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Sample records for accident characteristics

  1. Iodine release characteristic in reactor accidents

    The author describes the chemical behavior for the iodine release from the fuel element in nuclear reactor accidents, partition coefficient in the water and air and the release characteristic in time. The research of the iodine release was suggested

  2. Development of preliminary Nevada transportation accident characteristics

    The US DOE, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office (YMSCPO) has been given the responsibility for characterization of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the analysis of repository-related impacts in the State of Nevada. In support of these responsibilities, the YMSCPO initiated a preliminary study to develop background information on the character of the transportation accidents occurring on the highways and raillines in the State of Nevada. The results of this preliminary study shows that while the transportation accidents in Nevada follow national trends, there are some distinct differences between Nevada and the rest of the Nation. This paper summarizes those results

  3. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira; Andy Petroianu; Dafne Maria Villar Gonçalves; Gisele Araújo Pereira; Luiz Ronaldo Alberti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the regio...

  4. The Nevada railroad system: Physical, operational, and accident characteristics

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    This report provides a description of the operational and physical characteristics of the Nevada railroad system. To understand the dynamics of the rail system, one must consider the system`s physical characteristics, routing, uses, interactions with other systems, and unique operational characteristics, if any. This report is presented in two parts. The first part is a narrative description of all mainlines and major branchlines of the Nevada railroad system. Each Nevada rail route is described, including the route`s physical characteristics, traffic type and volume, track conditions, and history. The second part of this study provides a more detailed analysis of Nevada railroad accident characteristics than was presented in the Preliminary Nevada Transportation Accident Characterization Study (DOE, 1990).

  5. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The questionnaires included demographic information (age, gender, skin color, education level, profession and questions about years of licensed driving practice, how often they would drive an automobile, how long they had had a motorcycle driver’s license, how often they would ride a motorcycle, the number of prior accidents involving a car, and the number of prior accidents not involving a car. Results: of the 100 consecutive accidents studied, 91 occurred with men and 9 with women, aged between 16 and 79 (m = 29 ± 11 years. Regarding their reason for using a motorcycle, 83% reported using it for transport, 7% for work, and 10% for leisure. Most of these accident victims had secondary or higher education (47%. Of the motorcyclists who held a car driver’s license, 68.3% drove the vehicle daily or weekly and held the license for more than one year. Sixty-seven percent of the accident victims used a motorcycle daily and had a motorcycle driver’s license for at least one year. Conclusion: among the motorcyclists injured, most were men aged 20 years or older, with complete secondary education, and experienced in driving both motorcycles and cars, indicating that recklessness while driving the motorcycle is the main cause of traffic accidents.

  6. The Influence of Seasonal Characteristics on the Accident Consequences Analysis

    In order to examine the influence of seasonal characteristics on accident consequences, we defined a limited number of basic spectra based on the relative importance of source term release parameters and meteorological conditions on offsite health effects and economic impacts. We then investigated the variation in numbers and frequency of early health effects and economic impacts resulting from the severe accidents of the YGN 3 and 4 nuclear power plants from spectrum to spectrum by using MACCS code. These investigations were for meteorological conditions defined as typical on an annual basis. Also, we investigated the variation in numbers and frequency of early health effects and economic impacts for the same standard spectra for meteorological conditions defined as typical on a seasonal basis recognizing that there are four seasons with distinct meteorological characteristics. Results show that there are large differences in consequences from spectrum to spectrum, although an equal amount and mix of radioactive material is released to the atmosphere in each case. Therefore, release parameters and meteorological data have to be well characterized in order to estimate accident consequences resulting from an accident accurately. Also, there are large differences in the estimated number of health effects and economic impacts from season to season due to distinct seasonal variations in meteorological conditions in Korea. In fall, the early fatalities and early fatality risk show minimum values due to enhanced dispersion arising from increased atmospheric instability, and the early fatalities show maximum value in summer due to a large rainfall rate. On the contrast, the economic cost shows maximum value in fall and minimum in summer due to different atmospheric dispersion and rainfall rate. Therefore, it is necessary to consider seasonal characteristics in developing emergency response strategies for reducing offsite early health risks in the event of a severe

  7. Mapping patterns and characteristics of fatal road accidents in Israel

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    without a priori assumptions about the expected outcome of the study. Kohonen neural networks reveal five accident patterns: (i) single-vehicle accidents of young drivers; (ii) multiple-vehicle accidents between young drivers; (iii) accidents involving either motorcycles or bicycles; (iv) accidents where...

  8. Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-05-15

    The conventional PSA techniques cannot adequately evaluate all events. The conventional PSA models usually focus on single internal events such as DBAs, the external hazards such as fire, seismic. However, the Fukushima accident of Japan in 2011 reveals that very rare event is necessary to be considered in the PSA model to prevent the radioactive release to environment caused by poor treatment based on lack of the information, and to improve the emergency operation procedure. Especially, the results from PSA can be used to decision making for regulators. Moreover, designers can consider the weakness of plant safety based on the quantified results and understand accident sequence based on human actions and system availability. This study is for PSA modeling of combined accidents including total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident. The TLOFW accident is a representative accident involving the failure of cooling through secondary side. If the amount of heat transfer is not enough due to the failure of secondary side, the heat will be accumulated to the primary side by continuous core decay heat. Transients with loss of feedwater include total loss of feedwater accident, loss of condenser vacuum accident, and closure of all MSIVs. When residual heat removal by the secondary side is terminated, the safety injection into the RCS with direct primary depressurization would provide alternative heat removal. This operation is called feed and bleed (F and B) operation. Combined accidents including TLOFW accident are very rare event and partially considered in conventional PSA model. Since the necessity of F and B operation is related to plant conditions, the PSA modeling for combined accidents including TLOFW accident is necessary to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities.The PSA is significant to assess the risk of NPPs, and to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities. Even though the combined accident is very rare event, the consequence of combined

  9. Clogging characteristics of ventilation filter under the fire accident

    To evaluate the smoke behavior and its loading characteristics to the ventilation filters, the verification tests on safety of a cell ventilation system under the fire accidents burning the solid wastes (rubber, cloth) or the recovered solvent (n-dodecane, 30% tributyl phosphate (TBP)/70% n-dodecane), which are often used and wasted in the nuclear facilities, have been performed. Maximum of smoke concentration before the ventilation filter was less than 1000 mg/m3. Mass median diameter and geometric standard deviation of smoke before the ventilation filter were 0.2-0.4μm and 3-4 in the case of the solid wastes burning, 0.2-1 μm, 3-4 in the case of the recovered solvent, respectively. The differential pressure of a pre-filter or a HEPA filter to the mass loading per unit area were expressed by quadratic function under the difference kind of the solid wastes or recovered solvents. (author)

  10. Pathohistologic characteristics of gastric and duodenal mucosa in liquidators of Chernobyl accident with peptic duodenal ulcer

    Pathomorphological characteristics of gastric and duodenal mucosa associated with the dose of ionizing radiation at peptic duodenal ulcer in participants of the Chernobyl accident clean-up was determined. Our findings suggest that the doses of external irradiation exceeding 25 cGy (together with the other harmful effects of the Chernobyl accident) represent a danger of helicobacter infection development

  11. Differences in Characteristics of Aviation Accidents during 1993-2012 Based on Flight Purpose

    Evans, Joni K.

    2016-01-01

    Usually aviation accidents are categorized and analyzed within flight conduct rules (Part 121, Part 135, Part 91) because differences in accident rates within flight rules have been demonstrated. Even within a particular flight rule the flights have different purposes. For many, Part 121 flights are synonymous with scheduled passenger transport, and indeed this is the largest group of Part 121 accidents. But there are also non-scheduled (charter) passenger transport and cargo flights. The primary purpose of the analysis reported here is to examine the differences in aviation accidents based on the purpose of the flight. Some of the factors examined are the accident severity, aircraft characteristics and accident occurrence categories. Twenty consecutive years of data were available and utilized to complete this analysis.

  12. Radioactive contamination characteristics in China following Chernobyl accident

    In the aftermath of Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, the Environmental Radiation Surveillance Network of Ministry of Public Health of China has done monitoring on environmental samples to determine the contamination levels of radioactivity. Radionuclides, such as I-131, I-132, Cs-137, Cs-134 and Te-132, were found on surface of airplanes, which flew in domestic airlines between May 1-3, that means the radionuclides from Chernobyl accident already reached high altitude atmosphere over China, but the concentration was much lower than that in Europe. During the period of May 2-15, in most stations, radionuclides were found in different environmental samples, such as air, milk, vegetables, rain water, river and lake water, and sheep thyroid. Radioactivity levels of samples were higher in north part of China than in south. The amounts of radionuclides in all samples were well below the derived air concentrations and derived intake concentrations specified in the National Basic Health Standards for Radiological Protection. Thus, the public need not to take any precautions for the purpose of radiation protection

  13. Characteristics of the aerosols released to the environment after a severe PWR accident

    In the event of a postulated severe accident on a pressurized water reactor (PWR) involving fuel degradation, gases and aerosols containing radioactive products could be released, with short, medium and long term consequences for the population and the environment. Under such accident conditions, the ESCADRE code system, developed at IPSN (Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection) can be used to calculate the properties of the substances released and, especially with the AEROSOLS/B2 code, the main characteristics of the aerosols (concentration, size distribution, composition). For conditions representative of severe PWR accidents, by varying different main parameters (structural material aerosols, steam condensation in the containment, etc...), indications are given on the range of characteristics of the aerosols (containing notably Cs, Te, Sr, Ru, etc...) released to the atmosphere. Information is also given on how more accurate data (especially on the chemical forms) will be obtainable in the framework of current or planned experimental programs (HEVA, PITEAS, PHEBUS PF, etc...)

  14. Effects of driver nationality and road characteristics on accident fault risk.

    Yannis, George; Golias, John; Papadimitriou, Eleonora

    2007-09-01

    This paper investigates the combined effect of driver nationality and several road characteristics (area type, at or not at junction, lighting conditions) on accident fault risk. Data from the national accident database of Greece are used to calculate accident relative fault risk rates under induced exposure assumptions. A log-linear analysis is then used to examine first- and higher-order effects within three or more variable groups. The examination of the second-order interaction among the accident fault risks of various driver nationalities at or not at junction was found to be significant. On the contrary, the respective combined effects of area type and lighting conditions were found to be non-significant. It was also shown that roadway features do not affect accident fault risk in a combined way. Results clearly indicate that foreign drivers in Greece are at increased risk. Moreover, foreign nationalities corresponding to permanent residents (i.e. Greeks and Albanians) appear to be at lower fault risk compared to foreign nationalities corresponding to tourists and visitors (e.g. EU Nationals). The effects of the various road characteristics do not modify these general trends. PMID:17729136

  15. Epidemiological characteristics of fatal pedestrian accidents in Fars Province of Iran: a community-based survey

    Payam Peymani; Ali Foroutan; Seyed Mehdi Ahmadi; Fariborz Ghaffarpasand; Hassan Joulaei; Kamran B Lankarani; Seyed Taghi Heydari; Amin Hoseinzadeh; Yaser Sarikhani; Arya Hedjazi; Mohammad Zarenezhad; Ghasem Moafian; Mohammad Reza Aghabeigi; Najmeh Maharlouei

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the epidemiological characteristics of fatal pedestrian accidents in Fars Province of Iran.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fars Province of Iran during a 29-month period from March 2009 to July 2011.The data were from the Fars Forensic Medicine Registry.In 4 923 recorded road traffic accident fatalities,971 deaths were due to pedestrian accidents.The demographic and accident-related information were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5.P value less than 0.05 was considered significant.Results: The mean age of decedents was (47.2±26.2)years,ranging from 6 months to 103 years old.Males accounted for 69.8% of all deaths.Fatal accidents were most common in September; 56.1% of the fatal injuries occurred on intracity roads and 33.1% on extracity roads.Fatal head injuries were present in 60.54% of cases.Evaluation of the injury site and the cause of death found that they were significantly associated with age,interval between injury and death.Besides,the type of roads played an important role in mortality.Conclusion: Although the clinical management of trauma patients has been improved in our country in the recent decade,decreasing the burden of injuries needs coordination among trauma system organizations.

  16. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SWITZERLAND'S ALPINE SKIER'S RELATED TO THE FREQUENCY OF ACCIDENTS

    Giovanis Vassilis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to record the characteristics of Switzerland's alpine skier's in relation to the frequency of accidents. The formulation of the cases was based on the following questions: skiers with preparation of their physical fitness before the season and the warming-up before skiing have chances of skiing accidents or injuries? In this research 49 skiers participated (30 men and 19 women. The specimens came by recreational skiers (beginners - advanced and athletes in the following ski resorts in Switzerland: Adelboden, Lenk and San Bernardino. The research material came from analysis of completed questionnaires from 49 Swiss skiers. They have recorded four categories of factors: a individual factors b factors of preparation in the snow in relation to injuries c factors of preparation in dry ground in relation to injuries d factors of injuries. About 1 in 3 Swiss skier respondents had in the past, an accident in alpine skiing. In the Swiss population the number of advanced skiers is overriding, with a few years of training in skiing, however with several days training a year using a ski instructor teacher for warming up and individual form of learning. With regard to injured skiers, athletes are the ones that prevail. The skiers who had prepared themselves with a physical fitness preparation before the winter season had a greater percentage of accidents and injuries, while on the other hand had a reduced rate in relation to injuries or accidents during warm up. Swiss skiers usually had upper limb injuries (sprains and dislocations due to the fall of the skier. It is recommended that research be done with all the factors for the selection of the best methodology, preparation and adjustment of physical ability in the difficult environment of skiing with respect to accidents and injuries.

  17. Characteristics of border nervous-mental disorders for victims connected with the Chernobyl' NPP accident

    It is revealed that border nervouse-mental disorders for victims connected with the Chernobyl' NPP accident are the most widely spread diseases. Their specific features are the following: prevalence of the disorders from asthenic and psycho-organic circles; relatively small positive dynamics in the cause of treatment; uniformity in symptoms, which do not depend on psychological characteristics of a person. Particular efforts should be concentrated on developing psychosocial programs for rendering the victims help. 3 refs

  18. Estimate of radionuclide release characteristics into containment under severe accident conditions

    A detailed review of the available light water reactor source term information is presented as a technical basis for development of updated source terms into the containment under severe accident conditions. Simplified estimates of radionuclide release and transport characteristics are specified for each unique combination of the reactor coolant and containment system combinations. A quantitative uncertainty analysis in the release to the containment using NUREG-1150 methodology is also presented

  19. Estimate of radionuclide release characteristics into containment under severe accident conditions. Final report

    Nourbakhsh, H.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    A detailed review of the available light water reactor source term information is presented as a technical basis for development of updated source terms into the containment under severe accident conditions. Simplified estimates of radionuclide release and transport characteristics are specified for each unique combination of the reactor coolant and containment system combinations. A quantitative uncertainty analysis in the release to the containment using NUREG-1150 methodology is also presented.

  20. EVALUATION OF TRAFFIC ACCIDENT CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED TO WEATHER CONDITIONS IN BOTUCATU, SP

    Sergio Augusto Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled growth of several cities has generated major problems regarding urban environment and mobility. Among several factors affecting mobility in Brazilian cities and towns traffic accidents are increasingly common concerns and climate condition might be a possible generator for such growth. In addition there is increasing pollution and possible changes in the environment generated by the large increase in the number of vehicles in circulation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between traffic accidents and weather conditions in Botucatu, SP, Brazil. It was used database with information obtained from the city´s responsible bodies for traffic accidents as well as from the meteorological station. These data were analyzed using univariate statistical procedures. Charts and tables were presented for a better understanding of the behavior of each variable. Later it was used linear correlation coefficient for understanding how climate characteristics of the city are associated to some information related to traffic accidents. It was observed that there were significant correlations between some of the variables.

  1. Study on characteristics of fractures from road traffic accidents in 306 cases

    侯树勋; 章亚东; 吴闻文

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the characteristics of bone fractures from road traffic accidents and analyze their injury mechanisms so as to provide reference for the research and medical care of traffic trauma.   Methods: Three hundred and six patients with fractures from road traffic accidents were included into this study. A total of 507 fractures were identified and the injury mechanism, location distribution and frequency were analyzed.   Results: The most common location of fractures was the lower extremities, followed by the upper extremities, skull and maxillofacial region, and the rarest was the spine. A total of 56% of the patients suffered from multiple fractures. The fractures of the patella, femur and pelvis and the fractures of the olecranon, humerus and shoulder often happened simultaneously.   Conclusions: The injury mechanisms can be classified into four types: impact, incoordinate movement, stretch injury and crush and extrusion. The fractures from traffic accidents have the following characteristics: centrifugal distribution of the injuries, multiple fractures, force transmission and ipsilateral occurrence.

  2. Characteristics of Patients Injured in Road Traffic Accidents According to the New Injury Severity Score

    Lee, Jung Soo; Kim, Yeo Hyung; Yun, Jae Sung; Jung, Sang Eun; Chae, Choong Sik

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients involved in road traffic accidents according to the New Injury Severity Score (NISS). Methods In this study, medical records of 1,048 patients admitted at three hospitals located in different regions between January and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Only patients who received inpatient treatments covered by automobile insurance during the period were included. Accidents were classified as pedestrian, driver, passenger, motorcycle, or bicycle; and the severity of injury was assessed by the NISS. Results The proportion of pedestrian traffic accident (TA) was the highest, followed by driver, passenger, motorcycle and bicycle TA. The mean NISS was significantly higher in pedestrian and motorcycle TAs and lower in passenger TA. Analysis of differences in mean hospital length of stay (HLS) according to NISS injury severity revealed 4.97±4.86 days in the minor injury group, 8.91±5.93 days in the moderate injury group, 15.46±11.16 days in the serious injury group, 24.73±17.03 days in the severe injury group, and 30.86±34.03 days in the critical injury group (prehabilitation are necessary to reduce disabilities in TA patients. PMID:27152279

  3. Epidemiological characteristics of fatal pedestrian ac-cidents in Fars Province of Iran: a community-based

    Peymani Payam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To determine the epidemio-logical characteristics of fatal pedestrian accidents in Fars Province of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fars Province of Iran during a 29-month period from March 2009 to July 2011. The data were from the Fars Forensic Medi-cine Registry. In 4 923 recorded road traffic accident fatalities, 971 deaths were due to pedestrian accidents. The demographic and accident-related information were analyzed by SPSS ver-sion 11.5. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age of decedents was (47.2±26.2 years, ranging from 6 months to 103 years old. Males ac-counted for 69.8% of all deaths. Fatal accidents were most common in September; 56.1% of the fatal injuries occurred on intracity roads and 33.1% on extracity roads. Fatal head injuries were present in 60.54% of cases. Evaluation of the injury site and the cause of death found that they were significantly associated with age, interval between injury and death. Besides, the type of roads played an important role in mortality. Conclusion: Although the clinical management of trauma patients has been improved in our country in the recent decade, decreasing the burden of injuries needs co-ordination among trauma system organizations. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Epidemiologic studies; Mortality; Iran

  4. Analysis of Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China: Characteristics and Lessons for Risk Management

    Yao, Hong; Zhang, Tongzhu; Liu, Bo; Lu, Feng; Fang, Shurong; You, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Understanding historical accidents is important for accident prevention and risk mitigation; however, there are no public databases of pollution accidents in China, and no detailed information regarding such incidents is readily available. Thus, 653 representative cases of surface water pollution accidents in China were identified and described as a function of time, location, materials involved, origin, and causes. The severity and other features of the accidents, frequency and quantities of chemicals involved, frequency and number of people poisoned, frequency and number of people affected, frequency and time for which pollution lasted, and frequency and length of pollution zone were effectively used to value and estimate the accumulated probabilities. The probabilities of occurrences of various types based on origin and causes were also summarized based on these observations. The following conclusions can be drawn from these analyses: (1) There was a high proportion of accidents involving multi-district boundary regions and drinking water crises, indicating that more attention should be paid to environmental risk prevention and the mitigation of such incidents. (2) A high proportion of accidents originated from small-sized chemical plants, indicating that these types of enterprises should be considered during policy making. (3) The most common cause (49.8 % of the total) was intentional acts (illegal discharge); accordingly, efforts to increase environmental consciousness in China should be enhanced.

  5. Quality of life of caregivers for patients of cerebrovascular accidents: association of (socio-demographic) characteristics and burden

    Tatiana Ferreira da Costa; Kátia Nêyla de Freitas Macêdo Costa; Maria das Graças Melo Fernandes; Kaisy Pereira Martins; Silmery da Silva Brito

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Investigating the association between quality of life with socio-demographic characteristics and the burden of caregivers for individuals with cerebrovascular accident sequelae. METHOD A descriptive, cross-sectional study with a sample composed of 136 caregivers. For data collection, a semi-structured questionnaire, the Barthel, Burden Interview and Short-Form-36 scales were used. Correlation analysis, t-Student test and F-test were used for the analysis in order to compare averages...

  6. Radiation accidents

    Radiation accidents may be viewed as unusual exposure event which provide possible high exposure to a few people and, in the case of nuclear plants events, low exposure to large population. A number of radiation accidents have occurred over the past 50 years, involving radiation machines, radioactive materials and uncontrolled nuclear reactors. These accidents have resulted in number of people have been exposed to a range of internal and external radiation doses and those involving radioactive materials have involved multiple routs of exposure. Some of the more important accidents involving significant radiation doses or releases of radioactive materials, including any known health effects involves in it. An analysis of the common characteristics of accidents is useful resolving overarching issues, as has been done following nuclear power, industrial radiography and medical accidents. Success in avoiding accidents and responding when they do occur requires planning in order to have adequately trained and prepared health physics organization; well defined and developed instrument program; close cooperation among radiation protection experts, local and state authorities. Focus is given to the successful avoidance of accidents and response in the events they do occur. Palomares, spain in late 1960, Goiania, Brazil in 1987, Thule, Greenland in 1968, Rocky flats, Colorado in 1957 and 1969, Three mile island, Pennsylvania in 1979, Chernobyl Ukraine in april 1986, Kyshtym, former Soviet Union in 1957, Windscale, UK in Oct. 1957 Tomsk, Russian Federation in 1993, and many others are the important examples of major radiation accidents. (author)

  7. Gaseous and metallic fission product release characteristics of a modular pebble bed HTGR during loss of core cooling accidents

    A quantitative safety criteria for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is to limit the radiological consequences for a wide spectrum of accidents to a level not requiring public sheltering. This leads to reliance on passive safety characteristics for improbable loss of core cooling accidents. Models have been developed to predict the transport of metallic and gaseous fission products (FPs) through the multilayered fuel particle coatings and the graphite matrix of the core under accident conditions. Using these models, FP transport and releases were calculated for a loss of core convective cooling accident in a 250-MW(t) 3.8-W/cc pebble bed HTGR. Fission-product transport through the particle kernel and coatings, the graphite pebbles/reflectors, the reactor vessel, and the confinement were assessed. The results of this study show that the most effective barrier to fission products is the coated fuel particle. The reactor vessel and the confinement provide additional attenuation for the small amount released from the core. The small release to the environment occurs over a period of days and is so low that the safety criterion of 5 rem thyroid dose (to avoid offsite sheltering) is satisfied with a margin of more than an order of magnitude. 6 figs

  8. Serpentine tube heat transfer characteristic under accident condition in gas cooled reactors

    In nuclear reactors of the Magnox or advanced gas Cooled type, serpentine tubing is used in some designs to generate steam in a once through arrangement. The calculation of accident conditions using two phase flow codes requires knowledge of the heat transfer behavior of the boiler steam side. A series of experiments to study the blowdown characteristics of a typical serpentine boiler section was devised in order to validate the MARTHA section of the MACE code used by nuclear Electric. The tests were carried out on the Thermal Hydraulics Experimental Research Assembly (THERA) loop at Manchester University. The Thermal Hydraulic Experimental Research Assembly was designed to operate with pressures up to 180 bar and temperatures of 450degC. The geometry and dimensions of this test section were similar to part of a gas cooled reactor boiler of the Hinkley Point design. Blowdown from a pressure of 60 bar with subcoolings of 5degC, 50degC, 100degC formed the main part of the programme. A set of tests was conducted using discharge orifices of different sizes to produce depressurization times from 30 s to 10 mins, and in a few cases, the duration of blowdown approached 1 hour. These times were defined using the criterion of blowdown end as a final pressure of 10% of the initial pressure. Pressures, wall and fluid temperatures were all measured at average time intervals of 1.1s during the excursion and an inventory of the remaining water content in the serpentine was taken when the blowdown ended. Some tests were also conducted at an initial pressure of 30 bar. The results obtained show interesting stratification effects for the relatively fast discharge, with substantial wall circumferential temperature variations. For these tests, a relatively small water inventory remained after blowdown. The discharge characteristics of the serpentine in terms of orifice size have been mapped, and tests at 30 bar show the equivalence in terms of orifice size have been mapped

  9. Single-vehicle and Multi-vehicle Accidents Involving Motorcycles in a Small City in China: Characteristics and Injury Patterns

    Lili Xiong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a gap that involves examining differences between patients in single-vehicle (SV versus multi-vehicle (MV accidents involving motorcycles in Shantou, China, regarding the injury patterns and mortality the patients sustained. This study aims to address this gap and provide a basis and reference for motorcycle injury prevention. Method: Medical record data was collected between October 2002 and June 2012 on all motorcycle injury patients admitted to a hospital in the city of Shantou of the east Guangdong province in China. Comparative analysis was conducted between patients in SV accidents and patients in MV accidents regarding demographic and clinic characteristics, mortality, and injury patterns. Results: Approximately 48% (n = 1977 of patients were involved in SV accidents and 52% (n = 2119 were involved in MV accidents. The average age was 34 years. Collision of a motorcycle with a heavy vehicle/bus (4% was associated with a 34 times greater risk of death (RR: 34.32|95% CI: 17.43–67.57. Compared to patients involved in MV accidents, those involved in SV accidents were more likely to sustain a skull fracture (RR: 1.47|95% CI: 1.22–1.77, an open head wound (RR: 1.46|95% CI: 1.23–1.74, an intracranial injury (RR: 1.39|95% CI: 1.26–1.53, a superficial head injury (RR: 1.37|95% CI: 1.01–1.86, an injury to an organ (RR: 2.01|95% CI: 1.24–3.26, and a crushing injury (RR: 1.98|95% CI: 1.06–3.70 to the thorax or abdomen. However, they were less likely to sustain a spinal fracture (RR: 0.58|95% CI: 0.39–0.85, a pelvic fracture (RR: 0.22|95% CI: 0.11–0.46, an upper extremity fracture (RR: 0.75|95% CI: 0.59–0.96, or injuries to their lower extremities, except for a dislocation, sprain, or injury to a joint or ligament (RR: 0.82|95% CI: 0.49–1.36. Conclusion: The relative risk of death is higher for patients involved in multi-vehicle accidents than patients in single-vehicle accidents, especially when a

  10. Accident Generated Particulate Materials and Their Characteristics -- A Review of Background Information

    Sutter, S. L.

    1982-05-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of the amount of radioactive particulate material initially airborne (source term) during accidents. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has surveyed the literature, gathering information on the amount and size of these particles that has been developed from limited experimental work, measurements made from operational accidents, and known aerosol behavior. Information useful for calculating both liquid and powder source terms is compiled in this report. Potential aerosol generating events discussed are spills, resuspension, aerodynamic entrainment, explosions and pressurized releases, comminution, and airborne chemical reactions. A discussion of liquid behavior in sprays, sparging, evaporation, and condensation as applied to accident situations is also included.

  11. Characteristics of fission products behavior on a severe accident in fast breeder reactor

    Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) has been developing the ACTOR code for the analysis of the fission products behavior under the severe accident condition to apply the probabilistic safety assessment to fast breeder reactor plants. Major analysis models of the ACTOR code were validated and adjusted by related experimental results. The fission products behavior on PLOHS (Protected Loss of Heat Sink) sequence which is one of the typical severe accidents in FBR plant was analyzed by using the ACTOR code. It was confirmed that the ACTOR had an enough capability to analyze the fission products behavior during severe accident. From the analysis results of PLOHS, it was confirmed that cesium is transferred to the cover gas region much more than iodine because iodine which is one of halogen connects to sodium easily and is retained in the coolant. Therefore, cesium is important and it is needed to examine the necessity to treat cesium as one of FPs considered in reactor establishment permission for FBR plant. Thus, cesium transfer behavior in sodium during the rare gas bubbles rise from fuel to the cover gas region was confirmed to be very important. And JNES started study including validation test about cesium transfer behavior with Hokkaido University. (author)

  12. Characteristics of the development of the radiological situation resulting from the accident, intervention levels and countermeasures

    Great efforts have been made in the frame of the national and international research programs to get complete data on the radioactive releases, environmental contamination and radiological situation resulted from the Chernobyl accident. Beginning from the first publication (IAEA meeting, August 1986) these data have been considerably improved and added. The most important change of them with their influence on the decision making in the mitigation activity and the current situation is described and analyzed. The national and international regulatory documents at the moment of the accident were neither complete nor perfect in some necessary aspects especially in respect to the countermeasures at the intermediate and long-term phases. New documents have been worked out during the intervention activity. From 1986 series of documents were developed on the national and international levels. These documents are considered and analyzed in the context of their practical implementation and by the modern experience and research results. The history of countermeasures adopted on the different intervention phases are described. These documents mainly establish intervention levels in terms of averted doses and regulate only radiation protection. They don't content any intervention levels in terms of residual doses and risk, which are necessary for regulation of social and health protection of population suffered from the accident. Other restriction for the optimal regulation comes from use of the effective dose for establishing intervention levels. These and other respective aspects are discussed

  13. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  14. Severe accident source term characteristics for selected Peach Bottom sequences predicted by the MELCOR Code

    Carbajo, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare in-containment source terms developed for NUREG-1159, which used the Source Term Code Package (STCP), with those generated by MELCOR to identify significant differences. For this comparison, two short-term depressurized station blackout sequences (with a dry cavity and with a flooded cavity) and a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) concurrent with complete loss of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) were analyzed for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (a BWR-4 with a Mark I containment). The results indicate that for the sequences analyzed, the two codes predict similar total in-containment release fractions for each of the element groups. However, the MELCOR/CORBH Package predicts significantly longer times for vessel failure and reduced energy of the released material for the station blackout sequences (when compared to the STCP results). MELCOR also calculated smaller releases into the environment than STCP for the station blackout sequences.

  15. Severe accident source term characteristics for selected Peach Bottom sequences predicted by the MELCOR Code

    The purpose of this report is to compare in-containment source terms developed for NUREG-1159, which used the Source Term Code Package (STCP), with those generated by MELCOR to identify significant differences. For this comparison, two short-term depressurized station blackout sequences (with a dry cavity and with a flooded cavity) and a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) concurrent with complete loss of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) were analyzed for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (a BWR-4 with a Mark I containment). The results indicate that for the sequences analyzed, the two codes predict similar total in-containment release fractions for each of the element groups. However, the MELCOR/CORBH Package predicts significantly longer times for vessel failure and reduced energy of the released material for the station blackout sequences (when compared to the STCP results). MELCOR also calculated smaller releases into the environment than STCP for the station blackout sequences

  16. Carbon monoxide - hydrogen combustion characteristics in severe accident containment conditions. Final report

    Carbon monoxide can be produced in severe accidents from interaction of ex-vessel molten core with concrete. Depending on the particular core-melt scenario, the type of concrete and geometric factors affecting the interaction, the quantities of carbon monoxide produced can vary widely, up to several volume percent in the containment. Carbon monoxide is a combustible gas. The carbon monoxide thus produced is in addition to the hydrogen produced by metal-water reactions and by radiolysis, and represents a possibly significant contribution to the combustible gas inventory in the containment. Assessment of possible accident loads to containment thus requires knowledge of the combustion properties of both CO and H2 in the containment atmosphere. Extensive studies have been carried out and are still continuing in the nuclear industry to assess the threat of hydrogen in a severe reactor accident. However the contribution of carbon monoxide to the combustion threat has received less attention. Assessment of scenarios involving ex-vessel interactions require additional attention to the potential contribution of carbon monoxide to combustion loads in containment, as well as the effectiveness of mitigation measures designed for hydrogen to effectively deal with particular aspects of carbon monoxide. The topic of core-concrete interactions has been extensively studied; for more complete background on the issue and on the physical/thermal-hydraulics phenomena involved, the reader is referred to Proceedings of CSNI Specialists Meetings (Ritzman, 1987; Alsmeyer, 1992) and a State-of-Art Report (European Commission, 1995). The exact amount of carbon monoxide present in a reactor pit or in various compartments (or rooms) in a containment building is specific to the type of concrete and the accident scenario considered. Generally, concrete containing limestone and sand have a high percentage of CaCO3. Appendix A provides an example of results of estimates of CO and CO2 production

  17. Release behavior of smoke and clogging characteristics of the ventilation filter under the fire accident. Contract research

    Takada, Junichi; Watanabe, Koji; Tsukamoto, Michio; Tashiro, Shinsuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hayashi, Shiro [Nippon Muki Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Takita, Koji [Sanzo Environment Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Abe, Hitoshi [Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Uchiyama, Gunzo [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    In a part of building ventilating installation of reprocessing plant, the pre-filter is equipped in front of a HEPA filter. The pre-filter plays a role in protection and repression of clogging of HEPA filter. However, in a fire accident, it is considered that large smoke generation cause the pre-filter clogging due to smoke loading, increase of differential pressure and breakdown. In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the demonstration tests to confirm the performance of ventilation filters by a fire accident were carried out. In the tests, smoke was generated from burning of the mock solid wastes (gloves made of rubber and/or cloth) or the mock recovered solvent (n-dodecane or tributyl phosphate / n-dodecane). The test data was acquired on generation of smoke, decrease evolution of smoke by transportation through the compositions of ventilation system (cell, duct, damper, filters) and clogging characteristics of the ventilation filters due to smoke loading. From the results, it was found that the performance of the whole of ventilation system was kept even if the pre-filter was breakdown. To adopt the analysis of the increase of differential pressure across the pre-filter using the safety analysis code, CELVA-1D, increase of differential pressure across the pre-filter was expressed by quadratic empirical equation with function of smoke loading per unit filtration area and it coefficients, ({alpha}, {beta}), were estimated. (author)

  18. Numerical analysis on transient characteristics of AP1000 passive residual heat removal system under station blackout accident

    Based on one-dimensional governing equations, the mathematical models of the reactor primary coolant system and the passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS) were established. A dynamic simulation program PRHRSDSC was developed to analyze the transient characteristics of the system. The program was used to simulate the transient process of PRHRS during station blackout accident. The calculated results were compared with LOFTRAN code. The results show that the core residual heat can be removed efficiently using natural circulation to keep the coolant at sub-cooled state and the peak pressure is below the limit of the operation pressure. The parameter variation trends are well consistent with LOFTRAN code and the rationality of the model is demonstrated. (authors)

  19. Quality of life of caregivers for patients of cerebrovascular accidents: association of (socio-demographic characteristics and burden

    Tatiana Ferreira da Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Investigating the association between quality of life with socio-demographic characteristics and the burden of caregivers for individuals with cerebrovascular accident sequelae. METHOD A descriptive, cross-sectional study with a sample composed of 136 caregivers. For data collection, a semi-structured questionnaire, the Barthel, Burden Interview and Short-Form-36 scales were used. Correlation analysis, t-Student test and F-test were used for the analysis in order to compare averages. RESULTS Significant averages in quality of life were demonstrated in association with female caregivers and those over 60 years in the field 'functional capacity,' and in the domains of 'mental health' and 'vitality' for those with higher income. Regarding burden association, the highlighted areas were 'functional capacity,' 'physical aspects,' 'emotional aspects' and 'pain.' CONCLUSION The creation of public policies and social support to effectively reduce the burden on caregivers is a necessity.

  20. Steam injector core injection characteristics by water-steam direct condensation applied for LWR severe accident

    Steam injector (SI) is a simply designed and passive jet pump, in which external power sources and internal mechanical parts are inessential. The SI utilizes direct contact condensation between steam and water as an operational mechanism, and is capable of producing higher pressure water than the inlet fluid pressures. The accident in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused setback to the credibility and reliability of nuclear power. One way to regain its trust from the global community, it is suggested to develop and install passive coolant injection systems operable even during the station black out. The direct-contact condensation of steam in sub-cooling water is an important phenomenon in SI, since it relates to essentially-driven mechanism. In past years, the condensation of steam jet submerged in the quiescent sub-cooled water has studied by many researchers. In the present work, based on reviewing the previous research the important phenomena were simulated using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. (author)

  1. Accident report 1975/76

    The statistics previously published on the development of accidents were completed. It is the purpose of this accident report: 1) to present a survey of the development of the number of accidents (no radiation accidents) for the years 1960 - 1976, 2) to break down the accidents by different characteristics in order to be able to recognize the preventive measures to be taken so as to avoid further accidents, 3) to report about accidents experienced and to indicate activities performed with respect to accident prevention and health protection. (orig.)

  2. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  3. Quantifying the Influence of Social Characteristics on Accident and Injuries Risk: A Comparative Study Between Motorcyclists and Car Drivers

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Olesen, Morten N.; Hels, Tove

    2011-01-01

    In the recent years many European countries have experienced an increase in the number of fatal traffic accidents with motorcycles. Bos et al. (2008) reports an increase from 17.4% to 21.1% of the total number of fatalities on powered two-wheelers in the European traffic. Several reasons for this...... that the risk of being in an accident or in an injury accident decreased with age, educational level, and income. Furthermore, the risk of being in an accident was 1.72 to 1.96 times higher and the risk of being in an injury accident was 1.38 to 1.44 times higher for men compared to women. For...

  4. Tchernobyl accident

    First, R.M.B.K type reactors are described. Then, safety problems are dealt with reactor control, behavior during transients, normal loss of power and behavior of the reactor in case of leak. A possible scenario of the accident of Tchernobyl is proposed: events before the explosion, possible initiators, possible scenario and events subsequent to the core meltdown (corium-concrete interaction, interaction with the groundwater table). An estimation of the source term is proposed first from the installation characteristics and the supposed scenario of the accident, and from the measurements in Europe; radiological consequences are also estimated. Radioactivity measurements (Europe, Scandinavia, Western Europe, France) are given in tables (meteorological maps and fallouts in Europe). Finally, a description of the site is given

  5. Communication and industrial accidents

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the concept of role distance, which emphasizes the organizational characteristics. The general hypothesis is that communication failures are a main cause of role distance and accident-proneness within orga...

  6. Survey of Thermal-Fluids Evaluation and Confirmatory Experimental Validation Requirements of Accident Tolerant Cladding Concepts with Focus on Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics

    Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wysocki, Aaron J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ali, Amir [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Liu, Maolong [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blandford, Edward [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is working closely with the nuclear industry to develop fuel and cladding candidates with potentially enhanced accident tolerance, also known as accident tolerant fuel (ATF). Thermal-fluids characteristics are a vital element of a holistic engineering evaluation of ATF concepts. One vital characteristic related to boiling heat transfer is the critical heat flux (CHF). CHF plays a vital role in determining safety margins during normal operation and also in the progression of potential transient or accident scenarios. This deliverable is a scoping survey of thermal-fluids evaluation and confirmatory experimental validation requirements of accident tolerant cladding concepts with a focus on boiling heat transfer characteristics. The key takeaway messages of this report are: 1. CHF prediction accuracy is important and the correlations may have significant uncertainty. 2. Surface conditions are important factors for CHF, primarily the wettability that is characterized by contact angle. Smaller contact angle indicates greater wettability, which increases the CHF. Surface roughness also impacts wettability. Results in the literature for pool boiling experiments indicate changes in CHF by up to 60% for several ATF cladding candidates. 3. The measured wettability of FeCrAl (i.e., contact angle and roughness) indicates that CHF should be investigated further through pool boiling and flow boiling experiments. 4. Initial measurements of static advancing contact angle and surface roughness indicate that FeCrAl is expected to have a higher CHF than Zircaloy. The measured contact angle of different FeCrAl alloy samples depends on oxide layer thickness and composition. The static advancing contact angle tends to decrease as the oxide layer thickness increases.

  7. Multicentric study of epidemiological and clinical characteristics of persons injured in motor vehicle accidents in Medellín, Colombia, 2009-2010

    Luz Helena Lugo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Introduction: Traffic accidents (TA cause 1.23 million deaths each year worldwide while between 20 and 50 million persons are injured each year. In 2011 in Medellin, Colombia, there were 307 traffic deaths and 23,835 injured with 411 accidents for each 10,000 vehicles. Objective: The purpose of the study was to describe the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics, as well as the quality of life and disability outcomes for those injured in traffic accidents in Medellin. Methods: This prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study collected data from 834 patients that were classified with the New Injury Severity Score (NISS , the WHODAS-II (Disability Assessment Scale and the SF-36 Health Survey. Results: Three-fourths (75.8% of the patients were male. Eightyone percent of patients were involved in motorcycle accidents, with 45.6% suffering moderate trauma, and 32.6% experiencing severe trauma. Of the patients with severe trauma, 8.5% were not wearing helmets. Half of the sample (49.7% injured their extremities. The WHODAS-II domains most affected were: Activities outside the home (62.0 %, Housework (54.3% and Moving in one’s environment (45.2 %. Quality of life areas affected were: Physical role (20.3%, Body pain (37.3 % Emotional role (44.1%, Physical functioning (52.6 %. Conclusions: Patients with more severe injuries had higher levels of disability and a worse quality of life. Motorcycles made up a large proportion of traffic accidents in this city and mitigation strategies to reduce this public health problem should particularly focus on this high-risk group. 

  8. CFD simulating the transient thermal–hydraulic characteristics in a 17 × 17 bundle for a spent fuel pool under the loss of external cooling system accident

    Highlights: • A 3-D CFD is adopted to simulate transient behaviors in an SFP under the accident. • This model realistically simulates a 17 × 17 bundle, rid of porous media approach. • The loss of external cooling system accident for an SFP is assumed in this paper. • Thermal–hydraulic characteristics in a bundle are strongly influenced by grids. • The results confirm temperature rising rate used in Maanshan NPP is conservative. - Abstract: This paper develops a three-dimensional (3-D) transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to simulate the thermal–hydraulic characteristics in a fuel bundle located in a spent fuel pool (SFP) under the loss of external cooling system accident. The SFP located in the Maanshan nuclear power plant (NPP) is selected herein. Without adopting the porous media approach usually used in the previous CFD works, this model uses a real-geometry simulation of a 17 × 17 fuel bundle, which can obtain the localized distributions of the flow and heat transfer during the accident. These distribution characteristics include several peaks in the axial distributions of flow, pressure, temperature, and Nusselt number (Nu) near the support grids, the non-uniform distribution of secondary flow, and the non-uniform temperature distribution due to flow mixing between rods, etc. According to the conditions adopted in the Procedure 597.1 (MNPP Plant Procedure 597.1, 2010) for the management of the loss-of-cooling event of the spent fuel pool in the Maanshan NPP, the temperature rising rate predicted by the present model can be equivalent to 1.26 K/h, which is the same order as that of 3.5 K/h in the this procedure. This result also confirms that the temperature rising rate used in the Procedure 597.1 for the Maanshan NPP is conservative. In addition, after the loss of external cooling system, there are about 44 h for the operator to repair the malfunctioning system or provide the alternative water source for the pool inventory to

  9. Characteristic behavior of pebble-bed modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor during loss of forced cooling accidents

    Based on the preliminary design of the Pebble-bed Modular High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor(HTR-PM), two cases of loss of forced cooling accident (DLOFC and PLOFC) were studied by the help of the software THERMIX. The key parameters including reactor power, temperature distributions of the core and pressure vessel, and the decay power removal by the passive residual heat remove system(RHRS) were compared in detail. Some parameter uncertainties were analyzed in order to evaluate the safety margin of the maximal fuel temperature during LOFC. The calculated results show that, the decay heat in the LOFC accidents can be removed from the reactor core solely by means of physical processes in a passive way, so that the temperature limits of fuel and components are still obeyed, which can effectively keep the integrality of the fuel particles to avoid massive fission products release. It also illustrates that the HTR-PM can reach 250 MW reactor power per unit and still can keep the inherent safety, which will be helpful to the further detail design of the HTR-PM demonstrating power plant project. (authors)

  10. Researches on the characteristics of personal doses after the accident of TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    The review of the evacuation area due to the accident of TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station has completed and the deregulation has begun in some regions. This research was started in order to contribute to the understanding of individual dose that is assumed after the return of the residents. Measurements and evaluation using personal dosemeters were conducted at the typical living locations in the area where the evacuation orders are ready to be lifted and the residence restriction area. So the relationship between air dose and personal dose equivalent there was demonstrated observationally and experimentally. In addition, the estimation of the residents' personal doses in the pattern of their social lives expected after returning home. This report is equivalent to NIRS report, NIRS-M-270. (J.P.N.)

  11. Psychosocial service needs of pediatric transport accident survivors: Using clinical data-mining to establish demographic and service usage characteristics.

    Manguy, Alys-Marie; Joubert, Lynette; Bansemer, Leah

    2016-09-01

    The objectives in this article are the exploration of demographic and service usage data gained through clinical data mining audit and suggesting recommendations for social work service delivery model and future research. The method is clinical data-mining audit of 100 sequentially sampled cases gathering quantitative demographic and service usage data. Descriptive analysis of file audit data raised interesting trends with potential to inform service delivery and usage; the key areas of the results included patient demographics, family involvement and impact, and child safety and risk issues. Transport accidents involving children often include other family members. Care planning must take into account psychosocial issues including patient and family emotional responses, availability of primary carers, and other practical needs that may impact on recovery and discharge planning. This study provides evidence to plan for further research and development of more integrated models of care. PMID:27586428

  12. Nuclear accidents

    On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

  13. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  14. Accident Statistics

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  15. Mortal radiological accident

    After defining the concept of 'Radiological accident', statistical data from Radiation Emergency Assistance Center of ORNL (United States of America) are given about the deaths caused by acute irradiation between 1944 and April 24, 1986 -ie, the day before Chernobyl nuclear accident- as well as on the number of deaths caused by the latter. Next the different clinical stages of the Acute Irradiation Syndrome (AIS) as well as its possible treatment are described, and finally the different physical, clinical and biological characteristics linked to the AIS and to its diagnosis and prognosis are discussed. (M.E.L.)

  16. Characteristics of maxillofacial injuries resulting from road traffic accidents – a 5 year review of the case records from Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Katowice, Poland

    Drugacz Jan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of employing numerous devices improving the safety in motor vehicles, traffic accidents are still among the main reasons of maxillofacial injuries. The maxillofacial injuries remain the serious clinical problem because of the specificity of this anatomical region. The knowledge of etiologic factors and mechanisms of injuries can be helpful in a satisfactory trauma prevention. The aim of this study was to find out the incidence and the pattern of maxillofacial injuries resulting from traffic accidents in the patients treated in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery (Silesian Medical Academy in Katowice, Poland from January 2001 to December 2005. Methods The material consisted of 1024 case records of patients with maxillofacial injuries treated in the Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Silesian Medical Academy. The detailed analysis was carried out on the case records of 198 patients in the age of 3 to 68 with maxillofacial injuries resulting from traffic accidents. On the basis of data from a history, examination on admission, consultations and radiological examinations, patients' age and gender, we obtained the information on a pattern of injury and detailed description of an accident (the date and the time of an accident, the role of the patient in an accident. Results The traffic accidents were the cause of 19,93% maxillofacial injuries in the analyzed period of time. Most of the patients had injuries to the soft tissues of the face (22,21%, followed by tooth and alveolar process injuries (20,71% and mandibular fractures (18,69%. All the types of injuries were more common in men than in women. The majority of the patients were car drivers followed by car passengers, pedestrians, cyclists and motor cyclists. The peak age of the patients was between 18 to 25 years. The prevalent number of accidents resulting in injuries to this region took place in spring, especially between noon and 4 PM. Conclusion Our results

  17. Accident: Reminder

    2003-01-01

    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  18. Liuzhou city from 2006 to 2014 epidemiological characteristics of serious road traffic accident investigation%2006~2014年柳州市重大道路交通事故流行病学特征分析

    刘华; 李兵; 黄福文; 杨家有; 汤中飞; 邓旺生; 陆菊; 阮海林

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查分析柳州市重大道路交通事故发生的特点及规律,为控制和预防道路交通创伤提供科学依据。方法回顾性分析2006~2014年柳州市重大道路交通事故监测统计资料。结果(1)2006~2014年柳州市重大道路交通事故发生例数、死亡人数、受伤人数呈总体下降趋势。以1月份发生事故最多,占事故总数的11.5%;6月份发生事故最少,为6.8%。夜间19:00~23:00时事故发生最多,凌晨3:00~6:00时发生最少。(2)重大道路交通事故多数发生在平直道路上。(3)白天发生事故最多,夜间无路灯照明的路段事故伤亡和受伤人数明显高于夜间有路灯照明的路段。(4)重大道路交通事故发生的主要原因为人为因素,占总数的96.7%。结论减少重大道路交通事故发生,必须加强交通安全宣传、教育,提高全民安全意识;交管部门严格执法,尤其要加强交通事故高发时段、路段的管理;加强道路安全设施建设,改善交通环境。%Objective Investigation and analysis of Liuzhou significant characteristics and law of road traffic acci‐dents ,which will provide a scientific basis for control and prevention of road traffic trauma . Methods From 2006 to 2014 were retrospectively analyzed to collect statistics of serious road traffic accidents monitoring . Results (1)Liuzhou serious road traffic accident cases ,the number of deaths ,injury in the overall downward trend ,most ac‐cidents in January ,accounted for 11.5% of total number of accidents ,accidents in June at least (6 .8% ) .Most clearly 19 :00~23 :00 when the accident happened at night ,there was at least 3 :00~6:00 in the morning .(2)The most serious road traffic accident happened on the straight path .(3)Accidents occur most often during the day and night with no street lamp lighting significantly better than the number of road accident casualties and injuries have

  19. Transportation accidents

    Predicting the possible consequences of transportation accidents provides a severe challenge to an analyst who must make a judgment of the likely consequences of a release event at an unpredictable time and place. Since it is impractical to try to obtain detailed knowledge of the meteorology and terrain for every potential accident location on a route or to obtain accurate descriptions of population distributions or sensitive property to be protected (data which are more likely to be more readily available when one deals with fixed-site problems), he is constrained to make conservative assumptions in response to a demanding public audience. These conservative assumptions are frequently offset by very small source terms (relative to a fixed site) created when a transport vehicle is involved in an accident. For radioactive materials, which are the principal interest of the authors, only the most elementary models have been used for assessing the consequences of release of these materials in the transportation setting. Risk analysis and environmental impact statements frequently have used the Pasquill-Gifford/gaussian techniques for releases of short duration, which are both simple and easy to apply and require a minimum amount of detailed information. However, after deciding to use such a model, the problem of selecting what specific parameters to use in specific transportation situations still presents itself. Additional complications arise because source terms are not well characterized, release rates can be variable over short and long time periods, and mechanisms by which source aerosols become entrained in air are not always obvious. Some approaches that have been used to address these problems will be reviewed with emphasis on guidelines to avoid the Worst-Case Scenario Syndrome

  20. Motociclistas de entrega: algumas características dos acidentes de trânsito na região sul do Brasil Motorcycle couriers: characteristics of traffic accidents in southern Brazil

    Dorotéia Fátima Pelissari de Paula Soares

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: conhecer características dos acidentes de trânsito ocorridos com motoboys nos municípios de Londrina e Maringá, Estado do Paraná. MÉTODOS: Foram considerados 327 motoboys que relataram, em 2005/2006, acidentes de motocicleta nos 12 meses anteriores à pesquisa (147 de Londrina e 180 de Maringá. RESULTADOS: Dos entrevistados, 39,6% relataram mais de um acidente de trânsito. Os acidentes foram percebidos como graves por 21,4% dos motoboys e 56,3% relataram conhecer motoboy afastado do trabalho por acidente. A maioria dos acidentes (82,9% ocorreu durante o trabalho. Foram observadas diferenças significativas, entre os municípios, para condições climáticas (p=0,013, período do dia (p=0,002, atendimento pré-hospitalar (p=0,032 e necessidade de internação hospitalar (pOBJECTIVE: This study aimed at understanding characteristics of traffic accidents with motorcycle couriers in the cities of Londrina and Maringá, in the State of Paraná (Brazil. METHODS: A total of 327 couriers who reported, in 2005/2006, motorcycle accident in the previous 12 months took part in the study (147 in Londrina and 180 in Maringá. RESULTS: Of all the interviewed, 39.6% reported more than one traffic accident. The accidents were perceived as serious by 21.4% of them and 56.3% reported knowing a convalescing courier due to a traffic accident. Most injuries (82.9% occurred during work hours. Significant differences were observed between the cities concerning climatic conditions (p=0.013, time of the day (p=0.002, pre-hospital care (p=0.032 and hospital admission (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: The high incidence and the recurrence of traffic accidents highlight the susceptibility of motorcycle couriers to these events and the need for strategies and specific prevention policies.

  1. 法医临床鉴定中道路交通事故脊柱损伤的特点分析%Characteristics Analysis on Spinal Injury in Forensic Clinical Identification of Road Traffic Accidents

    刘伟; 朱春瑞

    2014-01-01

    文章以笔者所在单位处理的164例道路交通事故脊柱损伤案例为研究对象,通过分析案例中脊柱损伤的不同特征,研究道路交通事故脊柱损伤中法医临床学的临床应用,目的在于为法医临床学鉴定道路交通事故脊柱损伤提供一些参考。%In this paper, the author collects 164 cases of spinal injury caused by road traffic accidents han-dled by the author's working place as the research object, analyzes the different characteristics of spinal injury, studies clinical application of road traffic accidents of spinal injury in clinical forensic, aiming at providing some references for forensic clinical identification of road traffic accident spinal injury.

  2. The influence of soil properties and local characteristics on the distribution, migration and potential bioavailability of radio-cesium in Bavarian forest ecosystems more than 20 years after the Chernobyl accident

    Full text: Soil properties and local characteristics of landscapes and ecosystems influence the behaviour of radio-cesium. Humic horizons are a main factor in understanding the migration and potential bioavailability of radio-nuclides in soils. Until 1962 and in the year 1986, nuclear arms tests in the Pacific and the Chernobyl reactor accident emitted persistent radionuclides in the atmosphere that are stored in several European ecosystems. Short-term high as well as long-term low immissions lead to enrichments and increasing contamination of the environment up to superposition effects in certain ecosystems. South German forest ecosystems like the Bavarian Forest or the Northern pre-Alps are subareas of the caesium fallout affected sites after the Chernobyl accident. Cesium-137 is constantly contained in the vegetation and food chain in spite of decreasing local doses. Investigations have shown that the enrichment of caesium is mainly restricted to the organic top layers of the forest soils. Examples of several Bavarian forest ecosystems are given. Horizontal and vertical forest soil distributions of the cesium contamination and its bioavailability were determined to provide a default-document how to act in case of a repetition of a nuclear accident. Such a guideline has been created by order of the Bavarian State Government and its scope is presented here. (author)

  3. Characteristics of maxillofacial injuries resulting from road traffic accidents – a 5 year review of the case records from Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Katowice, Poland

    Drugacz Jan; Malara Beata; Malara Piotr

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background In spite of employing numerous devices improving the safety in motor vehicles, traffic accidents are still among the main reasons of maxillofacial injuries. The maxillofacial injuries remain the serious clinical problem because of the specificity of this anatomical region. The knowledge of etiologic factors and mechanisms of injuries can be helpful in a satisfactory trauma prevention. The aim of this study was to find out the incidence and the pattern of maxillofacial inju...

  4. Systematics of Reconstructed Process Facility Criticality Accidents

    Pruvost, N.L.; McLaughlin, T.P.; Monahan, S.P.

    1999-09-19

    The systematics of the characteristics of twenty-one criticality accidents occurring in nuclear processing facilities of the Russian Federation, the United States, and the United Kingdom are examined. By systematics the authors mean the degree of consistency or agreement between the factual parameters reported for the accidents and the experimentally known conditions for criticality. The twenty-one reported process criticality accidents are not sufficiently well described to justify attempting detailed neutronic modeling. However, results of classic hand calculations confirm the credibility of the reported accident conditions.

  5. 交通事故中脊柱损伤法医鉴定的特点分析%Characteristics Analysis of Spinal Injury Forensic Identification in Traffic Accidents

    秦志东; 张磊

    2015-01-01

    In order to analyze the characteristics of spinal injury forensic identification in traffic accidents, 134 cases of spinal injury in traffic accidents from January 2013 to December 2014 are selected. Through the analysis on spinal injury parts, nature and characteristics, it is found that in all cases, spinal injury mainly ap-pears in lumbar, thoracic, and vertebra; and joint dislocation and fracture are the main damage types. Spinal in-jury in traffic accidents is relatively complex, therefore the identification conclusion should be made with the con-sideration of the age, gender, recovery time of the injured, and whether the injured has a chronic disease or injury should be taken into consideration as well.%为分析交通事故中脊柱损伤法医鉴定的特点,本文选取了2013年1月至2014年12月期间的134例交通事故脊柱损伤案例,通过分析脊柱损伤的部位、性质和特点,发现所有案例中脊柱损伤部位主要集中在腰椎、胸椎、颈椎,而损伤类型主要则以关节脱位、骨折为主。交通事故脊柱损伤情况较为复杂,要结合伤者年龄、性别、伤后恢复时间、是否有陈旧性疾病或损伤等情况,仔细甄别才能作出鉴定结论。

  6. Research of severe accident induced by small LOCA and accident mitigation

    Fangjiashan nuclear power plant is modeled, by using MAAP4 code. Base on this model, the small LOCA accident is calculated, which will cause the worst consequence. The response of the plant and relevant severe accident phenomena are obtained. The phenomena of DCH (direct containment heat) happened during the accident, containment failure and release of the fission production are analyzed. Then, according to the related severe accident management and characteristic of this accident, the strategy of mitigating the accident consequence is studied and calculated. The result indicated that the mitigation action is very efficient. Therefore, a feasible strategy of mitigating the severe accident consequence is provided for the three-loop plant like Fangjiashan in China. (authors)

  7. Characteristics of initial deposition and behavior of radiocesium in forest ecosystems of different locations and species affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Komatsu, Masabumi; Kaneko, Shinji; Ohashi, Shinta; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Shigeto; Saito, Satoshi; Kiyono, Yoshiyuki; Tonosaki, Mario; Miura, Satoru; Akama, Akio; Kajimoto, Takuya; Takahashi, Masamichi

    2016-09-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, information about stand-level spatial patterns of radiocesium initially deposited in the surrounding forests was essential for predicting the future dynamics of radiocesium and suggesting a management plan for contaminated forests. In the first summer (approximately 6 months after the accident), we separately estimated the amounts of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs; Bq m(-2)) in the major components (trees, organic layers, and soils) in forests of three sites with different contamination levels. For a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) forest studied at each of the three sites, the radiocesium concentration greatly differed among the components, with the needle and organic layer having the highest concentrations. For these cedar forests, the proportion of the (137)Cs stock in the aboveground tree biomass varied from 22% to 44% of the total (137)Cs stock; it was 44% in highly contaminated sites (7.0 × 10(5) Bq m(-2)) but reduced to 22% in less contaminated sites (1.1 × 10(4) Bq m(-2)). In the intermediate contaminated site (5.0-5.8 × 10(4) Bq m(-2)), 34% of radiocesium was observed in the aboveground tree biomass of the Japanese cedar stand. However, this proportion was considerably smaller (18-19%) in the nearby mixed forests of the Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) and deciduous broad-leaved trees. Non-negligible amounts of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in both the sapwood and heartwood of all the studied tree species. This finding suggested that the uptake or translocation of radiocesium had already started within 6 months after the accident. The belowground compartments were mostly present in the organic layer and the uppermost (0-5 cm deep) mineral soil layer at all the study sites. We discussed the initial transfer process of radiocesium deposited in the forest and inferred that the type of initial deposition (i.e., dry versus wet radiocesium deposition), the amount of

  8. Criticality Accident

    At a meeting of electric utility presidents in October, 1999, the Federation Power Companies (FEPCO) officially decided to establish a Japanese version of WANO, following the JCO criticality accident. The Japanese WANO is expected to be launched by the end of the year: initially, with some 30 private sector companies concerned with nuclear fuel. It is said that the private sector had to make efforts to ensure that safety was the most important value in management policy throughout the industry, and that comprehensive inspections would be implemented. In anything related to nuclear energy, sufficient safety checks are required even for the most seemingly trivial matters. Therefore, the All-Japan Council of Local Governments with Atomic Power Stations has already proposed to the Japanese government that it should enact the special law for nuclear emergency, providing that the unified responsibility for nuclear disaster prevention should be shifted to the national government, since the nuclear disaster was quite special from the viewpoint of its safety regulation and technical aspects. (G.K.)

  9. Persistence on airline accidents.

    L. A. GIL-ALANA; Barros, C.P. (Carlos P.); J.R. Faria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses airline accidents data from 1927-2006. The fractional integration methodology is adopted. It is shown that airline accidents are persistent and (fractionally) cointegrated with airline traffic. Thus, there exists an equilibrium relation between air accidents and airline traffic, with the effect of the shocks to that relationship disappearing in the long run. Policy implications are derived for countering accidents events.

  10. Persistence in Airline Accidents

    Carlos Pestana Barros; João Ricardo Faria; Luis A. Gil-Alana

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses airline accident data from 1927-2006, through fractional integration. It is shown that airline accidents are persistent and (fractionally) cointegrated with airline traffic. There exists a negative relation between air accidents and airline traffic, with the effect of the shocks to that relationship disappearing in the long run. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events.

  11. Severe accident phenomena

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  12. Characteristics of the confined space accident and its medical rescue strategy%狭窄空间事故的特点及医学应急救援策略

    岳茂兴; 夏锡仪; 李瑛; 卞晓星; 郑琦涵; 尹进南; 赵晓成; 蔡爱敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of the confined space accident and its medical rescue strategy.Methods Thirty-six patients with emergency rescue in the five confined space accident during June 2009 to July 2012 were retrospectively analyzed.Results Twenty-nine people were caught in four confined space accidents caused by building collapse and 7 people were caught in one confined space accident caused by a tower of babel blast furnace damage which caused severe gas and hydrogen sulfide poisoning.For the 36 wounded,the shortest rescue time was 1.5 hours and the longest was 10.5 hours.Fourteen people were killed (mortality rate 38.89%).Characteristics of the confined space accident:the wounded activity environment was very harsh,the wounded were restricted particularly,the wounded injuries were diverse,the psychological depression was very common.The confined space environment and the complexity of wounded disease determined its medical rescue specificity and were very different from the usual trauma emergency.Conclusions Confined space accident caused very painful casualties.The key reason is that the relevant personnel failed to clearly recognize the potential risks in the confined space or nearby,making the confined space into another "quiet killer".This problem needs to be paid highly attention.%目的 探讨狭窄空间事故的特点及医学应急救援策略.方法 回顾性分析2009年6月至2012年7月参加5起狭窄空间事故现场医学应急救援的情况,分析36例患者的救治结果.结果 5起狭窄空间事故中4起因建筑物坍塌造成29例身处狭窄空间中,1起因某地通天塔里炼铁炉损坏,造成7人被困狭窄空间,致使煤气和硫化氢严重中毒.共致伤36例,被救出时间最短1.5 h,最长达10.5 h;死亡14人,伤亡率38.89%.狭窄空间事故的特点是:伤员活动环境十分恶劣;活动特别受限制;被救助者的伤病多样性;被救助者的心理压力十分普遍;狭窄空

  13. Consistent Comparison of Full Core PWR Reactivity Initiated Accident with the Method Of Characteristic Code DeCART and the Coarse Mesh Nodal Code PARCS - 180

    The current state of the art in analysis of a control rod ejection event in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) relies upon the assembly averaged power from a whole core nodal neutronics simulator and some type of pin power reconstruction within the fuel assembly. Recently, there has been interest in taking advantage of the DeCART code to perform a higher fidelity solution which could lead to more accurate pin-power results as well as provide intra-pin power information during the transient. The work described in this paper is the comparison of PARCS and DeCART analysis of two Reactivity Initiated Accidents. The methods used in PARCS and DeCART are briefly described as well as the approach to generate the needed temperature feedbacks. The generation of the macroscopic cross sections and kinetic parameters for PARCS is detailed. The results of both scenarios are shown and the main differences of both approaches are discussed. (authors)

  14. Analysis of Forensic Injury Characteristics on Death Caused by Motorcycle Traffic Accident%摩托车交通事故所致死亡的法医学损伤特征分析

    张冬先; 洪仕君; 赵丽萍; 李利华

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究摩托车交通事故所致死亡案件的特点,探讨分析伤亡人员的损伤特征.方法 抽取摩托车交通事故鉴定案件资料365例,对其损伤类型、特征、部位分布、死亡原因进行统计分析.结果 死亡原因以颅脑损伤居多,现场死亡占大部分,头颈部、胸部、背部、腹盆部、会阴部损伤在伤亡分组中的发生率有统计学差异(P<0.05),颅骨骨折、胸廓骨折和下肢骨折在伤亡分组中的发生率有统计学差异(P<0.05),锁骨骨折在摩托车驾驶员与摩托车乘员相比有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论 摩托车交通事故所致死亡的死亡原因以颅脑损伤居多,且大部分在现场死亡;损伤部位主要分布在四肢和头颈部;摩托车驾驶员锁骨骨折的发生率明显高于摩托车乘员.%0bjective To study the feature of the dead cases caused by motorcycle traffic accident, and discuss the characteristics of the death and the injured. Methods We collected 365 cases about motorcycle traffic accident judicial expertise to analyse the injury type, characteristics, distribution and the causes of death. Results Craniocerebral injury was the common cause leading to death. Death on accident scene was the most. The incidence rate about injury of head and neck, injury of chest, injury of back, injury of abdominal and pelvic part, injury of perineal region had obvious statistical difference between the death group and the injured group. The incidence rate of craniocerebral fracture, thoracic cage fracture, lower limb fracture had statistical difference between the death group and the injured group. The incidence rate of clavicle fracture had statistical difference between motor-cyclist group and motor-passenger group. Conclusions Craniocerebral injury is the most common cause leading to death in motorcycle traffic accident, and most cases of death took place on the accident scene. Injuries are most localized on extremities, head and neck. The

  15. SEVERE ACCIDENT MANAGEMENT TRAINING

    The purpose of this paper is (a) to define the International Atomic Energy Agency's role in the area of severe accident management training, (b) to briefly describe the status of representative severe accident analysis tools designed to support development and validation of accident management guidelines, and more recently, simulate the accident with sufficient accuracy to support the training of technical support and reactor operator staff, and (c) provide an overview of representative design-specific accident management guidelines and training. Since accident management and the development of accident management validation and training software is a rapidly evolving area, this paper is also intended to evolve as accident management guidelines and training programs are developed to meet different reactor design requirements and individual national requirements

  16. Traffic Congestion and Accidents

    Schrage, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Obstructions caused by accidents can trigger or exacerbate traffic congestion. This paper derives the efficient traffic pattern for a rush hour with congestion and accidents and the corresponding road toll. Compared to the model without accidents, where the toll equals external costs imposed on drivers using the road at the same time, a new insight arises: An optimal toll also internalizes the expected increase in future congestion costs. Since accidents affect more drivers if traffic volumes...

  17. Road Traffic Accidents in Kazakhstan

    Alma Aubakirova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The article provides the analysis of death rates in road traffic accidents in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2010 and explores the use of sanitary aviation.Methods: Data of fatalities caused by road traffic accidents were collected and analysed. Descriptive and analytical methods of epidemiology and biomedical statistics were applied.Results: Totaly 27,003 people died as a result of road traffic accidents in this period. The death rate for the total population due to road traffic accidents was 25.0±2.10/0000. The death rate for men was (38.3±3.20/0000, which was higher (P<0.05 than that for women (12.6±1.10/0000. High death rates in the entire male population were identified among men of 30-39 years old, whereas the highest rates for women were attributed to the groups of 50-59 years old and 70-79 years old. In time dynamics, death rates tended to decrease: the total population (Тdec=−2.4%, men (Тdec=−2.3% and women (Тdec=−1.4%. When researching territorial relevance, the rates were established as low (to 18.30/0000, average (between18.3 and24.00/0000 and high (from 24.00/0000 and above. Thus, the regions with high rates included Akmola region (24.30/0000, Mangistau region (25.90/0000, Zhambyl region (27.30/0000, Almaty region (29.30/0000 and South Kazakhstan region (32.40/0000.Conclusion: The identified epidemiological characteristics of the population deaths rates from road traffic accidents should be used in integrated and targeted interventions to enhance prevention of injuries in accidents.

  18. Psychology of nuclear accidents

    Tysoe, M.

    1983-03-31

    Incidents involving nuclear weapons are described, as well as the accident to the Three Mile Island-2 reactor. Methods of assessment of risks are discussed, with particular reference to subjective judgements and the possible role of human error in civil nuclear accidents. Accidents or misunderstandings in communication or human actions which might lead to nuclear war are also discussed.

  19. Comparative Assessment of Severe Accidents in the Chinese Energy Sector

    Hirschberg, S.; Burgherr, P.; Spiekerman, G.; Cazzoli, E.; Vitazek, J.; Cheng, L

    2003-03-01

    This report deals with the comparative assessment of accidents risks characteristic for the various electricity supply options. A reasonably complete picture of the wide spectrum of health, environmental and economic effects associated with various energy systems can only be obtained by considering damages due to normal operation as well as due to accidents. The focus of the present work is on severe accidents, as these are considered controversial. By severe accidents we understand potential or actual accidents that represent a significant risk to people, property and the environment and may lead to large consequences. (author)

  20. Comparative Assessment of Severe Accidents in the Chinese Energy Sector

    This report deals with the comparative assessment of accidents risks characteristic for the various electricity supply options. A reasonably complete picture of the wide spectrum of health, environmental and economic effects associated with various energy systems can only be obtained by considering damages due to normal operation as well as due to accidents. The focus of the present work is on severe accidents, as these are considered controversial. By severe accidents we understand potential or actual accidents that represent a significant risk to people, property and the environment and may lead to large consequences. (author)

  1. Supervisor's accident investigation handbook

    This pamphlet was prepared by the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EH and S) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to provide LBL supervisors with a handy reference to LBL's accident investigation program. The publication supplements the Accident and Emergencies section of LBL's Regulations and Procedures Manual, Pub. 201. The present guide discusses only accidents that are to be investigated by the supervisor. These accidents are classified as Type C by the Department of Energy (DOE) and include most occupational injuries and illnesses, government motor-vehicle accidents, and property damages of less than $50,000

  2. Chernobylsk accident (Causes and Consequences)- Part 2

    The causes and consequences of the nuclear accident at Chernobylsk-4 reactor are shortly described. The informations were provided by Russian during the specialist meeting, carried out at seat of IAEA. The Russian nuclear panorama; the site, nuclear power plant characteristics and sequence of events; the immediate measurements after accident; monitoring/radioactive releases; environmental contamination and ecological consequences; measurements of emergency; recommendations to increase the nuclear safety; and recommendations of work groups, are presented. (M.C.K.)

  3. CHARACTERISTICS OF CEREBRAL INJURY CAUSED BY ALCOHOL-RELATED MOTORCYCLE TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS%醉酒后摩托车驾驶致颅脑损伤的临床诊治

    蔡新琦; 崔华中; 黄铿; 韩溟; 蔡桂嘉; 陈泽锋

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical characteristics and misdiagnosis causes associated with alcohol-related motorcycle traffic accidents.Method All patients were given pre-hospital care,treated with naloxone hydrochloride in hospital,and underwent the CT and other examinations.Serious cerebral injuries were operated timely.Result 43 patients suffered from the traffic accident caused by alcohol-related motorcycle.26 of them had simple cerebral injury;17 were serious.5 of all patients were companied by complex injury,6 were delayed accurate diagnosis,and 5 were dead.Conclusion Motorcycle traffic accidents related alcohol result in easily the cerebral injury,and combined injury has high incidences.All patients should be examined CT and treated as soon as possible so as to improve prognosis,decrease the misdiagnosis,and mortality.%目的 探讨醉酒后摩托车驾驶所致颅脑外伤病人的临床特点及误诊原因.方法 对43例醉酒驾驶摩托车导致颅脑损伤者,给予及时的院前急救,入院后予纳洛酮进行催醒治疗,所有伤者及早进行头颅CT检查和其他部位的辅助检查,对重伤患者及时进行手术治疗.结果 43例全部为醉酒后驾驶摩托车所致的交通意外,单纯型颅脑外伤26例;重型颅脑外伤17例.其中复合伤5例,占11.6%,延误诊断6例,占13.95%,死亡5例,占11.6%.31例经保守和手术治疗愈合,7例有不同程度的肢体功能障碍.38例经半年随访,其中3例有反复发作的癫痫.结论 醉酒后摩托车交通意外易致颅脑损伤.及时进行CT头颅检查和应用纳络酮治疗,可以提高治愈率,降低误诊率和死亡率.

  4. Framework for accident management

    Accident management is an essential element of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Integration Plan for the closure of severe accident issues. This element will consolidate the results from other key elements; such as the Individual Plant Examination (IPE), the Containment Performance Improvement, and the Severe Accident Research Programs, in a form that can be used to enhance the safety programs for nuclear power plants. The NRC is currently conducting an Accident Management Program that is intended to aid in defining the scope and attributes of an accident management program for nuclear power plants. The accident management plan will ensure that a plant specific program is developed and implemented to promote the most effective use of available utility resources (people and hardware) to prevent and mitigate severe accidents. Hardware changes or other plant modifications to reduce the frequency of severe accidents are not a central aim of this program. To accomplish the outlined objectives, the NRC has developed an accident management framework that is comprised of five elements: (1) accident management strategies, (2) training, (3) guidance and computational aids, (4) instrumentation, and (5) delineation of decision making responsibilities. A process for the development of an accident management program has been identified using these NRC framework elements

  5. Framework for accident management

    A program is being conducted to establish those attributes of a severe accident management plan which are necessary to assure effective response to all credible severe accidents and to develop guidance for their incorporation in a plant's Accident Management Plan. This program is one part of the Accident Management Research Program being conducted by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The approach used in establishing attributes and developing guidance includes three steps. In the first step the general attributes of an accident management plan were identified based on: (1) the objectives established for the NRC accident management program, (2) the elements of an accident management framework identified by the NRC, and (3) a review of the processes used in developing the currently used approach for classifying and analyzing accidents. For the second step, a process was defined that uses the general attributes identified from the first step to develop an accident management plan. The third step applied the process defined in the second step at a nuclear power plant to refine and develop it into a benchmark accident management plan. Step one is completed, step two is underway and step three has not yet begun

  6. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Learning lessons from Natech accidents - the eNATECH accident database

    Krausmann, Elisabeth; Girgin, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    equipment vulnerability models linking the natural-hazard severity to the observed damage almost impossible. As a consequence, the European Commission has set up the eNATECH database for the systematic collection of Natech accident data and near misses. The database exhibits the more sophisticated accident representation required to capture the characteristics of Natech events and is publicly accessible at http://enatech.jrc.ec.europa.eu. This presentation outlines the general lessons-learning process, introduces the eNATECH database and its specific structure, and discusses natural-hazard specific lessons learned and features common to Natech accidents triggered by different natural hazards.

  8. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  9. The Chernobyl accident consequences

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  10. Nuclear accidents and epidemiology

    A consultation on epidemiology related to the Chernobyl accident was held in Copenhagen in May 1987 as a basis for concerted action. This was followed by a joint IAEA/WHO workshop in Vienna, which reviewed appropriate methodologies for possible long-term effects of radiation following nuclear accidents. The reports of these two meetings are included in this volume, and cover the subjects: 1) Epidemiology related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident. 2) Appropriate methodologies for studying possible long-term effects of radiation on individuals exposed in a nuclear accident. Figs and tabs

  11. Review of models applicable to accident aerosols

    Estimations of potential airborne-particle releases are essential in safety assessments of nuclear-fuel facilities. This report is a review of aerosol behavior models that have potential applications for predicting aerosol characteristics in compartments containing accident-generated aerosol sources. Such characterization of the accident-generated aerosols is a necessary step toward estimating their eventual release in any accident scenario. Existing aerosol models can predict the size distribution, concentration, and composition of aerosols as they are acted on by ventilation, diffusion, gravity, coagulation, and other phenomena. Models developed in the fields of fluid mechanics, indoor air pollution, and nuclear-reactor accidents are reviewed with this nuclear fuel facility application in mind. The various capabilities of modeling aerosol behavior are tabulated and discussed, and recommendations are made for applying the models to problems of differing complexity

  12. Preliminary safety analysis of the PWR with accident-tolerant fuels during severe accident conditions

    Highlights: • Analysis of severe accident scenarios for a PWR fueled with ATF system is performed. • A large-break LOCA without ECCS is analyzed for the PWR fueled with ATF system. • Extended SBO cases are discussed for the PWR fueled with ATF system. • The accident-tolerance of ATF system for application in PWR is illustrated. - Abstract: Experience gained in decades of nuclear safety research and previous nuclear accidents direct to the investigation of passive safety system design and accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) system which is now becoming a hot research point in the nuclear energy field. The ATF system is aimed at upgrading safety characteristics of the nuclear fuel and cladding in a reactor core where active cooling has been lost, and is preferable or comparable to the current UO2–Zr system when the reactor is in normal operation. By virtue of advanced materials with improved properties, the ATF system will obviously slow down the progression of accidents, allowing wider margin of time for the mitigation measures to work. Specifically, the simulation and analysis of a large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA) without ECCS and extended station blackout (SBO) severe accident are performed for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) loaded with ATF candidates, to reflect the accident-tolerance of ATF

  13. Nonlinear characteristics of the rotating exciter system of power plant generators in case of electricity accidents; Transientes Verhalten des rotierenden Erregersystems von Kraftwerksgeneratoren bei elektrischen Stoerfaellen

    Ataei, Nader

    2006-05-09

    Different types of exciter are used for voltage supply to the synchronous generators of power stations depending on the required power and design. The exciter system of the generator, which as a rule consists syncronous motors and commutators, is commonly modeled in conventional models by control units with nonlinear characteristics which do not give an accurate picture of the dynamic processes inside the exciter motor. It was not possible to assess the component loads of the exciter components and the physical characteristics within the exciter system. In this study, a brushless exciter for the grid-connected synchronous generator was investigated which consists of two synchronous motors as primary and secondary exciter and two commutator bridges. A dynamic simulation model was developed for calculating the interactions between the grid, generator and exciter unit in consideration of electromagnetic and galvanic coupling. For this, the normal control units were replaced by physical components of the exciter system, i.e. electric exciter motors and commutators. The study was carried out using an enhanced version of the Siemens NETOMAC software, which provided information on the loads on the exciter components in case of internal and external failures. In particular, loads in coils and commutators were calculated that could not be measured before. The findings enable more accurate dimensioning of the exciter unit making it more fail-safe, and the protective systems can be adjusted more accurately. One important result of the investigation was the identification of all dynamic processes going on between the exciter motors, commutators, generator and grid induced by external and internal failures. (orig.) [German] Zur Spannungsversorgung der Synchrongeneratoren in Kraftwerken werden je nach Leistungsanforderung und Baukonzept unterschiedliche Erregereinrichtungen verwendet. Das Erregersystem des Generators, das in der Regel aus Erregersynchronmaschinen und

  14. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on public perceptions of nuclear plant accident risks

    Assessments of public perceptions of the characteristics of a nuclear power plant accident and affective responses to its likelihood were conducted 5 months before and 1 month after the Chernobyl accident. Analyses of data from 69 residents of southwestern Washington showed significant test-retest correlations for only 10 of 18 variables--accident likelihood, three measures of impact characteristics, three measures of affective reactions, and hazard knowledge by governmental sources. Of these variables, only two had significant changes in mean ratings; frequency of thought and frequency of discussion about a nearby nuclear power plant both increased. While there were significant changes only for two personal consequences (expectations of cancer and genetic effects), both of these decreased. The results of this study indicate that more attention should be given to assessing the stability of risk perceptions over time. Moreover, the data demonstrate that experience with a major accident can actually decrease rather than increase perceptions of threat

  15. Criticality accident in Argentina

    A recent criticality type accident, ocurred in Argetina, is commented. Considerations about the nature of the facility where this accident took place, its genesis, type of operation carried out on the day of the event, and the medical aspects involved are done. (Author)

  16. Chernobyl accident and Danmark

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  17. Radiation accidents in hospitals

    Some of the radiation accidents that have occurred in Indian hospitals and causes that led to them are reviewed. Proper organization of radiation safety minimizes such accidents. It has been pointed out that there must be technical competence and mental preparedness to tackle emergencies when they do infrequently occur. (M.G.B.)

  18. Communication and industrial accidents

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the conc

  19. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  20. Accidents with orphan sources

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has specifically defined statutory functions relating to the development of standards of safety and the provision for their application. It also has responsibilities placed on it by virtue of a number of Conventions, two of which are relevant to nuclear accidents or radiological emergencies - the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. An overview of the way in which these functions are being applied to prevent and respond to radiological accidents, particularly those involving orphan sources, is described in this paper. Summaries of a number of such accidents and of the Agency's Action Plan relating to the safety and security of radiation sources are given. (orig.)

  1. Nuclear-powered submarine accidents

    Most of nuclear-powered ships are military ships and submarines represent 95% of the total. Most of the propulsion reactors used are of PWR type. This paper gives the principal technical characteristics of PWR ship propulsion reactors and the differences with their civil homologues. The principal accidents that occurred on US and Russian nuclear-powered submarines are also listed and the possible effects of a shipwreck on the reactor behaviour are evaluated with their environmental impact. (J.S.). 1 tab., 1 photo

  2. Severe accident risks from external events

    Randall O Gauntt

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the early development of design requirements for seismic events in USA early developing nuclear electric generating fleet.Notable safety studies,including WASH-1400,Sandia Siting Study and the NUREG-1150 probabilistic risk study,are briefly reviewed in terms of their relevance to extreme accidents arising from seismic and other severe accident initiators.Specific characteristic about the nature of severe accidents in nuclear power plant (NPP) are reviewed along with present day state-of-art analysis methodologies (methods for estimation of leakages and consequences of releases (MELCOR) and MELCOR accident consequence code system (MACCS)) that are used to evaluate severe accidents and to optimize mitigative and protective actions against such accidents.It is the aim of this paper to make nuclear operating nations aware of the risks that accompany a much needed energy resource and to identify some of the tools,techniques and landmark safety studies that serve to make the technology safer and to maintain vigilance and adequate safety culture for the responsible management of this valuable but unforgiving technology.

  3. President's Commission and the normal accident

    This chapter incorporates the major points of an analysis of the accident at Three Mile Island that I prepared in September 1979. In contrast to the findings of the President's Commission (1979), I did not view the accident as the result of operator error, an inept utility, or a negligent Nuclear Regulatory Commission but as a consequence of the complexity and interdependence that characterize the system itself. I argued that the accident was inevitable-that is, that it could not have been prevented, foreseen, or quickly terminated, because it was incomprehensible. It resembled other accidents in nuclear plants and in other high risk, complex and highly interdependent operator-machine systems; none of the accidents were caused by management or operator ineptness or by poor government regulation, though these characteristics existed and should have been expected. I maintained that the accident was normal, because in complex systems there are bound to be multiple faults that cannot be avoided by planning and that operators cannot immediately comprehend

  4. Assessment of the MSLB accident safety margins for NPP Krsko

    This paper presents the comparison between the 3-D neutronics (coupled code RELAP5/QUABOX/CUBBOX) and point kinetics (RELAP5/mod3.2.2) calculations of MSLB accident for NPP Krsko (NEK) after steam generator (SG) replacement and at uprated conditions (6% power increase). The main steam line break (MSLB) accident in pressurized water reactors (PWR) is overcooling accident characterized by large variations in primary coolant conditions, asymmetric core inlet and outlet conditions and strongly localized reactivity disturbance due to assumed stuck control rod. The characteristics and phenomena related to the MSLB accident for best-estimate calculations can be accurately analyzed through the use of coupled code. (author)

  5. Database on aircraft accidents

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating

  6. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. PMID:20618386

  7. Management of severe accidents

    The definition and the multidimensionality aspects of accident management have been reviewed. The suggested elements in the development of a programme for severe accident management have been identified and discussed. The strategies concentrate on the two tiered approaches. Operative management utilizes the plant's equipment and operators capabilities. The recovery managment concevtrates on preserving the containment, or delaying its failure, inhibiting the release, and on strategies once there has been a release. The inspiration for this paper was an excellent overview report on perspectives on managing severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants and extending plant operating procedures into the severe accident regime; and by the most recent publication of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) considering the question of risk reduction and source term reduction through accident prevention, management and mitigation. The latter document concludes that 'active development of accident management measures by plant personnel can lead to very large reductions in source terms and risk', and goes further in considering and formulating the key issue: 'The most fruitful path to follow in reducing risk even further is through the planning of accident management.' (author)

  8. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  9. Accidents, risks and consequences

    Although the accident at Chernobyl can be considered as the worst accident in the world, it could have been worse. Other far worse situations are considered, such as a nuclear weapon hitting a nuclear reactor. Indeed the accident at Chernobyl is compared to a nuclear weapon. The consequences of Chernobyl in terms of radiation levels are discussed. Although it is believed that a similar accident could not occur in the United Kingdom, that possibility is considered. It is suggested that emergency plans should be made for just such an eventuality. Even if Chernobyl could not happen in the UK, the effects of accidents are international. The way in which nuclear reactor accidents happen is explored, taking the 1957 Windscale fire, Three Mile Island and Chernobyl as examples. Reactor designs and accident scenarios are considered. The different reactor designs are listed. As well as the Chernobyl RBMK design it is suggested that the light water reactors also have undesirable features from the point of view of safety. (U.K.)

  10. Preliminary report about Goiania radiological accident, Brazil

    The events that originate the Goiania radiological accident involving the rupture of Cesium 137 source, the source characteristics, the medical aspects related to the triage of victims, the medical attendance, and the special measurements of decontamination in the Goiania General Hospital (HGG), are described. (M.C.K.)

  11. Socioeconomic deprivation and accident and emergency attendances

    Scantlebury, Rachel; Rowlands, Gillian; Durbaba, Stevo;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Demand for England's accident and emergency (A&E) services is increasing and is particularly concentrated in areas of high deprivation. The extent to which primary care services, relative to population characteristics, can impact on A&E is not fully understood. AIM: To conduct...

  12. Report of the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident

    The accident, which occurred on April 26 of 1986 at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic of the Soviet Union, was the unprecedented accident in terms of, among other things, structural damages given to the reactor, an amount of radioactive materials released to the environment, and a number of casualties resulting from the accident. Investigation and analysis of the accident were conducted at JAERI by forming the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident within the organization under which Task Group A was responsible for the design and characteristics of the reactor and the accident sequence and Task Group B was responsible for behavior of radioactive materials and radiological consequences to the environment. The present report is the summary of the investigations and analyses which were carried out by the committee. (author)

  13. Soviet submarine accidents

    Although the Soviet Union has more submarines than the NATO navies combined, and the technological superiority of western submarines is diminishing, there is evidence that there are more accidents with Soviet submarines than with western submarine fleets. Whether this is due to inadequate crews or lower standards of maintenance and overhaul procedures is discussed. In particular, it is suggested that since the introduction of nuclear powered submarines, the Soviet submarine safety record has deteriorated. Information on Soviet submarine accidents is difficult to come by, but a list of some 23 accidents, mostly in nuclear submarines, between 1966 and 1986, has been compiled. The approximate date, class or type of submarine, the nature and location of the accident, the casualties and damage and the source of information are tabulated. (U.K.)

  14. Accident resistant transport container

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  15. Boating Accident Statistics

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  16. Talking about accidents

    It is argued that the public's emotional fear of the hypothetical, very unlikely, gigantic nuclear accident is partly caused by the nuclear industry's incorrect use of language within its own professional discussions. Improved terminology is suggested. (U.K.)

  17. Modeling accident frequency in Denmark for improving road safety

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Kaplan, Sigal;

    Traffic accidents result in huge costs to society in terms of death, injury, lost productivity, and property damage. The main objective of the current study is the development of an accident frequency model that predicts the expected number of accidents on a given road segment, provided the...... infrastructure characteristics and the traffic conditions of the road. The model can be used to point out high risk road segments and support road authorities in planning interventions for the improvement of road safety on Danish roads. The number of accidents on a road link was modeled using a count model after...... concerning police recorded accidents, link characteristics of the road network, traffic volumes from the national transport models are merged to estimate the model. Spatial correlation between road sections is taken into account for correcting for unobserved correlation between contiguous locations....

  18. FATAL ACCIDENT REPORTING SYSTEM (FARS)

    The Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) database consist of three relational tables, containing data on automobile accidents on public U.S. roads that resulted in the death of one or more people within 30 days of the accident. Truck and trailer accidents are also included.

  19. The Chernobyl accident

    In connection with the Chernobyl accident the report gives a description of the technical features of importance to the accident, the course of events, and the estimated health hazards in the local environment. Dissimilarities in western and Sovjet reactor safety philosophy are dealt with, as well as conceivable concequences in relation to technology and research in western nuclear power programmes. Results of activity level measurements of air and foodstuff, made in Norway by Institute for Energy Technology, are given

  20. Accident and emergency management

    There is an increasing potential for severe accidents as the industrial development tends towards large, centralised production units. In several industries this has led to the formation of large organisations which are prepared for accidents fighting and for emergency management. The functioning of these organisations critically depends upon efficient decision making and exchange of information. This project is aimed at securing and possibly improving the functionality and efficiency of the accident and emergency management by verifying, demonstrating, and validating the possible use of advanced information technology in the organisations mentioned above. With the nuclear industry in focus the project consists of five main activities: 1) The study and detailed analysis of accident and emergency scenarios based on records from incidents and rills in nuclear installations. 2) Development of a conceptual understanding of accident and emergency management with emphasis on distributed decision making, information flow, and control structure sthat are involved. 3) Development of a general experimental methodology for evaluating the effects of different kinds of decision aids and forms of organisation for emergency management systems with distributed decision making. 4) Development and test of a prototype system for a limited part of an accident and emergency organisation to demonstrate the potential use of computer and communication systems, data-base and knowledge base technology, and applications of expert systems and methods used in artificial intelligence. 5) Production of guidelines for the introduction of advanced information technology in the organisations based on evaluation and validation of the prototype system. (author)

  1. Accident management information needs

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  2. Historical aspects of radiation accidents

    Radiation accidents are extremely rare events; however, the last two years have witnessed the largest radiation accidents in both the eastern and western hemispheres. It is the purpose of this chapter to review how radiation accidents are categorized, examine the temporal changes in frequency and severity, give illustrative examples of several types of radiation accidents, and finally, to describe the various registries for radiation accidents

  3. Cyclical Fluctuations in Workplace Accidents

    Boone, J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    This Paper presents a theory and an empirical investigation on cyclical fluctuations in workplace accidents. The theory is based on the idea that reporting an accident dents the reputation of a worker and raises the probability that he is fired. Therefore a country with a high or an increasing unemployment rate has a low (reported) workplace accident rate. The empirical investigation concerns workplace accidents in OECD countries. The analysis confirms that workplace accident rates are invers...

  4. Modelling trends in road accident frequency - Bayesian inference for rates with uncertain exposure

    Lloyd, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Several thousand people die as a result of a road accident each year in Great Britain and the trend in the number of fatal accidents is monitored closely to understand increases and reductions in the number of deaths. Results from analysis of these data directly influence Government road safety policy and ensure theintroduction of effective safety interventions across the country. Overall accident numbers are important, but when disaggregating into various characteristics, accident risk (def...

  5. Characteristics and Countermeasures of Traffic Accidents in Qinghai Province——From the Perspective of Analyzing Hundred Cases of Road Traffic Accident%青海省道路交通事故特点及对策——以分析百起道路交通事故案例为视角

    陈艳

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic accident has become the "number one killer" that threat to people's lives and property safety. How to curb the occurrence of road traffic accident, objective and fair to investigate and deal with the accident, is one of the major issues that the public security traffic management departments and traffic police must face.%道路交通事故已然成为了威胁人们生命、财产安全的"头号杀手".如何遏制道路交通事故案件的发生,客观、公正地查处事故,是公安交通管理部门和交通民警必须正视的重大问题之一.

  6. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels: Metrics Development

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Lori Braase; Rose Montgomery; Chris Stanek; Robert Montgomery; Lance Snead; Larry Ott; Mike Billone

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is conducting research and development on enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) for light water reactors (LWRs). This mission emphasizes the development of novel fuel and cladding concepts to replace the current zirconium alloy-uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel system. The overall mission of the ATF research is to develop advanced fuels/cladding with improved performance, reliability and safety characteristics during normal operations and accident conditions, while minimizing waste generation. The initial effort will focus on implementation in operating reactors or reactors with design certifications. To initiate the development of quantitative metrics for ATR, a LWR Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Metrics Development Workshop was held in October 2012 in Germantown, MD. This paper summarizes the outcome of that workshop and the current status of metrics development for LWR ATF.

  7. A Review of Criticality Accidents 2000 Revision

    Thomas P. McLaughlin; Shean P. Monahan; Norman L. Pruvost; Vladimir V. Frolov; Boris G. Ryazanov; Victor I. Sviridov

    2000-05-01

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Sixty accidental power excursions are reviewed. Sufficient detail is provided to enable the reader to understand the physical situation, the chemistry and material flow, and when available the administrative setting leading up to the time of the accident. Information on the power history, energy release, consequences, and causes are also included when available. For those accidents that occurred in process plants, two new sections have been included in this revision. The first is an analysis and summary of the physical and neutronic features of the chain reacting systems. The second is a compilation of observations and lessons learned. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this report.

  8. A Review of Criticality Accidents 2000 Revision

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Sixty accidental power excursions are reviewed. Sufficient detail is provided to enable the reader to understand the physical situation, the chemistry and material flow, and when available the administrative setting leading up to the time of the accident. Information on the power history, energy release, consequences, and causes are also included when available. For those accidents that occurred in process plants, two new sections have been included in this revision. The first is an analysis and summary of the physical and neutronic features of the chain reacting systems. The second is a compilation of observations and lessons learned. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this report

  9. [Psychogenesis of accidents].

    Giannattasio, E; Nencini, R; Nicolosi, N

    1988-01-01

    After having carried out a historical review of industrial psychology with specific attention to the evolution of the concept of causality in accidents, the Authors formulate their work hypothesis from that research which take into highest consideration the executives' attitudes in the genesis of the accidents. As dogmatism appears to be one of the most negative of executives' attitudes, the Authors administered Rockeach's Scale to 130 intermediate executives from 6 industries in Latium and observed the frequency index for accidents and the morbidity index (absenteeism) of the 2149 workhand. The Authors assumed that to high degree of dogmatism on the executives' side should correspond o a higher level of accidents and absenteeism among the staff. The data processing revealed that, due to the type of machinery employed, three of the industries examined should be considered as High Risk Industrie (HRI), while the remaining three could be considered as Low Risk Industries (LRI): in fact, due to the different working conditions, a significant lower number of accidents occurred in last the three. A statistically significant correlation between the executives' dogmatism and the number of accidents among their workhand in the HRI has been noticed, while this has not been observed in the LRI. This confirms, as had already been pointed out by Gemelli in 1944, that some "objective conditions" are requested so that the accident may actually take place. On the other hand the morbidity index has not shown any difference related to the different kind of industries (HRI, LRI): in both cases statistically significant correlations were obtained between the executives' dogmatism and the staff's absenteeism. absenteeism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3154344

  10. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  11. Accidents in nuclear ships

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10-3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  12. Reactivity accident of nuclear submarine near Vladivostok

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union and consequently the termination of the Cold War and the disarmament agreements, many nuclear warheads are in a queue for dismantling. As a result, substantial number of nuclear submarines equipped with ballistic missiles will be also withdrawn from service. However, Russian nuclear submarines have suffered from reactivity accidents five times. In the paper, a reactivity accident on a nuclear submarine that happened at Chazhma Bay located between Vladivostok and Nakhodka on August 10, 1985, has been described. In addition, the characteristics of submarine nuclear reactors, procedures of refueling, and the possibility of a similar accident are given. Further, the radiological risk to Japan and neighboring countries has been assessed by using an atmospheric pollutant transport code, WSPEEDI, developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The radiological risk has been evaluated for the Chazhma Bay accident and for a hypothetical reactivity accident of a retired submarine during defueling, assuming winter meteorological conditions. The analyses have shown that the radioactive material might be transported in the atmosphere to Japan in one to several days and might contaminate wide areas of Japan. Under the assumptions taken in the paper, however, the radiological dose to population in the area might be not significant. (author)

  13. Scoping accident(s) for emergency planning

    At the request of the Conference of State Radiation Control Program Director's (CRCPD), in November 1976 the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission formed a joint Task Force with representatives of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to answer a number of questions posed by the States regarding emergency planning. This Task Force held monthly meetings through November 1977. In December 1977 a draft report was prepared for limited distribution for review and comment by selected State and local organizations. The NRC/EPA Task Force deliberations centered on the CRCPD request for '... a determination of the most severe accident basis for which radiological emergency response plans should be developed by offsite agencies...' in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. Federal Interagency guidance to the States in this regard has been that the scoping accident should be the most serious conservatively analyzed accident considered for siting purposes, as exemplified in the Commission's Regulations at 10 CFR Part 100 and the NRC staffs Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4, and as presented in license applicant's Safety Analysis Reports and the USNRC Staffs Safety Evaluation Reports. The draft report of the Task Force amplifies on this recommendation: to present a clearer picture of its import and introduces the concept of protective action zones (PAZs) within which detailed emergency plans should be developed; one zone for the plume exposure pathway and a second, larger zone for contamination pathways. The time dependence of potential releases and atmospheric transport, and important radionuclide groups of possible import are also discussed in the draft Task Force report. A status report regarding this effort, as of June 1978, will be presented. (author)

  14. Important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident

    After the Fukushima accident several investigation committees issued reports with lessons learned from the accident in Japan. Among those lessons, several recommendations have been made on severe accident research. Similar to the EURSAFE efforts under EU Program, review of specific severe accident research items was started before Fukushima accident in working group of Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) in terms of significance of consequences, uncertainties of phenomena and maturity of assessment methodology. Re-investigation has been started since the Fukushima accident. Additional effects of Fukushima accident, such as core degradation behaviors, sea water injection, containment failure/leakage and re-criticality have been covered. The review results are categorized in ten major fields; core degradation behavior, core melt coolability/retention in containment vessel, function of containment vessel, source term, hydrogen behavior, fuel-coolant interaction, molten core concrete interaction, direct containment heating, recriticality and instrumentation in severe accident conditions. Based on these activities and also author's personal view, the present paper describes the perspective of important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident. Those are specifically investigation of damaged core and components, advanced severe accident analysis capabilities and associated experimental investigations, development of reliable passive cooling system for core/containment, analysis of hydrogen behavior and investigation of hydrogen measures, enhancement of removal function of radioactive materials of containment venting, advanced instrumentation for the diagnosis of severe accident and assessment of advanced containment design which excludes long-term evacuation in any severe accident situations. (author)

  15. Helicopter accident survivability.

    Vyrnwy-Jones, P; Thornton, R

    1984-10-01

    Army Air Corps accident and fatality rates have now reached levels which compare favourably with data from other civilian and military sources. This improvement is the result of enhanced helicopter design and parallel progress in aircrew training. The introduction of new generations of turbine powered rotor craft has largely eliminated mechanical failure as the cause of accident. As a result 75% of Army Air Corps accidents are due to pilot error. This contribution is likely to increase in the future as the pilot's task is made more difficult by the incumberance of personal equipment. Methods whereby occupant protection and aircraft crashworthiness can be improved are reviewed and it is concluded that it would make sound economic sense to implement some of these well proven design features. PMID:6527344

  16. Information at radiation accidents

    This study was undertaken in order to plan an information strategy for possible future accidents involving radioactivity. Six health visitors and six farmers working in the districts of Norway which received the largest amounts of fallout from the Chernobyl accident, were interviewed. The questions were intended to give an indication of their knowledge about radioactivity and radiation, as well as their needs for information in case of a future accident. The results indicate a relatively low educational background in radiation physics and risk estimation. On the other hand the two groups showed a remarkable skill and interest in doing their own evaluation on the background of information that was linked to their daily life. It is suggested that planning of information in this field is done in close cooperation with the potential users of the information

  17. Radiation accidents and dosimetry

    On September 2nd 1982 one of the employees of the gamma-irradiation facility at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway entered the irradiation cell with a 65.7 kCi *sp60*Co- source in unshielded position. The victim received an unknown radiation dose and died after 13 days. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy, the radiation dose in this accident was subsequently determined based on the production of longlived free radicals in nitroglycerol tablets borne by the operator during the accident. He used nitroglycerol for heart problems and free radical are easily formed and trapped in sugar which is the main component of the tablets. Calibration experiments were carried out and the dose given to the tablets during the accident was determined to 37.2 +- 0.5 Gy. The general use of free radicals for dose determinations is discussed. (Auth.)

  18. Big nuclear accidents

    Much of the debate on the safety of nuclear power focuses on the large number of fatalities that could, in theory, be caused by extremely unlikely but imaginable reactor accidents. This, along with the nuclear industry's inappropriate use of vocabulary during public debate, has given the general public a distorted impression of the safety of nuclear power. The way in which the probability and consequences of big nuclear accidents have been presented in the past is reviewed and recommendations for the future are made including the presentation of the long-term consequences of such accidents in terms of 'reduction in life expectancy', 'increased chance of fatal cancer' and the equivalent pattern of compulsory cigarette smoking. (author)

  19. The management of accidents

    R. B. Ward

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This author’s experiences in investigating well over a hundred accident occurrences has led to questioning how such events can be managed - - - while immediately recognising that the idea of managing accidents is an oxymoron, we don’t want to manage them, we don’t want not to manage them, what we desire is not to have to manage not-them, that is, manage matters so they don’t happen and then we don’t have to manage the consequences.Design/methodology/approach: The research will begin by defining some common classes of accidents in manufacturing industry, with examples taken from cases investigated, and by working backwards (too late, of course show how those involved could have managed these sample events so they didn’t happen, finishing with the question whether any of that can be applied to other situations.Findings: As shown that the management actions needed to prevent accidents are control of design and application of technology, and control and integration of people.Research limitations/implications: This paper has shown in some of the examples provided, management actions have been know to lead to accidents being committed by others, lower in the organization.Originality/value: Today’s management activities involve, generally, the use of technology in many forms, varying from simple tools (such as knives to the use of heavy equipment, electric power, and explosives. Against these we commit, in control of those items, the comparatively frail human mind and body, which, again generally, does succeed in controlling these resources, with (another generality by appropriate management. However, sometimes the control slips and an accident occurs.

  20. CANDU safety under severe accidents

    The characteristics of the CANDU reactor relevant to severe accidents are set first by the inherent properties of the design, and second by the Canadian safety/licensing approach. The pressure-tube concept allows the separate, low-pressure, heavy-water moderator to act as a backup heat sink even if there is no water in the fuel channels. Should this also fail, the calandria shell itself can contain the debris, with heat being transferred to the water-filled shield tank around the core. Should the severe core damage sequence progress further, the shield tank and the concrete reactor vault significantly delay the challenge to containment. Furthermore, should core melt lead to containment overpressure, the containment behaviour is such that leaks through the concrete containment wall reduce the possibility of catastrophic structural failure. The Canadian licensing philosophy requires that each accident, together with failure of each safety system in turn, be assessed (and specified dose limits met) as part of the design and licensing basis. In response, designers have provided CANDUs with two independent dedicated shutdown systems, and the likelihood of Anticipated Transients Without Scram is negligible. Probabilistic safety assessment studies have been performed on operating CANDU plants, and on the 4 x 880 MW(e) Darlington station now under construction; furthermore a scoping risk assessment has been done for a CANDU 600 plant. They indicate that the summed severe core damage frequency is of the order of 5 x 10-6/year. 95 refs, 3 tabs

  1. CANDU safety under severe accidents

    The characteristics of the CANDU reactor relevant to severe accidents are set first by the inherent properties of the design, and second by the Canadian safety/licensing approach. Probabilistic safety assessment studies have been performed on operating CANDU plants, and on the 4 x 880 MW(e) Darlington station now under construction; furthermore a scoping risk assessment has been done for a CANDU 600 plant. They indicate that the summed severe core damage frequency is of the order of 5 x 10-6/year. CANDU nuclear plant designers and owner/operators share information and operational experience nationally and internationally through the CANDU Owners' Group (COG). The research program generally emphasizes the unique aspects of the CANDU concept, such as heat removal through the moderator, but it has also contributed significantly to areas generic to most power reactors such as hydrogen combustion, containment failure modes, fission product chemistry, and high temperature fuel behaviour. Abnormal plant operating procedures are aimed at first using event-specific emergency operating procedures, in cases where the event can be diagnosed. If this is not possible, generic procedures are followed to control Critical Safety Parameters and manage the accident. Similarly, the on-site contingency plans include a generic plan covering overall plant response strategy, and a specific plan covering each category of contingency

  2. The TMI-2 accident

    A critical study about the technical and man-related facts in order to establish what is considered the worst commercial nuclear power accident until 1986. Radiological consequences and stress to the public are considered in contrast to antinuclear groups. This descriptive and technical study has the purpose to document written and oral opinions obtained abroad and then explain to the public in an easy language terminology. Preliminary study describing safety related systems fails and the accident itself with minute to minute description, conduct to the consequences and then, to learned lessons

  3. Description of the accident

    The TMI-2 accident occurred in March 1979. The accident started with a simple and fairly common steam power plant failure--loss of feedwater to the steam generators. Because of a combination of design, training, regulatory policies, mechanical failures and human error, the accident progressed to the point where it eventually produced the worst known core damage in large nuclear power reactors. Core temperatures locally reached UO2 fuel liquefaction (metallic solution with Zr) and even fuel melt (3800-51000F). Extensive fission product release and Zircaloy cladding oxidation and embrittlement occurred. At least the upper 1/2 of the core fractured and crumbled upon quenching. The lower central portion of the core apparently had a delayed heatup and then portions of it collapsed into the reactor vessel lower head. The lower outer portion of the core may be relatively undamaged. Outside of the core boundary, only those steel components directly above and adjacent to the core (≤1 foot) are known to have suffered significant damage (localized oxidation and melting). Other portions of the primary system outside of the reactor vessel apparently had little chance of damage or even notable overheating. The demonstrated coolability of the severely damaged TMI-2 core, once adequate water injection began, was one of the most substantial and important results of the TMI-2 accident

  4. Fifteen years after accident

    This book is devoted to 15th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. Four problems have been reflected in the book: contamination of territories of Western Europe, Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation by cesium-137; plutonium, americium and other actinides on territory of Belarus; problems of radioactive wastes management of Chernobyl origin; influence of various factors on oncology morbidity in the Republic of Belarus

  5. Measures against nuclear accidents

    A select committee appointed by the Norwegian Ministry of Social Affairs put forward proposals concerning measures for the improvement of radiation protection preparedness in Norway. On the basis on an assessment of the potential radiation accident threat, the report examines the process of response, and identifies the organizational and management factors that influence that process

  6. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP)

  7. Lessons learned from accident investigations

    Accidents in three main practices - medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators - are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned from them. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the accidents described are approached bearing in mind: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  8. Lessons learned from accidents investigations

    Accidents from three main practices: medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the described accidents are approached by subjects covering: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  9. Road Traffic Accidents in Kazakhstan

    Alma Aubakirova; Alibek Kossumov; Nurbek Igissinov

    2013-01-01

    Background: The article provides the analysis of death rates in road traffic accidents in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2010 and explores the use of sanitary aviation. Methods: Data of fatalities caused by road traffic accidents were collected and analysed. Descriptive and analytical methods of epidemiology and biomedical statistics were applied. Results: Totaly 27,003 people died as a result of road traffic accidents in this period. The death rate for the total population due to road traffic accid...

  10. The Chernobyl accident

    The accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the most severe in the nuclear industry. The accident caused the rapid death of 31 power plant employees and firemen, mainly from acute radiation exposures and burns, and brought about the evacuation of 116,000 people within a few weeks. In addition, about half a million workers and four million members of the public have been exposed, to some extent, to radiation doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident. A large number of radiation measurements have been made since the accident in order to reconstruct the doses received by the most exposed populations. On the basis of currently available information, it appears that: (1) average doses received by clean-up workers from external irradiation decreased with time, being about 300 mGy for the persons who worked in the first three months after the accident, about 170 mGy for the remainder of 1986, 130 mGy in 1987, 30 mGy in 1988, and 15 mGy in 1989; (2) the evacuees received, before evacuation, effective doses averaging 11 mSv for the population of Pripyat, and 18 mSv for the remainder of the population of the 30 km zone, with maximum effective doses ranging up to 380 mSv; and (3) among the populations living in contaminated areas, the highest doses were those delivered to the thyroids of children. Thyroid doses derived from thyroid measurements among Belarussian and Ukrainian children indicate median thyroid doses of about 300 mGy, and more than 1% of the children with thyroid doses in excess of 5000 mGy. A description is provided of the epidemiological studies that the National Cancer Institute has, since 1990, at the request of the Department of Energy, endeavoured to undertake, in cooperation with Belarus and Ukraine, on two possible health effects resulting from the Chernobyl accident: (1, thyroid cancer in children living in contaminated areas during the first few weeks following the accident, and (2) leukaemia among workers involved in clean

  11. The psychology of nuclear accidents

    Incidents involving nuclear weapons are described, as well as the accident to the Three Mile Island-2 reactor. Methods of assessment of risks are discussed, with particular reference to subjective judgements and the possible role of human error in civil nuclear accidents. Accidents or misunderstandings in communication or human actions which might lead to nuclear war are also discussed. (U.K.)

  12. Accidents in industrial radiography in Brazil from 2005 to 2010

    Analysis of accidents occurring in industrial radiography in Brazil from 2005 until 2010 led to the study of the main characteristics of the events, their risks and dangers. This study outlines the main doubts on the subject, through a simplified analysis of the contents of high dose reports sent to CNEN by the companies that provide services for industrial radiography and from examining the growing number of radioactive sources for industrial radiography in Brazil, over this period. We classified the recorded events, as incidents, accidents, negligence, sabotage, and others, and studied their main consequences. We concluded that from 76 accidents that occurred during that period - 25 were real accidents, 13 minor accidents and 22 were inadvertent incidents. We found that the rate of growth in the number of sources is much greater than the rate of growth of accidents, with a ratio of 7.57 between them. The continuation of this study over some years, will allow the construction of a pyramid of accidents like the one developed by the Insurance Company of North America, specifically for industrial radiography to forecast the number of incidents and accidents that lead to serious or fatal injury. (author)

  13. Pseuchoneurotic disorders associated with the Chernobyl accident

    This survey relied largely on random selection. As a rule, the attention of the specialists was directed to people with certain specific complaints. Psychogenic disorders observed in the area of the accident at the Chernobyl plant were followed and studied by a team of specialists from the USSR Ministry of Health, beginning on 29 April 1986. According to the nature of the observed stress effects and of the resultant psychic disorders, it was possible to delineate three periods: first the acute period of the disaster from the time of the accident, lasting about 10 days until completion of the evacuation of the population from the danger zone (5 May); second the intermediate delayed period, the period of comparatively early consequences (from 6 May to October 1986); and third, the period of remote consequences. In the course of the year, 1,572 people were examined. The data available indicate that the psychogenic disorders observed after the Chernobyl accident can be regarded as the consequence of a single process, the dynamics of which are determined on the one hand by the characteristics of the emergency situation and on the other by the traits and the degree of preparedness of the people involved. The special nature of the stress situation in all three periods - the threat to health - gave rise to certain characteristic clinical observations, primarily a high degree of somatization and hypochondria. An understanding of the psychological disorders affecting those who lived through the Chernobyl accident, and of their effects on the work capability and pattern of life of people at various stages after the accident, has made it possible to develop and implement a complex and refined system of prophylactic and medical measures. (author)

  14. Analysis of the TMI-2 accident using ATHLET-CD

    One analyzed the simulation of the TMI-2 NPP accident making use of the ATHLET-CD code. One describes the accident sequence, the code structure and performs the comparative analysis of the calculated and the measured data. Simulation of thermohydraulic characteristics was a special success. Application of the codes promotes the NPP optimization, the reactor safety improvement and the risk reduction. The ATHLET-CD system ( the thermohydraulic analysis of leaks and transient processes at the reactor core disruption) will allow to evaluate the adequacy of the models included in the available codes to calculate severe accidents

  15. The use of a portable electronic device in accident dosimetry.

    Beerten, Koen; Vanhavere, Filip

    2008-01-01

    The use of a portable electronic device in accident dosimetry has been investigated. The thermoluminescence properties of a surface-mount alumina-rich ceramic resonator from a USB flash drive were investigated. The following characteristics were verified: the absence of a zero-dose signal, gamma dose response, dose recycling behaviour, fading and optical bleaching. Finally, this component has been successfully used to determine a simulated accident dose (1 d following the irradiation event). It is concluded that it should be possible to perform rapid and reliable accident dose assessments with such components using conventional thermoluminescence dosimetry equipment. PMID:18703583

  16. The use of a portable electronic device in accident dosimetry

    The use of a portable electronic device in accident dosimetry has been investigated. The thermoluminescence properties of a surface-mount alumina-rich ceramic resonator from a USB flash drive were investigated. The following characteristics were verified: the absence of a zero-dose signal, gamma dose response, dose recycling behaviour, fading and optical bleaching. Finally, this component has been successfully used to determine a simulated accident dose (1 d following the irradiation event). It is concluded that it should be possible to perform rapid and reliable accident dose assessments with such components using conventional thermoluminescence dosimetry equipment. (authors)

  17. Simulation of LOF accidents with directly electrical heated UO2 pins

    The behavior of directly electrical heated UO2 pins has been investigated under loss of coolant conditions. Two types of hypothetical accidents have been simulated, first, a LOF accident without power excursion (LOF accident) and second, a LOF accident with subsequent power excursion (LOF-TOP accident). A high-speed film shows the sequence of events for two characteristic experiments. In consequence of the high-speed film analysis as well as the metallographical evaluation statements are given in respect to the cladding meltdown process, the fuel melt fraction and the energy input from the beginning of a power transient to the beginning of the molten fuel ejections

  18. Radiological accidents balance in medicine

    This work deals with the radiological accidents in medicine. In medicine, the radiation accidents on medical personnel and patients can be the result of over dosage and bad focusing of radiotherapy sealed sources. Sometimes, the accidents, if they are unknown during a time enough for the source to be spread and to expose a lot of persons (in the case of source dismantling for instance) can take considerable dimensions. Others accidents can come from bad handling of linear accelerators and from radionuclide kinetics in some therapies. Some examples of accidents are given. (O.L.). 11 refs

  19. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation.

    Tentner, A. M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; SNL; INL

    2010-03-01

    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  20. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be...... initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... identified during a total of 31 140 years at sea. Among these, 209 accidents resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. The mean risk of having an occupational accident was 6.4/100 years at sea and the risk of an accident causing a permanent disability of 5% or more was 0.67/100 years...

  1. Correspondence model of occupational accidents

    Juan C. Conte

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a new generalized model for the diagnosis and prediction of accidents among the Spanish workforce. Based on observational data of the accident rate in all Spanish companies over eleven years (7,519,732 accidents, we classified them in a new risk-injury contingency table (19×19. Through correspondence analysis, we obtained a structure composed of three axes whose combination identifies three separate risk and injury groups, which we used as a general Spanish pattern. The most likely or frequent relationships between the risk and injuries identified in the pattern facilitated the decision-making process in companies at an early stage of risk assessment. Each risk-injury group has its own characteristics, which are understandable within the phenomenological framework of the accident. The main advantages of this model are its potential application to any other country and the feasibility of contrasting different country results. One limiting factor, however, is the need to set a common classification framework for risks and injuries to enhance comparison, a framework that does not exist today. The model aims to manage work-related accidents automatically at any level.Apresentamos aqui um modelo generalizado para o diagnóstico e predição de acidentes na classe de trabalhadores da Espanha. Baseados em dados sobre a frequência de acidentes em todas as companhias da Espanha em 11 anos (7.519.732 acidentes, nós os classificamos em uma nova tabela de contingência risco-injúria (19×19. Através de uma análise por correspondência obtivemos uma estrutura composta por 3 eixos cuja combinação identifica 3 grupos separados de risco e injúria, que nós usamos como um perfil geral na Espanha. As mais prováveis ou frequentes relações entre risco e injúrias identificadas nesse perfil facilitaram o processo de decisão nas companhias em um estágio inicial de apreciação do risco. Cada grupo de risco-injúria tem suas próprias caracter

  2. Enhanced accident-tolerant fuel (EATF)

    The Fukushima accident provided a strong reminder that the exothermic reaction between zirconium and steam, and the attendant hydrogen generation, can significantly affect the course of a severe accident. Part of the response to the accident was increased interest in the extent to which the fuel itself can mitigate the consequences of a severe accident. Improved fuel alone is not sufficient to provide the desired increase in reactor safety, but it can provide an important contribution. With support from the US Department of Energy, AREVA has brought together a team that includes researchers (AREVA, Electric Power Research Institute, Savannah River National Laboratory, University of Florida, and University of Wisconsin), a fuel vendor (AREVA), and utilities (Duke Energy and Tennessee Valley Authority). The goal of the project is to develop new technologies that can be deployed in a lead assembly within ten years. The researchers have proposed a variety of approaches for improving the performance of the fuel, including new cladding and structural materials, fuel pellets with improved thermal characteristics, and coatings on the fuel rods. The expected performance of fuels that apply these technologies will be judged against the requirements of the vendor and utilities to determine those that are most promising for immediate development and those that may be suited for development in the future. The first review will consider the manufacturability of the proposed designs; the second will focus on performance. Materials that are suitable for immediate development will be considered for irradiation in a test reactor and subsequent use in lead assembly designs

  3. An approach to accidents modeling based on compounds road environments.

    Fernandes, Ana; Neves, Jose

    2013-04-01

    The most common approach to study the influence of certain road features on accidents has been the consideration of uniform road segments characterized by a unique feature. However, when an accident is related to the road infrastructure, its cause is usually not a single characteristic but rather a complex combination of several characteristics. The main objective of this paper is to describe a methodology developed in order to consider the road as a complete environment by using compound road environments, overcoming the limitations inherented in considering only uniform road segments. The methodology consists of: dividing a sample of roads into segments; grouping them into quite homogeneous road environments using cluster analysis; and identifying the influence of skid resistance and texture depth on road accidents in each environment by using generalized linear models. The application of this methodology is demonstrated for eight roads. Based on real data from accidents and road characteristics, three compound road environments were established where the pavement surface properties significantly influence the occurrence of accidents. Results have showed clearly that road environments where braking maneuvers are more common or those with small radii of curvature and high speeds require higher skid resistance and texture depth as an important contribution to the accident prevention. PMID:23376544

  4. Chernobyl reactor accident

    On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described

  5. The ultimate nuclear accident

    The estimated energy equivalent of Chernobyl explosion was the 1/150 th of the explosive energy equivalent of atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima; while the devastation that could be caused by the world's stock pile of nuclear weapons, could be equivalent to 160 millions of Chernobyl-like incidents. As known, the number of nuclear weapons is over 50,000 and 2000 nuclear weapons are sufficient to destroy the world. The Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been blamed on human factors but also the human element, particularly in the form of psychological stresses on those operating the nuclear weapons, could accidentally bring the world to a nuclear catastrophe. This opinion is encouraged by the London's Sunday Times magazine which gave a graphic description of life inside a nuclear submarine. So, to speak of nuclear reactor accidents and not of nuclear weapons is false security. (author)

  6. Nuclear ship accidents

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  7. Reactor accidents in perspective

    In each of the three major reactor accidents which have led to significant releases to the environment, and discussed in outline in this note, the reactor has been essentially destroyed - certainly Windscale and Chernobyl reactors will never operate and the cleanup operation for Three Mile Island is currently estimated to have cost in excess of US Pound 500 000 000. In each of the accidents there has not been any fatality off site in the short term and any long-term health detriment is unlikely to be seen in comparison with the natural cancer incidence rate. At Chernobyl, early fatalities did occur amongst those concerned with fighting the incident on site and late effects are to be expected. The assumption of a linear non-threshold risk, and hence no level of zero risk is the main problem in communication with the public, and the author calls for simplification of the presentation of the concepts of radiological protection. (U.K.)

  8. Acidentes e violências: caracterização dos atendimentos no pronto-socorro de um hospital universitário Accidents and violence: characteristics of the medical cares in the emergency room's university hospital

    José Luís Guedes dos Santos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo, de caráter exploratório-descritivo, tem como objetivo caracterizar os atendimentos por acidentes e violências realizados no pronto-socorro de um hospital universitário localizado no interior do Rio Grande do Sul (RS. Os dados foram obtidos a partir dos registros de um sistema de vigilância, denominado "Observatório de Acidentes e Violência", existente nos serviços de urgência e emergência no RS, que atuam como sentinela desses agravos. Os resultados mostraram que os adultos jovens, com baixo nível de instrução e não-trabalhadores são as principais vítimas de acidentes e violências. Quanto ao tipo de ocorrência, destacaram-se os acidentes de trânsito e acidentes domésticos, gerando como agravos mais constantes ferimentos na cabeça e fraturas de fêmur. Com relação ao sexo, embora para alguns tipos de acidentes e violências a predominância tenha variado entre eles, o conjunto dos dados mostrou maior vulnerabilidade masculina, em especial nos casos de violência interpessoal. Nesse sentido, as consequências dos acidentes e violências para o sistema de saúde e para a sociedade apontam a necessidade de aprimoramento dos sistemas de informações de morbimortalidade por causas externas, visando subsidiar políticas públicas de prevenção e melhoria no atendimento às vítimas.This article, of an exploratory-descriptive character, aims to characterize the medical care provided in cases of accidents and violence in the emergency room of a university hospital, located in the interior of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS. The data were obtained from the registers of a monitoring system called "Observatório de Acidentes e Violência" (Observatory of Accidents and Violence, which exists in the urgency and emergency services in RS and acts as a sentry of these injuries. The results showed that young adults who are non-workers and have low schooling are the main victims of accidents and violence. The most frequent

  9. The Chernobylsk reactor accident

    The construction, the safety philosophy, the major reactor physical parameters of RBMK-1000 type reactor units and the detailed description of the Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident, its causes and conclusions, the efforts to reduce the consequences on the reactor site and in the surroundings are discussed based on different types of Soviet documents including the report presented to the IAEA by the Soviet Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986. (V.N.)

  10. Ship accident studies

    This paper summarizes ship accident studies performed by George G. Sharp, Inc. for the U.S. Maritime Administration in connection with the Nuclear Ship Project. Casualties studied include fires/explosions, groundings and collisions for which a method for calculating probability on a specific route was developed jointly with the Babcock and Wilcox Co. Casualty data source was the Liverpool's Underwriters Association Casualty Returns

  11. Study on event sequence of loss-of-coolant accident of primary systems for MNPP based on ESD

    According to the characteristics of accident analysis of nuclear power plant, the combination method of event sequence diagram (ESD) and operational safety analysis is used to build the ESD model for loss-of-coolant accident of marine reactor primary system from the operational safety view. The accident evolution and results are studied and the entire event sequences are required. (authors)

  12. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

  13. Accident Monitoring Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    In the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the instrumentation provided for accident monitoring proved to be ineffective for a combination of reasons. The accident has highlighted the need to re-examine criteria for accident monitoring instrumentation. This publication covers all relevant aspects of accident monitoring in NPPs. The critical issues discussed reflect the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident, involve accident management and accident monitoring strategies for nuclear power plants, selection of plant parameters for monitoring plant status, establishment of performance, design, qualification, display, and quality assurance criteria for designated accident monitoring instrumentation, and design and implementation considerations. Technology needs and techniques for accident monitoring instrumentation are also addressed

  14. Accidents and human factors

    When the TMI accident occurred it was 4 a.m., an hour when the error potential of the operators would have been very high. The frequency of car and train accidents in Japan is also highest between 4 a.m. and 6 a.m. The error potential may be classified into five phases corresponding to the electroencephalogramic pattern (EEG). At phase 0, when the delta wave appears, a person is unconscious and in deep sleep; at phase I, when the theta wave appears, he is very tired, sleepy and subnormal; at phase II, when the alpha wave appears, he is normal, relaxed and passive; at phase III, when the beta wave appears, he is normal, clear-minded and active; at phase IV, when the strong beta or epileptic wave appears, he is hypernormal, excited and incapable of normal judgement. Should an accident occur at phase II, the brain condition may jump to phase IV. At this phase the error or accident potential is maximum. The response of the human brain to different types of noises and signals may vary somewhat for different individuals and for different groups of people. Therefore, the possibility that such differences in brain functions may influence the mental structure would be worthy of consideration in human factors and in the design of man-machine systems. Human reliability and performance would be affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it would be important to develop a theory by which both non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measure is considered a special case of fuzzy measure. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. To minimize human error and the possibility of accidents, new safety systems should not only back up man and make up for his

  15. Radiation accident/disaster

    Described are the course of medical measures following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) Accident after the quake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) and the future task for radiation accident/disaster. By the first hydrogen explosion in FNPP (Mar. 12), evacuation of residents within 20 km zone was instructed, and the primary base for measures of nuclear disaster (Off-site Center) 5 km afar from FNPP had to work as a front base because of damage of communicating ways, of saving of injured persons and of elevation of dose. On Mar. 13, the medical arrangement council consisting from stuff of Fukushima Medical University (FMU), National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Safety Research Association and Prefectural officers was setup in residents' hall of Fukushima City, and worked for correspondence to persons injured or exposed, where communication about radiation and between related organizations was still poor. The Off-site Center's head section moved to Prefectural Office on Mar. 15 as headquarters. Early in the period, all residents evacuated from the 20 km zone, and in-hospital patients and nursed elderly were transported with vehicles, >50 persons of whom reportedly died mainly by their base diseases. The nation system of medicare for emergent exposure had consisted from the network of the primary to third facilities; there were 5 facilities in the Prefecture, 3 of which were localized at 4-9 km distance from FNPP and closed early after the Accident; and the secondary facility of FMU became responsible to all exposed persons. There was no death of workers of FNPP. Medical stuff also measured the ambient dose at various places near FNPP, having had risk of exposure. At the Accident, the important system of command, control and communication was found fragile and measures hereafter should be planned on assumption of the worst scenario of complete damage of the infrastructure and communication. It is desirable for Disaster Medical Assistance Team which

  16. Systematic register of nuclear accidents

    The Systematic Register of Nuclear Accidents is a consolidation of important accidents occurred in the world during the period 1945-1984. Important accidents can be defined as those involving high radiation doses, which require the exposed individuals to undergo medical treatment. The organization and structuring of this register rests on the necessity for the availability of a database specifically oriented to researchers interested in studying the different nuclear accidents reported. Approximately 150 accidents in that period are presented in a summary form; these accidents had been described or reported in the scientific literature or made known through informal communications of Brazilian and foreign institutions and researchers. This register can be of interest particularly to all professionals who either directly of indirectly work in the area of nuclear or radioactive installations safety. In order to facilitate analysis by the researcher, that casuistic system was divided into 3 groups: criticality accidents (table I), fall-out on Marshall Islands (table II) and external irradiation accidents (table III). It is also included an overview of accidents in that period, indicating the total number of victims, fatal cases, and number of survivors. The author offers to the reader an extensive bibliography on the accidents described. (Author)

  17. Severe accident analysis methodology in support of accident management

    The author addresses the implementation at BELGATOM of a generic severe accident analysis methodology, which is intended to support strategic decisions and to provide quantitative information in support of severe accident management. The analysis methodology is based on a combination of severe accident code calculations, generic phenomenological information (experimental evidence from various test facilities regarding issues beyond present code capabilities) and detailed plant-specific technical information

  18. Accidents involving motorcyclists and cyclists in the municipality of São Paulo: characterization and trends☆☆☆

    Cintia Leci Rodrigues; Jane de Eston Armond; Carlos Gorios; Patricia Colombo Souza

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To describe the characteristics of motorcycle and bicycle accident victims, according to notifications of suspected and confirmed accidents that have occurred in the municipality of São Paulo.Method:This was a descriptive epidemiological study. It covered all accidents (12,924) that occurred involving motorcycles (11,366) and bicycles (1558) between January 2011 and October 2013. Data in the Health Department's information system for surveillance of violence and accidents (SIVVA) wa...

  19. [Comparative characteristic of some parameters of the surfactant pulmonary system in children-residents of radioactive contaminated territories and children born to participants of liquidation of Chernobyl accident consequences].

    Parkhomenko, V M; Kolpakov, I Ie; Briuzhina, T S; Shumeĭko, V M

    2008-01-01

    The study of lipid fat acid content in condensate of expired air with the help of the gas liquid chromatography revealed the increased sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in a large measure of increased content of arachidonic and linolic PUFA in children-residents of radioactive contaminated territories in comparison with children born by participants of liquidation of Chernobyl accident consequences. It is evidence of more active processes of lipid peroxidation and shift of the balance of fatty acids to the side of omega-6 family. PMID:19253733

  20. Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl

    The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author)

  1. Insomnia and accidents: cross-sectional study (EQUINOX) on sleep-related home, work and car accidents in 5293 subjects with insomnia from 10 countries.

    Léger, Damien; Bayon, Virginie; Ohayon, Maurice M; Philip, Pierre; Ement, Philippe; Metlaine, Arnaud; Chennaoui, Mounir; Faraut, Brice

    2014-04-01

    The link between sleepiness and the risk of motor vehicle accidents is well known, but little is understood regarding the risk of home, work and car accidents of subjects with insomnia. An international cross-sectional survey was conducted across 10 countries in a population of subjects with sleep disturbances. Primary care physicians administered a questionnaire that included assessment of sociodemographic characteristics, sleep disturbance and accidents (motor vehicle, work and home) related to sleep problems to each subject. Insomnia was defined using the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-10) criteria. A total of 5293 subjects were included in the study, of whom 20.9% reported having had at least one home accident within the past 12 months, 10.1% at least one work accident, 9% reported having fallen asleep while driving at least once and 4.1% reported having had at least one car accident related to their sleepiness. All types of accident were reported more commonly by subjects living in urban compared to other residential areas. Car accidents were reported more commonly by employed subjects, whereas home injuries were reported more frequently by the unemployed. Car accidents were reported more frequently by males than by females, whereas home accidents were reported more commonly by females. Patients with insomnia have high rates of home accidents, car accidents and work accidents related to sleep disturbances independently of any adverse effects of hypnotic treatments. Reduced total sleep time may be one factor explaining the high risk of accidents in individuals who complain of insomnia. PMID:24237855

  2. Containment building hydrogen control methods related to degraded core accidents

    Degraded core accident-related release of hydrogen under some circumstances may threaten the integrity of pressurized water reactor containment buildings. This report provides a preliminary survey of a spectrum of possible approaches which could be adopted to maintain containment building integrity under accident conditions which lead to the release of hydrogen. Particular attention is directed to large, dry containment of the Zion and Indian Point designs. For any such possible accident, there exists a sequence of time intervals characterizing the accident scenario. This report considers the generic features of these intervals and discusses the suitability of various approaches to hydrogen accident control as related to the characteristics of the interval during which they are applied. It was found that various options exist for hydrogen control strategies and that their usefulness depends on the particular accident scenarios to be considered. Of all the hydrogen control approaches considered, a strategy of continuous inerting of the containment building is the only one which clearly eliminates the combustion hazard, does not involve adverse environmental effects, and succeeds in a way that is independent of the accident scenario

  3. Accident management insights from IPE's

    In response to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Generic Letter 88-20, each utility in the U.S.A. has undertaken a probabilistic severe accident study of each plant. This paper provides a high level summary of the generic PWR accident management insights that have been obtained from the IPE reports. More importantly, the paper details some of the limitations of the IPE studies with respect to accident management. The IPE studies and the methodology used was designed to provide a best estimate of the potential for a severe accident and/or for severe consequences from a core damage accident. The accepted methodology employs a number of assumptions to make the objective attainable with a reasonable expenditure of resources. However, some of the assumptions represent limitations with respect to developing an accident management program based solely on the IPE and its results. (author)

  4. Accident management insights after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, that took place on 11 March 2011, initiated a significant number of activities at the national and international levels to reassess the safety of existing NPPs, evaluate the sufficiency of technical means and administrative measures available for emergency response, and develop recommendations for increasing the robustness of NPPs to withstand extreme external events and beyond design basis accidents. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is working closely with its member and partner countries to examine the causes of the accident and to identify lessons learnt with a view to the appropriate follow-up actions to be taken by the nuclear safety community. Accident management is a priority area of work for the NEA to address lessons being learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP following the recommendations of Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), and Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). Considering the importance of these issues, the CNRA authorised the formation of a task group on accident management (TGAM) in June 2012 to review the regulatory framework for accident management following the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The task group was requested to assess the NEA member countries needs and challenges in light of the accident from a regulatory point of view. The general objectives of the TGAM review were to consider: - enhancements of on-site accident management procedures and guidelines based on lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident; - decision-making and guiding principles in emergency situations; - guidance for instrumentation, equipment and supplies for addressing long-term aspects of accident management; - guidance and implementation when taking extreme measures for accident management. The report is built on the existing bases for capabilities to respond to design basis

  5. Accident management approach in Armenia

    In this lecture the accident management approach in Armenian NPP (ANPP) Unit 2 is described. List of BDBAs had been developed by OKB Gydropress in 1994. 13 accident sequences were included in this list. The relevant analyses had been performed in VNIIAES and the 'Guidelines on operator actions for beyond design basis accident (BDBA) management at ANPP Unit 2' had been prepared. These instructions are discussed

  6. Chernobyl reactor accident

    Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

  7. Evaluation Metrics Applied to Accident Tolerant Fuels

    The safe, reliable, and economic operation of the nation’s nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the United States’ nuclear industry. Continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels, remains central to the industry’s success. Decades of research combined with continual operation have produced steady advancements in technology and have yielded an extensive base of data, experience, and knowledge on light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance under both normal and accident conditions. One of the current missions of the US. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is to develop nuclear fuels and claddings with enhanced accident tolerance characteristics for use in the current fleet of commercial LWRs or in reactor concepts with design certifications (GEN-III+). LWR fuel with accident tolerant characteristics became a focus within advanced LWR research following the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex, and upon receiving direction from Congress. The overall goal of ATF development is to identify alternative fuel system technologies to further enhance the safety, competitiveness and economics of commercial nuclear power. Enhanced accident tolerant fuels would endure loss of active cooling in the reactor core for a considerably longer period of time than the current fuel system while maintaining or improving performance during normal operations. The US. DOE is supporting multiple teams to investigate a number of technologies that may improve fuel system response and behaviour in accident conditions, with team leadership provided by DOE national laboratories, universities, and the nuclear industry. Concepts under consideration offer both evolutionary and revolutionary changes to the current nuclear fuel system. Mature concepts will be tested in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National

  8. Serious accident in Peru

    A peruvian man, victim of an important accidental irradiation arrived on the Saturday twenty ninth of may 1999 to the centre of treatment of serious burns at the Percy military hospital (Clamart -France). The accident spent on the twentieth of February 1999, on the site of a hydroelectric power plant, in construction at 300 km at the East of Lima. The victim has picked up an industrial source of iridium devoted to gamma-graphy operations and put it in his back pocket; of trousers. The workman has serious radiation burns. (N.C.)

  9. The accident of Chernobyl

    RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

  10. Accident prevention programme

    This study by the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission was made within the context of the application by undertakings of the principles of accident and disease prevention previously adopted by the said Commission. It puts forward recommendations for the effective and gradual implementation of a programme of action on occupational health and safety in the various departments of an undertaking and in the undertaking as a whole. The methods proposed in this study are likely to be of interest to all undertakings in the metallurgical industry and other industrial sectors

  11. Psychological response of accident

    The psychological status of rescuers of consequences of Chernobyl[s accidents, having planned stationary examination and treatment of common somatic diseases, has been examined. THe age of men represented the study group was 35-54 years old. The results of medical-psychological examination showed the development in rescuers of common dysadaptation and stress state, characterized by depressive-hypochondriac state with high anxiety. The course of psychotherapeutic activities made possible to improve essentionally the psychological status of the patients. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. Reactor accident in Chernobyl

    The bibliography contains 1568 descriptions of papers devoted to Chernobylsk accident and recorded in ''INIS Atomindex'' to 30 June 1990. The descriptions were taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and are presented in accordance with volumes of this journal (chronology of recording). Therefore all descriptions have numbers showing first the number of volume and then the number of record. The bibliography has at the end the detailed subject index consisting of 465 main headings and a lot of qualifiers. Some of them are descriptors taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and some are key words taken from natural language. The index is in English as descriptions in the bibliography. (author)

  13. Improvement of Severe Accident Analysis Computer Code and Development of Accident Management Guidance for Heavy Water Reactor

    Park, Soo Yong; Kim, Ko Ryu; Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, See Darl; Song, Yong Mann; Choi, Young; Jin, Young Ho

    2005-03-15

    The objective of the project is to develop a generic severe accident management guidance(SAMG) applicable to Korean PHWR and the objective of this 3 year continued phase is to construct a base of the generic SAMG. Another objective is to improve a domestic computer code, ISAAC (Integrated Severe Accident Analysis code for CANDU), which still has many deficiencies to be improved in order to apply for the SAMG development. The scope and contents performed in this Phase-2 are as follows: The characteristics of major design and operation for the domestic Wolsong NPP are analyzed from the severe accident aspects. On the basis, preliminary strategies for SAM of PHWR are selected. The information needed for SAM and the methods to get that information are analyzed. Both the individual strategies applicable for accident mitigation under PHWR severe accident conditions and the technical background for those strategies are developed. A new version of ISAAC 2.0 has been developed after analyzing and modifying the existing models of ISAAC 1.0. The general SAMG applicable for PHWRs confirms severe accident management techniques for emergencies, provides the base technique to develop the plant specific SAMG by utility company and finally contributes to the public safety enhancement as a NPP safety assuring step. The ISAAC code will be used inevitably for the PSA, living PSA, severe accident analysis, SAM program development and operator training in PHWR.

  14. CAMS: Computerized Accident Management Support

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project has initiated a new research programme on computerised accident management support, the so-called CAMS project (CAMS = Computerized Accident Management Support). This work will investigate the possibilities for developing systems which provide more extensive support to the control room staff and technical support centre than the existing SPDS (Safety Parameter Display System) type of systems. The CAMS project will utilize available simulator codes and the capabilities of computerized tools to assist the plant staff during the various accident stages including: identification of the accident state, assessment of the future development of the accident, and planning accident mitigation strategies. This research programme aims at establishing a prototype system which can be used for experimental testing of the concept and serve as a tool for training and education in accident management. The CAMS prototype should provide support to the staff when the plant is in a normal state, in a disturbance sate, and in an accident state. Even though better support in an accident state is the main goal of the project, it is felt to be important that the staff is familiar with the use of the system during normal operation, when they utilize the system during transients

  15. Iodine releases from reactor accidents

    The airborne releases of iodine from water reactor accidents are small fractions of the available iodine and occur only slowly. However, in reactor accidents in which water is absent, the release of iodine to the environment can be large and rapid. These differences in release fraction and rate are related to the chemical states attained by iodine under the accident conditions. It is clear that neither rapid issue of blocking KI nor rapid evacuation of the surrounding population is required to protect the public from the radioiodine released in the event of a major water reactor accident

  16. Guidance on accidents involving radioactivity

    This annex contains advice to Health Authorities on their response to accidents involving radioactivity. The guidance is in six parts:-(1) planning the response required to nuclear accidents overseas, (2) planning the response required to UK nuclear accidents a) emergency plans for nuclear installations b) nuclear powered satellites, (3) the handling of casualties contaminated with radioactive substances, (4) background information for dealing with queries from the public in the event of an accident, (5) the national arrangements for incident involving radioactivity (NAIR), (6) administrative arrangements. (author)

  17. Effectiveness of electronic stability control on single-vehicle accidents

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2015-01-01

    characteristics. Results: The present study calculated the crude odds ratio for ESC-equipped cars of getting in a single-vehicle injury accident as 0.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.47) and the adjusted odds ratio as 0.69 (95% CI, 0.54-0.88). No difference was found in the effectiveness of ESC across the......Objective: This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of electronic stability control (ESC) on single-vehicle injury accidents while controlling for a number of confounders influencing the accident risk. Methods: Using police-registered injury accidents from 2004 to 2011 in Denmark with cars...... manufactured in the period 1998 to 2011 and the principle of induced exposure, 2 measures of the effectiveness of ESC were calculated: The crude odds ratio and the adjusted odds ratio, the latter by means of logistic regression. The logistic regression controlled for a number of confounding factors, of which...

  18. Research on problems in nuclear accident emergency rescue for nuclear power submarine

    This paper presents a description of nuclearpowered submarine accident types and an analysis of accident emergency rescue characteristics, including a special number of problems associated with emergencyrescue, such as emergency situation and emergency planning zone, technical rescue resources and task, protection against compound radiation inside and outside port plume zone, on-sea nuclear rescue equipment and technical assurance capacity, and other problesms related to in-accident nuclear submarine disposal. (authors)

  19. Accidents with venomous and poisonous animals: their impact on occupational health in Colombia

    Juan P. Gómez C

    2011-01-01

    Venomous or poisonous animals are a very common cause of accidents in Colombia. Such accidents occur due to vertebrates such as snakes and fish or invertebrates such as scorpions, spiders, bees, etc. The most affected individuals are young people ages 15 to 45. They are mainly farmers and fishermen. These events can be considered work accidents given their characteristics. Nevertheless, the occupational risk insurance companies, the central Colombian government, and the regional, departmental...

  20. Radiation accident grips Goiania

    On 13 September two young scavengers in Goiania, Brazil, removed a stainless steel cylinder from a cancer therapy machine in an abandoned clinic, touching off a radiation accident second only to Chernobyl in its severity. On 18 September they sold the cylinder, the size of a 1-gallon paint can, to a scrap dealer for $25. At the junk yard an employee dismantled the cylinder and pried open the platinum capsule inside to reveal a glowing blue salt-like substance - 1400 curies of cesium-137. Fascinated by the luminescent powder, several people took it home with them. Some children reportedly rubbed in on their bodies like carnival glitter - an eerie image of how wrong things can go when vigilance over radioactive materials lapses. In all, 244 people in Goiania, a city of 1 million in central Brazil, were contaminated. The eventual toll, in terms of cancer or genetic defects, cannot yet be estimated. Parts of the city are cordoned off as radiation teams continue washing down buildings and scooping up radioactive soil. The government is also grappling with the political fallout from the accident

  1. Serious reactor accidents reconsidered

    The chance is determined for damage of the reactor core and that sequel events will cause excursion of radioactive materials into the environment. The gravity of such an accident is expressed by the source term. It appears that the chance for such an accident varies with the source term. In general it is valid that how larger the source term how smaller the chance is for it and vice versa. The chance for excursion is related to two complexes of events: serious damage (meltdown) of the reactor core, and the escape of the liberated radionuclides into the environment. The results are an order of magnitude consideration of the relation between the extent of the source term and the chance for it. From the spectrum of possible source terms three representative ones have been chosen: a large, a medium and a relative small source term. This choice is in accordance with international considerations. The hearth of this study is the estimation of the chance for occurrence of the three chosen source terms for new light-water reactors. refs.; figs.; tabs

  2. Investigation of epidemic characteristics and emergency nursing on patients suffered from traffic accidents%交通事故伤害患者流行病学特点及急救护理的调查研究

    唐灵芝; 陈由珠; 李云燕

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解交通伤患者的性别、年龄、受伤部位、车祸发生的时间等特征,为临床救护提供依据.方法 以2005年6月至2007年6月收治的2 955例交通事故伤害的急诊患者为研究对象,进行回顾性、描述性统计分析.结果 交通伤比例高的时间段为5~11月、双休日、每年3个长假,1 d内以11:00~13:00、16:00~19:00为多.交通伤患者男多于女,年龄以16~35岁的青年最多,伤害部位以头面部和四肢为主,需立即实施抢救措施者945例.结论 应加强节假日、双休日、中晚班急诊护理人员的配备,保证有足够的人力参与抢救;同时应加强护士急救意识、各种穿刺能力、抢救技能以及应急应变能力训练,进一步规范交通伤的救治.%Objective To understand the sex,age,injured portion,time of accident on patients suf-fered from traffic accidents in order to provide evidences for clinical emergency rescue.Methods For retrospective analysis and descriptive statistics,2955 patients who suffered from traffic accidents between Jun 2005 and Jun 2007 were as study objects.Results The periods with high traffic wounds were in May to September,weekends,three long holidays.Among a day,accidents happened more in 11Am to 13Pro,16Pm to 19Pm.Male patients were more than females.16 to 35 year old young people were at most.Injured portions were mainly in head,face and four limbs.945 patients needed emergency rescue immediately.Conclusion In order to have sufficient poople to take part in rescues,emergency nurses for holidays,weekends,mid and night duties should be prepared in-creasingly.Meanwhile,nurses'emergency consciousness,various kinds puncture techniques,rescuing and strin-gency skills should be strengthened.Remedy for traffic wounds should be further specified.

  3. Expert software for accident identification

    Each type of an accident in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) causes immediately after the start of the accident variations of physical parameters that are typical for that type of the accident thus enabling its identification. Examples of these parameter are: decrease of reactor coolant system pressure, increase of radiation level in the containment, increase of pressure in the containment. An expert software enabling a fast preliminary identification of the type of the accident in Krsko NPP has been developed. As input data selected typical parameters from Emergency Response Data System (ERDS) of the Krsko NPP are used. Based on these parameters the expert software identifies the type of the accident and also provides the user with appropriate references (past analyses and other documentation of such an accident). The expert software is to be used as a support tool by an expert team that forms in case of an emergency at Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) with the task to determine the cause of the accident, its most probable scenario and the source term. The expert software should provide initial identification of the event, while the final one is still to be made after appropriate assessment of the event by the expert group considering possibility of non-typical events, multiple causes, initial conditions, influences of operators' actions etc. The expert software can be also used as an educational/training tool and even as a simple database of available accident analyses. (author)

  4. Health Problems in Radiation Accidents

    The authors define a radiation accident as a situation which has led or could have led to the unexpected irradiation of persons or contamination of the environment over and above the levels accepted as safe. Several categories of accidents are distinguished as a function of the consequences to be expected. The suggested system of classifying accidents makes it possible to plan post-accident measures within a single system of 'concentric circles', taking into account at the same time whether it will be possible to carry out the post-accident measures unaided or whether it will be necessary to bring in additional manpower and resources from outside. The authors consider the possibility of countering the effects of accidents as a function of their nature, with reference to the biological, economic and psychological aspects. They evaluate the part played by the health service in planning and carrying out accident prevention measures, and consider the function of radiological units attached to epidemiological health stations ; these units are essentially centres providing for precautionary measures to avert accidents and action to counter their effects. (author)

  5. Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena

    This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

  6. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    Frid, W.; Højerup, C.F.; Lindholm, I.;

    2001-01-01

    Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies, the ...

  7. The Chernobyl accident. Appendix B

    In appendix B, the models introduced in chapter 6 are applied to the study of the Chernobyl accident. This event is very important in the teaching of nuclear engineering, and I have included in this Appendix a relatively detailed description of the accident. However, the analysis is limited to the physics of the relevant phenomena. (author)

  8. Preventing accidents at intake towers

    Villegas, F. (INTEGRAL S.A., Medellin, CO (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Strong air blow-outs occurring in the intake tower of Guatape Hydroelectric Power Plant in Colombia have caused two serious accidents recently. The causes of the accidents were investigated and recommendations are made here to prevent future repetitions of these dangerous events. (UK)

  9. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    Hansen, H; Nielsen, D; Frydenberg, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be initiated.

  10. Probability of spent fuel transportation accidents

    McClure, J. D.

    1981-07-01

    The transported volume of spent fuel, incident/accident experience and accident environment probabilities were reviewed in order to provide an estimate of spent fuel accident probabilities. In particular, the accident review assessed the accident experience for large casks of the type that could transport spent (irradiated) nuclear fuel. This review determined that since 1971, the beginning of official US Department of Transportation record keeping for accidents/incidents, there has been one spent fuel transportation accident. This information, coupled with estimated annual shipping volumes for spent fuel, indicated an estimated annual probability of a spent fuel transport accident of 5 x 10/sup -7/ spent fuel accidents per mile. This is consistent with ordinary truck accident rates. A comparison of accident environments and regulatory test environments suggests that the probability of truck accidents exceeding regulatory test for impact is approximately 10/sup -9//mile.

  11. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...... occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA...... method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents...

  12. Severe accidents, a US approach

    The attitude of the American nuclear industry and the regulatory authorities in the United States toward severe accidents has often seemed ambivalent. It was common a few years ago to assume the position that severe accidents should not be included in the design basis of the plant. This view was associated with the concept of the maximum credible accident. A severe accident that would lead to a large release of fission products from the reactor core was simply regarded as having so low a likelihood as not to be credible. That does not mean that it had a zero probability of occurring. Because of the way the plant was designed, built, and operated, severe accidents were regarded as having a low enough probability that no further special measures were necessary regarding them. (author)

  13. Severe accident management. Prevention and Mitigation

    Effective planning for the management of severe accidents at nuclear power plants can produce both a reduction in the frequency of such accidents as well as the ability to mitigate their consequences if and when they should occur. This report provides an overview of accident management activities in OECD countries. It also presents the conclusions of a group of international experts regarding the development of accident management methods, the integration of accident management planning into reactor operations, and the benefits of accident management

  14. Occupational Radiation Protection in Severe Accident Management

    protection job coverage during severe accident response. The IAEA defines a 'Severe Accident' as a beyond design basis accident comprising of accident conditions more severe than a design basis accident, involving significant core degradation. Preparation of the report The expert group met several times to share their experience and develop an interim (preliminary) report by the end of 2013. The content of the report is thus based on current reflections and action plans undertaken by the ISOE participating utilities and regulatory authorities to improve the emergency response plans in the event of a severe nuclear accident from the point of view of occupational radiation protection. A specific attention has been given to the analysis of past nuclear accidents (TMI-2, USA-1979; Chernobyl, USSR-1986 and Fukushima Daiichi, Japan-2011) and to the integration of the occupational radiation protection (ORP) lessons learned from these accidents into the various chapters of the report (See synthesis of these lessons learned in Appendix-1). To finalize the report, an international workshop was organized in 2014 to present and discuss the content of the interim version and share national experiences on best occupational RP management practices and protocols for optimum RP job coverage during severe accident, initial response and recovery efforts (see Appendix-2). The workshop notably allowed to improve and complete the report which has then be submitted to the ISOE Management Board for approval. This report comprises five main chapters. Chapter 2 provides essential information on radiation protection management and organisation. Chapter 3 establishes the goal of radiation protection training and exercises related to severe accident management. Chapter 4 discusses facility characteristics that must be considered when planning actions in response to a severe accident. Chapter 5 introduces an overall approach for the protection of workers / responders with its interpretation and

  15. Accidents, probabilities and consequences

    Following brief discussion of the safety of wind-driven power plants and solar power plants, some aspects of the safety of fast breeder and thermonuclear power plants are presented. It is pointed out that no safety evaluation of breeders comparable to the Rasmussen investigation has been carried out and that discussion of the safety aspects of thermonuclear power is only just begun. Finally, as an illustration of the varying interpretations of risk and safety analyses, four examples are given of predicted probabilities and consequences in Copenhagen of the maximum credible accident at the Barsebaeck plant, under the most unfavourable meterological conditions. These are made by the Environment Commission, Risoe Research Establishment, REO (a pro-nuclear group) and OOA (an anti-nuclear group), and vary by a factor of over 1000. (JIW)

  16. The Fukushima accident

    The accident happened on March 11, 2011 in the nuclear reactors at the Fukushima plant, Japan, is described. The reactors of the Fukushima plant have been power reactors. The electrical energy is produced by use of the heat released in the fission. Nuclear reactors were affected after of the power outage as a result of the earthquake and the tsunami, and this has kept in operation the refrigeration systems. The japanese reactors have been fission reactors and have used uranium 235 or plutonium 239 as fissionable material. The nuclear reactions of fission are explained. The control of the nuclear reactions at Fukushima was complicated by the decreased of the neutrons absorption and has produced more reactions, generating great amounts of heat. The steam contaminated with the products of fission is produced by to cool the reactor with water. The fissionable material released is dragged until the atmosphere. Radioactive contamination at sites near the reactor was covered in a zone of exclusion with a radius of 30 km. The effects of radioactive contamination in the zone of exclusion are mentioned. The radioactive material from Japan has traveled with the wind in direction toward the north pole. The radioactive cloud has continued until to reach the north Africa and south of Europe. The cloud has approximated to Costa Rica, but the activity of the material found has been less of 0,01 Bq/m3. The Centro de Investigacion en Ciencias Atomicas, Nucleares y Moleculares (Cicanum) has initiated the collection of soil samples, water and earth products to detect part of the radioactive material from the cloud. The Cicanum has had modern equipments to quantify the specific concentrations of radioactive isotope, alpha emitters, beta and gamma, in food, water and milk. The Cicanum has maintained the radiological surveillance of foods after the Chernobyl accident

  17. Emergency response to a nuclear facility accident: preplanning and preparedness by off-site organizations

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction ('defence-in-depth' concept); accident assessment (prompt notification of off-site authorities); time factors associated with accidents leading to radiological releases off-site; radiological characteristics of releases; emergency communications; an adequate planning basis; training. (U.K.)

  18. Burns in the domestic environment: characteristics and circumstances of accidents Quemaduras en ambiente doméstico: características y circunstancias del accidente Queimaduras em ambiente doméstico: características e circunstâncias do acidente

    Tatiane Meda Vendrusculo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes burn accidents in the domestic environment and identifies the circumstances of accidents affecting children, adults or elderly people who need supervision or care. Demographic data and burn characteristics of 61 domestic environment burn victims were collected. The family members of 13 children and one aged adult, who needed supervision or special care, were selected to answer a semi-structured interview. Two thematic groups were identified: social and environmental factors that might have contributed to the burn accidents and circumstances involving the accidents. Risk factors were: low socioeconomic and educational levels of mothers and those responsible for the children at the moment of the accident, small houses considering the number of occupants and unsafe kitchen equipment. Although cases of domestic violence were not identified there was neglect from caregivers. Health professionals should be attentive and investigate the circumstances of accidents involving vulnerable individuals.Este estudio tuvo como objetivos caracterizar los accidentes por quemaduras, ocurridos en ambiente doméstico, e identificar las circunstancias de esos accidentes cuando afectaron niños, adultos o ancianos que necesitaban de supervisión. Fueron recolectados datos demográficos y sobre el trauma de 61 víctimas de quemaduras en ambiente doméstico. De esas, 13 niños y un anciano, con necesidad de supervisión o cuidado especial, tuvieron los familiares seleccionados para entrevista semiestructurada. Fueron identificados dos núcleos temáticos: factores que pueden haber contribuido para la ocurrencia de accidentes por quemaduras: sociales y ambientales y, circunstancias que envolvieron el accidente. Los factores de riesgo fueron: bajo nivel socioeconómico y de instrucción de las madres responsables por el niño en el momento del accidente, habitaciones pequeñas para el número de residentes, y, equipamientos de cocina precarios. No

  19. Congestion by accident? Traffic and accidents in England

    Pasidis, Ilias-Nikiforos

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is the estimation of the effect of accidents on traffic congestion and vice versa. In order to do this, I use ?big data? of highway traffic and accidents in England for the period 2007-2013. The data exhibit some remarkably stable cyclical pattern of highway traffic which is used as a research setting that enables the identification of the causal effect of accidents on traffic congestion and vice versa. The estimation draws on panel data methods that have previously bee...

  20. Cooperation in the Event of Nuclear Accidents

    This paper is concerned only with the action to be taken in respect of an individual directly affected by an accident and not with the more general measures relating to the population as a whole. Keeping the same sequence of ideas, the paper deals with nuclear establishments and cites criteria for classifying them; hence only the relationship between the establishment and the hospital, and between the radiation protection experts and medical personnel, is discussed. The complex organization of emergency measures, reception of the victim of the accident, and the treatment possibly required should be based on standard practice and published material, both national and international, allowance being made for the characteristics of each sector. A ''flexible'' plan of co-ordination is given as an illustration. Action must be taken in such cases at the site of the accident, inside and outside the establishment, and above all at the hospital. All categories of persons are involved in the process, i.e. fellow-workers, management, specialized services, and medical personnel, each with their own part to play. The manpower and equipment brought into service therefore vary, and depend upon the internal and external relations maintained by the establishment. The measures envisaged should provide for the transport, reception and treatment of those involved in the accident. An existing organization of this kind is described as an illustration. Finally, no action can be of value without full knowledge of the facts and thorough training of the personnel. Some clearly defined ideas on the.subject are considered under this heading. (author)

  1. Traffic accidents involving fatigue driving and their extent of casualties.

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Zhang, Xun; Li, Yanyan

    2016-02-01

    The rapid progress of motorization has increased the number of traffic-related casualties. Although fatigue driving is a major cause of traffic accidents, the public remains not rather aware of its potential harmfulness. Fatigue driving has been termed as a "silent killer." Thus, a thorough study of traffic accidents and the risk factors associated with fatigue-related casualties is of utmost importance. In this study, we analyze traffic accident data for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. The study data were extracted from the traffic accident database of China's Public Security Department. A logistic regression model is used to assess the effect of driver characteristics, type of vehicles, road conditions, and environmental factors on fatigue-related traffic accident occurrence and severity. On the one hand, male drivers, trucks, driving during midnight to dawn, and morning rush hours are identified as risk factors of fatigue-related crashes but do not necessarily result in severe casualties. Driving at night without street-lights contributes to fatigue-related crashes and severe casualties. On the other hand, while factors such as less experienced drivers, unsafe vehicle status, slippery roads, driving at night with street-lights, and weekends do not have significant effect on fatigue-related crashes, yet accidents associated with these factors are likely to have severe casualties. The empirical results of the present study have important policy implications on the reduction of fatigue-related crashes as well as their severity. PMID:26625173

  2. Statistical inference of the nuclear accidents occurrence number for the next decade

    This paper aims to give a response using the classical statistical and bayesian inference techniques regarding the common characteristic in the Harrisburg and Chernobyl nuclear accidents: in both reactors, core fusion occurred. In relation to the last mentioned techniques, the most recent developments were applied, based on the decision theory of uncertainty; among others, the principle of maximum entropy. Besides, as a preliminar information on the accidents occurrence frequency with core fusion, the German risk analysis results were used. The estimations predicted for the next decade an average between one or two accidents with core fusion and low possibilities for the 'no accident' event in the same period. (Author)

  3. Individual feature identification method for nuclear accident emergency decision-making

    According to the individual feature identification method and combining with the characteristics of nuclear accident emergency decision-making, the evaluation index system of the nuclear accident emergency decision-making was determined on the basis of investigation and analysis. The effectiveness of the nuclear accident emergency decision-making was evaluated based on the individual standards by solving the individual features of the individual standard identification decisions. The case study shows that the optimization result is reasonable, objective and reliable, and it can provide an effective analysis method and decision-making support for optimization of nuclear accident emergency protective measures. (authors)

  4. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning

    Research highlights: → Lightning impact caused relevant industrial accidents. → Atmospheric storage tanks are the equipment item more susceptible to lightning damage. → Specific damage and release modes may be identified for lightning damage. Specific event trees should be adopted for the identification of post-release final scenarios characterizing lightning-induced major accidents. - Abstract: Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents.

  5. International aspects of nuclear accidents

    The accident at Chernobyl revealed that there were shortcomings and gaps in the existing international mechanisms and brought home to governments the need for stronger measures to provide better protection against the risks of severe accidents. The main thrust of international co-operation with regard to nuclear safety issues is aimed at achieving a uniformly high level of safety in nuclear power plants through continuous exchanges of research findings and feedback from reactor operating experience. The second type of problem posed in the event of an accident resulting in radioactive contamination of several countries relates to the obligation to notify details of the circumstances and nature of the accident speedily so that the countries affected can take appropriate protective measures and, if necessary, organize mutual assistance. Giving the public accurate information is also an important aspect of managing an emergency situation arising from a severe accident. Finally, the confusion resulting from the unwarranted variety of protective measures implemented after the Chernobyl accident has highlighted the need for international harmonization of the principles and scientific criteria applicable to the protection of the public in the event of an accident and for a more consistent approach to emergency plans. The international conventions on third party liability in the nuclear energy sector (Paris/Brussels Conventions and the Vienna Convention) provide for compensation for damage caused by nuclear accidents in accordance with the rules and jurisdiction that they lay down. These provisions impose obligations on the operator responsible for an accident, and the State where the nuclear facility is located, towards the victims of damage caused in another country

  6. Role of the man-machine interface in accident management strategies

    First, this paper gives a short general review on important safety issues in the field of man-machine interaction as expressed by important nuclear safety organisations. Then follows a summary discussion on what constitutes a modern Man-Machine Interface (MMI) and what is normally meant with accident management and accident management strategies. Furthermore, the paper focuses on three major issues in the context of accident management. First, the need for reliable information in accidents and how this can be obtained by additional computer technology. Second, the use of procedures is discussed, and basic MMI aspects of computer support for procedure presentation are identified followed by a presentation of a new approach on how to computerise procedures. Third, typical information needs for characteristic end-users in accidents, such as the control room operators, technical support staff and plant emergency teams, is discussed. Some ideas on how to apply virtual reality technology in accident management is also presented

  7. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  8. Accident response in France

    French PWR power plant design relies basically on a deterministic approach. A probabilistic approach was introduced in France in the early seventies to define safety provisions against external impacts. In 1977 an overall safety objective was issued by the safety authority in terms of an upper probability limit for having unacceptable consequences. Additional measures were taken (the ''H'' operating procedures) to complement the automatic systems normally provided by the initial design, so as to safisfy the safety objective. The TMI-2 accident enhanced the interest in confused situations in which possible multiple equipment failure and/or unappropriate previous actions of the operators impede the implementation of any of the existing event-oriented procedures. In such situations, the objective becomes to avoid core-melt by any means available: this is the goal of the Ul symptom-oriented procedure. Whenever a core-melt occurs, the radioactive releases into the environment must be compatible with the feasibility of the off-site emergency plans; that means that for some hypothetical, but still conceivable scenarios, provisions have to be made to delay and limit the consequences of the loss of the containment: the U2, U4 and U5 ultimate procedures have been elaborated for that purpose. For the case of an emergency, a nationwide organization has been set up to provide the plant operator with a redundant technical expertise, to help him save his plant or mitigate the radiological consequences of a core-melt

  9. Preparedness against nuclear power accidents

    This booklet contains information about the organization against nuclear power accidents, which exist in the four Swedish counties with nuclear power plants. It is aimed at classes 7-9 of the Swedish schools. (L.E.)

  10. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  11. The management of radioactive waste from accidents

    Two accident case histories are reviewed - the Three Mile Island (TMI-2) reactor accident in 1979 and the Seveso accident in 1976. The status of the decontamination and radioactive waste management operations at TMI-2 as at 1986 is presented. 1986 estimates of reactor accident and recovery costs are given. 12 refs., 8 tabs

  12. 29 CFR 1960.29 - Accident investigation.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accident investigation. 1960.29 Section 1960.29 Labor... MATTERS Inspection and Abatement § 1960.29 Accident investigation. (a) While all accidents should be investigated, including accidents involving property damage only, the extent of such investigation shall...

  13. 49 CFR 195.54 - Accident reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 195.54 Section 195.54... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.54 Accident reports. (a) Each operator that experiences an accident that is required to be reported under § 195.50 shall as soon...

  14. 49 CFR 801.32 - Accident reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 801.32 Section 801.32... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Accident Investigation Records § 801.32 Accident reports. (a) The NTSB....S. civil transportation accidents, in accordance with 49 U.S.C. 1131(e). (b) These reports may...

  15. The measurement of accident-proneness

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the measurement of accident-proneness. Accidents seem easy to observe, however accident-proneness is difficult to measure. In this paper I first define the concept of accident-proneness, and I develop an instrument to measure it. The research is mainly executed within chemical

  16. 49 CFR 230.22 - Accident reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 230.22 Section 230.22... Requirements § 230.22 Accident reports. In the case of an accident due to failure, from any cause, of a steam... persons, the railroad on whose line the accident occurred shall immediately make a telephone report of...

  17. 49 CFR 845.40 - Accident report.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident report. 845.40 Section 845.40... RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRANSPORTATION; ACCIDENT/INCIDENT HEARINGS AND REPORTS Board Reports § 845.40 Accident report. (a) The Board will issue a detailed narrative accident report in connection with...

  18. Nuclear laws and radiologic accidents

    Some aspects of the nuclear activities in Brazil, specially concerning the Goiania s accident are demonstrated using concepts from environmental and nuclear law. Nuclear and environmental competence, the impossibility of the states of making regional laws, as the lack of regulation about the nuclear waste, are discussed. The situation of Goiania when the accident happened, the present situation of the victims and the nuclear waste provisionally stored in Abadia de Goias is reported

  19. Iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents

    These proceedings of the Joint WHO/CEC workshop on iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents are presented under the following headings: normal thyroid function and the response to iodine, theoretical basis for stable iodine prophylaxis, risks and benefits of stable iodine prophylaxis, indications for the use of stable iodine, recommendations and rationale for the use of stable iodine prophylaxis in event of future accidents. (UK)

  20. Nuclear accident countermeasures: iodine prophylaxis

    In January 1989 the Department of Health convened a working group to consider and advise on the indications for the use of stable iodine, in the United Kingdom, in the event of nuclear accident. In formulating its advice the working group was to consider the International Guidelines for Iodine Prophylaxis following Nuclear Accidents, drawn by the World Health Organisation, and their applicability to the UK. This report summarises the findings of the working group and gives its conclusions and recommendations. (author)

  1. RETRAC, Reactor Core Accident Simulation

    1 - Description of program or function: The RETRAC code uses a set of coupled neutron point-kinetics equations and thermal-hydraulic conservation laws to simulate nuclear reactor core behaviour under transient or accident conditions. The reactor core is represented by single equivalent unit cells composed of three regions: fuel, clad, and moderator (coolant). 2 - Method of solution: At each time step, core thermal power is calculated by solving a set of six delayed neutron group kinetics equations with adjusted reactivity feedbacks. The numerical resolution is performed by using the Runge-Kutta-Gill method. The externally inserted reactivity is specified in the input data file, whereas Doppler, fuel, clad, and water temperature reactivity feedbacks are calculated by the code itself. Core cooling is treated as a homogeneous one-dimensional fluid flow through a representative unit cell composed of three successive regions: fuel, clad, and coolant. Several flow regime models are considered for both single- and two-phase states of the coolant. The conservation laws are solved by the method of characteristics coupled with an implicit finite difference scheme to ensure stability and convergence of the numerical algorithm. Validation tests of the RETRAC code were performed by using the International Atomic Energy Agency 10-MW benchmark cores, for protected transients. Further assessment studies are in progress using experimental data. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The RETRAC code uses steady-state thermal-hydraulic correlations. Their use is not always justified, but it seems to be quite useful in quasi-steady cases such as as loss-of-flow transients

  2. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH

  3. CARNSORE: Hypothetical reactor accident study

    Two types of design-basis accident and a series of hypothetical core-melt accidents to a 600 MWe reactor are described and their consequences assessed. The PLUCON 2 model was used to calculate the consequences which are presented in terms of individual and collective doses, as well as early and late health consequences. The site proposed for the nucelar power station is Carnsore Point, County Wexford, south-east Ireland. The release fractions for the accidents described are those given in WASH-1400. The analyses are based on the resident population as given in the 1979 census and on 20 years of data from the meteorological stations at Rosslare Harbour, 8.5 km north of the site. The consequences of one of the hypothetical core-melt accidents are described in detail in a meteorological parametric study. Likewise the consequences of the worst conceivable combination of situations are described. Finally, the release fraction in one accident is varied and the consequences of a proposed, more probable ''Class 9 accident'' are presented. (author)

  4. The vver severe accident management

    The basic approach to the VVER safety management is based on the defence-in-depth principle the main idea of which is the multiplicity of physical barriers on the way of dangerous propagation on the one hand and the diversity of measures to protect each of them on the other hand. The main events of severe accident with loss of core cooling at NPP with WWER can be represented as a sequence of NPP states, in which each subsequent state is more severe than the previous one. The following sequence of states of the accident progression is supposed to be realistic and the most probable: -) loss of efficient core cooling; -) core melting, relocation of the molten core to the lower head and molten pool formation, -) reactor vessel damage, and -) containment damage and fission products release. The objectives of accident management at the design basis stage, the determining factors and appropriate determining parameters of processes are formulated in this paper. The same approach is used for the estimation of processes parameters at beyond design basis accident progression. The accident management goals and the determining factors and parameters are also listed in that case which is characterized by the loss of integrity of the fuel cladding. The accident management goal at the stage of core melt relocation implies the need for an efficient core-catcher

  5. JAERI's activities in JCO accident

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was actively involved in a variety of technical supports and cooperative activities, such as advice on terminating the criticality condition, contamination checks of the residents and consultation services for the residents, as emergency response actions to the criticality accident at the uranium processing facility operated by the JCO Co. Ltd., which occurred on September 30, 1999. These activities were carried out in collaborative ways by the JAERI staff from the Tokai Research Establishment, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Oarai Research Establishment, and Headquarter Office in Tokyo. As well, the JAERI was engaged in the post-accident activities such as identification of accident causes, analyses of the criticality accident, and dose assessment of exposed residents, to support the Headquarter for Accident Countermeasures of the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Accident Investigation Committee and the Health Control Committee of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC). This report compiles the activities, that the JAERI has conducted to date, including the discussions on measures for terminating the criticality condition, evaluation of the fission number, radiation monitoring in the environment, dose assessment, analyses of criticality dynamics. (author)

  6. Accident sequence quantification of phased mission systems using Markov approach

    A Markov approach to incorporate a phased mission analysis into an accident sequence quantification is developed in this study. The Markov approach describes more accurately the dynamic characteristics of phased mission systems, dependency among various phases, and repair of failed components than a cut set approach. For comparison, an accurate cut set approach to quantify the accident sequences is also presented in this study. The results show that it is desirable to use the Markov approach in phased missions systems with large failure rates of components or long mission time intervals. Furthermore, the Markov approach is not constrained by the magnitudes of failure rates or mission time intervals. (author)

  7. Radiological accidents: education for prevention and confrontation

    The purpose of this work is to train and inform on radiological accidents as a preventive measure to improve the people life quality. Radiological accidents are part of the events of technological origin which are composed of nuclear and radiological accidents. As a notable figure is determined that there have been 423 radiological accidents from 1944 to 2005 and among the causes prevail industrial accidents, by irradiations, medical accidents and of laboratories, among others. Latin American countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Peru are some where most accidents have occurred by radioactivity. The radiological accidents can have sociological, environmental, economic, social and political consequences. In addition, there are scenarios of potential nuclear accidents and in them the potential human consequences. Also, the importance of the organization and planning in a nuclear emergency is highlighted. Finally, the experience that Cuba has lived on the subject of radiological accidents is described

  8. Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees

    Hakobyan, Aram P.

    In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a

  9. Accident Tolerant Fuel Analysis

    Curtis Smith; Heather Chichester; Jesse Johns; Melissa Teague; Michael Tonks; Robert Youngblood

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional “accident-tolerant” (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  10. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather [Idaho National Laboratory; Johns, Jesse [Texas A& M University; Teague, Melissa [Idaho National Laboratory; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant

  11. Research on the management of the wastes from plant accidents

    The accident in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant released large amount of radio-nuclides and contaminated wide areas within and out of the site. The decontamination, storage, treatment and disposal of generated wastes are now under planning. Though the regulations for radioactive wastes discharged from normal operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities have been prepared, it is necessary to make amendments of those regulations to deal with wastes from the severe accidents which may have much different features on nuclides contents, or possibility to accompany hazardous chemical materials. Characteristics, treatment and disposal of wastes from accidents were surveyed by literature and the radionuclide migration from the assumed temporally storage yards of the disaster debris was analyzed for consideration of future regulation. (author)

  12. Investigation of the management of the wastes from plant accident

    The accident in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant discharged large amount of radio-nuclides and contaminated wide areas in and out of the site. The decontamination, storage, treatment and disposal of generated wastes are now under planning. Though regulations for the radioactive wastes arisen from normal operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities have been prepared, it is necessary to make amendment of those regulations to deal with wastes from the severe accident which may have much different features on nuclides contents, or possible accompanying hazardous chemical materials. Characteristics of wastes from accidents in foreign nuclear installations, and the treatment and the disposal of those wastes were surveyed by literature and radionuclide migration from the assumed temporally storage yards of the disaster debris was analyzed for consideration of future regulation. (author)

  13. PSA use in accident management studies in Japan

    The safety of NPPs in Japan is secured by stringent safety regulations based on the deterministic method, minimizing the possibility a severe accident to a technologically negligible level. PSA is not required in the current regulatory procedures. Accident management based on PSA is a 'knowledge-based' action dependent on utilities' technical knowledge aimed at further reduction of the risk which is kept small enough by existing measures. The paper discusses the following three kinds of PSAs that have been conducted practically and efficiently on NPPs to provide supplemental information about their safety characteristics in addition to the deterministic evaluation used in the regulatory safety review: PSAs on typical NPPs, PSAs on all NPPs to examine candidates for accident management, and PSAs as part of periodic safety review (PSR). 1 fig., 5 tabs

  14. A critical view on ultimate countermeasures in the case of major nuclear accidents

    After a short discussion of design basis accidents and 'reference' accidents, doubts are expressed about the soundness of using the reference accident for emergency planning. Comparable objections are given for the often used 'undefined' accident: a time-scale is given for countermeasures without taking into account valid accident scenarios. A proper starting point would be to make use of probabilistic accident studies, giving reasonably reliable release characteristics (quantity versus time) for a large range of accidents. Application of this method for establishing the radiological consequences shows that certain core melt accidents can lead to early fatalities. In a densely populated country this leads to insurmountable difficulties if medical care is required for a large number of persons, a situation that cannot be matched with simple flexibility in countermeasures. New insights into the chemical and physical processes of core melt accidents indicate that the quantity of radioactivity released into the atmosphere is in many cases substantially less than formerly assumed. It is concluded that with a close co-operation between reactor experts and emergency planners adequate countermeasures can be set up for optimum protection of the public. (author)

  15. Study of the Severity of Accidents in Tehran Using Statistical Modeling and Data Mining Techniques

    Hesamaldin Razi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackgrounds and Aims: The Tehran province was subject to the second highest incidence of fatalities due to traffic accidents in 1390. Most studies in this field examine rural traffic accidents, but this study is based on the use of logit models and artificial neural networks to evaluate the factors that affect the severity of accidents within the city of Tehran.Materials and Methods: Among the various types of crashes, head-on collisions are specified as the most serious type, which is investigated in this study with the use of Tehran’s accident data. In the modeling process, the severity of the accident is the dependent variable and defined as a binary covariate, which are non-injury accidents and injury accidents. The independent variables are parameters such as the characteristics of the driver, time of the accident, traffic and environmental characteristics. In addition to the prediction accuracy comparison of the two models, the elasticity of the logit model is compared with a sensitivity analysis of the neural network.Results: The results show that the proposed model provides a good estimate of an accident's severity. The explanatory variables that have been determined to be significant in the final models are the driver’s gender, age and education, along with negligence of the traffic rules, inappropriate acceleration, deviation to the left, type of vehicle, pavement conditions, time of the crash and street width.Conclusion: An artificial neural network model can be useful as a statistical model in the analysis of factors that affect the severity of accidents. According to the results, human errors and illiteracy of drivers increase the severity of crashes, and therefore, educating drivers is the main strategy that will reduce accident severity in Iran. Special attention should be given to a driver’s age group, with particular care taken when they are very young.

  16. Severe accident countermeasure plan (draft) for nuclear power plants

    Nuclear power plants should be designed, constructed, and operated properly so that the likelihood of occurrence of a severe accident and its consequence may be minimized. The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety has been reviewing the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement and the preceding severe accident countermeasure plan and prepared a new draft plan in order to provide a reasonable regulatory position for severe accidents. This plan has been prepared by taking into account the different reactor types and the characteristics of operating plants, new plants using the existing design, and new ones including the next generation plants. The major elements included in the plan are: establishment and application of the safety goal, performance of the probabilistic safety assessment and establishment of countermeasure plans for the vulnerabilities, provisions for severe accidents prevention and mitigation capability, set-up of a severe accident management program implementation system. Each element has been set up to move progressively toward an upgrading in safety of currently operating plants and future ones

  17. Accident Sequence Evaluation Program: Human reliability analysis procedure

    This document presents a shortened version of the procedure, models, and data for human reliability analysis (HRA) which are presented in the Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis With emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications (NUREG/CR-1278, August 1983). This shortened version was prepared and tried out as part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and managed by Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this new HRA procedure, called the ''ASEP HRA Procedure,'' is to enable systems analysts, with minimal support from experts in human reliability analysis, to make estimates of human error probabilities and other human performance characteristics which are sufficiently accurate for many probabilistic risk assessments. The ASEP HRA Procedure consists of a Pre-Accident Screening HRA, a Pre-Accident Nominal HRA, a Post-Accident Screening HRA, and a Post-Accident Nominal HRA. The procedure in this document includes changes made after tryout and evaluation of the procedure in four nuclear power plants by four different systems analysts and related personnel, including human reliability specialists. The changes consist of some additional explanatory material (including examples), and more detailed definitions of some of the terms. 42 refs

  18. Program for rapid dose assessment in criticality accident, RADAPAS

    In a criticality accident, a person near fissile material can receive extremely high dose which can cause acute health effect. For such a case, medical treatment should be carried out for the exposed person, according to severity of the exposure. Then, radiation dose should be rapidly assessed soon after an outbreak of an accident. Dose assessment based upon the quantity of induced 24Na in human body through neutron exposure is expected as one of useful dosimetry techniques in a criticality accident. A dose assessment program, called RADAPAS (RApid Dose Assessment Program from Activated Sodium in Criticality Accidents), was therefore developed to assess rapidly radiation dose to exposed persons from activity of induced 24Na. RADAPAS consists of two parts; one is a database part and the other is a part for execution of dose calculation. The database contains data compendiums of energy spectra and dose conversion coefficients from specific activity of 24Na induced in human body, which had been derived in a previous analysis using Monte Carlo calculation code. Information for criticality configuration or characteristics of radiation in the accident field is to be interactively given with interface displays in the dose calculation. RADAPAS can rapidly derive radiation dose to the exposed person from the given information and measured 24Na specific activity by using the conversion coefficient in database. This report describes data for dose conversions and dose calculation in RADAPAS and explains how to use the program. (author)

  19. Risk assessment of accident associated with aircraft transportation

    The new 1996 IAEA regulation for the transportation of radioactive material states a 90 m/s drop test on unyielding surface for packages transported by air. This figure originates from a statistical analysis on civil aircraft accident during the period 1975 to 1985. A review on the 1983-1989 period demonstrates comparable velocity with a less stringent definition of accident. The statistical analyses are combined with the hardness of the fly-over ground and the impact angle to generate probabilities curves giving the occurrence of a mechanical stress overtaking the drop test velocity. The following steps were carried out: statistical analysis of the accident database from the ICOA (International Civil Aviation Organisation) to appreciate the accident characteristics with special attention to the impact velocity and angle. Modelling of the impact speed in each phase of flight (Take off, Climbing, Cruise, Approach and Landing), in order to evaluate the probability of occurrence of a given crash impact for different flight configurations. Qualitative analysis of recorder failures available in France. As the statistical analysis is based on the available impact speed, a bias can be introduced if major crashes are neglected. In this respect, the qualitative analysis should give some elements to characterize the relationship between the non-availability of the information recorded on the black box and the severity of the accident. (author)

  20. Accident Sequence Evaluation Program: Human reliability analysis procedure

    Swain, A.D.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents a shortened version of the procedure, models, and data for human reliability analysis (HRA) which are presented in the Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis With emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications (NUREG/CR-1278, August 1983). This shortened version was prepared and tried out as part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and managed by Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this new HRA procedure, called the ''ASEP HRA Procedure,'' is to enable systems analysts, with minimal support from experts in human reliability analysis, to make estimates of human error probabilities and other human performance characteristics which are sufficiently accurate for many probabilistic risk assessments. The ASEP HRA Procedure consists of a Pre-Accident Screening HRA, a Pre-Accident Nominal HRA, a Post-Accident Screening HRA, and a Post-Accident Nominal HRA. The procedure in this document includes changes made after tryout and evaluation of the procedure in four nuclear power plants by four different systems analysts and related personnel, including human reliability specialists. The changes consist of some additional explanatory material (including examples), and more detailed definitions of some of the terms. 42 refs.

  1. Severe accidents due to windsurfing in the Aegean Sea.

    Kalogeromitros, A; Tsangaris, H; Bilalis, D; Karabinis, A

    2002-06-01

    Windsurfing is a popular sport and has recently become an Olympic event. As an open-air water activity that requires the participant to be in perfect physical condition, windsurfers may be prone to accidents when certain basic rules or procedures are violated. The current study monitored severe injuries due to windsurfing over a period of 12 months in the Aegean Sea in Greece. Our study revealed 22 cases of severe accidents due to windsurfing, with a wide range of injuries including head injuries, spinal cord injuries, and severe fractures of the extremities. Prolonged hospitalization, severe disability and two deaths occurred as consequences of these accidents. The study examined the characteristics of these patients and the possible risk factors and conditions associated with the accidents. We also focused on the most common types of injuries and reviewed the mechanisms that may provoke them. Water sports and particularly windsurfing represent a major challenge for the emergency medical system, especially in the Aegean Sea. Hundreds of islands, kilometres of isolated coasts, millions of tourists, an extended summer period and rapidly changing weather create conditions that constantly test the efficacy of the emergency services. The development of an appropriate infrastructure and maximum control of the risk factors causing these accidents could reduce the morbidity and mortality that, unfortunately but rather predictably, accompany this popular summer activity. PMID:12131638

  2. Aspects Concerning The Rules And The Investigation Of Traffic Accidents As Work Accidents

    Tarnu, Lucian Ioan

    2015-07-01

    When Romania joined the European Union, it was imposed that the Romanian legislation in the field of the security and health at work be in line with the European one. The concept of health as it is defined by the International Body of Health, refers to a good physical, mental and social condition. The improvement of the activity of preventing the traffic accidents as work accidents must have as basis the correct and accurate evaluation of risks of getting injured. The goal of the activity of prevention and protection is to ensure the best working conditions, the prevention of accidents and occupational diseases and the adjustment to the scientific and technological progress. In the road transport sector, as in any other sector, it is very important to pay attention to working conditions to ensure a workforce motivated and well qualified. Some features make it a more difficult sector risk management than other sectors. However, if one takes into account how it works in practice this sector and the characteristics of drivers and how they work routinely, risks, dangers and threats can be managed efficiently and with great success.

  3. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    Sims, C S

    1989-09-01

    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry. PMID:2777549

  4. The radiological accident in Gilan

    The use of radioactive materials continues to offer a wide range of benefits throughout the world in medicine, research and industry. Precautions are, however, necessary in order to protect people from the detrimental effects of the radiation. Where the amount of radioactive material is substantial, e.g. with sources used in radiotherapy or industrial radiography, extreme care is necessary to prevent accidents that may have severe consequences for the individuals affected. Nevertheless, in spite of all precautions, accidents with radiation sources continue to occur. As part of its activities dealing with the safety of radiation sources, the IAEA follows up severe accidents in order to provide an account of their circumstances and medical aspects from which those organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources may learn. On 24 July 1996 a serious accident occurred at the Gilan combined cycle fossil fuel power plant in the Islamic Republic of Iran, when a worker who was moving thermal insulation materials around the plant noticed a shiny, pencil sized metal object lying in a trench and put it in his pocket. He was unaware that the metal object was an unshielded 185 GBq 192Ir source used for industrial radiography. This report compiles information about the medical and other aspects of the accident. As a result of exposure to the iridium source, the worker suffered from severe haematopoietic syndrome (bone marrow depression) and an unusually extended localized radiation injury requiring plastic surgery

  5. The radiological accident in Cochabamba

    In April 2002 an accident involving an industrial radiography source containing 192Ir occurred in Cochabamba, Bolivia, some 400 km from the capital, La Paz. A faulty radiography source container had been sent back to the headquarters of the company concerned in La Paz together with other equipment as cargo on a passenger bus. This gave rise to a potential for serious exposure for the bus passengers as well as for the company employees who were using and transporting the source. The Government of Bolivia requested the assistance of the IAEA under the terms of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. The IAEA in response assembled and sent to Bolivia a team composed of senior radiation safety experts and radiation pathology experts from Brazil, the United Kingdom and the IAEA to investigate the accident. The IAEA is grateful to the Government of Bolivia for the opportunity to report on this accident in order to disseminate the valuable lessons learned and help prevent similar accidents in the future

  6. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

  7. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs

  8. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...... of accidents in normally Danish winter seasons are remarkable alike the amount of salt used in praxis in the winter 2011/2012. • 2.7 ton NaCl/km when using brine spread with nozzles • 5 ton NaCl/km when using pre wetted salt. • 5.7 ton NaCl/km when using kombi spreaders The explanation is that spreading...... of brine with nozzles is precision spreading, while spreading of salt with rotation plate are very imprecise; you can measure 80% residual salt when using brine and only 40% when using pre wetted salt. Of course the result would be worse if dry (solid) salt were used on dry roads. A winter route in Denmark...

  9. [Venomous animal accidents in childhood

    Oliveira, J S; Campos, J A; Costa, D M

    1999-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: To highlight the importance of venomous animal accidents in childhood. The conducts are based on the proposals of the Ministério da Saúde do Brasil [Ministry of Health of Brazil] to standardize medical care in this kind of accident. This article shows the importance of early clinical diagnosis and assistance.METHODS: Review of international and national literature that includes original articles, official standards and books.RESULTS: Pediatricians may always feel insecure when they have to attend children who had venomous animal accidents because this kind of pathology is not very common. This article tries to offer easy guidelines and describes the main steps to be followed. Besides, peculiar or unusual aspects of these accidents are to be found in the literature referred to in the end of this article. Venomous animal accidents are always more severe in children, therefore resulting in higher mortality and sequelae. We assert that the early antivenom sera is extremely helpful.CONCLUSIONS: The systematization of the assistance may guarantee that the essential steps are followed thus making the assistance itself more effective. This is the purpose of the guidelines presented in this article. PMID:14685472

  10. Radioactive materials transport accident analysis

    Over the last 25 years, one of the major issues raised regarding radioactive material transportation has been the risk of severe accidents. While numerous studies have shown that traffic fatalities dominate the risk, modeling the risk of severe accidents has remained one of the most difficult analysis problems. This paper will show how models that were developed for nuclear spent fuel transport accident analysis can be adopted to obtain estimates of release fractions for other types of radioactive material such as vitrified highlevel radioactive waste. The paper will also show how some experimental results from fire experiments involving low level waste packaging can be used in modeling transport accident analysis with this waste form. The results of the analysis enable an analyst to clearly show the differences in the release fractions as a function of accident severity. The paper will also show that by placing the data in a database such as ACCESS trademark, it is possible to obtain risk measures for transporting the waste forms along proposed routes from the generator site to potential final disposal sites

  11. The Importance of Safety in Construction Sector: Costs of Occupational Accidents in Construction Sites

    Fatih Yılmaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Occupational accidents cause important social and economic problems by loss of life and physical injuries. Construction sector involves high risk due to its production processes and labor intensive characteristic and because of occupational accidents the sector brings up against financial loss in large scale. In developing countries, construction sector is one of the most important sectors that have a great contribution to economic development with its employment capacity and added-value to the economy. On the other hand, due to the lack of preventive measures, occupational accidents occur, frequently in construction in Turkey. Major occupational accidents are defined as the cause of serious injuries and a long-term disability; minor occupational accidents are defined as the cause of insignificant injuries and short-term disability. Minor occupational accidents are not considered sufficiently, they are even not kept as a record. It is known that minor occupational accidents, which are not considered sufficiently and even not registered, cause great financial loss in workplaces. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cost of workforce loss caused by the accidents in construction sites by using the statistics of three construction sites in Turkey and to compare the financial losses of minor and major occupational accidents. In this study, three construction project are investigated in Turkey in 2009 and it is obtained that the cost of workday loss caused by major occupational accidents is 19431.75 $ and minor occupational accidents cause a loss of 6924.25 $. The cost of workday loss caused by minor occupational accidents are almost 35 % of major workday losses’. These costs presents the importance of preventive measures for workers’ health and safety in construction.

  12. The TMI-2 accident evaluation program

    The accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor, now 10 years old, remains as the United States' worst commercial nuclear reactor accident. Although the consequences of the accident were restricted primarily to the plant itself, the potential consequences of the accident, should it have progressed further, are large enough to warrant close scrutiny of all aspects of the event. TMI-2 accident research is being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to provide the basis for more accurate calculations of source terms for postulated severe accidents. Research objectives supporting this goal include developing a comprehensive and consistent understanding of the mechanisms that controlled the progression of core damage and subsequent fission product behavior during the TMI-2 accident, and applying that understanding to the resolution of important severe accident safety issues. Developing a best-estimate scenario of the core melt progression during the accident is the focal point of the research and involves analytical work to interpret and integrate: (1) data recorded during the accident from plant instrumentation, (2) the post-accident state of the core, (3) results of the examination of material from the damaged core, and (4) related severe-accident research results. This paper summarizes the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Program that is being conducted for the USDOE and briefly describes the important results that have been achieved. The Program is divided into four parts: Sample Acquisition and Plant Examination, Accident Scenario, Standard Problem Exercise, and Information and Industry Coordination

  13. Procedural and Organizational Measures to Assist Operations During an Accident in a Nuclear Power Plant in Europe

    Bull, D.; Lathrop, J.W.; Linnerooth, J.; Sinclair, C

    1980-01-01

    This paper is concerned with aspects of organization and procedure in nuclear accident management. Because all accidents can be argued to have common characteristics, a comparative approach is taken here for the discussion of emergency planning for nuclear accidents. This approach reveals several deficiencies in selected European emergency plans, the most important concerning formal and informal communication channels. The most important principle which emerges from this discussion, and which...

  14. Nuclear law and radiological accidents

    Nuclear activities in Brazil, and particularly the radiological accident of Goiania, are examined in the light of the environmental and nuclear laws of Brazil and the issue of responsibility. The absence of legislation covering radioactive wastes as well as the restrictions on Brazilian States to issue regulations covering nuclear activities are reviewed. The radiological accident and its consequences, including the protection and compensation of the victims, the responsibility of the shareholders of the Instituto Goiano de Radioterapia, operator of the radioactive source, the provisional storage and the final disposal at Abadia de Goias of the radioactive waste generated by the accident are reviewed. Finally, nuclear responsibility, the inapplicability of the Law 6453/77 which deals with nuclear damages, and the state liability regime are analysed in accordance with the principles of the Brazilian Federal Constitution. (author)

  15. Fukushima accident study using MELCOR

    Randall O Gauntt

    2013-01-01

    The accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station stunned the world as the sequences played out over severals days and videos of hydrogen explosions were televised as they took place.The accidents all resulted in severe damage to the reactor cores and releases of radioactivity to the environment despite heroic measures had taken by the operating personnel.The following paper provides some background into the development of these accidents and their root causes,chief among them,the prolonged station blackout conditions that isolated the reactors from their ultimate heat sink — the ocean.The interpretations given in this paper are summarized from a recently completed report funded by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE).

  16. Air cleaning in accident situations

    The Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) through its subsidiaries the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) established in 1979 a Group of Experts or Air Cleaning in Accident Situations. This group met seven times to establish a draft report based on its Terms of Reference which were to: 1) review the performance of off-gas cleaning systems in accident conditions; 2) collect information about operating experience with these systems; 3) seek to establish common principles for the design of off-gas systems; 4) review methods used in the different countries for testing filters from the standpoint of accident conditions; and 5) suggest specific mechanisms for improving cooperation, with regard, for example, to filter testing. The conclusions and recommendations of the Group are summarized

  17. Nuclear accidents - Liabilities and guarantees

    The 1992 Symposium on Nuclear Accidents - Liabilities and guarantees, organized by the OECD NUCLEAR Energy Agency in collaboration with the international Atomic Energy Agency, discussed the nuclear third party liability regime established by the Paris and Vienna Conventions, its advantages and shortcomings, and assessed the teachings of the Chernobyl accident in the context of that regime. The topics included the geographical scope of the Conventions, the definition of nuclear damage, in particular environmental damage, insurance cover and capacity, supplementary compensation by means of a collective contribution from the nuclear industry or governments, and finally, the international liability of States in case of a nuclear accident. This proceeding contains 26 papers which have been selected

  18. Severe accident simulation at Olkiuoto

    Tirkkonen, H.; Saarenpaeae, T. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), Olkiluoto (Finland); Cliff Po, L.C. [Micro-Simulation Technology, Montville, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A personal computer-based simulator was developed for the Olkiluoto nuclear plant in Finland for training in severe accident management. The generic software PCTRAN was expanded to model the plant-specific features of the ABB Atom designed BWR including its containment over-pressure protection and filtered vent systems. Scenarios including core heat-up, hydrogen generation, core melt and vessel penetration were developed in this work. Radiation leakage paths and dose rate distribution are presented graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an 486 DX2-66, PCTRAN-TVO achieves a speed about 15 times faster than real-time. A convenient and user-friendly graphic interface allows full interactive control. In this paper a review of the component models and verification runs are presented.

  19. Severe accident management guidelines tool

    Severe Accident is addressed by means of a great number of documents such as guidelines, calculation aids and diagnostic trees. The response methodology often requires the use of several documents at the same time while Technical Support Centre members need to assess the appropriate set of equipment within the adequate mitigation strategies. In order to facilitate the response, TECNATOM has developed SAMG TOOL, initially named GGAS TOOL, which is an easy to use computer program that clearly improves and accelerates the severe accident management. The software is designed with powerful features that allow the users to focus on the decision-making process. Consequently, SAMG TOOL significantly improves the severe accident training, ensuring a better response under a real situation. The software is already installed in several Spanish Nuclear Power Plants and trainees claim that the methodology can be followed easier with it, especially because guidelines, calculation aids, equipment information and strategies availability can be accessed immediately (authors)

  20. Internal Accident Report on EDH

    SC Department

    2006-01-01

    The A2 Safety Code requires that, the Internal Accident Report form must be filled in by the person concerned or any witness to ensure that all the relevant services are informed. Please note that an electronic version of this form has been elaborated in collaboration with SC-IE, HR-OPS-OP and IT-AIS. Whenever possible, the electronic form shall be used. The relative icon is available on the EDH Desktop, Other tasks page, under the Safety heading, or directly here: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Accident/. If you have any questions, please contact the SC Secretariat, tel. 75097 Please notice that the Internal Accident Report is an integral part of the Safety Code A2 and does not replace the HS50.

  1. Hindsight Bias in Cause Analysis of Accident

    Atsuo Murata; Yasunari Matsushita

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that hindsight becomes an obstacle to the objective investigation of an accident, and that the proper countermeasures for the prevention of such an accident is impossible if we view the accident with hindsight. Therefore, it is important for organizational managers to prevent hindsight from occurring so that hindsight does not hinder objective and proper measures to be taken and this does not lead to a serious accident. In this study, a basic phenomenon potentially related to accidents, that is, hindsight was taken up, and an attempt was made to explore the phenomenon in order to get basically insights into the prevention of accidents caused by such a cognitive bias.

  2. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    In 2001, we summarized the circumstances surrounding termination of the JCO criticality accident based on testimony in the Mito District Court on December 17, 2001. JCO was the company for uranium fuels production in Japan. That document was assembled based on actual testimony in the belief that a description of the work involved in termination of the accident would be useful in some way for preventing nuclear disasters in the future. The description focuses on the witness' own behavior, and what he saw and heard, and thus is written from the perspective of action by one individual. This was done simply because it was easier for the witness to write down his memories as he remembers them. Description of the activities of other organizations and people is provided only as necessary, to ensure that consistency in the descriptive approach is not lost. The essentials of this report were rewritten as a third-person objective description in the summary of the report by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). Since then, comments have been received from sources such as former members of the Nuclear Safety Commission (Dr. Kenji Sumita and Dr. Akira Kanagawa), concerned parties from the former Science and Technology Agency, and reports from the JCO Criticality Accident Investigation Committee of the AESJ, and thus this report was rewritten to correct incorrect information, and add material where that was felt to be necessary. This year is the tenth year of the JCO criticality accident. To mark this occasion we have decided to translate the record of what occurred at the accident site into English so that more people can draw lessons from this accident. This report is an English version of JAEA-Technology 2009-073. (author)

  3. The development of a severe accident analysis code

    For prevention and mitigation of the containment failure during severe accident, the study is focused on the severe accident phenomena, especially, the ones occurring inside the cavity in an effect to improve existing models and develop analytical tools for the assessment of severe accidents. For hydrogen control, the analysis of hydrogen concentration in the containment and visualization for the concentration in the cell were performed. The computer code to predict combustion flame characteristic was also developed. the analytical model for the expansion phase of vapor explosion was developed and verified with the experimental results. The corium release fraction model from the cavity with the capture volume was developed and applied to the power plants. Pre-test calculation was performed for molten corium concrete interaction study and the crust formation process, heat transfer characteristics of the crust, and the sensitivity study using MELCOR code was carried out. A stress analysis code using finite element method for the reactor vessel lower head failure analysis was developed and the effect by gap formation between molten corium and vessel was analyzed. Through the international program of PHEBUS-FP and participation in the software development, the study on fission products release and transportation in the software development, the study on fission products release and transportation and aerosol deposition were performed. The system for severe accident analysis codes, CONTAIN and MELCOR codes etc., under the cooperation with USNRC were also established by installing in workstation and applying to experimental results and real plants. (author). 116 refs., 31 tabs., 59 figs

  4. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    The techniques currently used in off-site consequence modelling are applied to the Chernobyl accident. Firstly, the time dependent spread of radioactive material across the European continent is considered, followed by a preliminary assessment of the dosimetric impact (in terms of collective and mean individual doses) on the various countries of Eastern and Western Europe. The consequences of the accident in the USSR are also discussed. Finally, the likely implications of the Chernobyl event on research in the field of environmental consequence assessment are outlined. (author)

  5. Severe accident source term reassessment

    This paper summarizes the status of the reassessment of severe reactor accident source terms, which are defined as the quantity, type, and timing of fission product releases from such accidents. Concentration is on the major results and conclusions of analyses with modern methods for both pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs), and the special case of containment bypass. Some distinctions are drawn between analyses for PWRs and BWRs. In general, the more the matter is examined, the consequences, or probability of serious consequences, seem to be less. (author)

  6. The nature of reactor accidents

    Reactor accidents are events which result in the release of radioactive material from a nuclear power plant due to the failure of one or more critical components of that plant. The failures, depending on their number and type, can result in releases whose consequences range from negligible to catastrophic. By way of examples, this paper describes four specific accidents which cover this range of consequence: failure of a reactor control system, loss of coolant, loss of coolant with impaired containment, and reactor core meltdown. For each a possible sequence of events and an estimate of the expected frequency are presented

  7. Civil liability concerning nuclear accidents

    France and the USA wish to cooperate in order to promote an international regime of civil liability in order to give a fair compensation to victims of nuclear accidents as it is recommended by IAEA. On the other hand the European Commission has launched a consultation to see the necessity or not to harmonize all the civil liability regimes valid throughout Europe. According to the Commission the potential victims of nuclear accidents would not receive equal treatment at the European scale in terms of insurance cover and compensation which might distort competition in the nuclear sector. (A.C.)

  8. Ignalina accident localisation system response to maximum design basis accident

    In this paper the study of the accident localisation system (ALS) of the Ignalina nuclear power plant (NPP) with RBMK-1500 reactors (large-power channel-type water-cooled graphite-moderated reactor) with regard to a maximum design basis accident (MDBA) is presented. The MDBA for Ignalina NPP constitutes a guillotine rupture of the maximum diameter pipe. The thermal-hydraulic and structural analyses were performed using the RELAP5, CONTAIN and ALGOR codes. The coolant mass and energy discharge source terms to the accident compartment were established using the RELAP5 code. This was then used as a source term for the long-term accident thermal-hydraulic analysis of ALS compartments employing the CONTAIN code. Results obtained by the CONTAIN calculations establish a basis for the structural analysis. A finite-element method has been used for ALS structural analysis using the ALGOR code, the results of which show that the structures of the ALS would not be breached by the pressure attained in the event of an MDBA. (author)

  9. Analysis on the Direct Vessel Injection Line Break Accident at APR+ Standard Design

    Lee, Youngho; Yang, Huichang [TUEV Rheinland Korea Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kap [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor +) is the newest design variation of APR1400. The main characteristics of APR+, compared with APR1400, are passive safety systems and dedicated systems for severe accident mitigation. APR+ is under review for standard design certification. In this study, thermal hydraulic analysis on the Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) line break accident postulated in APR+ design was performed. Comparisons of the major parameters which can represent the overall accident behavior during DVI line break accident, several discrepancies between this study and reference data were found and such discrepancies include actuation timing of SIPs and SITs, and also include parameter behaviors of break flow rate and PCT at the accident initiation. These differences were mainly from the different thermal hydraulic models in simulation codes. The behavioral differences for break flow as well as peak cladding temperatures will be examined further as a next step for this study.

  10. Major chemical accidents in industrializing countries: the socio-political amplification of risk.

    de Souza Porto, M F; de Freitas, C M

    1996-02-01

    Accidents in the chemical industry, such as those that took place in Seveso (1976) and Bhopal (1984), may kill or injure thousands of people, cause serious health hazards and irreversible environmental damage. The aim of this paper is to examine the ever-increasing risk of similar accidents becoming a frequent ocurrence in the so-called industrializing countries. Using figures from some of the worst chemical accidents in the last decades, data on the Bhopal disaster, and Brazil's social and institutional characteristics, we put forward the hypothesis that present social, political and economic structures in industrializing countries make these countries much more vulnerable to such accidents and create the type of setting where--if and when these accidents occur--they will have even more catastrophic consequences. The authors argue that only the transformation of local structures, and stronger technical cooperation between international organizations, industrialized and industrializing countries could reduce this vulnerability. PMID:8868221

  11. Safety characteristics of mid-sized MOX fueled liquid metal reactor core of high converter type in the initiating phase of unprotected loss of flow accident. Effect of low specific fuel power density on ULOF behavior brought by employment of large diameter fuel pins

    Safety characteristics in core disruptive accidents (CDAs) of mid-sized MOX fueled liquid metal reactor core of high converter type have been examined by using the CDA initiating phase analysis code SAS4A. The design concept of high converter type reactor core has been studied as one of options in the category of sodium-cooled reactor in Phase II of Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle System. An unprotected loss-of-flow accident (ULOF) has been selected as a representative CDA initiator for this study. A core concept of high converter type, which employed a large diameter fuel pin of 11.1 mm with 1.2 m core height to get a large fuel volume fraction in the core to achieve high internal conversion ratio was proposed in JFY2001. Each fuel subassembly of the core (abbreviated here as UPL120)was provided with an upper sodium plenum directly above the core to reduce the sodium void reactivity worth. Because of the large fuel pin diameter, average specific fuel power density (31 kW/kg-MOX) of UPL120 is about one half of those of conventional large MOX cores. The reactivity worth of sodium voiding is 6$ in the whole core, and -1$ in the all upper plenums. Initiating phase of ULOF accident in UPL120 under the conditions of nominal design and best estimate analysis resulted in a slightly super-prompt critical power burst. The causes of the super-prompt criticality have been identified twofold: (a) the low specific fuel power density of core reduced the effectiveness of prompt negative reactivity feedback of Doppler and axial fuel expansion effects upon increase in reactor power, and (b) the longer core height compared with conventional 1m cores brought, together with the lower specific power density, a remarkable delay in insertion of negative fuel dispersion reactivity after the onset of fuel disruption in sodium voided subassembly due to the lower linear heat rating in the top portion of the core. During the delay, burst-type fuel failures in sodium un

  12. Industrial accidents in nuclear power plants

    In 12 nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany with a total of 3678 employees, 25 notifiable company personnel accidents and 46 notifiable outside personnel accidents were reported for an 18-month period. (orig./HP)

  13. Road Accident Trends in Africa and Europe

    Jørgensen, N O

    1997-01-01

    The paper decribes trends and suggests prediction models for accident risks in African and European countries......The paper decribes trends and suggests prediction models for accident risks in African and European countries...

  14. 49 CFR 229.17 - Accident reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 225. ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 229.17 Section 229.17..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS General § 229.17 Accident reports. (a)...

  15. How to reduce the number of accidents

    2012-01-01

    Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. HSE Unit

  16. Lessons of the radiological accident in Goiania

    On the basis of the lessons teamed from the radiological accident of Goiania, actions are described which a nuclear regulatory body should undertake while responding to an accident of this nature. (author)

  17. Reactor accident diagnostic expert system: DISKET

    A reactor accident diagnostic system DISKET has been developed to identify the cause and the type of an abnormal transient of a nuclear power plant. The system is based on the knowledge engineering and consists of an inference engine IERIAS and a knowledge base. The main features of DISKET are the following: Time-varying characteristics of transient can be treated and knowledge base can be divided into several knowledge units to handle a lot of rules effectively. This report has been provided for the convenience of DISKET's users and consists of three parts. The first part is the description of the whole system, the details of the knowledge base of DISKET are described in the second part, and how to use the DISKET system is explained in the third part. (author)

  18. New technology for accident prevention

    Byne, P. [Shiftwork Solutions, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This power point presentation examined the effects of fatigue in the workplace and presented 3 technologies designed to prevent or monitor fatigue. The relationship between mental fatigue, circadian rhythms and cognitive performance was explored. Details of vigilance related degradations in the workplace were presented, as well as data on fatigue-related accidents and a time-line of meter-reading errors. It was noted that the direct cause of the Exxon Valdez disaster was sleep deprivation. Fatigue related accidents during the Gulf War were reviewed. The effects of fatigue on workplace performance include impaired logical reasoning and decision-making; impaired vigilance and attention; slowed mental operations; loss of situational awareness; slowed reaction time; and short cuts and lapses in optional or self-paced behaviours. New technologies to prevent fatigue-related accidents include (1) the driver fatigue monitor, an infra-red camera and computer that tracks a driver's slow eye-lid closures to prevent fatigue related accidents; (2) a fatigue avoidance scheduling tool (FAST) which collects actigraphs of sleep activity; and (3) SAFTE, a sleep, activity, fatigue and effectiveness model. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Traffic accident with radioactive material

    A traffic accident with a package with radioactive contents of the category 'III-YELLOW' remaining undamaged, caused complete confusion among the responsible rescue services. All forces active until professional fire-brigades arrived showed a deficit of tactical radiation protection behaviour. Even a medical unit with an equipped emergency task force in situ and radiation protection equipment did not feel responsible. (DG)

  20. Accident consequence assessment code development

    This paper describes the new computer code system, OSCAAR developed for off-site consequence assessment of a potential nuclear accident. OSCAAR consists of several modules which have modeling capabilities in atmospheric transport, foodchain transport, dosimetry, emergency response and radiological health effects. The major modules of the consequence assessment code are described, highlighting the validation and verification of the models. (author)

  1. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

  2. Standby after the Chernobyl accident

    The report is an investigation concerning strandby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The final report is divided into two parts: 'I: Facts' and 'II: Analyzes'. 'Facts': The Swedish model for information: radio, press. Basic knowledge about ionizing radiation in the society. Resources for information. Need for information. Message forms for information. Announcements from the authorities in TV, radio, press, meeting, advertisements. Statements concerning the reactor accident and its consequences in Swedish mass media. How did the public recieve the information? 'Analyzis': Information responsibilities and policies. SSI information activities concerning radiologic accidents, conditions, methods and resources. Ditto for SKI, Swedish National Food Administration and the National Board of Agriculture. Appendix I: Information from authorities in the press three weeks after the Chernobyl accident: The material and the methods. The acute phase, the adoptation phase, the extension of the persective. What is said about the authorities in connection with Chernobyl? Appendix II: The fallout from Chernobyl, the authorities and the media coverage: The nationwide, regional and local coverage from radio and television. Ditto from the press. Topic and problem areas in reporting. Instructions from the authorities in media. Contribution in the media from people representing the authorities. Fallout in a chronologic perspective. (L.F.)

  3. Environmental justice: frequency and severity of US chemical industry accidents and the socioeconomic status of surrounding communities

    Elliott, M.; Wang, Y.; Lowe, R; Kleindorfer, P

    2004-01-01

    Study objectives: The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires that chemical facilities in the US with specified quantities of certain toxic or flammable chemicals file a five year history of accidents. This study considers the relation between the reported accidents and surrounding community characteristics.

  4. Report of the activities carried out by the Psychological Support Group in the Goiania radiological accident in Brazil

    The report analyzes the characteristics and attitudes of the population directly involved in the Goiania radiological accident. The inhabitants of the affected area were interviewed in their residence. Factual information about the accidents were given and specific psychological support were received whenever necessary

  5. Calculating nuclear accident probabilities from empirical frequencies

    Ha-Duong, Minh; Journé, V.

    2014-01-01

    International audience Since there is no authoritative, comprehensive and public historical record of nuclear power plant accidents, we reconstructed a nuclear accident data set from peer-reviewed and other literature. We found that, in a sample of five random years, the worldwide historical frequency of a nuclear major accident, defined as an INES level 7 event, is 14 %. The probability of at least one nuclear accident rated at level ≥4 on the INES scale is 67 %. These numbers are subject...

  6. Trismus: An unusual presentation following road accident

    Thakur Jagdeep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trismus due to trauma usually follows road accidents leading to massive faciomaxillary injury. In the literature there is no report of a foreign body causing trismus following a road accident, this rare case is an exception. We present a case of isolated presentation of trismus following a road accident. This case report stresses on the thorough evaluation of patients presenting with trismus following a road accident.

  7. Interventions by Mothers of 1-6 Year Old Children after Home Accidents

    Belkis Karatas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of the research was to determine the interventions after home accidents by women with a child between 1-6 years old.INSTRUMENT AND METHODS: The research was conducted as a descriptive study in the neighborhoods served by Çukurova Health Clinic affiliated with Mersin province center municipality. Using a simple random sampling method 100 women were taken into the sample by numbering the 1-6 year old child monitoring records. Data were collected on a questionnaire. Percentage distribution and Chi square test were used in the analysis of data obtained in the research.FINDINGS: The children of 66.0% of the women had had at least one home accident and the most frequent of the accidents was falling (66.7% followed by burns (43.9%. The majority of women, following their child's fall (61.4% applied a wound ointment and took the child to a health care facility and following a burn to their child 44.8% of the women used a cold application and took the child to a health care facility. The overwhelming majority of the women learned about first aid for childhood accidents from the people close to them, such as a relative or neighbor. There was no statistically significant difference between the women's sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of home accidents and the kind of first aid used for home accidents (P>0.05. RESULTS: The frequency of accidents in the homes of children between 1-6 years was high, and the majority of the first aid treatments administered by women following an accident was correct. Although the percentage was small some of the women did use inappropriate procedures.Keywords: Accident, injury, home accidents, childhood accidents

  8. Interventions by Mothers of 1-6 Year Old Children after Home Accidents

    Belkis Karatas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of the research was to determine the interventions after home accidents by women with a child between 1-6 years old.INSTRUMENT AND METHODS: The research was conducted as a descriptive study in the neighborhoods served by Çukurova Health Clinic affiliated with Mersin province center municipality. Using a simple random sampling method 100 women were taken into the sample by numbering the 1-6 year old child monitoring records. Data were collected on a questionnaire. Percentage distribution and Chi square test were used in the analysis of data obtained in the research.FINDINGS: The children of 66.0% of the women had had at least one home accident and the most frequent of the accidents was falling (66.7% followed by burns (43.9%. The majority of women, following their child's fall (61.4% applied a wound ointment and took the child to a health care facility and following a burn to their child 44.8% of the women used a cold application and took the child to a health care facility. The overwhelming majority of the women learned about first aid for childhood accidents from the people close to them, such as a relative or neighbor. There was no statistically significant difference between the women's sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of home accidents and the kind of first aid used for home accidents (P>0.05. RESULTS: The frequency of accidents in the homes of children between 1-6 years was high, and the majority of the first aid treatments administered by women following an accident was correct. Although the percentage was small some of the women did use inappropriate procedures.Keywords: Accident, injury, home accidents, childhood accidents 

  9. LWR severe accident source term research in the USA

    Fission product releases to the environment, or source terms, arise as a result of a highly diverse group of phenomena involved in any particular severe accident sequence. Because of the multiplicity of accident sequences that can occur for a given plant as well as the diversity of the, as yet, imperfectly understood severe accident phenomena, it is not surprising that reactor accidents such as, for example, those documented in NUREG-1150 have indicated large uncertainties in source terms which represent a significant contribution to the uncertainty in the absolute value of risk. Because of the difficulty and expense involved in performing prototypic experiments, substantial reliance has been placed on the development and validation of detailed mechanistic computer codes for analyzing severe accident phenomena and the source terms associated with them. This paper discusses the extensive research and other efforts that have taken place over the last decade to address the technical issues which have a bearing on being able to describe quantitatively the source term(s) and its characteristics. It also summarizes our present state of knowledge and points out areas where additional research will add further to our understanding. In this context the paper discusses the information that could be provided by the PHEBUS-FP program and its use to assess severe accident integral evaluation codes such as VICTORIA and CONTAIN. Finally, this paper discusses the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission 's efforts to revise the licensing source term (TID-14844) and the implications of this revision, especially for siting and design of future power plants. (author)

  10. Injuries associated with cycle rickshaws accidents

    Meena, Sanjay; Barwar, Nilesh; Rastogi, Devarshi; Sharma, Vineet

    2014-01-01

    Context: Cycle rickshaw is an important means of transportation in Urban India. Pedestrians, rickshaw users, rickshaw pullers, two wheeled vehicle users and cyclists are among the most vulnerable road user groups in terms of injuries and fatalities resulting from road traffic accidents in India. Our objectives were to study characteristics of crashes and nature of injuries associated with cycle rickshaw. Patients and Methods: Between August 2008 to July 2009, a hospital based observational study was done of patients who presented to King George medical college trauma center with injury sustained due to cycle rickshaw in emergency department. Age, time of trauma, mode of trauma, contributing factors and type of injury were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patient was 32.1. Seventeen patients were rickshaw pullers and the rest were occupants of the rickshaw. Overloading with more than two passengers was found in 24 cases (28.5%). Most common cause of injury was collision with a moving vehicle (56 patients, %) followed by fall from rickshaw. The most common contributing factor was the overloading of rickshaw. On arrival to the hospital, the mean Injury severity score (ISS) was 3.5 ± 2.2 and the mean Glasgow coma scale (GCS) was 13.4 ± 4.3. Nine patients were admitted to ICU (Intensive care unit). The median ICU stay was 4 (1-24 days). Six of the ICU admitted patients had head injury. Conclusion: Rickshaw pullers and occupants are vulnerable to road traffic accidents. Urgent preventive measures targeted towards this group are needed to reduce the morbidity and mortality resulting from injuries involving rickshaws. The need for improved understanding of the risk characteristics of cycle rickshaw is emphasized. PMID:24812450

  11. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures

  12. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause...

  13. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention....

  14. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  15. Computerised severe accident management aids

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project in Norway is running two development projects in the area of computerised accident management in cooperation with the Swedish nuclear plant Forsmark unit 2. Also other nuclear organisations in the Nordic countries take part in the projects. The SAS II system is installed at Forsmark and is now being validated against the plant compact simulator and is later to be installed in the plant control room. It is designed to follow all defined critical safety functions in the same manner as is done in the functionally oriented Emergency Operating Procedures. The shift supervisor thus uses SAS II as a complementary information system after a plant disturbance . The plant operators still use the ordinary instrumentation and the event oriented procedures. This gives to a high extent both redundancy and diversity in information channels and in procedures. Further, a new system is under discussion which goes a step further in accident management than SAS II. It is called the Computerised Accident Management Support (CAMS) system. The objective is to make a computerised tool that can assist both the control room crew and the technical support centre in accident mitigation, especially in the early stages of an accident where the integrity of the core still can be maintained if proper counteractions to the accident sequence are taken. In CAMS another approach is taken than in SAS II by putting the process parameters in focus. A more elaborate signal validation is proposed. The validated signals are input to models that calculates mass and energy balances of the primary system. Among parameters calculated are residual heat. Experiences from these two approaches to computerised accident management support are presented and discussed. In summary: The original project proposal aimed particularly for operator and TSC support during severe accidents. In the CAMS design proposal we have, however, promoted the SMABRE code which is not designed for such

  16. [Motorcycle accidents in the municipality of Rio Branco in the State of Acre: characterization and trends].

    Rocha, Greiciane da Silva; Schor, Néia

    2013-03-01

    The scope of this paper is to assess traffic accidents involving motorcycles, the victims involved and the increase in the fleet compared with other vehicles in Rio Branco, State of Acre. It is an epidemiological, descriptive and transversal study of accidents between 2005 and 2008 recorded by the Acre State Highway Department. There were 3,582 motorcycle accidents and 3,768 victims in the period. The motorcycle fleet increased by 72.8%, with involvement in accidents increasing by 42.2%, while accidents involving other vehicles only increased by 9.2%. As regards victims, there is a predominance of men, with rates of 561.1, with the age groups of between 20 and 29 and 30 and 39 being the highest, with 755.4 and 542.2, respectively. With reference to accident characteristics, the highest number of accidents - 32.4% - occurred in the afternoon, followed by the morning with 29.2% and the evening with 28.9%. 18.3% occurred on Saturdays and 15.7% on Sundays. Collisions were the commonest kind of accident, with 3,036 (84.8%) occurrences. The conclusion drawn is that it is essential to stage ongoing preventive programs and ensure greater integration among the institutions involved, with planning and campaigns to reverse the current situation. PMID:23546199

  17. A new modelling approach for containment event tree construction -Accident progression stage event tree method

    The Accident Progression Stage Event Tree (APSET) method presented here is a new modelling approach for construction of comprehensive and concise containment event trees to describe physical processes inside containment and accident mitigation actions, yet provide enough detail to analyze important factors for containment responses to severe accidents. In this approach, the accident progression is generally divided into four accident stages, i.e., Pre-stage for Core-melt, Core-melt Progression Stage, Debris Exit Stage, and Long-term Progression Stage, to reflect the timing of containment failure. Physical phenomena which challenge the containment integrity and accident mitigation actions are chronologically represented in event trees for each stage. Event trees for two successive stages are cross-linked by interface parameter. The interface parameter is defined as a set of plant conditions that have a significant influence on physical processes in the subsequent stage. By quantifying the containment event trees constructed with the APSET method, the respective conditional probabilities of the containment failure modes and the accident termination can be calculated stage by stage for each core melt accident sequence. The quantification results provide the characteristics of each core melt sequence on containment responses such as a dominant containment failure mode, its timing, and the effectiveness of mitigation actions. The usefulness of the APSET method was demonstrated through its application to a containment event tree analysis for BWR with MARK-II containment. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  18. A Hybrid Algorithm of Traffic Accident Data Mining on Cause Analysis

    Jianfeng Xi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accident databases provide the basis for road traffic accident analysis, the data inside which usually has a radial, multidimensional, and multilayered structure. Traditional data mining algorithms such as association rules, when applied alone, often yield uncertain and unreliable results. An improved association rule algorithm based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO put forward by this paper can be used to analyze the correlation between accident attributes and causes. The new algorithm focuses on characteristics of the hyperstereo structure of road traffic accident data, and the association rules of accident causes can be calculated more accurately and in higher rates. A new concept of Association Entropy is also defined to help compare the importance between different accident attributes. T-test model and Delphi method were deployed to test and verify the accuracy of the improved algorithm, the result of which was a ten times faster speed for random traffic accident data sampling analyses on average. In the paper, the algorithms were tested on a sample database of more than twenty thousand items, each with 56 accident attributes. And the final result proves that the improved algorithm was accurate and stable.

  19. Prevention of the causes and consequences of a criticality accident - measures adopted in France

    The question of safety in regard to criticality accident risks has two aspects: prevention of the cause and limitation of the consequences. These two aspects are closely connected. The effort devoted to prevention of the causes depends on the seriousness of the possible human psychologic and economic consequences of the accident. The criticality accidents which have occurred in the nuclear industry, though few in number, do reveal the imperfect nature of the techniques adopted to prevent the causes, and also constitute the only available realistic basis for evaluating the consequences and developing measures to limit them. The authors give a analysis of the known causes and consequences of past criticality accidents and on this basis make a number of comments concerning: the validity of traditional safety criteria, the probability of accidents for different types of operations, characteristic accidents which can serve as models, and the extent of possible radiological consequences. The measures adopted in France to limit the consequences of a possible criticality accident under the headings: location, design and lay-out of the installations, accident detection, and dosimetry for the exposed personnel, are briefly described after a short account of the criteria used in deciding on them. (author)

  20. A method for modeling and analysis of directed weighted accident causation network (DWACN)

    Zhou, Jin; Xu, Weixiang; Guo, Xin; Ding, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Using complex network theory to analyze accidents is effective to understand the causes of accidents in complex systems. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to establish directed weighted accident causation network (DWACN) for the Rail Accident Investigation Branch (RAIB) in the UK, which is based on complex network and using event chains of accidents. DWACN is composed of 109 nodes which denote causal factors and 260 directed weighted edges which represent complex interrelationships among factors. The statistical properties of directed weighted complex network are applied to reveal the critical factors, the key event chains and the important classes in DWACN. Analysis results demonstrate that DWACN has characteristics of small-world networks with short average path length and high weighted clustering coefficient, and display the properties of scale-free networks captured by that the cumulative degree distribution follows an exponential function. This modeling and analysis method can assist us to discover the latent rules of accidents and feature of faults propagation to reduce accidents. This paper is further development on the research of accident analysis methods using complex network.

  1. Traffic accident and emission reduction through intermittent release measures for heavy fog weather

    Shi, Jing; Tan, Jin-Hua

    2015-09-01

    Heavy fog weather can increase traffic accidents and lead to freeway closures which result in delays. This paper aims at exploring traffic accident and emission characteristics in heavy fog, as well as freeway intermittent release measures for heavy fog weather. A driving simulator experiment is conducted for obtaining driving behaviors in heavy fog. By proposing a multi-cell cellular automaton (CA) model based on the experimental data, the role of intermittent release measures on the reduction of traffic accidents and CO emissions is studied. The results show that, affected by heavy fog, when cellular occupancy ρ safety and reduce emissions.

  2. Potential behavior of depleted uranium penetrators under shipping and bulk storage accident conditions

    An investigation of the potential hazard from airborne releases of depleted uranium (DU) from the Army's M829 munitions was conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The study included: (1) assessing the characteristics of DU oxide from an April 1983 burn test, (2) postulating conditions of specific accident situations, and (3) reviewing laboratory and theoretical studies of oxidation and airborne transport of DU from accidents. Results of the experimental measurements of the DU oxides were combined with atmospheric transport models and lung and kidney exposure data to help establish reasonable exclusion boundaries to protect personnel and the public at an accident site. 121 references, 44 figures, 30 tables

  3. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures known to us, the various road locations are treated as isolated spots. With small accident figures it is difficult to detect such places in the known procedures. An alternative procedure starts from...

  4. Occupational accidents in Turkey and providing and development of safety culture in preventing occupational accidents

    Dursun, Salih

    2011-01-01

    Occupational accidents cause socially and economically significant loss both in developed and developing countries. According to ILO each year, 2.2 million people lost their lives in the occupational accident. In Turkey, over 1600 people die in these accidents every year. In this case, an important part of occupational accidents like 95% based on “human”, requires more people-oriented approaches towards the prevention of accidents. In this context, to provide and develop the safety culture, w...

  5. Use of PSA and severe accident assessment results for the accident management

    The objectives for this study are to investigate the basic principle or methodology which is applicable to accident management, by using the results of PSA and severe accident research, and also facilitate the preparation of accidents management program in the future. This study was performed as follows: derivation of measures for core damage prevention, derivation of measures for accident mitigation, application of computerized tool to assess severe accident management

  6. Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    On the evening of April 20, 2010, a well control event allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in explosions and fire on the rig. Eleven people lost their lives, and 17 others were injured. The fire, which was fed by hydrocarbons from the well, continued for 36 hours until the rig sank. Hydrocarbons continued to flow from the reservoir through the wellbore and the blowout preventer (BOP) for 87 days, causing a spill of national significance. BP Exploration and Production Inc. was the lease operator of Mississippi Canyon Block 252, which contains the Macondo well. BP formed an investigation team that was charged with gathering the facts surrounding the accident, analyzing available information to identify possible causes and making recommendations to enable prevention of similar accidents in the future. The BP investigation team began its work immediately in the aftermath of the accident, working independently from other BP spill response activities and organizations. The ability to gather information was limited by a scarcity of physical evidence and restricted access to potentially relevant witnesses. The team had access to partial real-time data from the rig, documents from various aspects of the Macondo well's development and construction, witness interviews and testimony from public hearings. The team used the information that was made available by other companies, including Transocean, Halliburton and Cameron. Over the course of the investigation, the team involved over 50 internal and external specialists from a variety of fields: safety, operations, subsea, drilling, well control, cementing, well flow dynamic modeling, BOP systems and process hazard analysis. This report presents an analysis of the events leading up to the accident, eight key findings related to the causal chain of events and recommendations to enable the prevention of a similar accident. The investigation team worked

  7. Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report

    On the evening of April 20, 2010, a well control event allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in explosions and fire on the rig. Eleven people lost their lives, and 17 others were injured. The fire, which was fed by hydrocarbons from the well, continued for 36 hours until the rig sank. Hydrocarbons continued to flow from the reservoir through the wellbore and the blowout preventer (BOP) for 87 days, causing a spill of national significance. BP Exploration and Production Inc. was the lease operator of Mississippi Canyon Block 252, which contains the Macondo well. BP formed an investigation team that was charged with gathering the facts surrounding the accident, analyzing available information to identify possible causes and making recommendations to enable prevention of similar accidents in the future. The BP investigation team began its work immediately in the aftermath of the accident, working independently from other BP spill response activities and organizations. The ability to gather information was limited by a scarcity of physical evidence and restricted access to potentially relevant witnesses. The team had access to partial real-time data from the rig, documents from various aspects of the Macondo well's development and construction, witness interviews and testimony from public hearings. The team used the information that was made available by other companies, including Transocean, Halliburton and Cameron. Over the course of the investigation, the team involved over 50 internal and external specialists from a variety of fields: safety, operations, subsea, drilling, well control, cementing, well flow dynamic modeling, BOP systems and process hazard analysis. This report presents an analysis of the events leading up to the accident, eight key findings related to the causal chain of events and recommendations to enable the prevention of a similar accident. The investigation team worked separately

  8. A new NEA expert group on accident-tolerant fuels

    After the events at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011, enhancing the accident tolerance of light water reactors (LWRs) became a topic of serious discussion. One outcome of those discussions has been to promote research into the development of advanced fuels and more robust reactor system technologies with improved performance, reliability and safety characteristics during normal operations and under accident conditions. The Fukushima Daiichi accident has highlighted in particular the importance of reducing hydrogen production rates and increasing fission product retention during extended loss of cooling accidents. In this context, the NEA organised two international workshops to share information and discuss technical and safety issues associated with the development of accident-tolerant fuels (ATFs) for LWRs. Presentations were given by experts from various organisations, industry and regulatory bodies of NEA member countries, as well as from representatives of international bodies. The presentations focused on lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the desired characteristics of ATFs, potential design options and candidate materials, as well as the current state of the art in related modelling and simulation methods. During discussions following these workshop presentations, delegates agreed to establish a collaborative framework on ATFs within the NEA. Reporting to the Nuclear Science Committee, the Expert Group on Accident-tolerant Fuels for Light Water Reactors (EGATFL) will define and carry out a programme of work to help advance the scientific knowledge needed to provide the technical underpinning for the development of advanced LWR fuels with more enhanced accident tolerance compared to currently used zircaloy/UO2 fuels. The group will foster information exchange on material properties and relevant phenomenological experiments, carry out state-of-the-art reviews, organise benchmark studies and foster international

  9. Development of TRAIN for accident management

    Severe accident management can be defined as the use of existing and alternative resources, systems, and actions to prevent or mitigate a core-melt accident in nuclear power plants. TRAIN (Training pRogram for AMP In NPP), developed for training control room staff and the technical group, is introduced in this paper. The TRAIN composes of phenomenological knowledge base (KB), accident sequence KB and accident management procedures with AM strategy control diagrams and information needs. This TRAIN might contribute to training them by obtaining phenomenological knowledge of severe accidents, understanding plant vulnerabilities, and solving problems under high stress. (author)

  10. Cost per severe accident as an index for severe accident consequence assessment and its applications

    The Fukushima Accident emphasizes the need to integrate the assessments of health effects, economic impacts, social impacts and environmental impacts, in order to perform a comprehensive consequence assessment of severe accidents in nuclear power plants. “Cost per severe accident” is introduced as an index for that purpose. The calculation methodology, including the consequence analysis using level 3 probabilistic risk assessment code OSCAAR and the calculation method of the cost per severe accident, is proposed. This methodology was applied to a virtual 1,100 MWe boiling water reactor. The breakdown of the cost per severe accident was provided. The radiation effect cost, the relocation cost and the decontamination cost were the three largest components. Sensitivity analyses were carried out, and parameters sensitive to cost per severe accident were specified. The cost per severe accident was compared with the amount of source terms, to demonstrate the performance of the cost per severe accident as an index to evaluate severe accident consequences. The ways to use the cost per severe accident for optimization of radiation protection countermeasures and for estimation of the effects of accident management strategies are discussed as its applications. - Highlights: • Cost per severe accident is used for severe accident consequence assessment. • Assessments of health, economic, social and environmental impacts are included. • Radiation effect, relocation and decontamination costs are important cost components. • Cost per severe accident can be used to optimize radiation protection measures. • Effects of accident management can be estimated using the cost per severe accident

  11. ENGAGEMENT OF THE SERBIAN ARMY IN HELPING CIVILIANS IN THE EVENT OF NUCLEAR AND CHEMICAL ACCIDENTS

    INDJIC DEJAN R.; TERZIC MIROSLAV R.; ZIGIC STEVAN V.; RUTIC SRDJAN Z.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear and chemical accidents in modern society often cause devastating consequences to people, material resources and the environment. This kind of accident requires special procedures and activities during the elimination of the consequences, because of the specific characteristics of highly toxic substances used in nuclear and chemical plants. The Serbian Army with its units and organizations can contribute significantly to the implementation of tasks of eliminating the consequences of su...

  12. Traffic Accident Propagation Properties and Control Measures for Urban Links Based on Cellular Automata

    Xian-sheng Li; Xue-lian Zheng; Wei-wei Guo; Yuan-yuan Ren; Yu-ning Wang; Meng Yang

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of urban transport and the sharp increase in vehicle population, traffic accidents form one of the most important causes of urban traffic congestion other than the imbalance between traffic supply and demand. Traffic congestion causes severe problems, such as environment contamination and energy dissipation. Therefore, it would be useful to analyze the congestion propagation characteristics after traffic accidents. Numerical analysis and computer simulation were two...

  13. International cooperation and challenges: Understanding cross-cultural issues in the processes of accident

    Li, Wen-Chin; Young, Hong-Tsu; Wang, Thomas; Harris, Don

    2007-01-01

    The idea that national cultural characteristics play a part in aviation safety had been suggested by Helmreich & Merritt (1998). This research involved around 45 aviation accident investigators from different cultural backgrounds and investigated attribution of causal factors in the Ueberlingen accident report through the application of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (Wiegmann & Shappell, 2003). Hofstede’s (1991 & 2001) cultural dimensions draw a clear picture of the att...

  14. International cooperation and challenges: Understanding cross-cultural issues in the processes of accident investigation

    Li, Wen-Chin; Young, Hong-Tsu; Wang, Thomas; Harris, Don

    2007-01-01

    The idea that national cultural characteristics play a part in aviation safety had been suggested by Helmreich & Merritt (1998). This research involved around 45 aviation accident investigators from different cultural backgrounds and investigated attribution of causal factors in the Ueberlingen accident report through the application of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (Wiegmann & Shappell, 2003). Hofstede’s (1991 & 2001) cultural dimensions draw a clear picture of the att...

  15. Method for risk analysis of nuclear reactor accidents

    A method is developed for deriving a set of equations relating the public risk in potential nuclear reactor accidents to the basic variables, such as population distributions and radioactive releases, which determine the consequences of the accidents. The equations can be used to determine the risk for different values of the basic variables without the need of complex computer programs and can be used to determine the variable values which are needed to satisfy various risk criteria. The methodology developed in this study consists of two steps. The first step involves fitting the risk distributions of frequency versus consequence to parametric distributions which contain a small number of parameters. The second step involves deriving the equations which relate the distribution parameters to the basic variables of interest. Regression techniques are used for this second step. The methodology is demonstrated for examples based on the results of the Reactor Safety Study. The calculated distributions of early fatalities in nuclear reactor accidents and the historical records of fatalities in hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes and dam failures are examined to determine an appropriate family of parametric distributions. From these examinations, the Weibull distribution is found to be appropriate for all of the examined events. A set of equations is then derived which relate the population distribution and the parameters of the Weibull distributions for early fatalities from PWR accidents. Regression equations relating the parameters to the characteristics of radioactive releases are also derived

  16. Neural network-based expert system for severe accident management

    This paper presents the results of the second phase of a three-phase Severe Accident Management expert system program underway. The primary objectives of the second phase were to develop and demonstrate four capabilities of neural networks with respect to nuclear power plant severe accident monitoring and prediction. A second objective of the program was to develop an interactive graphical user interface which presented the system's information in an easily accessible and straightforward manner to the user. This paper describes the technical and regulatory foundation upon which the expert system is based and provides a background on the development of a new severe accident management tool. This tool provides data to assist in; (1) planning and developing priorities for recovery actions, (2) evaluating recovery action feasibility, (3) identifying recovery action options, and (4) assessing the timing and possible effects of potential recovery strategies. These performance characteristics represent the goals identified for the Severe Accident Management Strategies Online Network (SAMSON) which is currently under development. 4 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Development and validation of Maanshan severe accident management guidelines

    Maanshan is a Westinghouse pressurized water reactor Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) located in south Taiwan. The Severe Accident Management Guideline (SAMG) of Maanshan NPP is developed based on the Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG) SAMG. The Maanshan SAMG is developed at the end of 2002. MAAP4 code is used as tool to validate the SAMG strategies. The development process and characteristics of Maanshan SAMG is described. A Station BlackOut (SBO) accident for Maanshan NPP which occurred in March 2001 is cited as a reference case for SAMG validation. A SBO accident is simulated first. The severe accident progression is simulated and the entry condition of SAMG is described. Mitigation actions are then applied to demonstrate the effect of SAMG. A RCS depressurization, RCS injection, and containment hydrogen reduction strategies are used to restore the system to a stable condition as power is recovered. Hot leg creep rupture is occurs during the mitigation action that is not considered in WOG SAMG. The effect of the RCS depressurization, RCS injection, and containment hydrogen reduction strategies are analyzed with MAAP4 code

  18. Aerosol Characterization in Containment Air during Severe Accident

    To ensure the reduction of the radioactive aerosol concentration and to guarantee the filter efficiency in accident scenarios with various conditions, it is essential to characterize the aerosols in the containment air. This study is to investigate the aerosol size distribution and the concentration in containment air during the severe accident scenario by using numerical simulations. NAUA code was used to model the behavior of radioactive aerosol particles. As input parameters for NAUA simulation, the data of the currently operating nuclear power plant (OPR-1000) was used and conservative thermal hydraulic conditions were provided from the conservative simulation results. For verification, the simulation results were compared with the data found in the literature. Aerosol in containment air during severe accident is modeled by using NAUA code. The aerosol characteristics are calculated and variations due to some parameters are investigated. For verification, the main results are compared with the information of the previous works. The simulation results in this study for particle size distribution in containment air during severe accident were in general agreement with previously reported measurements. The simulation results and findings would be useful data for prototypic CFVS design and for planning further experimental studies

  19. Analysis of a hypothetical criticality accident involving damp, low-enriched UO2 powder

    Powder blenders are used in nuclear fuel fabrication facilities to blend dry low-enriched uranium (LEU) oxide powder to achieve uniform physical and chemical characteristics as required by product and process specifications. Blenders rely principally on moderation control for nuclear criticality safety and are, therefore, subject to criticality reviews since an inadvertent ingress of water could lead to a criticality accident. For any hypothetical accident scenario, an estimate of the total number of fissions is needed to determine the on-site and off-site effects of such accidents. Fission history information for criticality accidents involving solutions and metal assemblies has been well established from both actual accidents and experimentally induced excursion data. However, previous knowledge on the excursion characteristics of damp LEU powder systems is very limited. Recent work by the Commissariat a l'Engergie Atomique/U.K. Atomic Energy Authority considers a wet UO2 system, which includes both model development (i.e., POWDER code) and some experimental studies. In this paper, the authors report on the development of a computer model for predicting the excursion characteristics of a postulated, hypothetical, crticality accident involving a homogeneous mixture of low-enriched UO2 powder and water contained in a cylindrical blender

  20. Emergency department radiation accident protocol.

    Leonard, R B; Ricks, R C

    1980-09-01

    Every emergency department faces the potential problem of handling one or more victims of a radiation accident. While emergency departments near nuclear power plants or isotope production laboratories probably have a detailed protocol for such emergencies, a similar protocol is needed for the emergency department that may have to handle an isolated event, such as a vehicular accident that spills radioactive material and contaminates passengers or bystanders. This communication attempts to answer that need, presenting a step-by-step protocol for decontamination of a radiation victim, the rationale on which each step is based, a list of needed supplies, and a short summary of decorporation procedures that should be started in the emergency department. PMID:7425419

  1. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1987-01-01

    A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC......); 59% above 0.08%. In all cases where a pillion passenger was killed, the operator of the motorcycle had a BAC greater than 0.08%. Of the killed counterparts 2 were non-intoxicated, 2 had a BAC greater than 0.08%, and 4 were not tested. The results advocate that the law should restrict alcohol...... consumption by pillion passengers as well as by the motorcycle operator. Suggestions made to extend the data base needed for developing appropriate alcohol countermeasures by collecting sociodemographic data on drivers killed or seriously injured should be supported....

  2. Psychological factors of radiation accidents

    With reference to world, internal and personal experience, an attempt is made to reveal psychological mechanisms determining the attitude of a person to ionizing radiation using for this purpose the conceptions of mental stress and psychological adaptation. On the example of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, in the light of the above conceptions, the paper describes psychic reactions of the personnel of the nuclear power plant and other groups of people to the heavy radiation accident. For improvement of the activity for liquidation of the accident after-effects it is suggested to use the system of psychophysiological support of the rescue units, including psychophysiological training and support, as well as functional rehabilitation of specialists. 11 refs

  3. Accident Simulation: Design and Results

    Idasiak, Vincent; David, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    International audience The French legislation regulates the functioning of factories that may be dangerous towards their environment. This legislation imposes the creation of an Internal Operation Plan (P.O.I.) on the plant managers. Those plans describe the proceedings that have to be implemented in case of an accident. Within a framework involving our laboratory and a gas company we have designed a software to create, maintain and execute P.O.I.s . In this paper, in addition to the softw...

  4. Transport accident emergency response plan

    To comply with the IAEA recommendations for the implementation of an Emergency Response Plan as described in Safety Series 87, Transnucleaire, a company deeply involved in the road and rail transports of the fuel cycle, masters means of Emergency Response in the event of a transport accident. This paper aims at analyzing the solutions adopted for the implementation of an Emergency Response Plan and the development of a technical support and adapted means for the recovery of heavy packagings. (authors)

  5. Standards for reactor accident cases

    The Committee on Standards for reactor accident cases in the Netherlands published its recommendations to the Minister of Health. Maximum permissible quantities of radiation and radionuclide intake are presented for adults and children as well as pregnant women. Exposure limit standards for the whole body as well as specific organs and other parts are given. Also considered is the contamination of cattle and cows' milk. The standards are compared with those of the ICRP and the English Medical Research Council

  6. Radiation accident in Viet Nam

    In November 1992 a Vietnamese research physicist was working with a microtron accelerator when he received a radiation overexposure that required the subsequent amputation of his right hand. A team from the International Atomic Energy Agency visited Hanoi in March 1993 to carry out an investigation. It was concluded that the accident occurred primarily due to a lack of safety systems although the lack of both written procedures and training in basic radiation safety were also major contributors. (author)

  7. Accident/Mishap Investigation System

    Keller, Richard; Wolfe, Shawn; Gawdiak, Yuri; Carvalho, Robert; Panontin, Tina; Williams, James; Sturken, Ian

    2007-01-01

    InvestigationOrganizer (IO) is a Web-based collaborative information system that integrates the generic functionality of a database, a document repository, a semantic hypermedia browser, and a rule-based inference system with specialized modeling and visualization functionality to support accident/mishap investigation teams. This accessible, online structure is designed to support investigators by allowing them to make explicit, shared, and meaningful links among evidence, causal models, findings, and recommendations.

  8. The reactor accident of Chernobyl

    The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.)

  9. Thyroid blocking after nuclear accidents

    Following the Chernobyl accident a marked increase in thyroid cancer incidence among the children in Belarus, the Ukraine and Russia has been detected, strongly suggesting a causal relationship to the large amounts of radioactive iodine isotopes in the resulting fallout. Taking into account the Chernobyl experience the German Committee on Radiation Protection decided to reduce the intervention levels on the basis of the 1989 WHO recommendations and adopted a new concept concerning thyroid blocking in response to nuclear power plant accidents. Experimental animal studies and theoretical considerations show that thyroid blocking with potassium iodide (KI) in a dose of about 1.4 mg per kg body weight is most effective in reducing irradiation to the thyroid from the intake of radioiodine nuclides, provided KI is given within 2 hours after exposure. According to the new concept, persons over 45 years of age should not take iodine tablets because the drug could cause a greater health risk due to prevalent functional thyroid autonomy in this age group than the radioactive iodine averted by KI. On the basis of accident analysis and the new philosophy suitable distribution strategies and logistics are proposed and discussed. (orig.)

  10. Chernobyl accident. Exposures and effects

    The Chernobyl accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986 happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance. The operators, in violation of safety regulations, had switched off important control systems and allowed the reactor to reach unstable, low-power conditions. A sudden power surge caused a steam explosion that ruptured the reactor vessel and allowed further violent fuel-steam interactions that destroyed the reactor and the reactor building. The Chernobyl accident was the most serious to have ever occurred in the nuclear power industry. The accident caused the early death of 30 power plant employees and fire fighters and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by several million people. Radionuclides released from the reactor that caused exposure of individuals were mainly iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Iodine-131 has a short radioactive half-life (8 days), but it can be transferred relatively rapidly through milk and leafy vegetables to humans. Iodine becomes localized in the thyroid gland. For reasons of intake of these foods, size of thyroid gland and metabolism, the thyroid doses are usually greater to infants and children than to adults. The isotopes of caesium have relatively long half-lives (caesium-134: 2 years; caesium-137: 30 years). These radionuclides cause long-term exposures through the ingestion pathway and from external exposure to these radionuclides deposited on the ground. In addition to radiation exposure, the accident caused long-term changes in the lives of people living in the contaminated regions, since measures intended to limit radiation doses included resettlements, changes in food supplies, and restrictions in activities of individuals and families. These changes were accompanied by major economic, social and political changes in the affected countries resulting

  11. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Galstyan I.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS, developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

  12. Leukaemia incidents after Chernobyl accident

    Romania and especially its Eastern territory were among the most heavily affected area after Chernobyl accident. The objective of our study was to investigate whether or not the nuclear accident determined an increased number of leukaemia cases. The specific rates of leukaemia incidents by age group were calculated in 588167 children aged 0-6 years in April 1986 and 99917 children which have been exposed 'in utero'. The rates of 1989-1994 period were compared with the rates of 1980-1985 period. The incidence rates were lower in the exposed group than that in controls for children under 1 year (20.52/105 inh vs 23.11/105 inh), 1-3 years (13.26/105 inh vs 16.11/105 inh) and 4-6 years (9.58/105 inh vs 10.58/105 inh). The cohort of 'in utero' exposed children presented a leukaemia incidences insignificantly higher than that before the accident (23.10/105 inh vs 15.93/105 inh)

  13. Accident analysis and DOE criteria

    In analyzing the radiological consequences of major accidents at DOE facilities one finds that many facilities fall so far below the limits of DOE Order 6430 that compliance is easily demonstrated by simple analysis. For those cases where the amount of radioactive material and the dispersive energy available are enough for accident consequences to approach the limits, the models and assumptions used become critical. In some cases the models themselves are the difference between meeting the criteria or not meeting them. Further, in one case, we found that not only did the selection of models determine compliance but the selection of applicable criteria from different chapters of Order 6430 also made the difference. DOE has recognized the problem of different criteria in different chapters applying to one facility, and has proceeded to make changes for the sake of consistency. We have proposed to outline the specific steps needed in an accident analysis and suggest appropriate models, parameters, and assumptions. As a result we feed DOE siting and design criteria will be more fairly and consistently applied

  14. Severe accidents at nuclear power plants. Their risk assessment and accident management

    This document is to explain the severe accident issues. Severe Accidents are defined as accidents which are far beyond the design basis and result in severe damage of the core. Accidents at Three Mild Island in USA and at Chernobyl in former Soviet Union are examples of severe accidents. The causes and progressions of the accidents as well as the actions taken are described. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is a method to estimate the risk of severe accidents at nuclear reactors. The methodology for PSA is briefly described and current status on its application to safety related issues is introduced. The acceptability of the risks which inherently accompany every technology is then discussed. Finally, provision of accident management in Japan is introduced, including the description of accident management measures proposed for BWRs and PWRs. (author)

  15. Accident analysis of recreation vehicle. Human factors from statistic analysis and case study; RV sha no jiko bunseki. Tokei bunseki to jikorei bunseki ni miru untensha yoin

    Takubo, N. [Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis, Tokyo (Japan); Mori, K. [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Concern is heightening recently on traffic accidents associated with leisure activities. Therefore, with an objective to obtain referential information for preventing accidents caused by recreational vehicles, macroscopic (statistical) and microscopic (case study) investigations were carried out on accidents. As a result of analyzing the statistics, a trend was discovered that recreational vehicles cause accidents at higher rate than by other types of vehicles in the following types of accidents: accidents with pedestrians, children and elderly people, accidents caused by young drivers, and accidents during personal activities. Furthermore, four cases were analyzed on accident trends. Accident trends must be discussed from the following two viewpoints: frequency in occurrence of circumstances (chances) that link with accidents, and how high the accident rate (hazard risk) is under such circumstances. The former point has high correlation with how recreational vehicles are used, and drivers` attributes, and the latter point with structures and motion characteristics of recreational vehicles (for example, leisure use, cars driven by young drivers, and high vehicle height). 1 ref., 12 figs.

  16. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B4C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding rate

  17. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Hoejerup, F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Puska, E.K. [VTT Energy, Helsinki (Finland); Nilsson, Lars [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Sjoevall, H. [Teoliisuuden Voima Oy (Finland)

    1999-11-01

    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B{sub 4}C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding

  18. Safety criteria and guidelines for MSR accident analysis

    Accident analysis for Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) has been investigated at ORNL for MSRE in 1960s. Since then, safety criteria or guidelines have not been defined for MSR accident analysis. Regarding the safety criteria, the authors showed one proposal in this paper. In order to establish guidelines for MSR accident analysis, we have to investigate all possible accidents. In this paper, the authors describe the philosophy for accident analysis, and show 40 possible accidents. They are at first classified as external cause accidents and internal cause accidents. Since the former ones are generic accidents, we investigate only the latter ones, and categorize them to 4 types, such as power excursion accident, flow decrease accident, fuel-salt leak accident, and other accidents mostly specific to MSR. Each accident is described briefly, with some numerical results by the authors. (author)

  19. Radiation Accident Experience: Causes and Lessons Learned

    Since inception of the nuclear energy program in the United States of America, the Atomic. Energy Commission (USAEC) has maintained an extensive system for the reporting and review of radiation accidents in USAEC federal and licensing activities. Accidents required to be reported fall-into two main categories: (1) Accidents causing or threatening to cause radiation exposure to industrial workers or to the general public; (2) Accidents causing damage to or shutdown of facilities, or damage to public property. While many of the reported accidents carry with them the potential for exposure of persons to radioactivity, the cases reported, in this analysis are limited to those where certain prescribed levels of exposure have been exceeded or where significant uptake by the critical organ has occurred. This paper presents detailed analyses of the accident experience encountered in USAEC programs over the past nine years, including: (1) A breakdown of the types of work activities in the nuclear industry under which radiation accidents have occurred; (2) Characterization of the causes of such accidents as related to the types of work activities; (3) Lessons to be learned both in avoiding such accidents and in emergency planning, should such accidents occur. (author)

  20. Strategy generation in accident management support

    An increased interest for research in the field of Accident Management can be noted. Several international programmes have been started in order to be able to understand the basic physical and chemical phenomena in accident conditions. A feasibility study has shown that it would be possible to design and develop a computerized support system for plant staff in accident situations. To achieve this goal the Halden Project has initiated a research programme on Computerized Accident Management Support (CAMS project). The aim is to utilize the capabilities of computerized tools to support the plant staff during the various accident stages. The system will include identification of the accident state, assessment of the future development of the accident and planning of accident mitigation strategies. A prototype is developed to support operators and the Technical Support Centre in decision making during serious accident in nuclear power plants. A rule based system has been built to take care of the strategy generation. This system assists plant personnel in planning control proposals and mitigation strategies from normal operation to severe accident conditions. The ideal of a safety objective tree and knowledge from the emergency procedures have been used. Future prediction requires good state identification of the plant status and some knowledge about the history of some critical variables. The information needs to be validated as well. Accurate calculations in simulators and a large database including all important information form the plant will help the strategy planning. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs

  1. The severe accident research program at KIT

    The understanding of the plant behaviour under beyond design basis accidents as well as the interaction of the operators with the plant is the most important prerequisite to develop proper strategies to both control the accident progression and to minimize the radiological risk that may derive from operating nuclear power plants. In view of the Fukushima accident, a review of many issues important to safety e.g. severe accident analysis methodologies and assumptions, emergency operational procedures, severe accident management procedures (SAM), decision lines of the emergency team, etc. is needed to draw conclusions in order to avoid a repetition of Fukushima-like accidents.In addition, situations like the ‘black control room’ need to be reconsidered and a re-evaluation of the necessary instrumentation for hypothetical severe accident situations is urgently needed. If the real plant state during core meltdown accidents is unknown, no effective measures can be initiated by the emergency team in order to assure the integrity of the safety barriers and hence the release of radioactive material to the environment. The work performed in this area is integrated in the European Networks such as SARNET (Severe Accident Research Network) for the severe accidents, and for emergency management in the NERIS-TP. In future all the activities will be included in the NUGENIA platform. A brief overview of the KIT activities together with the experimental test facilities is given

  2. Temporal Statistic of Traffic Accidents in Turkey

    Erdogan, S.; Yalcin, M.; Yilmaz, M.; Korkmaz Takim, A.

    2015-10-01

    Traffic accidents form clusters in terms of geographic space and over time which themselves exhibit distinct spatial and temporal patterns. There is an imperative need to understand how, where and when traffic accidents occur in order to develop appropriate accident reduction strategies. An improved understanding of the location, time and reasons for traffic accidents makes a significant contribution to preventing them. Traffic accident occurrences have been extensively studied from different spatial and temporal points of view using a variety of methodological approaches. In literature, less research has been dedicated to the temporal patterns of traffic accidents. In this paper, the numbers of traffic accidents are normalized according to the traffic volume and the distribution and fluctuation of these accidents is examined in terms of Islamic time intervals. The daily activities and worship of Muslims are arranged according to these time intervals that are spaced fairly throughout the day according to the position of the sun. The Islamic time intervals are never been used before to identify the critical hour for traffic accidents in the world. The results show that the sunrise is the critical time that acts as a threshold in the rate of traffic accidents throughout Turkey in Islamic time intervals.

  3. Numerical Analysis on Transient Characteristics of AP1000 Passive Residual Heat Removal System Under Station Blackout Accident%全厂断电事故下 AP1000非能动余热排出系统瞬态特性数值分析

    王宝生; 王冬青; 董化平; 姜晶; 张建民

    2013-01-01

    Based on one-dimensional governing equations , the mathematical models of the reactor primary coolant system and the passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS) were established .A dynamic simulation program PRHRSDSC was developed to analyze the transient characteristics of the system .The program was used to simulate the transient process of PRHRS during station blackout accident .The calculated results were compared with LOFTRAN code .The results show that the core residual heat can be removed efficiently using natural circulation to keep the coolant at sub-cooled state and the peak pressure is below the limit of the operation pressure .T he parameter varia-tion trends are well consistent with LOFTRAN code and the rationality of the model is demonstrated .%在一维质量、动量和能量守恒方程基础上建立了A P1000反应堆主冷却剂系统及非能动余热排出系统数学模型,并编制了用于该系统瞬态特性分析的动态仿真程序PRHRSDSC。模拟了非能动余热排出系统在全厂断电事故下的瞬态响应过程,并将计算结果与西屋公司的 LOFTRAN程序结果进行对比。结果表明:系统可依靠自然循环有效导出堆芯余热,一回路冷却剂温度维持在过冷状态,峰值压力未超过运行压力限值,各参数的变化趋势符合良好,证明了建模的合理性。

  4. Risk and protection factors in fatal accidents.

    Dupont, Emmanuelle; Martensen, Heike; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2010-03-01

    This paper aims at addressing the interest and appropriateness of performing accident severity analyses that are limited to fatal accident data. Two methodological issues are specifically discussed, namely the accident-size factors (the number of vehicles in the accident and their level of occupancy) and the comparability of the baseline risk. It is argued that - although these two issues are generally at play in accident severity analyses - their effects on, e.g., the estimation of survival probability, are exacerbated if the analysis is limited to fatal accident data. As a solution, it is recommended to control for these effects by (1) including accident-size indicators in the model, (2) focusing on different sub-groups of road-users while specifying the type of opponent in the model, so as to ensure that comparable baseline risks are worked with. These recommendations are applied in order to investigate risk and protection factors of car occupants involved in fatal accidents using data from a recently set up European Fatal Accident Investigation database (Reed and Morris, 2009). The results confirm that the estimated survival probability is affected by accident-size factors and by type of opponent. The car occupants' survival chances are negatively associated with their own age and that of their vehicle. The survival chances are also lower when seatbelt is not used. Front damage, as compared to other damaged car areas, appears to be associated with increased survival probability, but mostly in the case in which the accident opponent was another car. The interest of further investigating accident-size factors and opponent effects in fatal accidents is discussed. PMID:20159090

  5. Specific features of RBMK severe accidents progression and approach to the accident management

    Fundamental construction features of the LWGR facilities (absence of common external containment shell, disintegrated circulation circuit and multichannel reactor core, positive vapor reactivity coefficient, high mass of thermally capacious graphite moderator) predetermining development of assumed heavy non-projected accidents and handling them are treated. Rating the categories of the reactor core damages for non-projected accidents and accident types producing specific grope of damages is given. Passing standard non-projected accidents, possible methods of attack accident consequences, as well as methods of calculated analysis of non-projected accidents are demonstrated

  6. Characteristics of avalanche accidents and a overview of avalanche equipment

    Mateusz Biela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Avalanches are one of the most spectacular phenomena which may occur in the mountains. Unfortunately they are often caused by humans and pose for him a big danger. In the Polish Tatras alone they represent 18% of all causes of death among 1996-2013. One fourth of the people caught by an avalanche dies, and their chances of survival depends on the depth of burial, burial time, the presence of an air pocket and the degree of injuries. The most common cause of death is asphyxiation, the next is injuries and hypothermia is the rarest cause of death. The fate of the buried people depends on their equipment such as avalanche transceiver, ABS backpack and AvaLung, and also from the equipment of the people who are seeking (avalanche probes, avalanche transceiver and shovels, which has been proven in practice and research.

  7. Characteristics of small mammals in the Chernobyl' NPP accident zone

    The results of studying the low-dose ionizing radiation effects on specific features of wild rodent ecology (species variety, number dynamics, sex and age structure of the population), as well as the levels of radionuclide accumulation in animal bodies are discussed. Radionuclide concentrations detected in animal tissues in 1986 is connected with radioactive dust absorption through respiratory organs and skin-adipose tissues. The absorption is proportional to the environment primary contamination density and does not depend on animal species. The main path of radionuclides intake is their absorption via food chains in 1987

  8. Nuclear accident dosimetry studies at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Two critical assemblies have been characterized at the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF) for use in testing nuclear accident dosimeters and related devices. These device, Godiva IV and SHEBA II, have very different characteristics in both operation and emitted neutron energy spectra. The Godiva assembly is a bare metal fast burst device with a hard spectrum. This spectrum can be modified by use of several shields including steel, concrete, and plexiglas. The modified spectra vary in both average neutron energy and in the specific distribution of the neutron energies in the intermediate energy range. This makes for a very favorable test arrangement as the response ratios between different activation foils used in accident dosimeters are significantly altered such as the ratio between gold, copper, and sulfur elements. The SHEBA device is a solution assembly which has both a slow ramp and decay period and a much softer spectrum. The uncertainly introduced in the response of fast decay foils such as indium can therefore be evaluated into the test results. The neutron energy spectrum for each configuration was measured during low power operations with a multisphere system. These measurements were extended to high dose pulsed operation by use of TLDs moderated TLDs, and special activation techniques. The assemblies were used in the testing of several accident dosimetry devices in studies modeled after the Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Studies that were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for about 25 years using the Health Physics Research Reactor. It is our intention to conduct these studies approximately annually for the evaluation of the nuclear accident dosimeter systems currently in use within the DOE, alternative systems used internationally, and new dosimeter designs being developed or considered for field application. Participation in selected studies will be open to all participants

  9. Road Traffic Accident Patterns: A Conceptual Grouping Approach to Evaluate Crash Clusters

    Nowakowska, Marzena

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the work is to highlight road traffic accident patterns in the context of interrelations between road characteristics and a traffic safety threat. The actual data concerning multi-vehicle accidents without pedestrians on non-urban roads in a chosen region of Poland was the subject of the research. The roadway and roadside data at the accident site have been combined with the crash data that define the roadway hazard, i.e. driver's behaviour, type and accident severity. The data were subject to multivariate segmentation by means of such conceptual grouping techniques as the K-means clustering algorithm and competitive artificial neural networks. The Ward's method was used as a supporting tool in establishing the final number of accident profiles. Six distinct accident patterns have been recognised, quantified and labelled, where the first, second and third one are typical of rural areas, the fourth and fifth - of built-up areas, and the last one - of intersections. The analysis indicates that apart from threat factors, the following road related features play an important role in road accident profiling tasks: area type and area development level, roadway surface condition, intersection indicator, shoulder type, and also to some extent: lighting conditions, shoulders' width, and horizontal curve radius.

  10. Development of Highly Survivable Power and Communication System for NPP Instruments under Severe Accident

    According to the detail report from the Fukushima nuclear accident, the failure of conventional instruments is mainly due to the following reasons. 1) Insufficient backup battery capacity after the station black out (SBO) 2) The malfunction or damage of instruments due to the extremely harsh ambient condition after the severe accident 3) The cut-off of power and communication cable due to the physical shocks of hydrogen explosion after the severe accident Since the current equipment qualification (EQ) for the NPP instruments is based on the design basis accident such as loss of coolant accident (LOCA), conventional instruments, which are examined under EQ condition, cannot guarantee their normal operation during the severe accident. A 7m-long-distance wireless power transfer and a radio frequency (RF) communication were introduced with conventional wired system to increase a redundancy. A heat isolation box and a harness are adopted to provide a protection from the expected physical shocks such as missiles and drastic increase of ambient temperature and pressure. A detail design principle of the highly survivable power and communication system, which has 4 sub-systems of a DCRS wireless power transfer, a Zigbee wireless communication, a GFRP harness, and a passive type router with a fly back regulator, has been presented in this paper. Each sub-system has been designed to have a robust operation characteristic regardless of the estimated physical shocks after the severe accident

  11. Development of Highly Survivable Power and Communication System for NPP Instruments under Severe Accident

    Yoo, Seung J.; Gu, Beom W.; Nguyen, Duy T.; Choi, Bo H.; Rim, Chun T. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So I. [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    According to the detail report from the Fukushima nuclear accident, the failure of conventional instruments is mainly due to the following reasons. 1) Insufficient backup battery capacity after the station black out (SBO) 2) The malfunction or damage of instruments due to the extremely harsh ambient condition after the severe accident 3) The cut-off of power and communication cable due to the physical shocks of hydrogen explosion after the severe accident Since the current equipment qualification (EQ) for the NPP instruments is based on the design basis accident such as loss of coolant accident (LOCA), conventional instruments, which are examined under EQ condition, cannot guarantee their normal operation during the severe accident. A 7m-long-distance wireless power transfer and a radio frequency (RF) communication were introduced with conventional wired system to increase a redundancy. A heat isolation box and a harness are adopted to provide a protection from the expected physical shocks such as missiles and drastic increase of ambient temperature and pressure. A detail design principle of the highly survivable power and communication system, which has 4 sub-systems of a DCRS wireless power transfer, a Zigbee wireless communication, a GFRP harness, and a passive type router with a fly back regulator, has been presented in this paper. Each sub-system has been designed to have a robust operation characteristic regardless of the estimated physical shocks after the severe accident.

  12. WHEN MODEL MEETS REALITY – A REVIEW OF SPAR LEVEL 2 MODEL AGAINST FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT

    Zhegang Ma

    2013-09-01

    The Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) models are a set of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) models used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate the risk of operations at U.S. nuclear power plants and provide inputs to risk informed regulatory process. A small number of SPAR Level 2 models have been developed mostly for feasibility study purpose. They extend the Level 1 models to include containment systems, group plant damage states, and model containment phenomenology and accident progression in containment event trees. A severe earthquake and tsunami hit the eastern coast of Japan in March 2011 and caused significant damages on the reactors in Fukushima Daiichi site. Station blackout (SBO), core damage, containment damage, hydrogen explosion, and intensive radioactivity release, which have been previous analyzed and assumed as postulated accident progression in PRA models, now occurred with various degrees in the multi-units Fukushima Daiichi site. This paper reviews and compares a typical BWR SPAR Level 2 model with the “real” accident progressions and sequences occurred in Fukushima Daiichi Units 1, 2, and 3. It shows that the SPAR Level 2 model is a robust PRA model that could very reasonably describe the accident progression for a real and complicated nuclear accident in the world. On the other hand, the comparison shows that the SPAR model could be enhanced by incorporating some accident characteristics for better representation of severe accident progression.

  13. Accident analysis of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor

    Yulianti, Yanti [Department of Physics, University of Lampung Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No.1 Bandar Lampung, Indonesia Email: y-yanti@unila.ac.id (Indonesia); Su’ud, Zaki [Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung, Indonesia Email: szaki@fi.itb.ac.id (Indonesia); Takaki, Naoyuki [Department of Nuclear Safety Engineering Cooperative Major in Nuclear Energy (Graduate School) 1-28-1 Tamazutsumi,Setagayaku, Tokyo158-8557, Japan Email: ntakaki@tcu.ac.jp (Japan)

    2015-04-16

    Thorium has lately attracted considerable attention because it is accumulating as a by-product of large scale rare earth mining. The objective of research is to analyze transient behavior of a heavy water cooled thorium breeder that is designed by Tokai University and Tokyo Institute of Technology. That is oxide fueled, PWR type reactor with heavy water as primary coolant. An example of the optimized core has relatively small moderator to fuel volume ratio (MFR) of 0.6 and the characteristics of the core are burn-up of 67 GWd/t, breeding ratio of 1.08, burn-up reactivity loss during cycles of < 0.2% dk/k, and negative coolant reactivity coefficient. One of the nuclear reactor accidents types examined here is Unprotected Transient over Power (UTOP) due to withdrawing of the control rod that result in the positive reactivity insertion so that the reactor power will increase rapidly. Another accident type is Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) that caused by failure of coolant pumps. To analyze the reactor accidents, neutron distribution calculation in the nuclear reactor is the most important factor. The best expression for the neutron distribution is the Boltzmann transport equation. However, solving this equation is very difficult so that the space-time diffusion equation is commonly used. Usually, space-time diffusion equation is solved by employing a point kinetics approach. However, this approach is less accurate for a spatially heterogeneous nuclear reactor and the nuclear reactor with quite large reactivity input. Direct method is therefore used to solve space-time diffusion equation which consider spatial factor in detail during nuclear reactor accident simulation. Set of equations that obtained from full implicit finite-difference method is solved by using iterative methods. The indication of UTOP accident is decreasing macroscopic absorption cross-section that results large external reactivity, and ULOF accident is indicated by decreasing coolant flow. The

  14. Accident analysis of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor

    Thorium has lately attracted considerable attention because it is accumulating as a by-product of large scale rare earth mining. The objective of research is to analyze transient behavior of a heavy water cooled thorium breeder that is designed by Tokai University and Tokyo Institute of Technology. That is oxide fueled, PWR type reactor with heavy water as primary coolant. An example of the optimized core has relatively small moderator to fuel volume ratio (MFR) of 0.6 and the characteristics of the core are burn-up of 67 GWd/t, breeding ratio of 1.08, burn-up reactivity loss during cycles of < 0.2% dk/k, and negative coolant reactivity coefficient. One of the nuclear reactor accidents types examined here is Unprotected Transient over Power (UTOP) due to withdrawing of the control rod that result in the positive reactivity insertion so that the reactor power will increase rapidly. Another accident type is Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) that caused by failure of coolant pumps. To analyze the reactor accidents, neutron distribution calculation in the nuclear reactor is the most important factor. The best expression for the neutron distribution is the Boltzmann transport equation. However, solving this equation is very difficult so that the space-time diffusion equation is commonly used. Usually, space-time diffusion equation is solved by employing a point kinetics approach. However, this approach is less accurate for a spatially heterogeneous nuclear reactor and the nuclear reactor with quite large reactivity input. Direct method is therefore used to solve space-time diffusion equation which consider spatial factor in detail during nuclear reactor accident simulation. Set of equations that obtained from full implicit finite-difference method is solved by using iterative methods. The indication of UTOP accident is decreasing macroscopic absorption cross-section that results large external reactivity, and ULOF accident is indicated by decreasing coolant flow. The

  15. Accident analysis of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor

    Yulianti, Yanti; Su'ud, Zaki; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2015-04-01

    Thorium has lately attracted considerable attention because it is accumulating as a by-product of large scale rare earth mining. The objective of research is to analyze transient behavior of a heavy water cooled thorium breeder that is designed by Tokai University and Tokyo Institute of Technology. That is oxide fueled, PWR type reactor with heavy water as primary coolant. An example of the optimized core has relatively small moderator to fuel volume ratio (MFR) of 0.6 and the characteristics of the core are burn-up of 67 GWd/t, breeding ratio of 1.08, burn-up reactivity loss during cycles of coolant reactivity coefficient. One of the nuclear reactor accidents types examined here is Unprotected Transient over Power (UTOP) due to withdrawing of the control rod that result in the positive reactivity insertion so that the reactor power will increase rapidly. Another accident type is Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) that caused by failure of coolant pumps. To analyze the reactor accidents, neutron distribution calculation in the nuclear reactor is the most important factor. The best expression for the neutron distribution is the Boltzmann transport equation. However, solving this equation is very difficult so that the space-time diffusion equation is commonly used. Usually, space-time diffusion equation is solved by employing a point kinetics approach. However, this approach is less accurate for a spatially heterogeneous nuclear reactor and the nuclear reactor with quite large reactivity input. Direct method is therefore used to solve space-time diffusion equation which consider spatial factor in detail during nuclear reactor accident simulation. Set of equations that obtained from full implicit finite-difference method is solved by using iterative methods. The indication of UTOP accident is decreasing macroscopic absorption cross-section that results large external reactivity, and ULOF accident is indicated by decreasing coolant flow. The power reactor has a peak value

  16. Protective Behaviour of Citizens to Transport Accidents Involving Hazardous Materials: A Discrete Choice Experiment Applied to Populated Areas nearby Waterways.

    Esther W de Bekker-Grob

    Full Text Available To improve the information for and preparation of citizens at risk to hazardous material transport accidents, a first important step is to determine how different characteristics of hazardous material transport accidents will influence citizens' protective behaviour. However, quantitative studies investigating citizens' protective behaviour in case of hazardous material transport accidents are scarce.A discrete choice experiment was conducted among subjects (19-64 years living in the direct vicinity of a large waterway. Scenarios were described by three transport accident characteristics: odour perception, smoke/vapour perception, and the proportion of people in the environment that were leaving at their own discretion. Subjects were asked to consider each scenario as realistic and to choose the alternative that was most appealing to them: staying, seeking shelter, or escaping. A panel error component model was used to quantify how different transport accident characteristics influenced subjects' protective behaviour.The response was 44% (881/1,994. The predicted probability that a subject would stay ranged from 1% in case of a severe looking accident till 62% in case of a mild looking accident. All three transport accident characteristics proved to influence protective behaviour. Particularly a perception of strong ammonia or mercaptan odours and visible smoke/vapour close to citizens had the strongest positive influence on escaping. In general, 'escaping' was more preferred than 'seeking shelter', although stated preference heterogeneity among subjects for these protective behaviour options was substantial. Males were less willing to seek shelter than females, whereas elderly people were more willing to escape than younger people.Various characteristics of transport accident involving hazardous materials influence subjects' protective behaviour. The preference heterogeneity shows that information needs to be targeted differently depending on

  17. Worst case reactor accidents: a paradox

    The preliminary results from the application of improved source term methodology indicate a diversity of results for plants of different design, and for different accident sequences postulated for the same plant. While significant reductions from previous estimates are calculated with the new methodology for some accident scenarios, the same methodology predicts release magnitudes of minor difference from those produced with earlier methods for other accident sequences and plants. This divergence of calculated results precludes the adoption of a worst case as a meaningful characterization of severe accident consequences. This situation reinforces the need to consider the consequences of severe accidents only in light of their probability, even in those applications outside the traditional risk assessment process, and may necessitate re-consideration of a probability threshold for extremely low probability events. A practical approach to such a threshold value is discussed, based on NRC's experience with severe accident considerations in environmental impact statements

  18. Public health response to the nuclear accident

    The Act on Special Measures Concerning Nuclear Emergency Preparedness was established in 2000 as a specific act within the broader Disaster Control Measures and Reactor Regulation Act which was written in response to the JCO Criticality Accident of 1999. However, this regulatory system did not address all aspects of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. This was especially evident with public health issues. For example, radioactive screening, prophylactic use of potassium iodide, support for vulnerable people, and management of contaminated dead bodies were all requested immediately after the occurrence of the nuclear power plant accident but were not included in these regulatory acts. Recently, the regulatory system for nuclear accidents has been revised in response to this reactor accident. Herein we review the revised plan for nuclear reactor accidents in the context of public health. (author)

  19. Accident scenario diagnostics with neural networks

    Nuclear power plants are very complex systems. The diagnoses of transients or accident conditions is very difficult because a large amount of information, which is often noisy, or intermittent, or even incomplete, need to be processed in real time. To demonstrate their potential application to nuclear power plants, neural networks axe used to monitor the accident scenarios simulated by the training simulator of TVA's Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant. A self-organization network is used to compress original data to reduce the total number of training patterns. Different accident scenarios are closely related to different key parameters which distinguish one accident scenario from another. Therefore, the accident scenarios can be monitored by a set of small size neural networks, called modular networks, each one of which monitors only one assigned accident scenario, to obtain fast training and recall. Sensitivity analysis is applied to select proper input variables for modular networks

  20. Integrated color face graphs for plant accident display

    This paper presents an integrated man-machine interface that uses cartoon-like colored graphs in the form of faces, that, through different facial expressions, display a plant condition. This is done by drawing the face on a CRT by nonlinearly transforming 31 variables and coloring the face. This integrated color graphics technique is applied to display the progess of events in the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. Human visual perceptive characteristics are investigated in relation to the perception of the plant accident process, the naturality in face color change, and the consistency between facial expressions and colors. This paper concludes that colors used in an integrated color face graphs must be completely consistent with emotional feelings perceived from the colors. (author)

  1. Aerial contamination agroecosystems following the accident at Chernobyl NPP

    The regularities of the aerial contamination of agricultural ecosystems are described in the early period after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The aerial contamination is shown to be caused by the development of the above-ground biomass of plants and fallout characteristics. A specific coefficient of primary retention varied between 0.7 and 1.89 for 131In and between 0.46 and 1.2 m2 kg-1 for 137Cs. The first half-life period varies from 9.7 to 13.4 days. The second period varies from 46.2 to 52.2 days. It has been found that parameters of aerial contamination from the Chernobyl accident well correlate with the results of observation in the period of global fallout

  2. Barriers to learning from incidents and accidents

    Dechy, N.; Dien, Y.; Drupsteen, L.; Felicio, A.; Cunha, C; Roed-Larsen, S.; Marsden, E.; Tulonen, T.; Stoop, J.; Strucic, M.; Vetere Arellano, A.L.; Vorm, J.K.J. van der; Benner, L.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides an overview of knowledge concerning barriers to learning from incidents and accidents. It focuses on learning from accident investigations, public inquiries and operational experience feedback, in industrial sectors that are exposed to major accident hazards. The document discusses learning at organizational, cross-organizational and societal levels (impact on regulations and standards). From an operational standpoint, the document aims to help practitioners to identify...

  3. Social disparities and correlates of domestic accidents.

    Baumann, Michèle; Spitz, E.; Ravaud, J.; Guillemin, F.; Chau, N

    2009-01-01

    Domestic accidents are a public health problem. This study assessed the disparities between socioeconomic positions and the confounding role of gender, age, education, living alone, income, poor health, obesity, current tobacco use, alcohol abuse, fatigue/sleep disorders, and physical, sensorial and cognitive disabilities. Methods: 6,198 people aged ≥15, randomly selected in north-eastern France completed a post-mailed questionnaire including domestic accident(s) during the last two years. Th...

  4. Psychiatric consequences of road traffic accidents.

    Mayou, R; Bryant, B.; Duthie, R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the psychiatric consequences of being a road traffic accident victim. DESIGN--Follow up study of road accident victims for up to one year. SETTING--Emergency department of the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford. SUBJECTS--188 consecutive road accident victims aged 18-70 with multiple injuries (motorcycle or car) or whiplash neck injury, who had not been unconscious for more than 15 minutes, and who lived in the catchment area. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Present state examinat...

  5. Transportation accident scenarios for commercial spent fuel

    A spectrum of high severity, low probability, transportation accident scenarios involving commercial spent fuel is presented together with mechanisms, pathways and quantities of material that might be released from spent fuel to the environment. These scenarios are based on conclusions from a workshop, conducted in May 1980 to discuss transportation accident scenarios, in which a group of experts reviewed and critiqued available literature relating to spent fuel behavior and cask response in accidents

  6. Accidents with biological material in workers

    Cleonice Andréa Alves Cavalcante; Elisângela Franco de Oliveira Cavalcante; Maria Lúcia Azevedo Ferreira de Macêdo; Eliane Cavalcante dos Santos; Soraya Maria de Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to describe the accidents with biological material occurred among workers of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, between 2007 and 2009. Secondary data were collected in the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System by exporting data to Excel using Tabwin. Among the types of occupational accidents reported in the state, the biological accidents (no. = 1,170) accounted for 58.3% with a predominance of cases among nurses (48.6%). The percutaneous exposure was the most frequent ...

  7. Transportation accident scenarios for commercial spent fuel

    Wilmot, E L

    1981-02-01

    A spectrum of high severity, low probability, transportation accident scenarios involving commercial spent fuel is presented together with mechanisms, pathways and quantities of material that might be released from spent fuel to the environment. These scenarios are based on conclusions from a workshop, conducted in May 1980 to discuss transportation accident scenarios, in which a group of experts reviewed and critiqued available literature relating to spent fuel behavior and cask response in accidents.

  8. Synergy effect in accident simulation

    Accidental breaking of PWR coolant canalization would entail water vaporization into confinement enclosure. Equipments would be simultaneously subjected to temperature and pressure increase, chemical spray, and radiation action of reactor core products. Some equipments have to work after accident in order to stop reactor running and blow out water calories. Usually, in France, accident simulation tests are carried out sequentialy: irradiation followed by thermodynamical and chemical tests. Equipments working is essentially due to those polymer materials behaviour. Is the polymers behaviour the same when they are either subjected to sequential test, or an accident (simultaneous action of irradiation and thermodynamical and chemical sequence). In order to answer to this question, nine polymer materials were subjected to simultaneous and sequential test in CESAR cell. Experiments were carried out in CESAR device with thermodynamical chocks and a temperature and pressure decrease profil in presence or without irradiation. So, the test is either simultaneous or sequential. Mechanical properties change are determined for the following polymeric materials. Two polyamide-imide varnishes used in motors and coils; one epoxydic resin, glass fiber charged (electrical insulating); polyphenylene sulfide, glass fiber charged, the Ryton R4 (electrical insulating); three elastomeric materials: Hypalon, fire proof by bromine or by alumina EPDM (cables jacket); VAMAC which is a polyethylene methyl polymethacrylate copolymer; then a silicon thermoset material glass fiber charged (electrical insulating). After test, usually, mechanical and electrical properties change of polymer materials show sequential experiment is more severe than simultaneous test however, Hypalon does not follow this law. For this polymer simultaneous test appears more severe than sequential experiment

  9. Bibliography for nuclear criticality accident experience, alarm systems, and emergency management

    Putman, V.L.

    1995-09-01

    The characteristics, detection, and emergency management of nuclear criticality accidents outside reactors has been an important component of criticality safety for as long as the need for this specialized safety discipline has been recognized. The general interest and importance of such topics receives special emphasis because of the potentially lethal, albeit highly localized, effects of criticality accidents and because of heightened public and regulatory concerns for any undesirable event in nuclear and radiological fields. This bibliography lists references which are potentially applicable to or interesting for criticality alarm, detection, and warning systems; criticality accident emergency management; and their associated programs. The lists are annotated to assist bibliography users in identifying applicable: industry and regulatory guidance and requirements, with historical development information and comments; criticality accident characteristics, consequences, experiences, and responses; hazard-, risk-, or safety-analysis criteria; CAS design and qualification criteria; CAS calibration, maintenance, repair, and testing criteria; experiences of CAS designers and maintainers; criticality accident emergency management (planning, preparedness, response, and recovery) requirements and guidance; criticality accident emergency management experience, plans, and techniques; methods and tools for analysis; and additional bibliographies.

  10. Bibliography for nuclear criticality accident experience, alarm systems, and emergency management

    The characteristics, detection, and emergency management of nuclear criticality accidents outside reactors has been an important component of criticality safety for as long as the need for this specialized safety discipline has been recognized. The general interest and importance of such topics receives special emphasis because of the potentially lethal, albeit highly localized, effects of criticality accidents and because of heightened public and regulatory concerns for any undesirable event in nuclear and radiological fields. This bibliography lists references which are potentially applicable to or interesting for criticality alarm, detection, and warning systems; criticality accident emergency management; and their associated programs. The lists are annotated to assist bibliography users in identifying applicable: industry and regulatory guidance and requirements, with historical development information and comments; criticality accident characteristics, consequences, experiences, and responses; hazard-, risk-, or safety-analysis criteria; CAS design and qualification criteria; CAS calibration, maintenance, repair, and testing criteria; experiences of CAS designers and maintainers; criticality accident emergency management (planning, preparedness, response, and recovery) requirements and guidance; criticality accident emergency management experience, plans, and techniques; methods and tools for analysis; and additional bibliographies

  11. Elements to diminish radioactive accidents

    In this work it is presented an application of the cause-effect diagram method or Ichikawa method identifying the elements that allow to diminish accidents when the radioactive materials are transported. It is considered the transport of hazardous materials which include radioactive materials in the period: December 1996 until March 1997. Among the identified elements by this method it is possible to mention: the road type, the radioactive source protection, the grade driver responsibility and the preparation that the OEP has in the radioactive material management. It is showed the differences found between the country inner roads and the Mexico City area. (Author)

  12. Guidance on accidents involving radioactivity

    This booklet sets out United Kingdom government policy on the management of the effects of radioactivity accidents by the Health Service. Monitoring of persons affected will be undertaken by hospital staff in order to assess damage levels for the whole population as well as treat individuals, while general practitioners will disseminate information from the Department of Health. The National Response Plan is set out, covering incidents connected with the use or transport of radioactive substances, and emergency plans for incidents in civil nuclear installations. (UK)

  13. The radiological accident in Goiania

    The report is based on a meeting held in Brazil, 19-27 July 1988. It describes how the accident occurred, examines how it was managed and how its consequences were contained, and sets out observations and recommendations based upon lessons learned. Many people received large doses of radiation, due to both external and internal exposure. Four of the casualties ultimately died and 28 people suffered radiation burns. Residences and public places were contaminated. The decontamination necessitated the demolition of seven residences and various other buildings, and the removal of the topsoil from large areas. In total 3,500 m3 of radioactive waste was generated. Refs, figs, tabs and photographs

  14. The Tokay-Mura accident

    On the 30. september 1999 occurred a criticality accident in the fuel fabrication plant of Tokai-Mura in Japan. 49 persons were irradiated but we present the case of the most seriously injured three workers. The radiation doses that would have been received by the three operators near the incriminated container have been evaluated to 17, 10 and 3 Grays. For the operators situated at five meters from the container and that has received three Grays, the first peak of criticality has been estimated at 2.1017 fissions. The number of fissions posterior to the first peak has been estimated between 4.1017 and 5.1018. In the three cases, the dose received by the organism has been attributed for about 40% to the neutrons and 60% to gamma radiations. The first operator presented an initial intense phase of acute irradiation syndrome. He received a graft of hematopoietic cells given by a sister of him on the sixth day, he was still alive 29 days later during the visit of the Commission, but he was in a coma and died shortly afterwards. The second victim has been equally reached by an acute irradiation syndrome, accompanied by a severe myeloid depression. At the ninth day, he received a blood graft coming from umbilical cord. He recovered a part of his own marrow, platelets excepted. He suffers from intense pains. A survival chance exists. The third victim was in an adjoining room, at about five meters far from the accident. He has been reached, but in a lower extent, by the acute irradiation syndrome and a low myeloid depression, that has decreased after a growth factors treatment. The prognosis is optimist in his case. The fact that patients have survived for the first time such a long time has revealed a very particular pathology of neutrons-gamma mixed irradiation, with an appearance of new medical problems due to the multiple failure of organs. To notice, the week before the accident, stood at Paris the 6. International conference devoted to the control of criticality

  15. Interventions after serious reactor accidents

    Manifold and promising approaches to active measures to be taken during accidents were studied hypothetically at the HTR which already has outstanding inherent safety properties in respect of afterheat removal. Based on incident scenarios prepared for hypothetical air inleakage incidents, in particular into the core of the HTR module reactor, many and various peripheral conditions for intervention possibilities could be studied. In addition, intervention possibilities appropriate for the respective incidents were examined as to their feasibility and consequences to be expected after their application. From these studies suggestions were derived for verifying experiments. (orig./HP) With 66 refs., 24 tabs., 79 figs

  16. Probabilistic accident sequence recovery analysis

    Recovery analysis is a method that considers alternative strategies for preventing accidents in nuclear power plants during probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Consideration of possible recovery actions in PRAs has been controversial, and there seems to be a widely held belief among PRA practitioners, utility staff, plant operators, and regulators that the results of recovery analysis should be skeptically viewed. This paper provides a framework for discussing recovery strategies, thus lending credibility to the process and enhancing regulatory acceptance of PRA results and conclusions. (author)

  17. Design basis accident calculation problems

    Sudden failures of the primary circuit is the design basis accident of pressurized water reactors, being liable to affect the other two barriers separating the fission products from the environment. The calculation of the thermohydraulic behavior of the core and primary circuit is at present based, for the CEA, on the RELAP 4 code. However a second-generation code, POSEIDON, is being developed by the CEA, EDF and FRAMATOME to obtain a better description of the physical phenomena and a better estimate of safety margins. Other difficult problems arise in connection with the calculation of structural stresses and the behavior of the vessel during decompression

  18. Industrial Safety and Accidents Prevention

    Accident Hazards, dangers, losses and risk are what we would to like to eliminate, minimize or avoid in industry. Modern industries have created many opportunities for these against which man's primitive instincts offer no protection. In today's complex industrial environment safety has become major preoccupation, especially after the realization that there is a clear economic incentive to do so. Industrial hazards may cause by human error or by physical or mechanical malfunction, it is very often possible to eliminate the worst consequences of human error by engineering modification. But the modification also needs checking very thoroughly to ensue that it has not introduced some new and unsuspected hazard. (author)

  19. Characteristics of Traumatic Brain Injury Hospitalized Patients due to Traffic Accidents in a General Hospital in Shantou City, 2008-2012%汕头市某综合医院2008-2012年颅脑交通伤住院患者特征分析

    朱瑶; 李丽萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective Analysis the epidemiological characteristics of road-related traumatic brain injury hospitalized patients. Explore the influence factors of severe traumatic brain injury due to road traffic accidents so as to provide scientific basis for prevention of the severe traumatic brain injury. Methods ICD-10 coding was used to retrospectively analysis the epidemiological characteristics of the traumatic brain injury admitted from January 1 2008 to December 31 2012 in neurosurgery department and the factors affecting the severe traumatic brain injury were discussed. Results There were 1 858 patients, with 1 343 males (72.3%) and 515 females (27.7%), male-to-female ratio was 2.61:1. The highest frequency of severe traumatic brain injury was among the age group 15~44 (44.3%). Majority of the victims were motorcyclists (44.3%), followed by pedestrians (21.5%). The mean hospital stay was 30.40±42.22 days, the average hospital cost was 29 146.30± 43 243.00 RMB. Chi-square test showed that age, sex, marital status, type of road users, patients on admission conditions, multiple trauma patients with traumatic brain injury was statistically significant difference between the groups. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that gender, age, admissions, patients with multiple injuries that affect the severity of the traumatic brain injury due to traffic accidents. Conclusions Men, children under 14, admitted the situation is urgent and multiple injuries as risk factors for severe traumatic brain injury due to traffic accidents.%目的:分析汕头市某综合医院2008─2012年交通事故致颅脑损伤住院患者的流行病学特征,探索交通事故致严重颅脑损伤的影响因素,为严重颅脑交通伤的预防控制提供科学依据。方法采用国际疾病分类标准ICD-10,对某大型综合性医院2008年1月1日至2012年12月31日神经外科收治的因道路交通伤害入院的颅脑损伤患者进行回顾性分析,并探讨

  20. The cost of nuclear accidents in France

    IRSN has produced estimates for costs of possible nuclear accidents on French PWRs. This paper outlines the strong differences between severe accidents, which feature a core melt but more or less controlled radioactive releases, and major accidents implying massive releases. In the first case, crisis managers would be faced with a mainly 'economic' accident, the larger part of costs being borne in a diffused fashion by the economy at large (image costs and impacts on electricity production). In the second case, authorities would be faced with the challenges of a full-scale radiological crisis involving sizeable areas of contaminated territories and large numbers of radiological refugees. (author)

  1. Monitoring severe accidents using AI techniques

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011, there has been increasing concern regarding severe accidents in nuclear facilities. Severe accident scenarios are difficult for operators to monitor and identify. Therefore, accurate prediction of a severe accident is important in order to manage it appropriately in the unfavorable conditions. In this study, artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as support vector classification (SVC), probabilistic neural network (PNN), group method of data handling (GMDH), and fuzzy neural network (FNN), were used to monitor the major transient scenarios of a severe accident caused by three different initiating events, the hot-leg loss of coolant accident (LOCA), the cold-leg LOCA, and the steam generator tube rupture in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The SVC and PNN models were used for the event classification. The GMDH and FNN models were employed to accurately predict the important timing representing severe accident scenarios. In addition, in order to verify the proposed algorithm, data from a number of numerical simulations were required in order to train the AI techniques due to the shortage of real LOCA data. The data was acquired by performing simulations using the MAAP4 code. The prediction accuracy of the three types of initiating events was sufficiently high to predict severe accident scenarios. Therefore, the AI techniques can be applied successfully in the identification and monitoring of severe accident scenarios in real PWRs.

  2. SAMSON: Severe Accident Management System Online Network

    SAMSON, Severe Accident Management System Online Network, is a computational tool used in the event of a nuclear power plant accident by accident managers in the Technical Support Centers (TSC) and Emergency Offsite Facilities (EOF). SAMSON examines over 150 status points monitored by nuclear power plant process computers during a severe accident and makes predictions about when core damage, support plate failure, and reactor vessel failure will occur. These predictions are based on the current state of the plant assuming that all safety equipment not already operating will fail. The status points analyzed include radiation levels, flow rates, pressure levels, temperatures and water levels. SAMSON uses an expert system as well as neural networks trained with the back propagation learning algorithm to make predictions. Previous training on data from accident analysis code allows SAMSON to associate different states in the plant with different times to critical failures. The accidents currently recognized by SAMSON include steam generator tube ruptures (SGTR), with breaks ranging from one tube to eights tubes, and loss of coolant accidents (LOCA), with breaks ranging from 0.001 square feet in size to breaks 3.0 square feet. SAMSON contains several neural networks for each accident type and break size, and chooses the correct network after accident classification by in expert system. SAMSON also provides information concerning the status of plant sensors and recovery strategies

  3. Medical experience: Chernobyl and other accidents

    A radiation accident can be defined as an involuntary relevant exposure of man to ionising radiation or radioactive material. Provided one of the ensuing criteria is met with at least one person involved in an excursion of ionising radiation and or radioactive material, the respective incident can be considered a radiation accident in accordance with ICRP, NCRP (US), and WHO: ≥0.25 Sv total body irradiation with lesions of the rapidly dividing tissues; ≥6 Sv cutaneous and local irradiation; ≥0.4 Sv local irradiation of other organ systems through external sources; incorporation equal to or in excess of more than half of the maximum permissible organ burden; and medical accidents meeting one of the above criteria. Several actions have been taken to categorise radiation accidents in order to learn from previous accidents in terms of both managerial and medical experience. For this presentation three approaches will be discussed concerning their relevance to the individual treatment and risk management. This will be obtained by applying three classification schemes to all known radiation accidents: 1. classification with respect to the accident mechanism, 2. classification concerning the radiation injury, and 3. classification concerning the extent of the accident. In a fourth chapter the efficacy of bone marrow transplantation will briefly be commented on based on the accumulated experience of about 400 radiation accidents world-wide. (author)

  4. Fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Koch-Henriksen, Nils;

    2006-01-01

    -1996. The end of follow-up was 1 January 1999. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for various types of fatal accidents. A total of 76 persons (48 men and 28 women) died from accidents, whereas the expected number of fatalities from such causes was 55.7 (31.4 men and 24.3 women). Thus, the...... particularly high for deaths from burns (SMR = 8.90) and suffocation (SMR = 5.57). We conclude that persons with MS are more prone to fatal accidents than the general population. The excess risk is due not to traffic accidents but to burns and suffocation....

  5. Review of specific radiological accident considerations

    Specific points of guidance provided in the forthcoming document A Guide to Radiological Accident Considerations for Siting and Design of Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities are discussed. Of these, the following are considered of particular interest to analysts of hypothetical accidents: onsite dose limits; population dose, public health effects, and environmental contamination as accident consequences which should be addressed; risk analysis; natural phenomena as accident initiators; recommended dose models; multiple organ equivalent dose; and recommended methods and parameters for source terms and release amount calculations. Comments are being invited on this document, which is undergoing rewrite after the first stage of peer review

  6. Accident selection methodology for TA-55 FSAR

    In the past, the selection of representative accidents for refined analysis from the numerous scenarios identified in hazards analyses (HAs) has involved significant judgment and has been difficult to defend. As part of upgrading the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the TA-55 plutonium facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, an accident selection process was developed that is mostly mechanical and reproducible in nature and fulfills the requirements of the Department of Energy (DOE) Standard 3009 and DOE Order 5480.23. Among the objectives specified by this guidance are the requirements that accident screening (1) consider accidents during normal and abnormal operating conditions, (2) consider both design basis and beyond design basis accidents, (3) characterize accidents by category (operational, natural phenomena, etc.) and by type (spill, explosion, fire, etc.), and (4) identify accidents that bound all foreseeable accident types. The accident selection process described here in the context of the TA-55 FSAR is applicable to all types of DOE facilities

  7. Genetic effects of the Chernobyl accident

    Genetic radiation effects resulted from the Chernobyl accident were considered for the population of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Techniques of the assessment of genetic risk of exposure of a man was discussed. Results of cytogenetic examination of the population were presented as well as health state of pregnants and newborns following the Chernobyl accident. Elevated level of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of peripheric blood in participants of the Chernobyl accident response and in population of contaminated zones. This fact testifies on the real genetic injury in cells due to accident. Growth of intrauterine losses in pregnancy, congenital anomalies, hereditary diseases in descendants of exposed parents. 17 figs

  8. Development of severe accident training support system

    In order for appropriate decision-making during plant operation and management, the professional knowledge, expert's opinion, and previous experiences as well as information for current status are utilized. The operation support systems such as training simulators have been developed to assist these decision-making process, and most of them cover from normal operation to emergency operation because of the very low frequency of severe accident and of uncertaintics included in severe accident phenomena and scenarios. However, the architectures for severe accident management are being established based on severe accident management guidelines in some developed countries. Recentrly, in Korea, as teh severe accident management guideline was developed, the basis for establishing severe accident management architecture is prepared and this leads to the development of tool for systematic education and training for personnel related to severe accident management. The severe accident taining support system thus is developed to assist decision-making during execution of severe accident management guidelines by providing plant status information, prefessional knowledge for phenomena and scenarios, expected behavior for strategy execution, and so on

  9. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

  10. Chernobylsk NPP accident and its medical effects

    Medical effects of the Chernobyl accident for various groups of people engaged in liquidation of the accident aftereffects and residents of the regions affected are assessed. Specific medical and social recommendations for each of the five groups of patients are made. Special attention is paid to the health of children who were exposed to external radiation in combination with intake of iodine isotopes. Extremely unfavourable influence of the mass media on the health of people involved in the Chernobyl accident is painted out. The necessity of adequate rehabilitation measures for various categories of patients involved in a large-scale accident is emphasized

  11. Simulation of three lanes one-way freeway in low visibility weather by possible traffic accidents

    Pang, Ming-bao; Zheng, Sha-sha; Cai, Zhang-hui

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the traffic impact of low visibility weather on a freeway including the fraction of real vehicle rear-end accidents and road traffic capacity. Based on symmetric two-lane Nagel-Schreckenberg (STNS) model, a cellular automaton model of three-lane freeway mainline with the real occurrence of rear-end accidents in low visibility weather, which considers delayed reaction time and deceleration restriction, was established with access to real-time traffic information of intelligent transportation system (ITS). The characteristics of traffic flow in different visibility weather were discussed via the simulation experiments. The results indicate that incoming flow control (decreasing upstream traffic volume) and inputting variable speed limits (VSL) signal are effective in accident reducing and road actual traffic volume's enhancing. According to different visibility and traffic demand the appropriate control strategies should be adopted in order to not only decrease the probability of vehicle accidents but also avoid congestion.

  12. The estimation economic impacts from severe accidents of a nuclear power plant

    The severe accidents of a nuclear power plant may cause health effects in the exposed population and societal economic impacts or costs. Techniques to assess the consequences of an accident in terms of cost may be applied in studies on the design of plant safety features and in examining countermeasure options as part of emergency planning or in decision making after an accident. In this study, the costs resulting from the severe accidents of a nuclear power plant were estimated for the different combinations of source term release parameters and meteorological data. Also, the costs were estimated for the different scenarios considering seasonal characteristics of Korea. The results can be used as essential inputs in costs/benefit analysis and in developing optimum risk reduction strategies

  13. 2. International conference. Radiobiological consequences of nuclear accidents; Russian-Norwegian Satellite Symposium on nuclear accidents, radioecology and health. Abstracts. Part 2

    Materials on radiobiological effect of ionizing radiation under emergency situations are presented. The radiation contamination of environmental media after the Chernobyl NPP accident (ground, earth and water ecological systems), effect of external and internal irradiation on the inhabitants of the region are estimated. Time characteristic of radiation risk of originating tumors and genetic injuries is given

  14. 41 CFR 101-39.407 - Accident records.

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Accident records. 101-39...-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.4-Accidents and Claims § 101-39.407 Accident records. If GSA's records of vehicle accidents indicate that a particular activity has had an unusually high accident...

  15. 22 CFR 102.17 - Reports on accident.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports on accident. 102.17 Section 102.17... Accidents Abroad Foreign Aircraft Accidents Involving United States Persons Or Property § 102.17 Reports on accident. When an accident occurs to a foreign aircraft in the district of a Foreign Service post...

  16. Simulation of severe accident in reactor core for training and accident management

    An Advanced Real-time Severe Accident Simulation (ARTSAS) train reactor operators and accident management teams for scenarios simulating severe accidents in nuclear reactors. The code has been integrated with the real-time tools and the RAINBO graphic package to provide training and analysis tools on workstations as well as on full-scope simulators. (orig.) (4 refs., 1 fig.)

  17. Drivers of accident preparedness and safety: evidence from the RMP Rule

    This paper provides an overview of recent results derived from the accident history data collected under 112(r) of the Clean Air Act Amendments (the Risk Management Program (RMP) Rule) covering the period 1994-2000, together with a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of the RMP Rule as a form of Management System Regulation. These were undertaken at the University of Pennsylvania by a multi-disciplinary team of economists, statisticians and epidemiologists with the support of the US Environmental Protection Agency and its Office of Emergency Prevention, Preparedness and Response (OEPPR, formerly CEPPO). Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires that chemical facilities in the US that had on premises more than specified quantities of toxic or flammable chemicals file a 5-year history of accidents. The initial data reported under the RMP Rule covered roughly the period from mid-1994 through mid-2000, and provided details on economic, environmental and acute health affects resulting from accidents at some 15,000 US chemical facilities for this period. This paper reviews research based on this data. The research is in the form of a retrospective cohort study that considers the statistical associations between accident frequency and accident severity at covered facilities (the outcome variables of interest) and a number of facility characteristics (the available predictor variables provided by the RMP Rule), the latter including such facility characteristics as size, hazardousness, financial characteristics of parent company-owners of the facility, regulatory programs in force at the facility, and host community characteristics for the surrounding county in which the facility was located, as captured in the 1990 Census. Among the findings reviewed are: (1) positive associations with (a measure of) facility hazardousness and accident, injury and economic costs of accidents; (2) positive (resp., negative) associations between accident

  18. Links between operating experience feedback of industrial accidents and nuclear safety

    Since 1992, the bureau for analysis of industrial risks and pollutions (BARPI) collects, analyzes and publishes information on industrial accidents. The ARIA database lists over 40.000 accidents or incidents, most of which occurred in French classified facilities (ICPE). Events occurring in nuclear facilities are rarely reported in ARIA because they are reported in other databases. This paper describes the process of selection, characterization and review of these accidents, as well as the following consultation with industry trade groups. It is essential to publicize widely the lessons learned from analyzing industrial accidents. To this end, a web site (www.aria.developpement-durable.gouv.fr) gives free access to the accidents summaries, detailed sheets, studies, etc. to professionals and the general public. In addition, the accidents descriptions and characteristics serve as inputs to new regulation projects or risk analyses. Finally, the question of the links between operating experience feedback of industrial accidents and nuclear safety is explored: if the rigorous and well-documented methods of experience feedback in the nuclear field certainly set an example for other activities, nuclear safety can also benefit from inputs coming from the vast diversity of accidents arisen into industrial facilities because of common grounds. Among these common grounds we can find: -) the fuel cycle facilities use many chemicals and chemical processes that are also used by chemical industries; -) the problems resulting from the ageing of equipment affect both heavy and nuclear industries; -) the risk of hydrogen explosion; -) the risk of ammonia, ammonia is a gas used by nuclear power plants as an ingredient in the onsite production of mono-chloramine and ammonia is involved in numerous accidents in the industry: at least 900 entries can be found in the ARIA database. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  19. Review of current status for designing severe accident management support system

    Jeong, Kwang Sub

    2000-05-01

    The development of operator support system (OSS) is ongoing in many other countries due to the complexity both in design and in operation for nuclear power plant. The computerized operator support system includes monitoring of some critical parameters, early detection of plant transient, monitoring of component status, plant maintenance, and safety parameter display, and the operator support system for these areas are developed and are being used in some plants. Up to now, the most operator support system covers the normal operation, abnormal operation, and emergency operation. Recently, however, the operator support system for severe accident is to be developed in some countries. The study for the phenomena of severe accident is not performed sufficiently, but, based on the result up to now, the operator support system even for severe accident will be developed in this study. To do this, at first, the current status of the operator support system for normal/abnormal/emergency operation is reviewed, and the positive aspects and negative aspects of systems are analyzed by their characteristics. And also, the major items that should be considered in designing the severe accident operator support system are derived from the review. With the survey of domestic and foreign operator support systems, they are reviewed in terms of the safety parameter display system, decision-making support system, and procedure-tracking system. For the severe accident, the severe accident management guideline (SAMG) which is developed by Westinghouse is reviewed; the characteristics, structure, and logical flow of SAMG are studied. In addition, the critical parameters for severe accident, which are the basis for operators decision-making in severe accident management and are supplied to the operators and the technical support center, are reviewed, too.

  20. Construction of a technique plan repository and evaluation system based on AHP group decision-making for emergency treatment and disposal in chemical pollution accidents

    Highlights: • Different chemical pollution accidents were simplified using the event tree analysis. • Emergency disposal technique plan repository of chemicals accidents was constructed. • The technique evaluation index system of chemicals accidents disposal was developed. • A combination of group decision and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was employed. • Group decision introducing similarity and diversity factor was used for data analysis. - Abstract: The environmental pollution resulting from chemical accidents has caused increasingly serious concerns. Therefore, it is very important to be able to determine in advance the appropriate emergency treatment and disposal technology for different types of chemical accidents. However, the formulation of an emergency plan for chemical pollution accidents is considerably difficult due to the substantial uncertainty and complexity of such accidents. This paper explains how the event tree method was used to create 54 different scenarios for chemical pollution accidents, based on the polluted medium, dangerous characteristics and properties of chemicals involved. For each type of chemical accident, feasible emergency treatment and disposal technology schemes were established, considering the areas of pollution source control, pollutant non-proliferation, contaminant elimination and waste disposal. Meanwhile, in order to obtain the optimum emergency disposal technology schemes as soon as the chemical pollution accident occurs from the plan repository, the technique evaluation index system was developed based on group decision-improved analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and has been tested by using a sudden aniline pollution accident that occurred in a river in December 2012

  1. Severe Accident Research Program plan update

    In August 1989, the staff published NUREG-1365, ''Revised Severe Accident Research Program Plan.'' Since 1989, significant progress has been made in severe accident research to warrant an update to NUREG-1365. The staff has prepared this SARP Plan Update to: (1) Identify those issues that have been closed or are near completion, (2) Describe the progress in our understanding of important severe accident phenomena, (3) Define the long-term research that is directed at improving our understanding of severe accident phenomena and developing improved methods for assessing core melt progression, direct containment heating, and fuel-coolant interactions, and (4) Reflect the growing emphasis in two additional areas--advanced light water reactors, and support for the assessment of criteria for containment performance during severe accidents. The report describes recent major accomplishments in understanding the underlying phenomena that can occur during a severe accident. These include Mark I liner failure, severe accident scaling methodology, source term issues, core-concrete interactions, hydrogen transport and combustion, TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project, and direct containment heating. The report also describes the major planned activities under the SARP over the next several years. These activities will focus on two phenomenological issues (core melt progression, and fuel-coolant interactions and debris coolability) that have significant uncertainties that impact our understanding and ability to predict severe accident phenomena and their effect on containment performance SARP will also focus on severe accident code development, assessment and validation. As the staff completes the research on severe accident issues that relate to current generation reactors, continued research will focus on efforts to independently evaluate the capability of new advanced light water reactor designs to withstand severe accidents

  2. Radiological accidents balance in medicine; Bilan des accidents radiologiques en medecine

    Nenot, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    This work deals with the radiological accidents in medicine. In medicine, the radiation accidents on medical personnel and patients can be the result of over dosage and bad focusing of radiotherapy sealed sources. Sometimes, the accidents, if they are unknown during a time enough for the source to be spread and to expose a lot of persons (in the case of source dismantling for instance) can take considerable dimensions. Others accidents can come from bad handling of linear accelerators and from radionuclide kinetics in some therapies. Some examples of accidents are given. (O.L.). 11 refs.

  3. Medical consequences of a nuclear plant accident

    The report gives background information concerning radiation and the biological medical effects and damages caused by radiation. The report also discusses nuclear power plant accidents and efforts from the medical service in the case of a nuclear power plant accident. (L.F.)

  4. Occupational blood exposure accidents in the Netherlands.

    Wijk, P.T.L. van; Schneeberger, P.M.; Heimeriks, K.; Boland, G.J.; Karagiannis, I.; Geraedts, J.; Ruijs, W.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To make proper evaluation of prevention policies possible, data on the incidence and associated medical costs of occupational blood exposure accidents in the Netherlands are needed. METHODS: Descriptive analysis of blood exposure accidents and risk estimates for occupational groups. Cost

  5. Light-water reactor accident classification

    The evolution of existing classifications and definitions of light-water reactor accidents is considered. Licensing practice and licensing trends are examined with respect to terms of art such as Class 8 and Class 9 accidents. Interim definitions, consistent with current licensing practice and the regulations, are proposed for these terms of art

  6. Chernobyl NPP accident. Overcoming experience. Acquired lessons

    This book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of accident on the Chernobyl NPP unit 4. History of construction, causes of the accident and its consequences, actions for its mitigation are described. Modern situation with Chernobyl NPP decommissioning and transferring of 'Ukryttya' shelter into ecologically safe system are mentioned. The future of Chernobyl site and exclusion zone was discussed

  7. Radiological accident 'The Citadel' medical aspects

    The work exposes the medical actions carried out in the mitigation of the consequences of the accident and its main results. In a facility of storage of radioactive waste in Caracas, Venezuela, it was happened a radiological accident. This event caused radioactive contamination of the environment, as well as the irradiation and radioactive contamination of at least 10 people involved in the fact, in its majority children. Cuban institutions participated in response to the accident. Among the decisions adopted by the team of combined work Cuban-Venezuelan, we find the one of transferring affected people to Cuba, for their dosimetric and medical evaluation. Being designed a work strategy to develop the investigations to people affected by the radiological accident, in correspondence with the circumstances, magnitude and consequences of the accident. The obtained main results are: 100% presented affectations in its health, not associate directly to the accident, although the accident influenced in its psychological state. In 3 of studied people they were detected radioactive contamination with Cesium -137 with dose among 2.01 X 10-4 Sv up to 2.78 X 10-4 Sv. This accident demonstrated the necessity to have technical capacities to face these events and the importance of the international solidarity. (author)

  8. Light-water reactor accident classification

    Washburn, B.W.

    1980-02-01

    The evolution of existing classifications and definitions of light-water reactor accidents is considered. Licensing practice and licensing trends are examined with respect to terms of art such as Class 8 and Class 9 accidents. Interim definitions, consistent with current licensing practice and the regulations, are proposed for these terms of art.

  9. Multiple Myeloma in Post Nuclear Accident Crisis

    Wiwanitkit, Somsri; Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2012-01-01

    The problem of 2011 nuclear accident crisis draws attention of physicians and medical scientists around the world. The cancer induction is an important adverse effect of exposure to radionuclide. In this specific article, the multiple myeloma, an important hematological cancer, in the post nuclear accident crisis will be discussed.

  10. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36.513 Section 36.513 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  11. 76 FR 55079 - Recreational Vessel Accident Reporting

    2011-09-06

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... SECURITY Coast Guard Recreational Vessel Accident Reporting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... to improve the recreational boating accident reporting process. NBSAC recommended that the...

  12. 49 CFR 659.33 - Accident notification.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident notification. 659.33 Section 659.33 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION... Agency § 659.33 Accident notification. (a) The oversight agency must require the rail transit agency...

  13. Structural and containment response to LMFBR accidents

    The adequacy of the containment of fast reactors has been traditionally evaluated by analyzing the response of the containment to a spectrum of core disruptive accidents. The current approach in the U.S. is to consider fast reactor response to accidents in terms of four lines of assurance (LOAs). Thus, LOA-1 is to prevent accidents, LOA-2 is to limit core damage, LOA-3 is to control accident progression and LOA-4 is to attenuate radiological consequences. Thus, the programs on the adequacy of containment response fall into LOA-3. Significant programs to evaluate the response of the containment to core disruptive accidents and, thereby, to assure control of accident progression are in progress. These include evaluating the mechanical response of the primary system to core disruptive accidents and evaluating the thermal response of the reactor structures to core melting, including the effects this causes on the secondary containment. The analysis of structural response employs calculated pressure-volume-time loading functions. The results of the analyses establish the response of the containment to the prescribed loadings. The analysis of thermal response requires an assessment of the distribution and state of the fuel, fission products and activated materials from accident initiation to final disposition in a stable configuration

  14. On severe accident hydrogen behaviour in Loviisa

    This study is related to the hydrogen management strategy of the Loviisa ice-condenser containments. A synthetic survey is conducted of the various parts of the subject by using compact 'back-of-the-envelope' analysis methods. The analysed cases are consistent with the principal hydrogen management approaches proposed by the utility Imatran Voima Oy (IVO). The study begins by introduction of the Loviisa plant features and various severe accident types. Hydrogen generation characteristics are analysed mainly for the core degradation phase, but the hydrogen sources from molten fuel-coolant interactions and reflooding of a degraded core are discussed, as well. The hydrogen generation and release rates are compared with the overall gas convection and mixing conditions in order to estimate hydrogen concentrations in the containment. The natural convection currents are examined also from the scaling point of view, concerning the scaled-down VICTORIA tests of IVO. Finally, the potential for large deflagration loadings or local detonations is examined for the Loviisa containments. The study is concluded by preliminary subjective judgments about the most critical factors of the Loviisa hydrogen problematics and about any issues that may require additional confirmative research. (orig.) (47 refs., 4 figs., 24 tabs.)

  15. Fire-accident analysis code (FIRAC) verification

    The FIRAC computer code predicts fire-induced transients in nuclear fuel cycle facility ventilation systems. FIRAC calculates simultaneously the gas-dynamic, material transport, and heat transport transients that occur in any arbitrarily connected network system subjected to a fire. The network system may include ventilation components such as filters, dampers, ducts, and blowers. These components are connected to rooms and corridors to complete the network for moving air through the facility. An experimental ventilation system has been constructed to verify FIRAC and other accident analysis codes. The design emphasizes network system characteristics and includes multiple chambers, ducts, blowers, dampers, and filters. A large industrial heater and a commercial dust feeder are used to inject thermal energy and aerosol mass. The facility is instrumented to measure volumetric flow rate, temperature, pressure, and aerosol concentration throughout the system. Aerosol release rates and mass accumulation on filters also are measured. This paper compares and discusses the gas-dynamic and heat transport data obtained from the ventilation system experiments with those predicted by the FIRAC code. The numerically predicted data generally are within 10% of the experimental data

  16. Fire-accident analysis code (FIRAC) verification

    The FIRAC computer code predicts fire-induced transients in nuclear fuel cycle facility ventilation systems. FIRAC calculates simultaneously the gas-dynamic, material transport, and heat transport transients that occur in any arbitrarily connected network system subjected to a fire. The network system may include ventilation components such as filters, dampers, ducts, and blowers. These components are connected to rooms and corridors to complete the network for moving air through the facility. An experimental ventilation system has been constructed to verify FIRAC and other accident analysis codes. The design emphasizes network system characteristics and includes multiple chambers, ducts, blowers, dampers, and filters. A larger industrial heater and a commercial dust feeder are used to inject thermal energy and aerosol mass. The facility is instrumented to measure volumetric flow rate, temperature, pressure, and aerosol concentration throughout the system. Aerosol release rates and mass accumulation on filters also are measured. We have performed a series of experiments in which a known rate of thermal energy is injected into the system. We then simulated this experiment with the FIRAC code. This paper compares and discusses the gas-dynamic and heat transport data obtained from the ventilation system experiments with those predicted by the FIRAC code. The numerically predicted data generally are within 10% of the experimental data

  17. The screening approach for review of accident management programmes

    In this lecture the screening approach for review of accident management programmes are presented. It contains objective trees for accident management: logic structure of the approach; objectives and safety functions for accident management; safety principles

  18. Post-Traumatic Stress After a Traffic Accident

    ... Stress Disorder | Post-traumatic Stress After a Traffic Accident Each year more than 6 million traffic accidents occur in the United States. If you've been in an accident, you might have experienced many different feelings at ...

  19. Medical consequences of radiation accidents

    Since 1945, more than 1.8 x 1021 Bq of artificial radionuclides have been released into the atmosphere. Approximately 2.04 x 1018B, i.e. approx. 0.11%, are the result of accidents at nuclear industrial facilities. This percentage is causing increased interest among researchers. This is due to the fact that in the wake of accidental release radionuclides become distributed unevenly across the Earth's surface, and the associated exposures, fluctuating from background level to several grays, an induce both stochastic and deterministic effects in the irradiated population. A comparative analysis of the medical consequences of the twentieth century's most serious nuclear events, namely the authorized dumping of high level radioactive waste into the river Techa in 1950, the explosion of a storage tank containing long lived radioactive waste in the Southern Urals in 1957, the fire at Sellafield in 1957 and the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986, has shown that when timely countermeasures are taken, the worst immediate and delayed medical consequences of an accident can be avoided. The consequences that have since been ascertained are a brief rise in the mortality rate during the first five years, with a dose in excess of 500 mSv; an increase in the incidence of leukaemia, with an absolute risk of up to 1.1. x 10-4 man·years/Gy; and increased mortality among children with external radiation doses of up to 1000 mSv, and internal doses of 99-190 mSv on the bone surfaces of neonates or 170-600 mSv on the bone surfaces of the mother. There is reliable evidence that, with external gamma radiation doses in excess of 520 mSv, the mortality rate for all malignant tumorous increases by 45-58% compared with the control level. There is also a significant increase in thyroid cancer frequency four to ten years after the incorporation of iodine isotopes by children aged up to 7 years, including an accumulation period in the womb. (author). 12 refs, 7 tabs

  20. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  1. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M andO 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  2. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France. Thematic sheets; Les consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France. Fiches thematiques

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document proposes a set of commented maps, graphs and drawings which illustrate and describe various consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, such as air contamination (scattering of radioactive particles emitted by the reactor explosion by the wind over thousands of kilometres, evolution of air contamination between April 30 and May 5 1986), ground deposits (influence of rain, heterogeneity of these deposits), contamination of farm products (relationship between the accident date and the deposit characteristics, variable decrease rate of contamination, faster decrease of farm product contamination that caesium radioactive decay since 1987, particular cases of some more sensitive products), health effects (low doses received by the French population, concerns about thyroid cancers)

  3. Severe accidents in Nuclear Power Plants

    For the assessment of the safety of nuclear power plants it is of great importance the analyses of severe accidents since they allow to estimate the possible failure models of the containment, and also permit knowing the magnitude and composition of the radioactive material that would be released to the environment in case of an accident upon population and the environment. This paper presents in general terms the basic principles for conducting the analysis of severe accidents, the fundamental sources in the generation of radionuclides and aerosols, the transportation and deposition processes, and also makes reference to de main codes used in the modulation of severe accidents. The final part of the paper contents information on how severe accidents are dialed with the regulatory point view in different countries

  4. Methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions. An accident modification function is a mathematical function describing systematic variation in the effects of road safety measures. The paper describes ten guidelines. An example is given of how to use...... the guidelines. The importance of exploratory analysis and an iterative approach in developing accident modification functions is stressed. The example shows that strict compliance with all the guidelines may be difficult, but represents a level of stringency that should be strived for. Currently the...... main limitations in developing accident modification functions are the small number of good evaluation studies and the often huge variation in estimates of effect. It is therefore still not possible to develop accident modification functions for very many road safety measures. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All...

  5. General Aspects of the JCO Criticality Accident

    A criticality accident occurred on September 30, 1999, at a uranium processing plant of JCO Company in Tokaimura. Delayed criticality continued for approximately 20 hours after the first few prompt critical peaks. Two employees subsequently died. Nearby residents were evacuated or told to remain indoors. This accident was at Level 4 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. A table of radiation exposures resulting from the accident is given. Besides dealing with health physics, the investigation committee's final report covered technical observations and the nature of the accident. The direct causes of the accident were found to be violation of rules and technical specifications and deviation from licensing conditions; some of these were permitted by the company itself, and fatal mistakes were made by employees on the job without consulting with authorized persons. Many recommendations to revise government regulations on licensing of nuclear fuel handling were discussed in the report

  6. Review of Severe Accident Phenomena in LWR and Related Severe Accident Analysis Codes

    Muhammad Hashim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, importance of severe accident provision is highlighted in view of Fukushima Daiichi accident. Then, extensive review of the past researches on severe accident phenomena in LWR is presented within this study. Various complexes, physicochemical and radiological phenomena take place during various stages of the severe accidents of Light Water Reactor (LWR plants. The review deals with progression of the severe accidents phenomena by dividing into core degradation phenomena in reactor vessel and post core melt phenomena in the containment. The development of various computer codes to analyze these severe accidents phenomena is also summarized in the review. Lastly, the need of international activity is stressed to assemble various severe accidents related knowledge systematically from research organs and compile them on the open knowledge base via the internet to be available worldwide.

  7. Database structure for the Laser Accident and Incident Registry (LAIR)

    Ness, James W.; Hoxie, Stephen W.; Zwick, Harry; Stuck, Bruce E.; Lund, David J.; Schmeisser, Elmar T.

    1997-05-01

    The ubiquity of laser radiation in military, medical, entertainment, telecommunications and research industries and the significant risk, of eye injury from this radiation are firmly established. While important advances have been made in understanding laser bioeffects using animal analogues and clinical data, the relationships among patient characteristics, exposure conditions, severity of the resulting injury, and visual function are fragmented, complex and varied. Although accident cases are minimized through laser safety regulations and control procedures, accumulated accident case information by the laser eye injury evaluation center warranted the development of a laser accident and incident registry. The registry includes clinical data for validating and refining hypotheses on injury and recovery mechanisms; a means for analyzing mechanisms unique to human injury; and a means for identifying future areas of investigation. The relational database supports three major sections: (1) the physics section defines exposure circumstances, (2) the clinical/ophthalmologic section includes fundus and scanning laser ophthalmoscope images, and (3) the visual functions section contains specialized visual function exam results. Tools are available for subject-matter experts to estimate parameters like total intraocular energy, ophthalmic lesion grade, and exposure probability. The database is research oriented to provide a means for generating empirical relationships to identify symptoms for definitive diagnosis and treatment of laser induced eye injuries.

  8. Core disruptive accident analysis using ASTERIA-FBR

    Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) is developing a core disruptive accident analysis code, ASTERIA-FBR, which tightly couples the thermal-hydraulics and the neutronics to simulate the core behavior during core disruptive accidents (CDA) of fast breeder reactors (FBRs). ASTERIA-FBR consists of the three-dimensional thermal-hydraulics calculation module: CONCORD, the fuel pin behavior calculation module: FEMAXI-FBR, and the space-time neutronics module: Dynamic-GMVP or PARTISN/RKIN. This paper describes a comparison between characteristics of GMVP and PARTISN and summarizes the challenging issues on applying Dynamic-GMVP to the calculation against unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF) event which is a typical initiator of core disruptive accident of FBR. It was found that Dynamic-GMVP is confirmed to be basically applicable to the CDA phenomena. It was found that, however, applying GMVP to the CDA calculation is less reasonable than PARTISN since the calculation load of GMVP is too large to meet the required calculation accuracy, although the Monte-Carlo method is based on the actual neutron behavior without any discretization of space and energy. The statistical error included in the calculation results may affect the super-prompt criticality during ULOF event and thus the amount of released energy

  9. The EPR concept for serious accident management, and accompanying research

    An accident, even if the probability of occurrence is so low that it can practically be excluded, must not require any serious external emergency measures, such as evacuation of human populations outside the immediate neighbourhood of the plant. This demand, which in the meantime has also become part of the German article law, creates a new situation for future light water reactors. In addition to the measures which are to reduce the probability of occurrence of serious accidents, a level is introduced which is designed to control the consequences of serious accidents with postulated core meltdown. The introduction of specific measures and design characteristics is a new challenge which cannot be met by industry alone. It is necessary to resort, to a large extent, to present and future research and development work which has been and will be carried out in this area by large-scale research institutions and universities. As regards the EPR, research and development cooperation in this field has been intensified recently. The CEA research centres and the FZKA signed an agreement on information exchange. (orig./HP)

  10. Multicomponent risk inherent to nuclear or radiation accidents

    A nuclear or radiation emergency response planning is based on expected avertable doses for a short (4 hours, 2 days, 1 week) and a long (50 or 70 years) periods of time. On calculating the doses one should take into account not only the sources of ionizing radiation with their foreseen characteristics, e.g. a half-life, but also the possibility of their probabilistic transformations. It can be illustrated by the chronicle of Chernobyl accident, where for nine days it was impossible to envisage with reliability the quantities of released radionuclides due to many uncontrolled factors related to the scope and character of the zone wreckage. Any other developments of the accident, such as destruction of the under reactor support plate, sinking of the melted zone into a highly radioactive water down at the reactor cavity or changing of the wind could have resulted in a substantial contamination of 3 mln. Kiev and other densely populated area of Ukraine. Another factor to be taken into account in the emergency response is a way of an actual risk perception by the population. The article suggests an approach to take into account the time-dependent secondary sources of exposure and the disparity in accepting the hazard of real risk of an accident by the trained workers and population. (author)

  11. Reactivity initiated accidents and loss of shutdown - 20 years later

    A review of the safety of Ontario's nuclear power reactors was conducted in 1987 after the Chernobyl accident. As part of this review an analysis was performed of a Loss of Coolant Accident in a Pickering A unit with coincident failure to shutdown. This analysis showed that the power excursion was halted by channel and calandria vessel failures leading to moderator fluid displacement. The containment structure did not fail and, at worst, might suffer minor cracking at the top of the dome of the reactor building. Overall the dose consequences of such an accident were no worse than the limiting design basis dual failure event. In the intervening twenty years following this analysis, significant experimental information has been obtained that relates to power pulse behaviour. This information, together with conservatisms in the original analysis, are reviewed and assessed in this paper. In addition, the issue of reactivity initiated events in other reactor types is reviewed to identify the reactor design characteristics that are of importance in these events. Contrary to popular belief the existence of positive coolant void reactivity is not as significant a factor as it is sometimes stated to be. On balance, with appropriate design measures, no one reactor type can be claimed to be 'more safe' than another. The underlying basis for this statement is articulated in this paper. (author)

  12. Techniques and Tools of NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    McDanels, Steve J.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia accident investigation was a fusion of many disciplines into a single effort. From the recovery and reconstruction of the debris, Figure 1, to the analysis, both destructive and nondestructive, of chemical and metallurgical samples, Figure 2, a multitude of analytical techniques and tools were employed. Destructive and non-destructive testing were utilized in tandem to determine if a breach in the left wing of the Orbiter had occurred, and if so, the path of the resultant high temperature plasma flow. Nondestructive analysis included topometric scanning, laser mapping, and real-time radiography. These techniques were useful in constructing a three dimensional virtual representation of the reconstruction project, specifically the left wing leading edge reinforced carbon/carbon heat protectant panels. Similarly, they were beneficial in determining where sampling should be performed on the debris. Analytic testing included such techniques as Energy Dispersive Electron Microprobe Analysis (EMPA), Electron Spectroscopy Chemical Analysis (ESCA), and X-Ray dot mapping; these techniques related the characteristics of intermetallics deposited on the leading edge of the left wing adjacent to the location of a suspected plasma breach during reentry. The methods and results of the various analyses, along with their implications into the accident, are discussed, along with the findings and recommendations of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board. Likewise, NASA's Return To Flight efforts are highlighted.

  13. National registration of accidents in Iceland.

    Olafsson, O; Axelsson, J

    1992-01-01

    Community based registration of accidents has been employed in Iceland from 1987. A form developed in the emergency ward at the city Hospital of Reykjavik has been used for the registration. The following issues have been registered: the type and the seriousness of the injury, treatment, place of accident and time of accident. Health centres in Iceland have been computerized from 1976. At the time being about half of the health centres participate in the registration with the information included in the form as the source. Every health center has its well defined district. The accidents among the inhabitants in each district is registered, while accidents among other people, e.g. tourists, is registered separately. At this moment 183,000 out of a total number of 259,000 inhabitants are covered by the registration, i.e. 71% of the population. In 1989 the frequency of accidents was 198 per 100,000 inhabitants. 26% of the accidents occurred at home, 11% at work, 9% during physical activity, 6% was traffic accidents, whereas the same proportion occurred at school. This registration system has been created as a result of annual conferences on accidents arranged by the Director General of public health since 1984. Representatives for the following parties have been invited; medical doctors working in hospitals and health centres, clinical nurses, physiotherapists, the National Insurance Service, other insurance companies, rescue and ambulance personal, fire departments, the Automobile Association, the communication Council. Local communities members of the parliament, voluntary organizations, e.g. Red Cross, the Sea Rescue Service and the Aviation Board. This activity has stimulated measures aiming at preventing accidents in several local communities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1285816

  14. Accident analysis in research reactors

    With the sustained development in computer technology, the possibilities of code capabilities have been enlarged substantially. Consequently, advanced safety evaluations and design optimizations that were not possible few years ago can now be performed. The challenge today is to revisit the safety features of the existing nuclear plants and particularly research reactors in order to verify that the safety requirements are still met and - when necessary - to introduce some amendments not only to meet the new requirements but also to introduce new equipment from recent development of new technologies. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an overview of the accident analysis technology applied to the research reactor, with emphasis given to the capabilities of computational tools. (author)

  15. FFTF containment of hypothetical accidents

    The FFTF facility was evaluated for the consequences of an HCDA followed by failure of in-vessel post-accident heat removal, reactor vessel melt-through, and release of core debris and sodium coolant to the reactor cavity. Two cases are presented based on parameters considered to represent upper limits for rates of chemical and thermal attack of the reactor cavity concrete containment structure. The reactor containment building temperature, pressure, and leak rate histories were computed with the CACECO code which provided input into the HAA-3C code for prediction of aerosol behavior, and to the COMRADEX-H code for prediction of radioactivity dispersion. The resultant 30-day doses at the site boundary were judged to be acceptable considering the conservatism in the analysis and the low probability of the event

  16. Thyroid diseases after Chernobyl accident

    Radioactive iodine is released at every atomic-bomb testings and nuclear plants accidents and radioactive iodine is taken up by thyroid glands (internal radiation). In addition to the internal radiation, radioactive fallout causes the external radiation and thyroid glands are known to be sensitive to the external radiation. Furthermore, patients with radiation-induced thyroid disease can survive for a long time regardless of the treatment. The survey of thyroid diseases, therefore, is very sensitive and reliable ways to investigate the effects of radiation caused by atomic bomb explosion, testing and various types of nuclear plants' accidents. Our group from Nagasaki University was asked to investigate the thyroid diseases and jointed to the Sasakawa Project. In order to investigate the effects of radiation on thyroid disease, it is essential 1) to make a correct diagnosis in each subject, 2) to calculate a correct radiation dose in each subject and finally, 3) to find out the correlation between the radiation dose and thyroid diseases including age-, sex- and area-matched controls. We have established 5 centers (1 in Russia, 2 in Belarus, 2 in Ukraine) and supplied the most valuable ultrasonography instruments, commercial kits for the determination of serum free T4 and TSH level and for the autoantibodies, instrument for urinary iodine measurements, syringers, tubes, refrigerators, etc. We visit each center often and asked people at centers to come to Japan for training. Protocol of investigation is essentially the same as that in Nagasaki, and we are planning to investigate more than 50,000 children within 5 years. We are hoping to show a definite conclusion in the near future. Recent articles are also discussed. (author)

  17. The Fukushima accident was preventable.

    Synolakis, Costas; Kânoğlu, Utku

    2015-10-28

    The 11 March 2011 tsunami was probably the fourth largest in the past 100 years and killed over 15 000 people. The magnitude of the design tsunami triggering earthquake affecting this region of Japan had been grossly underestimated, and the tsunami hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP), causing the third most severe accident in an NPP ever. Interestingly, while the Onagawa NPP was also hit by a tsunami of approximately the same height as Dai-ichi, it survived the event 'remarkably undamaged'. We explain what has been referred to as the cascade of engineering and regulatory failures that led to the Fukushima disaster. One, insufficient attention had been given to evidence of large tsunamis inundating the region earlier, to Japanese research suggestive that large earthquakes could occur anywhere along a subduction zone, and to new research on mega-thrusts since Boxing Day 2004. Two, there were unexplainably different design conditions for NPPs at close distances from each other. Three, the hazard analysis to calculate the maximum probable tsunami at Dai-ichi appeared to have had methodological mistakes, which almost nobody experienced in tsunami engineering would have made. Four, there were substantial inadequacies in the Japan nuclear regulatory structure. The Fukushima accident was preventable, if international best practices and standards had been followed, if there had been international reviews, and had common sense prevailed in the interpretation of pre-existing geological and hydrodynamic findings. Formal standards are needed for evaluating the tsunami vulnerability of NPPs, for specific training of engineers and scientists who perform tsunami computations for emergency preparedness or critical facilities, as well as for regulators who review safety studies. PMID:26392611

  18. Chernobyl reactor accident: medical management

    Chernobyl reactor accident on 26th April, 1986 is by far the worst radiation accident in the history of the nuclear industry. Nearly 500 plant personnel and rescue workers received doses varying from 1-16 Gy. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was seen only in the plant personnel. 499 individuals were screened for ARS symptoms like nausea, vomitting, diarrhoea and fever. Complete blood examination was done which showed initial granulocytosis followed by granulocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Cytogenetic examinations were confirmatory in classifying the patients on the basis of the doses received. Two hundred and thirty seven cases of ARS were hospitalised in the first 24-36 hrs. No member of general public suffered from ARS. There were two immediate deaths and subsequently 28 died in hospital and one of the cases died due to myocardial infarction, making a total of 31 deaths. The majority of fatal cases had whole body doses of about 6 Gy, besides extensive skin burns. Two cases of radiation burns had thermal burns also. Treatment of ARS consisted of isolation, barrier nursing, replacement therapy with fluid electrolytes, platelets and RBC transfusions and antibiotic therapy for bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Bone marrow transplantations were given to 13 cases out of which 11 died due to various causes. Radiation burns due to beta, gamma radiations were seen in 56 cases and treated with dressings, surgical excision, skin grafting and amputation. Oropharangeal syndrome, producing extensive mucous in the oropharynx, was first seen in Chernobyl. The patients were treated with saline wash of the mouth. The patients who had radioactive contamination due to radioactive iodine were given stable iodine, following wash with soap, water and monitored. Fourteen survivors died subsequently due to other causes. Late health effects seen so far include excess of thyroid cancer in the children and psychological disorders due to stress. No excess leukemia has been reported so

  19. Nuclear accident and medical staff

    Described is the commentary concerning normative action of medical staff at radiation emergency and actual actions taken/to be taken for the Nuclear Power Plant Accident (NPPA) in Fukushima. The normative medical staff's action at radiation emergency is essentially based on rules defined by such international authorities as United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Basic Safety Standard (BSS) and by network in IAEA, World Health Organization (WHO) and so on. The rules stand on past atomic events like those in Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Three Mile Isl., Chernobyl, and in Japanese Tokai JCO accident. The action above is required as a medical teamwork over specialized doctors. At Fukushima NPPA, medicare flowed from the on-site first-aid station (doctors for industry and labors), then the base for patient transfer (doctors of Japanese Association of Acute Medicine and Tokyo Electric Power Comp.), to the primary hospital for acute exposure (Iwaki Kyoritsu Hos.), from which patients were further transported to the secondary (contamination detected or severe trauma, Fukushima Medical Univ.) and/or tertiary facilities (serious contamination or acute radiation injury, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) and Hiroshima Univ.). The flow was built up by the previous lead of national official guidance and by urgent spontaneous network among medical facilities; exempli gratia (e.g.), Fukushima Medical Univ. rapidly specialized in coping with the radiation medicare by partial discontinuance of daily clinical practice. Specialists of acute radiation medicare are generally rare, for which measures for it are more desirable along with health risk communication in facilities concerned. The professional function and endowment required for medical staff at emergency are concluded to be their guts and devotion as well as medical

  20. The accident analysis in the framework of emergency provisions

    The first part of the report describes the demands on and bases of a reactor emergency plan and outlines the technical characteristics of a nuclear power plant with light-water moderated pressurized-water reactor with special regard to reactor safety. In the second part the failure and risk potentials of a pressurized-water plant are described and discussed. The third part is dedicated to a representation of the analytical method in a stricter sense, according to the current state of technology. Finally the current degree of effectiveness of the reactor accident analysis method is critically discussed and perspectives of future development are pointed out. (orig.)

  1. The demographic cequence of the Chernobyl' NPP accident

    In 1990 the total population evacuated due to the ChNPP accident was questionared. The analysis of the data obtained became the initial base for the demographic characteristics of this population. In 1991 about 40.000 people were planned to move. The estimation of the age of the moved, their marital status makes it possible to prognose their social child-bearing and economic value for the places where they were moved. In 1991 it was supposed that not only the moved population might have given birth to regenerations the necessary rate but also their mortality might play a significant role in the increase of the death rate

  2. Understanding accident investigators : a study of the required skills and behaviours for effective UK inspectors of accidents

    Flaherty, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    In the UK, accidents associated with maritime, aviation and rail transport are conducted by the Inspectors of Accidents at the Marine, Air and Rail Accident Investigation Branches. A review of current academic literature provides little insight into the qualities and attributes essential for the role of accident investigator. A wealth of material exists about accidents themselves but as yet, a study into the profile of the accident investigator has not been conducted. This research soug...

  3. Impact of traffic congestion on road accidents: a spatial analysis of the M25 motorway in England.

    Wang, Chao; Quddus, Mohammed A; Ison, Stephen G

    2009-07-01

    Traffic congestion and road accidents are two external costs of transport and the reduction of their impacts is often one of the primary objectives for transport policy makers. The relationship between traffic congestion and road accidents however is not apparent and less studied. It is speculated that there may be an inverse relationship between traffic congestion and road accidents, and as such this poses a potential dilemma for transport policy makers. This study aims to explore the impact of traffic congestion on the frequency of road accidents using a spatial analysis approach, while controlling for other relevant factors that may affect road accidents. The M25 London orbital motorway, divided into 70 segments, was chosen to conduct this study and relevant data on road accidents, traffic and road characteristics were collected. A robust technique has been developed to map M25 accidents onto its segments. Since existing studies have often used a proxy to measure the level of congestion, this study has employed a precise congestion measurement. A series of Poisson based non-spatial (such as Poisson-lognormal and Poisson-gamma) and spatial (Poisson-lognormal with conditional autoregressive priors) models have been used to account for the effects of both heterogeneity and spatial correlation. The results suggest that traffic congestion has little or no impact on the frequency of road accidents on the M25 motorway. All other relevant factors have provided results consistent with existing studies. PMID:19540969

  4. Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident: Lessons Learned and Future Actions from the Risk Perspectives

    The Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident in 2011 has affected various aspects of the nuclear society worldwide. The accident revealed some problems in the conventional approaches used to ensure the safety of nuclear installations. To prevent such disastrous accidents in the future, we have to learn from them and improve the conventional approaches in a more systematic manner. In this paper, we will cover three issues. The first is to identify the key issues that affected the progress of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident greatly. We examine the accident from a defense-in-depth point of view to identify such issues. The second is to develop a more systematic approach to enhance the safety of nuclear installations. We reexamine nuclear safety from a risk point of view. We use the concepts of residual and unknown risks in classifying the risk space. All possible accident scenarios types are reviewed to clarify the characteristics of the identified issues. An approach is proposed to improve our conventional approaches used to ensure nuclear safety including the design of safety features and the safety assessments from a risk point of view. Finally, we address some issues to be improved in the conventional risk assessment and management framework and/or practices to enhance nuclear safety

  5. Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident: Lessons Learned and Future Actions from the Risk Perspectives

    Yang, Jooneon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    The Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident in 2011 has affected various aspects of the nuclear society worldwide. The accident revealed some problems in the conventional approaches used to ensure the safety of nuclear installations. To prevent such disastrous accidents in the future, we have to learn from them and improve the conventional approaches in a more systematic manner. In this paper, we will cover three issues. The first is to identify the key issues that affected the progress of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident greatly. We examine the accident from a defense-in-depth point of view to identify such issues. The second is to develop a more systematic approach to enhance the safety of nuclear installations. We reexamine nuclear safety from a risk point of view. We use the concepts of residual and unknown risks in classifying the risk space. All possible accident scenarios types are reviewed to clarify the characteristics of the identified issues. An approach is proposed to improve our conventional approaches used to ensure nuclear safety including the design of safety features and the safety assessments from a risk point of view. Finally, we address some issues to be improved in the conventional risk assessment and management framework and/or practices to enhance nuclear safety.

  6. Analysis of Spent Fuel Assembly Thermal Behaviors in Boil-off Accident Scenarios

    Kim, Hye-Min; Chun, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Sun-Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The spent fuel pool (SFP) accidents would occur due to many different postulated scenarios, for example a SBO (Station Black Out) at SFP storage or an attack from external factor. In this study, we focused on the SFP boil off accident and analyzed the thermal behaviors of spent fuels following this accident, using MELCOR 1.8.6. version. MELCOR, originally the severe accident code, has been developed to also be appropriate to the SFP accident. This paper provides the spent fuel heatup characteristics in terms of decay heat, water level and fuel arrangement. The SFP model is based on 17x17 PWR assembly designed by Westinghouse. Spent fuel coolability has been analyzed with single and 1x4 assembly MELCOR models in the case of boil-off accident. It was shown that the low powered spent fuel assembly could be more vulnerable in the partial loss of coolant inventory because of lack of steam cooling and more fuel being uncovered. In addition, it was found that minimum water level has to be maintained above half of assembly height so as not to experience fuel failure, which depends on decay heat power.

  7. Inherent safety features of the HTTR revealed in the accident condition

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) being constructed by JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) is a graphite-moderated and helium-cooled reactor with an outlet gas temperature of 950degC. The inherent safety characteristics in the HTTR prevent temperature increase of reactor fuels and fission product release from the reactor core in postulated accident conditions. The reactor core can be cooled by a Vessel Cooling System (VCS) indirectly, even in the case that no forced cooling is expected during the accident such as primary pipe break. The VCS consists of independent water cooling loop and cooling panel around the reactor pressure vessel. The cooling panel whose temperature of 60-90degC cools the reactor pressure vessel by radiation and removes the decay heat from the core indirectly. Furthermore, even if failure of VCS is assumed during this accident as a severe accident, the reactor core is remained safe despite the temperature increase of biological concrete shield around the reactor pressure vessel. This paper describes the inherent safety features of the HTTR specially focused on the accident condition without forced cooling. The detailed analytical results of such an accident are described together with clarifying the role of the VCS. (author)

  8. Typical pedestrian accident scenarios for the development of autonomous emergency braking test protocols.

    Lenard, James; Badea-Romero, Alexandro; Danton, Russell

    2014-12-01

    An increasing proportion of new vehicles are being fitted with autonomous emergency braking systems. It is difficult for consumers to judge the effectiveness of these safety systems for individual models unless their performance is evaluated through track testing under controlled conditions. This paper aimed to contribute to the development of relevant test conditions by describing typical circumstances of pedestrian accidents. Cluster analysis was applied to two large British databases and both highlighted an urban scenario in daylight and fine weather where a small pedestrian walks across the road, especially from the near kerb, in clear view of a driver who is travelling straight ahead. For each dataset a main test configuration was defined to represent the conditions of the most common accident scenario along with test variations to reflect the characteristics of less common accident scenarios. Some of the variations pertaining to less common accident circumstances or to a minority of casualties in these scenarios were proposed as optional or supplementary test elements for an outstanding performance rating. Many considerations are incorporated into the final design and implementation of an actual testing regime, such as cost and the state of development of technology; only the representation of accident data lay within the scope of this paper. It would be desirable to ascertain the wider representativeness of the results by analysing accident data from other countries in a similar manner. PMID:25180785

  9. Development of integrated accident management assessment technology

    This project aims to develop critical technologies for accident management through securing evaluation frameworks and supporting tools, in order to enhance capabilities coping with severe accidents. For the research goal, firstly under the viewpoint of accident prevention, on-line risk monitoring system and the analysis framework for human error have been developed. Secondly, the training/supporting systems including the training simulator and the off-site risk evaluation system have been developed to enhance capabilities coping with severe accidents. Four kinds of research results have been obtained from this project. Firstly, the framework and taxonomy for human error analysis has been developed for accident management. As the second, the supporting system for accident managements has been developed. Using data that are obtained through the evaluation of off-site risk for Younggwang site, the risk database as well as the methodology for optimizing emergency responses has been constructed. As the third, a training support system, SAMAT, has been developed, which can be used as a training simulator for severe accident management. Finally, on-line risk monitoring system, DynaRM, has been developed for Ulchin 3 and 4 unit

  10. Monitoring Severe Accidents Using AI Techniques

    It is very difficult for nuclear power plant operators to monitor and identify the major severe accident scenarios following an initiating event by staring at temporal trends of important parameters. The objective of this study is to develop and verify the monitoring for severe accidents using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques such as support vector classification (SVC), probabilistic neural network (PNN), group method of data handling (GMDH) and fuzzy neural network (FNN). The SVC and PNN are used for event classification among the severe accidents. Also, GMDH and FNN are used to monitor for severe accidents. The inputs to AI techniques are initial time-integrated values obtained by integrating measurement signals during a short time interval after reactor scram. In this study, 3 types of initiating events such as the hot-leg LOCA, the cold-leg LOCA and SGTR are considered and it is verified how well the proposed scenario identification algorithm using the GMDH and FNN models identifies the timings when the reactor core will be uncovered, when CET will exceed 1200 .deg. F and when the reactor vessel will fail. In cases that an initiating event develops into a severe accident, the proposed algorithm showed accurate classification of initiating events. Also, it well predicted timings for important occurrences during severe accident progression scenarios, which is very helpful for operators to perform severe accident management

  11. Upper respiratory tract illnesses and accidents.

    Smith, A P; Harvey, I; Richmond, P; Peters, T J; Thomas, M; Brockman, P

    1994-07-01

    Anecdotal accounts suggest that colds and influenza may increase human error. This view is supported by laboratory studies of the effects of upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTIs) on performance efficiency, which have shown that both experimentally induced and naturally occurring URTIs reduce aspects of performance efficiency. The present research examined the relationship between accidents and URTIs by studying 923 patients attending an Accident and Emergency department at a time of year when upper respiratory tract viruses were circulating. The results revealed no significant associations between URTIs and workplace accidents, and, similarly, no significant associations emerged when all accidents were compared with other attenders. The only effect which was close to statistical significance was a protective effect of influenza against workplace accidents, which could be explained in terms of a person with influenza or who has recently had influenza being less likely to work and therefore less likely to be at risk of experiencing a workplace accident. Further research must examine this topic with different methodologies, such as selecting controls from fellow workers of the index case, and these studies will provide us with a clearer view as to whether or not there is an association between URTIs and workplace accidents. PMID:7919298

  12. On the application of near accident data to risk analysis of major accidents

    Major accidents are low frequency high consequence events which are not well supported by conventional statistical methods due to data scarcity. In the absence or shortage of major accident direct data, the use of partially related data of near accidentsaccident precursor data – has drawn much attention. In the present work, a methodology has been proposed based on hierarchical Bayesian analysis and accident precursor data to risk analysis of major accidents. While hierarchical Bayesian analysis facilitates incorporation of generic data into the analysis, the dependency and interaction between accident and near accident data can be encoded via a multinomial likelihood function. We applied the proposed methodology to risk analysis of offshore blowouts and demonstrated its outperformance compared to conventional approaches. - Highlights: • Probabilistic risk analysis is applied to model major accidents. • Two-stage Bayesian updating is used to generate informative distributions. • Accident precursor data are used to develop likelihood function. • A multinomial likelihood function is introduced to model dependencies among data

  13. Risk-based Analysis of Construction Accidents in Iran During 2007-2011-Meta Analyze Study

    AMIRI, Mehran; ARDESHIR, Abdollah; FAZEL ZARANDI, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of occupational accidents and frequency and severity of work related accidents in the construction industry among Iranian insured workers during the years 20072011. Methods The Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO) accident database containing 21,864 cases between the years 2007-2011 was applied in this study. In the next step, Total Accident Rate (TRA), Total Severity Index (TSI), and Risk Factor (RF) were defined. The core of this work is devoted to analyzing the data from different perspectives such as age of workers, occupation and construction phase, day of the week, time of the day, seasonal analysis, regional considerations, type of accident, and body parts affected. Results Workers between 15-19 years old (TAR=13.4%) are almost six times more exposed to risk of accident than the average of all ages (TAR=2.51%). Laborers and structural workers (TAR=66.6%) and those working at heights (TAR=47.2%) experience more accidents than other groups of workers. Moreover, older workers over 65 years old (TSI=1.97%> average TSI=1.60%), work supervisors (TSI=12.20% >average TSI=9.09%), and night shift workers (TSI=1.89% >average TSI=1.47%) are more prone to severe accidents. Conclusion It is recommended that laborers, young workers, weekend and night shift workers be supervised more carefully in the workplace. Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should be compulsory in working environments, and special attention should be undertaken to people working outdoors and at heights. It is also suggested that policymakers pay more attention to the improvement of safety conditions in deprived and cold western regions. PMID:26005662

  14. Investigation of Qom Rural Area Water Network Accident in 2010 and Minimization Approaches of Accident Frequencies

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study : Accidents in water networks can lead to increase the uncounted water, costs of repair, maintenance, restoration and enter water contaminants to water network. The aim of this study is to survey the accidents of Qom rural water network and choose the right approaches to reduce the number of accidents. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, four sector of Qom province (Markazi, Dastjerd, Kahak and Qahan, were assessed over a period of 8 months (July – January 2010. This study was conducted through questionnaire of Ministry of Energy. Results: The total number of accidents was 763. The highest number of accidents in the four sectors was related to Markazi sector with 228 accidents. According to the time of the accident, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to September (19.7% and November (6.8%, respectively. According to the location of the accident on network, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to distribution network (64% and connections (17.5% and transmission pipe (18.34%, respectively. According to the type of the accident, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to breaking (47.8% and gasket failure (1.2%, respectively. Considering with the pipes’ material, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to polyethylene pipes (93% and steel and cast iron pipes (0.5%, 0.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Due to the high break rate of Polyethylene pipes, it is recommended to be placed in priority of leak detection and rehabilitation.   .

  15. Dutch National Plan combat nuclear accidents

    This document presents the Dutch National Plan combat nuclear accidents (NPK). Ch. 2 discusses some important starting points which are determining for the framework and the performance of the NPK, in particular the accident typology which underlies the plan. Also the new accident-classification system for the Dutch nuclear power plants, the standardization for the measures to be taken and the staging around nuclear power plants are pursued. In ch. 3 the legal framework of the combat nuclear accidents is described. In particular the Nuclear-power law, the Accident law and the Municipality law are pursued. Also the role of province and municipality are described. Ch. 4 deals with the role of the owner/licensee of the object where the accident occurs, in the combat of accident. In ch. 5 the structure of the nuclear-accident combat at national level is outlined, subdivided in alarm phase, combat phase and the winding-up phase. In ch.'s 6-12 these phases are elaborated more in detail. In ch.'s 10-13 the measures to be taken in nuclear accidents, are described. These measures are distinguished with regard to: protection of the population and medical aspects, water economy, drinking-water supply, agriculture and food supply. Ch. 14 describes the responsibility of the burgomaster. Ch.'s 15 and 16 present an overview of the personnel, material, procedural and juridical modifications and supplements of existing structures which are necessary with regard to the new and modified parts of the structure. Ch. 17 indicates how by means of the appropriate education and exercise it can be achieved that all personnel, services and institutes concerned possess the knowledge and experience necessary for the activities from the NKP to be executed as has been described. Ch. 18 contains a survey of activities to be performed and a proposal how these can be realized. (H.W.). figs.; tabs

  16. Planning for the Handling of Radiation Accidents

    The developing atomic energy programmes and the widespread use of radiation sources in medicine, agriculture, industry and research have had admirable safety records. Throughout the world the number of known accidents in which persons have been exposed to harmful am ounts of ionizing radiation is relatively small, and only a few deaths have occurred. Meticulous precautions are being taken to maintain this good record in all work with radiation sources and to keep the exposure of persons as low as practicable. In spite of all the precautions that are taken, accidents may occur and they may be accompanied by the injury or death of persons and damage to property. It is only prudent to take those steps that are practicable to prevent accidents and to plan in advance the emergency action that would limit the injuries and damage caused by those accidents that do occur. Emergency plans should be sufficiently broad to cover unforeseen or very improbable accidents as well as those that are considered credible. Some accidents may involve only the workers in an establishment, those working directly with the source and possibly their colleagues. Other accidents may have consequences, notably in the form of radioactive contamination of the environment, that affect the general public, possibly far from the site of the accident. The preparation of plans for dealing with radiation accidents is therefore obligatory both for the various authorities that are responsible for protecting the health and the food and water supplies of the public, and for the operator of an installation containing radiation sources.

  17. Accidents in radiotherapy: Lack of quality assurance?

    About 150 radiological accidents, involving more than 3000 patients with adverse effects, 15 patient's fatalities and about 5000 staff and public exposures have been collected and analysed. Out of 67 analysed accidents in external beam therapy 22% has been caused by wrong calculation of the exposure time or monitor units, 13% by inadequate review of patient's chart, 12% by mistakes in the anatomical area to be treated. The remaining 35% can be attributed to 17 different causes. The most common mistakes in brachytherapy were wrong activities of sources used for treatment (20%), inadequate procedures for placement of sources applicators (14%), mistakes in calculating the treatment time (12%), etc. The direct and contributing causes of radiological accidents have been deduced from each event, when it was possible and categorized into 9 categories: mistakes in procedures (30%), professional mistakes (17%), communication mistakes (15%), lack of training (8.5%), interpretation mistakes (7%), lack of supervision (6%), mistakes in judgement (6%), hardware failures (5%), software and other mistakes (5.5%). Three types of direct and contributing causes responsible for almost 62% of all accidents are directly connected to the quality assurance of treatment. The lessons learnt from the accidents are related to frequencies of direct and contributing factors and show that most of the accident are caused by lack, non-application of quality assurance (QA) procedures or by underestimating of QA procedures. The international system for collection of accidents and dissemination of lessons learnt from the different accidents, proposed by IAEA, can contribute to better practice in many radiotherapy departments. Most of the accidents could have been avoided, had a comprehensive QA programme been established and properly applied in all radiotherapy departments, whatever the size. (author)

  18. Risk factors for traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis: a case-reference study.

    Na Ayuthya, R S; Böhning, D

    1997-12-01

    It was aimed to study injures from road traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis and identify patients' characteristics as well as to search for risk factors for traffic accidents leading to hospitalization. The study included 346 in-patient cases suffering injuries from road traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis. The patients were recruited during a period of 4 months of the year 1992 from five hospitals in various areas of Bangkok which were judged to be representative for Bangkok Metropolis. Using the method of case-reference, relative risk could be estimated for various exposure factors. Most of the patients drove a motorcycle, had their license for only a short period, and drove more than 5 hours a day. About one third of the patients were under the influence of alcohol. The traffic accident characteristics were that they occurred mainly at night time with the peak between 21.00 and 24.00 hours. About 90% of all traffic accidents occurred during the rainy season and most of them occurred near to road junctions. Reference data was available for some variables and the following risk group could be identified: RR (male-age 20-24) = 17.06 (8.8-33.9), RR (single-marital status) = 2.25 (1.7-3.1), RR (primary-education) = 6.2 (2.9-12.6), RR (unskilled labourer-occupation) = 3.91 (2.7-5.9), RR (salesperson-occupation) = 3.34 (2.2-5.0). PMID:9656420

  19. Thyroid carcinomas induced by Chernobyl nuclear accident

    The Chernobyl nuclear station accident is the unprecedented catastrophic accident in human nuclear industry with a large of quantity of radioactive nucleons resulting in contamination in many countries of the northern Hemisphere. After almost 20 years studying, it is approved that Belarus is the most serious affected country by the accident. Especially thyroid carcinomas in the people exposed to radioactive fall-out is considered to be the only one late radiation effect. RET gene in the happening of thyroid carcinomas is being paid close attention at present

  20. Containment severe accident management - selected strategies

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) organized in June 1994, in collaboration with the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI), a Specialist Meeting on Selected Containment Severe Accident Management Strategies, to discuss their feasibility, effectiveness, benefits and drawbacks, and long-term impact. The meeting focused on water reactors, mainly on existing systems. The technical content covered topics such as general aspects of accident management strategies in OECD Member countries, hydrogen management techniques and other containment accident management strategies, surveillance and protection of the containment function. The main conclusions of the meeting are summarized in the paper. (author)

  1. Development of criticality accident analysis code AGNES

    A one-point kinetics code, AGNES2, has been developed for the evaluation of the criticality accident of nuclear solution fuel system. The code has been evaluated through the simulation of TRACY experiments and used for the study of the condition of the JCO criticality accident. A code, AGNES-P, for the criticality accident of nuclear powder system has been developed based on AGNES2. It is expected that these codes be useful for the evaluation of criticality safety for fuel reprocessing and fabrication plants. (author)

  2. Compilation of accident statistics in PSE

    The objective of the investigations on transportation carried out within the framework of the 'Project - Studies on Safety in Waste Management (PSE II)' is the determination of the risk of accidents in the transportation of radioactive materials by rail. The fault tree analysis is used for the determination of risks in the transportation system. This method offers a possibility for the determination of frequency and consequences of accidents which could lead to an unintended release of radionuclides. The study presented compiles all data obtained from the accident statistics of the Federal German Railways. (orig./RB)

  3. Accident prevention in a contextual approach

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang

    2003-01-01

    Many recommendations on how to establish an accident prevention program do exist. The aim of many agencies is to promote the implementation of these recommendations in enterprises. The discussion has mainly focused on incentives either in the form of an effective enforcement of the law or as a...... such a contextual approach is shortly described and demonstrated in relation to a Danish case on accident prevention. It is concluded that the approach presently offers a post-ante, descriptive analytical understanding, and it is argued that it can be developed to a frame of reference for planning...... actions and programs on accident prevention....

  4. Ophidic accident and twin pregnancy

    Saavedra-Orozco Héctor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: around of 3000 types of snakes are known, from which just 15% arevenomous. Depending of the environmental, geographical and socio-demographiccharacteristics, there are significant differences in the incidence of cases of ophidicaccidents. Colombia reports 6 by each 100.000 habitants, 2.300 cases/year, with amortality of 5.6%. In a pregnant woman it is a rare event, between 1.4% and 4%, andit usually complicates seriously to the mother and to the product of the gestation. Theprevious thing will depend of the opportunity with which the suitable management isfulfilled and of the severity of the poisoning. Nowadays it isn´t clear the security of theantiophidic serum for the product, it has been related with miscarriage in early stagesof pregnancy and fetal death at the end of the pregnancy. Nevertheless, its appropriateadministration is the unique effective measure to avoid serious consequences andmaternal death.Clinical case: patient of 16 years old, G2 C1, with diagnosis of diamniotic dichorionic twinpregnancy of 36 weeks and ophidic accident of bothropic type of 16 hours of evolution.Right inferior limb with pain, edema grade III, blush, heat, formation of flictenas andecchymosis in its distal third. Laboratory tests indicate prolongation of the clotting time,elevated transaminases and elevated creatinine. It is considered the presence of severepoisoning and management with antiophidic serum is initiated. The pregnancy is finishedby cesarean as a result of maternal renal and hepatic dysfunction, and postoperativecare in UCI. The products are born with severe respiratory depression; they are carriedto neonatal intensive care unit with good evolution and hospital expenditure to thefive days. Next day to the cesarean, the patient presents compartment syndrome,for which fasciotomy is fulfilled. When the patient gets adequate recovery, it is donea cutaneous hanging tatter and after 27 days of hospitalization one gives exit withadequate

  5. Estimating the Influence of Accident Related Factors on Motorcycle Fatal Accidents using Logistic Regression (Case Study: Denpasar-Bali

    Wedagama D.M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Denpasar the capital of Bali Province, motorcycle accident contributes to about 80% of total road accidents. Out of those motorcycle accidents, 32% are fatal accidents. This study investigates the influence of accident related factors on motorcycle fatal accidents in the city of Denpasar during period 2006-2008 using a logistic regression model. The study found that the fatality of collision with pedestrians and right angle accidents were respectively about 0.44 and 0.40 times lower than collision with other vehicles and accidents due to other factors. In contrast, the odds that a motorcycle accident will be fatal due to collision with heavy and light vehicles were 1.67 times more likely than with other motorcycles. Collision with pedestrians, right angle accidents, and heavy and light vehicles were respectively accounted for 31%, 29%, and 63% of motorcycle fatal accidents.

  6. Radiation accidents and defence of population

    Full text: Development of nuclear physics, the fundamental and the applied researches in the field of radioactive insured wide possibility for application of radionuclides and ionizing radiation source in the different fields of national economy. Application of radionuclides in chemical, metallurgical, food industry, in agriculture and etc. Fields provide a large economic profit. It's hard to apprise significance of ionizing radiation source using in medicine for diagnostics and treatment of different disease. Nuclear power engineering and nuclear industry are developing intensively. At same time nuclear power, ionizing radiation sources incur potential treat for surroundings and health of population. As even that stage of protective measure development: there is no possibility of that happening of radiation accidents. A radiation accident qualifies as loss of ionizing radiation sources direction, which provoked by disrepair equipment, natural calamity or other causes which could bring to unplanned irradiation of population or radioactive pollution of surroundings. At present some following typical cases connected with radiation accident have been chosen: Contentious using or keeping of ionizing radiation source with breach of established requires; Loss, theft of ionizing radiation sources or radiation plants, instruments; Leaving the sources of ionizing radiation in the holes; Refusal radiation technic exploited in industry, medicine, SRI and etc; Disrepair in nuclear transport means of conveyance; Crashes and accidents at NPP and at other enterprises of nuclear industry. The radiation accidents according to character, degree and scales have been divided into two groups: Radiation accidents not connected with NPP; Accidents in the nuclear engineering and industry; The radiation accidents not connected with NPP according their consequence divide into 5 groups; accidents which do not come to irradiation of personal, persons from population (more PN-permissible norm

  7. Two serious accidents at the A-1 NPP. Analysis of the accidents the A-1 NPP

    In this presentation author describes the nuclear reactor A-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia). Author analyzes two reactor accidents which took off at this reactor. The first accident proceeded on January 5, 1976 during exchange of fuel elements when coolant - carbon dioxide - escaped. The second serious accident became on February 22, 1977 again during exchange of spent fuel elements. At this accident moderator - heavy water penetrated into the primary circuit of the reactor. Heavy water was subsequently removed from the reservoirs into the reserve tank in order not to leak out into the primary circuit. Inserting fuel element was melted. This accident was evaluated as grade 4 on seven-grade the international INES scale. A crash course and course parameters of the both accidents are analyzed.

  8. Accident evolution and barrier function and accident evolution management modeling of nuclear power plant incidents

    Every analysis of an accident or an incident is founded on a more or less explicit model of what an accident is. On a general level, the current approach models an incident or accident in a nuclear power plant as a failure to maintain a stable state with all variables within their ranges of stability. There are two main sets of subsystems in continuous interaction making up the analyzed system, namely the human-organizational and the technical subsystems. Several different but related approaches can be chosen to model an accident. However, two important difficulties accompany such modeling: the high level of system complexity and the very infrequent occurrence of accidents. The current approach acknowledges these problems and focuses on modeling reported incidents/accidents or scenarios selected in probabilistic risk assessment analyses to be of critical importance for the safety of a plant

  9. Application of PCTRAN-3/U to studying accident management during PWR severe accident

    In order to improve the safety of nuclear power plant, operator action should be taken into account during a severe accident. While it takes a long time to simulate the plant transient behavior under a severe accident in comparison with the design based accident, a transient simulator should have both high speed calculation capability and interactive functions to model the operating procedures. PCTRAN has been developing to be a simple simulator by using a personal computer to simulate plant behavior under an accident condition. While currently available means usually take relatively long time to simulate plant behavior, using a current high-powered personal computer (PC), PCTRAN-3/U code is designed to operate at a speed significantly faster than real-time. The author describes some results of PCTRAN application in studying the efficiency of accident management for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) during an severe accident

  10. An Application of CICCT Accident Categories to Aviation Accidents in 1988-2004

    Evans, Joni K.

    2007-01-01

    Interventions or technologies developed to improve aviation safety often focus on specific causes or accident categories. Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of those interventions is dependent upon mapping the historical aviation accidents into those same accident categories. To that end, the United States civil aviation accidents occurring between 1988 and 2004 (n=26,117) were assigned accident categories based upon the taxonomy developed by the CAST/ICAO Common Taxonomy Team (CICTT). Results are presented separately for four main categories of flight rules: Part 121 (large commercial air carriers), Scheduled Part 135 (commuter airlines), Non-Scheduled Part 135 (on-demand air taxi) and Part 91 (general aviation). Injuries and aircraft damage are summarized by year and by accident category.

  11. Modeling accidents for prioritizing prevention

    The Workgroup Occupational Risk Model (WORM) project in the Netherlands is developing a comprehensive set of scenarios to cover the full range of occupational accidents. The objective is to support companies in their risk analysis and prioritization of prevention. This paper describes how the modeling has developed through projects in the chemical industry, to this one in general industry and how this is planned to develop further in the future to model risk prevention in air transport. The core modeling technique is based on the bowtie, with addition of more explicit modeling of the barriers needed for risk control, the tasks needed to ensure provision, use, monitoring and maintenance of the barriers, and the management resources and tasks required to ensure that these barrier life cycle tasks are carried out effectively. The modeling is moving from a static notion of barriers which can fail, to seeing risk control dynamically as (fallible) means for staying within a safe envelope. The paper shows how concepts develop slowly over a series of projects as a core team works continuously together. It concludes with some results of the WORM project and some indications of how the modeling is raising fundamental questions about the conceptualization of system safety, which need future resolution

  12. Investigation of Qom Rural Area Water Network Accident in 2010 and Minimization Approaches of Accident Frequencies

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian; Ahmad Reza Yari; Mohsen Ansari; Shahram Nazari; Mohamad Saberi Bidgoli; Gharib Majidi

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims of the Study : Accidents in water networks can lead to increase the uncounted water, costs of repair, maintenance, restoration and enter water contaminants to water network. The aim of this study is to survey the accidents of Qom rural water network and choose the right approaches to reduce the number of accidents. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, four sector of Qom province (Markazi, Dastjerd, Kahak and Qahan), were assessed over a period of 8 mon...

  13. The Chernobyl accident consequences; Consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  14. The influence of accident measures on accident scenarios for VVER-1000-Type reactors

    For VVER-1000-type reactors severe accident scenarios and possible mitigation strategies are investigated. The Station blackout sequence is chosen as reference case. At first a comparison between the cases with and without working spray systems is discussed. Afterwards the results of a parametric study investigating the influence of different water volumes on the course of the accident are presented. It can be shown that most of these accident mitigation measures will maintain the containment integrity and reduce the source term. (author)

  15. Organizational aspects of three accidents : how common organizational factors contributed to the occurrence of the accidents

    Hansen, Kathe-Mari Solberg

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, two serious accidents and one major incident in the offshore drilling industry have been studied and compared. The main objective of this study was to seek out common organizational factors that contributed to these accidents. The findings clearly demonstrated that commonalities exist. Essentially, five factors represent recurring elements in these accidents: management, communication, competence, procedures, and compliance. How the regulatory regimes were organized also contr...

  16. Accident on the gas transfer system

    An accident has happened on the Vivitron gas transfer system on the 7 th August 1991. This report presents the context, facts and inquiries, analyses the reasons and explains also how the repairing has been effected

  17. A review of severe accident assessment

    One of the most difficult problems on evaluation of external costs on nuclear power generation is value on a severe accident risk. Once forming a severe accident, its effect is very important and extends to a wide range, to give a lot of damages. It is a main area of study on externality of energy to compare various risks by means of price conversion at unit kWh. Here was outlined on research examples on main severe accident risks before then. A common fact on estimation cost such research examples is to limit it to direct cost (mainly to health damage) at accident phenomenon. As an actual problem, it is very difficult to substantially quantify such parameters because of basically belonging to social psychology. It is due to no finding out decisive evaluation method on this problem to be adopted conventional EED (Expert Expected Damages) approach in the ExternE Phase III, either. (G.K.)

  18. National emergency plan for nuclear accidents

    The national emergency plan for nuclear accidents is a plan of action designed to provide a response to accidents involving the release or potential release of radioactive substances into the environment, which could give rise to radiation exposure to the public. The plan outlines the measures which are in place to assess and mitigate the effects of nuclear accidents which might pose a radiological hazard in ireland. It shows how accident management will operate, how technical information and monitoring data will be collected, how public information will be provided and what measures may be taken for the protection of the public in the short and long term. The plan can be integrated with the Department of Defence arrangements for wartime emergencies

  19. Deterministic analyses of severe accident issues

    Severe accidents in light water reactors involve complex physical phenomena. In the past there has been a heavy reliance on simple assumptions regarding physical phenomena alongside of probability methods to evaluate risks associated with severe accidents. Recently GE has developed realistic methodologies that permit deterministic evaluations of severe accident progression and of some of the associated phenomena in the case of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). These deterministic analyses indicate that with appropriate system modifications, and operator actions, core damage can be prevented in most cases. Furthermore, in cases where core-melt is postulated, containment failure can either be prevented or significantly delayed to allow sufficient time for recovery actions to mitigate severe accidents

  20. Emergency Response to Radioactive Material Transport Accidents

    Although transport regulations issued by IAEA is providing a high degree of safety during transport opertions,transport accidents involving packages containing radioactive material have occurred and will occur at any time. Whenever a transport accident involving radioactive material accurs, and many will pose no radiation safety problems, emergency respnose actioms are meeded to ensure that radiation safety is maintained. In case of transport accident that result in a significant relesae of radioactive material , loss of shielding or loss of criticality control , that consequences should be controlled or mitigated by proper emergency response actions safety guide, Emergency Response Plamming and Prepardness for transport accidents involving radioactive material, was published by IAEA. This guide reflected all requirememts of IAEA, regulations for safe transport of radioactive material this guide provide guidance to the publicauthorites and other interested organziation who are responsible for establishing such emergency arrangements