by IRSN and GRS) were improved, leading to an increased confidence in the predictive capabilities for assessing the success potential of countermeasures and/or mitigation measures, most of the selected research topics in 2008 are still of high priority. But the Fukushima-Daiichi accidents underlined that research efforts had to focus still more to improve severe accident management efficiency

  12. Estimating the frequency of nuclear accidents

    Raju, Suvrat

    2014-01-01

    We used Bayesian methods to compare the predictions of probabilistic risk assessment -- the theoretical tool used by the nuclear industry to predict the frequency of nuclear accidents -- with empirical data. The existing record of accidents with some simplifying assumptions regarding their probability distribution is sufficient to rule out the validity of the industry's analyses at a very high confidence level. We show that this conclusion is robust against any reasonable assumed variation of...

  13. APRI-6. Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance

    Since the early 1980s, nuclear power utilities in Sweden and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) collaborate on the research in severe reactor accidents. In the beginning focus was mostly on strengthening protection against environmental impacts after a severe reactor accident, for example by develop systems for the filtered relief of the reactor containment. Since the early 90s, this focus has shifted to the phenomenological issues of risk-dominant significance. During the years 2006-2008, the partnership continued in the research project APRI-6. The aim was to show whether the solutions adopted in the Swedish strategy for incident management provides adequate protection for the environment. This is done by studying important phenomena in the core melt estimating the amount of radioactivity that can be released to the atmosphere in a severe accident. To achieve these objectives the research has included monitoring of international research on severe accidents and evaluation of results and continued support for research of severe accidents at the Royal Inst. of Technology (KTH) and Chalmers University. The follow-up of international research has promoted the exchange of knowledge and experience and has given access to a wealth of information on various phenomena relevant to events in severe accidents. The continued support to KTH has provided increased knowledge about the possibility of cooling the molten core in the reactor tank and the processes associated with coolability in the confinement and about steam explosions. Support for Chalmers has increased knowledge of the accident chemistry, mainly the behavior of iodine and ruthenium in the containment after an accident

  14. Nuclear Accidents And Associated Environmental Risk

    The paper presents a critical review on the recent view of some safety related issues concerning nuclear accident analysis and its environmental impacts. The philosophy of defence in depth, nuclear accident classification, and quantitative evaluation of environmental risk are among the issues being discussed. The problems of nuclear data harmonization and/or models, building trust and transparence between regulatory guides and public, and alternatives for relocation pathways are also addressed and evaluated

  15. Nuclear accident impact on the ecological environment

    This article reviewed the eco-environmental behavior of radionuclides released into the environment by nuclear explosion and nuclear accidents, especially of several key radionuclides with biological significance, including 137Cs, 95Zr, 90Sr, 131I, 3H and 14C, in order to correctly understand the case of nuclear accidents and its pollution, maintain the social stable, and provide suitable measures for environmental protection and safety. (author)

  16. Chernobylsk accident (Causes and Consequences)- Part 2

    The causes and consequences of the nuclear accident at Chernobylsk-4 reactor are shortly described. The informations were provided by Russian during the specialist meeting, carried out at seat of IAEA. The Russian nuclear panorama; the site, nuclear power plant characteristics and sequence of events; the immediate measurements after accident; monitoring/radioactive releases; environmental contamination and ecological consequences; measurements of emergency; recommendations to increase the nuclear safety; and recommendations of work groups, are presented. (M.C.K.)

  17. Dosimetric evaluation of radiation accident situation

    The publication contains the classification of neutron spectra from different neutron sources, a chapter on neutron absorption by the human body, a diagram for neutron and photon dose estimation and for classifying persons involved in a radiation accident, the description of detectors and methods used for radiation accident analysis, a chapter on the interpretation of data from an accidental dosimetric system, and annexes. (H.S.)

  18. Serious accidents on boiling water reactors (BWR)

    This short document describes, first, the specificities of boiling water reactors (BWRs) with respect to PWRs in front of the progress of a serious accident, and then, the strategies of accident management: restoration of core cooling, water injection, core flooding, management of hydrogen release, depressurization of the primary coolant circuit, containment spraying, controlled venting, external vessel cooling, erosion of the lower foundation raft by the corium). (J.S.)

  19. Accident analysis in nuclear power plants

    The way the philosophy of Safety in Depth can be verified through the analysis of simulated accidents is shown. This can be achieved by verifying that the integrity of the protection barriers against the release of radioactivity to the environment is preserved even during accident conditions. The simulation of LOCA is focalized as an example, including a study about the associated environmental radiological consequences. (Author)

  20. Vehicle accidents related to sleep: a review

    Horne, J.; Reyner, L.

    1999-01-01

    Falling asleep while driving accounts for a considerable proportion of vehicle accidents under monotonous driving conditions. Many of these accidents are related to work--for example, drivers of lorries, goods vehicles, and company cars. Time of day (circadian) effects are profound, with sleepiness being particularly evident during night shift work, and driving home afterwards. Circadian factors are as important in determining driver sleepiness as is the duration of the drive, but only ...