WorldWideScience

Sample records for accident causes

  1. Hindsight Bias in Cause Analysis of Accident

    Atsuo Murata; Yasunari Matsushita

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that hindsight becomes an obstacle to the objective investigation of an accident, and that the proper countermeasures for the prevention of such an accident is impossible if we view the accident with hindsight. Therefore, it is important for organizational managers to prevent hindsight from occurring so that hindsight does not hinder objective and proper measures to be taken and this does not lead to a serious accident. In this study, a basic phenomenon potentially related to accidents, that is, hindsight was taken up, and an attempt was made to explore the phenomenon in order to get basically insights into the prevention of accidents caused by such a cognitive bias.

  2. Radiation Accident Experience: Causes and Lessons Learned

    Since inception of the nuclear energy program in the United States of America, the Atomic. Energy Commission (USAEC) has maintained an extensive system for the reporting and review of radiation accidents in USAEC federal and licensing activities. Accidents required to be reported fall-into two main categories: (1) Accidents causing or threatening to cause radiation exposure to industrial workers or to the general public; (2) Accidents causing damage to or shutdown of facilities, or damage to public property. While many of the reported accidents carry with them the potential for exposure of persons to radioactivity, the cases reported, in this analysis are limited to those where certain prescribed levels of exposure have been exceeded or where significant uptake by the critical organ has occurred. This paper presents detailed analyses of the accident experience encountered in USAEC programs over the past nine years, including: (1) A breakdown of the types of work activities in the nuclear industry under which radiation accidents have occurred; (2) Characterization of the causes of such accidents as related to the types of work activities; (3) Lessons to be learned both in avoiding such accidents and in emergency planning, should such accidents occur. (author)

  3. Chernobylsk accident (Causes and Consequences)- Part 2

    The causes and consequences of the nuclear accident at Chernobylsk-4 reactor are shortly described. The informations were provided by Russian during the specialist meeting, carried out at seat of IAEA. The Russian nuclear panorama; the site, nuclear power plant characteristics and sequence of events; the immediate measurements after accident; monitoring/radioactive releases; environmental contamination and ecological consequences; measurements of emergency; recommendations to increase the nuclear safety; and recommendations of work groups, are presented. (M.C.K.)

  4. The causes of the Chernobyl accident

    For the man in the street Chernobyl epitomizes the danger of nuclear energy but when we examine the causes of this accident we see that this drama is not intrinsically linked to the production of electricity from nuclear fission. The author sees 2 components in the Chernobyl event: the accident itself and its sanitary consequences. The author considers 3 main causes to the accident: -) a design that makes the reactor difficult to control, -) a series of 6 humane failures or breaking of operating rules, and -) political reasons: the largest possible budget was dedicated to plutonium production so any improvement for safety was considered as costly and secondary, moreover the religion of secrecy which was well spread in the ancient Soviet Union, prevented any scientific from knowing all the information concerning this type of reactor. As for the sanitary consequences, the author considers direct causes and underlying causes. The lack of information for the local population, the delay taken for iodine distribution or for the interdiction of farm products consumption are included in the direct causes. The slowness of Soviet bureaucracy, tight budgets and politico-scientific disputes are quoted among the underlying causes. (A.C.)

  5. The Monju accident. Causes and effects

    On December 8, 1995, the Japanese prototype fast breeder reactor, Monju, suffered an accident which aroused considerable national and international attention. A thermocouple in a pipe carrying sodium in the secondary plant system had broken, causing some 700 kg of non-radioactive sodium to be spilled. The safety of the reactor, of the plant crew, and of the environment was not jeopardized. However, as a consequence of some badly handled public relations, rather negative reactions of the public authorities and of the public at large were encountered. One member of the investigating committee, facing a conflict of loyalities not uncommon in Japan, even committed suicide. According to current estimates, Monju will be down for at least two years, thus causing major financial problems to the operator, PNC. On the political level, more difficulties are expected to arise in the introduction of plutonium recycling. (orig.)

  6. Chernobylsk accident (Causes and Consequences)-Part 1

    Facts, project data, hypothesis, calculations, evaluations, monitoring, standard requirements and several considerations, related to causes, effects and consequences of Chernobylsk-4 accident. (M.C.K.)

  7. Road accidents as causes of injuries of adults

    Goniewicz, Mariusz; Marciniak-Niemcewicz, Anna; Rzońca, Patryk; Goniewicz, Krzysztof; Pawłowski, Witold

    2010-01-01

    Road accidents are a serious problem of the modern world. They are one of the main causes of injuries and are the third most numerous cause of death. Every year, about one million people, adults and children, die on the roads and several millions are injured. Mor-tality rate due to injuries from road accidents amounts to 2,2% of all deaths in the world. The research presents a mechanism of traffic accidents, pathophysiology of injury, partition of car accidents and characterized the insults o...

  8. [Epidemiological features and causes of railway traffic accidents].

    Zhou, D S

    1991-01-01

    This article reports on epidemiological features of railway traffic accidents and factors influencing traffic safety. An analysis of various kinds of railway traffic accidents over 30 years in Nanjing Railway Branch, Showed that railway traffic accidents have become a sort of modern social disease, and had particular epidemiological features. The peak of the epidemic curve appeared cyclically and had a close relation to social disturbances, Frequency of accident occurrence was the highest in the first season (period of spring transport) and the third season (period of high temperature) of the year thus most accidents happen in February and August. Most accidents occurred on Fridays and least on Mondays. Distribution of accidents had obvious "antenna" phenomenon in round graph which had a 24-hour cycle. Analysing the multiple factors influencing traffic safety, the results showed that the upper-limit-age of a train driver should not be more than 50 years old; The phenomenon "bathtub" between personage accident rate and age must be taken seriously. More attention should be paid to the psychological aspects when recruiting train drivers. In our country, it is urgent to set up standard of psychomovement function for choosing train locomotive drivers. Fatigue was one of the direct causes resulting in accident occurrences. No statistical correlation was found between biorhythm and accident occurrence. PMID:2036908

  9. The dominance of accidents caused by banalities

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    Most prevention analysis is focused on high risks, such as explosion, fire, lack of containment for chemicals, crashes in transportation systems, lack of oxygen, or chemical poisoning. In the industrial world, these kinds of risk still lead to incidents with huge consequences, albeit very seldom...... described as an example of how much information such systems can offer in general for the work of accident prevention in more traditional and common enterprises....

  10. Electricity-caused deathly accidents in households and their misinterpretation

    Erkrath, K.D.; Weiler, G.

    1982-12-17

    In this report results are presented which indicate the problems which are connected with the primary diagnosis and to which the emergency physician finds himself confronted. Comparable with a wrong diagnosis in the case of a fatal CO intoxication, the source of danger remains also in case of an undetected fatal accidents due to electricity which occured in the household, and consequently the physician might one day be accused of manslaughter caused by criminal negligence, if another fatal accident occurs. This article gives five selected examples which shall help the emergency physician and the coroner to consider the death due to electric shock as a possible cause of death when a fatal accident occurs in a household. Between 1974 and 1981 autopsy was made in 40 persons, who had died in accidents due to electric shock, in the Institut fuer Rechtsmedizin des Universitaetsklinikums Essen. Of these cases 26 were identified as accidents which had occurred in the household.

  11. Fatal accident caused by isoflurane abuse.

    Pavlic, M; Haidekker, A; Grubwieser, P; Rabl, W

    2002-12-01

    A fatal accident after isoflurane abuse is presented in this report. A hospital employee was found dead in the operating area with a plastic bag over his head. In his locker an almost empty bottle of isoflurane was found. Autopsy revealed signs of asphyxiation and toxicological examination revealed nordazepam and isoflurane in non-toxic concentrations in the blood. Quantification of the anaesthetic was also carried out in urine, gastric contents, liver, kidney and brain samples, and in addition, oxazepam, prothipendyl and metabolites of midazolam and prothipendyl were found in the urine. Although the drug problems of the deceased were known before, no efforts had been made to restrict access to these drugs. PMID:12596784

  12. Reaction time of drivers who caused road traffic accidents

    Đurić Predrag

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Human factor is the single cause of road traffic injuries in 57%, and together with other factors in more than 90% of all road traffic accidents. Human factor includes many aspects, where reaction time is very important. Material and methods. Thirty healthy drivers 28-40 y.o. with 50-500 km passed per week, having caused at least one road traffic accident in the last ten years were selected, provided they were not under the influence of alcohol and drugs during traffic accident. The same number of control were selected. Both cases and controls were tested to reaction time. Results. We found statistically significant difference between car drivers who caused car accidents and those who did not in both simple and choice reaction times. Discussion. Car drivers who caused road traffic accidents have longer reaction time (both simple and choice reaction time, but as the tasks were more complex, that difference was less visible. Since drivers involved in this study had introductory phase before measuring their reaction times, they faced with unpleasant sound when they made mistake, which forced them to be aware not to make a mistake in further tasks, so they showed longer reaction times. Conclusion. Measuring of reaction time seems to be important, and as we have showed they are different in drivers who have caused road traffic accidents and those who have do not.

  13. About the causes and circumstances of the Chernobyl NPP accident

    The Chernobyl accident is the product of unsatisfactory solutions to scientific-technical, socio-economic and human problems. The documentarily recorded power excursion of the reactor and its rise velocity as well as the quick pressure rise in the separator drum admit the conclusion that the cause of the accident was the rapid power excursion of the reactor and not some external influence. (DG)

  14. Accidents caused by electric currents; Unfaelle durch elektrischen Strom

    Juehling, J. [Berufsgenossenschaft der Feinmechanik und Elektrotechnik, Koeln (Germany). Inst. zur Erforschung Elektrischer Unfaelle

    1998-12-31

    The present evaluation only refers to accidents caused by electric currents in member companies of the employees` industrial compensation society of the fine mechanics and electrical engineering professions (BGFE). In some cases the institute also publishes statistics on the frequency time course of electrical accidents which deviate from those the relevant annual report. This is mainly due to the fact that these statistics also contain non-notifiable accidents communicated via medical reports and the supplementary report on electrical accidents. They further contain keyed data on electrical accidents reported by other employees` industrial compensation societies. Inquiries made to the institute may therefore be answered on the basis of all the above-mentioned data on electrical accidents as well as on the overall accident statistics of the BGFE. [Deutsch] Die nachfolgenden Auswertungen beziehen sich nur auf Unfaelle in Mitgliedsbetrieben der BG F und E, verursacht durch den elektrischen Strom. Zum Teil veroeffentlicht aber das Institut Zahlen ueber die zeitliche Entwicklung von Stromunfaellen, die nicht immer mit den Angaben der jeweiligen Jahresberichte uebereinstimmen muessen. Das liegt vor allem daran, dass auch nicht-meldepflichtige Unfaelle ueber den D-Arztbericht und ueber den Ergaenzungsbericht bei Unfaellen durch elektrischen Strom - also ueber aerztliche Erhebungsformulare - erfasst werden. Ausserdem werden auch von anderen Berufsgenossenschaften eingehende Stromunfaelle verschluesselt. Zur Beantwortung von Anfragen an das Institut koennen also all die vorgenannten Daten zu elektrischen Unfaellen und natuerlich auch die Zahlen zum Gesamtunfallgeschehen der BG F und E herangezogen werden. (orig.)

  15. Trauma in the elderly caused by traffic accident: integrative review

    Ana Maria Ribeiro dos Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To describe the scientific knowledge produced about trauma in the elderly caused by traffic accidents in healthcare area studies. METHODS Integrative review of studies from 2003 to 2013 searched in LILACS, SciELO, PubMed and CINHAL databases. We used combination of the descriptors injuries, wounds and accidents, in English, Portuguese and Spanish languages. RESULTS 32 studies were selected. In the thematic analysis, three categories emerged: epidemiological data from traffic accidents involving elderly; traffic accidents with elderly pedestrians; and trauma care in the elderly. We observed increased incidence of trauma in most countries and pedestrians represented a large part of the victims. Among these, the elderly are the most vulnerable group. CONCLUSION Studies showed that trauma care in the elderly need protocols and professionals with training in gerontology specialized in trauma care services.

  16. Psychic disorders caused by the Chernobyl accident

    The results of the investigations being fulfilled in accordance with three programs for different groups of people are received. People living in the radionuclide contaminated areas from the both Gomel and Mogilev Regions (n=304), liquidators (n=114), children, having been born from the mothers living on the radionuclide contaminated territories (n=154), when they were pregnant, were involved in the study. The number of persons of male and female sex were accordingly 63% and 47%. 50 children and 50 adults from the both Minsk and Vitebsk Regions (clean zones) were in the control group. The study has shown that neuro psychic disorders occurred in the majority of the examined persons and it was caused mainly by an organic impairment of brain

  17. Root causes of the Chernobyl accident: hindsight through years

    The objective of the article was not to evaluate the status of nuclear safety in this country. We wished to raise another question analysing the Chernobyl accident occurred in April 1986 is not the end in itself and the analysis must not be retrospective. The objective is to draw the normal for nuclear safety nowadays and in the future in order to prevent the very possibility of another accident entailing severe radiological consequences. In our opinion, discussions on any details of physical and thermohydraulic processes occurred in April 1986 can and even must be the matter of due consideration. There are all the reasons to state that no due conclusions were drawn in Ukraine further to the analysis of the Chernobyl accident causes

  18. Root causes of the Fukushima accident and its countermeasures

    Fukushima accident forced people to recognize significance of 'radioactivity risk' of nuclear power, which had been developed as energy sources for people using nuclear reaction producing enormous energy. 'Radioactivity risk' of nuclear power was fully investigated and this risk avoidance, namely, 'nuclear safety' had been established by multiple barriers or defense-in-depth philosophy. Among all stakeholders such as government, local government, academia, electric utilities, fabricators and others, all the people concerned with nuclear power had not been fully aware of the responsibility in their role and not taken an intrinsic action to establish 'nuclear safety', which would be the primary cause of Fukushima accident. Root causes were thought as (1) lack of comprehensive view on 'nuclear safety' assurance for operating plant, (2) lack of common consciousness to ensure nuclear safety in collaboration with society and (3) sticking to infallibility of regulatory standards and lack of leadership for their improvement. Respective countermeasures should be (1) regulatory reform from hardware overemphasis to system safety, (2) holding target in common and observation reinforcement and (3) clarification of role allotment and responsibility. Establishment of appropriate regime or system to restore from Fukushima accident and assure 'nuclear safety' of nuclear power should be proceeded in collaboration with international community. (T. Tanaka)

  19. Root Causes and Impacts of Severe Accidents at Large Nuclear Power Plants

    Högberg, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The root causes and impacts of three severe accidents at large civilian nuclear power plants are reviewed: the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and the Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011. Impacts include health effects, evacuation of contaminated areas as well as cost estimates and impacts on energy policies and nuclear safety work in various countries. It is concluded that essential objectives for reactor safety work must be: (1) to prevent accidents from d...

  20. Two decades of radiological accidents direct causes, roots causes and consequences

    Rozental Jose de Julio

    2002-01-01

    of Safety Performance and Safety Culture. Accident investigation is the first step toward avoiding future injures and financial losses, by prevention of recur recurrence. On the other hand, accident investigation is also essential for the establishment of the responsibilities and liability for the consequences. This document discuss the main accidents that have happened in the last two decades, in terms of causes, consequences, similarities and lessons learned when sealed sources have been damaged, lost, stolen and abandoned. In considerable majority death and serious injuries were resulted from failures in the safety system for radiation sources and for the security of radioactive materials.

  1. Two decades of radiological accidents direct causes, roots causes and consequences

    and Safety Culture. Accident investigation is the first step toward avoiding future injures and financial losses, by prevention of recur recurrence. On the other hand, accident investigation is also essential for the establishment of the responsibilities and liability for the consequences. This document discuss the main accidents that have happened in the last two decades, in terms of causes, consequences, similarities and lesson learned when sealed sources have been damaged, lost, stolen and abandoned. In considerable majority death and serious injuries were resulted from failures in the safety system for radiation sources and for the security of radioactive materials. (author)

  2. Cause Analysis of Wuhan Tianheng Building Pile Accident

    2001-01-01

    The geological condition and the original structure feature and foundation design of Wuhan Tianheng building are described. The accident appearance of pile foundation in the construction execution of work is illustrated. The generating source of this pile foundation accident is analyzed in great details.``

  3. Social representations about the causes of accidents with needlestick materials by nursing technicians

    Juliana Almeida Marques Lubenow; Maria Eliete Batista Moura

    2013-01-01

    The accidents with needlestick materials are serious due to the diseases that can be caused. This is a descriptive study with qualitative approach and it was developed at a private hospital in Piauí, Brazil, between March and June 2011. The objective is analyzing the causes attributed by nursing technicians to their own accidents with needlestick, using the Social Representations Theory. Deep interviews were applied to 16 professionals who suffered this kind of accident. Data were processed i...

  4. Marine Accidents in Northern Nigeria: Causes, Prevention and Management

    Lawal Bello Dogarawa

    2012-01-01

    Boat mishaps tend to be increasing in Nigeria in spite of all regulatory measures which have been taken to prevent and control marine accidents. Boat mishaps could occur anywhere water transportation takes place. However, there is a general impression that water transportation takes place only in the riverine areas located in Southern Nigeria but, this paper reports about marine accident cases in Northern Nigeria. It evaluates the safety measures put in place by operators and other institutio...

  5. Revisiting Chernobyl accident:what were the causes?

    It is generally stated, particularly in the West, that the Chernobyl accident was the result of a specific Soviet political and economic system, and that such an accident could not happen in the Western reactors. The reality is much more complicated. A careful examination of events that lead to the accident reveals that there were several different factors contributing to it. If any one of these factors were absent, there would have been no accident, or it would have been only a minor incident. Three of these factors were related to the reactor design, two to the preparation of the experiment, three to the judgment of the operators, judgments made under pressure and in a hurry, and at least one to the management..The management factor is perhaps the most controversial and interesting. One popular interpretation is that the accident was the result of excessive bureaucracy and individual irresponsibility. Some examples of mismanagement in other areas of human activity are quoted in this paper. They illustrate that similar mistakes occur quite frequently all around us, not only in the Soviet Union. The overall analysis of the Chernobyl accident confirms what scientists and engineers have known for a long time. It is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to develop a new technology without making mistakes, some of which may be fatal. (author)

  6. Suitable time of treating maxillofacial trauma caused by traffic accident in general hospitals

    桑修文; 赵宏伟; 等

    1999-01-01

    Objective To explore sutitable time of treating maxillofacial trauma caused by traffic accident in general hospitals to decrease adverse effect caused by delayed therapy.Methods:In recent 10 years we have treated 154 cases of maxillofacial trauma by traffic accidents and their data were analyzed.Results:Early surgical therapy could be done in maxillofacial soft tissue trauma.The therapy of returning occlusion relation or temporary fixing was performed in bone fracture before porosis.Conclusions:For maxilloficial trauman and trauman of other parts caused by traffic accidents.early treatment should be done in order to decrease dysfunction and deformity caused by maxillofacial trauma.

  7. Prevention of the causes and consequences of a criticality accident - measures adopted in France

    The question of safety in regard to criticality accident risks has two aspects: prevention of the cause and limitation of the consequences. These two aspects are closely connected. The effort devoted to prevention of the causes depends on the seriousness of the possible human psychologic and economic consequences of the accident. The criticality accidents which have occurred in the nuclear industry, though few in number, do reveal the imperfect nature of the techniques adopted to prevent the causes, and also constitute the only available realistic basis for evaluating the consequences and developing measures to limit them. The authors give a analysis of the known causes and consequences of past criticality accidents and on this basis make a number of comments concerning: the validity of traditional safety criteria, the probability of accidents for different types of operations, characteristic accidents which can serve as models, and the extent of possible radiological consequences. The measures adopted in France to limit the consequences of a possible criticality accident under the headings: location, design and lay-out of the installations, accident detection, and dosimetry for the exposed personnel, are briefly described after a short account of the criteria used in deciding on them. (author)

  8. The Chernobyl accident: An overview of causes and effects

    After a brief description of the Chernobyl reactor and the accident, the activity release is assessed. Radiological effects in the immediate vicinity as well as in Europe are discussed, with particular emphasis on Switzerland. Results concerning food contamination are presented. Protective measures are described and an overview of the radiation dose distribution is given. A comparison with the doses from natural radiation and weapons fallout is made

  9. Statistical analysis of causes and countermeasures to the accidents in coal mines

    SHI Jian-jun; DUAN Xu-hua

    2007-01-01

    Statistics and analysis was made in causes, places and proportions about all kinds of disasters and accidents in coal mines of China in resent 50 years. The analysis indicates the emphasis reason that result in the accidents in coal mines are artificial cause,explosion of mash gas and coal dust, water flood, fire hazard. The accidents mostly happened on stope which is more often than other places, following by the driving work face.This not only supplies the managers with basic reference about safe administration, but also suggests the countermeasures in reducing accidents: improve the disposition of person, perfect all kinds of rules and regulations, severely investigate, analyze and deal with the accidents.

  10. Severe head injury caused by motorcycle traffic accident

    李钢

    1999-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristic and treatment of the severe head injury due to motorcycle accident.Methods Review and analysis of 27 motorcycle traffic trauma cases who were admitted to our hospital from Oct.1995 to Sep.1997.Results Young men were the main composition of these patients.Multiple injuries associated with brain ste or diffuse axonal injury were common,which were the main factors influencing the consciousness and prognosis of the patients.The wound was usually severely contaminated.Evacuation of hematomas,decompression by depleting skull flap,hypotheymia and artificial hibernation were conducted in this series.Among them,14 cases were cured ,3 cases were seriously disabled,10 cases died.Conclusions Motorcycle's weight is light so it easily loses its balance.The riders and the passengers are exposed and lack protection.Driving against traffic regulations is frquently seen.All these are the reasons why the motorcycle traffic accidents often take place. When the traffic accident happens,the patients' head generally is thrown a long distance and dashed against the barrier or the ground.The psture nd mechanism of injury were complicated and varied.The decelerated injury and rolling injury occurred frequently and they were the main reasons for brain stem or diffuse axonal injury.The patients who have surgical indication should be operated upon as soon as possible.Hibernation and low temoerature therapy are conducive to the protection of the brain function at the early stage of postinjury or postoperation.A careful epluchage is essential to reduce infection of the open injury.

  11. Economic damage caused by a nuclear reactor accident

    The impacts of a nuclear reactor accident have been estimated for: the public water supply; the use of surface water for sprinkling in agriculture, for industry water supply, recreation, etc.; and fisheries. Contamination of water sources may affect the public water supply severely. In such a situation demand of water cannot always be met. Agriculture faces production losses, if demand for uncontaminated surface water cannot be met. The impacts on recreation can also be significant. The losses to other water users are less substantial. Fisheries may lose (export) markets, as people become reluctant to buy fish and fish products. 33 refs.; 3 figs.; 35 tabs

  12. A Hybrid Algorithm of Traffic Accident Data Mining on Cause Analysis

    Jianfeng Xi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accident databases provide the basis for road traffic accident analysis, the data inside which usually has a radial, multidimensional, and multilayered structure. Traditional data mining algorithms such as association rules, when applied alone, often yield uncertain and unreliable results. An improved association rule algorithm based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO put forward by this paper can be used to analyze the correlation between accident attributes and causes. The new algorithm focuses on characteristics of the hyperstereo structure of road traffic accident data, and the association rules of accident causes can be calculated more accurately and in higher rates. A new concept of Association Entropy is also defined to help compare the importance between different accident attributes. T-test model and Delphi method were deployed to test and verify the accuracy of the improved algorithm, the result of which was a ten times faster speed for random traffic accident data sampling analyses on average. In the paper, the algorithms were tested on a sample database of more than twenty thousand items, each with 56 accident attributes. And the final result proves that the improved algorithm was accurate and stable.

  13. Marine Accidents in Northern Nigeria: Causes, Prevention and Management

    Lawal Bello Dogarawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Boat mishaps tend to be increasing in Nigeria in spite of all regulatory measures which have been taken to prevent and control marine accidents. Boat mishaps could occur anywhere water transportation takes place. However, there is a general impression that water transportation takes place only in the riverine areas located in Southern Nigeria but, this paper reports about marine accident cases in Northern Nigeria. It evaluates the safety measures put in place by operators and other institutional bodies in the areas and assesses the level of infrastructure in terms of quantity, quality and accessibility to boat operators, boat users and institutional staff. Questionnaires were administered through individual and group interviews with boat owners, boat drivers, boat users, boat builders, boat engine mechanics, local government officials, maritime workers union, the marine police, traditional regulators and staff of the federal government agencies for maritime affairs. The paper found that marine transportation is neglected in Northern Nigeria with dilapidated jetties, ill-equipped marine police, non-functional ferries and boast meant to be used by federal officials and wrecks in water channels without removal. Maritime safety is therefore compromised with cases of overloading carrying people, animals, grains and petroleum products in one boat without fire extinguisher and no lifejackets. The paper concludes that there are considerable water transportation activities in Northern Nigeria without a corresponding government attention. It is therefore recommend that government should intervene by providing lifejackets, fire extinguishers, training of surveyors, refurbishing ferries for enforcement as well as creating safety awareness in the region.

  14. Causes of Fatal Accidents Involving Cranes in the Australian Construction Industry

    Ehsan Gharaie; Helen Lingard; Tracy Cooke

    2015-01-01

    In ten years from 2004 to 2013, 359 workers died in the Australian construction industry because of work related causes. This paper investigates crane-related fatalities in order to find the upstream causation of such accidents. The National Coroners’ Information System (NCIS) database was searched to identify fatal accidents in the construction industry involving the use of a crane.  The narrative description of the cases provided in the coroners’ findings and associated documents were conte...

  15. Epidemiological study of trauma caused by traffic accidents on Hefei—Nanjing expressway

    王永征; 邵成颂; 等

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the epidemiological data of trauma caused by traffic accidents on Hefei-Nanjing expressway from the year of 1995 to 1996.Methods:The data provided by Anhui Provincial Traffic Police Bureau were analyzed and discussed. Rsults:Mortality rates in 1995 and in 1996 were respectively 0.19 and 0.12 er 10000vehicles.Traffic accidents occurred mostly in fine weather from 22:00 to 6:00.The cause of traffic acidents in the first place was the head-tail collision,then the collision with fixtures or overturning,Traffic accidents bringing about by drivers accounted for more than 70 percent of the cases.The reasons was weary driving,illegal parking and over-speed driving.The breakdown of vehicles and pedestrians on highway were also the cause of accidents.Conclusions:In order to reduce the incidence of traum caused by traffic accidents on expressway,the followings should be carried out as strengthening the policy or traffic administration on expressway,examining strictly vehicles annually,educating drivers to abide by traffic rules,propagandizing people's traffic safety consciousness and forbidding pedestrians to walk into expressways.

  16. Causes of Fatal Accidents Involving Cranes in the Australian Construction Industry

    Ehsan Gharaie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In ten years from 2004 to 2013, 359 workers died in the Australian construction industry because of work related causes. This paper investigates crane-related fatalities in order to find the upstream causation of such accidents. The National Coroners’ Information System (NCIS database was searched to identify fatal accidents in the construction industry involving the use of a crane.  The narrative description of the cases provided in the coroners’ findings and associated documents were content analysed to identify the contributing causal factors within the context of each case. The findings show that the most frequent crane-related accident types were those that were struck by load, and electrocution. The most prevalent immediate circumstance causes were layout of the site and restricted space. The two most commonly identified shaping factors were physical site constraints and design of construction process. Inadequate risk management system was identified as the main originating influence on the accidents. This paper demonstrates that a systemic causation model can provide considerable insight into how originating influences, shaping factors, and immediate circumstances combine to produce accidents. This information is extremely useful in informing the development of prevention strategies, particularly in the case of commonly occurring accident types.

  17. Causes and simulation analysis of the accident on Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station

    In order to reproduce pressure, water level and temperature distribution in the reactor during the Fukushima accident by computerized simulation, severe accident analysis code needed to include specific phenomena such as direct vapor leaks into drywell due to over-temperature failures at in-core instrumentation tubes and flange of safety relief valve, leaks from drywell into reactor building at top head flange, incomplete vapor condensation inside pressure suppression chamber, seawater ingress into torus room, partial load operation of RCIC turbine and existence of branch pipes at water injected pipe from fire engines. This article described how dreadfully enlarged the Fukushima accident was, and its causes and sequences leading to meltdown based on the analyzed results obtained by improved code. Calculated amounts of molten core and hydrogen produced were 67% and 572 kg for Unit 1, 38% and 930 kg for Unit 2 and 40% and 880 kg for Unit 3. Causes of accident enlargement might be weak severe accident measures and no in-situ training and emergency manuals against long-term outages. Taking account of simulation results, there could exist accident enlargement (meltdown) preventable measures using available equipment. (T. Tanaka)

  18. The Columbia Accident: Synopsis of CAIB Report Regarding the Physical Cause of the Accident and and Personal Thoughts

    Arnold, James O.

    2011-01-01

    This seminar describes the process of determining the physical cause of The Shuttle Columbia Accident. The presentation is based on the published CIAB Report, and is based mainly on Appendix F2, Vol IV of the CIAB report by J. O. Arnold, H. E. Goldstein and D. J. Rigalli. As a part of the seminar, I would also indicate how my education in Engineering Physics at the University of Kansas helped prepare me to accept the assignment to serve as an investigator for the CAIB. A similar presentation was given at Purdue in 2005. Presentation charts are attached.

  19. Analysis of causes and sequences of the accident on Fukushima NPP as a factor of sever accidents prevention in the vessel reactor

    In this monograph, the provisional analysis of the causes and sequences of the sever accidents on the Fukushima NPP is presented. The analysis of the possibility of the origin of extreme events connected with the flooding of Zaporizhzhia NPP industrial site, emergency of the steam-gas explosions on NPPs with WWER and other phenomena occurred under sever accidents was carried out. It was presented the authors original working-out on symptom-oriented approaches of sever accident initiating event list identification, on criteria substantiation of explosion safety and optimization of processes management at sever accidents, as well as on the methodological support of the accident beyond the design basis management at the WWER for prevention of their transition in the stage of sever accidents.

  20. Wound infection caused by Lichtheimia ramosa due to a car accident

    Bibashi, Evangelia; de Hoog, G Sybren; Pavlidis, Theodoros E; Symeonidis, Nikolaos; Sakantamis, Athanasios; Walther, Grit

    2012-01-01

    A 32-year-old immunocompetent man sustained severe traumas contaminated with organic material due to a car accident. An infection caused by Lichtheimia ramosa at the site of contamination was early diagnosed and cured by multiple surgical debridement and daily cleansing with antiseptic solution only

  1. Wound infection caused by Lichtheimia ramosa due to a car accident

    E. Bibashi; G.S. de Hoog; T.E. Pavlidis; N. Symeonidis; A. Sakantamis; G. Walther

    2013-01-01

    A 32-year-old immunocompetent man sustained severe traumas contaminated with organic material due to a car accident. An infection caused by Lichtheimia ramosa at the site of contamination was early diagnosed and cured by multiple surgical debridement and daily cleansing with antiseptic solution only

  2. The Chernobyl-4 Reactor and the possible causes of the accident

    A description and information about the Chernobyl nuclear reactor is given. Some comparison elements between the RBMK reactor type and GCR, CANDU, SGHWR and Hanford N reactor types are presented. A scenario of the possible causes of the accident is discussed. (A.F.)

  3. Review of five investigation committees' reports on the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant severe accident. Focusing on accident progression and causes

    On March 11, 2011, the Tohoku District-off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake and the subsequent tsunami resulted in the severe core damage at TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station Units 1-3, involving hydrogen explosions at Units 1, 3, and 4 and the large release of radioactive materials to the environment. Four independent committees were established by the Japanese government, the Diet of Japan, the Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation, and TEPCO to investigate the accident and published their respective reports. Also, the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency carried out an analysis of accident causes to obtain the lessons learned from the accident and made its report public. This article reviews the reports and clarifies the differences in their positions, from the technological point of view, focusing on the accident progression and causes. Moreover, the undiscussed issues are identified to provide insights useful for the near-term regulatory activities including accident investigation by the Nuclear Regulation Authority. (author)

  4. Serious brain injury coexisting with multiple injuries caused by traffic accidents in 69 cases

    张浚; 张鹤飞; 等

    1999-01-01

    Objective To explore the speciality,diagnosis,cure principle of serious brain injury coexisting with nultiple injuries caused by traffic accidents.Methods To analyze the clinic data of 69 cases of serious rain injury combined by oter parts of injuries caused by traffic accidents received from January 1998 to April 1999.Results This type of injury took up 11.5 percent of brain injuries in the same term and 33.6 percent of serious brain injuries.The specialities of the injury are that most of them were pedestrians crashed by vehicles.Coesisting injuries including chest injury and limb fractures accounted for a large part.The brain injury usally presented profound disturbance of consciousness,being dangerous and complicated,and a high ISS value.After treatment 13 cases died,9 cases was heavily crippled,11 cases lightly crippled,and 36 cases recovered.The death was usually caused by brain injury.Conclusions Road traffic accidents increased substantially every year.Most of them are related with violating drive rules and regulations.It is important to decrease the road traffic accidents by strengthening propaganda on traffic safety and traffic management.The main principles for salvage should emphasize the importance of pre-hospital emergency rescue and the accurate diagnosis rate,especially the distinction between coma and shock.The priority should be put on those injuries threatening to life.

  5. Phenomenological uncertainty analysis of containment building pressure load caused by severe accident sequences

    Highlights: • Phenomenological uncertainty analysis has been applied to level 2 PSA. • The methodology provides an alternative to simple deterministic analyses and sensitivity studies. • A realistic evaluation provides a more complete characterization of risks. • Uncertain parameters of MAAP code for the early containment failure were identified. - Abstract: This paper illustrates an application of a severe accident analysis code, MAAP, to the uncertainty evaluation of early containment failure scenarios employed in the containment event tree (CET) model of a reference plant. An uncertainty analysis of containment pressure behavior during severe accidents has been performed for an optimum assessment of an early containment failure model. The present application is mainly focused on determining an estimate of the containment building pressure load caused by severe accident sequences of a nuclear power plant. Key modeling parameters and phenomenological models employed for the present uncertainty analysis are closely related to the in-vessel hydrogen generation, direct containment heating, and gas combustion. The basic approach of this methodology is to (1) develop severe accident scenarios for which containment pressure loads should be performed based on a level 2 PSA, (2) identify severe accident phenomena relevant to an early containment failure, (3) identify the MAAP input parameters, sensitivity coefficients, and modeling options that describe or influence the early containment failure phenomena, (4) prescribe the likelihood descriptions of the potential range of these parameters, and (5) evaluate the code predictions using a number of random combinations of parameter inputs sampled from the likelihood distributions

  6. Analysis of causes of criticality accidents at nuclear fuel processing facilities in foreign countries. Similarities to the criticality accident at JCO's uranium processing plant

    On September 30, 1999, a criticality accident occurred at the JCO's uranium processing plant, which resulted in the first nuclear accident involving a fatality, in Japan, and forced the residents in the vicinity of the site to be evacuated and be sheltered indoors. Before the JCO accident, 21 criticality accidents have been reported at nuclear fuel processing facilities in foreign countries. The present paper describes the overall trends observed in the 21 accidents and discusses the sequences and causes of the accidents analyzed in terms of similarities to the JCO accident. Almost all of them occurred with the uranium or plutonium solution and in vessels/tanks with unfavorable geometry. In some cases, the problems similar to those observed in the JCO accident were identified: violations of procedures and/or technical specifications for improving work efficiencies, procedural changes without any application to and permission from the regulatory body, lack of understanding of criticality hazards, and complacency that a criticality accident would not occur. (author)

  7. Fukushima 1st NPPs accidents and disaster caused by the pacific coast Tsunami of Tohoku earthquake. Lessons from evaluation of the Fukushima 1st NPPs accidents

    The Great East Japan earthquake (moment magnitude 9.0) occurred in March 11, 2011. The disastrous tsunami attacked Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants (NPPs) after automatically shutdown by the earthquake and all motor operated pumps became inoperable due to station black out. It caused severe accident of multiple plants simultaneously such as loss of cooling function, fuel damaged and vent of containment, hydrogen explosion and discharge of large amount of radioactive materials into the environment leading to nuclear power emergency that ordered resident to evacuate or remain indoors. The situation of the accident had been reported in details by mass media and most people experienced a disaster of reactor accidents and fear of radioactivity contamination. Based on the investigation and analysis of the accident at this moment, this article consisted of overview and time sequence of the accident, lessons learned from TMI and Chernobyl accidents and root cause analysis of the accident and countermeasures. Filtered containment venting system and catalyzed hydrogen recombiners were highly recommended from the point of defense-in-depth to mitigate and prevent nuclear disaster. (T. Tanaka)

  8. Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Cause analysis and teachings from a viewpoint of a human factor

    On the JCO criticality accident occurred on September 30, 1999, from relatively earlier time since its occurrence it was elucidated that it was formed not by accident and error operation of apparatus and instruments but by unsafe actions of operators beyond regular manual as its direct cause, and that an organizational factor on business managers and safety administration unable to control such unsafe actions of operators at its background. Then, it was judged to be essential to carry out an accident research from a viewpoint of the human factor (HF) for elucidation on essence of the accident, to establish a 'special workshop on the JCO accident research' to investigate elucidation of the accident cause and countermeasure of reoccurrence at a standpoint of HF. As a result, the essential cause of this accident was summarized that safety information such as ideals, information, teachings and so forth necessary for safety management were failed to share among different organizations. As a teaching of this accident, nuclear energy participants must recognize that safety culture is not finished only in specific organization and range but produced by protecting weathering of danger consciousness and effort of mutually exciting and learning by sharing a safety information beyond different organization, range and time. (G.K.)

  9. Epidemiologic features of lethal head injury caused by highway traffic accidents

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To study the epidemiologic features of highway traffic accidents by analyzing the clinical data of the patients died of head injury.Methods:The reatures of the cases' age,occupation,status of head injury and complications.and the rescue procedures were retrospectively analyzed based on the data of 214 patients died of head injury.Results:The main victime were adults(78%)and peasants(52.8%).And the ost common head injuries were severe cerebral contusion with intracranial hematomas(73.4%).The mean arrival time from the accident spots to hospitals was(2.2±1.9)h.And the mean interval time between the arrival and operation was(1.9±0.9)h.Primary and secondary brainstem damage were the main causes of early death.Yet pulmonary infection and multiple organs failure were the common reasons for late death.Conclusions:Enhancing the propaganda for traffic regulations,establishing perfect pre-hospital and in-hospital EMS(emergency medical service)system,catching the opportunity of operation,and preventing complications are essential to reduce the mortality of traffic accidents induced head trauma.

  10. A Lambda-Max of consistency test in Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) for weights of road accidents causes

    Najib, Liana; Abdullah, Lazim

    2013-04-01

    In the new global economy, road accident has become continuing issue in Malaysia without precise solution on searching the weights and ranks of the causes contributing to road accident. The statistical of road accident fatalities in worldwide are generally persist on increasing from day to day. Thus, the aim of the paper is to purpose fuzzy multi criteria decision making (MCDM) to evaluate causes option with respect to road accident problem. The fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) is applied to conduct the relative weights priority related to causes associated with road accident, testing the consistency test of matrix pair-wise comparison of criterion and alternatives by proposed method of Lambda-Max and normalization of weights vectors via Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method as a sequence to rank the weights priority factors. The triangular fuzzy numbers (TFNs) were applied to handle vagueness and imprecision of the data in fuzzy MCDM. Empirical results are determined by using linguistic variables data via interview with the decision makers. The results demonstrate the capability of the causes contributed to road accident in Malaysia.

  11. Fukushima. The accident sequence and important causes. Pt. 1/3; Fukushima. Unfallablauf und wesentliche Ursachen. T. 1/3

    Pistner, Christoph [Oeko-Institut e.V., Darmstadt (Germany). Bereich Nukleartechnik und Anlagensicherheit

    2013-07-01

    On March 11, 2011 a strong earthquake at the east coast of Japan and a subsequent tsunami caused severe damage at the NPP site of Fukushima Daiichi. The article covers the fundamental safety aspects of the accident progress according to the state of knowledge. The principles of nuclear technology and reactor safety are summarized in order to allow the understanding of the accidental sequence. Even two years after the disaster many questions on the sequence of accident events are still open.

  12. Physical root-causes of the accident on Chernobyl NPP and its impact on the power industry

    In the first part of the article is in short described the process of establishing nuclear safety and reliability for nuclear power plants, and in the second part are shortly described root-causes for two significant accidents on nuclear power plants (Three Mile Island and Chernobyl). Considered is an impact of theses accidents on the power industry and measures of the international community for assurance of reliable and safe operation of the nuclear power plants. (author)

  13. A retrspective study of rescuing severe open craniocerebral injuries caused by traffic accidents

    陈长才; 宁可; 等

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the rescuing principles of severe open craniocerebral injuries caused by traffic accidents.Methods:A retrospective study was performed for 36 patients admitted to our hospital from January 1986 to December 1995,who suffered from severe open craniocerebral injuries in traffic accidents.Results:These 36 cases occupied 52.10% of all the severe open craniocerebral injuries during the same period.The clinical features included confusion of consciousness, extensive cerebral contusion and laceration,severe contamination of the wound,high incidence of intracranial hematoma and multiple system injuries.Nineteen patients.(63.34%)ecovered normal neurological function,7 were (23.33%)mild disabled,4(13.33%)severe disabled,2(5.56%) vegetative survival,and 4(11.11%)dead.Conclusions:The main principles of salvage should emphasize the importance of emergent prehospital rescue,and be transfered to a specialized hospital as soon as possible.Postoperative complications included severe brain edema,intracerebral infection,and pneumonia,Debriding thoroughly at early stage and treating complications effectively would lower the rate of mortality and disability.

  14. The investigation on the public panic caused from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    March 11, 2011, a huge earthquake and tidal waves in Japan lead to dangerous levels of nuclear leakage at Fukushima nuclear plant, the nuclear accident also cause public panic m many countries. To investigate the reason of the public panic, we employ the theories of sociology and psychology, analyzed that the public panic come from Ignorant Panic. Herd Behavior, Primacy Effect, Stereotype Activation Effect, and the superposition of these effects. In addition, we proposed three measures to the public panic: First, we should emphasize the safety of nuclear power and establish the positive image of nuclear power Second, we should emphasize the popular science of nuclear power so that nu clear power can be accepted in the public; Third, we should enhance the psychological intervention system for nuclear safe emergency and improve the effect of psychological intervention

  15. Agricultural measures to reduce radiation doses to man caused by severe nuclear accidents

    Agricultural land and products may become contaminated after a severe nuclear accident. If radiation doses to man caused by the ingestion of contaminated agricultural products from such areas will be unacceptably high, measures to reduce this radiation dose will have to be taken. Radiation doses to man can be estimated by using models which describe quantitatively the transfer of radionuclides through the biosphere. The following processes and pathways are described in this study: accidental releases into atmospheric environments and subsequent nearby deposition; contamination of crops by direct deposition and the subsequent short term pathway (e.g. grass-cow-milk-man); contamination of soil and the subsequent long term pathway (e.g. soil-crop-man, soil-grass-cattle-milk/meat-man). Depending on the degree of contamination and on the estimated radiation doses to man, various measures are advised. (Auth.)

  16. Transgenic plants are sensitive bioindicators of nuclear pollution caused by the Chernobyl accident

    Kovalchuk, I.; Kovalchuk, O. [Ivano-Frankivsk State Medical Academy (Ukraine)]|[Friedrich Miescher Inst., Basel (Switzerland); Arkhipov, A. [Chernobyl Scientific and Technical Center of International Research (Ukraine); Hohn, B. [Friedrich Miescher Inst., Basel (Switzerland)

    1998-11-01

    To evaluate the genetic consequences of radioactive contamination originating from the Nuclear reactor accident of Chernobyl on indigenous populations of plants and animals, it is essential to determine the rates of accumulating genetic changes in chronically irradiated populations. An increase in germline mutation rates in humans living close to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site, and a two- to tenfold increase in germline mutations in barn swallows breeding in Chernobyl have been reported. Little is known, however, about the effects of chronic irradiation on plant genomes. Ionizing radiation causes double-strand breaks in DNA, which are repaired via illegitimate or homologous recombination. The authors make use of Arabidopsis thaliana plants carrying a {beta}-glucuronidase marker gene as a recombination substrate to monitor genetic alterations in plant populations, which are caused by nuclear pollution of the environment around Chernobyl. A significant increase in somatic intrachromosomal recombination frequencies was observed at nuclear pollution levels from 0.1--900 Ci/km{sup 2}, consistent with an increase in chromosomal aberrations. This bioindicator may serve as a convenient and ethically acceptable alternative to animal systems.

  17. Transgenic plants are sensitive bioindicators of nuclear pollution caused by the Chernobyl accident

    To evaluate the genetic consequences of radioactive contamination originating from the Nuclear reactor accident of Chernobyl on indigenous populations of plants and animals, it is essential to determine the rates of accumulating genetic changes in chronically irradiated populations. An increase in germline mutation rates in humans living close to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site, and a two- to tenfold increase in germline mutations in barn swallows breeding in Chernobyl have been reported. Little is known, however, about the effects of chronic irradiation on plant genomes. Ionizing radiation causes double-strand breaks in DNA, which are repaired via illegitimate or homologous recombination. The authors make use of Arabidopsis thaliana plants carrying a β-glucuronidase marker gene as a recombination substrate to monitor genetic alterations in plant populations, which are caused by nuclear pollution of the environment around Chernobyl. A significant increase in somatic intrachromosomal recombination frequencies was observed at nuclear pollution levels from 0.1--900 Ci/km2, consistent with an increase in chromosomal aberrations. This bioindicator may serve as a convenient and ethically acceptable alternative to animal systems

  18. Frequency of lower limb injuries and their Causes among motorcycle accident admitted into Imam Hossein hospital during one year

    Ali Arhami Dolatabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aim: Motor vehicle accidents are common cause of mortality, morbidity and disability. Human factors are principle cause for frequency of motor vehicle accident. In most studies, 52-40% lower limb injuries are trauma from a motorcycle accident. These accidents cause high financial cost and harm for society. Materials and Methods: In this study, patients with lower limb injuries referred to the hospital trauma ward of Imam Hussein were evaluated during one year. Questionnaire forms were designed and completed for patients then data of these forms was inserted in a database. The information was analyzed by statistical software SPSS 18. Results: from 766 patients with lower limb traumas which were examined and evaluated, 92 % were male and mean age of patients was 25± 12 years. 156 patients suffered from head and neck trauma and 134 persons had skin damage in addition to lower limb trauma. Injury to leg was most common injuries in lower leg and tibia shaft fracture was more frequent than lower bone fracture. Most injuries in pelvic trauma associated with fractures of the superior pubic ramus and coccyx bone. Seventy percent of related knee injuries included injury to patella and tibia plateau. The most observed injuries in ankle and foot were lateral malleolus fracture and lisferanc injuries. About 11 percent of patients were discharged from emergency room after primary management and other patients were admitted in hospital.Conclusion: Given the high incidence of lower extremity injuries, especially the leg, in the accident of motorcycle riders, procurement and construction of an efficient protective equipment, especially protective guard can be effective in reducing accidents.

  19. Analysis of uncertainties caused by the atmospheric dispersion model in accident consequence assessments with UFOMOD

    Various techniques available for uncertainty analysis of large computer models are applied, described and selected as most appropriate for analyzing the uncertainty in the predictions of accident consequence assessments. The investigation refers to the atmospheric dispersion and deposition submodel (straight-line Gaussian plume model) of UFOMOD, whose most important input variables and parameters are linked with probability distributions derived from expert judgement. Uncertainty bands show how much variability exists, sensitivity measures determine what causes this variability in consequences. Results are presented as confidence bounds of complementary cumulative frequency distributions (CCFDs) of activity concentrations, organ doses and health effects, partially as a function of distance from the site. In addition the ranked influence of the uncertain parameters on the different consequence types is shown. For the estimation of confidence bounds it was sufficient to choose a model parameter sample size of n (n=59) equal to 1.5 times the number of uncertain model parameters. Different samples or an increase of sample size did not change the 5%-95% - confidence bands. To get statistically stable results of the sensitivity analysis, larger sample sizes are needed (n=100, 200). Random or Latin-hypercube sampling schemes as tools for uncertainty and sensitivity analyses led to comparable results. (orig.)

  20. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies' Functions.

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-02-01

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies' functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident's origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people's life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water's recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole. PMID:26805869

  1. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Hong Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  2. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole. PMID:26805869

  3. Organizational safety climate and supervisor safety enforcement: Multilevel explorations of the causes of accident underreporting.

    Probst, Tahira M

    2015-11-01

    According to national surveillance statistics, over 3 million employees are injured each year; yet, research indicates that these may be substantial underestimates of the true prevalence. The purpose of the current project was to empirically test the hypothesis that organizational safety climate and transactional supervisor safety leadership would predict the extent to which accidents go unreported by employees. Using hierarchical linear modeling and survey data collected from 1,238 employees in 33 organizations, employee-level supervisor safety enforcement behaviors (and to a less consistent extent, organizational-level safety climate) predicted employee accident underreporting. There was also a significant cross-level interaction, such that the effect of supervisor enforcement on underreporting was attenuated in organizations with a positive safety climate. These results may benefit human resources and safety professionals by pinpointing methods of increasing the accuracy of accident reporting, reducing actual safety incidents, and reducing the costs to individuals and organizations that result from underreporting. PMID:25915783

  4. A tool for safety officers when analysing the basic causes of simple accidents

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    situation no one could do anything about. In 1999 a new practical tool for use by safety officers was developed and used by training systems. The tool involves three steps: one for observing facts, one for analysing the event, and one for preventive solutions. The tool has been used by various companies...... for some years with interesting results. Both the difficulties and the benefits will be presented, together with examples of the use of the tool. The main purpose of the tool is to demonstrate how management and workers can get a much better understanding of why accidents happen, even those accidents...

  5. Serious work accidents and their causes - An analysis of data from Eurostat

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Europe each year. Despite the uncertainty of the data collected by Eurostat over two years stile provide a picture of the seriousness of the accidents, the sources of risk and the events taking place when the accidents occur. Data from Eurostat were analysed to find out which hazards and accidental...... events led to serious consequences. The aim was to determine which accidental events should be prioritised for prevention and to make recommendations regarding suitable risk reduction methods. There are many different hazards and accidental events each of which requires a different form of prevention...

  6. Results of measurements of internal contamination of persons caused by the Chernobyl accident

    A preliminary summary is presented of c.a. 140 measurements of internal radioactive contamination, motivated by the Chernobyl accident, in Dutch persons, by the Radiological Service TNO, Arnhem and the Institute for Radiopathology and Radiation Protection, Leiden, the Netherlands. 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  7. Hybrid and electric low-noise cars cause an increase in traffic accidents involving vulnerable road users in urban areas.

    Brand, Stephan; Petri, Maximilian; Haas, Philipp; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Due to resource scarcity, the number of low-noise and electric cars is expected to increase rapidly. The frequent use of these cars will lead to a significant reduction of traffic related noise and pollution. On the other hand, due to the adaption and conditioning of vulnerable road users the number of traffic accidents involving pedestrians and bicyclists is postulated to increase as well. Children, older people with reduced eyesight and the blind are especially reliant on a combination of acoustic and visual warning signals with approaching or accelerating vehicles. This is even more evident in urban areas where the engine sound is the dominating sound up to 30 kph (kilometres per hour). Above this, tyre-road interaction is the main cause of traffic noise. With the missing typical engine sound a new sound design is necessary to prevent traffic accidents in urban areas. Drivers should not be able to switch the sound generator off. PMID:23083396

  8. Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl

    In this report of the Dutch Coordination Commission for Measurements of Radioactivity and Xenobiotic matters (CCRX) a detailed survey is presented of the spread of radioactive material over Europe as a consequence of the reactor accident in Chernobyl and of measurements of the contamination of the physical environment, food and human people in the Netherlands. The radiation burden for the Dutch people and the effects upon public health are estimated and a measuring program is introduced for monitoring the effects of the reactor accident upon the Dutch people. Finally a number of requirements are discussed on the base of the acquired experiments, to which future watching programs should satisfy. 24 refs.; 32 figs.; 16 tabs

  9. Report of a human accident caused by Conus regius (Gastropoda, Conidae).

    Haddad, Vidal; Coltro, Marcus; Simone, Luiz Ricardo L

    2009-01-01

    Conus regius is a venomous mollusc in the Conidae family, which includes species responsible for severe or even fatal accidents affecting human beings. This is the first report on a clinical case involving this species. It consisted a puncture in the right hand of a diver who presented paresthesia and movement difficulty in the whole limb. The manifestations disappeared after around twelve hours, without sequelae. PMID:19802483

  10. Public meetings on radiation and its health effects caused by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has held public meetings on radiation and its health effects mainly for parents of students in kindergartens, elementary schools, and junior high schools in Fukushima and Ibaraki prefectures after the Fukushima nuclear accident. These meetings are held based on our experience of practicing risk communication activities for a decade in JAEA with local residents. By analyzing questionnaires collected after the meetings, we confirmed that interactive communication is effective in increasing participants' understanding and in decreasing their anxiety. Most of the participants answered that they understood the contents and that it eased their mind. (authors)

  11. Public meetings on radiation and its health effects caused by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Sugiyama, K.; Ayame, J.; Takashita, H.; Yamamoto, R. [Risk Communication Study Office Japan Atomic Energy Agency 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, IBARAKI, 319-1194 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has held public meetings on radiation and its health effects mainly for parents of students in kindergartens, elementary schools, and junior high schools in Fukushima and Ibaraki prefectures after the Fukushima nuclear accident. These meetings are held based on our experience of practicing risk communication activities for a decade in JAEA with local residents. By analyzing questionnaires collected after the meetings, we confirmed that interactive communication is effective in increasing participants' understanding and in decreasing their anxiety. Most of the participants answered that they understood the contents and that it eased their mind. (authors)

  12. Descriptive Study of Occupational Accidents and their Causes among Electricity Distribution Company Workers at an Eight-year Period in Iran

    Rahmani, Abdolrasoul; Khadem, Monireh; Madreseh, Elham; Aghaei, Habib-Allah; Raei, Mehdi; Karchani, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational accidents are unplanned events that cause damage. The socio-economic impacts and human costs of accidents are tremendous around the world. Many fatalities happen every year in workplaces such as electricity distribution companies. Some electrical injuries are electrocution, electric shock, and burns. This study was conducted in an electricity distribution company (with rotational 12-hour shift work) in Iran during an 8-year period to survey descriptive factors of injuries. Methods Variables collected included accident time, age of injured worker, employment type, work experience, injury cause, educational background, and other information about accidents. Results Results indicated that most of the accidents occurred in summer, and 51.3% were during shift work. Worker negligence (malpractice) was the cause of 75% of deaths. Type of employment had a significant relationship with type of injuries (p < 0.05). Most injuries were electrical burns. Conclusion High rate of accidents in summer may be due to the warm weather or insufficient professional skills in seasonal workers. Shift workers are at risk of sleep complaints leading to a high rate of work injuries. Acquiring knowledge about safety was related to job experiences. Temporary workers have no chance to work all year like permanent workers, therefore impressive experiences may be less in them. Because the lack of protective equipment and negligence are main causes of accidents, periodical inspections in workshops are necessary. PMID:24106647

  13. Accident caused by Centruroides testaceus (DeGeer, 1778 (Scorpiones, Buthidae, native to the Caribbean, in Brazilian airport

    Ricardo Antônio Lobo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Describes the case of a 6-year-old girl who was stung by a Centruroides testaceus, a scorpion native to the Lesser Antilles, in the Guarulhos International Airport, São Paulo, Brazil, as she disembarked from a flight coming from the Caribbean. The patient presented only local symptoms (a small area of erythema and pain at the sting site, which were resolved after a few hours with analgesics, without the need for antivenom. Physicians who treat patients stung by scorpions should be alert to the possibility of such accidents being caused by non native species, especially those cases that occur near airports or ports.

  14. Radiation conditions in the Oryol region territory impacted by radioactive contamination caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident

    G. L. Zakharchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research objective is retrospective analysis of radiation conditions in the Oryol region during 1986- 2015 and assessment of efficacy of the carried out sanitary and preventive activities for population protection against radiation contamination caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident.Article materials were own memoirs of events participants, analysis of federal state statistic surveillance forms 3-DOZ across the Oryol region, f-35 “Data on patients with malignant neoplasms, f-12 “Report on MPI activities”. Risk assessment of oncological diseases occurrence is carried out on the basis of AAED for 1986- 2014 using the method of population exposure risk assessment due to long uniform man-made irradiation in small doses. Results of medical and sociological research of genetic, environmental, professional and lifestyle factors were obtained using the method of cancer patients’ anonymous survey. Data on "risk" factors were obtained from 467 patients hospitalized at the Budgetary Health Care Institution of the Oryol region “Oryol oncology clinic”; a specially developed questionnaire with 60 questions was filled out.The article employs the method of retrospective analysis of laboratory and tool research and calculation of dose loads on the Oryol region population, executed throughout the whole period after the accident.This article provides results of the carried out laboratory research of foodstuff, environment objects describing the radiation conditions in the Oryol region since the first days after the Chernobyl NPP accident in 1986 till 2015.We presented a number of activities aimed at liquidation of man-caused radiation accident consequences which were developed and executed by the experts of the Oryol region sanitary and epidemiology service in 1986-2015. On the basis of the above-stated one may draw the conclusions listed below. Due to interdepartmental interaction and active work of executive authorities in the Oryol region, the

  15. Impact Assessment of the Causes and Prevention of Farm Accidents on Mechanized Farms of North Central Zone/States of Nigeria

    J. K. Yohanna.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Accidents occurring on mechanized farms have been a thing of concern to farmers and researchers both within and outside Nigeria. An investigation into the causes and prevention of farm accidents on mechanized farm was carried out in Benue, Federal Capital Territory, Kwara, Nasarawa, Niger and Plateau states that constitute the north central zone/states of Nigeria. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire designed and distributed to all the states mentioned. The questionnaire addressed demographic variables and issues linked directly with the types, causes and prevention of farm accidents. A total of 2283 tractors were available in the mechanized farms surveyed, while a total of 1014 constituted other farm machinery/equipment. Results show that 81.7% of accidents victims are male. About 45.5% of the accident victims were aged between 40years and above. About 33.96% of the minor accidents resulted in slight damage to equipment and machinery. Similarly 43.4% of accidents resulted in substantial loss in time, while about 22.64% of accidents resulted in medical attention. There was no attempt made to quantify the monetary terms of the cost of each accidents, as there was dearth of information. The results obtained in this work are in agreement with the previous studies both outside and inside Nigeria. Also, from this survey work, there was a problem of good record keeping in most of the establishment surveyed. It is therefore, recommended among other things that adequate training and retraining of tractors/machinery operators should be carried out periodically, to intimate operators on recent use of farm equipment due to environmental and human factors

  16. Root cause analysis of accidents on large-scale complex systems using Dual Vee Model

    Root cause analyses of system failures are important from a viewpoint of prevention of recurrence of the failures and occurrence of similar failures. Five-why Analysis and Fault Tree Analysis are most popular however these analysis results depend on the skill of the analysts strongly because these use brain-storming method. The authors have proposed a root cause analysis method using Dual Vee Model, which has given a guidance in space systems applications to analyze and therefore the result less depends on the skill of the analyst. This paper demonstrates the results of the application of the method of failures of Nuclear Power Plants. This paper also proposes a chart to identify systems to which the method can be applied. (author)

  17. Research on Accident Causing Theory of Ammunition Maintenance and Prevention%弹药维修事故致因理论及预防研究

    姜欣明; 罗兴柏; 张玉令; 徐凯

    2011-01-01

    To know the accident-causing theories is helpful to analyze the accident causes of the occurrence and development, take the impactful measures and reduce the generate probability of them. In order to research the causes of the occurrence and development of the ammunition maintenance accident better, under the definition and mainly style of ammunition maintenance accident, a accident-causing of ammunition maintenance theory based on integration dynamic state accident causing theory is put forward, and further research on the causes of the occurrence and development of ammunition maintenance accidents based on this theory is conducted, and the influence of humam, matter, environment and management on the safe of ammunition maintain, are analyzed. The result presents the relationship of the each element on the accident of ammunition maintenance, and new prevention measures are proved, which contribute to preventing the probability of accidents from many aspects.%对事故致因理论的了解,有助于分析事故产生的原因及发展,能够预先提出措施,减少事故发生的概率.针对弹药维修过程中产生事故的原因和发展等问题,在给出弹药维修事故定义和主要事故类型的前提下,运用综合-动态事故致因理论,建立了弹药维修事故致因理论分析模型.通过该理论模型,对弹药维修事故产生的原因与发展做了进一步研究,分析了人、物、环境和管理等因素对弹药维修事故产生的影响,给出各因素之间内在联系,并制订了弹药维修事故的预防措施.从多方面,多角度降低事故发生的可能性.

  18. Pollutant emissions from nuclear reactors during normal operation and releases caused by accidents

    The emission of radioactive substances from German nuclear reactors during normal operation has further decreased despite the strong increase in electricity production from nuclear energy. Except for tritium and radioactive carbon emissions the characteristic quantities for emissions per kilowatt hour have been reduced by at least one decimal power during the last decade. Radiation exposure caused by emissions amounts to 0.1 to 1% of natural radiation exposure. The emission values are also low internationally. The permissible annual emission limit values have not been exceeded with the exception of the case of Lingen in 1969. There have been small releases during unusual occurrences in German nuclear reactors, but their radiological effects were only minor, and the limit values applicable to normal operation were not reached. (orig.)

  19. National preparedness guide for exiting the emergency phase subsequent to a nuclear accident causing moderate, short-term release on French soil - working document, version 0, May 2010

    This National Guide provides basic explanations and methods to assist in drawing up a local plan for the emergency phase way-out, subsequent to a nuclear accident of moderate magnitude causing short-term (under 24 hours) radioactive release, which could possibly occur in France. The accident situations considered in this Guide have little likelihood of arising and are representative of environmental contamination accidents that might occur at French nuclear facilities covered by a special intervention plan (plan particulier d'intervention, PPI). Such accidents may cause environmental contamination warranting action for post-accident impact management within a range of ten to fifty kilometres from the accident site. To provide some perspective, the accidents considered here would be classified Levels 3, 4 or 5 (incidents or accidents causing release into the environment) on the INES scale customarily used to help the public and media to immediately understand the severity of an incident or accident in the nuclear field. This Guide was drawn up subsequently to the work carried out by the Steering Committee on Post- Accident Phase Management in the Event of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency Situation (CODIRPA), instituted by the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) in June 2005, and in charge of setting out the basic principles underlying the management of nuclear post-accident situations. This version of the Guide shall be updated on the basis of the operating experience feedback received on its use. The Guide is a planning tool, intended for the Prefectures of department where a basic nuclear facility PPI has been instituted. Its purpose is to enable Prefects to plan and effectively conduct preparedness measures at the local level with the aim of winding down the emergency phase, actively involving all of the relevant actors for this purpose. The exit period from the emergency phase is defined as extending approximately one week from the end of the

  20. Suicides, homicides, accidents, and other external causes of death among blacks and whites in the Southern Community Cohort Study.

    Jennifer S Sonderman

    Full Text Available Prior studies of risk factors associated with external causes of death have been limited in the number of covariates investigated and external causes examined. Herein, associations between numerous demographic, lifestyle, and health-related factors and the major causes of external mortality, such as suicide, homicide, and accident, were assessed prospectively among 73,422 black and white participants in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated in multivariate regression analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model. Men compared with women (HR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.87-2.89, current smokers (HR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.40-2.17, and unemployed/never employed participants at the time of enrollment (HR = 1.67; 95% CI 1.38-2.02 had increased risk of dying from all external causes, with similarly elevated HRs for suicide, homicide, and accidental death among both blacks and whites. Blacks compared with whites had lower risk of accidental death (HR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.38-0.57 and suicide (HR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.31-0.99. Blacks and whites in the SCCS had comparable risks of homicide death (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.63-1.76; however, whites in the SCCS had unusually high homicide rates compared with all whites who were resident in the 12 SCCS states, while black SCCS participants had homicide rates similar to those of all blacks residing in the SCCS states. Depression was the strongest risk factor for suicide, while being married was protective against death from homicide in both races. Being overweight/obese at enrollment was associated with reduced risks in all external causes of death, and the number of comorbid conditions was a risk factor for iatrogenic deaths. Most risk factors identified in earlier studies of external causes of death were confirmed in the SCCS cohort, in spite of the low SES of SCCS participants. Results from other epidemiologic cohorts are needed to confirm the novel findings

  1. A simulation of the loss of fluid accident caused by a main steam line break in a turbine building

    A real main steam line transient with pipe break and turbine building pressure and temperature transient are simulated with a computer codes TEA-Ol and KONT. The obtained results are compared with the values measured during the accident at the Thermal Power Plant Drmno. The applied methodology and computer codes are able to predict the Plant behaviour during the accident (author)

  2. Economic models of compensation for damages caused by nuclear accidents: some lessons for the revision of the Paris and Vienna Conventions

    Alternative systems of compensation for damages caused by nuclear accidents have been proposed. In respect, the question merits attention to whether these alternative models of compensation discussed in the economic literature could be implemented when discussing the revision of the Paris and Vienna Conventions. 55 refs., 1 tab

  3. Economic models of compensation for damages caused by nuclear accidents: some lessons for the revision of the Paris and Vienna Conventions

    Faure, Michael G. [Limburg Univ., Maastricht (Netherlands). Faculty of Law

    1995-12-31

    Alternative systems of compensation for damages caused by nuclear accidents have been proposed. In respect, the question merits attention to whether these alternative models of compensation discussed in the economic literature could be implemented when discussing the revision of the Paris and Vienna Conventions. 55 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Suicide Mortality in Comparison to Traffic Accidents and Homicides as Causes of Unnatural Death. An Analysis of 14,441 Cases in Germany in the Year 2010

    Karoline Lukaschek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess suicide mortality in comparison to traffic accidents and homicide deaths in Germany in the year 2010 and to compare years of life lost (YLL due to these unnatural deaths. Methods: Mortality data were provided by the Federal Statistical Office giving death rates (related to 100,000 inhabitants and proportions (related to 100 deaths of individuals for suicide, traffic accidents and homicide as well as YLL data. Results: A total of 14,441 unnatural deaths (suicide, traffic accidents, homicide were reported in 2010 in Germany. Of those, 10,021 subjects (69.4% committed suicide, 3,942 (27.3% died in traffic accidents, 478 (3.3% were murdered. Suicide death rates were by far the highest, with rates for men (18.6 three times higher than for women (6.1. For both sexes, suicide rates increased with age, whereas suicide as a proportion of all causes of death was higher in younger age groups. In both sexes, suicide was the leading cause of YLL (men: 314 YLL, women: 90 YLL. Conclusions: Suicide is the leading cause of unnatural death and YLL. The sex- and age- specific patterns in suicide mortality call for different action plans to target high risk groups.

  5. [Occurrence of accidents caused by Lonomia obliqua Walker, in the State of Paraná between 1989 and 2001].

    Garcia, Claudia Moreira; Danni-Oliveira, Inês Moresco

    2007-01-01

    The present article aimed to show the distribution of accidents involving the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua, Walker, 1855, in the State of Paraná between 1989 and 2001. The data were obtained from the Environmental Health Department of Paraná. The information collected was mapped using the Arcview program, and maps of the seasonal occurrence of accidents were generated. This seasonality was correlated with the insects life cycle and summer was shown to be the period with greatest incidence of accidents. The greatest concentrations occurred in the central-southern, southeastern and southwestern regions of the State. PMID:17568899

  6. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Hong Yao; Zhen You; Bo Liu

    2016-01-01

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biologi...

  7. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  8. Locating causes of accidents in the social organisation of building workers and some wider implications: An approach from Cultural Theory

    This paper overviews and re-interprets accident causation in the British Building and Construction Industry (BCI), chosen because its accident rate is high. The paper, a preliminary report of ongoing work, suggests why incidences vary widely between different sites and workgroups. Explanation appears to lie not in variant technical complexity but variant social organisation. Four archetypal forms of organisation are identified derived from Cultural Theory via social anthropology that avoid personality explanations, and focus on micro social organisation. Different kinds of micro social organisation are known to differentially influence attitudes to authority and risk-taking, views of time, filtering of information and deviance. This approach focuses on the social side of socio-technical systems when most commentators over-emphasise the technical and it is also appropriate to more technologically complex industries. The paper concludes with a plea to collect accident statistics with emphasis on micro social components and offers a method - LISTORG - to order the social dimensions involved. (author)

  9. Communication and industrial accidents

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the concept of role distance, which emphasizes the organizational characteristics. The general hypothesis is that communication failures are a main cause of role distance and accident-proneness within orga...

  10. Traffic Congestion and Accidents

    Schrage, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Obstructions caused by accidents can trigger or exacerbate traffic congestion. This paper derives the efficient traffic pattern for a rush hour with congestion and accidents and the corresponding road toll. Compared to the model without accidents, where the toll equals external costs imposed on drivers using the road at the same time, a new insight arises: An optimal toll also internalizes the expected increase in future congestion costs. Since accidents affect more drivers if traffic volumes...

  11. 'Radiation-induced electrolysis'. A potential root cause of hydrogen explosions in the Fukushima Daiichi accident

    Although water radiolysis, decomposition of water by radiation, is a well-known phenomenon the exact mechanism is not well characterized especially for potential hydrogen generation during severe accidents. The author first reviewed the water radiolysis phenomena in LWRs during normal operation to severe accidents (e.g., TMI- and Chernobyl accidents) and performed a scoping estimation of H2 generation modeled for the Fukushima Daiichi accident. The estimation incorporates the decay heat curve combined with G-values. When a set of radiological chain reactions are incorporated the resultant reverse reactions were found to reduce the hydrogen generation substantially. In view of the observation that the water radiolysis is not likely induced appreciable effects in H2 generation during the accident, this author investigated his basic theory named 'radiation-induced electrolysis' in the estimation of amounts of H2 generation during the active phase of the Fukushima accident. The author's theory was originally developed by including Faraday's Law of Electrolysis into the basic time-dependent material balance equation of radiation-chemical species for his study on accelerated corrosion phenomena which is widely observed in aged plants. With this mechanism as much as 5,300 m3-STP of accumulated hydrogen gas is estimated to be inside the PCV just prior to the hydrogen explosion which occurred a day after the reactor trip in Unit 1. For Units 2 and 3, the estimated volumes are 5,900 m3-STP. Within just several hours after the initiation of SBO, as much as a few thousand cubic meters in STP of hydrogen gas is generated due to a high decay heat. With these large volumes of hydrogen gas the hydrogen explosion was a viable possibility upon the 'venting' operation. For the 1F4 Spent Fuel Pool where the entire core loading had been evacuated, SBO was found to have induced a rapid on-set of electrolysis when the pool water temperature reached as high

  12. Fukushima. The accident sequence and important causes. Pt. 2/3; Fukushima. Unfallablauf und wesentliche Ursachen. T. 2/3

    Pistner, Christoph [Oeko-Institut e.V., Darmstadt (Germany). Bereich Nukleartechnik und Anlagensicherheit

    2013-07-01

    In this part on the accident sequence in the NPP Fukushima Daiichi on March 11, 2011 the important safety systems of a nuclear power plant are described, including the design of a nuclear boiling water reactor with Mark-II type containment, the high-pressure injection system and the systems for afterheat removal. The chronology of the accident progress in the NPP units 1-3 is described. The units 4-6 were shutdown due to revision work. Due to the earthquake an electric power transformation station close to the NPP site and the power poles were destroyed, the redundant power supply of the neighboring electricity supplier Tohoku did not work. All emergency diesel generators were flooded and destroyed resulting in the so-called station blackout. Firefighting trucks and materials for radiation protection and the infrastructure at the NPP site were destroyed. The release of radioactivity induced a severe contamination of the reactor site.

  13. Seismically-induced reactor coolant leakage as an allegedly-possible cause of accident at Unit 1 of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    One of the investigation reports on the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station emphasized the possibility of seismically-induced reactor coolant leakage and implied its causal connection to the accident, in particular at Unit 1 of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. This view has been addressed by the other investigation reports. These reports uniformly note, on the basis of seismic response analyses, plant records and simulations thereof, that seismically-induced leakage, if any, is unlikely to be a causal factor for the severe core damage, though the possibility of insignificantly small leakage cannot be ruled out completely. Also refuted are some of the arguments made by that report as grounds for suspecting safety-significant leakage. The present report re-examines the leak detection capability through the review of the plant instruments and the post-accident simulations, and adds some arguments in order to resolve the issue of seismically-induced leakage without technical ambiguity as far as possible. In the course of the study, the plant design uniqueness of Unit 1, the history of facility changes, the operating procedures and the actual operations are looked into to raise issues for further investigation. The issues are not limited to those relevant to the seismically-induced leakage or to the causes of core damage, but includes those which may have not been well addressed, though potentially offering suggestions for continuous improvement of reactor safety and regulatory activities. (author)

  14. New approaches to the classification of causes of aviation accidents and incidents as an effective means of improving safety

    O.Є. Луппо

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available  Classification of accidents and incidents makes principle of hieratic collateral subordination, which determines separate classification of direct and main reasons that enables to estimate weight destiny of every structure in the decline of safety flight and expose most bottleneck in the aviation system. Exposure of main reasons and frequency of their repetition, for a concrete period, allows to define the role of each components in the decline of safety of flights and estimate efficiency of the before developed prophylactic measures from warning of the same type aviation events and incidents in a future.

  15. Children in hospital accident cause analysis and countermeasures%对住院患儿意外伤害的原因分析及对策

    李晓秋; 梅琳; 杜海燕

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the children pediatric hospital accident prevention measures. Method Through the from February 2009 to October 2011 children occur accident 22 cases of cause analysis, targeted for children and family members to take preventive measures. Results In October 2011, so far, 4 cases occur accident harm, incidence of 0.004% to 0.0015% than before Conclusion Children in hospital to take effective preventive measures, completes the health propaganda and education, improve the children, parents and staff safety awareness and reduce the occurrence of accident harm to children, to ensure the safety of the children in hospital. Autheor’s address:MEI Lin(Nursing Department,Suining 1st People's hospital,Suining,Sichuan 629000, China)%目的探讨对儿科住院患儿意外伤害的预防措施.方法通过我院2009年2月至2011年10月发生的患儿意外伤害22例的原因分析,有针对性对患儿及家属采取防范措施.结果2011年10月至今,发生4例意外伤害,发生率较以前0.004%下降到0.0015%.结论对住院患儿采取有针对性的预防措施,做好健康宣教,提高患儿、家长和医护人员安全防范意识,减少儿童意外伤害的发生,保证了患儿住院期间的安全.

  16. Intentional Poisoning as a Cause of Admission to Accident and Emergency in a Tertiary Care Hospital within a Year

    Niveditha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Poisoning is a common medico social problem nowadays and is often distressing for both family members and medical staff. The present study aims to evaluate the pattern of self poisoning with special preference to psychoactive drugs. Methodology: Study sample comprised of all episodes of self poisoning that had resulted in admission between January to December 2008.Pateints taking any toxic/pharmacological substance by accident or ignorance were excluded. Results: Out of 1206 patients admitted to accident and emergency during the study period, 140 were due to intentional poisoning (11.6% Age of the patients varied from 16-65 years. The maximum incidence was between 21-30 years. The male: female ratio was 1.18:1.Most common substance used was organophosphate compound (OPC (31.7% followed by benzodiazepines (BZD (20.7% and household articles comprised of 18.5%. Multiple drug combinations with alcohol was 30%.Around 13.5% had history of mental illness. Conclusion: At present due to vast development in all fields of life like industries, medicine and agriculture, a significant number of new compounds have appeared as new poisonous substances, which have led to more number of poisoning cases. Although there are restrictions on sale of drugs in India, vulnerability to insecticide cannot be ignored.

  17. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  18. Communication and industrial accidents

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the conc

  19. Reconstruction of 131I radioactive contamination in Ukraine caused by the Chernobyl accident using atmospheric transport modelling

    The evaluation of 131I air and ground contamination field formation in the territory of Ukraine was made using the model of atmospheric transport LEDI (Lagrangian-Eulerian DIffusion model). The 131I atmospheric transport over the territory of Ukraine was simulated during the first 12 days after the accident (from 26 April to 7 May 1986) using real aerological information and rain measurement network data. The airborne 131I concentration and ground deposition fields were calculated as the database for subsequent thyroid dose reconstruction for inhabitants of radioactive contaminated regions. The small-scale deposition field variability is assessed using data of 137Cs detailed measurements in the territory of Ukraine. The obtained results are compared with available data of radioiodine daily deposition measurements made at the network of meteorological stations in Ukraine and data of the assessments of 131I soil contamination obtained from the 129I measurements

  20. Reconstruction of (131)I radioactive contamination in Ukraine caused by the Chernobyl accident using atmospheric transport modelling.

    Talerko, Nikolai

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation of (131)I air and ground contamination field formation in the territory of Ukraine was made using the model of atmospheric transport LEDI (Lagrangian-Eulerian DIffusion model). The (131)I atmospheric transport over the territory of Ukraine was simulated during the first 12 days after the accident (from 26 April to 7 May 1986) using real aerological information and rain measurement network data. The airborne (131)I concentration and ground deposition fields were calculated as the database for subsequent thyroid dose reconstruction for inhabitants of radioactive contaminated regions. The small-scale deposition field variability is assessed using data of (137)Cs detailed measurements in the territory of Ukraine. The obtained results are compared with available data of radioiodine daily deposition measurements made at the network of meteorological stations in Ukraine and data of the assessments of (131)I soil contamination obtained from the (129)I measurements. PMID:16024139

  1. Study of human factors, and its basic aspects focusing the IEA-R1 research reactor operators, aiming at the prevention of accidents caused by human failures

    This work presents a study of human factors and possible human failure reasons that can cause incidents, accidents and workers exposition, associated to risks intrinsic to the profession. The objective is to contribute with the operators of IEA-R1 reactor located at IPEN CNEN/S P. Accidents in the technological field, including the nuclear, have shown that the causes are much more connected to human failure than to system and equipment failures, what has led the regulatory bodies to consider studies on human failure. The research proposed in this work is quantitative/qualitative and also descriptive. Two questionnaires were used to collect data. The first of them was elaborated from the safety culture attributes which are described by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA. The second considered individual and situational factors composing categories that could affect people in the work area. A carefully selected transcription of the theoretical basis according to the study of human factors was used. The methodology demonstrated a good reliability degree. Results lead to mediate factors which need direct actions concerning the needs of the group and of the individual. This research shows that it is necessary to have a really effective unit of planning and organization, not only to the physical and psychological health issues but also to the safety in the work. (author)

  2. Investigation of Acute Poisoning Accident Caused by Hydrogen Sulfide%一起急性硫化氢中毒事故的调查

    周小涛; 熊田甜

    2013-01-01

      目的介绍一起因硫氢化钠与外环境酸性污水反应导致的硫化氢中毒死亡事件的调查处理情况。方法2006年11月29日, J 市 G 区发生一起以双眼及上呼吸道刺激为主要症状,伴有胸闷、憋气、头晕、恶心干呕等全身症状的中毒事故,造成1人死亡,一人昏迷,一人头晕。对患者进行临床诊断,对外环境相关有毒物质进行检测,模拟有毒气体的化学反应。结果三名患者临床表现符合硫化氢中毒后症状;事发后2h,现场空气硫化氢浓度为0.87mg/m3,现场含酸污水与原料硫化钠模拟试验可以检测到反应产物硫化氢气体。结论中毒主要原因是硫氢化钠被外环境酸性污水浸泡,分解后释放出硫化氢,加上作业工人防护不到位,导致吸入高浓度硫化氢中毒。%  Objective: To introduce an Accident Caused by Hydrogen Sulfide.   Methods: In some factory happened a poisoning accident,which resulted in death and casualty,the folowing measures such as Medical treatment, field investigation, laboratory detection were carried out immediately.   Results: Three victims were diagnosed as hydrogen sulfide poisoning; 2 hours after the accident, the concentration of hydrogen sulfide in spot was 0.87mg/m3, and hydrogen sulfide was detected positive in Simulation test.   Conclusion: The acute poisoning accident was caused by Hydrogen sulfide, which was released when sodium hydrosulfide mixed with hydrochloric acid. When the victims were lack of enough safeguard, high concentrations of Hydrogen sulfide were inhaled and resulted poisoning.

  3. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  4. Synthesis of the available information about the radioactive contamination of the Japanese terrestrial environment caused by the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident - May 25, 2011

    The French institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN) collects and analyses regularly the published data concerning the contamination of the Japanese terrestrial environment caused by the Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant accident. This synthesis presents a status of the data recently obtained since the previous similar note of April 12. The note presents a mapping of 137Cs and 134Cs cumulated deposits in a 80 km area around the damaged power plant, an estimation of the cumulated atmospheric precipitations during March 15-16 night, the evolution of the gamma dose rates in the ambient air of several towns of the Fukushima district, the evolution of the 134Cs+137Cs and 131I contamination of agriculture food products and of surface and drinking waters. (J.S.)

  5. Synthesis of the available information about the radioactive contamination of the Japanese terrestrial environment caused by the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident - September 27, 2011

    The French institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN) collects and analyses regularly the published data concerning the contamination of the Japanese terrestrial environment caused by the Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant accident. This synthesis presents a status of the data recently obtained since the previous similar notes of April 12, May 25 and July 13. The note presents the detailed activity analysis of several surface soil samples, a mapping of 137Cs, 134Cs and 131I activities with the spatial distribution of samplings in the 20, 30, 80 and 100 km areas around the damaged power plant, the contamination of agriculture food products and a focus on some vegetable products showing a significant contamination, like tea leaves, 'yuzu' fruits, figs and rice. Some other products, like meat, fungi and some milk products show cesium contamination levels above the Japanese standards while cesium and iodine are no longer detected in drinking water. (J.S.)

  6. Radiation accidents in hospitals

    Some of the radiation accidents that have occurred in Indian hospitals and causes that led to them are reviewed. Proper organization of radiation safety minimizes such accidents. It has been pointed out that there must be technical competence and mental preparedness to tackle emergencies when they do infrequently occur. (M.G.B.)

  7. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Expert meeting with the Belgoprocess Inc. on the fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility. Search and investigation on cause elucidation and reoccurrence control for the fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility. A visiting report on abroad

    In order to investigate in detail on fire cause materials, test results of thermal analysis on waste liquids, and flow of affairs relating to the fire accident (15th December, 1981) of the Euro Bitum Plant (an asphalt solidification facility of the middle level wastes) settled at the Eurochemic reprocessing work in the Kingdom of Belgium, resemble to the present accident, 4 members of the Cause Elucidation Group and Mr. Kaneko, director of the Paris Office of PNC visited to Belgium to hold a meeting with experts of the Belgoprocess Inc. for 4 days. In this meeting, after exchanging mutual detail informations on accident occurred at the Euro Bitum Plant and fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility, some discussions on cause supposition of the present accident. For cause of the fire, mutual differences were found. As a state at occurring fires was much resemble, their followed states seemed to be extremely different on responses of operators to fire-extinguishing action, filter exchanging and so forth. As finishing to recover the plant after 1 month passed from the accident to restart its operation, the Belgoprocess, Inc. has conducted some improvements of the facility such as sufficiency of fire extinguishing apparatus, addition and improvements of fire detecting means, direct measurement of solid temperature and so on, as well as reinforcement of thermal analysis procedure and renewal to new apparatus. Although no special supposition on cause of the fire at this meeting, a lot of items to learn such as operation system, responses after accident, and so forth were acquired. (G.K.)

  9. Talking about accidents

    It is argued that the public's emotional fear of the hypothetical, very unlikely, gigantic nuclear accident is partly caused by the nuclear industry's incorrect use of language within its own professional discussions. Improved terminology is suggested. (U.K.)

  10. Limits of Expertise: Rethinking Pilot Error and the Causes of Airline Accidents. CRM/HF Conference, Held in Denver, Colorado on April 16-17, 2006

    Dismukes, Key; Berman, Ben; Loukopoulos, Loukisa

    2007-01-01

    Reviewed NTSB reports of the 19 U.S. airline accidents between 1991-2000 attributed primarily to crew error. Asked: Why might any airline crew in situation of accident crew--knowing only what they knew--be vulnerable. Can never know with certainty why accident crew made specific errors but can determine why the population of pilots is vulnerable. Considers variability of expert performance as function of interplay of multiple factors.

  11. Lessons learned from accident investigations

    Accidents in three main practices - medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators - are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned from them. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the accidents described are approached bearing in mind: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  12. Lessons learned from accidents investigations

    Accidents from three main practices: medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the described accidents are approached by subjects covering: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  13. Road Traffic Accidents in Kazakhstan

    Alma Aubakirova; Alibek Kossumov; Nurbek Igissinov

    2013-01-01

    Background: The article provides the analysis of death rates in road traffic accidents in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2010 and explores the use of sanitary aviation. Methods: Data of fatalities caused by road traffic accidents were collected and analysed. Descriptive and analytical methods of epidemiology and biomedical statistics were applied. Results: Totaly 27,003 people died as a result of road traffic accidents in this period. The death rate for the total population due to road traffic accid...

  14. 安全信息缺失事故致因理论的初步研究%Preliminary Study on Theory of Accident-causing Based on Safety Information Missing

    赵潮锋; 周西华

    2012-01-01

    为更好解释事故致因,在分析已有事故致因理论的基础上,分析了安全信息与事故致因因素之间的联系,认为安全信息是各种致因因素的信息化表述,安全信息缺失将直接或间接导致事故的发生并影响事故的发展.继而用安全信息的概念统一人、物、环境、能量和管理等事故致因因素,提出了安全信息缺失的概念和安金信息缺失事故致因理论.新理论认为安全信息缺失是造成事故发生的主要潜在原因,也是导致事故扩大的主要原因,避免关键性安全信息的缺失是预防事故发生和防止事故扩大的重点.建立了新理论的理论模型和可用于定量风险评价的数学模型.该理论为事故有效预防和系统风险评价提供了一种新思路和方法.%For better explaining accident-causing,based on analysis of various accident-causing theories,it is analyzed about relationship between the concept of safetyinformation and accident-causing factors containing human, equipment, environment, energy and management etc. It's found that safety information can be considered as information representation of all the accident-icausing factors, and safety information missing will directly or indirectly cause accidents occurring and affect accidents developing. After the concept of safety information is used for unification of all the factors and the concept of safety information missing is defined, a theory of accident causation is set forth based on safety information missing. According to the theory .safety jnfoimaiion missing, which is main reason of unsafe human behaviors, is major potential causes of accidents, and also contributed to expansion of accidents. Based on the theory, more attention must be paid to the lack of safety information in accident prevention.A theoretical model and a mathematical model of the theory have been established for the explanation of the genesis and development of accidents and the evaluation

  15. Analysis on traffic accident caused by dump truck in Shanghai, 2006-2009%2006-2009年上海市自卸货车及全市交通事故特征分析

    喻彦; 侯心一; 周峰; 周德定; 苏慧佳; 高宁

    2012-01-01

    [目的]了解上海市2006-2009年自卸货车道路交通事故的特点,为重型货车道路交通伤害预防提供理论依据.[方法]分析上海市交警部门提供的全市道路交通伤害数据以及自卸货车道路交通伤害数据.[结果]2006-2009年期间全市道路交通事故数以2006年最高,为6588次,2007年后逐步下降,分别为3952次、2745次和2831次,而同期自卸货车道路交通事故数呈现U型趋势,分别为177次、99次、86次和147次.自卸货车事故性质较为严重,98.1%的事故均有人员伤亡.全市道路交通事故一般以二三季度发生较多,且时间段集中在12-18时之间,而自卸货车以二季度发生较多,时间段集中在上午6-12时或12-18时两个时间段.无论是全市还是自卸货车道路交通事故均以年轻驾驶员为主.全市和自卸货车道路交通事故的首要责任认定均为机动车违法,分别占63.8%和73.0%,碰撞特点前3位均为侧面相撞(全市53.0%、自卸53.0%)、正面相撞(全市20.7%、自卸17.3%)和尾随相撞(全市8.8%、自卸8.1%).[结论]自卸货车的交通伤害性质严重,必须从人、车、路3方面入手,采取综合性的干预措施才能有效地降低交通伤害的发生和死亡.%Objective To understand the feature of toad traffic accident caused by dump truck from 2006 to 2009 in Shanghai, and provide evidence for intervention on dump truck accident Methods Data on shanghai traffic accident and accident caused by dump truck were provided by Traffic Police Corps of Shanghai Public Security Bureau. Results From 2006 to 2009, the number of road traffic injuries in 2006 was 6588 which was highest in 4 years. The number was decreased from 2007, 3952 in 2007, 2745 in 2008 and 2831 in 2009, respectively. Meanwhile the number of road traffic injury caused by dump truck showed "U" shape, and the numbers were 177 in 2006, 99 in 2007, 86 in 2008, 147 in 2009, respectively. The accidents caused by dump

  16. 海上船舶碰撞事故原因探讨——侥幸心理的剖析%Discussion on the Causes of Collision Accidents at Sea——Analysis of Trust one's luck Mentality

    徐伯民; 秦臻

    2011-01-01

    There are a lot of factors which may cause marine accidents, including equipment functioning, environment effect and human behavior. The human factors can be characterized as psychological factor and physiological factor, and the former is usually the main cause of accidents. Human behavior is controlled by his mentality state. The state of human mentality before accident happening is complicated and varied. To trust one's luck proves to be one of the most common causes of accidents. The behavior on trust-one's-luck, observed in several typical collision accident cases, is analyzed in order for attention to be drawn to overcome trust-one's-luck mentality and minimize collision accidents at sea.%引起事故的原因有很多,如设备的因素、环境的因素、人的因素等,其中人的因素除了生理因素,还有心理因素,而心理因素则往往是造成事故的主要原因.人的行为是受其心理状态支配的,事故发生前人的心理状态是复杂多样的,其中侥幸心理侥幸心理是引发事故的普遍原因.通过几起典型的船舶碰撞事故案例,对船舶驾驶人员的侥幸心理进行了剖析,引导人们要培育积极的心理状态,以减少人为差错而导致的船舶碰撞事故.

  17. 护士发生意外针刺伤原因及预防措施%The nurse accident needle stick injury causes and prevention measures

    张盼盼; 马雅静; 化璐璐

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the nurse accident causes and prevention measures of needle stab. MethodsThe author's hospital nurses needlestick injury cases (46 cases) were analyzed.ResultsWas investigated in 46 cases of accidental needle stick injuries of nurses in 61% occurred after the operation, the reason is concentrated in the improper use of needles or syringes, of which about 72% nurses to active report stab.ConclusionThe standard operation procedure, strict working attitude and personal consciousness education is conducive to reducing the incidence of needle injury in nurses events.%目的:分析护士发生意外针刺伤原因及预防措施。方法对笔者所在医院护士针刺伤案例(46例)进行总结分析。结果被调查的46例意外针刺伤护士中有61%发生在操作后,原因集中在对针头或注射器使用不当,其中约72%的护士为主动报告刺伤。结论规范的操作程序、严谨的工作态度和个人意识教育有利于减少护士针刺伤事件的发生率。

  18. A Severe Accident Caused by an Ocellate River Stingray (Potamotrygon motoro in Central Brazil: How Well Do We Really Understand Stingray Venom Chemistry, Envenomation, and Therapeutics?

    Nelson Jorge da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater stingrays cause many serious human injuries, but identification of the offending species is uncommon. The present case involved a large freshwater stingray, Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae, in the Araguaia River in Tocantins, Brazil. Appropriate first aid was administered within ~15 min, except that an ice pack was applied. Analgesics provided no pain relief, although hot compresses did. Ciprofloxacin therapy commenced after ~18 h and continued seven days. Then antibiotic was suspended; however, after two more days and additional tests, cephalosporin therapy was initiated, and proved successful. Pain worsened despite increasingly powerful analgesics, until debridement of the wound was performed after one month. The wound finally closed ~70 days after the accident, but the patient continued to have problems wearing shoes even eight months later. Chemistry and pharmacology of Potamotrygon venom and mucus, and clinical management of freshwater stingray envenomations are reviewed in light of the present case. Bacterial infections of stingray puncture wounds may account for more long-term morbidity than stingray venom. Simultaneous prophylactic use of multiple antibiotics is recommended for all but the most superficial stingray wounds. Distinguishing relative contributions of venom, mucus, and bacteria will require careful genomic and transcriptomic investigations of stingray tissues and contaminating bacteria.

  19. A Severe Accident Caused by an Ocellate River Stingray (Potamotrygon motoro) in Central Brazil: How Well Do We Really Understand Stingray Venom Chemistry, Envenomation, and Therapeutics?

    da Silva, Nelson Jorge; Ferreira, Kalley Ricardo Clementino; Pinto, Raimundo Nonato Leite; Aird, Steven Douglas

    2015-06-01

    Freshwater stingrays cause many serious human injuries, but identification of the offending species is uncommon. The present case involved a large freshwater stingray, Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae), in the Araguaia River in Tocantins, Brazil. Appropriate first aid was administered within ~15 min, except that an ice pack was applied. Analgesics provided no pain relief, although hot compresses did. Ciprofloxacin therapy commenced after ~18 h and continued seven days. Then antibiotic was suspended; however, after two more days and additional tests, cephalosporin therapy was initiated, and proved successful. Pain worsened despite increasingly powerful analgesics, until debridement of the wound was performed after one month. The wound finally closed ~70 days after the accident, but the patient continued to have problems wearing shoes even eight months later. Chemistry and pharmacology of Potamotrygon venom and mucus, and clinical management of freshwater stingray envenomations are reviewed in light of the present case. Bacterial infections of stingray puncture wounds may account for more long-term morbidity than stingray venom. Simultaneous prophylactic use of multiple antibiotics is recommended for all but the most superficial stingray wounds. Distinguishing relative contributions of venom, mucus, and bacteria will require careful genomic and transcriptomic investigations of stingray tissues and contaminating bacteria. PMID:26094699

  20. Fluctuating Activity Of Artificial Radioisotopes Caused By Accident At Fukushima-I Nuclear Power Plant In Air At The South Of Vietnam

    March 11, 2011, a powerful earthquake in the history of Japan (9 degrees richter) occurred in Sendai city located on the east coast of Honshu. This disaster even more serious by the tsunami appeared in the east coast of Japan. A day later, the incident happened at the Fukushima-I nuclear power plant with complex evolution. A large number of radioisotopes have ejected air, and long range spread was recorded in almost all stations of the CTBTO in the northern hemisphere. Two weeks after the incident, radioactive anomalies were detected in the air at Da Lat, Ninh Thuan and Ho Chi Minh City. Results of monitoring the changes in the activity of the artificial radioisotopes 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs in aerosols are presented. Evolutions 137Cs/134Cs isotope ratios in aerosols in Da Lat, Ninh Thuan and Ho Chi Minh City have been evaluated and the average value close to their isotopic ratios in aerosols at JPP38 station. This means that the source of the artificial radioisotopes identified in the south of our country is due to Fukushima-1 accident caused. (author)

  1. A Severe Accident Caused by an Ocellate River Stingray (Potamotrygon motoro) in Central Brazil: How Well Do We Really Understand Stingray Venom Chemistry, Envenomation, and Therapeutics?

    da Silva, Nelson Jorge; Clementino Ferreira, Kalley Ricardo; Leite Pinto, Raimundo Nonato; Aird, Steven Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater stingrays cause many serious human injuries, but identification of the offending species is uncommon. The present case involved a large freshwater stingray, Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae), in the Araguaia River in Tocantins, Brazil. Appropriate first aid was administered within ~15 min, except that an ice pack was applied. Analgesics provided no pain relief, although hot compresses did. Ciprofloxacin therapy commenced after ~18 h and continued seven days. Then antibiotic was suspended; however, after two more days and additional tests, cephalosporin therapy was initiated, and proved successful. Pain worsened despite increasingly powerful analgesics, until debridement of the wound was performed after one month. The wound finally closed ~70 days after the accident, but the patient continued to have problems wearing shoes even eight months later. Chemistry and pharmacology of Potamotrygon venom and mucus, and clinical management of freshwater stingray envenomations are reviewed in light of the present case. Bacterial infections of stingray puncture wounds may account for more long-term morbidity than stingray venom. Simultaneous prophylactic use of multiple antibiotics is recommended for all but the most superficial stingray wounds. Distinguishing relative contributions of venom, mucus, and bacteria will require careful genomic and transcriptomic investigations of stingray tissues and contaminating bacteria. PMID:26094699

  2. 49 CFR 230.22 - Accident reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 230.22 Section 230.22... Requirements § 230.22 Accident reports. In the case of an accident due to failure, from any cause, of a steam... persons, the railroad on whose line the accident occurred shall immediately make a telephone report of...

  3. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be...... initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... identified during a total of 31 140 years at sea. Among these, 209 accidents resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. The mean risk of having an occupational accident was 6.4/100 years at sea and the risk of an accident causing a permanent disability of 5% or more was 0.67/100 years...

  4. Accidents caused by Bothrops and Bothropoides in the State of Paraiba: epidemiological and clinical aspects Acidentes causados por serpentes dos gêneros Bothrops e Bothropoides no Estado da Paraíba: aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos

    Fagner Neves Oliveira; Monalisa Taveira Brito; Isabel Cristina Oliveira de Morais; Sayonara Maria Lia Fook; Helder Neves de Albuquerque

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Bothrops and Bothropoides snakes cause 70% of the ophidic accidents in Brazil. The species that cause ophidic accidents in State of Paraíba are Bothropoides erythromelas, Bothrops leucurus and Bothropoides neuwiedi. METHODS: This is a prospective and transverse study, following a quantitative approach of accidents involving Bothrops and Bothropoides admitted to the Toxicological Assistance and Information Centers of Campina Grande and João Pessoa (Ceatox-CG and Ceatox-JP), aimed...

  5. Documents, used for drawing up the CCRX-report 'Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl'. Part 1

    In these documents the results are summarized of a large number of measurements and calculations performed by various Dutch organizations in consequence of the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. refs.; figs.; tabs

  6. Suicide Mortality in Comparison to Traffic Accidents and Homicides as Causes of Unnatural Death. An Analysis of 14,441 Cases in Germany in the Year 2010

    Karoline Lukaschek; Natalia Erazo; Karl-Heinz Ladwig; Jens Baumert

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess suicide mortality in comparison to traffic accidents and homicide deaths in Germany in the year 2010 and to compare years of life lost (YLL) due to these unnatural deaths. Methods: Mortality data were provided by the Federal Statistical Office giving death rates (related to 100,000 inhabitants) and proportions (related to 100 deaths of individuals) for suicide, traffic accidents and homicide as well as YLL data. Results: A total of 14,441 unnatural deaths (suicide, traffic acci...

  7. Preventing accidents at intake towers

    Villegas, F. (INTEGRAL S.A., Medellin, CO (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Strong air blow-outs occurring in the intake tower of Guatape Hydroelectric Power Plant in Colombia have caused two serious accidents recently. The causes of the accidents were investigated and recommendations are made here to prevent future repetitions of these dangerous events. (UK)

  8. Safety criteria and guidelines for MSR accident analysis

    Accident analysis for Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) has been investigated at ORNL for MSRE in 1960s. Since then, safety criteria or guidelines have not been defined for MSR accident analysis. Regarding the safety criteria, the authors showed one proposal in this paper. In order to establish guidelines for MSR accident analysis, we have to investigate all possible accidents. In this paper, the authors describe the philosophy for accident analysis, and show 40 possible accidents. They are at first classified as external cause accidents and internal cause accidents. Since the former ones are generic accidents, we investigate only the latter ones, and categorize them to 4 types, such as power excursion accident, flow decrease accident, fuel-salt leak accident, and other accidents mostly specific to MSR. Each accident is described briefly, with some numerical results by the authors. (author)

  9. Nuclear accidents

    On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

  10. Radiation accidents

    Radiation accidents may be viewed as unusual exposure event which provide possible high exposure to a few people and, in the case of nuclear plants events, low exposure to large population. A number of radiation accidents have occurred over the past 50 years, involving radiation machines, radioactive materials and uncontrolled nuclear reactors. These accidents have resulted in number of people have been exposed to a range of internal and external radiation doses and those involving radioactive materials have involved multiple routs of exposure. Some of the more important accidents involving significant radiation doses or releases of radioactive materials, including any known health effects involves in it. An analysis of the common characteristics of accidents is useful resolving overarching issues, as has been done following nuclear power, industrial radiography and medical accidents. Success in avoiding accidents and responding when they do occur requires planning in order to have adequately trained and prepared health physics organization; well defined and developed instrument program; close cooperation among radiation protection experts, local and state authorities. Focus is given to the successful avoidance of accidents and response in the events they do occur. Palomares, spain in late 1960, Goiania, Brazil in 1987, Thule, Greenland in 1968, Rocky flats, Colorado in 1957 and 1969, Three mile island, Pennsylvania in 1979, Chernobyl Ukraine in april 1986, Kyshtym, former Soviet Union in 1957, Windscale, UK in Oct. 1957 Tomsk, Russian Federation in 1993, and many others are the important examples of major radiation accidents. (author)

  11. Lessons learned from the initial response to nuclear disaster caused by Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants accident. Related with gathering and utilizing radiation information

    In order to investigate how grasping activities of radiation information obtained by environmental radiation monitoring and SPEEDI(System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) data were performed at the initial phase of Fukushima Daiichi accident, environmental radiation monitoring data actually obtained and time-series response to disaster/accident were evaluated simultaneously. Results showed it took so much time to establish emergency monitoring system of nuclear emergency response headquarters on March 21 and it also clear there existed possibility to improve greatly emergency monitoring planning and implementation with consideration relating environmental radiation monitoring of reactor operator and Fukushima prefecture and SPEEDI calculated results. (T. Tanaka)

  12. 浅谈学校体育伤害事故的原因及预防%Discussion on Causes and Prevention of Injury Accident in School Physical Education

    刘永光; 范安辉

    2014-01-01

    Sports injury is the high incidence of accidents in students injury accidents , because of inevitable , it has been plagued by the PE Teachers , and Influences teaching smoothly .For a long time , due to the frequent sports injury accidents , coupled with the media and the Chinese imperfect sports law cause legal disputes of many sports injury accident .Therefore, how to correctly understand and cause analysis of injury accident in school physical education , and properly handle the sports injury accidents and prevention is a serious problem .Through using the method of case analysis and literature review , this paper makes overall analysis on school sports injury accident and puts forward concrete prevention measures .The main purpose is to provide some helps for school physical education .%体育伤害事故是学生伤害事故中的高发性事故,由于它具有不可避免性,所以一直困扰着各校体育教师,影响着教育教学的顺利开展。长期以来,由于体育伤害事故的频繁发生,再加上媒体的宣传和我国体育法规的不完善,从而引发了不少体育伤害事故的法律纠纷。因此,如何正确认识和分析学校体育伤害事故的发生原因,妥善处理好体育伤害事故并对其进行有效预防,乃是一个严峻问题。本文运用案例分析法,文献资料法等研究方法,对学校体育伤害事故进行全面的分析,并针对伤害事故发生的原因提出了具体的预防措施,希望能给学校体育教学提供一定的帮助。

  13. Mortal radiological accident

    After defining the concept of 'Radiological accident', statistical data from Radiation Emergency Assistance Center of ORNL (United States of America) are given about the deaths caused by acute irradiation between 1944 and April 24, 1986 -ie, the day before Chernobyl nuclear accident- as well as on the number of deaths caused by the latter. Next the different clinical stages of the Acute Irradiation Syndrome (AIS) as well as its possible treatment are described, and finally the different physical, clinical and biological characteristics linked to the AIS and to its diagnosis and prognosis are discussed. (M.E.L.)

  14. Radiological accidents: education for prevention and confrontation

    The purpose of this work is to train and inform on radiological accidents as a preventive measure to improve the people life quality. Radiological accidents are part of the events of technological origin which are composed of nuclear and radiological accidents. As a notable figure is determined that there have been 423 radiological accidents from 1944 to 2005 and among the causes prevail industrial accidents, by irradiations, medical accidents and of laboratories, among others. Latin American countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Peru are some where most accidents have occurred by radioactivity. The radiological accidents can have sociological, environmental, economic, social and political consequences. In addition, there are scenarios of potential nuclear accidents and in them the potential human consequences. Also, the importance of the organization and planning in a nuclear emergency is highlighted. Finally, the experience that Cuba has lived on the subject of radiological accidents is described

  15. State of brain structures induced by radiation of Chernobyl, caused the accident, and its role in the development of violations of hearing and voice functions

    Presented results of long-term clinical trials for the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident and the residents of contaminated areas. With the installment of the objective methods of examination showed that the contact with radiation develop pathological changes in the central nervous system, in particular - brain its structures, violations of the hearing and voice functions.

  16. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    Hansen, H; Nielsen, D; Frydenberg, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be initiated.

  17. Occupational accidents in Turkey and providing and development of safety culture in preventing occupational accidents

    Dursun, Salih

    2011-01-01

    Occupational accidents cause socially and economically significant loss both in developed and developing countries. According to ILO each year, 2.2 million people lost their lives in the occupational accident. In Turkey, over 1600 people die in these accidents every year. In this case, an important part of occupational accidents like 95% based on “human”, requires more people-oriented approaches towards the prevention of accidents. In this context, to provide and develop the safety culture, w...

  18. Analysis on death caused by traffic accidents in Hongkou District, Shanghai from 2004 to 2009%2004-2009年上海市虹口区车祸死亡分析

    姚文; 邓华; 谢之辉; 冯学山

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the situation of deaths caused by road traffic accidents in Hongkou district, Shanghai from 2004 to 2009, so as to provide evidence for road traffic accident prevention and control. Methods The death data was obtained from all death surveillance system in Hongkou district. Descriptive method was used to analyze the mortality of traffic accidents, the proportion of occupation of death and potential years of life lost (PYLL) , etc. Results The mortality of traffic accident was 6. 08 per 100000 population in Hongkou district, which was the top causes for all injured deaths, accounted for 14. 22% of all injured deaths. The mortality of traffic accident was higher in males than in females. During a period of six years, the mortality of traffic accident presented wave trends. The walking people accounted for 37. 15% of all deaths. The mortality of motorcycle drivers was higher than those of non-motor vehicles and other motor vehicles drivers. The potential years of life lost of traffic accident was 4785. 00 person years in six years. The persons dying from traffic accidents whose potential years of life lost most seriously were car collision. Conclusions The death of traffic accident can be controlled through relevant measures.%目的 了解2004-2009年上海市虹口区车祸的死亡情况,为预防道路交通伤害提供依据.方法 根据上海市虹口区全死因登记监测系统收集的车祸死亡资料,用描述性方法分析车祸死亡率、死亡人员职业构成、减寿人年数(PYLL)等.结果 虹口区2004-2009年车祸死亡率为6.08/10万,占伤害总死亡的14.22%,居伤害死亡的第一位.男性车祸死亡率高于女性,且6年中上海市虹口区居民车祸死亡率呈波动趋势.行人的死亡占交通事故总死亡的37.15%.摩托车驾驶员的死亡率为16.19/10万,远高于非机动车人员及其他机动车驾驶员的死亡率.6年来,交通事故总的减寿年数为4785.00人年,减寿最严重

  19. Accident Statistics

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  20. Expert software for accident identification

    Each type of an accident in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) causes immediately after the start of the accident variations of physical parameters that are typical for that type of the accident thus enabling its identification. Examples of these parameter are: decrease of reactor coolant system pressure, increase of radiation level in the containment, increase of pressure in the containment. An expert software enabling a fast preliminary identification of the type of the accident in Krsko NPP has been developed. As input data selected typical parameters from Emergency Response Data System (ERDS) of the Krsko NPP are used. Based on these parameters the expert software identifies the type of the accident and also provides the user with appropriate references (past analyses and other documentation of such an accident). The expert software is to be used as a support tool by an expert team that forms in case of an emergency at Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) with the task to determine the cause of the accident, its most probable scenario and the source term. The expert software should provide initial identification of the event, while the final one is still to be made after appropriate assessment of the event by the expert group considering possibility of non-typical events, multiple causes, initial conditions, influences of operators' actions etc. The expert software can be also used as an educational/training tool and even as a simple database of available accident analyses. (author)

  1. Discussion and Analysis of the Causes of Accident of Steam Boiler Tube Rupture and the Processing Methods%蒸汽锅炉爆管事故原因及处理方法探讨分析

    李伟忠; 安文广; 张丽波

    2012-01-01

    蒸汽锅炉在运行过程中,一旦发生爆管事故,会损坏邻近的管壁,冲塌炉墙,并且在很短的时间造成锅炉严重缺水,使事故扩大,因此须保证安全可靠,确保安全生产运行.本文主要探讨蒸汽锅炉运行中锅炉爆管事故原因及处理方法.%Once the accident of tube rupture for steam boiler during operation happened, it can damage the nearby tube wall, and collapse furnace wall, resulting in serious water shortages for boiler in a very short period of time, expanding the accident, therefore, we must ensure the safety and reliability, safe production and operation. This paper mainly discusses the causes and treatment methods of accident of boiler tube rupture in the operation of steam boiler.

  2. The account of thin isotope structure of contamination in the Belarus territory, caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident, for reconstruction of the contamination level of transuranium elements

    The radioactive trace formed as a result of Chernobyl accident, was formed in the complex conditions which are not giving in to correct mathematical modeling. Emission of a radioactivity occurred during enough long time from various parts of the reactor core with a different degree of fuel burning out and, hence, with miscellaneous radionuclide structure of emission. Meteorological conditions changing during this time have led to rather complex radioactive contamination of territory and non-uniform both on a level of contamination and on radionuclide structure. (authors)

  3. Report of a human accident caused by Conus regius (Gastropoda, Conidae) Relato de um acidente em ser humano causado por Conus regius (Gastropoda, Conidae)

    Vidal Haddad Junior; Marcus Coltro; Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2009-01-01

    Conus regius is a venomous mollusc in the Conidae family, which includes species responsible for severe or even fatal accidents affecting human beings. This is the first report on a clinical case involving this species. It consisted a puncture in the right hand of a diver who presented paresthesia and movement difficulty in the whole limb. The manifestations disappeared after around twelve hours, without sequelae.Conus regius é um molusco venenoso da família Conidae, que inclui espécies respo...

  4. Causes and nursing countermeasures of safety accidents in hospitalized children%住院患儿发生安全意外的原因及护理对策

    高立梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the causes of safety accidents in hospitalized children and implement safety nursing countermeasures in order to reduce the incidence rate of safety accidents and improve the quality of nursing. Methods Thirty- eight hospitalized children with safety accidents rate were retrospectively reviewed,and meanwhile corresponding nursing countermeasures were proposed. Results After the implementation of safety nursing,the incidence rate of safety accidents in recent four years dropped by 71. 6% ,and the results were remarkable. Conclusion Strengthening safety nursing for children to create a safe medical environment is an important guarantee to improve the quality of nursing.%目的 通过分析住院患儿发生安全意外的原因,实施安全护理对策,减少安全意外的发生率,提高护理质量.方法 回顾性分析本院儿科2002年1月至2006年12月38例住院患儿发生安全意外的原因,提出相应的护理对策.结果 通过实施安全护理后,近四年安全意外发生率下降了71.6%,取得了明显效果.结论 加强安全护理,为患儿创造一个安全的医疗环境,是提高护理质量的重要保障.

  5. Lesões ocupacionais afetando a coluna vertebral em trabalhadores de enfermagem Lesiones ocupacionales de la columna vertebral en trabajadores de enfermería Vertebral column trauma caused by occupational accidents involving members of the nursing team

    Elisandra de Oliveira Parada

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Através do levantamento das comunicações de acidente do trabalho (CAT de um hospital universitário no período de janeiro de 1990 a dezembro de 1997, analisou-se determinadas características da ocorrência de acidentes do trabalho relacionados com a coluna vertebral em trabalhadores de enfermagem. Verificou-se que nesse período foram notificados 531 acidentes e 37 (7,0% destes eram acidentes típicos que comprometeram a coluna vertebral. Os resultados indicam subnotificação do acidente e que a categoria mais acometida foi o atendente de enfermagem. Os acidentes ocorreram principalmente pela movimentação e transporte de equipamentos e pacientes e pelas quedas.A través de los reportes de accidentes de trabajo (RAT de un Hospital Universitario en el periodo de enero de 1990 a diciembre de 1997, se analizaron determinadas características de la ocurrencia de accidentes de trabajo relacionados con la columna vertebral en trabajadores de enfermería. Se verificó que en ese periodo fueron notificados 531 accidentes y 37 (7,0% eran accidentes típicos que comprometieron la columna vertebral. Los resultados indican la subnotificación del accidente y que la categoría más afectada fue la de ayudante de enfermería. Los accidentes ocurrieron principalmente por el movimiento y traslado de equipos y pacientes y también por las caídas.All occupational accidents (CAT reported at a University hospital, from January 1990 to December 1997, were analyzed and the characteristics of the vertebral column trauma caused by the occupational accidents involving members of the nursing team were investigated. During this period, 531 accidents were reported and 37 (7% of these were typical vertebral column traumas. These results suggested that the number of accidents reported were below actual estimates and that the nursing auxiliaries were the most affected. The accidents were mainly caused by falls and during the transport or transfer of patients and

  6. Safety Management Technique and Accident-causing Analysis of Dam-failure in Upstream Tailings Pond%上游法尾矿库溃坝事故致因分析及安全管理技术研究

    路荣博; 王涛

    2009-01-01

    尾矿库是一种高势能的人造泥石流源,一旦发生溃坝事故,将严重威胁到库区下游居民的生命及财产安全.针对我国中小型上游法尾矿库数量多、安全度水平低以及发生事故的复杂性、多样性等特点,对导致上游法尾矿库溃坝事故发生的各路径进行分析、研究,同时根据各路径建立事故树分析模型,应用布尔代数法计算得出最小割集,确定导致溃坝事故发生的各基本原因事件结构重要度;最后,结合生产实际,提出了保障上游法尾矿库安全运行的综合管理技术措施.该研究结果可以为矿山企业在尾矿库日常管理过程中制定合理的安全防范措施提供参考,从而有针对性地消除各种事故隐患.%Tailings pond is one of human-caused mud-rock flows with high potential energy. It would bring huge harms to the peripheral environment of a district and downstream inhabitant's lives and properties when tailings pond 's paroxysmal accidents happen. Aiming at the larger quantity of small and medium-sized tailings pond, the lower safety level, furthermore, and diversified and uncertain causes in accidents, this article makes a summary on the characteristics of tailing pond related to accidents in China, from which a systematic research is conducted on the dam-failing path. Using fault tree analysis ( FTA) method constitutes a correlation model, accordingly, the accident of dam break in upstream tailings pond is studied by applying FTA that can obtain minimum cut sets and structure importance degrees. Furthermore, in combination with production practice, this paper provides a lot of safety management techniques to ensure the upstream tailings pond safety operation, which could supply a valuable reference so as to eliminate each kind of accident hidden dangers and enhance the management level.

  7. Trismus: An unusual presentation following road accident

    Thakur Jagdeep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trismus due to trauma usually follows road accidents leading to massive faciomaxillary injury. In the literature there is no report of a foreign body causing trismus following a road accident, this rare case is an exception. We present a case of isolated presentation of trismus following a road accident. This case report stresses on the thorough evaluation of patients presenting with trismus following a road accident.

  8. Helicopter accident survivability.

    Vyrnwy-Jones, P; Thornton, R

    1984-10-01

    Army Air Corps accident and fatality rates have now reached levels which compare favourably with data from other civilian and military sources. This improvement is the result of enhanced helicopter design and parallel progress in aircrew training. The introduction of new generations of turbine powered rotor craft has largely eliminated mechanical failure as the cause of accident. As a result 75% of Army Air Corps accidents are due to pilot error. This contribution is likely to increase in the future as the pilot's task is made more difficult by the incumberance of personal equipment. Methods whereby occupant protection and aircraft crashworthiness can be improved are reviewed and it is concluded that it would make sound economic sense to implement some of these well proven design features. PMID:6527344

  9. Big nuclear accidents

    Much of the debate on the safety of nuclear power focuses on the large number of fatalities that could, in theory, be caused by extremely unlikely but imaginable reactor accidents. This, along with the nuclear industry's inappropriate use of vocabulary during public debate, has given the general public a distorted impression of the safety of nuclear power. The way in which the probability and consequences of big nuclear accidents have been presented in the past is reviewed and recommendations for the future are made including the presentation of the long-term consequences of such accidents in terms of 'reduction in life expectancy', 'increased chance of fatal cancer' and the equivalent pattern of compulsory cigarette smoking. (author)

  10. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning

    Research highlights: → Lightning impact caused relevant industrial accidents. → Atmospheric storage tanks are the equipment item more susceptible to lightning damage. → Specific damage and release modes may be identified for lightning damage. Specific event trees should be adopted for the identification of post-release final scenarios characterizing lightning-induced major accidents. - Abstract: Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents.

  11. Report of a human accident caused by Conus regius (Gastropoda, Conidae Relato de um acidente em ser humano causado por Conus regius (Gastropoda, Conidae

    Vidal Haddad Junior

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Conus regius is a venomous mollusc in the Conidae family, which includes species responsible for severe or even fatal accidents affecting human beings. This is the first report on a clinical case involving this species. It consisted a puncture in the right hand of a diver who presented paresthesia and movement difficulty in the whole limb. The manifestations disappeared after around twelve hours, without sequelae.Conus regius é um molusco venenoso da família Conidae, que inclui espécies responsáveis por acidentes graves ou mesmo fatais em humanos. Os autores relatam pela primeira vez um caso clínico envolvendo a espécie, que inclui uma punctura na mão direita de um mergulhador submarino, que apresentou parestesias e dificuldade de movimentação do membro todo. O quadro desapareceu em cerca de doze horas, sem seqüelas.

  12. On Importance and Methods of Confirming Driver Causing Traffic Accidents in Transportation Cases%浅谈认定交通肇事驾驶人的重要性及其方法

    于力; 孙乃勤

    2014-01-01

    正确认定交通肇事驾驶人是交通民警公平、公正处理交通事故的前提,对提高办案质量和效率,避免形成冤假错案,切实保护受害人利益,及时化解矛盾,维护社会稳定有着极为重要的意义。在实践中,办案交警可通过肇事车辆碰撞痕迹与可疑人员身体损伤部位对应关系的分析、现场遗留物的比对、DNA检验、证人证言收集、视频资料分析等方法来认定交通肇事驾驶人。%It is a premise to confirm the driver causing traffic accident in handling traffic case fair and justly for police. And it is of great significance to improve the quality and efficiency of case solution, avoid unjust charges, protect the rights of victims, dissolve conflicts in time and maintain the social stability. In the practice, police can analyze and compare the crash mark on cars, the wound of the suspected drivers, the remains on the scene, DNA test, the confession of the witnesses, and video data to confirm the driver causing the traffic accident.

  13. How to reduce the number of accidents

    2012-01-01

    Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. HSE Unit

  14. Accident management insights after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, that took place on 11 March 2011, initiated a significant number of activities at the national and international levels to reassess the safety of existing NPPs, evaluate the sufficiency of technical means and administrative measures available for emergency response, and develop recommendations for increasing the robustness of NPPs to withstand extreme external events and beyond design basis accidents. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is working closely with its member and partner countries to examine the causes of the accident and to identify lessons learnt with a view to the appropriate follow-up actions to be taken by the nuclear safety community. Accident management is a priority area of work for the NEA to address lessons being learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP following the recommendations of Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), and Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). Considering the importance of these issues, the CNRA authorised the formation of a task group on accident management (TGAM) in June 2012 to review the regulatory framework for accident management following the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The task group was requested to assess the NEA member countries needs and challenges in light of the accident from a regulatory point of view. The general objectives of the TGAM review were to consider: - enhancements of on-site accident management procedures and guidelines based on lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident; - decision-making and guiding principles in emergency situations; - guidance for instrumentation, equipment and supplies for addressing long-term aspects of accident management; - guidance and implementation when taking extreme measures for accident management. The report is built on the existing bases for capabilities to respond to design basis

  15. Severe accidents at nuclear power plants. Their risk assessment and accident management

    This document is to explain the severe accident issues. Severe Accidents are defined as accidents which are far beyond the design basis and result in severe damage of the core. Accidents at Three Mild Island in USA and at Chernobyl in former Soviet Union are examples of severe accidents. The causes and progressions of the accidents as well as the actions taken are described. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is a method to estimate the risk of severe accidents at nuclear reactors. The methodology for PSA is briefly described and current status on its application to safety related issues is introduced. The acceptability of the risks which inherently accompany every technology is then discussed. Finally, provision of accident management in Japan is introduced, including the description of accident management measures proposed for BWRs and PWRs. (author)

  16. Hospitalization Costs of Traumatic Brain Injuries Caused by Traffic Accidents in Eastern China%华东地区颅脑交通伤住院费用调查

    袁强; 姚海军; 刘华; 孙一害; 吴惺; 胡锦

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the hospitalization costs and related factors of traumatic brain injuries(TBl)caused by traffic accidents in eastern China, and to analyze the direct economic burden of traffic accident associated TBI. Methods; The pool of 7 369 TBI patients in association with traffic accidents were derived from the database based on the investigation of hospitalized patients with traumatic brain injury in eastern China in 2004. Data were analyzed through using SPSS 13.0 software. Results; The highest total cost for hospitalized traffic associated TBI reached 380 000.00 RMB (average 16 158.90 RMB; median 8 402.50 RMB). The avenge of daily cost of hospitalization was 1 121.47 RMB (median 692.28 RMB). Cox regression model showed that province, sex, residence status, aurgery, CCS, payment type, ward type, age, hospital level, time of traffic injuries and multiple injuries are likely the main factors causing the high hospitalization cost of traumatic brain injuries caused by traffic accidents. Conclusion: The disease burden of TBI caused by traffic accidents are so heavy. The health education should be strengthened for those people between 25 to 44 years old and for the elderly male people. The first aid at 0-7 o'clock should he enhanced, and the hospitalization costs of traffic injuries be minimized.%目的:对华东地区颅脑交通伤住院患者的住院费用及相关影响因素进行分析,掌握颅脑交通伤住院患者的疾病负担.方法:整群抽取2004年华东地区颅脑创伤住院患者数据库中颅脑交通伤患者7369例,用SPSS 15.0统计软件包分析.结果:7 369例患者住院费用平均16 158 90元,中位住院费用8 402 50元.日住院费用平均1 121 47元,中位日住院费用692 28元.COX回归模型显示省份、性别、居住状态、手术、GCS评分、费用支付方式、病房类型、年龄、医院级别、交通伤发生时间及多发伤都可能是造成颅脑交通伤患者住院费用高低的重要影响因素.结论:

  17. Analysis of Forensic Injury Characteristics on Death Caused by Motorcycle Traffic Accident%摩托车交通事故所致死亡的法医学损伤特征分析

    张冬先; 洪仕君; 赵丽萍; 李利华

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究摩托车交通事故所致死亡案件的特点,探讨分析伤亡人员的损伤特征.方法 抽取摩托车交通事故鉴定案件资料365例,对其损伤类型、特征、部位分布、死亡原因进行统计分析.结果 死亡原因以颅脑损伤居多,现场死亡占大部分,头颈部、胸部、背部、腹盆部、会阴部损伤在伤亡分组中的发生率有统计学差异(P<0.05),颅骨骨折、胸廓骨折和下肢骨折在伤亡分组中的发生率有统计学差异(P<0.05),锁骨骨折在摩托车驾驶员与摩托车乘员相比有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论 摩托车交通事故所致死亡的死亡原因以颅脑损伤居多,且大部分在现场死亡;损伤部位主要分布在四肢和头颈部;摩托车驾驶员锁骨骨折的发生率明显高于摩托车乘员.%0bjective To study the feature of the dead cases caused by motorcycle traffic accident, and discuss the characteristics of the death and the injured. Methods We collected 365 cases about motorcycle traffic accident judicial expertise to analyse the injury type, characteristics, distribution and the causes of death. Results Craniocerebral injury was the common cause leading to death. Death on accident scene was the most. The incidence rate about injury of head and neck, injury of chest, injury of back, injury of abdominal and pelvic part, injury of perineal region had obvious statistical difference between the death group and the injured group. The incidence rate of craniocerebral fracture, thoracic cage fracture, lower limb fracture had statistical difference between the death group and the injured group. The incidence rate of clavicle fracture had statistical difference between motor-cyclist group and motor-passenger group. Conclusions Craniocerebral injury is the most common cause leading to death in motorcycle traffic accident, and most cases of death took place on the accident scene. Injuries are most localized on extremities, head and neck. The

  18. Tchernobyl accident

    First, R.M.B.K type reactors are described. Then, safety problems are dealt with reactor control, behavior during transients, normal loss of power and behavior of the reactor in case of leak. A possible scenario of the accident of Tchernobyl is proposed: events before the explosion, possible initiators, possible scenario and events subsequent to the core meltdown (corium-concrete interaction, interaction with the groundwater table). An estimation of the source term is proposed first from the installation characteristics and the supposed scenario of the accident, and from the measurements in Europe; radiological consequences are also estimated. Radioactivity measurements (Europe, Scandinavia, Western Europe, France) are given in tables (meteorological maps and fallouts in Europe). Finally, a description of the site is given

  19. The Chernobylsk reactor accident

    The construction, the safety philosophy, the major reactor physical parameters of RBMK-1000 type reactor units and the detailed description of the Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident, its causes and conclusions, the efforts to reduce the consequences on the reactor site and in the surroundings are discussed based on different types of Soviet documents including the report presented to the IAEA by the Soviet Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986. (V.N.)

  20. Accident: Reminder

    2003-01-01

    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  1. Activities of Hydrometeorologic Institute of Serbia - Belgrade, during the case of radioactive pollution of environment caused by the accident of nuclear power plant 'Chernobyl' in 1986

    The programme of 'Systematic testing of water quality' performed by Hydrometeorologic Institute of Serbia - Belgrade includes the measurement of total beta radioactivity on 33 sampling points. The measurement of total beta radioactivity is performed with instrument 'Lola - 4' produced by 'Institute for Nuclear Science - Vinca'. During the accident of Nuclear Power Plant 'Chernobyl' in 1986 arose the need to investigate the influence of this case on the environment of Belgrade and Serbia. In that respect a series of measurement of total beta radioactivity of rain water, surface waters, tap water and air were performed. Those measurements showed an increase of radioactivity of river waters. River Sava had radioactivity of 3,4 Bq/l (0,08 Bq/l in 1 9850 and river Danube 3-5 Bq/l (0,09 Bq/l in 1 985). High values of radioactivity were measured in the waters of highland accumulation lakes over 30 Bq/l. Rain water showed it's maximum of 52 Bq/l on 1 st and 2nd May l986 and it drooped to 0,3 Bq/l until 5th of June. Tap water showed it's maximum of 35,2 Bq/l on 12th May and it was reduced to 1 ,0 Bq/l on 2nd of June. Radioactivity of air showed it's maximum of 2,64 Bq/m3 in the period 1 -3 May and in the period 5-8 May, 1 . - 1 ,57 Bq/m3 . Measurement of river water radioactivity on 33 regular sampling points at the end of the year 1 986 showed that was no increase in comparison with the same measurements in 1 985. All mentioned results of the radioactivity of river waters and the waters of highland accumulations used to fall into ranges predicted by the model of the radioactive pollution distribution developed on the Imperial College -London. (author)

  2. International aspects of nuclear accidents

    The accident at Chernobyl revealed that there were shortcomings and gaps in the existing international mechanisms and brought home to governments the need for stronger measures to provide better protection against the risks of severe accidents. The main thrust of international co-operation with regard to nuclear safety issues is aimed at achieving a uniformly high level of safety in nuclear power plants through continuous exchanges of research findings and feedback from reactor operating experience. The second type of problem posed in the event of an accident resulting in radioactive contamination of several countries relates to the obligation to notify details of the circumstances and nature of the accident speedily so that the countries affected can take appropriate protective measures and, if necessary, organize mutual assistance. Giving the public accurate information is also an important aspect of managing an emergency situation arising from a severe accident. Finally, the confusion resulting from the unwarranted variety of protective measures implemented after the Chernobyl accident has highlighted the need for international harmonization of the principles and scientific criteria applicable to the protection of the public in the event of an accident and for a more consistent approach to emergency plans. The international conventions on third party liability in the nuclear energy sector (Paris/Brussels Conventions and the Vienna Convention) provide for compensation for damage caused by nuclear accidents in accordance with the rules and jurisdiction that they lay down. These provisions impose obligations on the operator responsible for an accident, and the State where the nuclear facility is located, towards the victims of damage caused in another country

  3. Trend of Elevator-Related Accidents in Tehran

    Ali Khaji; Syyed Mohammad Ghodsi

    2014-01-01

    Background:   Elevator-related accidents are uncommon, but can cause significant injury. However, little data exist on these types of accidents. To compile and analyze accident data involving elevators in an effort to eliminate or at least significantly reduce such accidents. Methods: In this retrospective study we investigated 1,819 cases of elevator-related accidents during a four-year period (1999-2003) in Tehran. The data were obtained from the Tehran Safety Services & Fire Fighting Organ...

  4. Transportation accidents

    Predicting the possible consequences of transportation accidents provides a severe challenge to an analyst who must make a judgment of the likely consequences of a release event at an unpredictable time and place. Since it is impractical to try to obtain detailed knowledge of the meteorology and terrain for every potential accident location on a route or to obtain accurate descriptions of population distributions or sensitive property to be protected (data which are more likely to be more readily available when one deals with fixed-site problems), he is constrained to make conservative assumptions in response to a demanding public audience. These conservative assumptions are frequently offset by very small source terms (relative to a fixed site) created when a transport vehicle is involved in an accident. For radioactive materials, which are the principal interest of the authors, only the most elementary models have been used for assessing the consequences of release of these materials in the transportation setting. Risk analysis and environmental impact statements frequently have used the Pasquill-Gifford/gaussian techniques for releases of short duration, which are both simple and easy to apply and require a minimum amount of detailed information. However, after deciding to use such a model, the problem of selecting what specific parameters to use in specific transportation situations still presents itself. Additional complications arise because source terms are not well characterized, release rates can be variable over short and long time periods, and mechanisms by which source aerosols become entrained in air are not always obvious. Some approaches that have been used to address these problems will be reviewed with emphasis on guidelines to avoid the Worst-Case Scenario Syndrome

  5. The Chernobyl accident

    The accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the most severe in the nuclear industry. The accident caused the rapid death of 31 power plant employees and firemen, mainly from acute radiation exposures and burns, and brought about the evacuation of 116,000 people within a few weeks. In addition, about half a million workers and four million members of the public have been exposed, to some extent, to radiation doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident. A large number of radiation measurements have been made since the accident in order to reconstruct the doses received by the most exposed populations. On the basis of currently available information, it appears that: (1) average doses received by clean-up workers from external irradiation decreased with time, being about 300 mGy for the persons who worked in the first three months after the accident, about 170 mGy for the remainder of 1986, 130 mGy in 1987, 30 mGy in 1988, and 15 mGy in 1989; (2) the evacuees received, before evacuation, effective doses averaging 11 mSv for the population of Pripyat, and 18 mSv for the remainder of the population of the 30 km zone, with maximum effective doses ranging up to 380 mSv; and (3) among the populations living in contaminated areas, the highest doses were those delivered to the thyroids of children. Thyroid doses derived from thyroid measurements among Belarussian and Ukrainian children indicate median thyroid doses of about 300 mGy, and more than 1% of the children with thyroid doses in excess of 5000 mGy. A description is provided of the epidemiological studies that the National Cancer Institute has, since 1990, at the request of the Department of Energy, endeavoured to undertake, in cooperation with Belarus and Ukraine, on two possible health effects resulting from the Chernobyl accident: (1, thyroid cancer in children living in contaminated areas during the first few weeks following the accident, and (2) leukaemia among workers involved in clean

  6. CHARACTERISTICS OF CEREBRAL INJURY CAUSED BY ALCOHOL-RELATED MOTORCYCLE TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS%醉酒后摩托车驾驶致颅脑损伤的临床诊治

    蔡新琦; 崔华中; 黄铿; 韩溟; 蔡桂嘉; 陈泽锋

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical characteristics and misdiagnosis causes associated with alcohol-related motorcycle traffic accidents.Method All patients were given pre-hospital care,treated with naloxone hydrochloride in hospital,and underwent the CT and other examinations.Serious cerebral injuries were operated timely.Result 43 patients suffered from the traffic accident caused by alcohol-related motorcycle.26 of them had simple cerebral injury;17 were serious.5 of all patients were companied by complex injury,6 were delayed accurate diagnosis,and 5 were dead.Conclusion Motorcycle traffic accidents related alcohol result in easily the cerebral injury,and combined injury has high incidences.All patients should be examined CT and treated as soon as possible so as to improve prognosis,decrease the misdiagnosis,and mortality.%目的 探讨醉酒后摩托车驾驶所致颅脑外伤病人的临床特点及误诊原因.方法 对43例醉酒驾驶摩托车导致颅脑损伤者,给予及时的院前急救,入院后予纳洛酮进行催醒治疗,所有伤者及早进行头颅CT检查和其他部位的辅助检查,对重伤患者及时进行手术治疗.结果 43例全部为醉酒后驾驶摩托车所致的交通意外,单纯型颅脑外伤26例;重型颅脑外伤17例.其中复合伤5例,占11.6%,延误诊断6例,占13.95%,死亡5例,占11.6%.31例经保守和手术治疗愈合,7例有不同程度的肢体功能障碍.38例经半年随访,其中3例有反复发作的癫痫.结论 醉酒后摩托车交通意外易致颅脑损伤.及时进行CT头颅检查和应用纳络酮治疗,可以提高治愈率,降低误诊率和死亡率.

  7. A reactivity accidents simulation of the Fort Saint Vrain HTGR

    A reactivity accidents analysis of the Fort Saint Vrain HTGR was made. The following accidents were analysed 1) A rod pair withdrawal accident during normal operation, 2) A rod pair ejection accident, 3) A rod pair withdrawal accident during startup operations at source levels and 4) Multiple rod pair withdrawal accident. All the simulations were performed by using the BLOOST-6 nuclear code The steady state reactor operation results obtained with the code were consistent with the design reactor data. The numerical analysis showed that all accidents - except the first one - cause particle failure. (author)

  8. The ultimate nuclear accident

    The estimated energy equivalent of Chernobyl explosion was the 1/150 th of the explosive energy equivalent of atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima; while the devastation that could be caused by the world's stock pile of nuclear weapons, could be equivalent to 160 millions of Chernobyl-like incidents. As known, the number of nuclear weapons is over 50,000 and 2000 nuclear weapons are sufficient to destroy the world. The Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been blamed on human factors but also the human element, particularly in the form of psychological stresses on those operating the nuclear weapons, could accidentally bring the world to a nuclear catastrophe. This opinion is encouraged by the London's Sunday Times magazine which gave a graphic description of life inside a nuclear submarine. So, to speak of nuclear reactor accidents and not of nuclear weapons is false security. (author)

  9. ACCIDENTS AND UNSCHEDULED EVENTS ASSOCIATED WITH NON-NUCLEAR ENERGY RESOURCES AND TECHNOLOGY

    Accidents and unscheduled events associated with non-nuclear energy resources and technology are identified for each step in the energy cycle. Both natural and anthropogenic causes of accidents or unscheduled events are considered. Data concerning these accidents are summarized. ...

  10. A Severe Accident Caused by an Ocellate River Stingray (Potamotrygon motoro) in Central Brazil: How Well Do We Really Understand Stingray Venom Chemistry, Envenomation, and Therapeutics?

    Nelson Jorge da Silva; Kalley Ricardo Clementino Ferreira; Raimundo Nonato Leite Pinto; Steven Douglas Aird

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater stingrays cause many serious human injuries, but identification of the offending species is uncommon. The present case involved a large freshwater stingray, Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae), in the Araguaia River in Tocantins, Brazil. Appropriate first aid was administered within ~15 min, except that an ice pack was applied. Analgesics provided no pain relief, although hot compresses did. Ciprofloxacin therapy commenced after ~18 h and continued seven days. T...

  11. JAERI's activities in JCO accident

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was actively involved in a variety of technical supports and cooperative activities, such as advice on terminating the criticality condition, contamination checks of the residents and consultation services for the residents, as emergency response actions to the criticality accident at the uranium processing facility operated by the JCO Co. Ltd., which occurred on September 30, 1999. These activities were carried out in collaborative ways by the JAERI staff from the Tokai Research Establishment, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Oarai Research Establishment, and Headquarter Office in Tokyo. As well, the JAERI was engaged in the post-accident activities such as identification of accident causes, analyses of the criticality accident, and dose assessment of exposed residents, to support the Headquarter for Accident Countermeasures of the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Accident Investigation Committee and the Health Control Committee of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC). This report compiles the activities, that the JAERI has conducted to date, including the discussions on measures for terminating the criticality condition, evaluation of the fission number, radiation monitoring in the environment, dose assessment, analyses of criticality dynamics. (author)

  12. Medical consequences of a nuclear plant accident

    The report gives background information concerning radiation and the biological medical effects and damages caused by radiation. The report also discusses nuclear power plant accidents and efforts from the medical service in the case of a nuclear power plant accident. (L.F.)

  13. Chernobyl NPP accident. Overcoming experience. Acquired lessons

    This book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of accident on the Chernobyl NPP unit 4. History of construction, causes of the accident and its consequences, actions for its mitigation are described. Modern situation with Chernobyl NPP decommissioning and transferring of 'Ukryttya' shelter into ecologically safe system are mentioned. The future of Chernobyl site and exclusion zone was discussed

  14. Fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Koch-Henriksen, Nils;

    2006-01-01

    -1996. The end of follow-up was 1 January 1999. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for various types of fatal accidents. A total of 76 persons (48 men and 28 women) died from accidents, whereas the expected number of fatalities from such causes was 55.7 (31.4 men and 24.3 women). Thus, the...... particularly high for deaths from burns (SMR = 8.90) and suffocation (SMR = 5.57). We conclude that persons with MS are more prone to fatal accidents than the general population. The excess risk is due not to traffic accidents but to burns and suffocation....

  15. Criticality Accident

    At a meeting of electric utility presidents in October, 1999, the Federation Power Companies (FEPCO) officially decided to establish a Japanese version of WANO, following the JCO criticality accident. The Japanese WANO is expected to be launched by the end of the year: initially, with some 30 private sector companies concerned with nuclear fuel. It is said that the private sector had to make efforts to ensure that safety was the most important value in management policy throughout the industry, and that comprehensive inspections would be implemented. In anything related to nuclear energy, sufficient safety checks are required even for the most seemingly trivial matters. Therefore, the All-Japan Council of Local Governments with Atomic Power Stations has already proposed to the Japanese government that it should enact the special law for nuclear emergency, providing that the unified responsibility for nuclear disaster prevention should be shifted to the national government, since the nuclear disaster was quite special from the viewpoint of its safety regulation and technical aspects. (G.K.)

  16. Persistence on airline accidents.

    L. A. GIL-ALANA; Barros, C.P. (Carlos P.); J.R. Faria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses airline accidents data from 1927-2006. The fractional integration methodology is adopted. It is shown that airline accidents are persistent and (fractionally) cointegrated with airline traffic. Thus, there exists an equilibrium relation between air accidents and airline traffic, with the effect of the shocks to that relationship disappearing in the long run. Policy implications are derived for countering accidents events.

  17. Persistence in Airline Accidents

    Carlos Pestana Barros; João Ricardo Faria; Luis A. Gil-Alana

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses airline accident data from 1927-2006, through fractional integration. It is shown that airline accidents are persistent and (fractionally) cointegrated with airline traffic. There exists a negative relation between air accidents and airline traffic, with the effect of the shocks to that relationship disappearing in the long run. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events.

  18. Research of severe accident induced by small LOCA and accident mitigation

    Fangjiashan nuclear power plant is modeled, by using MAAP4 code. Base on this model, the small LOCA accident is calculated, which will cause the worst consequence. The response of the plant and relevant severe accident phenomena are obtained. The phenomena of DCH (direct containment heat) happened during the accident, containment failure and release of the fission production are analyzed. Then, according to the related severe accident management and characteristic of this accident, the strategy of mitigating the accident consequence is studied and calculated. The result indicated that the mitigation action is very efficient. Therefore, a feasible strategy of mitigating the severe accident consequence is provided for the three-loop plant like Fangjiashan in China. (authors)

  19. Traffic accident with radioactive material

    A traffic accident with a package with radioactive contents of the category 'III-YELLOW' remaining undamaged, caused complete confusion among the responsible rescue services. All forces active until professional fire-brigades arrived showed a deficit of tactical radiation protection behaviour. Even a medical unit with an equipped emergency task force in situ and radiation protection equipment did not feel responsible. (DG)

  20. Severe accident phenomena

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  1. On the Influence on Urban Road Traffic Transit Capacity Caused by Roadway Taking-up of Traffic Accident%交通事故占道对城市道路通行能力影响的研究

    崔延硕; 郑辉

    2015-01-01

    The traditional queuing theory only uses the relationship between demand and transit capacity to calculate queuing length, so the discrepancy between estimation results and the reality is very large. Combined with traffic volume undulation theory, Greenshields flow-density mode, this paper considers the influence by upstream intersection signals and uses traffic volume undulation theory to analyze and build the traffic volume undulation queuing model. The model mainly embodies changes of a stable traffic flow caused by the sudden traffic accidents.%传统的排队论单纯使用需求量和通行能力关系推算排队长度,因而估算结果与实际出入很大。本文结合车辆波动理论, Greenshields流—密模型考虑上游路口信号灯的影响并运用车流波动理论分析构建车流波动排队模型,主要体现了一个稳定的交通流受突发交通事故的变化情况。

  2. The psychological impact of the radiological accident in Goiania

    This work describes the psychological impact of an accident caused by the violation of a capsule containing Cesium 137 in the city of Goiania, Goias, Brazil, in September of 1987. Its object is to confirm the importance of having mental health teams working, not only with accident victims, but also side by side with the rescue teams in the event of radiation accidents. (author)

  3. PSYCHIATRIC CONSEQUENCES OF STRESS AFTER A VEHICLE ACCIDENT

    Dickov, Aleksandra; Martinović-Mitrović, Sladjana; Vučković, Nikola; Siladji-Mladenović, Djendji; Mitrović, Dragan; Jovičević, Mirjana; Mišić-Pavkov, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    Background: Vehicle accidents are a common cause of disease and death among people over 30 years of age. Essentially, reaction to stress due to the vehicle accident does not differ from the reaction to other stress factors. There are still no uniform viewpoints about the kind of sequels and their percentage representation after vehicle accidents. Subjects and methods: The research was provided as a prospective study, included 150 subjects who had vehicle accident minimum 2 years prior to t...

  4. Accidents Preventive Practice for High-Rise Construction

    Goh Kai Chen; Goh Hui Hwang; Omar Mohd Faizal; Toh Tien Choon; Mohd Zin Abdullah Asuhaimi

    2016-01-01

    The demand of high-rise projects continues to grow due to the reducing of usable land area in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The rapidly development of high-rise projects has leaded to the rise of fatalities and accidents. An accident that happened in a construction site can cause serious physical injury. The accidents such as people falling from height and struck by falling object were the most frequent accidents happened in Malaysian construction industry. The continuous growth of high-rise buildi...

  5. Fukushima accident study using MELCOR

    Randall O Gauntt

    2013-01-01

    The accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station stunned the world as the sequences played out over severals days and videos of hydrogen explosions were televised as they took place.The accidents all resulted in severe damage to the reactor cores and releases of radioactivity to the environment despite heroic measures had taken by the operating personnel.The following paper provides some background into the development of these accidents and their root causes,chief among them,the prolonged station blackout conditions that isolated the reactors from their ultimate heat sink — the ocean.The interpretations given in this paper are summarized from a recently completed report funded by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE).

  6. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 16, Maximum hypothetical accident

    Fault tree analysis of the maximum hypothetical accident covers the basic elements: accident initiation, phase development phases - scheme of possible accident flow. Cause of the accident initiation is the break of primary cooling pipe, heavy water system. Loss of primary coolant causes loss of pressure in the primary circuit at the coolant input in the reactor vessel. This initiates safety protection system which should automatically shutdown the reactor. Separate chapters are devoted to: after-heat removal, coolant and moderator loss; accident effects on the reactor core, effects in the reactor building, and release of radioactive wastes

  7. Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-05-15

    The conventional PSA techniques cannot adequately evaluate all events. The conventional PSA models usually focus on single internal events such as DBAs, the external hazards such as fire, seismic. However, the Fukushima accident of Japan in 2011 reveals that very rare event is necessary to be considered in the PSA model to prevent the radioactive release to environment caused by poor treatment based on lack of the information, and to improve the emergency operation procedure. Especially, the results from PSA can be used to decision making for regulators. Moreover, designers can consider the weakness of plant safety based on the quantified results and understand accident sequence based on human actions and system availability. This study is for PSA modeling of combined accidents including total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident. The TLOFW accident is a representative accident involving the failure of cooling through secondary side. If the amount of heat transfer is not enough due to the failure of secondary side, the heat will be accumulated to the primary side by continuous core decay heat. Transients with loss of feedwater include total loss of feedwater accident, loss of condenser vacuum accident, and closure of all MSIVs. When residual heat removal by the secondary side is terminated, the safety injection into the RCS with direct primary depressurization would provide alternative heat removal. This operation is called feed and bleed (F and B) operation. Combined accidents including TLOFW accident are very rare event and partially considered in conventional PSA model. Since the necessity of F and B operation is related to plant conditions, the PSA modeling for combined accidents including TLOFW accident is necessary to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities.The PSA is significant to assess the risk of NPPs, and to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities. Even though the combined accident is very rare event, the consequence of combined

  8. Monitoring severe accidents using AI techniques

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011, there has been increasing concern regarding severe accidents in nuclear facilities. Severe accident scenarios are difficult for operators to monitor and identify. Therefore, accurate prediction of a severe accident is important in order to manage it appropriately in the unfavorable conditions. In this study, artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as support vector classification (SVC), probabilistic neural network (PNN), group method of data handling (GMDH), and fuzzy neural network (FNN), were used to monitor the major transient scenarios of a severe accident caused by three different initiating events, the hot-leg loss of coolant accident (LOCA), the cold-leg LOCA, and the steam generator tube rupture in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The SVC and PNN models were used for the event classification. The GMDH and FNN models were employed to accurately predict the important timing representing severe accident scenarios. In addition, in order to verify the proposed algorithm, data from a number of numerical simulations were required in order to train the AI techniques due to the shortage of real LOCA data. The data was acquired by performing simulations using the MAAP4 code. The prediction accuracy of the three types of initiating events was sufficiently high to predict severe accident scenarios. Therefore, the AI techniques can be applied successfully in the identification and monitoring of severe accident scenarios in real PWRs.

  9. Chernobyl reactor accident

    Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

  10. Accidents in radiotherapy: Lack of quality assurance?

    About 150 radiological accidents, involving more than 3000 patients with adverse effects, 15 patient's fatalities and about 5000 staff and public exposures have been collected and analysed. Out of 67 analysed accidents in external beam therapy 22% has been caused by wrong calculation of the exposure time or monitor units, 13% by inadequate review of patient's chart, 12% by mistakes in the anatomical area to be treated. The remaining 35% can be attributed to 17 different causes. The most common mistakes in brachytherapy were wrong activities of sources used for treatment (20%), inadequate procedures for placement of sources applicators (14%), mistakes in calculating the treatment time (12%), etc. The direct and contributing causes of radiological accidents have been deduced from each event, when it was possible and categorized into 9 categories: mistakes in procedures (30%), professional mistakes (17%), communication mistakes (15%), lack of training (8.5%), interpretation mistakes (7%), lack of supervision (6%), mistakes in judgement (6%), hardware failures (5%), software and other mistakes (5.5%). Three types of direct and contributing causes responsible for almost 62% of all accidents are directly connected to the quality assurance of treatment. The lessons learnt from the accidents are related to frequencies of direct and contributing factors and show that most of the accident are caused by lack, non-application of quality assurance (QA) procedures or by underestimating of QA procedures. The international system for collection of accidents and dissemination of lessons learnt from the different accidents, proposed by IAEA, can contribute to better practice in many radiotherapy departments. Most of the accidents could have been avoided, had a comprehensive QA programme been established and properly applied in all radiotherapy departments, whatever the size. (author)

  11. Safety analysis of surface haulage accidents

    Randolph, R.F.; Boldt, C.M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Research on improving haulage truck safety, started by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, is being continued by its successors. This paper reports the orientation of the renewed research efforts, beginning with an update on accident data analysis, the role of multiple causes in these accidents, and the search for practical methods for addressing the most important causes. Fatal haulage accidents most often involve loss of control or collisions caused by a variety of factors. Lost-time injuries most often involve sprains or strains to the back or multiple body areas, which can often be attributed to rough roads and the shocks of loading and unloading. Research to reduce these accidents includes improved warning systems, shock isolation for drivers, encouraging seatbelt usage, and general improvements to system and task design.

  12. Serious reactor accidents reconsidered

    The chance is determined for damage of the reactor core and that sequel events will cause excursion of radioactive materials into the environment. The gravity of such an accident is expressed by the source term. It appears that the chance for such an accident varies with the source term. In general it is valid that how larger the source term how smaller the chance is for it and vice versa. The chance for excursion is related to two complexes of events: serious damage (meltdown) of the reactor core, and the escape of the liberated radionuclides into the environment. The results are an order of magnitude consideration of the relation between the extent of the source term and the chance for it. From the spectrum of possible source terms three representative ones have been chosen: a large, a medium and a relative small source term. This choice is in accordance with international considerations. The hearth of this study is the estimation of the chance for occurrence of the three chosen source terms for new light-water reactors. refs.; figs.; tabs

  13. Acidentes e violência na infância: evidências do inquérito sobre atendimentos de emergência por causas externas - Brasil, 2009 Accidents and violence in childhood: survey evidence of emergency care for external causes - Brazil, 2009

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Compreender as características e a magnitude das causas externas (acidentes e violência em crianças de 0 a 9 anos de idade torna-se cada vez mais importante em Saúde Pública. O objetivo do presente artigo foi analisar os atendimentos de emergência por causas externas em crianças. Utilizaram-se dados do Sistema de Vigilância de Violências e Acidentes em Serviços Sentinelas de Urgência e Emergência (Inquérito VIVA, realizado em 74 serviços de urgência do Distrito Federal e 23 capitais no ano 2009. Analisaram-se dados de 7.123 crianças: 6.897 (96,7% vítimas de acidentes e 226 (3,3% de violência. Em comparação às vítimas de violência, os atendimentos por acidentes foram mais frequentes entre crianças de 2 a 5 anos, de pele branca e ocorridos no domicílio (p Understanding the characteristics and magnitude of accidents and violence due to external causes in children from 0 to 9 years of age is becoming ever more important in Public Health. The scope of this paper was to analyze emergency care for accidents due to external causes in children. The Sentinel Urgency and Emergency Services of the Violence and Accident Vigilance System (VIVA Survey, performed in 74 urgency services in the Federal District and 23 State capitals in 2009 was used. Data of 7,123 children were analyzed: 6,897 (96.7% victims of accidents and 226 (3.3% of violence. In comparison with victims of violence, the visits for accidents were more frequent among white children from 2 to 5 years old occurring in the home (p < 0.05. Among the accidents, falls and burns predominated in the 0 to 1group, while traffic accidents were most frequent in the 6 to 9-year-old age group (p < 0.001. With respect to violence, the visits for neglect and physical assault predominated, respectively, in extreme age groups, with someone in the family being the perpetrator (p < 0.001. Information on the occurrence of external causes in children may support health promotion policies

  14. SEVERE ACCIDENT MANAGEMENT TRAINING

    The purpose of this paper is (a) to define the International Atomic Energy Agency's role in the area of severe accident management training, (b) to briefly describe the status of representative severe accident analysis tools designed to support development and validation of accident management guidelines, and more recently, simulate the accident with sufficient accuracy to support the training of technical support and reactor operator staff, and (c) provide an overview of representative design-specific accident management guidelines and training. Since accident management and the development of accident management validation and training software is a rapidly evolving area, this paper is also intended to evolve as accident management guidelines and training programs are developed to meet different reactor design requirements and individual national requirements

  15. An Application of CICCT Accident Categories to Aviation Accidents in 1988-2004

    Evans, Joni K.

    2007-01-01

    Interventions or technologies developed to improve aviation safety often focus on specific causes or accident categories. Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of those interventions is dependent upon mapping the historical aviation accidents into those same accident categories. To that end, the United States civil aviation accidents occurring between 1988 and 2004 (n=26,117) were assigned accident categories based upon the taxonomy developed by the CAST/ICAO Common Taxonomy Team (CICTT). Results are presented separately for four main categories of flight rules: Part 121 (large commercial air carriers), Scheduled Part 135 (commuter airlines), Non-Scheduled Part 135 (on-demand air taxi) and Part 91 (general aviation). Injuries and aircraft damage are summarized by year and by accident category.

  16. General Aspects of the JCO Criticality Accident

    A criticality accident occurred on September 30, 1999, at a uranium processing plant of JCO Company in Tokaimura. Delayed criticality continued for approximately 20 hours after the first few prompt critical peaks. Two employees subsequently died. Nearby residents were evacuated or told to remain indoors. This accident was at Level 4 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. A table of radiation exposures resulting from the accident is given. Besides dealing with health physics, the investigation committee's final report covered technical observations and the nature of the accident. The direct causes of the accident were found to be violation of rules and technical specifications and deviation from licensing conditions; some of these were permitted by the company itself, and fatal mistakes were made by employees on the job without consulting with authorized persons. Many recommendations to revise government regulations on licensing of nuclear fuel handling were discussed in the report

  17. Psychology of nuclear accidents

    Tysoe, M.

    1983-03-31

    Incidents involving nuclear weapons are described, as well as the accident to the Three Mile Island-2 reactor. Methods of assessment of risks are discussed, with particular reference to subjective judgements and the possible role of human error in civil nuclear accidents. Accidents or misunderstandings in communication or human actions which might lead to nuclear war are also discussed.

  18. Road Traffic Accidents in Kazakhstan

    Alma Aubakirova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The article provides the analysis of death rates in road traffic accidents in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2010 and explores the use of sanitary aviation.Methods: Data of fatalities caused by road traffic accidents were collected and analysed. Descriptive and analytical methods of epidemiology and biomedical statistics were applied.Results: Totaly 27,003 people died as a result of road traffic accidents in this period. The death rate for the total population due to road traffic accidents was 25.0±2.10/0000. The death rate for men was (38.3±3.20/0000, which was higher (P<0.05 than that for women (12.6±1.10/0000. High death rates in the entire male population were identified among men of 30-39 years old, whereas the highest rates for women were attributed to the groups of 50-59 years old and 70-79 years old. In time dynamics, death rates tended to decrease: the total population (Тdec=−2.4%, men (Тdec=−2.3% and women (Тdec=−1.4%. When researching territorial relevance, the rates were established as low (to 18.30/0000, average (between18.3 and24.00/0000 and high (from 24.00/0000 and above. Thus, the regions with high rates included Akmola region (24.30/0000, Mangistau region (25.90/0000, Zhambyl region (27.30/0000, Almaty region (29.30/0000 and South Kazakhstan region (32.40/0000.Conclusion: The identified epidemiological characteristics of the population deaths rates from road traffic accidents should be used in integrated and targeted interventions to enhance prevention of injuries in accidents.

  19. Radiological accident 'The Citadel' medical aspects

    The work exposes the medical actions carried out in the mitigation of the consequences of the accident and its main results. In a facility of storage of radioactive waste in Caracas, Venezuela, it was happened a radiological accident. This event caused radioactive contamination of the environment, as well as the irradiation and radioactive contamination of at least 10 people involved in the fact, in its majority children. Cuban institutions participated in response to the accident. Among the decisions adopted by the team of combined work Cuban-Venezuelan, we find the one of transferring affected people to Cuba, for their dosimetric and medical evaluation. Being designed a work strategy to develop the investigations to people affected by the radiological accident, in correspondence with the circumstances, magnitude and consequences of the accident. The obtained main results are: 100% presented affectations in its health, not associate directly to the accident, although the accident influenced in its psychological state. In 3 of studied people they were detected radioactive contamination with Cesium -137 with dose among 2.01 X 10-4 Sv up to 2.78 X 10-4 Sv. This accident demonstrated the necessity to have technical capacities to face these events and the importance of the international solidarity. (author)

  20. Structural and containment response to LMFBR accidents

    The adequacy of the containment of fast reactors has been traditionally evaluated by analyzing the response of the containment to a spectrum of core disruptive accidents. The current approach in the U.S. is to consider fast reactor response to accidents in terms of four lines of assurance (LOAs). Thus, LOA-1 is to prevent accidents, LOA-2 is to limit core damage, LOA-3 is to control accident progression and LOA-4 is to attenuate radiological consequences. Thus, the programs on the adequacy of containment response fall into LOA-3. Significant programs to evaluate the response of the containment to core disruptive accidents and, thereby, to assure control of accident progression are in progress. These include evaluating the mechanical response of the primary system to core disruptive accidents and evaluating the thermal response of the reactor structures to core melting, including the effects this causes on the secondary containment. The analysis of structural response employs calculated pressure-volume-time loading functions. The results of the analyses establish the response of the containment to the prescribed loadings. The analysis of thermal response requires an assessment of the distribution and state of the fuel, fission products and activated materials from accident initiation to final disposition in a stable configuration

  1. Supervisor's accident investigation handbook

    This pamphlet was prepared by the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EH and S) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to provide LBL supervisors with a handy reference to LBL's accident investigation program. The publication supplements the Accident and Emergencies section of LBL's Regulations and Procedures Manual, Pub. 201. The present guide discusses only accidents that are to be investigated by the supervisor. These accidents are classified as Type C by the Department of Energy (DOE) and include most occupational injuries and illnesses, government motor-vehicle accidents, and property damages of less than $50,000

  2. Radiologic accidents in industrial gamma radiography - Brazilian cases

    Three severe radiological accidents in industrial gamma radiography happened in Brazil during the period of 1985 to 1988. Five operators and nineteen public people were involved. These accidents caused some injuries in parts of the body, mainly hands and fingers. The main causes were faults in source monitoring, inadequate routine procedures and unknowing of radiation warning symbol by public people. The present paper shows the Brazilian cases of radiological accidents and makes some analysis of them. (author)

  3. Framework for accident management

    Accident management is an essential element of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Integration Plan for the closure of severe accident issues. This element will consolidate the results from other key elements; such as the Individual Plant Examination (IPE), the Containment Performance Improvement, and the Severe Accident Research Programs, in a form that can be used to enhance the safety programs for nuclear power plants. The NRC is currently conducting an Accident Management Program that is intended to aid in defining the scope and attributes of an accident management program for nuclear power plants. The accident management plan will ensure that a plant specific program is developed and implemented to promote the most effective use of available utility resources (people and hardware) to prevent and mitigate severe accidents. Hardware changes or other plant modifications to reduce the frequency of severe accidents are not a central aim of this program. To accomplish the outlined objectives, the NRC has developed an accident management framework that is comprised of five elements: (1) accident management strategies, (2) training, (3) guidance and computational aids, (4) instrumentation, and (5) delineation of decision making responsibilities. A process for the development of an accident management program has been identified using these NRC framework elements

  4. The reactor accident of Chernobyl

    The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.)

  5. New technology for accident prevention

    Byne, P. [Shiftwork Solutions, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This power point presentation examined the effects of fatigue in the workplace and presented 3 technologies designed to prevent or monitor fatigue. The relationship between mental fatigue, circadian rhythms and cognitive performance was explored. Details of vigilance related degradations in the workplace were presented, as well as data on fatigue-related accidents and a time-line of meter-reading errors. It was noted that the direct cause of the Exxon Valdez disaster was sleep deprivation. Fatigue related accidents during the Gulf War were reviewed. The effects of fatigue on workplace performance include impaired logical reasoning and decision-making; impaired vigilance and attention; slowed mental operations; loss of situational awareness; slowed reaction time; and short cuts and lapses in optional or self-paced behaviours. New technologies to prevent fatigue-related accidents include (1) the driver fatigue monitor, an infra-red camera and computer that tracks a driver's slow eye-lid closures to prevent fatigue related accidents; (2) a fatigue avoidance scheduling tool (FAST) which collects actigraphs of sleep activity; and (3) SAFTE, a sleep, activity, fatigue and effectiveness model. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. “8·29”充装台充装现场氧气瓶爆炸事故原因分析%Cause analysis of the“8 · 29” oxygen cylinder explosion accident on the filling station

    李文炜; 狄刚; 王瑞欣; 杜清; 张亮; 田丰

    2012-01-01

    介绍了较为少见的充装台充装过程中氧气瓶爆炸事故,描述了事故爆炸后的现场.对爆炸气瓶碎片进行化学成分分析、机械性能、金相试验、内壁附着物化学成分分析和能谱分析.通过分析认定,由于误操作油脂混进氧气瓶,高压氧气和油脂接触发生剧烈的自燃氧化放热,使瓶内的氧气迅速升温升压,超出气瓶承压极限导致气瓶爆炸.结合工作经验,提出要严格气瓶充装前的检验,加强气瓶使用和经销单位的安全监管等防范措施和建议,对氧气瓶的安全管理具有参考价值和实际意义.%The course and phenomena of oxygen cylinder explosion were introduced. The reason for the oxygen cylinder burst accident was analyzed by checking totally firstly. Then the chemical composition analysis, mechanical properties, metallographic tests and spectrum analysis of the cylinder fragments were carried out. Filling oil into oxygen was due to mioperation, and oxygen carbon tetrachloride was not used to remove oil in accordance with the relevant national standards before filling violent oxidation exothermic reaction occurred when oil was exposed to pure high pressure oxygen. The instantaneous releasing of heat produced high temperature and high pressure in gas cylinder, which exceeded its limits and caused burst generally. It showed that the explosion was concluded as a chemical explosion because of grease. The experiences and lessons for the management and use of gas cylinder were discussed and emphasized.

  7. Framework for accident management

    A program is being conducted to establish those attributes of a severe accident management plan which are necessary to assure effective response to all credible severe accidents and to develop guidance for their incorporation in a plant's Accident Management Plan. This program is one part of the Accident Management Research Program being conducted by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The approach used in establishing attributes and developing guidance includes three steps. In the first step the general attributes of an accident management plan were identified based on: (1) the objectives established for the NRC accident management program, (2) the elements of an accident management framework identified by the NRC, and (3) a review of the processes used in developing the currently used approach for classifying and analyzing accidents. For the second step, a process was defined that uses the general attributes identified from the first step to develop an accident management plan. The third step applied the process defined in the second step at a nuclear power plant to refine and develop it into a benchmark accident management plan. Step one is completed, step two is underway and step three has not yet begun

  8. LESSONS LEARNED FROM A RECENT LASER ACCIDENT

    Woods, Michael; /SLAC

    2011-01-26

    A graduate student received a laser eye injury from a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser beam while adjusting a polarizing beam splitter optic. The direct causes for the accident included failure to follow safe alignment practices and failure to wear the required laser eyewear protection. Underlying root causes included inadequate on-the-job training and supervision, inadequate adherence to requirements, and inadequate appreciation for dimly visible beams outside the range of 400-700nm. This paper describes how the accident occurred, discusses causes and lessons learned, and describes corrective actions being taken.

  9. Research of the improvement of the process, organization, etc. related to the emergency correspondence of JNES based on the cause analysis about emergency correspondence of JNES in case of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    At the time of the occurrence of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident, JNES implemented various emergency correspondences. On the other hand, various organizations published the report about the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. In them, the problems about the regulatory body's regulatory process, regulatory organization, etc. are also pointed out. JNES is a designated public institution. JNES is required to improve process, organization, etc. related to emergency correspondence continuously based on the lessons learned obtained from the emergency corresponding experience about the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. Specifically, the following activities will be implemented in the 2014 and 2015 fiscal year. 1. Collect systematically and comprehensively the information about emergency correspondence of JNES in case of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident, and create the timeline of the event. 2. Specify problems and analyze human factors and organizational factors. 3. Specify the requirements for establishing a designated public institution's emergency correspondence based on the viewpoint of a human and an organization. 4. Publish the report which indicates collected information, the contents of analysis, proposals of improvement, etc. (author)

  10. Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    On the evening of April 20, 2010, a well control event allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in explosions and fire on the rig. Eleven people lost their lives, and 17 others were injured. The fire, which was fed by hydrocarbons from the well, continued for 36 hours until the rig sank. Hydrocarbons continued to flow from the reservoir through the wellbore and the blowout preventer (BOP) for 87 days, causing a spill of national significance. BP Exploration and Production Inc. was the lease operator of Mississippi Canyon Block 252, which contains the Macondo well. BP formed an investigation team that was charged with gathering the facts surrounding the accident, analyzing available information to identify possible causes and making recommendations to enable prevention of similar accidents in the future. The BP investigation team began its work immediately in the aftermath of the accident, working independently from other BP spill response activities and organizations. The ability to gather information was limited by a scarcity of physical evidence and restricted access to potentially relevant witnesses. The team had access to partial real-time data from the rig, documents from various aspects of the Macondo well's development and construction, witness interviews and testimony from public hearings. The team used the information that was made available by other companies, including Transocean, Halliburton and Cameron. Over the course of the investigation, the team involved over 50 internal and external specialists from a variety of fields: safety, operations, subsea, drilling, well control, cementing, well flow dynamic modeling, BOP systems and process hazard analysis. This report presents an analysis of the events leading up to the accident, eight key findings related to the causal chain of events and recommendations to enable the prevention of a similar accident. The investigation team worked

  11. Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report

    On the evening of April 20, 2010, a well control event allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in explosions and fire on the rig. Eleven people lost their lives, and 17 others were injured. The fire, which was fed by hydrocarbons from the well, continued for 36 hours until the rig sank. Hydrocarbons continued to flow from the reservoir through the wellbore and the blowout preventer (BOP) for 87 days, causing a spill of national significance. BP Exploration and Production Inc. was the lease operator of Mississippi Canyon Block 252, which contains the Macondo well. BP formed an investigation team that was charged with gathering the facts surrounding the accident, analyzing available information to identify possible causes and making recommendations to enable prevention of similar accidents in the future. The BP investigation team began its work immediately in the aftermath of the accident, working independently from other BP spill response activities and organizations. The ability to gather information was limited by a scarcity of physical evidence and restricted access to potentially relevant witnesses. The team had access to partial real-time data from the rig, documents from various aspects of the Macondo well's development and construction, witness interviews and testimony from public hearings. The team used the information that was made available by other companies, including Transocean, Halliburton and Cameron. Over the course of the investigation, the team involved over 50 internal and external specialists from a variety of fields: safety, operations, subsea, drilling, well control, cementing, well flow dynamic modeling, BOP systems and process hazard analysis. This report presents an analysis of the events leading up to the accident, eight key findings related to the causal chain of events and recommendations to enable the prevention of a similar accident. The investigation team worked separately

  12. The Chernobyl accident consequences

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  13. Nuclear accidents and epidemiology

    A consultation on epidemiology related to the Chernobyl accident was held in Copenhagen in May 1987 as a basis for concerted action. This was followed by a joint IAEA/WHO workshop in Vienna, which reviewed appropriate methodologies for possible long-term effects of radiation following nuclear accidents. The reports of these two meetings are included in this volume, and cover the subjects: 1) Epidemiology related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident. 2) Appropriate methodologies for studying possible long-term effects of radiation on individuals exposed in a nuclear accident. Figs and tabs

  14. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Galstyan I.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS, developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

  15. Analysis of National Major Work Safety Accidents in China, 2003-2012

    Yunfeng YE

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study provides a national profile of major work safety accidents in China, which cause more than 10 fatalities per accident, intended to provide scientific basis for prevention measures and strategies to reduce major work safety accidents and deaths.Methods: Data from 2003-2012 Census of major work safety accidents were collected from State Administration of Work Safety System (SAWS. Published literature and statistical yearbook were also included to implement information. We analyzed the frequency of accidents and deaths, trend, geographic distribution and injury types. Additionally, we discussed the severity and urgency of emergency rescue by types of accidents.Results: A total of 877 major work safety accidents were reported, resulting in 16,795 deaths and 9,183 injuries. The numbers of accidents and deaths, mortality rate and incidence of major accidents have declined in recent years. The mortality rate and incidence was 0.71 and 1.20 per 106 populations in 2012, respectively. Transportation and mining contributed to the highest number of major accidents and deaths. Major aviation and railway accidents caused more casualties per incident, while collapse, machinery, electrical shock accidents and tailing dam accidents were the most severe situation that resulted in bigger proportion of death.Conclusion: Ten years’ major work safety accident data indicate that the frequency of accidents and number of deaths was declined and several safety concerns persist in some segments. Keywords: Work safety, Major accident, Prevention

  16. Low level waste shipment accident lessons learned

    On October 1, 1994 a shipment of low-level waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio, was involved in an accident near Rolla, Missouri. The accident did not result in the release of any radioactive material. The accident did generate important lessons learned primarily in the areas of driver and emergency response communications. The shipment was comprised of an International Standards Organization (ISO) container on a standard flatbed trailer. The accident caused the low-level waste package to separate from the trailer and come to rest on its top in the median. The impact of the container with the pavement and median inflicted relatively minor damage to the container. The damage was not substantial enough to cause failure of container integrity. The success of the package is attributable to the container design and the packaging procedures used at the Fernald Environmental Management Project for low-level waste shipments. Although the container survived the initial wreck, is was nearly breached when the first responders attempted to open the ISO container. Even though the container was clearly marked and the shipment documentation was technically correct, this information did not identify that the ISO container was the primary containment for the waste. The lessons learned from this accident have DOE complex wide applicability. This paper is intended to describe the accident, subsequent emergency response operations, and the lessons learned from this incident

  17. 急诊护理常见纠纷原因探析及防范对策%Investigation and precaution measure on the common causes of emergency medical accidents

    傅清华

    2012-01-01

      Emergency treatment is the high risk area for medical accidents and disputes, ease to mistakes and accidents. In this paper, the reason was analyzed and the corresponding improvement measures were proposed. The purpose is to improve nurses' awareness and reduce nursing disputes.%  急诊是医疗事故和纠纷的高风险区,容易发生差错事故。现对其原因进行分析并提出相应改进措施,目的在于提高护士的认识,减少护理纠纷的发生。

  18. Explaining and predicting workplace accidents using data-mining techniques

    Rivas, T., E-mail: trivas@uvigo.e [Dpto. Ingenieria de los Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente, E.T.S.I. Minas, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Paz, M., E-mail: mpaz.minas@gmail.co [Dpto. Ingenieria de los Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente, E.T.S.I. Minas, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Martin, J.E., E-mail: jmartin@cippinternacional.co [CIPP International, S.L. Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, Parcela 43, Oficina 11, 33428 Llanera (Spain); Matias, J.M., E-mail: jmmatias@uvigo.e [Dpto. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, E.T.S.I. Minas, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Garcia, J.F., E-mail: jgarcia@cippinternacional.co [CIPP International, S.L. Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, Parcela 43, Oficina 11, 33428 Llanera (Spain); Taboada, J., E-mail: jtaboada@uvigo.e [Dpto. Ingenieria de los Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente, E.T.S.I. Minas, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Current research into workplace risk is mainly conducted using conventional descriptive statistics, which, however, fail to properly identify cause-effect relationships and are unable to construct models that could predict accidents. The authors of the present study modelled incidents and accidents in two companies in the mining and construction sectors in order to identify the most important causes of accidents and develop predictive models. Data-mining techniques (decision rules, Bayesian networks, support vector machines and classification trees) were used to model accident and incident data compiled from the mining and construction sectors and obtained in interviews conducted soon after an incident/accident occurred. The results were compared with those for a classical statistical techniques (logistic regression), revealing the superiority of decision rules, classification trees and Bayesian networks in predicting and identifying the factors underlying accidents/incidents.

  19. Explaining and predicting workplace accidents using data-mining techniques

    Current research into workplace risk is mainly conducted using conventional descriptive statistics, which, however, fail to properly identify cause-effect relationships and are unable to construct models that could predict accidents. The authors of the present study modelled incidents and accidents in two companies in the mining and construction sectors in order to identify the most important causes of accidents and develop predictive models. Data-mining techniques (decision rules, Bayesian networks, support vector machines and classification trees) were used to model accident and incident data compiled from the mining and construction sectors and obtained in interviews conducted soon after an incident/accident occurred. The results were compared with those for a classical statistical techniques (logistic regression), revealing the superiority of decision rules, classification trees and Bayesian networks in predicting and identifying the factors underlying accidents/incidents.

  20. Impact Analysis on Typical Transport Facilities to Causes of Road T raffic Accidents%典型交通设施对道路交通事故致因影响分析

    胡立伟; 李耀平

    2014-01-01

    在分析黑龙江省2006~2010年间1万多起道路交通事故数据的基础上,选取道路交通控制设施、路侧防护设施、道路物理隔离设施、照明设施等四类典型道路交通设施作为研究对象,分析不同敏感条件下(如不同道路类型、不同天气条件、不同事故形态、不同路表条件等)发生的交通事故形态与特征,据此分析道路交通设施对交通事故发生的影响情况,这将有利于道路交通设施功能的有效发挥,道路交通安全度的提高,也有利于道路交通设施的管理与维护。%Based on analysis of more than 10 ,000 traffic accidents data(2006~2010) ,the paper selects four typical road transport facilities (road traffic control facilities ,road side protection facilities ,road isolation facilities and road lighting facilities ) as the research object ,and establishes the relationship between these road transport facilities and traffic accidents under different conditions (for example , different road types ,different weather conditions ,different accident forms ,different road surface con-ditions ,et al) .And the intervention condition about several transport facilities to road traffic acci-dents is analyzed .These will be beneficial to the effectiveness of the road traffic facilities function , and to the improvement of the road traffic safety ,and to the management and maintenance of the road traffic facilities .

  1. Planning for the Handling of Radiation Accidents

    The developing atomic energy programmes and the widespread use of radiation sources in medicine, agriculture, industry and research have had admirable safety records. Throughout the world the number of known accidents in which persons have been exposed to harmful am ounts of ionizing radiation is relatively small, and only a few deaths have occurred. Meticulous precautions are being taken to maintain this good record in all work with radiation sources and to keep the exposure of persons as low as practicable. In spite of all the precautions that are taken, accidents may occur and they may be accompanied by the injury or death of persons and damage to property. It is only prudent to take those steps that are practicable to prevent accidents and to plan in advance the emergency action that would limit the injuries and damage caused by those accidents that do occur. Emergency plans should be sufficiently broad to cover unforeseen or very improbable accidents as well as those that are considered credible. Some accidents may involve only the workers in an establishment, those working directly with the source and possibly their colleagues. Other accidents may have consequences, notably in the form of radioactive contamination of the environment, that affect the general public, possibly far from the site of the accident. The preparation of plans for dealing with radiation accidents is therefore obligatory both for the various authorities that are responsible for protecting the health and the food and water supplies of the public, and for the operator of an installation containing radiation sources.

  2. Review of Finite Element Models Used in Neck Injury Caused by Autombile Accidents%交通事故中颈部损伤的有限元模型研究现状

    李娜; 柳建新; 曾超; 陈朝阳

    2011-01-01

    Head and neck injuries are the most frequent severe injury resulting from traffic accidents , which is the principal cause of child and the young people death. The experimental studies on neck injury mechanisms are difficult due to the variety of impact conditions involved , as well as ethical issues , such as the use of human cadavers and animals. Finite element analysis is a comprehensive computer aided mathematical method,through which human head and neck impact tolerance can be investigated. A representative finite element model of human neck allows the assessment of injurious effects for different impact conditions and enables the development of injury protection criteria in the automotive industries. This paper reviews the articles regarding to finite element analysis ( FEA) models for studying neck injury mechanisms and methodology validation ,based on the modeling geometry , finite element mesh , biomechanics and tissue test validation. Finally this paper compares and concludes among these finite element models for neck injury for vehicles safety research,and also gives suggestion to the future carsafety study.%汽车交通事故是当今世界造成儿童和年轻人死亡的主要原因,其中头颈部的损伤是交通事故中最为常见的致命性损伤.由于碰撞条件复杂和不可重复,再加上尸体和动物研究的伦理问题,致使头颈部损伤机理的实验研究存在较大困难,因此有限元分析在人体头-颈部耐撞性研究得到广泛应用.有限元方法的应用对于交通事故中不同撞击条件损伤程度的评估以及汽车工业损伤保护标准的开发起重要作用.本文从头颈部损伤机理、有限元几何模型获取、有限元网格划分,及所研究材料特性和实验验证方法等方面,对近年来国际上开发的应用有限元模型对交通事故中的头颈部损伤的研究现状进行综述,并对各个模型的优势和特点加以分析归纳,并对未来相关研究提出建议.

  3. Group unified accident reporting database (GUARD)

    Significant advances have been made in recent years in enhancing the standard of safety within Shell Companies, such that safety has now been raised to a status equal to other primary business objectives. It is widely accepted that accident prevention is part of good business practice, and that a safe operation is normally an efficient operation. Safety programmes are being widely implemented which involve all employees from top management right down to the workforce including the contract staff, and the benefits are being realized. The effectiveness of any safety programme, however, must be continuously monitored, and in this respect injury and accident statistics play an important role as a prime indicator of safety performance. Statistics form part of the safety management process indicating the success of the safety programmes being implemented, and highlighting areas of weakness. Statistical information relating to the number and frequency of accidents, significant as it is, tells us little about how the accidents occur, or about how to improve the intrinsic safety of the operations. More detailed information on accident causes and lessons derived from the investigation of non-injurious accidents and near-misses is required for this, and for the setting of appropriate remedial actions. This paper concentrates on the feedback from accidents which have already occurred. This feedback plays a vital role as an indicator of safety performance upon which to judge the effectiveness of safety programmes, and also to provide important information relating to the immediate and underlying causes of accidents. To meet these requirements, however, a system for recording analyzing and communicating safety data is essential

  4. Criticality accident in Argentina

    A recent criticality type accident, ocurred in Argetina, is commented. Considerations about the nature of the facility where this accident took place, its genesis, type of operation carried out on the day of the event, and the medical aspects involved are done. (Author)

  5. Chernobyl accident and Danmark

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  6. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  7. Research investigation report on Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident

    This report was issued in February 2012 by Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation's Independent Investigation Commission on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, which consisted of six members from the private sector in independent positions and with no direct interest in the business of promoting nuclear power. Commission aimed to determine the truth behind the accident by clarifying the various problems and reveal systematic problems behind these issues so as to create a new starting point by identifying clear lessons learned. Report composed of four chapters; (1) progression of Fukushima accident and resulting damage (accident management after Fukushima accident, and effects and countermeasure of radioactive materials discharged into the environment), (2) response against Fukushima accident (emergency response of cabinet office against nuclear disaster, risk communication and on-site response against nuclear disaster), (3) analysis of historical and structural factors (technical philosophy of nuclear safety, problems of nuclear safety regulation of Fukushima accident, safety regulatory governance and social background of 'Safety Myth'), (4) Global Context (implication in nuclear security, Japan in nuclear safety regime, U.S.-Japan relations for response against Fukushima accident, lessons learned from Fukushima accident - aiming at creation of resilience). Report could identify causes of Fukushima accident and factors related to resulting damages, show the realities behind failure to prevent the spread of damage, and analyze the overall structural and historical background behind the accidents. (T. Tanaka)

  8. Occupational Accidents: A Perspective of Pakistan Construction Industry

    Tauha Hussain Ali

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been observed that the construction industry is one of the notorious industry having higher rate of fatalities and injuries. Resulting in higher financial losses and work hour losses, which are normally faced by this industry due to occuptional accidents. Construction industry has the highest occupational accidents rate recorded throughout the world after agriculture industry. The construction work site is often a busy place having an incredibly high account of activities taking place, where everyone is moving in frenzy having particular task assigned. In such an environment, occupational accidents do occur. This paper gives information about different types of occupational accidents & their causes in the construction industry of Pakistan. A survey has been carried out to identify the types of occupational accidents often occur at construction site. The impact of each occupational accident has also been identified. The input from the different stakeholders involved on the work site was analyzed using RIW (Relative Importance Weight method. The findings of this research show that ?fall from elevation, electrocution from building power and snake bite? are the frequent occupational accidents occur within the work site where as ?fall from elevation, struck by, snake bite and electrocution from faulty tool? are the occupational accident with high impact within the construction industry of Pakistan. The results also shows the final ranking of the accidents based on higher frequency and higher impact. Poor Management, Human Element and Poor Site Condition are found as the root causes leading to such occupational accidents. Hence, this paper

  9. Accidents of surface effect ships and hydrofoil craft

    Korotkin, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    The work describes 200 accidents and disasters of hovercraft and hydrofoil craft of the United States, Great Britain, France, and other fleets which occurred in the 1960s and 1970s as a result of capsizing, storm damage, collisions, fires, explosions, etc. The causes of the accidents, the functioning of various craft systems, and the actions of the crews are examined. Recommendations on the prevention of such accidents are discussed.

  10. Study of Spanish mining accidents using data mining techniques

    Sanmiquel Pera, Lluís; Rossell Garriga, Josep Maria; Vintró Sánchez, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Mining is an economic sector with a high number of accidents. Mines are hazardous places and workers can suffer a wide variety of injuries. Utilizing a database composed of almost 70,000 occupational accidents and fatality reports corresponding to the decade 2003–2012 in the Spanish mining sector, the paper analyzes the main causes of those accidents. To carry out the study, powerful statistical tools have been applied, such as Bayesian classi¿ers, decision trees or contingency t...

  11. Accidents with orphan sources

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has specifically defined statutory functions relating to the development of standards of safety and the provision for their application. It also has responsibilities placed on it by virtue of a number of Conventions, two of which are relevant to nuclear accidents or radiological emergencies - the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. An overview of the way in which these functions are being applied to prevent and respond to radiological accidents, particularly those involving orphan sources, is described in this paper. Summaries of a number of such accidents and of the Agency's Action Plan relating to the safety and security of radiation sources are given. (orig.)

  12. Chernobyl accident. Exposures and effects

    The Chernobyl accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986 happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance. The operators, in violation of safety regulations, had switched off important control systems and allowed the reactor to reach unstable, low-power conditions. A sudden power surge caused a steam explosion that ruptured the reactor vessel and allowed further violent fuel-steam interactions that destroyed the reactor and the reactor building. The Chernobyl accident was the most serious to have ever occurred in the nuclear power industry. The accident caused the early death of 30 power plant employees and fire fighters and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by several million people. Radionuclides released from the reactor that caused exposure of individuals were mainly iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Iodine-131 has a short radioactive half-life (8 days), but it can be transferred relatively rapidly through milk and leafy vegetables to humans. Iodine becomes localized in the thyroid gland. For reasons of intake of these foods, size of thyroid gland and metabolism, the thyroid doses are usually greater to infants and children than to adults. The isotopes of caesium have relatively long half-lives (caesium-134: 2 years; caesium-137: 30 years). These radionuclides cause long-term exposures through the ingestion pathway and from external exposure to these radionuclides deposited on the ground. In addition to radiation exposure, the accident caused long-term changes in the lives of people living in the contaminated regions, since measures intended to limit radiation doses included resettlements, changes in food supplies, and restrictions in activities of individuals and families. These changes were accompanied by major economic, social and political changes in the affected countries resulting

  13. Accidents in the construction industry in the Netherlands: An analysis of accident reports using Storybuilder

    As part of an ongoing effort by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment of the Netherlands, a research project is being undertaken to construct a causal model for occupational risk. This model should provide quantitative insight into the causes and consequences of occupational accidents. One of the components of the model is a tool to systematically classify and analyse reports of past accidents. This tool 'Storybuilder' was described in earlier papers. In this paper, Storybuilder is used to analyse the causes of accidents reported in the database of the Dutch Labour Inspectorate involving people working in the construction industry. Conclusions are drawn on measures to reduce the accident probability. Some of these conclusions are contrary to common beliefs in the industry

  14. Analysis of National Major Work Safety Accidents in China, 2003–2012

    YE, Yunfeng; ZHANG, Siheng; RAO, Jiaming; WANG, Haiqing; LI, Yang; WANG, Shengyong; DONG, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study provides a national profile of major work safety accidents in China, which cause more than 10 fatalities per accident, intended to provide scientific basis for prevention measures and strategies to reduce major work safety accidents and deaths. Methods: Data from 2003–2012 Census of major work safety accidents were collected from State Administration of Work Safety System (SAWS). Published literature and statistical yearbook were also included to implement information. We analyzed the frequency of accidents and deaths, trend, geographic distribution and injury types. Additionally, we discussed the severity and urgency of emergency rescue by types of accidents. Results: A total of 877 major work safety accidents were reported, resulting in 16,795 deaths and 9,183 injuries. The numbers of accidents and deaths, mortality rate and incidence of major accidents have declined in recent years. The mortality rate and incidence was 0.71 and 1.20 per 106 populations in 2012, respectively. Transportation and mining contributed to the highest number of major accidents and deaths. Major aviation and railway accidents caused more casualties per incident, while collapse, machinery, electrical shock accidents and tailing dam accidents were the most severe situation that resulted in bigger proportion of death. Conclusion: Ten years’ major work safety accident data indicate that the frequency of accidents and number of eaths was declined and several safety concerns persist in some segments. PMID:27057515

  15. Accident report 1975/76

    The statistics previously published on the development of accidents were completed. It is the purpose of this accident report: 1) to present a survey of the development of the number of accidents (no radiation accidents) for the years 1960 - 1976, 2) to break down the accidents by different characteristics in order to be able to recognize the preventive measures to be taken so as to avoid further accidents, 3) to report about accidents experienced and to indicate activities performed with respect to accident prevention and health protection. (orig.)

  16. Thyroid blocking after nuclear accidents

    Following the Chernobyl accident a marked increase in thyroid cancer incidence among the children in Belarus, the Ukraine and Russia has been detected, strongly suggesting a causal relationship to the large amounts of radioactive iodine isotopes in the resulting fallout. Taking into account the Chernobyl experience the German Committee on Radiation Protection decided to reduce the intervention levels on the basis of the 1989 WHO recommendations and adopted a new concept concerning thyroid blocking in response to nuclear power plant accidents. Experimental animal studies and theoretical considerations show that thyroid blocking with potassium iodide (KI) in a dose of about 1.4 mg per kg body weight is most effective in reducing irradiation to the thyroid from the intake of radioiodine nuclides, provided KI is given within 2 hours after exposure. According to the new concept, persons over 45 years of age should not take iodine tablets because the drug could cause a greater health risk due to prevalent functional thyroid autonomy in this age group than the radioactive iodine averted by KI. On the basis of accident analysis and the new philosophy suitable distribution strategies and logistics are proposed and discussed. (orig.)

  17. Database on aircraft accidents

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating

  18. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. PMID:20618386

  19. Management of severe accidents

    The definition and the multidimensionality aspects of accident management have been reviewed. The suggested elements in the development of a programme for severe accident management have been identified and discussed. The strategies concentrate on the two tiered approaches. Operative management utilizes the plant's equipment and operators capabilities. The recovery managment concevtrates on preserving the containment, or delaying its failure, inhibiting the release, and on strategies once there has been a release. The inspiration for this paper was an excellent overview report on perspectives on managing severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants and extending plant operating procedures into the severe accident regime; and by the most recent publication of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) considering the question of risk reduction and source term reduction through accident prevention, management and mitigation. The latter document concludes that 'active development of accident management measures by plant personnel can lead to very large reductions in source terms and risk', and goes further in considering and formulating the key issue: 'The most fruitful path to follow in reducing risk even further is through the planning of accident management.' (author)

  20. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  1. Accidents, risks and consequences

    Although the accident at Chernobyl can be considered as the worst accident in the world, it could have been worse. Other far worse situations are considered, such as a nuclear weapon hitting a nuclear reactor. Indeed the accident at Chernobyl is compared to a nuclear weapon. The consequences of Chernobyl in terms of radiation levels are discussed. Although it is believed that a similar accident could not occur in the United Kingdom, that possibility is considered. It is suggested that emergency plans should be made for just such an eventuality. Even if Chernobyl could not happen in the UK, the effects of accidents are international. The way in which nuclear reactor accidents happen is explored, taking the 1957 Windscale fire, Three Mile Island and Chernobyl as examples. Reactor designs and accident scenarios are considered. The different reactor designs are listed. As well as the Chernobyl RBMK design it is suggested that the light water reactors also have undesirable features from the point of view of safety. (U.K.)

  2. 高盐度对突发重金属污染水源水应急处理的影响研究%Influence of high salinity on emergency treatment of sudden drinking water source pollution accident caused by heavy metals

    刘雷斌; 刘文君

    2011-01-01

    In view of the fact that the drinking water in coastal cities is affected by salt tide, the feasibility of the technologies for emergency treatment of sudden water pollution accident caused by heavy metals as well as the influence of high salinity on those technologies were discussed. The test results showed that, the lead,cadmium and nickel which caused the sudden water pollution accident could be effectively removed through adjusting pH value and enhancing coagulation; and the sudden water pollution of chromium and arsenic could be effectively controlled by Fe2+ reduction-molysite coagulation precipitation process and NaClO oxidation-molysite coagulation precipitation process respectively. It could be seen that, high salinity had little influence on the technologies for emergency treatment of sudden water pollution accident caused by heavy metals.%针对沿海城市饮用水受咸潮影响的实际情况,探讨突发重金属污染的应急处理技术的可行性及高盐度对该技术的影响,试验结果表明,调节pH值-强化混凝可以有效控制突发的铅、镉、镍污染;亚铁还原(六价铬为三价铬)-铁盐混凝法可以有效控制突发的铬污染;NaClO氧化(三价砷为五价砷)-铁盐混凝法可以有效控制突发的砷污染;高盐度对突发重金属污染应急处理技术的影响很小.

  3. Radiological accidents, scenarios, planning and answers

    Radiological accidents, scenarios and the importance of a good planning to prevent and control these types of accidents are presented. The radiation can be only one of the risks in an accident, most of dominant radiological risks are not radiological (fire, toxic gases, etc.). The common causes of radiological accidents, potential risks such as external irradiation, internal contamination and the environment pollution are highlighted. In addition, why accidents happen and how they evolve is explained. It describes some incidents with the radiation occurred in Costa Rica from 1993 to 2007. The coordination of emergency management in Costa Rica in relation to a radiological accident, and some mechanisms of action that have practiced in other places are focuses. Among the final considerations are the need to finalize the national plan for radiological emergencies as a tool of empowerment for the teams of emergency care and the availability of information. Likewise the processes of communication, coordination and cooperation to avoid chaos, confusion and crisis are also highlighted

  4. President's Commission and the normal accident

    This chapter incorporates the major points of an analysis of the accident at Three Mile Island that I prepared in September 1979. In contrast to the findings of the President's Commission (1979), I did not view the accident as the result of operator error, an inept utility, or a negligent Nuclear Regulatory Commission but as a consequence of the complexity and interdependence that characterize the system itself. I argued that the accident was inevitable-that is, that it could not have been prevented, foreseen, or quickly terminated, because it was incomprehensible. It resembled other accidents in nuclear plants and in other high risk, complex and highly interdependent operator-machine systems; none of the accidents were caused by management or operator ineptness or by poor government regulation, though these characteristics existed and should have been expected. I maintained that the accident was normal, because in complex systems there are bound to be multiple faults that cannot be avoided by planning and that operators cannot immediately comprehend

  5. Elements to diminish radioactive accidents

    In this work it is presented an application of the cause-effect diagram method or Ichikawa method identifying the elements that allow to diminish accidents when the radioactive materials are transported. It is considered the transport of hazardous materials which include radioactive materials in the period: December 1996 until March 1997. Among the identified elements by this method it is possible to mention: the road type, the radioactive source protection, the grade driver responsibility and the preparation that the OEP has in the radioactive material management. It is showed the differences found between the country inner roads and the Mexico City area. (Author)

  6. Industrial Safety and Accidents Prevention

    Accident Hazards, dangers, losses and risk are what we would to like to eliminate, minimize or avoid in industry. Modern industries have created many opportunities for these against which man's primitive instincts offer no protection. In today's complex industrial environment safety has become major preoccupation, especially after the realization that there is a clear economic incentive to do so. Industrial hazards may cause by human error or by physical or mechanical malfunction, it is very often possible to eliminate the worst consequences of human error by engineering modification. But the modification also needs checking very thoroughly to ensue that it has not introduced some new and unsuspected hazard. (author)

  7. Chernobyl accident and health: end of first tenth anniversary

    Materials on medical and social-psychological aspects, caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident are presented. Comparative evaluation of the morbidity cases, frequency of tumor formation, mortality among the accident liquidators and the public of various age in the Ukraine, Belarus and Russian Federation is given

  8. Zagreb and Tenerife: Airline Accidents Involving Linguistic Factors

    Cookson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is currently implementing a program to improve the language proficiency of pilots and air traffic controllers worldwide. In justifying the program, ICAO has cited a number of airline accidents that were at least partly caused by language factors. Two accidents cited by ICAO are analysed in this…

  9. Accidents Preventive Practice for High-Rise Construction

    Goh Kai Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand of high-rise projects continues to grow due to the reducing of usable land area in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The rapidly development of high-rise projects has leaded to the rise of fatalities and accidents. An accident that happened in a construction site can cause serious physical injury. The accidents such as people falling from height and struck by falling object were the most frequent accidents happened in Malaysian construction industry. The continuous growth of high-rise buildings indicates that there is a need of an effective safety and health management. Hence, this research aims to identify the causes of accidents and the ways to prevent accidents that occur at high-rise building construction site. Qualitative method was employed in this research. Interview surveying with safety officers who are involved in highrise building project in Kuala Lumpur were conducted in this research. Accidents were caused by man-made factors, environment factors or machinery factors. The accidents prevention methods were provide sufficient Personal Protective Equipment (PPE, have a good housekeeping, execute safety inspection, provide safety training and execute accidents investigation. In the meanwhile, interviewees have suggested the new prevention methods that were develop a proper site layout planning and de-merit and merit system among sub-contractors, suppliers and even employees regarding safety at workplace matters. This research helps in explaining the causes of accidents and identifying area where prevention action should be implemented, so that workers and top management will increase awareness in preventing site accidents.

  10. Accidents on ships in the Danish International Ship register

    Ádám, Balázs; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

    our study is to describe trend of accidents and their contributing factors, with special focus on nationality, occurring in ships under Danish flag in the period 2010-2012. The study used two independent data sources, the Danish Maritime Authority and the Danish Radio Medical. It is mandatory to...... report accidents causing at least one day off work beyond the day of accident but the first source contains several accidents not fulfilling this criterion, too. Radio Medical is an independent service where all Danish ships may seek medical advice. The data sets were merged by identification number to...... create a single database that has been studied by descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Findings show a stabilised number of accidents in the analysed period. The occurrence of accidents is influenced by nationality. There is a higher frequency of reported injuries found among Danish and other...

  11. Soviet submarine accidents

    Although the Soviet Union has more submarines than the NATO navies combined, and the technological superiority of western submarines is diminishing, there is evidence that there are more accidents with Soviet submarines than with western submarine fleets. Whether this is due to inadequate crews or lower standards of maintenance and overhaul procedures is discussed. In particular, it is suggested that since the introduction of nuclear powered submarines, the Soviet submarine safety record has deteriorated. Information on Soviet submarine accidents is difficult to come by, but a list of some 23 accidents, mostly in nuclear submarines, between 1966 and 1986, has been compiled. The approximate date, class or type of submarine, the nature and location of the accident, the casualties and damage and the source of information are tabulated. (U.K.)

  12. Accident resistant transport container

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  13. Boating Accident Statistics

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  14. Development of Database for Accident Analysis in Indian Mines

    Tripathy, Debi Prasad; Guru Raghavendra Reddy, K.

    2015-08-01

    Mining is a hazardous industry and high accident rates associated with underground mining is a cause of deep concern. Technological developments notwithstanding, rate of fatal accidents and reportable incidents have not shown corresponding levels of decline. This paper argues that adoption of appropriate safety standards by both mine management and the government may result in appreciable reduction in accident frequency. This can be achieved by using the technology in improving the working conditions, sensitising workers and managers about causes and prevention of accidents. Inputs required for a detailed analysis of an accident include information on location, time, type, cost of accident, victim, nature of injury, personal and environmental factors etc. Such information can be generated from data available in the standard coded accident report form. This paper presents a web based application for accident analysis in Indian mines during 2001-2013. An accident database (SafeStat) prototype based on Intranet of the TCP/IP agreement, as developed by the authors, is also discussed.

  15. FATAL ACCIDENT REPORTING SYSTEM (FARS)

    The Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) database consist of three relational tables, containing data on automobile accidents on public U.S. roads that resulted in the death of one or more people within 30 days of the accident. Truck and trailer accidents are also included.

  16. The Chernobyl accident

    In connection with the Chernobyl accident the report gives a description of the technical features of importance to the accident, the course of events, and the estimated health hazards in the local environment. Dissimilarities in western and Sovjet reactor safety philosophy are dealt with, as well as conceivable concequences in relation to technology and research in western nuclear power programmes. Results of activity level measurements of air and foodstuff, made in Norway by Institute for Energy Technology, are given

  17. Accident and emergency management

    There is an increasing potential for severe accidents as the industrial development tends towards large, centralised production units. In several industries this has led to the formation of large organisations which are prepared for accidents fighting and for emergency management. The functioning of these organisations critically depends upon efficient decision making and exchange of information. This project is aimed at securing and possibly improving the functionality and efficiency of the accident and emergency management by verifying, demonstrating, and validating the possible use of advanced information technology in the organisations mentioned above. With the nuclear industry in focus the project consists of five main activities: 1) The study and detailed analysis of accident and emergency scenarios based on records from incidents and rills in nuclear installations. 2) Development of a conceptual understanding of accident and emergency management with emphasis on distributed decision making, information flow, and control structure sthat are involved. 3) Development of a general experimental methodology for evaluating the effects of different kinds of decision aids and forms of organisation for emergency management systems with distributed decision making. 4) Development and test of a prototype system for a limited part of an accident and emergency organisation to demonstrate the potential use of computer and communication systems, data-base and knowledge base technology, and applications of expert systems and methods used in artificial intelligence. 5) Production of guidelines for the introduction of advanced information technology in the organisations based on evaluation and validation of the prototype system. (author)

  18. Accident management information needs

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Radiation accidents and defence of population

    Full text: Development of nuclear physics, the fundamental and the applied researches in the field of radioactive insured wide possibility for application of radionuclides and ionizing radiation source in the different fields of national economy. Application of radionuclides in chemical, metallurgical, food industry, in agriculture and etc. Fields provide a large economic profit. It's hard to apprise significance of ionizing radiation source using in medicine for diagnostics and treatment of different disease. Nuclear power engineering and nuclear industry are developing intensively. At same time nuclear power, ionizing radiation sources incur potential treat for surroundings and health of population. As even that stage of protective measure development: there is no possibility of that happening of radiation accidents. A radiation accident qualifies as loss of ionizing radiation sources direction, which provoked by disrepair equipment, natural calamity or other causes which could bring to unplanned irradiation of population or radioactive pollution of surroundings. At present some following typical cases connected with radiation accident have been chosen: Contentious using or keeping of ionizing radiation source with breach of established requires; Loss, theft of ionizing radiation sources or radiation plants, instruments; Leaving the sources of ionizing radiation in the holes; Refusal radiation technic exploited in industry, medicine, SRI and etc; Disrepair in nuclear transport means of conveyance; Crashes and accidents at NPP and at other enterprises of nuclear industry. The radiation accidents according to character, degree and scales have been divided into two groups: Radiation accidents not connected with NPP; Accidents in the nuclear engineering and industry; The radiation accidents not connected with NPP according their consequence divide into 5 groups; accidents which do not come to irradiation of personal, persons from population (more PN-permissible norm

  20. Occupational accidents: a perspective of pakistan construction industry

    It has been observed that the construction industry is one of the notorious industry having higher rate of facilities and injuries. Resulting in higher financial losses and work hour losses, which are normally faced by this industry due to occupational accidents. Construction industry has the highest occupational accidents rate recorded throughout the world after agriculture industry. The construction work site is often a busy place having an incredibly high account of activities taking place, where everyone is moving in frenzy having particular task assigned. In such an environment, occupational accidents do occur. This paper gives information about different types of occupational accidents and their causes in the construction industry of Pakistan. A survey has been carried out to identify the types of occupational accidents often occur at construction site. The impact of each occupational accident has also been identified. The input from the different stakeholders involved on the work site was analyzed using RIW (Relative Importance Weight) method. The findings of this research show that fall from elevation, electrocution from building power and snake bite are the frequent occupational accidents occur within the work site where as fall from elevation, struck by, snake bite and electrocution from faulty tool are the occupational accident with high impact within the construction industry of Pakistan. The results also shows the final ranking of the accidents based on higher frequency and higher impact. Poor Management, Human Element and Poor Site Condition are found as the root causes leading to such occupational accidents. Hence, this paper identify that what type of occupational accidents occur at the work place in construction industry of pakistan, in order to develop the corrective actions which should be adequate enough to prevent the re-occurrence of such accidents at work site. (author)

  1. Historical aspects of radiation accidents

    Radiation accidents are extremely rare events; however, the last two years have witnessed the largest radiation accidents in both the eastern and western hemispheres. It is the purpose of this chapter to review how radiation accidents are categorized, examine the temporal changes in frequency and severity, give illustrative examples of several types of radiation accidents, and finally, to describe the various registries for radiation accidents

  2. Cyclical Fluctuations in Workplace Accidents

    Boone, J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    This Paper presents a theory and an empirical investigation on cyclical fluctuations in workplace accidents. The theory is based on the idea that reporting an accident dents the reputation of a worker and raises the probability that he is fired. Therefore a country with a high or an increasing unemployment rate has a low (reported) workplace accident rate. The empirical investigation concerns workplace accidents in OECD countries. The analysis confirms that workplace accident rates are invers...

  3. Occupational accidents with mowing machines in Austrian agriculture.

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2015-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents during agricultural work is still very high in Austria. In the years 2008 to 2009, there occurred 84 approved work accidents with mowing machines. The main causes of accidents were the loss of control of machines, transportations or conveyances, hand tools, objects or animals. In the literature, numerous studies of general agricultural and forestry accident situations are available. Detailed studies on specific types of agricultural machines, which describe concrete circumstances and causes of accidents, are in limited numbers. The accident database from the General Accident Insurance Institution and the Austrian Social Insurance Institution of Farmers, with personal and accidental data information about mowing machine accidents, were analyzed. The results showed that most accidents occurred on mixed agricultural farms (68%). The majority of the injured persons were male (86%), over 40-years-old (86%) with an agricultural or forestry education (91%). The most common accidents occurred in the summer months (69%) and on afternoons during the working week (79%). The majority of accidents were caused by contact with the machine (55%) and the loss of control (73%) during their operation (60%) and harvesting work (63%). The most frequently injuries were wounds, fractures and superficial injuries (81%) to the upper and lower extremities (66%). The results of the chi-square test showed significant correlations between the specific task with the form of contact, the working process, the day and season. Results of the odds ratio determination showed an increased risk of suffering serious injury for men in the first half of the year and half of the day due to loss of control over the machine during agricultural harvesting work. PMID:25780843

  4. Occupational accidents with mowing machines in Austrian agriculture

    Robert Kogler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of recognized accidents during agricultural work is still very high in Austria. In the years 2008 to 2009, there occurred 84 approved work accidents with mowing machines. The main causes of accidents were the loss of control of machines, transportations or conveyances, hand tools, objects or animals. In the literature, numerous studies of general agricultural and forestry accident situations are available. Detailed studies on specific types of agricultural machines, which describe concrete circumstances and causes of accidents, are in limited numbers. The accident database from the General Accident Insurance Institution and the Austrian Social Insurance Institution of Farmers, with personal and accidental data information about mowing machine accidents, were analyzed. The results showed that most accidents occurred on mixed agricultural farms (68%. The majority of the injured persons were male (86%, over 40-years-old (86% with an agricultural or forestry education (91%. The most common accidents occurred in the summer months (69% and on afternoons during the working week (79%. The majority of accidents were caused by contact with the machine (55% and the loss of control (73% during their operation (60% and harvesting work (63%. The most frequently injuries were wounds, fractures and superficial injuries (81% to the upper and lower extremities (66%. The results of the chi-square test showed significant correlations between the specific task with the form of contact, the working process, the day and season. Results of the odds ratio determination showed an increased risk of suffering serious injury for men in the first half of the year and half of the day due to loss of control over the machine during agricultural harvesting work.

  5. A case study of electrostatic accidents in the process of oil-gas storage and transportation

    Ninety nine electrostatic accidents were reviewed, based on information collected from published literature. All the accidents over the last 30 years occurred during the process of oil-gas storage and transportation. Statistical analysis of these accidents was performed based on the type of complex conditions where accidents occurred, type of tanks and contents, and type of accidents. It is shown that about 85% of the accidents occurred in tank farms, gas stations or petroleum refineries, and 96% of the accidents included fire or explosion. The fishbone diagram was used to summarize the effects and the causes of the effects. The results show that three major reasons were responsible for accidents, including improper operation during loading and unloading oil, poor grounding and static electricity on human bodies, which accounted for 29%, 24% and 13% of the accidents, respectively. Safety actions are suggested to help operating engineers to handle similar situations in the future.

  6. A case study of electrostatic accidents in the process of oil-gas storage and transportation

    Hu, Yuqin; Wang, Diansheng; Liu, Jinyu; Gao, Jianshen

    2013-03-01

    Ninety nine electrostatic accidents were reviewed, based on information collected from published literature. All the accidents over the last 30 years occurred during the process of oil-gas storage and transportation. Statistical analysis of these accidents was performed based on the type of complex conditions where accidents occurred, type of tanks and contents, and type of accidents. It is shown that about 85% of the accidents occurred in tank farms, gas stations or petroleum refineries, and 96% of the accidents included fire or explosion. The fishbone diagram was used to summarize the effects and the causes of the effects. The results show that three major reasons were responsible for accidents, including improper operation during loading and unloading oil, poor grounding and static electricity on human bodies, which accounted for 29%, 24% and 13% of the accidents, respectively. Safety actions are suggested to help operating engineers to handle similar situations in the future.

  7. Fukushima Accident: Was it preventable or unavoidable? - A sociological perspective

    Global renaissance of nuclear energy was widely predicted and accepted before the Fukushima accident of March 11, 2011. The prospects for nuclear energy now appear to face a turn-around point. Serious debates about the adequacy of nuclear power utilization and safety regulation are underway in many national and/or international settings. Many investigations and analyses have been and will be conducted to identify the causes and consequences and to seek lessons to be taken into account in their own nuclear power programs. These efforts evidently will contribute to preventing accidents caused by such extreme damage conditions as Fukushima desperately encountered. But, in order to discuss the future of nuclear energy, new approach to the nature of the accident needs to be sought rather than the usual and conventional way of viewing the accidents with the benefit of hindsight. This paper examines institutional and sociological aspects of Fukushima accident to get some clues as to whether it was preventable or unavoidable

  8. Consequences and problems of the Chernobyl accident

    The data on epidemic situation in connection with the Chernobyl accident, based on the personal medical and dosimetric information on all the persons, subjected to radiation effect, and included in the Russian state medicodosimetric register, are presented. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident become the cause for origination of serious radiation injures by 134 persons (with lethal outcome by 37 patients) and also remote radiation stochastic effects by children (thyroid gland cancer) and by liquidators (thyroid gland leucosis and cancer). The permanent stress and other unfavorable factors conditioned aggravation of chronical and increase in somatic diseases and psychoneurotic disorders

  9. [Psychogenesis of accidents].

    Giannattasio, E; Nencini, R; Nicolosi, N

    1988-01-01

    After having carried out a historical review of industrial psychology with specific attention to the evolution of the concept of causality in accidents, the Authors formulate their work hypothesis from that research which take into highest consideration the executives' attitudes in the genesis of the accidents. As dogmatism appears to be one of the most negative of executives' attitudes, the Authors administered Rockeach's Scale to 130 intermediate executives from 6 industries in Latium and observed the frequency index for accidents and the morbidity index (absenteeism) of the 2149 workhand. The Authors assumed that to high degree of dogmatism on the executives' side should correspond o a higher level of accidents and absenteeism among the staff. The data processing revealed that, due to the type of machinery employed, three of the industries examined should be considered as High Risk Industrie (HRI), while the remaining three could be considered as Low Risk Industries (LRI): in fact, due to the different working conditions, a significant lower number of accidents occurred in last the three. A statistically significant correlation between the executives' dogmatism and the number of accidents among their workhand in the HRI has been noticed, while this has not been observed in the LRI. This confirms, as had already been pointed out by Gemelli in 1944, that some "objective conditions" are requested so that the accident may actually take place. On the other hand the morbidity index has not shown any difference related to the different kind of industries (HRI, LRI): in both cases statistically significant correlations were obtained between the executives' dogmatism and the staff's absenteeism. absenteeism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3154344

  10. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  11. Accidents in nuclear ships

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10-3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  12. Unusual presentation of tuberculosis to the accident and emergency department.

    Jones, K E; McLauchlan, C A

    1995-01-01

    A patient with localized, reactive tendinitis secondary to tuberculosis presented to the accident and emergency (A&E) department. Tendinitis is a relatively common complaint, and it is important to consider uncommon systemic causes, including tuberculosis.

  13. Vulvovaginitis: causes and management.

    Pierce, A M; Hart, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Over a period of 33 months in a paediatric accident and emergency department, the clinical pattern and possible causes of vulvovaginitis were studied prospectively in 200 girls presenting with genital discharge, irritation, pain, or redness. The major causes were poor hygiene and threadworms. The suspicion of sexual abuse arose in a few girls but no organisms of sexually transmitted disease were found. Urinary symptoms were common but only 20 patients had a significant bacteriuria and 40 had ...

  14. Severe accident management. Optimized guidelines and strategies

    The highest priority for mitigating the consequences of a severe accident with core melt lies in securing containment integrity, as this represents the last barrier against fission product release to the environment. Containment integrity is endangered by several physical phenomena, especially highly transient phenomena following high-pressure reactor pressure vessel failure (like direct containment heating or steam explosions which can lead to early containment failure), hydrogen combustion, quasi-static over-pressure, temperature failure of penetrations, and basemat penetration by core melt. Each of these challenges can be counteracted by dedicated severe accident mitigation hardware, like dedicated primary circuit depressurization valves, hydrogen recombiners or igniters, filtered containment venting, containment cooling systems, and core melt stabilization systems (if available). However, besides their main safety function these systems often have also secondary effects that need to be considered. Filtered containment venting causes (though limited) fission product release into the environment, primary circuit depressurization leads to loss of coolant, and an ex-vessel core melt stabilization system as well as hydrogen igniters can generate high pressure and temperature loads on the containment. To ensure that during a severe accident any available systems are used to their full beneficial extent while minimizing their potential negative impact, AREVA has implemented a severe accident management for German nuclear power plants. This concept makes use of extensive numerical simulations of the entire plant, quantifying the impact of system activations (operational systems, safety systems, as well as dedicated severe accident systems) on the accident progression for various scenarios. Based on the knowledge gained, a handbook has been developed, allowing the plant operators to understand the current state of the plant (supported by computational aids), to predict

  15. Scoping accident(s) for emergency planning

    At the request of the Conference of State Radiation Control Program Director's (CRCPD), in November 1976 the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission formed a joint Task Force with representatives of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to answer a number of questions posed by the States regarding emergency planning. This Task Force held monthly meetings through November 1977. In December 1977 a draft report was prepared for limited distribution for review and comment by selected State and local organizations. The NRC/EPA Task Force deliberations centered on the CRCPD request for '... a determination of the most severe accident basis for which radiological emergency response plans should be developed by offsite agencies...' in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. Federal Interagency guidance to the States in this regard has been that the scoping accident should be the most serious conservatively analyzed accident considered for siting purposes, as exemplified in the Commission's Regulations at 10 CFR Part 100 and the NRC staffs Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4, and as presented in license applicant's Safety Analysis Reports and the USNRC Staffs Safety Evaluation Reports. The draft report of the Task Force amplifies on this recommendation: to present a clearer picture of its import and introduces the concept of protective action zones (PAZs) within which detailed emergency plans should be developed; one zone for the plume exposure pathway and a second, larger zone for contamination pathways. The time dependence of potential releases and atmospheric transport, and important radionuclide groups of possible import are also discussed in the draft Task Force report. A status report regarding this effort, as of June 1978, will be presented. (author)

  16. BY USING BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY AUTOMATIC VEHICLE ACCIDENT DETECTION & LOCALIZATION OF AUTOMOBILE

    Nitin Thakre; Nitin Raut; Shyam Dubey; Abdulla Shaikh

    2014-01-01

    Traffic accidents are one of the leading causes of fatalities in the world. An important indicator of survival rates after an accident is the time between the accident and when emergency medical personnel are dispatched to the location. Eliminating the time between when an accident occurs and when first responders are dispatched to the location decreases mortality rates by 6%. We propose an Android based application that location of the vehicle through an positive detectio...

  17. Analysis of National Major Work Safety Accidents in China, 2003–2012

    YE, Yunfeng; ZHANG, Siheng; RAO, Jiaming; Wang, Haiqing; LI Yang; Wang, Shengyong; DONG, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study provides a national profile of major work safety accidents in China, which cause more than 10 fatalities per accident, intended to provide scientific basis for prevention measures and strategies to reduce major work safety accidents and deaths.Methods: Data from 2003-2012 Census of major work safety accidents were collected from State Administration of Work Safety System (SAWS). Published literature and statistical yearbook were also included to implement information. W...

  18. Role of the primary health care team in preventing accidents to children.

    Kendrick, D

    1994-01-01

    Accidents are the most common cause of mortality in children and account for considerable childhood morbidity. The identification of risk factors for childhood accidents suggests that many are predictable and therefore preventable. Numerous interventions have been found to be effective in reducing the morbidity and mortality from childhood accidents. The scope for accident prevention within the primary care setting and the roles of the members of the primary health care team are discussed. Fi...

  19. The bismuth burden - a challenge for the accident insurance (Berufsgenossenschaften)

    The Soviet-German Bismuth AG was a state within a state in the former GDR. Uranium mining not only caused great ecological burdens but also gave rise to many problems for the accident insurance. Occupational diseases are of course, very important in the context of malignous growth caused by ionised radiation. The accident insurances (Berufsgenossenschaften) recognised the size of this unique problem and have initiated measures towards its solution. (orig.)

  20. A Review of Criticality Accidents 2000 Revision

    Thomas P. McLaughlin; Shean P. Monahan; Norman L. Pruvost; Vladimir V. Frolov; Boris G. Ryazanov; Victor I. Sviridov

    2000-05-01

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Sixty accidental power excursions are reviewed. Sufficient detail is provided to enable the reader to understand the physical situation, the chemistry and material flow, and when available the administrative setting leading up to the time of the accident. Information on the power history, energy release, consequences, and causes are also included when available. For those accidents that occurred in process plants, two new sections have been included in this revision. The first is an analysis and summary of the physical and neutronic features of the chain reacting systems. The second is a compilation of observations and lessons learned. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this report.

  1. A Review of Criticality Accidents 2000 Revision

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Sixty accidental power excursions are reviewed. Sufficient detail is provided to enable the reader to understand the physical situation, the chemistry and material flow, and when available the administrative setting leading up to the time of the accident. Information on the power history, energy release, consequences, and causes are also included when available. For those accidents that occurred in process plants, two new sections have been included in this revision. The first is an analysis and summary of the physical and neutronic features of the chain reacting systems. The second is a compilation of observations and lessons learned. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this report

  2. Important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident

    After the Fukushima accident several investigation committees issued reports with lessons learned from the accident in Japan. Among those lessons, several recommendations have been made on severe accident research. Similar to the EURSAFE efforts under EU Program, review of specific severe accident research items was started before Fukushima accident in working group of Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) in terms of significance of consequences, uncertainties of phenomena and maturity of assessment methodology. Re-investigation has been started since the Fukushima accident. Additional effects of Fukushima accident, such as core degradation behaviors, sea water injection, containment failure/leakage and re-criticality have been covered. The review results are categorized in ten major fields; core degradation behavior, core melt coolability/retention in containment vessel, function of containment vessel, source term, hydrogen behavior, fuel-coolant interaction, molten core concrete interaction, direct containment heating, recriticality and instrumentation in severe accident conditions. Based on these activities and also author's personal view, the present paper describes the perspective of important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident. Those are specifically investigation of damaged core and components, advanced severe accident analysis capabilities and associated experimental investigations, development of reliable passive cooling system for core/containment, analysis of hydrogen behavior and investigation of hydrogen measures, enhancement of removal function of radioactive materials of containment venting, advanced instrumentation for the diagnosis of severe accident and assessment of advanced containment design which excludes long-term evacuation in any severe accident situations. (author)

  3. Biological and medical consequences of nuclear accidents

    The study of the medical and biological consequences of the nuclear accidents is a vast program. The Chernobyl accident has caused some thirty deceases: Some of them were rapid and the others occurred after a certain time. The particularity of these deaths was that the irradiation has been associated to burns and traumatisms. The lesson learnt from the Chernobyl accident is to treat the burn and the traumatism before treating the irradiation. Contrary to what the research workers believe, the first wave of deaths has passed between 15 and 35 days and it has not been followed by any others. But the therapeutic lesson drawn from the accident confirm the research workers results; for example: the radioactive doses band that determines where the therapy could be efficacious or not. the medical cares dispensed to the irradiated people in the hospital of Moscow has confirmed that the biochemical equilibrium of proteinic elements of blood has to be maintained, and the transfusion of the purified elements are very important to restore a patient to health, and the sterilization of the medium (room, food, bedding,etc...) of the patient is indispensable. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an international cooperation for providing enough sterilized rooms and specialists in the irradiation treatment. The genetic consequences and cancers from the Chernobyl accident have been discussed. It is impossible to detect these consequences because of their negligible percentages. (author)

  4. NASA Medical Response to Human Spacecraft Accidents

    Patlach, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's role in the response to spacecraft accidents that involve human fatalities or injuries. Particular attention is given to the work of the Mishap Investigation Team (MIT), the first response to the accidents and the interface to the accident investigation board. The MIT does not investigate the accident, but the objective of the MIT is to gather, guard, preserve and document the evidence. The primary medical objectives of the MIT is to receive, analyze, identify, and transport human remains, provide assistance in the recovery effort, and to provide family Casualty Coordinators with latest recovery information. The MIT while it does not determine the cause of the accident, it acts as the fact gathering arm of the Mishap Investigation Board (MIB), which when it is activated may chose to continue to use the MIT as its field investigation resource. The MIT membership and the specific responsibilities and tasks of the flight surgeon is reviewed. The current law establishing the process is also reviewed.

  5. Health consequences [of the Chernobyl accident

    The World Health Organisation Conference on the Health Consequences of the Chernobyl and Other Radiological Accidents, held in Geneva last November, is reported. The lack of representation from the civil nuclear industry led often to one-sided debates instigated by the anti-nuclear lobbies present. Thyroid cancer in children as a result of the Chernobyl accident received particular attention. In Belarus, 400 cases have been noted, 220 in Ukraine and 60 in the Russian Federation. All have been treated with a high degree of success. The incidence of this cancer would be expected to follow the fallout path as the main exposure route was ingestion of contaminated foods and milk products. It was noted that the only way to confirm causality was if those children born since the accident failed to show the same increased incidence. Explanations were offered for the particular susceptibility of children to thyroid cancer following exposure to radiation. Another significant cause of concern was the health consequences to clean-up workers in radiological accidents. The main factor is psychological problems from the stress of knowing that they have received high radiation doses. A dramatic increase in psychological disorders has occurred in the Ukraine over the past ten years and this is attributed to stress generated by the Chernobyl accident, compounded by the inadequacy of the public advice offered at the time and the socio-economic uncertainties accompanying the breakup of the former USSR. (UK)

  6. Information at radiation accidents

    This study was undertaken in order to plan an information strategy for possible future accidents involving radioactivity. Six health visitors and six farmers working in the districts of Norway which received the largest amounts of fallout from the Chernobyl accident, were interviewed. The questions were intended to give an indication of their knowledge about radioactivity and radiation, as well as their needs for information in case of a future accident. The results indicate a relatively low educational background in radiation physics and risk estimation. On the other hand the two groups showed a remarkable skill and interest in doing their own evaluation on the background of information that was linked to their daily life. It is suggested that planning of information in this field is done in close cooperation with the potential users of the information

  7. Radiation accidents and dosimetry

    On September 2nd 1982 one of the employees of the gamma-irradiation facility at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway entered the irradiation cell with a 65.7 kCi *sp60*Co- source in unshielded position. The victim received an unknown radiation dose and died after 13 days. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy, the radiation dose in this accident was subsequently determined based on the production of longlived free radicals in nitroglycerol tablets borne by the operator during the accident. He used nitroglycerol for heart problems and free radical are easily formed and trapped in sugar which is the main component of the tablets. Calibration experiments were carried out and the dose given to the tablets during the accident was determined to 37.2 +- 0.5 Gy. The general use of free radicals for dose determinations is discussed. (Auth.)

  8. The management of accidents

    R. B. Ward

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This author’s experiences in investigating well over a hundred accident occurrences has led to questioning how such events can be managed - - - while immediately recognising that the idea of managing accidents is an oxymoron, we don’t want to manage them, we don’t want not to manage them, what we desire is not to have to manage not-them, that is, manage matters so they don’t happen and then we don’t have to manage the consequences.Design/methodology/approach: The research will begin by defining some common classes of accidents in manufacturing industry, with examples taken from cases investigated, and by working backwards (too late, of course show how those involved could have managed these sample events so they didn’t happen, finishing with the question whether any of that can be applied to other situations.Findings: As shown that the management actions needed to prevent accidents are control of design and application of technology, and control and integration of people.Research limitations/implications: This paper has shown in some of the examples provided, management actions have been know to lead to accidents being committed by others, lower in the organization.Originality/value: Today’s management activities involve, generally, the use of technology in many forms, varying from simple tools (such as knives to the use of heavy equipment, electric power, and explosives. Against these we commit, in control of those items, the comparatively frail human mind and body, which, again generally, does succeed in controlling these resources, with (another generality by appropriate management. However, sometimes the control slips and an accident occurs.

  9. The TMI-2 accident

    A critical study about the technical and man-related facts in order to establish what is considered the worst commercial nuclear power accident until 1986. Radiological consequences and stress to the public are considered in contrast to antinuclear groups. This descriptive and technical study has the purpose to document written and oral opinions obtained abroad and then explain to the public in an easy language terminology. Preliminary study describing safety related systems fails and the accident itself with minute to minute description, conduct to the consequences and then, to learned lessons

  10. Accidents caused by Bothrops and Bothropoides in the State of Paraiba: epidemiological and clinical aspects Acidentes causados por serpentes dos gêneros Bothrops e Bothropoides no Estado da Paraíba: aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos

    Fagner Neves Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bothrops and Bothropoides snakes cause 70% of the ophidic accidents in Brazil. The species that cause ophidic accidents in State of Paraíba are Bothropoides erythromelas, Bothrops leucurus and Bothropoides neuwiedi. METHODS: This is a prospective and transverse study, following a quantitative approach of accidents involving Bothrops and Bothropoides admitted to the Toxicological Assistance and Information Centers of Campina Grande and João Pessoa (Ceatox-CG and Ceatox-JP, aimed at identifying the epidemiological and clinical profile of such accidents. All of the patients admitted had medical diagnoses and were monitored at Ceatox-CG or Ceatox-JP. RESULTS: The genera Bothrops and Bothropoides caused 91.7% of the ophidic accidents reported. Snake bites were frequent in men (75.1%, rural workers (65.1%, literate individuals (69% between 11 and 20 years-old (21.7%, and toes the most common area attacked (52.7%. Most (86.6% patients were admitted within 6 hours after the accident/bite, with a predominance of mild cases (64.6%. The annual occurrence in Paraíba was 5.5 accidents/100,000 inhabitants and lethality was 0.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Positive changes in the profiles of these accidents were verified, such as the non-application of inadequate solutions, including the use of tourniquet, coffee grounds, garlic, suction and/or cutting the bitten area. Moreover, the Itinerant Laboratory project, linked to Paraíba State University in partnership with Ceatox-CG, has contributed positively, providing several cities of the state with information regarding the prevention of accidents involving venomous animals. The local press has also contributed, reporting the educational work developed by the centers.INTRODUÇÃO: As serpentes Bothrops e Bothropoides são responsáveis por 70% dos acidentes ofídicos ocorridos no Brasil. As espécies causadoras de acidentes na Paraíba são Bothropoides erythromelas, Bothrops leucurus e Bothropoides neuwiedi

  11. A methodology for the transfer of probabilities between accident severity categories

    Evaluation of the radiological risks of accidents involving vehicles transporting radioactive materials requires consideration of both accident probability and consequences. The probability that an accident will occur may be estimated from historical accident data for the given mode of transport. In addition to an overall accident rate, information regarding accident severity and the resulting package environments across the range of all credible accidents is needed to determine the potential for a release of radioactive material from the package or for an increase in direct radiation from the package caused by damage to packaging shielding. This information is usually obtained from a variety of sources such as historical data, experimental data, analyses of accident and package environments, and expert opinion. The consequences of an accident depend on a number of factors including the type, quantity, and physical form of radioactive material being transported; the response of the package to accident environments; the fraction of material released from the package; and the dispersion of any released material. One approach for the classification and treatment of transportation accidents in risk analysis divides the complete range of critical accident environments resulting from all credible accidents into some number of accident-severity categories. The types of accident environments that a package may be subjected to in transportation are often classified into the following five groups: impact, fire, crush, puncture, and immersion. A open-quotes criticalclose quotes accident environment is one of a type that could present a plausible threat to a package. Each severity category represents a portion of all credible accidents, and the total of all severity categories covers the complete range of critical accident environments. This approach is used in the risk assessment codes RADTRAN (Neuhauser and Kanipe 1992) and INTERTRAN (Ericsson and Elert 1983)

  12. Perspective on the nuclear power plant accident caused by the great east Japan earthquake and tsunami. Health impairment risks due to pollution by radioactive materials from the damaged plant as recognized by experts and by the general population and role of the experts

    Large amounts of radioactive materials were leaked into the environment from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) of the Tokyo Electric Power Company damaged by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and accompanying tsunami. Increased health impairment risks due to the leaked radioactive materials are of concern over a long period of time and over a wide geographical area. From the results of epidemiologic studies conducted after the Chernobyl accident, the health risks are not anticipated to be very marked. The purpose of the present study is to examine the elevated health risks as viewed by the general population, tolerance to the risks that the general population suffer from their viewpoint, and the overall picture as seen by researchers and experts in specialized areas of study after the accident. Information was obtained from articles in print and on the Internet and by interviewing a psychologist and tens of employees of several corporations. Epidemiologic studies conducted after the severe accident of the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl revealed an elevated risk of thyroid cancer in children due to 131I while elevated risks due to radioactive materials other than 131I were not detected. The amount of radioactive materials leaked into the environment from the FDNPP was less than that in Chernobyl. Therefore, it is possible to estimate that health impairment risks due to the leaked radioactive materials from the FDNPP are low. However, it is impossible to conclude a zero risk. It is likely that the general population does not fully understand the health impairment risks due to the leaked radioactive materials from the FDNPP. Although no increased incidences of diseases other than thyroid cancer of children were scientifically shown en masse from studies in Chernobyl, individual risks and results in the future caused by the severe accident of FDNPP cannot be denied. Much of the general population is apt to demand the security of a zero risk from

  13. Description of the accident

    The TMI-2 accident occurred in March 1979. The accident started with a simple and fairly common steam power plant failure--loss of feedwater to the steam generators. Because of a combination of design, training, regulatory policies, mechanical failures and human error, the accident progressed to the point where it eventually produced the worst known core damage in large nuclear power reactors. Core temperatures locally reached UO2 fuel liquefaction (metallic solution with Zr) and even fuel melt (3800-51000F). Extensive fission product release and Zircaloy cladding oxidation and embrittlement occurred. At least the upper 1/2 of the core fractured and crumbled upon quenching. The lower central portion of the core apparently had a delayed heatup and then portions of it collapsed into the reactor vessel lower head. The lower outer portion of the core may be relatively undamaged. Outside of the core boundary, only those steel components directly above and adjacent to the core (≤1 foot) are known to have suffered significant damage (localized oxidation and melting). Other portions of the primary system outside of the reactor vessel apparently had little chance of damage or even notable overheating. The demonstrated coolability of the severely damaged TMI-2 core, once adequate water injection began, was one of the most substantial and important results of the TMI-2 accident

  14. Fifteen years after accident

    This book is devoted to 15th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. Four problems have been reflected in the book: contamination of territories of Western Europe, Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation by cesium-137; plutonium, americium and other actinides on territory of Belarus; problems of radioactive wastes management of Chernobyl origin; influence of various factors on oncology morbidity in the Republic of Belarus

  15. Measures against nuclear accidents

    A select committee appointed by the Norwegian Ministry of Social Affairs put forward proposals concerning measures for the improvement of radiation protection preparedness in Norway. On the basis on an assessment of the potential radiation accident threat, the report examines the process of response, and identifies the organizational and management factors that influence that process

  16. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP)

  17. Statistical modelling of the frequency and severity of road accidents

    Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær

    reporting traffic accidents. The second questionnaire was administered to stakeholders in the transportation field and was made to detect strengths, threats and opportunities for reporting traffic accidents within the police. This Ph.D. study contributes significantly to the literature about under......Under-reporting of traffic accidents is a well-discussed subject in traffic safety and it is well-known that the degree of under-reporting of traffic accidents is quite high in many countries. Nevertheless, very little literature has been made to investigate what causes the high degree of under......-reporting. The problem of under-reporting is not unique for traffic accidents as severe under-reporting is a challenge in many other fields of incident reporting. In other incidents fields with intended or unintended harm, research has investigated the behavioural reasons for why people choose to report an...

  18. Storybuilder-A tool for the analysis of accident reports

    As part of an ongoing effort by the ministry of Social Affairs and Employment of The Netherlands a research project is being undertaken to construct a causal model for the most commonly occurring scenarios related to occupational risk. This model should provide quantitative insight in the causes and consequences of occupational accidents. The results should be used to help selecting optimal strategies to reduce these risks taking the costs of accidents and of measures into account. The research is undertaken by an international consortium under the name of Workgroup Occupational Risk Model. One of the components of the model is a tool to systematically classify and analyse past accidents. This tool: 'Storybuilder' and its place in the Occupational Risk Model (ORM) are described in the paper. The paper gives some illustrations of the application of the Storybuilder, drawn from the study of ladder accidents, which forms one of the biggest single accident categories in the Dutch data

  19. Investigation of accident management strategies for VVER-1000-Type reactors

    The goal of this work is the search for an optimal accident management strategy to prevent containment failure and to stop the core/concrete interaction from hindering cavity bottom melt-through on the one hand and from ending the ex-vessel source term increase on the other hand, i.e., to terminate the accident. The work is based on the results of previous studies of physical and chemical phenomena during different accident scenarios for VVER-1000-type reactors. For a TMLB' sequence (an accident caused by a transient in which core melt occurs because the electric power cannot be restored before the pressure vessel melts through), a number of calculations were performed using the source term code package (STCP) to investigate the influence of several accident management measures on the core/concrete interaction and the containment integrity

  20. The psychology of nuclear accidents

    Incidents involving nuclear weapons are described, as well as the accident to the Three Mile Island-2 reactor. Methods of assessment of risks are discussed, with particular reference to subjective judgements and the possible role of human error in civil nuclear accidents. Accidents or misunderstandings in communication or human actions which might lead to nuclear war are also discussed. (U.K.)

  1. Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Progress and reflection of the criticality accident in the uranium fuel processing plant

    As one year is already passing since forming of the JCO criticality accident, impact given by this accident was so large as to vibrate all of nuclear energy field. This accident was the first instantly forming criticality accident since beginning of peaceful use in nuclear energy in Japan, which formed some severe victims containing two dead and an experienced affair required for evacuation and shelter of the peripheral inhabitants. Direct cause of the instantly forming criticality accident in this accident is simple and clear, and is caused by failure in the most essential technology specific to nuclear energy called by criticality management. And that, it was caused not by instrument accident or human individual error but by recent exceptional blunder in and out of Japan at a point of direct reason on evil violation act due to management organization. And, for the response specific to the nuclear energy field, a drastic reinvestigation on safety filed, a drastic reinvestigation on safety regulation system is also required. On the other hand, in nuclear safety education requiring establishment of safety culture for its foundation, a reflection that it has remained only to moral action to bring a result to suppress power carrying out its practice inversely, was also recognized. And, it is necessary to carry out more efforts and devices for difficulty on management forecast in future in nuclear energy industry not so as to make a system of safety conservation weaker. (G.K.)

  2. Manifestations neuropsychiatriques révélant une hémorragie cérébro-méningée causée par un accident d’électrisation: à propos d'une observation et revue de la literature

    Bugeme, Marcellin; Mukuku, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Le courant électrique est susceptible de léser tout tissu de l'organisme rencontré lors de son passage, de manière transitoire ou définitive. Les hémorragies cérébro-méningées secondaires à un accident d’électrisation par courant électrique à haute tension sont très rarement rapportées dans la littérature. Nous rapportons un cas d'hémorragie cérébro-méningée révélée par des manifestations neuropsychiatriques causée par un AE par courant électrique à haute tension observée chez un enfant âgé d...

  3. Thyroid diseases after Chernobyl accident

    Radioactive iodine is released at every atomic-bomb testings and nuclear plants accidents and radioactive iodine is taken up by thyroid glands (internal radiation). In addition to the internal radiation, radioactive fallout causes the external radiation and thyroid glands are known to be sensitive to the external radiation. Furthermore, patients with radiation-induced thyroid disease can survive for a long time regardless of the treatment. The survey of thyroid diseases, therefore, is very sensitive and reliable ways to investigate the effects of radiation caused by atomic bomb explosion, testing and various types of nuclear plants' accidents. Our group from Nagasaki University was asked to investigate the thyroid diseases and jointed to the Sasakawa Project. In order to investigate the effects of radiation on thyroid disease, it is essential 1) to make a correct diagnosis in each subject, 2) to calculate a correct radiation dose in each subject and finally, 3) to find out the correlation between the radiation dose and thyroid diseases including age-, sex- and area-matched controls. We have established 5 centers (1 in Russia, 2 in Belarus, 2 in Ukraine) and supplied the most valuable ultrasonography instruments, commercial kits for the determination of serum free T4 and TSH level and for the autoantibodies, instrument for urinary iodine measurements, syringers, tubes, refrigerators, etc. We visit each center often and asked people at centers to come to Japan for training. Protocol of investigation is essentially the same as that in Nagasaki, and we are planning to investigate more than 50,000 children within 5 years. We are hoping to show a definite conclusion in the near future. Recent articles are also discussed. (author)

  4. Chernobyl reactor accident: medical management

    Chernobyl reactor accident on 26th April, 1986 is by far the worst radiation accident in the history of the nuclear industry. Nearly 500 plant personnel and rescue workers received doses varying from 1-16 Gy. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was seen only in the plant personnel. 499 individuals were screened for ARS symptoms like nausea, vomitting, diarrhoea and fever. Complete blood examination was done which showed initial granulocytosis followed by granulocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Cytogenetic examinations were confirmatory in classifying the patients on the basis of the doses received. Two hundred and thirty seven cases of ARS were hospitalised in the first 24-36 hrs. No member of general public suffered from ARS. There were two immediate deaths and subsequently 28 died in hospital and one of the cases died due to myocardial infarction, making a total of 31 deaths. The majority of fatal cases had whole body doses of about 6 Gy, besides extensive skin burns. Two cases of radiation burns had thermal burns also. Treatment of ARS consisted of isolation, barrier nursing, replacement therapy with fluid electrolytes, platelets and RBC transfusions and antibiotic therapy for bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Bone marrow transplantations were given to 13 cases out of which 11 died due to various causes. Radiation burns due to beta, gamma radiations were seen in 56 cases and treated with dressings, surgical excision, skin grafting and amputation. Oropharangeal syndrome, producing extensive mucous in the oropharynx, was first seen in Chernobyl. The patients were treated with saline wash of the mouth. The patients who had radioactive contamination due to radioactive iodine were given stable iodine, following wash with soap, water and monitored. Fourteen survivors died subsequently due to other causes. Late health effects seen so far include excess of thyroid cancer in the children and psychological disorders due to stress. No excess leukemia has been reported so

  5. Severe Accident Management Strategy for EU-APR1400

    In EU-APR1400, the dedicated instrumentation and mitigation features for SAM are being developed to keep the integrity of containment and to prevent the uncontrolled release of fission products. In this paper, SAM strategy for EU-APR1400 was introduced in stages. It is still under development and finally the Severe Accident Management Guidance will be completed based on this SAM Strategy. Severe accidents in a nuclear power plant are defined as certain unlikely event sequences involving significant core damage with the potential to lead to significant releases according to EUR 2.1.4.4. Even though the probability of severe accidents is extremely low, the radiation release may cause serious effect on people as well as environment. Severe Accident Management (SAM) encompasses those actions which could be considered in recovering from a severe accident and preventing or mitigating the release of fission products to the environment. Whether those actions are successful or not, depending on a progression status of a severe accident to mitigate the consequences of severe accident phenomena to limit the release of radioactive materials keeping the leak tightness of the Primary Containment, and finally to restore transient severe accident progression into a controlled and safe states

  6. Radiological accidents balance in medicine

    This work deals with the radiological accidents in medicine. In medicine, the radiation accidents on medical personnel and patients can be the result of over dosage and bad focusing of radiotherapy sealed sources. Sometimes, the accidents, if they are unknown during a time enough for the source to be spread and to expose a lot of persons (in the case of source dismantling for instance) can take considerable dimensions. Others accidents can come from bad handling of linear accelerators and from radionuclide kinetics in some therapies. Some examples of accidents are given. (O.L.). 11 refs

  7. The Importance of Safety in Construction Sector: Costs of Occupational Accidents in Construction Sites

    Fatih Yılmaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Occupational accidents cause important social and economic problems by loss of life and physical injuries. Construction sector involves high risk due to its production processes and labor intensive characteristic and because of occupational accidents the sector brings up against financial loss in large scale. In developing countries, construction sector is one of the most important sectors that have a great contribution to economic development with its employment capacity and added-value to the economy. On the other hand, due to the lack of preventive measures, occupational accidents occur, frequently in construction in Turkey. Major occupational accidents are defined as the cause of serious injuries and a long-term disability; minor occupational accidents are defined as the cause of insignificant injuries and short-term disability. Minor occupational accidents are not considered sufficiently, they are even not kept as a record. It is known that minor occupational accidents, which are not considered sufficiently and even not registered, cause great financial loss in workplaces. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cost of workforce loss caused by the accidents in construction sites by using the statistics of three construction sites in Turkey and to compare the financial losses of minor and major occupational accidents. In this study, three construction project are investigated in Turkey in 2009 and it is obtained that the cost of workday loss caused by major occupational accidents is 19431.75 $ and minor occupational accidents cause a loss of 6924.25 $. The cost of workday loss caused by minor occupational accidents are almost 35 % of major workday losses’. These costs presents the importance of preventive measures for workers’ health and safety in construction.

  8. Risk Factors and Road Traffic Accidents in Tanzania: A Case Study of Kibaha District

    Komba, Deus Damian

    2007-01-01

    This thesis discusses the risk factors which are associated to the cause of road traffic accidents in Kibaha district in Tanzania; the study describes the composition of motor related injuries including non motorized casualties in Kibaha district. The thesis assesses different road safety measures taken by the local authorities to prevent accidents in Kibaha district.In identifying risk factor associated to the cause of road traffic accidents, four theoretical frameworks: System theory, risk ...

  9. Risk Factors and Road Traffic Accidents in Tanzania : A Case Study of Kibaha District

    Komba, Deus Damian

    2007-01-01

    This thesis discusses the risk factors which are associated to the cause of road traffic accidents in Kibaha district in Tanzania; the study describes the composition of motor related injuries including non motorized casualties in Kibaha district. The thesis assesses different road safety measures taken by the local authorities to prevent accidents in Kibaha district. In identifying risk factor associated to the cause of road traffic accidents, four theoretical frameworks: System theory, risk...

  10. Method for consequence calculations for severe accidents

    This report was commissioned by the Swedish State Power Board. The report contains a calculation of radiation doses in the surroundings caused by a theoretical core meltdown accident at Ringhals reactor No 3/4. The accident sequence chosen for the calcualtions was a release caused by total power failure. The calculations were made by means of the PLUCON4 code. A decontamination factor of 500 is used to account for the scrubber effect. Meteorological data for two years from the Ringhals meteorological tower were analysed to find representative weather situations. As typical weather, Pasquill D, was chosen with a wind speed of 10 m/s, and as extreme weather, Pasquill E, with a wind speed of 2 m/s. 19 refs. (author)

  11. JCO criticality accident as POST-LOCA: Poor structure induced loss of organizational control accident

    Some problems in operation and business management of JCO (Japan Nuclear Fuel Conversion Co.) have been studied as background factors of the criticality accident. Open information about business conditions of JCO suggests that the cause of the accident is not so simple as to be attributed only to economic pressure, but includes immanent problems in JCO. We investigate the problems from five viewpoints, organization of safety management, system of operation management, activities for business improvement, risk awareness, and restructuring of business, and discuss the effects and causality of background factors as well as remedies for them. (author)

  12. Chernobyl reactor accident

    On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described

  13. Nuclear ship accidents

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  14. Reactor accidents in perspective

    In each of the three major reactor accidents which have led to significant releases to the environment, and discussed in outline in this note, the reactor has been essentially destroyed - certainly Windscale and Chernobyl reactors will never operate and the cleanup operation for Three Mile Island is currently estimated to have cost in excess of US Pound 500 000 000. In each of the accidents there has not been any fatality off site in the short term and any long-term health detriment is unlikely to be seen in comparison with the natural cancer incidence rate. At Chernobyl, early fatalities did occur amongst those concerned with fighting the incident on site and late effects are to be expected. The assumption of a linear non-threshold risk, and hence no level of zero risk is the main problem in communication with the public, and the author calls for simplification of the presentation of the concepts of radiological protection. (U.K.)

  15. Road traffic accidents: more than just whiplash?

    Counsell, Heather; Johnson, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Following a minor road traffic accident (RTA) a 55-year-old woman developed a new onset of whole body tremor and abnormal gait. This was in the context of significant previous depressive episodes and a traumatic background relating to RTAs. After extensive investigation, no organic causes were identified. The patient was subsequently referred to psychiatry and diagnosed with conversion disorder. Subsequently, various treatments including mirtazepine, venlafaxine, clonazepam, diazepam and lith...

  16. Scientific aspects of the Tohoku earthquake and Fukushima nuclear accident

    Koketsu, Kazuki

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, and assessments conducted beforehand for earthquake and tsunami potential in the Pacific offshore region of the Tohoku District. The results of our investigation show that all the assessments failed to foresee the earthquake and its related tsunami, which was the main cause of the accident. Therefore, the disaster caused by the earthquake, and the accident were scientifically unforeseeable at the time. However, for a zone neighboring the reactors, a 2008 assessment showed tsunamis higher than the plant height. As a lesson learned from the accident, companies operating nuclear power plants should be prepared using even such assessment results for neighboring zones.

  17. A methodology for radiological accidents analysis in industrial gamma radiography

    A critical review of 34 published severe radiological accidents in industrial gamma radiography, that happened in 15 countries, from 1960 to 1988, was performed. The most frequent causes, consequences and dose estimation methods were analysed, aiming to stablish better procedures of radiation safety and accidents analysis. The objective of this work is to elaborate a radiological accidents analysis methodology in industrial gamma radiography. The suggested methodology will enable professionals to determine the true causes of the event and to estimate the dose with a good certainty. The technical analytical tree, recommended by International Atomic Energy Agency to perform radiation protection and nuclear safety programs, was adopted in the elaboration of the suggested methodology. The viability of the use of the Electron Gamma Shower 4 Computer Code System to calculate the absorbed dose in radiological accidents in industrial gamma radiography, mainly at sup(192)Ir radioactive source handling situations was also studied. (author)

  18. Societal representations on the accident with caesium-137

    The influence of societal representations on the theme of nuclear energy are reviewed in the light of the public's reactions to the accident with the capsule of 137Cs in Goiania. As a starting point, it is accepted that the panic caused by the accident can be properly understood only if human subjectivity is taken into consideration. This perspective is required whenever events unfold which put human life and the environment at risk. Faced with the accident, the public internalized radioactivity - an element unknown to them - as a certainty of contracting cancer and ultimately death, despite the fact that such outcomes can only be the result of excessive exposure to radioactivity. (author)

  19. A Tool for Safety Officers Investigating " simple" Accidents

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    accidents normally caused by apparent banalities occur much more frequently and with a higher rate of fatalities, disablements and other serious injuries than the ostensibly most dangerous kinds of accidents. In 1999 a practical tool for use by safety officers was developed; this tool is based...... on the investigation methods applied in major accidents, but comprises a simpler and more user-friendly presentation. The tool involves three steps: Mapping the facts, analysing the events, and developing preventive solutions. Practical application of the tool has shown that it affords managers and workers...

  20. Neutronic calculations for Angra-1 steam line break accident

    The reduction of boron concentration in the Boron Injection Tank (BIT), to the room temperature solubility level, makes necessary a reanalysis of the steam line break accident of Angra 1 NPP. This paper describes the neutronic calculation related to this reanalysis. The main steps of the work were: review of reactivity parameters used in the accident simulation; search of xenon profiles that cause the most severe core power distribution; calculation of hot channel factors and other neutronic parameters necessary for DNBR determination. The final conclusion, related to the steam line break accident, states the BIT concentration may be reduced to 2000 ppm. (author)

  1. Application of Electronic Business in Safe Accident Prevention and Control on Coalface

    Lu, Guozhi; Tang, Jianquan; Yao, Chunhui; Yang, Lei

    In this paper, by analyzing the coal mine safety accident of present stage, the author has come to a conclusion that the safe accidents on coalface accounting for a lot of coal mine safety accident, and has brought forward the cause leading to this phenomenon. Then, through the discussion about "Overlying Strata Movement Law", this author has suggested that Electronic Business can be used for the coal mine to prevent and control safe accident on coalface, and has given out the operating pattern of Electronic Business innovatively. This conclusions are most instructive to Chinese coal mine in managing safe accident on coalface and innovative for application of Electronic Business in coal mine safety.

  2. 车祸致颈4~5椎体骨折伴脊髓损伤的救治%T reatment of fracture of cervci al spine caused by traffic accident

    周凤鸣; 李银和; 向强

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To develop fracture of cervical spine treatment level through investigate clinical characteristics and treatment measures of patients with traumatic fracture of 4-5 cervical spine.Methods:34 patients cured in our emergency surgery with traumatic fracture of 4-5 cervical spine accompany spinal cord injury from March,2011 to May, 2013 were selected to retrospectively analyze all patients'age, sex, traffic accident types and Frankerl grading.Results:Frankerl grading before treatment :Grade A 4 cases, Grade B 10 cases, Grade C 18 cases, Grade D 11 cases, 28 cases gained greater than or equal one grade functional recovery, the total effective rates were 82.35%.Conclusion:In the medical treatments of patients with traumatic fracture of 4-5 cervical spine, early neck braking, should operate as early as possible,select the correct surgical approach according the conditions of spinal compression and positively preventing and treating the complications can improve curative effect.%目的:探讨车祸致颈4~5椎体骨折伴脊髓损伤患者的临床特点及相应的救治措施,以提高颈椎骨折的救治水平。方法:选取2011年3月~2013年5月期间我院急诊外科收治的34例车祸致颈4~5椎体骨折伴脊髓损伤患者作为本组研究的观察对象,对所有患者的年龄、性别、车祸类型、Frankel分级进行回顾性分析。结果:治疗前Frankel分级:A级4例,B级10例,C级18例,D级2例;术后Frankel分级:A级2例,B级3例,C级18例,D级11例,功能恢复≥1级者28例,总有效率为82.35%。结论:在车祸致颈4~5椎体骨折伴脊髓损伤患者的救治过程中,要及早对其颈部进行制动处理,并争取尽早手术,手术入路要根据脊髓受压情况来选择,并积极预防并处理并发症,提高治疗效果。

  3. Ship accident studies

    This paper summarizes ship accident studies performed by George G. Sharp, Inc. for the U.S. Maritime Administration in connection with the Nuclear Ship Project. Casualties studied include fires/explosions, groundings and collisions for which a method for calculating probability on a specific route was developed jointly with the Babcock and Wilcox Co. Casualty data source was the Liverpool's Underwriters Association Casualty Returns

  4. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

  5. Accident Monitoring Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    In the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the instrumentation provided for accident monitoring proved to be ineffective for a combination of reasons. The accident has highlighted the need to re-examine criteria for accident monitoring instrumentation. This publication covers all relevant aspects of accident monitoring in NPPs. The critical issues discussed reflect the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident, involve accident management and accident monitoring strategies for nuclear power plants, selection of plant parameters for monitoring plant status, establishment of performance, design, qualification, display, and quality assurance criteria for designated accident monitoring instrumentation, and design and implementation considerations. Technology needs and techniques for accident monitoring instrumentation are also addressed

  6. The Chernobyl accident - impact on Western Europe

    The implications of the Chernobyl accident are outlined. For the USSR, 135,000 people had to be moved. Farming in these regions will cause difficult problems in the future. The contamination of 131I caused great problems in Western Europe the first month after the accident. The excess dose the first year after the accident was generally below 2 mSv. Over a 50-year period an increase over background of less than 1% is predicted. It is not possible to state if this irradiation has any health impact. Great problems were caused for the population in northern Scandinavia because of the reliance on reindeer breeding, hunting and fishing. Very few Lapps will, however, reach an effective dose equivalent of 5 mSv during 1986/1987. This is less than the natural background effective dose equivalent during a year for the average Swede. Therefore, the greatest problem seems to be the difficulty for the Lapps to sell their reindeer meat and lake fish. 40 refs.; 2 figs.; 11 tabs

  7. Occupational Accident Declaration Form (HS50)

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    https://cern.ch/service-procedures/AdminMan/Forms/HS50E.doc •\tIt must be completed within 10 working days of the date on which the accident occurred (§ 29.2.1), unless the person concerned is materially unable to meet this deadline. • The completed formula must be accompanied by a medical certificate giving details of any bodily injuries resulting from the accident (Annex 1, § 5). The medical certificate must be obtained from the doctor who has been consulted for that purpose. Benefits resulting from illnesses and accidents Medical treatment will cease to be reimbursed under the occupational scheme in the event of cure (defined in § 15 as the certified end to the impairment of the patient’s state of health caused by the illness or accident), or consolidation (defined in § 14 as certification that no further improvement in the patient’s state of health can be expected from appropriate medical treatment). The right to such reimbursement shall resume only in the...

  8. Traffic Accident Prediction Model Implementation in Traffic Safety Management

    Wen, Keyao

    2009-01-01

    As one of the highest fatalities causes, traffic accidents and collisions always requires a large amounteffort to be reduced or prevented from occur. Traffic safety management routines therefore always needefficient and effective implementation due to the variations of traffic, especially from trafficengineering point of view apart from driver education.Traffic Accident Prediction Model, considered as one of the handy tool of traffic safety management,has become of well followed with interest...

  9. Twenty Two Years after Chernobyl Accident Medical Aspect

    Chernobyl accident is the most serious nuclear catastrophe in the recent era. About 600.000 victims intervene in this disaster. The most fatality was about one month after the accident 31 victims. The main cause was Acute Radiation Syndrome. After few weeks 115.000 persons evacuated from the contaminated areas with exposure dose from 0.07 to 2 Gy. The main Isotope exposure was iodine 131 and Cesium 137 with average exposure dose 7 and 10 mGy respectively

  10. Researching Effects of Drivers Features on Traffic Accidents: Kocaeli Model

    UÇKUN, Ceylan Gazi; ÇELİKKOL, Ethem Soner; TEKİN, Vasfı Nadir; ÇELİKKOL, Şimal

    2013-01-01

    In addition to environmental conditions, weather conditions and density, situations related to drivers are more effective on traffic accidents, according to available data. Regarding occurrence of traffic accidents, it is observed that point of view of drivers towards traffic rules and drivers’ compliance with these rules is not parallel. It is important to research the reasons that cause this situation. A normal person’s mental state does not change without any reason at traffic. It is clear...

  11. RESEARCHING EFFECTS OF DRIVERS FEATURES ON TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS: KOCAELİ MODEL

    CEYLAN GAZI UÇKUN; ETHEM SONER ÇELİKKOL; VASFI NADIR TEKİN; ŞIMAL ÇELİKKOL

    2013-01-01

    In addition to environmental conditions, weather conditions and density, situations related to drivers are more effective on traffic accidents, according to available data.Regarding occurrence of traffic accidents, it is observed that point of view of drivers towards traffic rules and drivers’ compliance with these rules is not parallel. It is important to research the reasons that cause this situation. A normal person’s mental state does not change without any reason at traffic. It is clear ...

  12. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira; Andy Petroianu; Dafne Maria Villar Gonçalves; Gisele Araújo Pereira; Luiz Ronaldo Alberti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the regio...

  13. Accidents and human factors

    When the TMI accident occurred it was 4 a.m., an hour when the error potential of the operators would have been very high. The frequency of car and train accidents in Japan is also highest between 4 a.m. and 6 a.m. The error potential may be classified into five phases corresponding to the electroencephalogramic pattern (EEG). At phase 0, when the delta wave appears, a person is unconscious and in deep sleep; at phase I, when the theta wave appears, he is very tired, sleepy and subnormal; at phase II, when the alpha wave appears, he is normal, relaxed and passive; at phase III, when the beta wave appears, he is normal, clear-minded and active; at phase IV, when the strong beta or epileptic wave appears, he is hypernormal, excited and incapable of normal judgement. Should an accident occur at phase II, the brain condition may jump to phase IV. At this phase the error or accident potential is maximum. The response of the human brain to different types of noises and signals may vary somewhat for different individuals and for different groups of people. Therefore, the possibility that such differences in brain functions may influence the mental structure would be worthy of consideration in human factors and in the design of man-machine systems. Human reliability and performance would be affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it would be important to develop a theory by which both non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measure is considered a special case of fuzzy measure. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. To minimize human error and the possibility of accidents, new safety systems should not only back up man and make up for his

  14. Radiation accident/disaster

    Described are the course of medical measures following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) Accident after the quake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) and the future task for radiation accident/disaster. By the first hydrogen explosion in FNPP (Mar. 12), evacuation of residents within 20 km zone was instructed, and the primary base for measures of nuclear disaster (Off-site Center) 5 km afar from FNPP had to work as a front base because of damage of communicating ways, of saving of injured persons and of elevation of dose. On Mar. 13, the medical arrangement council consisting from stuff of Fukushima Medical University (FMU), National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Safety Research Association and Prefectural officers was setup in residents' hall of Fukushima City, and worked for correspondence to persons injured or exposed, where communication about radiation and between related organizations was still poor. The Off-site Center's head section moved to Prefectural Office on Mar. 15 as headquarters. Early in the period, all residents evacuated from the 20 km zone, and in-hospital patients and nursed elderly were transported with vehicles, >50 persons of whom reportedly died mainly by their base diseases. The nation system of medicare for emergent exposure had consisted from the network of the primary to third facilities; there were 5 facilities in the Prefecture, 3 of which were localized at 4-9 km distance from FNPP and closed early after the Accident; and the secondary facility of FMU became responsible to all exposed persons. There was no death of workers of FNPP. Medical stuff also measured the ambient dose at various places near FNPP, having had risk of exposure. At the Accident, the important system of command, control and communication was found fragile and measures hereafter should be planned on assumption of the worst scenario of complete damage of the infrastructure and communication. It is desirable for Disaster Medical Assistance Team which

  15. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident. Technical Volume 1/5. Description and Context of the Accident. Annexes

    The Fukushima Daiichi Accident consists of a Report by the IAEA Director General and five technical volumes. It is the result of an extensive international collaborative effort involving five working groups with about 180 experts from 42 Member States with and without nuclear power programmes and several international bodies. It provides a description of the accident and its causes, evolution and consequences, based on the evaluation of data and information from a large number of sources available at the time of writing. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident will be of use to national authorities, international organizations, nuclear regulatory bodies, nuclear power plant operating organizations, designers of nuclear facilities and other experts in matters relating to nuclear power, as well as the wider public. The set contains six printed parts and five supplementary CD-ROMs. Contents: Report by the Director General; Technical Volume 1/5, Description and Context of the Accident; Technical Volume 2/5, Safety Assessment; Technical Volume 3/5, Emergency Preparedness and Response; Technical Volume 4/5, Radiological Consequences; Technical Volume 5/5, Post-accident Recovery; Annexes. The Report by the Director General is available separately in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish and Japanese

  16. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident. Technical Volume 5/5. Post-accident Recovery. Annexes

    The Fukushima Daiichi Accident consists of a Report by the IAEA Director General and five technical volumes. It is the result of an extensive international collaborative effort involving five working groups with about 180 experts from 42 Member States with and without nuclear power programmes and several international bodies. It provides a description of the accident and its causes, evolution and consequences, based on the evaluation of data and information from a large number of sources available at the time of writing. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident will be of use to national authorities, international organizations, nuclear regulatory bodies, nuclear power plant operating organizations, designers of nuclear facilities and other experts in matters relating to nuclear power, as well as the wider public. The set contains six printed parts and five supplementary CD-ROMs. Contents: Report by the Director General; Technical Volume 1/5, Description and Context of the Accident; Technical Volume 2/5, Safety Assessment; Technical Volume 3/5, Emergency Preparedness and Response; Technical Volume 4/5, Radiological Consequences; Technical Volume 5/5, Post-accident Recovery; Annexes. The Report by the Director General is available separately in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish and Japanese

  17. Systematic register of nuclear accidents

    The Systematic Register of Nuclear Accidents is a consolidation of important accidents occurred in the world during the period 1945-1984. Important accidents can be defined as those involving high radiation doses, which require the exposed individuals to undergo medical treatment. The organization and structuring of this register rests on the necessity for the availability of a database specifically oriented to researchers interested in studying the different nuclear accidents reported. Approximately 150 accidents in that period are presented in a summary form; these accidents had been described or reported in the scientific literature or made known through informal communications of Brazilian and foreign institutions and researchers. This register can be of interest particularly to all professionals who either directly of indirectly work in the area of nuclear or radioactive installations safety. In order to facilitate analysis by the researcher, that casuistic system was divided into 3 groups: criticality accidents (table I), fall-out on Marshall Islands (table II) and external irradiation accidents (table III). It is also included an overview of accidents in that period, indicating the total number of victims, fatal cases, and number of survivors. The author offers to the reader an extensive bibliography on the accidents described. (Author)

  18. Medical consequences of radiation accidents

    Since 1945, more than 1.8 x 1021 Bq of artificial radionuclides have been released into the atmosphere. Approximately 2.04 x 1018B, i.e. approx. 0.11%, are the result of accidents at nuclear industrial facilities. This percentage is causing increased interest among researchers. This is due to the fact that in the wake of accidental release radionuclides become distributed unevenly across the Earth's surface, and the associated exposures, fluctuating from background level to several grays, an induce both stochastic and deterministic effects in the irradiated population. A comparative analysis of the medical consequences of the twentieth century's most serious nuclear events, namely the authorized dumping of high level radioactive waste into the river Techa in 1950, the explosion of a storage tank containing long lived radioactive waste in the Southern Urals in 1957, the fire at Sellafield in 1957 and the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986, has shown that when timely countermeasures are taken, the worst immediate and delayed medical consequences of an accident can be avoided. The consequences that have since been ascertained are a brief rise in the mortality rate during the first five years, with a dose in excess of 500 mSv; an increase in the incidence of leukaemia, with an absolute risk of up to 1.1. x 10-4 man·years/Gy; and increased mortality among children with external radiation doses of up to 1000 mSv, and internal doses of 99-190 mSv on the bone surfaces of neonates or 170-600 mSv on the bone surfaces of the mother. There is reliable evidence that, with external gamma radiation doses in excess of 520 mSv, the mortality rate for all malignant tumorous increases by 45-58% compared with the control level. There is also a significant increase in thyroid cancer frequency four to ten years after the incorporation of iodine isotopes by children aged up to 7 years, including an accumulation period in the womb. (author). 12 refs, 7 tabs

  19. An Epidemiological Study of Accidents among Construction Workers in Kerman

    Hasan Khaje

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Accidents are known among the leading causes of deaths and disabilities in developing and industrialized countries. Among the various occupations and activities, construction industry is among the most hazardous industries in the world, the risk of which and its following harms are still somehow unknown. This study aimed at investigating the epidemiology of accidents in construction, for the first time in Kerman. Methods: In this descriptive, analytical study, all construction workers (n=153 who had been hurt at work during 2006-2008 were investigated. The data were collected through questionnaire and were analyzed by chi-square and regression logistic test, SPSS statistical software. Results: The mean age of the injured workers was 32 years (the lowest age was 16 and the highest was 70 years and the highest rate of accidents occurred among the 16-36 years-old age group. Generally, 16.3 % (n=25 of the accidents led to death and 77.8% of the accidents occurred to people with junior high school and lower levels of education. There were significant relationships between the three variables of year, season and the shift in which the accident occurred and the result (death or survival of the accident. However, no significant relationships were observed between the insurance status of the injured and the results of the accidents. Conclusion: In Iran, there are strong relationships between reasons and results of accidents, so this study recommends more studies with the aim of changing the current trend to prevent the accidents in future.

  20. Investigation of adolescent accident predictive variables in hilly regions.

    Mohanty, Malaya; Gupta, Ankit

    2016-09-01

    The study aims to determine the significant personal and environmental factors in predicting the adolescent accidents in the hilly regions taking into account two cities Hamirpur and Dharamshala, which lie at an average elevation of 700--1000 metres above the mean sea level (MSL). Detailed comparisons between the results of 2 cities are also studied. The results are analyzed to provide the list of most significant factors responsible for adolescent accidents. Data were collected from different schools and colleges of the city with the help of a questionnaire survey. Around 690 responses from Hamirpur and 460 responses from Dharamshala were taken for study and analysis. Standard deviations (SD) of various factors affecting accidents were calculated and factors with relatively very low SD were discarded and other variables were considered for correlations. Correlation was developed using Kendall's-tau and chi-square tests and factors those were found significant were used for modelling. They were - the victim's age, the character of road, the speed of vehicle, and the use of helmet for Hamirpur and for Dharamshala, the kind of vehicle involved was an added variable found responsible for adolescent accidents. A logistic regression was performed to know the effect of each category present in a variable on the occurrence of accidents. Though the age and the speed of vehicle were considered to be important factors for accident occurrence according to Indian accident data records, even the use of helmet comes out as a major concern. The age group of 15-18 and 18-21 years were found to be more susceptible to accidents than the higher age groups. Due to the presence of hilly area, the character of road becomes a major concern for cause of accidents and the topography of the area makes the kind of vehicle involved as a major variable for determining the severity of accidents. PMID:26077876

  1. Severe accident analysis methodology in support of accident management

    The author addresses the implementation at BELGATOM of a generic severe accident analysis methodology, which is intended to support strategic decisions and to provide quantitative information in support of severe accident management. The analysis methodology is based on a combination of severe accident code calculations, generic phenomenological information (experimental evidence from various test facilities regarding issues beyond present code capabilities) and detailed plant-specific technical information

  2. The Fukushima accident was preventable.

    Synolakis, Costas; Kânoğlu, Utku

    2015-10-28

    The 11 March 2011 tsunami was probably the fourth largest in the past 100 years and killed over 15 000 people. The magnitude of the design tsunami triggering earthquake affecting this region of Japan had been grossly underestimated, and the tsunami hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP), causing the third most severe accident in an NPP ever. Interestingly, while the Onagawa NPP was also hit by a tsunami of approximately the same height as Dai-ichi, it survived the event 'remarkably undamaged'. We explain what has been referred to as the cascade of engineering and regulatory failures that led to the Fukushima disaster. One, insufficient attention had been given to evidence of large tsunamis inundating the region earlier, to Japanese research suggestive that large earthquakes could occur anywhere along a subduction zone, and to new research on mega-thrusts since Boxing Day 2004. Two, there were unexplainably different design conditions for NPPs at close distances from each other. Three, the hazard analysis to calculate the maximum probable tsunami at Dai-ichi appeared to have had methodological mistakes, which almost nobody experienced in tsunami engineering would have made. Four, there were substantial inadequacies in the Japan nuclear regulatory structure. The Fukushima accident was preventable, if international best practices and standards had been followed, if there had been international reviews, and had common sense prevailed in the interpretation of pre-existing geological and hydrodynamic findings. Formal standards are needed for evaluating the tsunami vulnerability of NPPs, for specific training of engineers and scientists who perform tsunami computations for emergency preparedness or critical facilities, as well as for regulators who review safety studies. PMID:26392611

  3. Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl

    The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author)

  4. Accident management insights from IPE's

    In response to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Generic Letter 88-20, each utility in the U.S.A. has undertaken a probabilistic severe accident study of each plant. This paper provides a high level summary of the generic PWR accident management insights that have been obtained from the IPE reports. More importantly, the paper details some of the limitations of the IPE studies with respect to accident management. The IPE studies and the methodology used was designed to provide a best estimate of the potential for a severe accident and/or for severe consequences from a core damage accident. The accepted methodology employs a number of assumptions to make the objective attainable with a reasonable expenditure of resources. However, some of the assumptions represent limitations with respect to developing an accident management program based solely on the IPE and its results. (author)

  5. Planning the medical response to radiological accidents

    Radioactive substances and other sources of ionizing radiation are used to assist in diagnosing and treating diseases, improving agricultural yields, producing electricity and expanding scientific knowledge. The application of sources of radiation is growing daily, and consequently the need to plan for radiological accidents is growing. While the risk of such accidents cannot be entirely eliminated, experience shows that most of the rare cases that have occurred could have been prevented, as they are often caused by human error. Recent radiological accidents such as those at Chernobyl (Ukraine 1986), Goiania (Brazil 1987), San Salvador (El Salvador 1989), Sor-Van (Israel 1990), Hanoi (Viet Nam 1992) and Tammiku (Estonia 1994) have demonstrated the importance of adequate preparation for dealing with such emergencies. Medical preparedness for radiological accidents must be considered an integral part of general emergency planning and preparedness and established within the national framework for radiation protection and safety. An IAEA Technical Committee meeting held in Istanbul in 1988 produced some initial guidance on the subject, which was subsequently developed, reviewed and updated by groups of consultants in 1989, 1992 and 1996. Special comments were provided by WHO, as co-sponsor of this publication, in 1997. This Safety Report outlines the roles and tasks of health authorities and hospital administrators in emergency preparedness for radiological accidents. Health authorities may use this document as the basis for their medical management in a radiological emergency, bearing in mind that adaptations will almost certainly be necessary to take into account the local conditions. This publication also provides information relevant to the integration of medical preparedness into emergency plans

  6. Accident management approach in Armenia

    In this lecture the accident management approach in Armenian NPP (ANPP) Unit 2 is described. List of BDBAs had been developed by OKB Gydropress in 1994. 13 accident sequences were included in this list. The relevant analyses had been performed in VNIIAES and the 'Guidelines on operator actions for beyond design basis accident (BDBA) management at ANPP Unit 2' had been prepared. These instructions are discussed

  7. Summary report on the post-accident review meeting on the Chernobyl accident

    After an Executive Summary which gives an overview of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor, the first section of the main INSAG report presents the understanding of INSAG members of the causes of the accident, concluding that it was the result of a remarkable range of human errors and violation of operating rules, in combination with specific reactor features which compounded and amplified the effects of the errors and led to the reactivity excursion. The second section presents the problem of radionuclide release from the damaged reactor, showing that there was an initial intense release associated with the destructive events in the accident, then the release rates fell over the next few days up to 7x1016 Bq/d five days after the accident initiation, and at that point the release rates began to increase and reached about 3x1017 Bq/d nine days after the accident initiation. There was then a drop in the radionuclide release to 4x1013 Bq/d and the release rates have continued to decline since that time. The next section describes the accident management at the site, fire-fighting, cleanup of the site and the entombment of the damaged unit. In the fourth section the radiation protection aspects of the accident, the radionuclide transfer through the environment, the exposure of members of the public pointing to the radionuclides iodine-131 and cesium-137 which entered the food-chains, the on-site and off-site emergency response, the decontamination and the health effects including both the early non-stochastic effects and the late stochastic ones are presented. Safety issues to be pursued in order to derive whatever safety lessons can be learned from the Chernobyl accident are considered in Section V. The next two sections present INSAG's observations, conclusions and recommendations based on the lessons learned so far from the accident and ranging from reactor operation to radiation protection and international co-operation in nuclear safety. Finally the

  8. Serious accident in Peru

    A peruvian man, victim of an important accidental irradiation arrived on the Saturday twenty ninth of may 1999 to the centre of treatment of serious burns at the Percy military hospital (Clamart -France). The accident spent on the twentieth of February 1999, on the site of a hydroelectric power plant, in construction at 300 km at the East of Lima. The victim has picked up an industrial source of iridium devoted to gamma-graphy operations and put it in his back pocket; of trousers. The workman has serious radiation burns. (N.C.)

  9. The accident of Chernobyl

    RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

  10. Accident prevention programme

    This study by the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission was made within the context of the application by undertakings of the principles of accident and disease prevention previously adopted by the said Commission. It puts forward recommendations for the effective and gradual implementation of a programme of action on occupational health and safety in the various departments of an undertaking and in the undertaking as a whole. The methods proposed in this study are likely to be of interest to all undertakings in the metallurgical industry and other industrial sectors

  11. Psychological response of accident

    The psychological status of rescuers of consequences of Chernobyl[s accidents, having planned stationary examination and treatment of common somatic diseases, has been examined. THe age of men represented the study group was 35-54 years old. The results of medical-psychological examination showed the development in rescuers of common dysadaptation and stress state, characterized by depressive-hypochondriac state with high anxiety. The course of psychotherapeutic activities made possible to improve essentionally the psychological status of the patients. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. Reactor accident in Chernobyl

    The bibliography contains 1568 descriptions of papers devoted to Chernobylsk accident and recorded in ''INIS Atomindex'' to 30 June 1990. The descriptions were taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and are presented in accordance with volumes of this journal (chronology of recording). Therefore all descriptions have numbers showing first the number of volume and then the number of record. The bibliography has at the end the detailed subject index consisting of 465 main headings and a lot of qualifiers. Some of them are descriptors taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and some are key words taken from natural language. The index is in English as descriptions in the bibliography. (author)

  13. CAMS: Computerized Accident Management Support

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project has initiated a new research programme on computerised accident management support, the so-called CAMS project (CAMS = Computerized Accident Management Support). This work will investigate the possibilities for developing systems which provide more extensive support to the control room staff and technical support centre than the existing SPDS (Safety Parameter Display System) type of systems. The CAMS project will utilize available simulator codes and the capabilities of computerized tools to assist the plant staff during the various accident stages including: identification of the accident state, assessment of the future development of the accident, and planning accident mitigation strategies. This research programme aims at establishing a prototype system which can be used for experimental testing of the concept and serve as a tool for training and education in accident management. The CAMS prototype should provide support to the staff when the plant is in a normal state, in a disturbance sate, and in an accident state. Even though better support in an accident state is the main goal of the project, it is felt to be important that the staff is familiar with the use of the system during normal operation, when they utilize the system during transients

  14. Iodine releases from reactor accidents

    The airborne releases of iodine from water reactor accidents are small fractions of the available iodine and occur only slowly. However, in reactor accidents in which water is absent, the release of iodine to the environment can be large and rapid. These differences in release fraction and rate are related to the chemical states attained by iodine under the accident conditions. It is clear that neither rapid issue of blocking KI nor rapid evacuation of the surrounding population is required to protect the public from the radioiodine released in the event of a major water reactor accident

  15. Guidance on accidents involving radioactivity

    This annex contains advice to Health Authorities on their response to accidents involving radioactivity. The guidance is in six parts:-(1) planning the response required to nuclear accidents overseas, (2) planning the response required to UK nuclear accidents a) emergency plans for nuclear installations b) nuclear powered satellites, (3) the handling of casualties contaminated with radioactive substances, (4) background information for dealing with queries from the public in the event of an accident, (5) the national arrangements for incident involving radioactivity (NAIR), (6) administrative arrangements. (author)

  16. ASSESSMENT OF RUNWAY ACCIDENT HAZARDS IN NIGERIA AVIATION SECTOR

    Akinyemi Olasunkanmi Oriola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aviation crashes all over the world have recently been on the high rise, stemming from negligence, mechanical faults, weather, ground control errors, pilot errors, taxing and maintenance crew errors as probable reasons for such accidents. This study models the probabilistic risk assessment of runway accident hazards in Nigeria aviation sector. Six categories of runway accident hazards with their corresponding basic events were identified and modeled using fault tree analysis method of probabilistic risk assessment. The six categories of runway accident hazards are runway surface conditions, weather conditions, collision risk, aircraft system failure, approach/takeoff procedures and human factors. The Fault Tree developed is a system of OR-gates and the weights for each hazard were derived through a domain/expert opinion. The estimated probability of occurrence of runway accident which is the top event of the Fault Tree model is 0.2624. Fault Tree Analysis; thus, identifies the most likely root causes of runway accident through importance measures. The results of the analysis show close relationship of runway accidents in Nigeria aviation sector with aircraft system failure, approach/takeoff procedures, human factor, weather conditions and collision risk.

  17. ROAD TRANSPORT ACCIDENTS IN NIGERIA AND THE ROLE

    Olasunkanmi Oriola AKINYEMI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of road traffic accidents revealed that most accidents are as a result of drivers’ errors. Over the years, active safety systems (ASS were devised in vehicle to reduce the high level of road accidents, caused by human errors, leading to death and injuries.This study however evaluated the impacts of ASS inclusions into vehicles in Nigeria road transportation network. The objectives was to measure how ASS contributed to making driving safer and enhanced transport safety. Road accident data were collected, for a period of eleven years, from Lagos State Ministry of Economic Planning and Budget, Central Office of Statistics. Quantitative analysis of the retrospective accident was conducted by computing the proportion of yearly number of vehicles involved in road accident to the total number of vehicles for each year. Results of the analysis showed that the proportion of vehicles involved in road accidents decreased from 16 in 1996 to 0.89 in 2006, the injured persons reduced from 15.58 in 1998 to 0.3 in 2006 and the death rate diminished from 4.45 in 1998 to 0.1 in 2006. These represented 94.4%, 95% and 95% improvement respectively on road traffic safety. It can therefore be concluded that the inclusions of ASS into design of modern vehicles had improved road safety in Nigeria automotive industry.

  18. A stochastic approach to accident identification in nuclear power plants

    Identification of the types of accidents and proper actions is required at an early stage of an accident in nuclear power plants. The accident of the plant can be identified by their symptom patterns related to the principal variables and operating status of major equipment. The patterns are identified by the Self-Organizing Feature Map (SOFM), unsupervised artificial neural network, for feature mapping algorithm and the Hidden Markov Model (HMM), a stochastic technique for solving the time series problem. The off-line data from a compact nuclear simulator are vector quantized by SOFM clustering algorithm. The HMM is created for each accident from a set of training data which are the result of vector quantization. The accident identification is decided by calculating which model has the highest probability for given test data. The system uses a left-to-right model including 6 states and 16 input variables to identify 7 types of accidents and the normal state. The HMM is trained by the maximum-likelihood estimation method which uses forward-backward algorithm and Baum-Welch re-estimation algorithm. The optimal path for each model at the given observation is found by Viterbi algorithm, and then the probability of optimal path is calculated. The simulation results show that the proposed system identifies the accident types correctly. It is also shown that the diagnosis is performed well for incomplete input observation caused by sensor fault or malfunction of certain equipment. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Major Differences in Rates of Occupational Accidents between Different nationalities of Seafarers

    Hansen, Henrik L.; Laursen, Lise Hedegaard; Frydberg, Morten;

    2008-01-01

    . Differences in approach to safety and risk taking between South East Asian and European seafarers should be identified and positives attitudes included in accident preventing programmes. Main messages Seafarers from South East Asia, mainly the Philippines, seem to have a genuine lower risk of occupational...... sources on occurrence of accidents were used and to identify specific causes of excess accident rates among certain nationalities. METHODS: Occupational accidents aboard Danish merchant ships during one year were identified from four different sources. These included accidents reported to the maritime...... including only more serious accidents, IRR for South East Asians rose to 0.36 (0.26-0.48). DISCUSSION: This study indicates that seafarers from South East Asia, mainly the Philippines, may have a genuine lower risk of occupational accidents in comparison with seafarers from Western and Eastern Europe...

  20. Survey of accidents in suburban Tehran and the prediction of future events based on a time-series model

    Heidar Teymuri, Ghulam; Bahmani, Rahman; Asghari, Mehdi; Madrese, Elham; Rahmani, Abdolrasoul; Abbasinia, Marzieh; Ahmadnezhad, Iman; Samavati, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Car accidents are currently a social issue globally because they result in the deaths of many people. The aim of this study was to examine traffic accidents in suburban Tehran and forecast the number of future accidents using a time-series model. Methods: The sample population of this cross-sectional study was all traffic accidents that caused death and physical injuries in suburban Tehran in 2010 and 2011, as registered by the Tehran Emergency Section. In the present study, Minit...

  1. 对交通意外骨伤患者早期应用积极心理干预的临床研究%The clinical research of early positive psychological intervention on the fracture patient caused by traffic accident

    管正通; 何少波; 宫本宏; 罗献明

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveThe early positive psychological intervention on the fracture patient with various of surgical treatments caused by the traffic accident could slow down the progress of psychological problems, promote the recovery and improve the degree of treatment satisfaction.Methods100 pationts with fracture caused by the traffic accident were randomly diveded into two groups,each group 50 named treatment group and control group. In the treatment group, 24 hours after hospitalized when the condition stabilized, the interview methods of HAMA and HAMD were tested and immediately the measure of early positive psychological intervention were taken.ResultsThe patients in intervention group had less anxiety and depression the former`s scale score (P<0.01).ConclusionThe early positive psychological intervention on the fracture patients with surgical operation caused by traffic accident could slow down the negative emotions of anxiety and depression, help patients to keep a good state of body and mind.%目的:通过对交通意外所致的各种需要手术治疗的的骨折患者进行早期积极的心理干预,以降低患者各种心理问题的发生发展,促进疾病的康复,提高治疗满意度,使医患关系更和谐。方法在骨科病房中分两组医生,每组中按随机分配方法各选取上述病情患者50例,分为干预组和对照组。对干预组患者在入院病情稳定后24小时内采用固定访谈法给予汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)和汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)测验后即刻采取积极有效的心理干预措施。结果经干预后,干预组患者的焦虑和抑郁均较对照组有明显好转,其量表分对比明显下降,经统计学检测P<0.001,有明显意义。结论通过早期积极的心理干预可以较低各种交通意外骨折需手术患者的焦虑、抑郁等负面情绪,帮助其保持良好的身心状态,促进骨折康复,提高满意度,能使医患关系更和谐。

  2. Appearing consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    Full text: Chernobyl is the greatest world's tragedy after Chirosima. Global results of this tragedy is already being seen. They are the people who have received radiation dose. the first type of cancer 5 years after Chernobyl accident was the thyroid gland cancer, the reason of it, large quantities of radioactive iodine in the air, food products, milk of cattle and finally their collection in the thyroid gland cancer entering the human body. Period all of a sudden after 10 years completed the next latent type of cancer was leykoz. Giving rise to this type of cancer more sensitive to radiation of the body - a violation of the spinal brain function. After 20 years passing from the accident in the first generation one ill child must be born cause of undergoing to radiation father or mother from each three days in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine

  3. Radiation accident grips Goiania

    On 13 September two young scavengers in Goiania, Brazil, removed a stainless steel cylinder from a cancer therapy machine in an abandoned clinic, touching off a radiation accident second only to Chernobyl in its severity. On 18 September they sold the cylinder, the size of a 1-gallon paint can, to a scrap dealer for $25. At the junk yard an employee dismantled the cylinder and pried open the platinum capsule inside to reveal a glowing blue salt-like substance - 1400 curies of cesium-137. Fascinated by the luminescent powder, several people took it home with them. Some children reportedly rubbed in on their bodies like carnival glitter - an eerie image of how wrong things can go when vigilance over radioactive materials lapses. In all, 244 people in Goiania, a city of 1 million in central Brazil, were contaminated. The eventual toll, in terms of cancer or genetic defects, cannot yet be estimated. Parts of the city are cordoned off as radiation teams continue washing down buildings and scooping up radioactive soil. The government is also grappling with the political fallout from the accident

  4. Occupational accidents with piercing and cutting instruments in hospital nurses

    Maria Helena Palucci Marziale

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Goals: To identify factors associated with occupational accidents caused by piercing and cutting instruments and to identify the consequences of these accidents.Methods: Descriptive field research. Data were obtained through semi-structured interviews with nurses who suffered accidents during one year in four hospitals at São Paulo State - Brazil. Results: factors associated with accidents were: work overload, poor quality material, inadequate disposal materials, professional negligence, clients’ aggressiveness, lack of attention and use of unsheathed needles. The accidents caused financial damages to the institutions as well as emotional and physical impairments to workers. Conclusions: There are several factors associated with accidents with piercing and cutting instruments. Therefore, preventive measures must be implemented according to the peculiarities of each work environment. Better care should be taken with the preparation of the professionals as well as with the information on risks from exposure to body/blood fluids they are given. A specific legislation is needed in our country in order to minimize this problem.

  5. Loss of Coolant Accident Analysis for Israel Research Reactor

    One of the main objectives of reactor safety systems is to keep the reactor core in condition that does not permit any release of radioactivity into the environment. In order to ensure this, the reactor must have sufficient safety margins during all possible operational and accident conditions. This paper focuses on the analysis of loss of coolant accident (LOCA), which is one of the most severe scenarios among other hypothetical events such as reactivity induced accidents, loss of flow accident, etc. The analysis was carried out for the Israel Research Reactor 1 (IRR-1), which is a 5MW swimming pool type research reactor. The IRR-1 core consists of MTR highlyenriched uranium (HEU) fuel type, and is reflected by Graphite elements. During normal operation, the reactor core is cooled by downward forced flow of light water circulated by a primary cooling circuit pump. But during shutdown stage, the reactor core is cooled by upward natural convection flow through a safety flapper valve. There could be several primary causes to initiate a LOCA in research reactors, such as breaks in the piping system, ruptures of the beam tubes, and concrete wall failures of the reactor pool. Although probability of large break accident in research reactors is very low, once the accident occurs, it may cause major core damages, so it must be considered

  6. 道路交通事故致颅脑损伤后智力缺损法68例医学鉴定分析%Judicial Expertise on 68 Cases of Intelligence Defect Caused by Craniocerebral Injury Resulted from Traffic Accidents

    谢夏德; 张冬先

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics of medicolegal investigation cases about intelligence defect caused by craniocerebral injury resulted from traffic accidents, and to discuss how to evaluate the intelligence defect through clinical data such as detection report of IQ and forensic examinaiton. Method We collected 68 cases of intelligence defect caused by craniocerebral injury after traffic accidents, and analyzed the difference among individual character, injury condition, grandiosity, camouflage and expertise conclusion. Results Adult man and victims with education background of middle school level accounted for the majority of the 68 cases. Grandiosity and camouflage were found in some victims. Contusion and laceration of brain and subarachnoid hemorrhage were more common in the craniocerebral injury. Conclusion Judicial expertise of craniocerebral injury should be done by synthetically analyzing the details of cases, carefully reviewing the case history, scientifically examining the wound and objectively analyzing IQ detection result.%目的 研究道路交通事故致颅脑损伤后智力损缺法医学鉴定案件的特点,探讨如何运用临床资料包括IQ检测报告和法医学检验,对智力缺损者进行法医学鉴定.方法 抽取因道路交通事故致颅脑损伤后智力缺损的鉴定资料68例,对其个体特征、损伤情况、夸大伪装情况与鉴定结论的差异性进行分析.结果 68例中以成年男性为多,初中文化程度者为主,夸大伪装者具有一定的比例,颅脑损伤中以脑挫裂伤及蛛网膜下腔出血较多.结论 鉴定过程要结合案情,细心复习病历资料,科学的法医学检验和客观地采用IQ检测结果.

  7. Safety culture and the accident at Three Mile Island

    Prior to the accident at Three Mile Island, little attention was being paid to the human role in the safe operation of civilian nuclear power plants. The investigation of the TMI accident showed that its root causes were primarily human-related. The Kemeny Report on the TMI accident does not use the term 'safety culture'; however, it fully identifies all relevant aspects of safety culture. It was only after the accident at Chernobyl that the term 'safety culture' came into widespread use. However, it should be noted that, during the years after TMI and before Chernobyl, already major changes had been instituted concerning human factors and human reliability in the civilian nuclear energy programs of many countries. Greater credit should be given to the remarkable insights developed by the Kemeny Commission as contained in the Kemeny Report. (author)

  8. The Tchernobyl enigma or: the human factors in severe accidents

    Using the analysis of many documents published after the Tchernobyl accident, we attempt to distinguish the main human factors aspects in severe accidents that come out, and the causes the most frequently quoted to ''explain'' it. But the Tchernobyl accident keeps its ''enigmatic'' feature, like any other accident. The need to make a deeper investigation concerning safety leads to look for various research paths that go beyond the usual normative positions, based on a too much mechanistic model of man. It is to the functioning of groups in work situations that we suggest to devote part of the research and thinking effort. We attempt to show briefly how two theories, the theory of ''groupthink'' and the theory of ''trade defensive ideologies'', can throw a light on the problem of human factors in nuclear power plants

  9. Prevention of "simple accidents at work" with major consequences

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    prevention or safety methodologies and procedures established for major accidents are applicable to simple accidents. The article goes back to basics about accidents causes, to review the nature of successful prevention techniques and to analyze what have been constraints to getting this knowledge used more...... broadly. This review identifies gaps in the prevention of simple accidents, relating to safety barriers for risk control and the management processes that need to be in place to deliver those risk controls in a continuingly effective state. The article introduces the ‘‘INFO cards’’ as a tool for the...... systematic observation of hazard sources in order to ascertain whether safety barriers and management deliveries are present. Safety management and safety culture, together with the INFO cards are important factors in the prevention process. The conclusion is that we must look at safety as a part of being a...

  10. Lessons Learned from the Radiological Accident In Mayapuri, New Delhi

    In the past, there were several reported incidents and accidents throughout the world due to inadvertent radiation exposure causing serious radiation injuries to members of the public due to the presence of radioactive sources in the public domain and scrap yards. In April 2010, for the first time in India, a radiation accident occurred due to the dismantling of a gamma cell, housing 60Co radioactive source pencils, by the workers in a scrap shop located in the Mayapuri area of New Delhi. This resulted in high radiation exposures to seven people, of whom one succumbed to radiation sickness. Officers from the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) and personnel from national emergency response agencies were involved at various stages of source recovery operations. It was revealed that the accident due to a ‘legacy’ source originated from a university. Several actions have been initiated by the AERB to prevent such accidents in future and lessons learned by stakeholders. (author)

  11. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The questionnaires included demographic information (age, gender, skin color, education level, profession and questions about years of licensed driving practice, how often they would drive an automobile, how long they had had a motorcycle driver’s license, how often they would ride a motorcycle, the number of prior accidents involving a car, and the number of prior accidents not involving a car. Results: of the 100 consecutive accidents studied, 91 occurred with men and 9 with women, aged between 16 and 79 (m = 29 ± 11 years. Regarding their reason for using a motorcycle, 83% reported using it for transport, 7% for work, and 10% for leisure. Most of these accident victims had secondary or higher education (47%. Of the motorcyclists who held a car driver’s license, 68.3% drove the vehicle daily or weekly and held the license for more than one year. Sixty-seven percent of the accident victims used a motorcycle daily and had a motorcycle driver’s license for at least one year. Conclusion: among the motorcyclists injured, most were men aged 20 years or older, with complete secondary education, and experienced in driving both motorcycles and cars, indicating that recklessness while driving the motorcycle is the main cause of traffic accidents.

  12. Health Problems in Radiation Accidents

    The authors define a radiation accident as a situation which has led or could have led to the unexpected irradiation of persons or contamination of the environment over and above the levels accepted as safe. Several categories of accidents are distinguished as a function of the consequences to be expected. The suggested system of classifying accidents makes it possible to plan post-accident measures within a single system of 'concentric circles', taking into account at the same time whether it will be possible to carry out the post-accident measures unaided or whether it will be necessary to bring in additional manpower and resources from outside. The authors consider the possibility of countering the effects of accidents as a function of their nature, with reference to the biological, economic and psychological aspects. They evaluate the part played by the health service in planning and carrying out accident prevention measures, and consider the function of radiological units attached to epidemiological health stations ; these units are essentially centres providing for precautionary measures to avert accidents and action to counter their effects. (author)

  13. Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena

    This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

  14. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  15. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    Frid, W.; Højerup, C.F.; Lindholm, I.;

    2001-01-01

    Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies, the ...

  16. The Chernobyl accident. Appendix B

    In appendix B, the models introduced in chapter 6 are applied to the study of the Chernobyl accident. This event is very important in the teaching of nuclear engineering, and I have included in this Appendix a relatively detailed description of the accident. However, the analysis is limited to the physics of the relevant phenomena. (author)

  17. Considerations of severe accidents in the design of Korean Next Generation Reactor

    The severe accident is one of the key issues in the design of Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) which is an evolutionary type of pressurized water reactor. As IAEA recommends in TECDOC-801, the design objective of KNGR with regard to safety is provide a sound technical basis by which an imminent off-site emergency response to any circumstance could be practically unnecessary. To implement this design objective, probabilistic safety goals were established and design requirements were developed for systems to mitigate severe accidents. The basic approach of KNGR to address severe accidents is firstly prevent severe accidents by reinforcing its capability to cope with the design basis accidents (DBA) and further with some accidents beyond DBAs caused by multiple failures, and secondly mitigate severe accidents to ensure the retention of radioactive materials in the containment by providing mean to maintain the containment integrity. For severe accident mitigation, KNGR principally takes the concept of ex-vessel corium cooling. To implement this concept, KNGR is equipped with a large cavity and cavity flooding system connected to the in-containment refueling water storage tank. Other major systems incorporated in KNGR are hydrogen igniters and safety depressurization systems. In addition, the KNGR containment is designed to withstand the pressure and temperature conditions expected during the course of severe accidents. In this paper, the design features and status of system designs related with severe accidents will be presented. Also, R and D activities related to severe accident mitigation system design will be briefly described

  18. Probability of spent fuel transportation accidents

    McClure, J. D.

    1981-07-01

    The transported volume of spent fuel, incident/accident experience and accident environment probabilities were reviewed in order to provide an estimate of spent fuel accident probabilities. In particular, the accident review assessed the accident experience for large casks of the type that could transport spent (irradiated) nuclear fuel. This review determined that since 1971, the beginning of official US Department of Transportation record keeping for accidents/incidents, there has been one spent fuel transportation accident. This information, coupled with estimated annual shipping volumes for spent fuel, indicated an estimated annual probability of a spent fuel transport accident of 5 x 10/sup -7/ spent fuel accidents per mile. This is consistent with ordinary truck accident rates. A comparison of accident environments and regulatory test environments suggests that the probability of truck accidents exceeding regulatory test for impact is approximately 10/sup -9//mile.

  19. A RESEARCH ON WORKING CONDITIONS AND OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS AT THE FOREST HARVESTING ACTIVITIES

    MENEMENCİOĞLU, Kayhan

    2009-01-01

    This study was condcuted to have some information about the occupational accident ratio and some habits of forest harvesting workers, and the reasons of the accidents. The data obtained from a total of 250 forest workers responded to a self-administered questionnaire working at the harvesting practises at Directorates of Forest Enterprises Adana, Oltu, Ilgaz, Pazar and Sındırgı were discussed. According to findings; 47 % of forestry workers had at least an occupational accident and the cause...

  20. Psychosocial aspects of the victims of the accident with caesium-137 in Goiania (1987-1994)

    In September of 1987 two men took possession of and violated a source containing Caesium-137, which caused the Radiological Accident of Goiania. Besides the direct victims, a significant part of the community of Goiania was directly involved with this accident. The psychosocial impact in the social groups involved in this radiological accident - the population as a whole, immediate neighbours of contaminated sites, professionals and the victims themselves - gave rise to specific behaviour and attitudes which will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  1. Accidents with venomous and poisonous animals: their impact on occupational health in Colombia

    Juan P. Gómez C

    2011-01-01

    Venomous or poisonous animals are a very common cause of accidents in Colombia. Such accidents occur due to vertebrates such as snakes and fish or invertebrates such as scorpions, spiders, bees, etc. The most affected individuals are young people ages 15 to 45. They are mainly farmers and fishermen. These events can be considered work accidents given their characteristics. Nevertheless, the occupational risk insurance companies, the central Colombian government, and the regional, departmental...

  2. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...... occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA...... method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents...

  3. Severe accidents, a US approach

    The attitude of the American nuclear industry and the regulatory authorities in the United States toward severe accidents has often seemed ambivalent. It was common a few years ago to assume the position that severe accidents should not be included in the design basis of the plant. This view was associated with the concept of the maximum credible accident. A severe accident that would lead to a large release of fission products from the reactor core was simply regarded as having so low a likelihood as not to be credible. That does not mean that it had a zero probability of occurring. Because of the way the plant was designed, built, and operated, severe accidents were regarded as having a low enough probability that no further special measures were necessary regarding them. (author)

  4. Severe accident management. Prevention and Mitigation

    Effective planning for the management of severe accidents at nuclear power plants can produce both a reduction in the frequency of such accidents as well as the ability to mitigate their consequences if and when they should occur. This report provides an overview of accident management activities in OECD countries. It also presents the conclusions of a group of international experts regarding the development of accident management methods, the integration of accident management planning into reactor operations, and the benefits of accident management

  5. Accidents, probabilities and consequences

    Following brief discussion of the safety of wind-driven power plants and solar power plants, some aspects of the safety of fast breeder and thermonuclear power plants are presented. It is pointed out that no safety evaluation of breeders comparable to the Rasmussen investigation has been carried out and that discussion of the safety aspects of thermonuclear power is only just begun. Finally, as an illustration of the varying interpretations of risk and safety analyses, four examples are given of predicted probabilities and consequences in Copenhagen of the maximum credible accident at the Barsebaeck plant, under the most unfavourable meterological conditions. These are made by the Environment Commission, Risoe Research Establishment, REO (a pro-nuclear group) and OOA (an anti-nuclear group), and vary by a factor of over 1000. (JIW)

  6. The Fukushima accident

    The accident happened on March 11, 2011 in the nuclear reactors at the Fukushima plant, Japan, is described. The reactors of the Fukushima plant have been power reactors. The electrical energy is produced by use of the heat released in the fission. Nuclear reactors were affected after of the power outage as a result of the earthquake and the tsunami, and this has kept in operation the refrigeration systems. The japanese reactors have been fission reactors and have used uranium 235 or plutonium 239 as fissionable material. The nuclear reactions of fission are explained. The control of the nuclear reactions at Fukushima was complicated by the decreased of the neutrons absorption and has produced more reactions, generating great amounts of heat. The steam contaminated with the products of fission is produced by to cool the reactor with water. The fissionable material released is dragged until the atmosphere. Radioactive contamination at sites near the reactor was covered in a zone of exclusion with a radius of 30 km. The effects of radioactive contamination in the zone of exclusion are mentioned. The radioactive material from Japan has traveled with the wind in direction toward the north pole. The radioactive cloud has continued until to reach the north Africa and south of Europe. The cloud has approximated to Costa Rica, but the activity of the material found has been less of 0,01 Bq/m3. The Centro de Investigacion en Ciencias Atomicas, Nucleares y Moleculares (Cicanum) has initiated the collection of soil samples, water and earth products to detect part of the radioactive material from the cloud. The Cicanum has had modern equipments to quantify the specific concentrations of radioactive isotope, alpha emitters, beta and gamma, in food, water and milk. The Cicanum has maintained the radiological surveillance of foods after the Chernobyl accident

  7. The willingness to pay of parties to traffic accidents for loss of productivity and consolation compensation.

    Jou, Rong-Chang; Chen, Tzu-Ying

    2015-12-01

    In this study, willingness to pay (WTP) for loss of productivity and consolation compensation by parties to traffic accidents is investigated using the Tobit model. In addition, WTP is compared to compensation determined by Taiwanese courts. The modelling results showed that variables such as education, average individual monthly income, traffic accident history, past experience of severe traffic accident injuries, the number of working days lost due to a traffic accident, past experience of accepting compensation for traffic accident-caused productivity loss and past experience of accepting consolation compensation caused by traffic accidents have a positive impact on WTP. In addition, average WTP for these two accident costs were obtained. We found that parties to traffic accidents were willing to pay more than 90% of the compensation determined by the court in the scenario of minor and moderate injuries. Parties were willing to pay approximately 80% of the compensation determined by the court for severe injuries, disability and fatality. Therefore, related agencies can use our study findings as the basis for determining the compensation that parties should pay for productivity losses caused by traffic accidents of different types. PMID:26363088

  8. Manifestations neuropsychiatriques révélant une hémorragie cérébro-méningée causée par un accident d’électrisation: à propos d'une observation et revue de la literature

    Bugeme, Marcellin; Mukuku, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Le courant électrique est susceptible de léser tout tissu de l'organisme rencontré lors de son passage, de manière transitoire ou définitive. Les hémorragies cérébro-méningées secondaires à un accident d’électrisation par courant électrique à haute tension sont très rarement rapportées dans la littérature. Nous rapportons un cas d'hémorragie cérébro-méningée révélée par des manifestations neuropsychiatriques causée par un AE par courant électrique à haute tension observée chez un enfant âgé de 6 ans à Lubumbashi, en République Démocratique du Congo. La particularité que présente notre observation est les manifestations neuropsychiatriques observées tardivement. PMID:25419328

  9. Severe Accident Management Measures Introduced in Belgian NPP's

    In response to the Belgian Safety Authorities' request to address the severe accident issue within a decennial safety review, Tractebel, on behalf of the Belgian Utility, Electrabel, examined in detail specific severe accident topics and provided the Utility with several measures that could be implemented to reduce the risk associated with beyond-design accidents. The present paper summarizes the key elements of the approach applied in Belgium: - Presentation of plant-specific studies related to severe accident issues; - Use of PSA results; - Inputs of international R and D projects; - Selection and justification of severe accident measures; - Comparative study between possible mitigative measures; - Definition and justification of implemented severe accident management strategies. The vulnerability to severe accidents as well as the potential causes of containment failures have been identified leading to the study of possible countermeasures taking into account the combination of conservative design and post-TMI measures already implemented . A section of the paper will also be devoted to the specific study made for the selection, the sizing and the implementation of hydrogen control means. After the description of the selected measures implemented, the paper also describes the content of the 'Severe Accident Management Guidelines' developed by Tractebel for the Tihange NPPs and for the Doel NPPs. This project aimed at providing the operators with procedures or guidelines enabling to deal with complex situations not formally considered in the standard Emergency Response Guidelines, including accidents in which a significant portion of the core melts. The objective of these SAMG's programs is to indicate actions that must bring the plant to a controlled stable state and, above all, mitigate any challenges to the fission product barriers. The plant personnel must use the available plant information to determine the best severe accident management measures. Obviously

  10. Readmissions due to traffic accidents at a general hospital

    Luciana Paiva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: to verify the occurrence and the causes of hospital readmissions within a year after discharge from hospitalizations due to traffic accidents.Methods: victims of multiple traumas due to traffic accidents were included, who were admitted to an Intensive Care Unit. Sociodemographic data, accident circumstances, body regions affected and cause of readmission were collected from the patient histories.Results: among the 109 victims of traffic accidents, the majority were young and adult men. Most hospitalizations due to accidents involved motorcycle drivers (56.9%. The causes of the return to the hospital were: need to continue the surgical treatment (63.2%, surgical site infection (26.3% and fall related to the physical sequelae of the trauma (10.5%. The rehospitalization rate corresponded to 174/1,000 people/year.Conclusion: the hospital readmission rate in the study population is similar to the rates found in other studies. Victims of severe limb traumas need multiple surgical procedures, lengthier hospitalizations and extended rehabilitation.

  11. Congestion by accident? Traffic and accidents in England

    Pasidis, Ilias-Nikiforos

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is the estimation of the effect of accidents on traffic congestion and vice versa. In order to do this, I use ?big data? of highway traffic and accidents in England for the period 2007-2013. The data exhibit some remarkably stable cyclical pattern of highway traffic which is used as a research setting that enables the identification of the causal effect of accidents on traffic congestion and vice versa. The estimation draws on panel data methods that have previously bee...

  12. Coping Capability of APR Against Fukushima Accidents

    Major threats on Fukushima Daiichi plant are earthquake, tsunami, SBO (Station Black Out), and hydrogen burning and explosion. Following the 9.1 magnitude earthquake, tsunami of 15m-height caused Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) trouble and SBO. APR+ (Advanced Power Reactors Plus) has been basically designed to have the seismic design basis of Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) 0.3g, a 4-train safety concept based on N+2 design philosophy, and a Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS). Safety issues on the Fukushima-type accident have been extensively reviewed to enhance APR+ safety. After the review, many items was selected in the APR+ standard design to cope with the accidents. The items can be categorized as follows; Design of structure and equipment against earthquakes and coastal flooding, Integrity of electric power, cooling, and fire protection systems on inundation, Countermeasures against severe accident, and Emergency response and emergency medical systems. The key items include enhancement of seismic design for Main Control Room (MCR) and capability of cooling water intake, improvement of facilities entrance such as a water tight door against tsunami or flood, provision for external cooling water of PCCT (Passive Condensate Cooling Tank), diversity design for emergency electric power sources, and capability extension of a battery for supporting the 72-hour copying time. These items to enhance the safety will have been applied to the APR+ design. Consequently, APR+ can provide higher reliability and safety against tsunami and earthquake

  13. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: A review of the environmental impacts

    Steinhauser, Georg, E-mail: georg.steinhauser@colostate.edu; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340–800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. - Highlights: • The environmental effects of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. • Releases of radionuclides from Chernobyl exceeded Fukushima by an order of magnitude. • Chernobyl caused more severe radiation-related health effects. • Overall, Chernobyl was a much more severe nuclear accident than Fukushima. • Psychological effects are neglected but important consequences of nuclear accidents.

  14. Fatigue: a major cause of commercial livestock truck accidents

    Jennifer Woods

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The author outlines the principles underlying the standards employed by the Australian Marine Safety Authority to regulate live animal carriers, vessels used for sea transport of livestock, that operate from Australia. The standards are contained in regulations adopted by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority known as Marine Orders. The Cargo and Cargo Handling — Livestock Marine Order has evolved over time with subsequent ‘issues’ of the order as a consequence of operational experience and specific research. Recent changes have focused on the need to have adequate redundancy in systems and equipment of ships. A history of the development of these regulations is given and is followed by a description of the principles employed to develop the provisions contained in the regulations.

  15. Sodium Chloride Dihydrate - A Potential Cause of Slippery Accidents

    Mejlholm, Morten; Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter;

    From a thermodynamic point of view, it can be expected that sodium chloride dihydrate (hydrohalite, NaCl2H2O) will form on winter roads under certain conditions at temperatures below 0.1¢®C. In order to elucidate whether or not the formation of hydrohalite on the pavement can explain the phenomenon...

  16. Legal responsibility for damage caused by nuclear accidents

    In this essay a treatment is given of the legal third-party risks of licencees of nuclear power plants. It is regarded to what extent the actual responsibility arrangements provide an adequate protection to the citizen against potential risks of a nuclear power plant. (Auth.)

  17. JAERI's activities in JCO accident

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was actively involved in a variety of technical supports and cooperative activities, such as advice on terminating the criticality condition, contamination checks of the residents and consultation services for the residents, as emergency response actions to the criticality accident at the uranium processing facility operated by the JCO Co. Ltd., which occurred on September 30, 1999. These activities were carried out in collaborative ways by the JAERI staff from the Tokai Research Establishment, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Oarai Research Establishment, and Headquarter Office in Tokyo. As well, the JAERI was engaged in the post-accident activities such as identification of accident causes, analyses of the criticality accident, and dose assessment of exposed residents, to support the Headquarter for Accident Countermeasures of the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Accident Investigation Committee and the Health Control Committee of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC). This report compiles the activities, that the JAERI has conducted to date, including the discussions on measures for terminating the criticality condition, evaluation of the fission number, radiation monitoring in the environment, dose assessment, analyses of criticality dynamics. (author)

  18. An approach to accidents modeling based on compounds road environments.

    Fernandes, Ana; Neves, Jose

    2013-04-01

    The most common approach to study the influence of certain road features on accidents has been the consideration of uniform road segments characterized by a unique feature. However, when an accident is related to the road infrastructure, its cause is usually not a single characteristic but rather a complex combination of several characteristics. The main objective of this paper is to describe a methodology developed in order to consider the road as a complete environment by using compound road environments, overcoming the limitations inherented in considering only uniform road segments. The methodology consists of: dividing a sample of roads into segments; grouping them into quite homogeneous road environments using cluster analysis; and identifying the influence of skid resistance and texture depth on road accidents in each environment by using generalized linear models. The application of this methodology is demonstrated for eight roads. Based on real data from accidents and road characteristics, three compound road environments were established where the pavement surface properties significantly influence the occurrence of accidents. Results have showed clearly that road environments where braking maneuvers are more common or those with small radii of curvature and high speeds require higher skid resistance and texture depth as an important contribution to the accident prevention. PMID:23376544

  19. Traffic accidents involving fatigue driving and their extent of casualties.

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Zhang, Xun; Li, Yanyan

    2016-02-01

    The rapid progress of motorization has increased the number of traffic-related casualties. Although fatigue driving is a major cause of traffic accidents, the public remains not rather aware of its potential harmfulness. Fatigue driving has been termed as a "silent killer." Thus, a thorough study of traffic accidents and the risk factors associated with fatigue-related casualties is of utmost importance. In this study, we analyze traffic accident data for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. The study data were extracted from the traffic accident database of China's Public Security Department. A logistic regression model is used to assess the effect of driver characteristics, type of vehicles, road conditions, and environmental factors on fatigue-related traffic accident occurrence and severity. On the one hand, male drivers, trucks, driving during midnight to dawn, and morning rush hours are identified as risk factors of fatigue-related crashes but do not necessarily result in severe casualties. Driving at night without street-lights contributes to fatigue-related crashes and severe casualties. On the other hand, while factors such as less experienced drivers, unsafe vehicle status, slippery roads, driving at night with street-lights, and weekends do not have significant effect on fatigue-related crashes, yet accidents associated with these factors are likely to have severe casualties. The empirical results of the present study have important policy implications on the reduction of fatigue-related crashes as well as their severity. PMID:26625173

  20. Study of Iodine Prophylaxis Following Nuclear Accidents

    Study of iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents has been done. Giving stable iodine to a population exposed by I-131 is one of preventive action from internal radiation to the thyroid gland. Stable iodine could be given as Kl tablet in a range of dose of 30 mg/day to 130 mg/day. Improper giving of stable iodine could cause side effect to health, so then some factors should be considered i. e. dose estimation, age, dose of stable iodine to be given, duration of stable iodine prophylaxis and risk of health. (author)

  1. Severe radiation accidents and the environment

    In severe radiation accidents with releases of radionuclides into the environment, high enough radiation doses are formed to potentially cause direct radiation injury of natural ecosystems. The dose fields characterizing the irradiation of plants, animals and humans in radioactive contamination of the environment are highly heterogeneous, and irradiation of natural objects per se has features such as non-equidosal effects. In other words, humans and various objects in the natural environment can receive different absorbed doses for an equal density of radioactive fallout. 5 refs

  2. Effects of the Beijing Subway Accident on Engineering Monitoring and Auditing

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ. Beijing Subway Line 10 Accident On March 28, 2007, six people were buried by a cave-in at Suzhoujie Station on Line 10 of the Beijing Subway. The fatalities were caused when the unit in charge of construction failed to implement a timely evacuation after a construction accident took place. (See Beijing Youth, April 1, 2007)

  3. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  4. Reconstruction of the Chernobyl emergency and accident management

    Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1986 the most serious civil technological accident in the history of mankind occurred of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the former Soviet Union. As a direct result of the accident, the reactor was severely destroyed and large quantities of radionuclides were released. Some 800000 persons, also called 'liquidators' - including plant operators, fire-fighters, scientists, technicians, construction workers, emergency managers, volunteers, as well as medical and military personnel - were part of emergency measurements and accident management efforts. Activities included measures to prevent the escalation of the accident, mitigation actions, help for victims as well as activities in order to provide a basic infrastructure for this unprecedented and overwhelming task. The overall goal of the 'Project Chernobyl' of the Institute of Risk Research of the University of Vienna was to preserve for mankind the experience and knowledge of the experts among the 'liquidators' before it is lost forever. One method used to reconstruct the emergency measures of Chernobyl was the direct cooperation with liquidators. Simple questionnaires were distributed among liquidators and a database of leading accident managers, engineers, medical experts etc. was established. During an initial struggle with a number of difficulties, the response was sparse. However, after an official permit had been issued, the questionnaires delivered a wealth of data. Furthermore a documentary archive was established, which provided additional information. The multidimensional problem in connection with the severe accident of Chernobyl, the clarification of the causes of the accident, as well as failures and successes and lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl emergency measures and accident management are discussed. (authors)

  5. Windsurfing hazard caused by needlefish.

    Rouvillain, J L; Donica, A; Gane, C; Zekhnini, C; Garron, E; Uzel, A P

    2013-11-01

    Very amusing and entertaining for the traveler, marine activities in tropical countries can be dangerous. More and more trauma caused by hazardous marine animals have been reported in recent years in the world, after maritime accidents including water sports like windsurfing, kite surfing, swimming, diving, and injuries caused by sting or contact with a marine animal. Rays and stone-fish frequently cause trauma, but there are not many cases of injury by needlefish. This case reports a case of penetrating wound of the left foot caused by a Caribbean needlefish occurred during a session of windsurfing in Martinique. PMID:23412165

  6. Analysis on the nitrogen drilling accident of Well Qionglai 1 (I: Major inducement events of the accident

    Yingfeng Meng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen drilling in poor tight gas sandstone should be safe because of very low gas production. But a serious accident of fire blowout occurred during nitrogen drilling of Well Qionglai 1. This is the first nitrogen drilling accident in China, which was beyond people's knowledge about the safety of nitrogen drilling and brought negative effects on the development of gas drilling technology still in start-up phase and resulted in dramatic reduction in application of gas drilling. In order to form a correct understanding, the accident was systematically analyzed, the major events resulting in this accident were inferred. It is discovered for the first time that violent ejection of rock clasts and natural gas occurred due to the sudden burst of downhole rock when the fractured tight gas zone was penetrated during nitrogen drilling, which has been named as “rock burst and blowout by gas bomb”, short for “rock burst”. Then all the induced events related to the rock burst are as following: upthrust force on drilling string from rock burst, bridging-off formed and destructed repeatedly at bit and centralizer, and so on. However, the most direct important event of the accident turns out to be the blockage in the blooie pipe from rock burst clasts and the resulted high pressure at the wellhead. The high pressure at the wellhead causes the blooie pipe to crack and trigged blowout and deflagration of natural gas, which is the direct presentation of the accident.

  7. Preliminary analysis of loss-of-coolant accident in Fukushima nuclear accident

    Su'ud, Zaki; Anshari, Rio

    2012-06-01

    Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) especially on Fukushima Nuclear Accident will be discussed in this paper. The Tohoku earthquake triggered the shutdown of nuclear power reactors at Fukushima Nuclear Power station. Though shutdown process has been completely performed, cooling process, at much smaller level than in normal operation, is needed to remove decay heat from the reactor core until the reactor reach cold-shutdown condition. If LOCA happen at this condition, it will cause the increase of reactor fuel and other core temperatures and can lead to reactor core meltdown and exposure of radioactive material to the environment such as in the Fukushima Dai Ichi nuclear accident case. In this study numerical simulation has been performed to calculate pressure composition, water level and temperature distribution on reactor during this accident. There are two coolant regulating system that operational on reactor unit 1 at this accident, Isolation Condensers (IC) system and Safety Relief Valves (SRV) system. Average mass flow of steam to the IC system in this event is 10 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 3,2 hours and fully uncovered in 4,7 hours later. There are two coolant regulating system at operational on reactor unit 2, Reactor Core Isolation Condenser (RCIC) System and Safety Relief Valves (SRV). Average mass flow of coolant that correspond this event is 20 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 73 hours and fully uncovered in 75 hours later. There are three coolant regulating system at operational on reactor unit 3, Reactor Core Isolation Condenser (RCIC) system, High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system and Safety Relief Valves (SRV). Average mass flow of water that correspond this event is 15 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 37 hours and fully uncovered in 40 hours later.

  8. Accident response in France

    French PWR power plant design relies basically on a deterministic approach. A probabilistic approach was introduced in France in the early seventies to define safety provisions against external impacts. In 1977 an overall safety objective was issued by the safety authority in terms of an upper probability limit for having unacceptable consequences. Additional measures were taken (the ''H'' operating procedures) to complement the automatic systems normally provided by the initial design, so as to safisfy the safety objective. The TMI-2 accident enhanced the interest in confused situations in which possible multiple equipment failure and/or unappropriate previous actions of the operators impede the implementation of any of the existing event-oriented procedures. In such situations, the objective becomes to avoid core-melt by any means available: this is the goal of the Ul symptom-oriented procedure. Whenever a core-melt occurs, the radioactive releases into the environment must be compatible with the feasibility of the off-site emergency plans; that means that for some hypothetical, but still conceivable scenarios, provisions have to be made to delay and limit the consequences of the loss of the containment: the U2, U4 and U5 ultimate procedures have been elaborated for that purpose. For the case of an emergency, a nationwide organization has been set up to provide the plant operator with a redundant technical expertise, to help him save his plant or mitigate the radiological consequences of a core-melt

  9. Preparedness against nuclear power accidents

    This booklet contains information about the organization against nuclear power accidents, which exist in the four Swedish counties with nuclear power plants. It is aimed at classes 7-9 of the Swedish schools. (L.E.)

  10. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  11. The situation of hazardous chemical accidents in China between 2000 and 2006

    From the aspects of the total quantity of accidents, regional inequality, enterprises scale and environmental pollution accidents, this study makes an analysis of hazardous chemical accidents in China for the period spanning from 2000 to 2006. The following results are obtained: firstly, there were lots of accidents and fatalities in hazardous chemical business, i.e., the number of casualty accidents fluctuated between 200 and 600/year, the number of fatality fluctuated between 220 and 1100/year. Secondly, the accident rate in developed southeast coastal areas, e.g., Guangdong, Zhejiang and Jiangsu, was far higher than that in the northwest regions, e.g., Xizang, Xinjiang, and Qinghai. Thirdly, nearly 80% of dangerous chemical accidents had occurred in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Finally, various sudden environmental pollution accidents resulted from hazardous chemicals were frequent in recent years, causing a huge damage to human and property. Then, based on the readjustment of economic structure in the last decades, the development status of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) in SMEs and other factors, the paper explores the main causes, which offers valuable insight into measures that should be taken to reduce hazardous chemical accidents.

  12. Comparing the two techniques Tripod Beta and Mort at a critical accident analysis in power plant construction

    Mohammad SaeidPoursoleiman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accidents are one of the leading causes of death and disability. Despite great efforts made to prevent accidents, there is still no coherent system to identify the root causes of industrial accidents. Selection of appropriate accident analysis techniques and their comparison can be useful in this regard. This research aimed to analyze a fatal accident in a power plant construction project using the two methods of MORT and Tripod-Beta, and the comparison of the analyses. First, the report of the selected accident was studied, and the accident was analyzed by the two methods of MORT and Tripod-Beta. The next step was followed by the comparison and assessment of the methods of MORT and Tripod-Beta with the measures of time, cost, training needs, the need for technical forces, the number of causes identified, quantifiable, and the need for software to conduct analysis. The TripodBeta accident analysis cost less and requires less time, and less technical experts. Thorough analysis of major accidents needs to identify all the possible causes of the incident, including human error and equipment failure. Therefore, the complimentary use of both techniques of industrial accident analysis is recommended.

  13. The management of radioactive waste from accidents

    Two accident case histories are reviewed - the Three Mile Island (TMI-2) reactor accident in 1979 and the Seveso accident in 1976. The status of the decontamination and radioactive waste management operations at TMI-2 as at 1986 is presented. 1986 estimates of reactor accident and recovery costs are given. 12 refs., 8 tabs

  14. 29 CFR 1960.29 - Accident investigation.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accident investigation. 1960.29 Section 1960.29 Labor... MATTERS Inspection and Abatement § 1960.29 Accident investigation. (a) While all accidents should be investigated, including accidents involving property damage only, the extent of such investigation shall...

  15. 49 CFR 195.54 - Accident reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 195.54 Section 195.54... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.54 Accident reports. (a) Each operator that experiences an accident that is required to be reported under § 195.50 shall as soon...

  16. 49 CFR 801.32 - Accident reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 801.32 Section 801.32... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Accident Investigation Records § 801.32 Accident reports. (a) The NTSB....S. civil transportation accidents, in accordance with 49 U.S.C. 1131(e). (b) These reports may...

  17. The measurement of accident-proneness

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the measurement of accident-proneness. Accidents seem easy to observe, however accident-proneness is difficult to measure. In this paper I first define the concept of accident-proneness, and I develop an instrument to measure it. The research is mainly executed within chemical

  18. 49 CFR 845.40 - Accident report.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident report. 845.40 Section 845.40... RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRANSPORTATION; ACCIDENT/INCIDENT HEARINGS AND REPORTS Board Reports § 845.40 Accident report. (a) The Board will issue a detailed narrative accident report in connection with...

  19. Analyzing the severity of accidents on the German Autobahn.

    Manner, Hans; Wünsch-Ziegler, Laura

    2013-08-01

    We study the severity of accidents on the German Autobahn in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia using data for the years 2009 until 2011. We use a multinomial logit model to identify statistically relevant factors explaining the severity of the most severe injury, which is classified into the four classes fatal, severe injury, light injury and property damage. Furthermore, to account for unobserved heterogeneity we use a random parameter model. We study the effect of a number of factors including traffic information, road conditions, type of accidents, speed limits, presence of intelligent traffic control systems, age and gender of the driver and location of the accident. Our findings are in line with studies in different settings and indicate that accidents during daylight and at interchanges or construction sites are less severe in general. Accidents caused by the collision with roadside objects, involving pedestrians and motorcycles, or caused by bad sight conditions tend to be more severe. We discuss the measures of the 2011 German traffic safety programm in the light of our results. PMID:23628941

  20. Nuclear laws and radiologic accidents

    Some aspects of the nuclear activities in Brazil, specially concerning the Goiania s accident are demonstrated using concepts from environmental and nuclear law. Nuclear and environmental competence, the impossibility of the states of making regional laws, as the lack of regulation about the nuclear waste, are discussed. The situation of Goiania when the accident happened, the present situation of the victims and the nuclear waste provisionally stored in Abadia de Goias is reported

  1. Iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents

    These proceedings of the Joint WHO/CEC workshop on iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents are presented under the following headings: normal thyroid function and the response to iodine, theoretical basis for stable iodine prophylaxis, risks and benefits of stable iodine prophylaxis, indications for the use of stable iodine, recommendations and rationale for the use of stable iodine prophylaxis in event of future accidents. (UK)

  2. Nuclear accident countermeasures: iodine prophylaxis

    In January 1989 the Department of Health convened a working group to consider and advise on the indications for the use of stable iodine, in the United Kingdom, in the event of nuclear accident. In formulating its advice the working group was to consider the International Guidelines for Iodine Prophylaxis following Nuclear Accidents, drawn by the World Health Organisation, and their applicability to the UK. This report summarises the findings of the working group and gives its conclusions and recommendations. (author)

  3. Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident

    Full text: The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a painful memory in the lives of the hundreds of thousands of people who were most affected by the accident. In addition to the emergency rescue workers who died, thousands of children contracted thyroid cancer, and thousands of other individuals will eventually die of other cancers caused by the release of radiation. Vast areas of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres were contaminated by environmental fallout. Hundreds of thousands of people were evacuated from these affected areas - forced to leave behind their homes, possessions, and livelihoods - and resettled elsewhere, in a traumatic outcome that has had long-lasting psychological and social impacts. The commemoration of the Chernobyl tragedy is taking place in many forums this month - in Minsk, in Kiev and in other locations. At the IAEA, it might be said that we have been responding to the accident and its consequences for twenty years, in a number of ways: first, through a variety of programmes designed to help mitigate the environmental and health consequences of the accident; second, by analyzing the lessons of what went wrong to allow such an accident to occur at all; and third, by working to prevent any such accident from occurring in the future. Building a strong and effective global nuclear safety regime is a central objective of our work. This requires effective international cooperation. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core, and discharged its contents in a cloud of radionuclides, made painfully clear that the safety risks associated with nuclear and radiological activities extend beyond national borders. International cooperation on nuclear safety matters - sharing information, setting clear safety standards, assisting with safety upgrades, and reviewing operational performance - has therefore become a hallmark of IAEA activity, particularly at a time when we are witnessing an expansion of

  4. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH

  5. CARNSORE: Hypothetical reactor accident study

    Two types of design-basis accident and a series of hypothetical core-melt accidents to a 600 MWe reactor are described and their consequences assessed. The PLUCON 2 model was used to calculate the consequences which are presented in terms of individual and collective doses, as well as early and late health consequences. The site proposed for the nucelar power station is Carnsore Point, County Wexford, south-east Ireland. The release fractions for the accidents described are those given in WASH-1400. The analyses are based on the resident population as given in the 1979 census and on 20 years of data from the meteorological stations at Rosslare Harbour, 8.5 km north of the site. The consequences of one of the hypothetical core-melt accidents are described in detail in a meteorological parametric study. Likewise the consequences of the worst conceivable combination of situations are described. Finally, the release fraction in one accident is varied and the consequences of a proposed, more probable ''Class 9 accident'' are presented. (author)

  6. The vver severe accident management

    The basic approach to the VVER safety management is based on the defence-in-depth principle the main idea of which is the multiplicity of physical barriers on the way of dangerous propagation on the one hand and the diversity of measures to protect each of them on the other hand. The main events of severe accident with loss of core cooling at NPP with WWER can be represented as a sequence of NPP states, in which each subsequent state is more severe than the previous one. The following sequence of states of the accident progression is supposed to be realistic and the most probable: -) loss of efficient core cooling; -) core melting, relocation of the molten core to the lower head and molten pool formation, -) reactor vessel damage, and -) containment damage and fission products release. The objectives of accident management at the design basis stage, the determining factors and appropriate determining parameters of processes are formulated in this paper. The same approach is used for the estimation of processes parameters at beyond design basis accident progression. The accident management goals and the determining factors and parameters are also listed in that case which is characterized by the loss of integrity of the fuel cladding. The accident management goal at the stage of core melt relocation implies the need for an efficient core-catcher

  7. Radiation-biological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    The paper points out essential aspects of the actual or potential impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on human health in the areas immediately affected. In particular, radiation-induced diseases in the population are pointed out, which were caused by radioactive iodine. Epidemiological studies try to establish an increased incidence of leukaemia, lymphomas, and thyroid gland tumours. (DG)

  8. The RA reactor loss-of-flow accident analysis

    This paper is dealing with the Vinca RA research reactor thermo hydraulics safety analysis of the hypothetic loss-of-flow accident, caused by the reactor pumps loss of power. The methodology review is exposed. The results of the analysis indicate the primary reactor system high level accuracy. (author)

  9. Neutronic static analysis of Chernobyl accident

    In the present analysis, estimates were made of the positive reactivity introduced through the growth of the coolant void fraction in a Graphite-water steam-generating reactor both at the average value of burnup given by the Soviets and at the maximum value. Using Monte Carlo models, various possible axial distribution of burnup, displacer models, conditions in the control channels and positions of the control rods were considered in calculating the insertion of positive reactivity with the fall of the manual and emergency control rods; that is the positive scram. The possibility of positive reactivity insertion due to the creation of a mixture of fuel, water and cladding in a number of central fuel channels has been examined. This situation corresponds to the explosion of these channels, and is considered in the present work as the cause of the second reactivity peak. At the level of the data presented in this study, vaporization of cooling water in the fuel channels can be considered as the cause of the Chernobyl accident. The accident began in the region of the channels close to the axis of the reactor and spread to its periphery. The positive reactivity due to insertion of the manual and emergency control rods - positive scram -played a marginal role in the development of the accident. Fracture of the fuel followed by bursting of the channels around the axis of the reactor, due to contact between the hot UO2 particles and the cooling water at th end of the first peak, could have started a mechanism capable of producing a second peak in reactivity, in the case of fuel damage extended to a sufficiently large portion of the core

  10. Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees

    Hakobyan, Aram P.

    In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a

  11. 负压封闭引流在车祸伤四肢皮肤缺损中的临床应用%Study on Clinical Application of VSD in the Treatment of Skin Defect of Extremities Caused by Traffic Accidents

    丁宝志; 黎晓华; 庄蕾; 王惠东; 陈铿

    2013-01-01

    [目的] 研究封闭负压引流(VSD)技术在车祸外伤致四肢创面污染或感染修复治疗中的临床疗效.[方法]本院收治的16例车祸外伤后四肢皮肤软组织缺损伴严重污染或感染患者.其中男10例,女6例,上肢2例,下肢14例.受伤至手术时间:24 h者6例,平均22.8 d.创面面积15 cm×4 cm~80 cm×20 cm.所有病例均彻底清创后覆盖VSD 6~10 d,1~4次.7例皮瓣修复,6例植皮,3例皮肤脱套伤者予以皮肤修薄后原位回植.[结果]13例创面均无感染,肉芽生长良好,修复术后移植皮片及皮瓣一期愈合;3例原位回植皮肤全部成活.[结论]VSD有非常良好的控制污染创面感染的作用,可促进肉芽生长,为深部组织修复重建及创面的修复打下良好的基础,其临床优良的效果具有推广价值.%[Objective]To explore the clinical efficacy of continuous vacuum sealing dressing(VSD) in the treatment of polluted or infected wounds of extremities caused by traffic accidents. [Methods]Sixteen patients with serious polluted or infected skin and soft tissue defect of extremities caused by traffic accidents were treated in our hospital. All patients included 10 men and 6 women. Among all patients, 6 patients were the defect of upper extremities and 14 patients were the defect of lower extremities. The time of injury to operation of 7 patients was less than 6h(mean 4. 2 h) , and that of 3 patients was 6~12h(mean 7. 8h) , and that of 6 patients was more than 24 h(mean 22. 8d). The area of wounds was from 15 cm×4cm to 80cm×20cm. All the patients were treated with VSD after thorough debrid-ment for 6~10d and 1~4 times. Seven patients underwent skin flap operation, and 3 patients underwent dermatoplasty, and 3 patients with degloving skin injury underwent skin orthotopic transplantation after skin thickening. [Re-sults]The wounds of 13 patients had no infection, and the granulation grew well, and the free skin grafts and flaps were healed for one stage after

  12. Accident-precipitating factors for crashes in turbine-powered general aviation aircraft.

    Boyd, Douglas D; Stolzer, Alan

    2016-01-01

    General aviation (14CFR Part 91) accounts for 83% of civil aviation fatalities. While much research has focused on accident causes/pilot demographics in this aviation sector, studies to identify factors leading up to the crash (accident-precipitating factors) are few. Such information could inform on pre-emptive remedial action. With this in mind and considering the paucity of research on turbine-powered aircraft accidents the study objectives were to identify accident-precipitating factors and determine if the accident rate has changed over time for such aircraft operating under 14CFR Part 91. The NTSB Access database was queried for accidents in airplanes (turbine engines and occurring between 1989 and 2013. We developed and utilized an accident-precipitating factor taxonomy. Statistical analyses employed logistic regression, contingency tables and a generalized linear model with Poisson distribution. The "Checklist/Flight Manual Not Followed" was the most frequent accident-precipitating factor category and carried an excess risk (OR 2.34) for an accident with a fatal and/or serious occupant injury. This elevated risk reflected an over-representation of accidents with fatal and/or serious injury outcomes (pturbine aircraft accident rate over the study period was likely due, in part, to a 6-fold increased representation of single engine airplanes. In conclusion, our study is the first to identify novel precursive factors for accidents involving turbine aircraft operating under 14CFR Part 91. This research highlights areas that should receive further emphasis in training/recurrency in a pre-emptive attempt to nullify candidate accident-precipitating factor(s). PMID:26590507

  13. Accident Tolerant Fuel Analysis

    Curtis Smith; Heather Chichester; Jesse Johns; Melissa Teague; Michael Tonks; Robert Youngblood

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional “accident-tolerant” (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  14. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather [Idaho National Laboratory; Johns, Jesse [Texas A& M University; Teague, Melissa [Idaho National Laboratory; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant

  15. Liability problems arising from nuclear reactor accidents

    In case of damage to health or property, it has always been approved legal tradition in all highly developed legal systems to perform compensation for damage in money. This principle also applies to damage caused by nuclear accidents. In the F.R.G., care has been taken at a very early stage to provide for appropriate liability provisions to afford financial security to the extent required by the special hazards involved in the peaceful use of atomic energy. Recent events have shown that the legal provisions available are appropriate and practicable. Citizens affected will receive fair compensation for damage. The Federal Administrative Office so far counted 30.392 applications for compensation in compliance with section 38, sub-sec. (2) Atomic Energy Act. Up to June 16, 1986, payments for compensation of losses amounted to DM 38.7 millions. By accepting the claims for compensation the State provides protection for German nationals and persons of equal rank. A limitation to DM one billion for compensation for damage caused by nuclear energy seems to be appropriate also in the light of the Chernobyl reactor accident. (orig./HP)

  16. The accident at Chernobyl and its implications for the safety of CANDU reactors

    In August 1986, a delegation of Canadians, including two members of the staff of the AECB (Atomic Energy Control Board), attended a post-accident review meeting in Vienna, at which Soviet representatives described the accident and its causes and consequences. On the basis of the information presented at that meeting, AECB staff conducted a study of the accident to ascertain its implications for the safety of CANDU nuclear reactors and for the regulatory process in Canada. The conclusion of this review is that the accident at Chernobyl has not revealed any important new information which would have an effect on the safety requirements for CANDU reactors as presently applied by the AECB. All important aspects of the accident and its causes have been considered by the AECB in the licensing process for currently licensed reactors. However a number of recommendations are made with respect to aspects of reactor safety which should be re-examined in order to reinforce this conclusion

  17. Precept from the management for the accident of Fukushima daiichi

    At 17 hours after the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, National Institute of Radiological Sciences sent the first REMAT (Radiation Emergency Medical Assistance Team) in the 20 km range from the Plant. The team members were confronted by two issues: (1) Medical activities under the infrastructures destructed by a multiple disaster caused by earthquake, tsunami and nuclear accident, which was not presumed. (2) Radiation protection management for dispatched staff. Measures for this situation worked out by activities on the site are presented. (K.Y.)

  18. Accident on board of Sovjet submarine ECHO II

    On 26 June 1989 a Sovjet nuclear submarine met with a reactor accident in the Norwegian Sea, caused by breakdown in the primary coolant circuit. The report describes the emergency response in Norway, and data are given on radioactivity in the air. Calculations limit the inhalation of radioactive iodine for the population in northern Norway to 1 Bq. The highest dose to the thyroid gland of crew members on Norwegian surface vessels is estimated to 1.6 mGy. It is concluded that individual exposure in Norway due to the accident is negligible. 11 refs.; 5 figs.; 8 tabs

  19. Environmental Aftermath of the Radiation Accident at Tomsk-7

    Porfiriev, Boris N.; Porfiriev, Boris N.

    1996-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the environmental effects of the most serious radiation accident recorded after Chernobyl, which occurred in the formerly secret town of Tomsk-7 in Siberia, Russia, on 6, April 1993. Fortunately, it appears not to have become a major industrial crisis or disaster. The causes of the accident are described. It is argued that a mixture of both objective and subjective prerequisites, including specific human, organizational, and technological factors, were responsible for the explosion or directly facilitated it. The Tomsk-7 accident’s ecological, medical, social, and psychological consequences are discussed.

  20. Radioxenon monitoring in Beijing following the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    This paper reports the brief process and results of radioxenon monitoring and analysis in Beijing following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. The accident and release of volatile radionuclides were caused by 9.0 magnitude earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011. The maximum concentrations of 133Xe and 131mXe were in excess of 0.90 Bq.m−3 and 0.047 Bq.m−3, respectively. The activity ratio of 131mXe to 133Xe and the dynamic trend of 133Xe activity concentration were analyzed

  1. An analysis of mooring accidents on the Polish Ocean Lines ships in 1975-80. Preventive recommendations.

    Dankiewicz-Sznajder, J

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the presented research was: 1. to analyse the causes and effects of accidents that occurred on the Polish Ocean Lines ships in 1975-1980 at mooring manoeuvres. 2. Issuing certain prophylactic recommendations. The material of the research was information contained in the 95 accident record cards and in other post-accident documents such as rulings of the Marine Chamber, situational sketches of the place of accident and determination of circumstances and causes of accidents. The obtained data showed, among others, that c. 81 per cent of the mooring accidents occurred at the bow manoeuvre station and 19 per cent--at the stern manoeuvre station. The most frequent cause of injures which appeared in mooring accidents (23.3 per cent) was hitting by the mooring line as result of "bouncing" on the mooring winch head. The most frequent injury was that of lower extremities (32.6 per cent) and upper extremities (30.5 per cent) and the most widespread injuries in those accidents were--contusion (43.16 per cent) and fracture (29.48 per cent of accidents. The analysis of the material allows to state that a smaller risk of accidents occurring at mooring may be achieved through the introduction of some prophylactic recommendations both in the sphere of organisation and technology. PMID:6681361

  2. LOA-1: prevent accidents. Quarterly technical progress report, FRSP program - July through September 1981

    Information related to LMFBR reactor safety is presented concerning common cause failures; shutdown by self-activated system; shutdown heat removal system operation; sodium burning; core catcher material interactions; accident release of sodium oxide aerosol; and LMFBR risk assessment

  3. The prevention of radiological accidents (how to avoid or minimize potential exposures)

    A detailed analysis of 7 major accidents occurred in radiotherapy services in different countries is performed. Then a generic analysis of the causes is realized and finally the methodology used to prevent them effectively is described

  4. [Psychological support for road accident participants: the program implementation outcome].

    Mikuczewska-Wośko, Aleksandra; Biłyj, Dorota; Tomczyk, Jarosław

    2009-01-01

    Road accident belongs to one of the categories of traumatic events, and can cause posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The most common psychological consequences of road traffic accidents are the emotional disorders, cognitive deficits (disorders concentration of attention and memory function), impaired social relationships, troubles with performing work duties and physical symp-toms of stress. The article discusses the program of psychological support given to the participants of road accidents, conducted in Wroclaw, its theoretical assumptions and the mode of its implementation. Basic theoretical assumptions of the program are inter alia based on the theories of H. Selye and R. Lazarus. The authors of this article also refer to the so-called therapeutic process of education designed by Everly and Rosenfeld, who recommend that the process of developing self-responsibility be used for therapeutic purposes. This requires clarifying the exact nature of the problem, and then looking for possible remedies. The program is open to all road accident participants (victims, perpetrators, witnesses) and their families. Classes are designed to combine theory (lectures) and practice (exercises). Anxiety and cognitive processes, as well as relaxation training, interpersonal training (eg, assertiveness) and kinesiology are the major areas of activities. Psychological support provided for road accident participants is of intervention--and preventive nature; intervention, as it relates to the consequences ofa specific stressogenic event, namely a road accident; preventive, as it serves the overriding purpose--the improvement of road safety. This article presents the main findings of the program, the results of the survey evaluation, and proposals to develop psychological operations aimed at the road accidents participants. PMID:19999045

  5. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    Sims, C S

    1989-09-01

    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry. PMID:2777549

  6. The radiological accident in Gilan

    The use of radioactive materials continues to offer a wide range of benefits throughout the world in medicine, research and industry. Precautions are, however, necessary in order to protect people from the detrimental effects of the radiation. Where the amount of radioactive material is substantial, e.g. with sources used in radiotherapy or industrial radiography, extreme care is necessary to prevent accidents that may have severe consequences for the individuals affected. Nevertheless, in spite of all precautions, accidents with radiation sources continue to occur. As part of its activities dealing with the safety of radiation sources, the IAEA follows up severe accidents in order to provide an account of their circumstances and medical aspects from which those organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources may learn. On 24 July 1996 a serious accident occurred at the Gilan combined cycle fossil fuel power plant in the Islamic Republic of Iran, when a worker who was moving thermal insulation materials around the plant noticed a shiny, pencil sized metal object lying in a trench and put it in his pocket. He was unaware that the metal object was an unshielded 185 GBq 192Ir source used for industrial radiography. This report compiles information about the medical and other aspects of the accident. As a result of exposure to the iridium source, the worker suffered from severe haematopoietic syndrome (bone marrow depression) and an unusually extended localized radiation injury requiring plastic surgery

  7. The radiological accident in Cochabamba

    In April 2002 an accident involving an industrial radiography source containing 192Ir occurred in Cochabamba, Bolivia, some 400 km from the capital, La Paz. A faulty radiography source container had been sent back to the headquarters of the company concerned in La Paz together with other equipment as cargo on a passenger bus. This gave rise to a potential for serious exposure for the bus passengers as well as for the company employees who were using and transporting the source. The Government of Bolivia requested the assistance of the IAEA under the terms of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. The IAEA in response assembled and sent to Bolivia a team composed of senior radiation safety experts and radiation pathology experts from Brazil, the United Kingdom and the IAEA to investigate the accident. The IAEA is grateful to the Government of Bolivia for the opportunity to report on this accident in order to disseminate the valuable lessons learned and help prevent similar accidents in the future

  8. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

  9. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs

  10. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...... of accidents in normally Danish winter seasons are remarkable alike the amount of salt used in praxis in the winter 2011/2012. • 2.7 ton NaCl/km when using brine spread with nozzles • 5 ton NaCl/km when using pre wetted salt. • 5.7 ton NaCl/km when using kombi spreaders The explanation is that spreading...... of brine with nozzles is precision spreading, while spreading of salt with rotation plate are very imprecise; you can measure 80% residual salt when using brine and only 40% when using pre wetted salt. Of course the result would be worse if dry (solid) salt were used on dry roads. A winter route in Denmark...

  11. [Venomous animal accidents in childhood

    Oliveira, J S; Campos, J A; Costa, D M

    1999-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: To highlight the importance of venomous animal accidents in childhood. The conducts are based on the proposals of the Ministério da Saúde do Brasil [Ministry of Health of Brazil] to standardize medical care in this kind of accident. This article shows the importance of early clinical diagnosis and assistance.METHODS: Review of international and national literature that includes original articles, official standards and books.RESULTS: Pediatricians may always feel insecure when they have to attend children who had venomous animal accidents because this kind of pathology is not very common. This article tries to offer easy guidelines and describes the main steps to be followed. Besides, peculiar or unusual aspects of these accidents are to be found in the literature referred to in the end of this article. Venomous animal accidents are always more severe in children, therefore resulting in higher mortality and sequelae. We assert that the early antivenom sera is extremely helpful.CONCLUSIONS: The systematization of the assistance may guarantee that the essential steps are followed thus making the assistance itself more effective. This is the purpose of the guidelines presented in this article. PMID:14685472

  12. Radioactive materials transport accident analysis

    Over the last 25 years, one of the major issues raised regarding radioactive material transportation has been the risk of severe accidents. While numerous studies have shown that traffic fatalities dominate the risk, modeling the risk of severe accidents has remained one of the most difficult analysis problems. This paper will show how models that were developed for nuclear spent fuel transport accident analysis can be adopted to obtain estimates of release fractions for other types of radioactive material such as vitrified highlevel radioactive waste. The paper will also show how some experimental results from fire experiments involving low level waste packaging can be used in modeling transport accident analysis with this waste form. The results of the analysis enable an analyst to clearly show the differences in the release fractions as a function of accident severity. The paper will also show that by placing the data in a database such as ACCESS trademark, it is possible to obtain risk measures for transporting the waste forms along proposed routes from the generator site to potential final disposal sites

  13. Traffic Accident Propagation Properties and Control Measures for Urban Links Based on Cellular Automata

    Xian-sheng Li; Xue-lian Zheng; Wei-wei Guo; Yuan-yuan Ren; Yu-ning Wang; Meng Yang

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of urban transport and the sharp increase in vehicle population, traffic accidents form one of the most important causes of urban traffic congestion other than the imbalance between traffic supply and demand. Traffic congestion causes severe problems, such as environment contamination and energy dissipation. Therefore, it would be useful to analyze the congestion propagation characteristics after traffic accidents. Numerical analysis and computer simulation were two...

  14. The TMI-2 accident evaluation program

    The accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor, now 10 years old, remains as the United States' worst commercial nuclear reactor accident. Although the consequences of the accident were restricted primarily to the plant itself, the potential consequences of the accident, should it have progressed further, are large enough to warrant close scrutiny of all aspects of the event. TMI-2 accident research is being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to provide the basis for more accurate calculations of source terms for postulated severe accidents. Research objectives supporting this goal include developing a comprehensive and consistent understanding of the mechanisms that controlled the progression of core damage and subsequent fission product behavior during the TMI-2 accident, and applying that understanding to the resolution of important severe accident safety issues. Developing a best-estimate scenario of the core melt progression during the accident is the focal point of the research and involves analytical work to interpret and integrate: (1) data recorded during the accident from plant instrumentation, (2) the post-accident state of the core, (3) results of the examination of material from the damaged core, and (4) related severe-accident research results. This paper summarizes the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Program that is being conducted for the USDOE and briefly describes the important results that have been achieved. The Program is divided into four parts: Sample Acquisition and Plant Examination, Accident Scenario, Standard Problem Exercise, and Information and Industry Coordination

  15. The Chernobyl reactor accident - provisional results and consequences

    Those involved at present in the analysis and estimation of consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident are in a dilemma: While a worried and uncertain Western German public is calling for information the Soviet Union was practicing a rigorously restrictive information policy. Both the severity of the reactor accident and the complexity of events do urgently require the acquisition and evaluation of facts which will provide the basis for an objective factual discussion of issues and possible measures. The paper abstracted is trying to assess the alleged causes of the accident and estimate possible consequences. However, all attempts of that kind are based but on incomplete and dubious information as of May 21st, 1986. (orig.)

  16. Time-dependent accident sequences including human actions

    During an accident, transitions between plant states can occur due to operator intervention and the failure of systems while running. The latter cause of transition is much less likely than the first, which includes errors of commission and omission as well as recovery of lost functions. A methodology has been developed to model these transitions in the time domain. As an example, it is applied to the analysis of Three-Mile-Island-type accidents. Statistical evidence is collected and used in assessing the frequency of stuck-open power-operated relief valves at Babcock and Wilcox plants as well as the frequency of misdiagnosis. Statistical data are also used in modeling the timing of operator actions during the accident, i.e., turning off and on the high-pressure injection system and closing the block valves

  17. Genital endometriosis rate dynamics before and after Chernobyl accident

    The necessity of endometriosis dynamics evaluation is caused by worse ecological situation on the area of Belarus. Genital endometriosis frequency was studied considering the outcomes of surgeries fulfilled in hospitals of Gomel, Mogilev and Vitebsk in 1981-1995. At this time 1254 women underwent an operation and 19% of patients (235 persons) were operated before the Chernobyl accident. In the first 5 years after the accident endometriosis frequency increased nearly 2 times. The next 5 years (1991-1995) the number of operated patients was 565, i.e. 45% from the whole number. Uterus was extirpated or amputated in 898 patients, ovaries at both sides were removed in 36 ones. As the analysis showed the endometriosis frequency grew in 2,5 times for last 15 years, the most significant increase of this pathology was observed during the first five years after the accident

  18. Countermeasures for traffic accidents due to road conditions in China

    PEI Yu-long; MA Ji

    2005-01-01

    Regarding the postulate of traffic infrastmcture and vehicles, much attention should be given to the effect of road conditions on accidents. With large numbers of traffic accidents on Shenda Freeway, Liaoning Province, Harbin City and others in P. R. China, parameters and the effect of accidents caused by horizontal alignment, vertical alignment, cross section and intersection are studied systematically The disciplinary analysis of these effects are presented in this paper. The viewpoint is acknowledged that high sub grade and steep slopes are against traffic safety, which is common and ignored in high-usage highways in China. Design parameters of the current design criteria and the corresponding countermeasures are suggested for safety on our highways.

  19. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    On 11 March 2011, the fourth largest earthquake in recorded history triggered a large tsunami, which will probably be remembered from the dramatic live pictures in a country, which is possibly the most tsunami-prepared in the world. The earthquake and tsunami caused a major nuclear power plant (NPP) accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi, owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The accident was likely more severe than the 1979 Three Mile Island and less severe than the Chernobyl 1986 accidents. Yet, after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had hit the Madras Atomic Power Station there had been renewed interest in the resilience of NPPs to tsunamis. The 11 March 2011 tsunami hit the Onagawa, Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, and Tokai Dai-ni NPPs, all located approximately in a 230km stretch along the east coast of Honshu. The Onagawa NPP was the closest to the source and was hit by an approximately height of 13m tsunami, of the same height as the one that hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi. Even though the Onagawa site also subsided by 1m, the tsunami did not reach to the main critical facilities. As the International Atomic Energy Agency put it, the Onagawa NPP survived the event "remarkably undamaged." At Fukushima Dai-ichi, the three reactors in operation were shut down due to strong ground shaking. The earthquake damaged all offsite electric transmission facilities. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) provided back up power and started cooling down the reactors. However, the tsunami flooded the facilities damaging 12 of its 13 EDGs and caused a blackout. Among the consequences were hydrogen explosions that released radioactive material in the environment. It is unfortunately clear that TEPCO and Japan's principal regulator Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) had failed in providing a professional hazard analysis for the plant, even though their last assessment had taken place only months before the accident. The main reasons are the following. One

  20. A comparative analysis of accident risks in fossil, hydro, and nuclear energy chains

    Burgherr, P.; Hirschberg, S. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    This study presents a comparative assessment of severe accident risks in the energy sector, based on the historical experience of fossil (coal, oil, natural gas, and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)) and hydro chains contained in the comprehensive Energy-related Severe Accident Database (ENSAD), as well as Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for the nuclear chain. Full energy chains were considered because accidents can take place at every stage of the chain. Comparative analyses for the years 1969-2000 included a total of 1870 severe ({>=} 5 fatalities) accidents, amounting to 81,258 fatalities. Although 79.1% of all accidents and 88.9% of associated fatalities occurred in less developed, non-OECD countries, industrialized OECD countries dominated insured losses (78.0%), reflecting their substantially higher insurance density and stricter safety regulations. Aggregated indicators and frequency-consequence (F-N) curves showed that energy-related accident risks in non-OECD countries are distinctly higher than in OECD countries. Hydropower in non-OECD countries and upstream stages within fossil energy chains are most accident-prone. Expected fatality rates are lowest for Western hydropower and nuclear power plants; however, the maximum credible consequences can be very large. Total economic damages due to severe accidents are substantial, but small when compared with natural disasters. Similarly, external costs associated with severe accidents are generally much smaller than monetized damages caused by air pollution.

  1. Traffic dynamics around weaving section influenced by accident: Cellular automata approach

    Kong, Lin-Peng; Li, Xin-Gang; Lam, William H. K.

    2015-07-01

    The weaving section, as a typical bottleneck, is one source of vehicle conflicts and an accident-prone area. Traffic accident will block lanes and the road capacity will be reduced. Several models have been established to study the dynamics around traffic bottlenecks. However, little attention has been paid to study the complex traffic dynamics influenced by the combined effects of bottleneck and accident. This paper presents a cellular automaton model to characterize accident-induced traffic behavior around the weaving section. Some effective control measures are proposed and verified for traffic management under accident condition. The total flux as a function of inflow rates, the phase diagrams, the spatial-temporal diagrams, and the density and velocity profiles are presented to analyze the impact of accident. It was shown that the proposed control measures for weaving traffic can improve the capacity of weaving section under both normal and accident conditions; the accidents occurring on median lane in the weaving section are more inclined to cause traffic jam and reduce road capacity; the capacity of weaving section will be greatly reduced when the accident happens downstream the weaving section.

  2. Fuel behavior in severe accidents and Mo-alloy based cladding designs to improve accident tolerance

    The severe accidents at TMI-2 and Fukushima-Daiichi led to core meltdown and hydrogen explosions. The main source of energy causing core melting is the decay heat from β-, β+, and γ decays of short-lived isotopes following a power scram. The exothermic reaction of Zr-alloy cladding can further increase the cladding temperature leading to rapid cladding corrosion and hydrogen production. The most effective mitigation to minimize core damage in a severe accident is to extend the duration of heat removal capacity via battery-supported passive cooling for as long as practically possible. Replacing the Zr-alloy cladding with a higher heat resistant cladding with lower enthalpy release rate may also provide additional coping time for accident management. Such a heat resistant cladding may also overcome the current licensing concerns about Zr-alloy hydriding and post quench ductility issues in a design base loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Zr-alloy cladding, while has been optimized for normal operation in high pressure water and steam of light water reactors, will rapidly lose its corrosion resistance and tensile and creep strength in high pressure steam. Evaluation of alternate cladding materials and designs have been performed to search for a new fuel cladding design which will substantially improve the safety margins at elevated temperatures during a severe accident, while maintaining the excellent fuel performance attributes of the current Zr-alloy cladding. The screening criteria for the evaluation include neutronic properties, material availability, adaptability and operability in current LWRs, resistance to melting. The new designs also need to be fabricable, maintain sufficient strength and resist to attack by high pressure steam. Engineering metals, alloys and ceramics which can meet some or most of these requirements are limited. Following review of the properties of potential candidates, it is concluded that molybdenum alloys may potentially achieve the

  3. Program for rapid dose assessment in criticality accident, RADAPAS

    In a criticality accident, a person near fissile material can receive extremely high dose which can cause acute health effect. For such a case, medical treatment should be carried out for the exposed person, according to severity of the exposure. Then, radiation dose should be rapidly assessed soon after an outbreak of an accident. Dose assessment based upon the quantity of induced 24Na in human body through neutron exposure is expected as one of useful dosimetry techniques in a criticality accident. A dose assessment program, called RADAPAS (RApid Dose Assessment Program from Activated Sodium in Criticality Accidents), was therefore developed to assess rapidly radiation dose to exposed persons from activity of induced 24Na. RADAPAS consists of two parts; one is a database part and the other is a part for execution of dose calculation. The database contains data compendiums of energy spectra and dose conversion coefficients from specific activity of 24Na induced in human body, which had been derived in a previous analysis using Monte Carlo calculation code. Information for criticality configuration or characteristics of radiation in the accident field is to be interactively given with interface displays in the dose calculation. RADAPAS can rapidly derive radiation dose to the exposed person from the given information and measured 24Na specific activity by using the conversion coefficient in database. This report describes data for dose conversions and dose calculation in RADAPAS and explains how to use the program. (author)

  4. The Fukushima accident and its consequences. Facts, explanations and comments

    This document proposes an overview of the present situation in the different reactors of the Fukushima power station and discusses its control by the operator. It also describes what went on, the causes of the accident, and what occurred on the accident day (earthquake, tsunami, flooding). It discusses whether some mistakes regarding the design and the protection of reactors could explain the accident. It presents the various measures which have been immediately implemented to protect the populations and to confine the accident. It proposes an assessment of damages for the ground and marine environment in terms of contamination. It addresses the consequences of the released radioactivity on population health and on personnel intervening within the site. It discusses the restoration perspectives for contaminated areas and the possible return of evacuated population. Then, it describes the different phases for the station dismantling. It evokes the issue of fallouts beyond Japan and in Europe, outlines some lessons learned from the accident and new safety measures to be implemented in France. It discusses how nuclear risk management is organised in France and its efficiency. It addresses the consequences for the development of nuclear energy in the world

  5. Best practices to reduce the accident rate hotel

    García Revilla, M. R.; Kahale Carrillo, D. T.

    2014-10-01

    Examining the available databases and existing tourism organizations can conclude that appear studies on accidents and their relationship with other variables. But in our case we want to assess this relationship in the performance of the hotel in relation to lower the accident rate. The Industrial Safety studies analyzing this accident causes (why they happen), their sources (committed activities), their agents (participants work means), its type (how the events occur or develop), all in order to develop prevention. In our case, as accidents happen because people commit wrongful acts or because the equipment, tools, machinery or workplaces are not in proper conditions, the preventive point of view we analyze through the incidence of workplace accidents hotel subsector. The crash occurs because there is a risk, so that adequate control of it would avoid despite individual factors. Absenteeism or absence from work was taken into account first by Dubois in 1977, as he realized the time lost in the nineteenth century due to the long working hours, which included the holidays. Motivation and job satisfaction were the elements that have been most important in the phenomenon of social psychology.

  6. Physical reconstruction of the radiological accident of Chilca (Lima - Peru)

    The radiological accident happened in the Chilca District, the Canete County at 60 km to the south of Lima-Peru, during the night of January 11 to 12, 2012. The physical reconstruction of the accident was carried out in January 21, 2012, by means of the information gathering administrative and technical of the radioactive source as well as of the installation, the personnel and the involved procedures in the accidental event, information of the space geometry where the event took place. The preliminary information indicates that the source could have been locked in the guide tube of the equipment, next to the collimator in the first takes radiographic. The radiation monitors were not activated on the procedure, impeding this way, not to realize the flaw and causing that the personnel were exposed to the radiation during the whole work period. Their hands and especially their fingers would have been only to some millimeters of the source. With the obtained information and the measurements of the exposure rates of the radioactive source, was carried out the dose calculation to total body, the dose received in the hands and the dose received in the index finger of the left hand. The accident happened by operative procedure breach, by lack of training of the operators. The physical reconstruction of the accident contributes fundamental information for the decisions taking in the medical management of the accidents by radiation. (author)

  7. Severe accidents due to windsurfing in the Aegean Sea.

    Kalogeromitros, A; Tsangaris, H; Bilalis, D; Karabinis, A

    2002-06-01

    Windsurfing is a popular sport and has recently become an Olympic event. As an open-air water activity that requires the participant to be in perfect physical condition, windsurfers may be prone to accidents when certain basic rules or procedures are violated. The current study monitored severe injuries due to windsurfing over a period of 12 months in the Aegean Sea in Greece. Our study revealed 22 cases of severe accidents due to windsurfing, with a wide range of injuries including head injuries, spinal cord injuries, and severe fractures of the extremities. Prolonged hospitalization, severe disability and two deaths occurred as consequences of these accidents. The study examined the characteristics of these patients and the possible risk factors and conditions associated with the accidents. We also focused on the most common types of injuries and reviewed the mechanisms that may provoke them. Water sports and particularly windsurfing represent a major challenge for the emergency medical system, especially in the Aegean Sea. Hundreds of islands, kilometres of isolated coasts, millions of tourists, an extended summer period and rapidly changing weather create conditions that constantly test the efficacy of the emergency services. The development of an appropriate infrastructure and maximum control of the risk factors causing these accidents could reduce the morbidity and mortality that, unfortunately but rather predictably, accompany this popular summer activity. PMID:12131638

  8. Analysis of the radiation accident in El Salvador

    On 5 February 1989 at 2 a.m. local time in a cobalt-60 industrial irradiation facility, a series of events started leading to one of the most serious radiation accidents in this type of installation. It took place in Soyapango, a city situated 5 km from San Salvador, the capital of the Republic of El Salvador. In this accident, three workers were involved in the first event and a further four in the second. When the accident took place, the activity level was approximately 0.66 PBq (18,000 Ci). The source became blocked when being lowered to its safe position, where upon the technician responsible for the irradiator entered the chamber in breach of the few inadequate safety procedures, accompanied by two colleagues from an adjacent department; the three workers suffered acute radiation exposure, with the result that one of them died six-and-a-half months later, the second had both his legs amputated at mid-thigh, while the third recovered completely. This article describes the irradiator, outlines the causes of the accident and analyses the economic and social repercussions, with the aim of helping teams responsible for radiation protection and safety in industrial irradiation facilities to identify potentially hazardous circumstances and avoid accidents. (author)

  9. A Study on Reinforcement of the Accident Management System in Korea

    The aim of this study is to present the status of post-Fukushima actions with respect to accident management and also provides the current status of developing EDMGs and applicability of a FLEX strategy in Korea. As part of the post-Fukushima actions in Korea, SAMGs will be revised to improve the effectiveness of accident management. For this purpose, it is recommended to revise the EOPs and SAMGs and establish the EDMGs with consideration of prolonged SBO, spent fuel pool cooling, using mobile equipment for accident control, feedback of the implementation of the action items of the special safety inspection, multiple severe accidents for all reactors at a site. It is considered that the FLEX strategy may be useful to mitigate the accidents like Fukushima. Therefore, it is recommended to adopt this strategy including provision of the equipment with protection from external events. The Fukushima accident revealed that EOPs and SAMGs were not effectively coping with and mitigating the severe accident caused by extreme natural hazards such as earthquake and tsunami. The accident indicated needs for strengthening the existing accident management procedures such as emergency operating procedures (EOPs) and severe accident management guidelines (SAMGs). In particular, these procedures should address the possibility of extreme natural hazards causing a prolonged SBO condition, which affects multiple-units and Spent Fuel Pools (SFPs) (NTTF Recommendation 9). In addition, in order to prevent and mitigate the potential damage in an extensive scale at a multi-unit site due to external events, fire, various kinds of countermeasures are required by the Regulatory Body. These are the follow-up actions to the special safety inspection carried out just after the Fukushima accident and the stress tests for old plants. Especially, the Extensive Damage Mitigation Guidelines (EDMGs) are being provided by the utility in conjunction with adoption of the FLEX strategy (diverse and

  10. Noble gas control room accident filtration system for severe accident conditions (N-CRAFT)

    Severe accidents might cause the release of airborne radioactive substances to the environment of the NPP either due to containment leakages or due to intentional filtered containment venting. In the latter case aerosols and iodine are retained, however noble gases are not retainable by the FCVS or by conventional air filtration systems like HEPA filters and iodine absorbers. Radioactive noble gases nevertheless dominate the activity release depending on the venting procedure and the weather conditions. To prevent unacceptable contamination of the control room atmosphere by noble gases, AREVA GmbH has developed a noble gas control room accident filtration system (CRAFT) which can supply purified fresh air to the control room without time limitation. The retention process is based on dynamic adsorption of noble gases on activated carbon. The system consists of delay lines (carbon columns) which are operated by a continuous and simultaneous adsorption and desorption process. CRAFT allows minimization of the dose rate inside the control room and ensures low radiation exposure to the staff by maintaining the control room environment suitable for prolonged occupancy throughout the duration of the accident. CRAFT consists of a proven modular design either transportable or permanently installed. (author)

  11. Nuclear law and radiological accidents

    Nuclear activities in Brazil, and particularly the radiological accident of Goiania, are examined in the light of the environmental and nuclear laws of Brazil and the issue of responsibility. The absence of legislation covering radioactive wastes as well as the restrictions on Brazilian States to issue regulations covering nuclear activities are reviewed. The radiological accident and its consequences, including the protection and compensation of the victims, the responsibility of the shareholders of the Instituto Goiano de Radioterapia, operator of the radioactive source, the provisional storage and the final disposal at Abadia de Goias of the radioactive waste generated by the accident are reviewed. Finally, nuclear responsibility, the inapplicability of the Law 6453/77 which deals with nuclear damages, and the state liability regime are analysed in accordance with the principles of the Brazilian Federal Constitution. (author)

  12. Air cleaning in accident situations

    The Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) through its subsidiaries the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) established in 1979 a Group of Experts or Air Cleaning in Accident Situations. This group met seven times to establish a draft report based on its Terms of Reference which were to: 1) review the performance of off-gas cleaning systems in accident conditions; 2) collect information about operating experience with these systems; 3) seek to establish common principles for the design of off-gas systems; 4) review methods used in the different countries for testing filters from the standpoint of accident conditions; and 5) suggest specific mechanisms for improving cooperation, with regard, for example, to filter testing. The conclusions and recommendations of the Group are summarized

  13. Nuclear accidents - Liabilities and guarantees

    The 1992 Symposium on Nuclear Accidents - Liabilities and guarantees, organized by the OECD NUCLEAR Energy Agency in collaboration with the international Atomic Energy Agency, discussed the nuclear third party liability regime established by the Paris and Vienna Conventions, its advantages and shortcomings, and assessed the teachings of the Chernobyl accident in the context of that regime. The topics included the geographical scope of the Conventions, the definition of nuclear damage, in particular environmental damage, insurance cover and capacity, supplementary compensation by means of a collective contribution from the nuclear industry or governments, and finally, the international liability of States in case of a nuclear accident. This proceeding contains 26 papers which have been selected

  14. Severe accident simulation at Olkiuoto

    Tirkkonen, H.; Saarenpaeae, T. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), Olkiluoto (Finland); Cliff Po, L.C. [Micro-Simulation Technology, Montville, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A personal computer-based simulator was developed for the Olkiluoto nuclear plant in Finland for training in severe accident management. The generic software PCTRAN was expanded to model the plant-specific features of the ABB Atom designed BWR including its containment over-pressure protection and filtered vent systems. Scenarios including core heat-up, hydrogen generation, core melt and vessel penetration were developed in this work. Radiation leakage paths and dose rate distribution are presented graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an 486 DX2-66, PCTRAN-TVO achieves a speed about 15 times faster than real-time. A convenient and user-friendly graphic interface allows full interactive control. In this paper a review of the component models and verification runs are presented.

  15. Severe accident management guidelines tool

    Severe Accident is addressed by means of a great number of documents such as guidelines, calculation aids and diagnostic trees. The response methodology often requires the use of several documents at the same time while Technical Support Centre members need to assess the appropriate set of equipment within the adequate mitigation strategies. In order to facilitate the response, TECNATOM has developed SAMG TOOL, initially named GGAS TOOL, which is an easy to use computer program that clearly improves and accelerates the severe accident management. The software is designed with powerful features that allow the users to focus on the decision-making process. Consequently, SAMG TOOL significantly improves the severe accident training, ensuring a better response under a real situation. The software is already installed in several Spanish Nuclear Power Plants and trainees claim that the methodology can be followed easier with it, especially because guidelines, calculation aids, equipment information and strategies availability can be accessed immediately (authors)

  16. Internal Accident Report on EDH

    SC Department

    2006-01-01

    The A2 Safety Code requires that, the Internal Accident Report form must be filled in by the person concerned or any witness to ensure that all the relevant services are informed. Please note that an electronic version of this form has been elaborated in collaboration with SC-IE, HR-OPS-OP and IT-AIS. Whenever possible, the electronic form shall be used. The relative icon is available on the EDH Desktop, Other tasks page, under the Safety heading, or directly here: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Accident/. If you have any questions, please contact the SC Secretariat, tel. 75097 Please notice that the Internal Accident Report is an integral part of the Safety Code A2 and does not replace the HS50.

  17. ATHLET validation using accident management experiments

    The computer code ATHLET is being developed as an advanced best-estimate code for the simulation of leaks and transients in PWRs and BWRs including beyond design basis accidents. The code has features that are of special interest for applications to small leaks and transients with accident management, e.g. initialisation by a steady-state calculation, full-range drift-flux model, and dynamic mixture level tracking. The General Control Simulation Module of ATHLET is a flexible tool for the simulation of the balance-of-plant and control systems including the various operator actions in the course of accident sequences with AM measures. The systematic validation of ATHLET is based on a well balanced set of integral and separate effect tests derived from the CSNI proposal emphasising, however, the German combined ECC injection system which was investigated in the UPTF, PKL and LOBI test facilities. PKL-III test B 2.1 simulates a cool-down procedure during an emergency power case with three steam generators isolated. Natural circulation under these conditions was investigated in detail in a pressure range of 4 to 2 MPa. The transient was calculated over 22000 s with complicated boundary conditions including manual control actions. The calculations demonstrations the capability to model the following processes successfully: (1) variation of the natural circulation caused by steam generator isolation, (2) vapour formation in the U-tubes of the isolated steam generators, (3) break-down of circulation in the loop containing the isolated steam generator following controlled cool-down of the secondary side, (4) accumulation of vapour in the pressure vessel dome. One conclusion with respect to the suitability of experiments simulating AM procedures for code validation purposes is that complete documentation of control actions during the experiment must be available. Special attention should be given to the documentation of operator actions in the course of the experiment

  18. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    Fifty years of peaceful utilization of nuclear power were interrupted by the reactor accident in unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in Ukraine in 1986, a disruptive event whose consequences profoundly affected the way of life of millions of people, and which has moved the public to this day. Releases of radioactive materials contaminated large areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Early damage in the form of radiation syndrome was suffered by a group of rescue workers and members of the reactor operating crew, in some cases with fatal consequences, while the population does not, until now, show a statistically significant increase in the rate of late damage due to ionizing radiation expect for thyroid diseases in children. In particular, no increases in the rates of solid tumors, leukaemia, genetic defects, and congenital defects were detected. For some risk groups exposed to high radiation doses (such as liquidators) the hazard may still be greater, but the large majority of the population need not live in fear of serious impacts on health. Nevertheless, the accident shows major negative social and psychological consequences reinforced by the breakdown of the Soviet Union. This may be one reason for the observed higher incidence of other diseases whose association with the effects of radiation as a cause has not so far been proven. The measurement campaign conducted by the federal government in 1991-1993 addressed these very concerns of the public in an effort to provide unbiased information about exposures detected, on the one hand, in order to alleviate the fears of the public and reduce stress and, on the other hand, to contribute to the scientific evaluation of the radiological situation in the regions most highly exposed. The groups of the population requiring special attention in the future include especially children growing up in highly contaminated regions, and the liquidators of 1986 and 1987 employed in the period immediately

  19. Accident analysis of recreation vehicle. Human factors from statistic analysis and case study; RV sha no jiko bunseki. Tokei bunseki to jikorei bunseki ni miru untensha yoin

    Takubo, N. [Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis, Tokyo (Japan); Mori, K. [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Concern is heightening recently on traffic accidents associated with leisure activities. Therefore, with an objective to obtain referential information for preventing accidents caused by recreational vehicles, macroscopic (statistical) and microscopic (case study) investigations were carried out on accidents. As a result of analyzing the statistics, a trend was discovered that recreational vehicles cause accidents at higher rate than by other types of vehicles in the following types of accidents: accidents with pedestrians, children and elderly people, accidents caused by young drivers, and accidents during personal activities. Furthermore, four cases were analyzed on accident trends. Accident trends must be discussed from the following two viewpoints: frequency in occurrence of circumstances (chances) that link with accidents, and how high the accident rate (hazard risk) is under such circumstances. The former point has high correlation with how recreational vehicles are used, and drivers` attributes, and the latter point with structures and motion characteristics of recreational vehicles (for example, leisure use, cars driven by young drivers, and high vehicle height). 1 ref., 12 figs.

  20. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    In 2001, we summarized the circumstances surrounding termination of the JCO criticality accident based on testimony in the Mito District Court on December 17, 2001. JCO was the company for uranium fuels production in Japan. That document was assembled based on actual testimony in the belief that a description of the work involved in termination of the accident would be useful in some way for preventing nuclear disasters in the future. The description focuses on the witness' own behavior, and what he saw and heard, and thus is written from the perspective of action by one individual. This was done simply because it was easier for the witness to write down his memories as he remembers them. Description of the activities of other organizations and people is provided only as necessary, to ensure that consistency in the descriptive approach is not lost. The essentials of this report were rewritten as a third-person objective description in the summary of the report by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). Since then, comments have been received from sources such as former members of the Nuclear Safety Commission (Dr. Kenji Sumita and Dr. Akira Kanagawa), concerned parties from the former Science and Technology Agency, and reports from the JCO Criticality Accident Investigation Committee of the AESJ, and thus this report was rewritten to correct incorrect information, and add material where that was felt to be necessary. This year is the tenth year of the JCO criticality accident. To mark this occasion we have decided to translate the record of what occurred at the accident site into English so that more people can draw lessons from this accident. This report is an English version of JAEA-Technology 2009-073. (author)

  1. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    The techniques currently used in off-site consequence modelling are applied to the Chernobyl accident. Firstly, the time dependent spread of radioactive material across the European continent is considered, followed by a preliminary assessment of the dosimetric impact (in terms of collective and mean individual doses) on the various countries of Eastern and Western Europe. The consequences of the accident in the USSR are also discussed. Finally, the likely implications of the Chernobyl event on research in the field of environmental consequence assessment are outlined. (author)

  2. Severe accident source term reassessment

    This paper summarizes the status of the reassessment of severe reactor accident source terms, which are defined as the quantity, type, and timing of fission product releases from such accidents. Concentration is on the major results and conclusions of analyses with modern methods for both pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs), and the special case of containment bypass. Some distinctions are drawn between analyses for PWRs and BWRs. In general, the more the matter is examined, the consequences, or probability of serious consequences, seem to be less. (author)

  3. The nature of reactor accidents

    Reactor accidents are events which result in the release of radioactive material from a nuclear power plant due to the failure of one or more critical components of that plant. The failures, depending on their number and type, can result in releases whose consequences range from negligible to catastrophic. By way of examples, this paper describes four specific accidents which cover this range of consequence: failure of a reactor control system, loss of coolant, loss of coolant with impaired containment, and reactor core meltdown. For each a possible sequence of events and an estimate of the expected frequency are presented

  4. Civil liability concerning nuclear accidents

    France and the USA wish to cooperate in order to promote an international regime of civil liability in order to give a fair compensation to victims of nuclear accidents as it is recommended by IAEA. On the other hand the European Commission has launched a consultation to see the necessity or not to harmonize all the civil liability regimes valid throughout Europe. According to the Commission the potential victims of nuclear accidents would not receive equal treatment at the European scale in terms of insurance cover and compensation which might distort competition in the nuclear sector. (A.C.)

  5. Modelling and analysis of severe accidents for VVER-1000 reactors

    Tusheva, Polina

    2012-03-09

    Accident conditions involving significant core degradation are termed severe accidents /IAEA: NS-G-2.15/. Despite the low probability of occurrence of such events, the investigation of severe accident scenarios is an important part of the nuclear safety research. Considering a hypothetical core melt down scenario in a VVER-1000 light water reactor, the early in-vessel phase focusing on the thermal-hydraulic phenomena, and the late in-vessel phase focusing on the melt relocation into the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower head, are investigated. The objective of this work is the assessment of severe accident management procedures for VVER-1000 reactors, i.e. the estimation of the maximum period of time available for taking appropriate measures and particular decisions by the plant personnel. During high pressure severe accident sequences it is of prime importance to depressurize the primary circuit in order to allow for effective injection from the emergency core cooling systems and to avoid reactor pressure vessel failure at high pressure that could cause direct containment heating and subsequent challenge to the containment structure. Therefore different accident management measures were investigated for the in-vessel phase of a hypothetical station blackout accident using the severe accident code ASTEC, the mechanistic code ATHLET and the multi-purpose code system ANSYS. The analyses performed on the PHEBUS ISP-46 experiment, as well as simulations of small break loss of coolant accident and station blackout scenarios were used to contribute to the validation and improvement of the integral severe accident code ASTEC. Investigations on the applicability and the effectiveness of accident management procedures in the preventive domain, as well as detailed analyses on the thermal-hydraulic phenomena during the early in-vessel phase of a station blackout accident have been performed with the mechanistic code ATHLET. The results of the simulations show, that the

  6. Modelling and analysis of severe accidents for VVER-1000 reactors

    Accident conditions involving significant core degradation are termed severe accidents /IAEA: NS-G-2.15/. Despite the low probability of occurrence of such events, the investigation of severe accident scenarios is an important part of the nuclear safety research. Considering a hypothetical core melt down scenario in a VVER-1000 light water reactor, the early in-vessel phase focusing on the thermal-hydraulic phenomena, and the late in-vessel phase focusing on the melt relocation into the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower head, are investigated. The objective of this work is the assessment of severe accident management procedures for VVER-1000 reactors, i.e. the estimation of the maximum period of time available for taking appropriate measures and particular decisions by the plant personnel. During high pressure severe accident sequences it is of prime importance to depressurize the primary circuit in order to allow for effective injection from the emergency core cooling systems and to avoid reactor pressure vessel failure at high pressure that could cause direct containment heating and subsequent challenge to the containment structure. Therefore different accident management measures were investigated for the in-vessel phase of a hypothetical station blackout accident using the severe accident code ASTEC, the mechanistic code ATHLET and the multi-purpose code system ANSYS. The analyses performed on the PHEBUS ISP-46 experiment, as well as simulations of small break loss of coolant accident and station blackout scenarios were used to contribute to the validation and improvement of the integral severe accident code ASTEC. Investigations on the applicability and the effectiveness of accident management procedures in the preventive domain, as well as detailed analyses on the thermal-hydraulic phenomena during the early in-vessel phase of a station blackout accident have been performed with the mechanistic code ATHLET. The results of the simulations show, that the

  7. Ignalina accident localisation system response to maximum design basis accident

    In this paper the study of the accident localisation system (ALS) of the Ignalina nuclear power plant (NPP) with RBMK-1500 reactors (large-power channel-type water-cooled graphite-moderated reactor) with regard to a maximum design basis accident (MDBA) is presented. The MDBA for Ignalina NPP constitutes a guillotine rupture of the maximum diameter pipe. The thermal-hydraulic and structural analyses were performed using the RELAP5, CONTAIN and ALGOR codes. The coolant mass and energy discharge source terms to the accident compartment were established using the RELAP5 code. This was then used as a source term for the long-term accident thermal-hydraulic analysis of ALS compartments employing the CONTAIN code. Results obtained by the CONTAIN calculations establish a basis for the structural analysis. A finite-element method has been used for ALS structural analysis using the ALGOR code, the results of which show that the structures of the ALS would not be breached by the pressure attained in the event of an MDBA. (author)

  8. Estimation of blood alcohol concentration in deaths due to roadside accidents.

    Arora, Puneet; Chanana, Ashok; Tejpal, Hakumat R

    2013-05-01

    Like any other disease, accidents too are caused by interaction between agent, host, and environment. Human factors include age, (accidents most common between 10 and 24 years), sex, education, medical conditions (heart attack, impaired vision), fatigue, influence of alcohol and other drugs, lack of bodily protection (like helmets, seat belts) and psychosocial factors like lack of experience, impulsiveness, aggressiveness, defective judgment and delay in decisions. Drunken driving is an important risk factor in causing accidents. This study was focused on the status of alcohol consumption in relation with roadside accidents in northern India in the region of Amritsar. The present study was carried out in 100 cases alleged to have died of roadside accident and brought to the mortuary attached to the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Government Medical College, Amritsar for autopsy examination. Blood samples were collected from the femoral vein and were tested for the presence of alcohol with steam distillation and titration method using potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid. In the present study, 23% of the fatal driver/pedestrian victims of roadside accidents were found to have consumed alcohol before accident. Most of the victims of road accident were from the age group 21-30 and 31-40 years. Most of the accidents occurred on straight roads instead of bends or intersections, more during daytime and weekends. 57% of the blood alcohol positives were between 100 mg% and 149 mg%. Majority of the victims of roadside accidents were motorcyclists and the striking vehicles were trucks and buses causing head & neck injuries in most of the victims. Death occurred within a few minutes in most of the cases. PMID:23622478

  9. "Dual causation accident": a third type of work-related accident and its importance for occupational health surveillance

    Lenz Alberto Alves Cabral

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study is to contribute to the improvement of Occupational Health Surveillance in the Unified Health System (UHS, through the recognition and inclusion of a third type of work-related accident in the current Brazilian legislation classification: the dual causation accident. This classification aims at facilitating the establishment of a causal connection, thus broadening the understanding of the relationship between work process and the production of diseases. It also aims at improving legal rules to protect the health of workers. This approach, besides enabling the identification of sentinel events (starting point of surveillance activities, might contribute not only to a decrease in underreporting of work-related accidents, but also to the uniformity of concepts and the implementation of integrated actions of the National Social Security Institute (NISS, the UHS, the Ministry of Labor (MLE and the Judiciary for the protection of workers. To propose a third type of occupational accident, a study of occupational accidents and causes of underreporting was conducted, with reference to the Brazilian labor legislation in the context of the National Policy on Occupational Health and the UHS.

  10. Probability safety assessment of LOOP accident to molten salt reactor

    Background: Loss of offsite power (LOOP) is a possible accident to any type of reactor, and this accident can reflect the main idea of reactor safety design. Therefore, it is very important to conduct a study on probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of the molten salt reactor that is under LOOP circumstance. Purpose: The aim is to calculate the release frequency of molten salt radioactive material to the core caused by LOOP, and find out the biggest contributor to causing the radioactive release frequency. Methods: We carried out the PSA analysis of the LOOP using the PSA process risk spectrum, and assumed that the primary circuit had no valve and equipment reliability data based on the existing mature power plant equipment reliability data. Results: Through the PSA analysis, we got the accident sequences of the release of radioactive material to the core caused by LOOP and its frequency. The results show that the release frequency of molten salt radioactive material to the core caused by LOOP is about 2×10-11/(reactor ·year), which is far below that of the AP1000 LOOP. In addition, through the quantitative analysis, we obtained the point estimation and interval estimation of uncertainty analysis, and found that the biggest contributor to cause the release frequency of radioactive material to the core is the reactor cavity cooling function failure. Conclusion: This study provides effective help for the design and improvement of the following molten salt reactor system. (authors)

  11. Analysis of local subassembly accident in KALIMER

    Kwon, Young Min; Jeong, Kwan Seong; Hahn, Do Hee

    2000-10-01

    Subassembly Accidents (S-A) in the Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) may cause extensive clad and fuel melting and are thus regarded as a potential whole core accident initiator. The possibility of S-A occurrence must be very low frequency by the design features, and reactor must have specific instrumentation to interrupt the S-A sequences by causing a reactor shutdown. The evaluation of the relevant initiators, the event sequences which follow them, and their detection are the essence of the safety issue. Particularly, the phenomena of flow blockage caused by foreign materials and/or the debris from the failed fuel pin have been researched world-widely. The foreign strategies for dealing with the S-A and the associated safety issues with experimental and theoretical R and D results are reviewed. This report aims at obtaining information to reasonably evaluate the thermal-hydraulic effect of S-A for a wire-wrapped LMR fuel pin bundle. The mechanism of blockage formation and growth within a pin bundle and at the subassembly entrance is reviewed in the phenomenological aspect. Knowledge about the recent LMR subassembly design and operation procedure to prevent flow blockage will be reflected for KALIMER design later. The blockage analysis method including computer codes and related analytical models are reviewed. Especially SABRE4 code is discussed in detail. Preliminary analyses of flow blockage within a 271-pin driver subassembly have been performed using the SABRE4 computer code. As a result no sodium boiling occurred for the central 24-subchannel blockage as well as 6-subchannel blockage.

  12. Analysis of local subassembly accident in KALIMER

    Subassembly Accidents (S-A) in the Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) may cause extensive clad and fuel melting and are thus regarded as a potential whole core accident initiator. The possibility of S-A occurrence must be very low frequency by the design features, and reactor must have specific instrumentation to interrupt the S-A sequences by causing a reactor shutdown. The evaluation of the relevant initiators, the event sequences which follow them, and their detection are the essence of the safety issue. Particularly, the phenomena of flow blockage caused by foreign materials and/or the debris from the failed fuel pin have been researched world-widely. The foreign strategies for dealing with the S-A and the associated safety issues with experimental and theoretical R and D results are reviewed. This report aims at obtaining information to reasonably evaluate the thermal-hydraulic effect of S-A for a wire-wrapped LMR fuel pin bundle. The mechanism of blockage formation and growth within a pin bundle and at the subassembly entrance is reviewed in the phenomenological aspect. Knowledge about the recent LMR subassembly design and operation procedure to prevent flow blockage will be reflected for KALIMER design later. The blockage analysis method including computer codes and related analytical models are reviewed. Especially SABRE4 code is discussed in detail. Preliminary analyses of flow blockage within a 271-pin driver subassembly have been performed using the SABRE4 computer code. As a result no sodium boiling occurred for the central 24-subchannel blockage as well as 6-subchannel blockage

  13. On the nature of risk and accidents

    By consensus, 'errors of omission' and 'errors of commission' have their origin in the human rather than in the technological parts of the system. It has therefore been customary to base explanations on the available psychological 'error models', which mostly have been of the human information processing and internal 'error mechanisms' type. Yet the fact that an 'error of commission' necessarily involves a human action does not mean that the explanation, hence the modelling, must be confined to human functions - cognitive or otherwise. On the contrary, the experience from accident analyses as well as state-of-the-art HRA approaches all emphasize that action failures reflect the impact of the working conditions more than any specific mechanism'. This corresponds to a change in accident models from sequential, over epidemiological, to systemic. According to the latter, action failures - or action error modes - should be seen as the irregular, but not totally random, outcome of the system's performance variability rather than as specific effects of specific causes. This change in perspective have significant consequences for the ways in which action error modes are modelled and classified, and therefore also for the methods that can be used for prediction. (author)

  14. An Evaluation of the Role that Traffic Culture Plays in Reducing Consequences of Accidents and Promoting Social Security and Order

    Nasser Pourmoallem; Seyed Ehsan Jafari Nasab

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionAccidents and traffic security have become serious issues in our country, to the extent that most of the people and authorities are severely concerned about them. On the other hand, research shows that human factor has the most important role in the occurrence of accidents. According to the records, only %1 of all accidents in Iran are resulted from "vehicle malfunction" and “immunodeficiency of the roads”; while other events, directly or indirectly, are caused by human wrong oper...

  15. Thyroid consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident.

    Pacini, F; Vorontsova, T; Molinaro, E; Shavrova, E; Agate, L; Kuchinskaya, E; Elisei, R; Demidchik, E P; Pinchera, A

    1999-12-01

    It is well recognized that the use of external irradiation of the head and neck to treat patients with various non-thyroid disorders increases their risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma years after radiation exposure. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has also been reported in survivors of the atomic bombs in Japan, as well as in Marshall Island residents exposed to radiation during the testing of hydrogen bombs. More recently, exposure to radioactive fallout as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident has clearly caused an enormous increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus, Ukraine, and, to a lesser extent, in the Russian Federation, starting in 1990. When clinical and epidemiological features of thyroid carcinomas diagnosed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident are compared with those of naturally occurring thyroid carcinomas in patients of the same age group in Italy and France, it becomes apparent that the post-Chernobyl thyroid carcinomas were much less influenced by gender, virtually always papillary (solid and follicular variants), more aggressive at presentation and more frequently associated with thyroid autoimmunity. Gene mutations involving the RET proto-oncogene, and less frequently TRK, have been shown to be causative events specific for papillary cancer. RET activation was found in nearly 70% of the patients who developed papillary thyroid carcinomas following the Chernobyl accident. In addition to thyroid cancer, radiation-induced thyroid diseases include benign thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, with or without thyroid insufficiency, as observed in populations after environmental exposure to radioisotopes of iodine and in the survivors of atomic bomb explosions. On this basis, the authors evaluated thyroid autoimmune phenomena in normal children exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl accident. The results demonstrated an increased prevalence of circulating thyroid

  16. Analysis of Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China: Characteristics and Lessons for Risk Management

    Yao, Hong; Zhang, Tongzhu; Liu, Bo; Lu, Feng; Fang, Shurong; You, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Understanding historical accidents is important for accident prevention and risk mitigation; however, there are no public databases of pollution accidents in China, and no detailed information regarding such incidents is readily available. Thus, 653 representative cases of surface water pollution accidents in China were identified and described as a function of time, location, materials involved, origin, and causes. The severity and other features of the accidents, frequency and quantities of chemicals involved, frequency and number of people poisoned, frequency and number of people affected, frequency and time for which pollution lasted, and frequency and length of pollution zone were effectively used to value and estimate the accumulated probabilities. The probabilities of occurrences of various types based on origin and causes were also summarized based on these observations. The following conclusions can be drawn from these analyses: (1) There was a high proportion of accidents involving multi-district boundary regions and drinking water crises, indicating that more attention should be paid to environmental risk prevention and the mitigation of such incidents. (2) A high proportion of accidents originated from small-sized chemical plants, indicating that these types of enterprises should be considered during policy making. (3) The most common cause (49.8 % of the total) was intentional acts (illegal discharge); accordingly, efforts to increase environmental consciousness in China should be enhanced.

  17. Industrial accidents in nuclear power plants

    In 12 nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany with a total of 3678 employees, 25 notifiable company personnel accidents and 46 notifiable outside personnel accidents were reported for an 18-month period. (orig./HP)

  18. Road Accident Trends in Africa and Europe

    Jørgensen, N O

    1997-01-01

    The paper decribes trends and suggests prediction models for accident risks in African and European countries......The paper decribes trends and suggests prediction models for accident risks in African and European countries...

  19. 49 CFR 229.17 - Accident reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 225. ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 229.17 Section 229.17..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS General § 229.17 Accident reports. (a)...

  20. Lessons of the radiological accident in Goiania

    On the basis of the lessons teamed from the radiological accident of Goiania, actions are described which a nuclear regulatory body should undertake while responding to an accident of this nature. (author)